WorldWideScience

Sample records for 21st century energy

  1. Renewable energy education for 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major technological developments in equipment, designed to harness new and renewable sources of energy, have only taken place in the last four decades of the twentieth century, although the principles involved have been previously known for many centuries and were clearly formulated in many of the ancient civilizations. The term renewable energy (RE) itself is of relatively recent origin and only came into widespread use worldwide in the eighties, after the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1981, Ref 1. Currently, the term renewable s is extensively used to describe the full range of direct and indirect uses of solar radiation incident on the earth's surface, and is often extended to include energy resources, such as tidal power or geothermal energy, neither of which is strictly renewable in the true sense of the word. Energy extracted from biomass is also generally included under this heading, although biomass is truly renewable only if continuous plantation development and replanting is carried out as the biomass is harvested. On a global scale, relatively extensive teaching about renewable energy started in the late seventies and early eighties, after the first impact of the OPEC oil price shock. Up till this time, there were only a few centres around the world where individual dedicated researchers and university teachers were involved in such activity. The next impetus to course and teaching material development came with national movements for energy independence and finally, in the latter years of this century, considerable stimulation has been given due to the increasing realisation of global environmental factors such as global warming, ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, acid rain formation, and many other environmental degradation effects due to the increasing use of fossil fuel reserves. Considerable attention has been focused in the last twenty years through the many national and

  2. Nuclear energy for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It composed of 15 parts, which are energy resource, knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear fuel cycle, present condition of nuclear power generation, the necessity of nuclear power generation, safety of nuclear power generation, current situation of major foreign countries, generation and disposal of waste of radiation, management of waste of radiation, commentary on insistence related waste of radiation, management of waste of radiation in major foreign countries, radiation and daily life, international organization on nuclear energy, diplomacy cooperation of nuclear energy and extra major interesting of nuclear energy and waste of radiation.

  3. Energy supply concepts in the 21st century - the role of nuclear energy. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: Supply structures in the 21st century; security of energy supply in Europe - The European Commission's Green Paper; the U.S. nuclear future; DOE initiatives to advance nuclear energy in the United States; supply reliability - contribution of renewable energy sources; role of brown coal in the futural energy mixing; gas supply for the 21st century; the contribution of nuclear power on supply reliability in Europe and a new power plant for Finland. (GL)

  4. World energy strategies into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mid-1990s, tighter oil supply and firmer and higher price will be projected due to the declining production in non-OPEC countries. The OPEC members have the oil production capacity of 30 million barrels a day, but last year, OPEC produced 17 million barrels a day. World oil demand was down about 600,000 barrels a day due primarily to the continued substitution with natural gas, coal and nuclear power. The conclusion of the UK coal strike also contributed to the drop of the demand for residual fuel oil. Economic growth was too sluggish to offset the substitution effect. The crude oil production from non-OPEC sources has increased, but low price will reverse the trend of non-OPEC production. Energy supply will be ample to meet the projected demand through the next decade. The annual growth rate of less than 2 % was forecast for the primary energy demand in non-communist world, assuming the economic growth of 3 % a year worldwide. The trend of the use of natural gas, coal and nuclear power is discussed. At the beginning of the 21st century, world energy will be supplied 42 % by oil, 18 % by natural gas, 24 % by coal and 8 % by nuclear power. (Kako, I.)

  5. Public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public support for nuclear energy in the next millennium will depend on the extent to which two essential qualities are exercised now by industry and governments. These qualities are leadership and vision. However, a fear of leadership in supporting nuclear energy afflicts government officials and legislators and many industry stakeholders as well. The paper examines a root cause of this fear of leadership, namely the use of an incomplete and outdated model of public opinion on nuclear energy. The old model leads to the conclusion that expressing support for nuclear energy is politically risky. Yet a new, more complete, model of public opinion on nuclear energy is readily available from the social science research. By underestimating various types of support that exist, the old model causes stakeholders in the industry to believe that their position is unpopular. This may make them reluctant to lead the way in speaking out. Thus, politicians and government officials hear most from a small opposition. Leadership in speaking out and advocating solutions is not sufficient for assuring public support for nuclear energy in the 21st century. Under the umbrella of sustainable development, opinion leaders worldwide are assessing energy sources on the basis of ethical and environmental considerations, not just economics. Leaders in the nuclear industry for years have made a strong case for nuclear energy as a moral imperative, based on the absence of emissions and the preservation of natural resources. This case can and must be developed through active participation in world movements, by listening to all views, and by helping to define what is sustainable and just for future generations. (author)

  6. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  7. 21st Century Skills Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  8. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  9. Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.

  10. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed and the energy source for their accomplishment investigated. The mission included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous mission with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing the High Energy Space Mission were investigated. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electric power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified.

  11. Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long-term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E3) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed, where future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term (∼2100) demographic, economic, policy, and technological drivers. A spectrum of futures is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. The result reported examine departures from a basis scenario and are presented in the following order of increasing specificity: (a) definition and parametric variations of the basis scenario; (b) comparison of the basis scenario with other recent studies; (c) parametric studies that vary upper-level hierarchical scenario attributes (external drivers); and (d) variations of the lower-level scenario attributes (internal drivers). Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes that characterize particular nuclear energy scenarios. Special attention is given to the role of nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy, the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors, and proliferation risk

  12. Role of renewable energy for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, J.C. [World Affairs Journal, New Delhi (India)

    1999-01-01

    The present high energy paradigm of consumerism and armament is almost entirely structured on non-renewable fossil fuels. This commitment is now being further extended through massive new infrastructures and life styles to the emerging new nations. Arising out of the energy concentration and constraints of the economic parameters, movement towards low density sun-based sources of energy will be slow and halting. In the final analysis the factors, which will determine the timescale and speed of shift to renewable sources of energy, would include:- the declining economic availability and increasing conflicts in the acquisition of non renewable resources, crossing of he threshold of environmental sustainability of parameters such as doubling of Carbon dioxide, ozone layer depletion and health endangering pollution, and nuclear wastes etc., the available times scale for substitution with renewables, movement away from high energy, high technology consumerist life style and their armament support system. (Author)

  13. Nuclear energy and materials in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Bathke, C.G. [and others

    1997-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Vision Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is examining a range of long-term nuclear energy futures as well as exploring and assessing optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies. An established global energy, economics, environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed, where future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term ({approx}2100) demographic, economic, policy, and technological drivers. A spectrum of futures is examined at two levels in a hierarchy of scenario attributes in which drivers are either external or internal to nuclear energy. The result reported examine departures from a basis scenario and are presented in the following order of increasing specificity: (a) definition and parametric variations of the basis scenario; (b) comparison of the basis scenario with other recent studies; (c) parametric studies that vary upper-level hierarchical scenario attributes (external drivers); and (d) variations of the lower-level scenario attributes (internal drivers). Impacts of a range of nuclear fuel-cycle scenarios are reflected back to the higher-level scenario attributes that characterize particular nuclear energy scenarios. Special attention is given to the role of nuclear materials inventories (in magnitude, location, and form) and their contribution to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy, the future competitiveness of both conventional and advanced nuclear reactors, and proliferation risk.

  14. Methane as an energy source for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Nakicenovic, N.

    2002-01-01

    Today, fossil fuels supply about 80% of global primary energy. The consequences are severe for human health from indoor and regional air pollution, acidification due to sulphur and nitrogen oxide emissions and climate change due to rapidly growing greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, there is a clear need to improve the efficiency and the environmental compatibility of fossil technologies, shift to fossil energy sources with lower environmental impacts such as natural gas, or shift awa...

  15. 21st Century Renewable Fuels, Energy, and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, K. Joel [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Das, Susanta K. [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    The objectives of this project were multi-fold: (i) conduct fundamental studies to develop a new class of high temperature PEM fuel cell material capable of conducting protons at elevated temperature (180°C), (ii) develop and fabricate a 5k We novel catalytic flat plate steam reforming process for extracting hydrogen from multi-fuels and integrate with high-temperature PEM fuel cell systems, (iii) research and develop improved oxygen permeable membranes for high power density lithium air battery with simple control systems and reduced cost, (iv) research on high energy yield agriculture bio-crop (Miscanthus) suitable for reformate fuel/alternative fuel with minimum impact on human food chain and develop a cost analysis and production model, and (v) develop math and science alternative energy educator program to include bio-energy and power.

  16. Energy End-Use Technologies for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, S; Haegermark, H; Larsen, H; Morishita, M; Nakicenovic, N; Schock, R N; Suntola, T

    2005-04-13

    The World Energy Council's recent study examined the potential of energy end-use technologies and of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) into these technologies on a global scale. Surprises are likely, but nevertheless, current research and development offer a picture of what might happen in the future as new technologies face the competition of the marketplace. Given the breadth of energy end-use technologies and the differences between regions and economic conditions, the study focused on technologies that appear most important from today's vantage point. Globally, robust research and development followed by demonstrations of new end-use technologies can potentially save at least 110 EJ/year by 2020 and over 300 EJ/year by 2050. If achieved, this translates to worldwide energy savings of as much as 25% by 2020 and over 40% by 2050, over what may be required without these technologies. It is almost certain that no single technology, or even a small set of technologies, will dominate in meeting the needs of the globe in any foreseeable timeframe. Absent a significant joint government-industry effort on end-use technology RD&D, the technologies needed will not be ready for the marketplace in the timeframes required with even the most pessimistic scenarios. Based on previous detailed analyses for the United States, an international expenditure of $4 billion per year seems more than justified. The success of new energy end-use technologies depends on new RD&D investments and policy decisions made today. Governments, in close cooperation with industry, must carefully consider RD&D incentives that can help get technologies from the laboratory or test-bed to market. Any short-term impact areas are likely to benefit from focused RD&D. These include electricity transmission and distribution, distributed electricity production, transportation, the production of paper and pulp, iron and steel, aluminum, cement and chemicals, and information and

  17. Architecture for nuclear energy in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global and regional scenarios for future energy demand have been assessed from the perspectives of nuclear materials management. From these the authors propose creation of a nuclear fuel cycle architecture which maximizes inherent protection of plutonium and other nuclear materials. The concept also provides technical and institutional flexibility for transition into other fuel cycle systems, particularly those involving breeder reactors. The system, its implementation timeline, and overall impact are described in the paper

  18. Can renewable and unconventional energy sources bridge the global energy gap in the 21st century?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy experts project that global oil supplies will only meet demand until global oil production has peaked sometime between 2013 and 2020. Declining oil production after peak production will cause a global energy gap to develop, which will have to be bridged by unconventional and renewable energy sources. Nuclear, solar and hydrogen are destined to become major energy sources during the 21st century, but only if their enabling technologies improve significantly to ensure affordability and convenience of use. This paper will argue that global oil production will probably peak between 2004 and 2005, causing a serious energy gap to develop sometime between 2008 and 2010 rather than 2013-2020 as the energy experts projected. It will also argue that a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is inevitable. The paper will conclude, however, that fossil fuels with a growing contribution from nuclear energy, will still be supplying the major part of the global energy needs for most, perhaps all, of the 21st century. (author)

  19. 21st Century Coal: Advanced Technology and Global Energy Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Coal currently supplies with more than 40% of the world electricity consumption and it essential input of around 70% of world steel production, representing around 30% of the world primary energy supply. This is because coal is cheap, abundant, accessible, widely distributed and easy energy to transport, store and use. For these features, coal is projected to be intensively used in the future. Production and use of coal present a series of issues throughout the whole value chain. While existing technology allows addressing most of them (safety at work, land restoration, mercury, NOx and sulphur emissions avoidance, etc.), CO2 emissions continues to be the biggest challenge for coal use in the future. This report focuses on the technology path to near-zero emissions including useful insights in advanced coal power generation technologies and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage, a promising technology with a large potential which can push Carbon Capture and Storage competitiveness. In addition, the report shows the features of the new generation of coal-fired power plants in terms of flexibility for dynamic operation and grid stability, requirements increasingly needed to operate on grids with significant wind and solar generation.

  20. Strategic Importance of Energy Sources of Middle East Region for the 21st Century World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Altay, Hüseyin; Nugay, Ulaş

    2013-01-01

    The importance of energy sources which started to become the most strategic input for the countries in the 20th century gradually increases. De-spite of the increase of demand and dependence to the energy at this ratio, energy resources speedily decrease. This situation caused that all the atten-tions focused on energy regions. Middle East is one of the most important of these regions. Within this framework, this study aims to explain the impor-tance of Middle East energy sources of 21st cent...

  1. Air-conditioning in the 21st century: impact on human productivity and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    , even though existing standards and guidelines are met. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in the 21st century. Elements of such a paradigm shift towards excellence are suggested. New research data document the positive impact of an excellent indoor...... environment on human productivity, health and comfort. The principles of excellence can be provided with moderate energy consumption. But the success of excellent indoor environments will increase the demand for improvement globally and the required energy supply will provide a challenge for the world...

  2. Energy strategy of the 21st century taking advantage of fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is some general concern that economic development in developing countries will hasten global warning. In terms of reducing CO2 emissions, fusion will have great potential as a primary energy in the late 21st century according to the results of WING model simulations based on scenario analysis, if the cost of fusion with hydrogen generation would become competitive compared with those of other substitutive energies. However, securing social acceptance is very important to maintain the fossil research funded by the government suffering from cumulative debt. (author)

  3. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  4. The 21st Century Skills Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paige

    2009-01-01

    Since 2002, the Partnership for 21st Century Skills has been the leading advocacy organization in the United States focused on infusing 21st century skills into education. Its "Framework for 21st Century Learning," the result of a consensus among hundreds of stakeholders, describes the skills, knowledge, and expertise students need to succeed in…

  5. Prospects of Nuclear Energy in Korea in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tries to project the prospects of the role of nuclear energy in Korea in the 21st century. The current status of energy situations and the future prospect of nuclear energy is reviewed, and the potential of its better production and more extensive utilization is investigated. The current government policy as well as the role of nuclear industries is reviewed and a systematic approach is suggested to materialize this anticipation. Through an evaluation of the current status of domestic and foreign technologies, the general outlook of advanced nuclear energy concepts is the future is presented by identifying underdeveloped areas and suggesting a scheme of technology development. However, the present study, by nature is limited to present a general vision of the role of nuclear energy in 2000's, which should be followed by a series of detailed studies in each respective field for implementation. As Korea opens new era of mature nuclear technology, the anticipation of effective, economic, and wide production and utilization of nuclear energy in the 21st century is expected

  6. Chinese energy in 21st century and the way for developing nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer model, which was based on the scenarios about Chinese population and economy development, for China's long-term energy prediction in 21st century is introduced. According to the results, the total commercial energy consumption by the year of 2020 will be 5.86 to 6.36 times greater than in the year of 1987. The fossil fuel still will be main energy resources in the early stage of the next century. Because using fossil fuel has many disadvantages such as polluting environment, greenhouse effect, large volume for transportation and waste of important raw materials for chemistry industries, it could sharply decline after 2020s, as it annual consumption reaches to 2.5 to 2.66 billion tonnes of coal equivalent. The renewable energy will be increasing, but its share would decrease from 27% in the early stage to 18% in the middle of the next century. After the year of 2040, in order to meet energy demands the nuclear energy could become main energy and its share will excess 50%. China has two PWR plants under construction. Since only a small part of uranium is utilized in PWR and the uranium resource is limited, the best way for developing nuclear energy in China is to build Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). A computer model for various developing nuclear energy patterns is calculated. The results based on these patterns show that China will meet its energy demands if an experimental FBR is built before the end of this century and the metallic fuelled FBRs are gradually developed after the year of 2010

  7. Laboratories for the 21st Century: An Introduction to Low-Energy Design (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-01

    This booklet is an introduction to several new strategies for designing, developing, and retrofitting energy-efficient laboratories. It is the result of a collaboration among staff at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), several national laboratories, and their contractors. They are collaborating to meet the goals of a joint EPA-DOE initiative, 'Laboratories for the 21st Century,' which was established to help government and private-sector laboratory designers, engineers, owners, and operators work together to increase operating efficiency and reduce costs. This booklet describes many energy-efficient strategies that can be done during laboratory planning and programming; design; engineering; and commissioning, operation, and maintenance. There is also a discussion of on-site power generation and clean sources of electricity from renewable energy.

  8. The global energy context: Chances and challenges for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2 billion people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency also in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

  9. The global energy context -- chances and challenges for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is the driving force towards economic and social development. Global demand for energy will keep growing for many years to come due to ongoing, although reduced population growth, and due to the needs of up to 2000 million people who are still without access to commercial energy. To meet this growing demand for energy, all options have to be kept open, with fossil fuels, nuclear and hydro dominating the energy mix for the next decades, and 'new' renewables coming in only slowly. Considering the resulting strain on the environment, and looking at existing disparities in energy supply, the next few decades will not be free of tensions. A turning point may appear in the mid 21st century with world population coming to a halt, distinctly improved energy efficiency in the Developing World, and with new technologies available. Thus, mainly challenges will determine the first half of the century, whereas chances are on hand for the second half of the century - if we act now. The single most important instrument to meet these challenges and to take advantage of the chances is a concentrated move towards energy efficiency and innovation, supported by market reform and appropriate regulation. (author)

  10. Sustainable energy development: a challenge for Asia and the Pacific region in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main challenge to energy policy makers in the 21st century is how to develop and manage adequate, affordable and reliable energy services on a sustainable manner to fuel social and economic development. About 60 per cent of the world's two billion population, who do not have access to modern energy services, live in Asia and the Pacific region. The demand for energy is expected to continue growing at a high rate well into the century, often at a greater rate than economic growth. Latest assessment of conventional energy resources shows that their availability is not going to be an immediate threat to the security of supply but the question is can the region afford to allow current patterns of production and consumption of energy to continue in a rapidly deteriorating health of the environment? Changing these unsustainable patterns is the main challenge for the developed and developing countries alike. The paper dwells upon what are the major issues facing the region in promoting sustainable energy development and what are some of the policy options and possible strategies that the countries could consider to attain the objective of sustainable energy development. In this respect, the paper also dwells upon the need for strategic planning and management of energy resources

  11. Nuclear Reactor Empowerment in The 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scenarios of global energy need in the 21st century are discussed. Nuclear reactors will have important roles in supplying energy need in the 21st century if its evolutionary and innovative developments are continued to achieve economical competitiveness, high safety, positive environmental impacts, and ensuring sustain ability of innovation in the future energy supply

  12. New energy strategies for the 21st century: A Russian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margulov, G.D. [International Fuel and Energy Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-12-01

    The new energy strategy developed by Russian scientists and specialists working in the International Fuel and Energy Association is a doctrine for the further liberalization of the energy sector; pooling of new know-how and efforts of the world community for economic progress; rejecting established stereotypes of lifestyles based on inefficient energy use thereby improving the quality of life; increasing the role and responsibilities of the individual in the process of arresting environment degradation; ensuring gradual decreases in energy consumption at existing costs; and reducing social divides. The article outlines the two stages of the strategy for the development of the energy sector, the first until the year 2030, the second extending to the middle of the 21st century. The first stage will give priority to natural gas usage and intensification of energy conservation measures, the second will tackle the problems of balancing the shares of petroleum, coal and natural gas, develop new and renewable energy and strengthen the resource-technological base of the coal industry and of nuclear energy. The importance of interaction with the government, the international community, social organisations and with the energy sector companies and commercial banks is discussed. 1 ref.

  13. 21st Century Skills Map: Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Science.

  14. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  15. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  16. 21st Century Skills Map: Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Social Studies.

  17. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  18. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  19. 21st Century Skills Map: English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of English.

  20. Prospect of the roles of nuclear energy in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World has become sensitive to the security of energy supply after experiencing oil crises and has given priority to the policies directed at developing alternatives to oil, notably coal, natural gas, and nuclear as well as encouraging rational use of energy and guiding the advent of new energy saving technologies. Nuclear energy is produced by the use of complicated technological facilities as well as uranium. Although immense technological effort was devoted before it has become widely used, the commercialization of this energy has opened a new way to assure stable supply of energy through the possession of technology, in addition to the classical way through the possession of natural resources. This is an important option to the countries like Japan which endowed almost no significant amount of natural energy resources except solar, use of which also depends on the progress in the related technology. Nuclear energy is considered as a semi-domestic source of energy in Japan and expected to account for growing share of total energy supply in coming years. Expecting that the 21st century will be a century of plutonium, technology bases for the stable nuclear energy supply system based on plutonium are under development. Prerequisite for the accomplishment of this role is the assurance of safety and public acceptance. Efforts are concentrated on further improvement of the plant technology, training and education of the personnel involved, and safety measures installed, without being content with the current excellent record of operation. Furthermore, a number of leading R and D projects are promoted aggressively with a view to pursue new possibility of nuclear energy. These R and D expected to bring about various spillover in other industries and lead the development of science and engineering in general

  1. Nuclear energy development in the 21st century: Global scenarios and regional trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    available nuclear power development modelling tools. The results of the study will constitute one of the inputs for formulating an INPRO vision on global nuclear energy sustainability in the twenty-first century, together with the results of several other studies currently being carried out in the framework of INPRO's Programme Area B, including the INPRO Collaborative Projects on Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Systems based on Thermal and Fast Reactors including a Closed Fuel Cycle (GAINS) and Fuel Cycles for Innovative Nuclear Systems through Integration of Technologies (FINITE), Investigations of the 233U/Th Fuel Cycle (ThFC) and Meeting Energy Needs in the Period of Raw Material Insufficiency during the 21st Century (RMI)

  2. Vision of energy supply in the 21st century: managing the global bonfire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humans have lit a vast carbon-based bonfire that has fueled the world's economic and industrial development for the last 200 years. In that time, the impact of emissions into the atmosphere has become measurable, and has triggered debates on global warming and climate change as a result of rising levels of greenhouse gases. Growth in world population and energy use suggests we will need to use all the energy sources available to us in the 21st Century, to successfully manage and preserve the environment. Consistent with the need for continued human and economic growth and reduced emissions, we must use non-carbon sources for a significant fraction of future energy use without onerous or expensive restrictions on carbon fuels. Nuclear, renewable and hydrogen energy sources together are uniquely synergistic, reducing costs, extending energy resources, providing additional electricity generation capacity, and reducing transportation emissions. These benefits provide an economic advantage and export potential, increase the lifetime of oil and gas resources, and encourage technical innovation in transportation. To illustrate these impacts we adopt a model for observed atmospheric GHG concentrations based on the correlation of historic and projected carbon energy use patterns. We estimate the direct impact of various alternate non-carbon based energy sources on atmospheric CO2 concentration for the 21st Century. To stabilize CO2 concentrations at about today's levels requires introducing about 30-40% of all the noncarbon energy sources, plus about 10% sequestration. This means weaning the world from about 90% reliance on carbon sources to about 60% over the next century, and still keep the people of the world and their economic future moving and growing. The key role of nuclear energy and advanced nuclear plants becomes clear, whether or not the current worldwide value (∼7-10%) or a growing share of the energy market is assumed. We note that in the future, nuclear

  3. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-01

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  4. Nuclear energy in the 21st century - free from nuclear danger myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past year, 2000, the approx. 430 nuclear power plants worldwide covered some 16-17% of the electricity supply. This corresponds, e.g., to the energy equivalent of the aggregate oil production of Saudi Arabia and Iran over the same period of time. The first major steps towards the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the world were initiated after the 'Atoms for Peace' speech by the then U.S. President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, before the United Nations on December 8, 1953. They were followed by two decades of intense reasearch and development work. The know-how obtained and developed further in this way made countries, such as France and Japan, greatly expand their nuclear power programs under the impact of the two oil price crises in the seventies. As a result, a powerful potential is now available for electricity supply - also in the European Union - which not only offers continuity of supply but also makes an important contribution to reducing emissions which affect our climate. Despite its technical and economic success, the peaceful use of nuclear power, like other technical developments, has become an object of societal criticism in many countries. Two major aspects in this regard are issues of proliferation and the evaluation of the risk of radiation. Although the proliferation risk has been settled technically for the light water reactor line, and can be practically excluded, this has not so far been put to use politically. As far as the effects of low radiation doses are concerned, the question must be answered to what extent the application of the linear dose-effect relationship is an adequate and meaningful reflection of biological reality, and how radiation effects can be evaluated effectively. In the light of the problems to be solved in the 21st century, nuclear power and its potential can and will make important contributions to supplying energy worldwide. (orig.)

  5. Cold-fusion as safe and hazardless energy-source of the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of the two processes for nuclear-energy; nuclear-fission is plagued with problem of nuclear-radiation hazard, whereas though nuclear-fusion is safe but almost impossible to be done on earth specially at room- temperature. In 1989, two scientists Fleischmann and Pons in USA proposed a table-top, room temperature electrolysis-experiment of heavy-water with palladium-electrode; this is commonly called cold-fusion wherein nuclear-fusion is said to be taking place. This created a big storm and controversy in the scientific community. Initially the cold-fusion was heavily criticized and several objections (such as: non-reproducibility, non-observation of telltale signature of nuclear-reaction) were raised. The research-work of McKubre and others have clarified the objections and have established that for cold-fusion to take place certain threshold conditions (such as purity of electrode, current-density, deuterium to palladium loading ratio) needs to be satisfied. In due course of time, the Truth prevailed and the cold-fusion got more and more support by many scientists in several countries including India (BARC historic role has been appreciated worldwide). Biggest objection, however, was lack of a proper theory for how Coulomb-repulsion is overcome in cold-fusion. A possible explanation for how the Coulomb-repulsion is overcome, is given in this paper; which is based on a new-found Gupta-Dinu effect, which is a natural outcome of special-relativity via modification in Lorentz force formula. The recent nuclear-accidents have raised international-opinion against nuclear-fission, whereas sin-like hot-fusion on earth is not possible. Now it seems that ultimately it is the cold-fusion which will provide hazardless neat and cheap energy for the 21st century and India could play a leading role in this direction. (author)

  6. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  7. Prospects of Nuclear Energy in the United States in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Industry is now over 40 years old and a proven, mature product has been developed. That proven mature product has evolve into a small set of standardized designs - designs based on evolution of the best and safest features, not revolutionary changes. Just as the product design must be standardized, the regulatory process must also be standardized. With a predictable regulatory environment and rate structure the economic advantages of Nuclear Power will be self-evident. The Nuclear Industry in the United States has had a history of cycles as the economy and need for power has changed. The need for electricity to support growth is a given. With a strong focus on the standardization of the process and the product, a competent engineering approach to safety, and improved economies, the 21st century will see nuclear power assume its appropriate role as a key source in the energy mix in the United States. Presenting a discussion dealing with the future is always a risky thing. One man's prognosis is another mans wild guess. Today, I would like to talk briefly on my views of the future, and especially my views on the Prospects for Nuclear Energy in the U. S. in that future. Though it is clear that nuclear energy will play a key role in fulfilling the energy needs of the world, the future of nuclear energy in the United States is not as clear. A discussion of the future of the U. S. Nuclear Industry is especially appropriate here today because I am firmly confident that the Republic of Korea will play a major role in that future. The world energy situation and the role of nuclear power has undergone a number of upsets in the last decade. Often we tend to dwell on the gloom of the past and overlook the strengths that the Nuclear Industry has developed. Presently over 437 gigawatts of electricity in the world is planned to be produced by 564 nuclear units. There are over 32 countries with commercial nuclear programs. One of the brightest of these being here in

  8. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  9. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience. PMID:1454278

  10. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This guide regarding energy recovery is one in a series on best practices for laboratories. It was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs 21'), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH - non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 - Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate 'should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory' it specifically indicates that it is intended to 'provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.' The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that provide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure laboratories

  11. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  12. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...

  13. Toward the 21st Century for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Ruth H.

    1975-01-01

    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  14. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  15. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  16. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  17. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  18. Medicine in 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangBinghui

    2001-01-01

    An ancient Chinese theme of "Shen Nong tasted hundred herbs and confronted seventy toxicities a day" means generally that medicine was created by the ancient labor people, although there's no trace of the real Shen Nong. Accordingly some animals would take certain herbs for stopping traumatic bleeding just as our ancestors done. Medicine iniated a long time ago but the development of modern medicine is really a little bit more than hundred years, Pasteur discovered bacteria and reported in 1857, not yet 150 years from now. Virchow discovered cell cleavage and thus founded modern basic cellular pathology somewhat a year later than the former. Mendels bean test opened a new era for genetic research and concluded in 1863. Roentgen discovered X-ray in 1895 and We've celebrated the 100th anniversary of the X-ray discovery several years ago. The earliest application of penicillin was in 1940, not yet 60 years ago. The medicine possesses a jumping development during the recent half century in association with the advancement of synthetic chemistry, electronic and bioscientific technolgy.

  19. Nuclear energy in the 21st century. Address at Joint IAEA/CNNC seminar on 21st century nuclear energy development in China, 23 May 1997 Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The address discusses the following issues: the increasing demand for energy; the energy efficiency factor; the role of oil and gas; fossil fuels and environment; share of renewable in the future; evolution toward higher density energy sources; factors influencing the choice of the nuclear option; new generations of nuclear power plants; waste management; nuclear safety; strengthening safeguards; nuclear power and nuclear weapons

  20. Energy supply concepts in the 21st century - the role of nuclear power. 2002 winter meeting of 'Deutsches Atomforum'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2002 Winter Meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. was devoted to the topic of 'Energy Supply in the 21st Century - the Role of Nuclear Power'. Before a large audience of participants from Germany and abroad experts from science and research, industry and politics discussed a broad range of problems arising with respect to the future national, European, and global structure of energy supply. The new impulses nuclear power is receiving in the United States and in Finland were presented along with the contributions potentially coming from non-nuclear sources of energy, including the importance of renewable energies. The conclusion to be drawn from all contributions is the recognition that boundary conditions and constraints demand a balanced energy mix, which can be achieved only in a liberal environment free from any political or ideological discrimination. (orig.)

  1. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  2. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer (GBC is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC.

  3. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  4. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    OpenAIRE

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008) and Zoo City (2010) are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published i...

  5. Metropolitan Taxation in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Brunori, David

    1998-01-01

    As we enter the 21st Century, local governments will face challenges to how they raise revenue. Existing local tax systems are ill equipped to meet future basic revenue needs. Moreover, economic and technological changes will inevitably and profoundly alter tax systems of all governments. The problems with existing tax systems and future economic challenges will likely lead to an environment in which local taxation will be limited to an extent unseen in American history. The limitations will ...

  6. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  7. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  8. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. PMID:20811099

  9. Nuclear power in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: All plausible long term energy scenarios project significant growth of global energy, especially if the Millennium Declaration on poverty eradication and the Plan of Implementation agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) are to be met. Projected growth is the fastest in developing countries. While growth for affordable energy services is not subject to debate really - the question is rather by how much - this is not the case for energy supply. 21st century energy supply systems face several challenges and uncertainties including energy resource availability, technology change, environmental compliance, reliability and security, political and social acceptance. One of the uncertainties concerns the role of nuclear power in 21st century energy supplies. Paradoxically, its near term role appears less certain that its longer term role. In the short-run, i.e., until 2020, most studies project either a slight increase, a slight decrease or no change at all. Though regional differences exist in terms of growth and decline, the effectively balance each other. Longer-term energy demand and supply studies, however, paint a different future. Analyses developed by international working groups generally project a potentially significant increase in the use of nuclear power. There are several reasons for this. Foremost, longer-term studies are not subjected to short-term policy constraints. Next, they do factor anticipated technology change and innovation into the analysis. Then resource depletion effects become more visible and environmental constraints become more stringent. The starting point of this paper is the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Based on four of the SRES scenarios, one from each of the four SRES scenario families, this paper discusses the compatibility requirements of each for nuclear energy in terms of economics, environment, supply security, resources, waste

  10. Energy and environment in the 21st century : minimizing climate change.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Energy demand and economic output are coupled. Both are expected to vastly increase in this century, driven primarily by the economic and population growth of the developing world. If the present reliance on carbon-based fuels as primary energy sources continues, average global temperatures are projected to rise between 3° C and 6° C. Limiting climate change will require reduction in greenhouse gas emissions far beyond the Kyoto commitments. Time scales and options, including nuclear, will be reviewed.

  11. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  12. Lexicography in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is a state-of-the-art volume on lexicography at the beginning of the 21st century. It also offers proposals for future theoretical and practical work. The contributions, inspired by the ground-breaking work of Henning Bergenholtz, address topics such as dictionary functions; dictionary users......; access routes; dictionary structures; dictionary reviewing; subject-field classifications; data retrieval; corpus lexicography; and collocations and phraseology. The contributors, all highly regarded international scholars in the field of lexicography, show how the theory of lexicographical functions can...... situations. This volume is not only of interest to practical and theoretical lexicographers but to anyone interested in lexicography....

  13. Will fusion be ready to meet the energy challenge for the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchet, Yves; Massard, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Finite amount of fossil fuel, global warming, increasing demand of energies in emerging countries tend to promote new sources of energies to meet the needs of the coming centuries. Despite their attractiveness, renewable energies will not be sufficient both because of intermittency but also because of the pressure they would put on conventional materials. Thus nuclear energy with both fission and fusion reactors remain the main potential source of clean energy for the coming centuries. France has made a strong commitment to fusion reactor through ITER program. But following and sharing Euratom vision on fusion, France supports the academic program on Inertial Fusion Confinement with direct drive and especially the shock ignition scheme which is heavily studied among the French academic community. LMJ a defense facility for nuclear deterrence is also open to academic community along with a unique PW class laser PETAL. Research on fusion at LMJ-PETAL is one of the designated topics for experiments on the facility. Pairing with other smaller European facilities such as Orion, PALS or LULI2000, LMJ-PETAL will bring new and exciting results and contribution in fusion science in the coming years.

  14. A study on the energy civilization in the 21st century and the analysis of the span of life or the energy recourses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study should have been mainly composed of the pre-estimate of the future views on the balancing of energy demand and supply in the 21st century related to global environmental matters and the analysis of the span of life of the usable energy resources in the 21st century. Due to the project interruption by the PBS input, this study carried out partly the investigation and the analysis of energy demand supply, which regarded to economic circumstances and environmental control regulations. Therefore, this intermediate report shall be an important reference to analyze the span of practical life of the usable energy resources in order to improve the usable capability of energy utilization for the future. 14 refs. (Author)

  15. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbyshire Philip

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice.

  16. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  17. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  18. Learning 21st-Century Skills Requires, 21st-Century Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Anna Rosefsky; Opfer, V. Darleen

    2012-01-01

    For students to learn 21st-century skills, we will have to teach them differently than we have in the past. The outdated, transmission model, through which teachers transmit factual knowledge to students via lectures and textbooks, remains the dominant approach to compulsory education in much of the world, yet it is not the most effective way to…

  19. Nuclear energy for the 21st century to sustain our civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    enjoy wide spread support. We must therefore find a way to reduce energy consumption and decrease CO2 emission while maintaining our current quality of life. This means using energy efficiently and developing 'cleaner' energy sources that emit less carbon dioxide gas; the advanced nations are already moving in this direction. In this article, we will take a look at past energy structures of advanced countries from the perspectives of efficiency and cleanness in an attempt to draw some useful lessons in energy and the environment for the coming century. (author)

  20. 21st century energy solutions. Coal and Power Systems FY2001 program briefing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continued strength of American's economy depends on the availability of affordable energy, which has long been provided by the Nations rich supplies of fossil fuels. Forecasts indicate that fossil fuels will continue to meet much of the demand for economical electricity and transportation fuels for decades to come. It is projected that natural gas, oil, and coal will supply nearly 90% of US energy in 2020, with coal fueling around 50% of the electricity. It is essential to develop ways to achieve the objectives for a cleaner environment while using these low-cost, high-value fuels. A national commitment to improved technologies-for use in the US and abroad-is the solution. The Coal and Power Systems program is responding to this commitment by offering energy solutions to advance the clean, efficient, and affordable use of the Nations abundant fossil fuel resources. These solutions include: (1) Vision 21-A multi-product, pollution-free energy plant-producing electricity, fuels, and/or industry heat-could extract 80% or more of the energy value of coal and 85% or more of the energy value of natural gas; (2) Central Power Systems-Breakthrough turbines and revolutionary new gasification technologies that burn less coal and gas to obtain energy, while reducing emissions; (3) Distributed Generation-Fuel cell technology providing highly efficient, clean modular power; (4) Fuels-The coproduction of coal-derived transportation fuels and power from gasification-based technology; (5) Carbon Sequestration-Capturing greenhouse gases from the exhaust gases of combustion or other sources, or from the atmosphere itself, and storing them for centuries or recycling them into useful products; and (6) Advanced Research-Going beyond conventional thinking in the areas of computational science, biotechnology, and advanced materials

  1. Integrating wind and solar power into the energy systems of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although they have been pursued by scientists and entrepreneurs for two decades, solar and wind energy have not yet claimed the large share of the world energy market that proponents hoped they would. Yet the past two years brought a series of developments that suggest the time has come for solar and wind energy to compete directly with fossil fuels. Wind and solar power generators are likely to contribute significant power to the electricity systems of scores of countries within the next decade, with generating costs as low as 4-5 cents per kilowatt-hour. This will require adjustment in the operation of power transmission and distribution systems to accommodate intermittent resources, as well as new time-specific pricing of electricity. The transition to more open, competitive power systems, with liberal access by independent producers, is likely to speed introduction of the new technologies. Altogether, the energy that strikes the earth`s atmosphere in the form of sunlight each year, and the winds that flow from it, represent the equivalent of nearly 1,000 trillion barrels of oil-sufficient to fuel the global economy thousands of times over. By relying on a new generation of efficient, high-tech, and mass produced energy conversion devices such as advanced wind turbines and photovoltaics, the world can rapidly reduce its dependence on oil and coal in the twenty-first century. In the more distant future, solar and wind energy have the potential not only to supply much of the world`s electricity but to displace the direct use of oil and natural gas. Solar and wind energy can be used to split water via electrolysis, producing hydrogen gas that can be substituted for liquid and gaseous fuels. (46 refs.)

  2. Green Heat and Power. Eco-effective Energy Solutions in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norway has emerged as a major producer of oil, gas, and hydropower during the lifetimes of the authors of this report. Our accumulated experience in working on environmental conservation spans approximately 50 years, with our main area of concentration being energy and the environment. Although river systems have been harnessed into pipes and many oil fields have been developed, on the threshold of a new century we feel confident that the majority would agree that our future energy needs cannot be based and sustained on the exploitation of the natural environment. This report outlines how Norway can reposition itself to become an important energy supplier that can help solve environmental problems instead of create them. It is also a guide to what we think is important to know about energy and the challenges facing the environment. It is all too easy to become swamped by information, which is why we have elected to focus firmly on essentials. We not only look at the solutions of the past, we look into what the future may bring. New thinking and approaches to the problems that are as yet little known are outlined in detail. We seek to present solutions developed from a more integrated ''big-picture'' perspective. Our target audience is people with a general interest in the subject, individuals who work with these kinds of challenges on a day-to-day basis, politicians and other decision-makers, and people who are actively engaged in research and development. This report represents a stark contrast to the report published by the government-appointed energy co mission, a commission which was unable to demonstrate how Norway could both increase energy production and decrease energy consumption, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions in compliance with our international commitments. The report documents that up until the year 2020, Norway can free up one sixth of the electricity produced, reduce CO2 emissions by over 50%, produce 50 TWh of renewable

  3. Green Heat and Power. Eco-effective Energy Solutions in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, T.; Buch, C.; Kruse, B; Sauar, E.

    2000-06-01

    Norway has emerged as a major producer of oil, gas, and hydropower during the lifetimes of the authors of this report. Our accumulated experience in working on environmental conservation spans approximately 50 years, with our main area of concentration being energy and the environment. Although river systems have been harnessed into pipes and many oil fields have been developed, on the threshold of a new century we feel confident that the majority would agree that our future energy needs cannot be based and sustained on the exploitation of the natural environment. This report outlines how Norway can reposition itself to become an important energy supplier that can help solve environmental problems instead of create them. It is also a guide to what we think is important to know about energy and the challenges facing the environment. It is all too easy to become swamped by information, which is why we have elected to focus firmly on essentials. We not only look at the solutions of the past, we look into what the future may bring. New thinking and approaches to the problems that are as yet little known are outlined in detail. We seek to present solutions developed from a more integrated ''big-picture'' perspective. Our target audience is people with a general interest in the subject, individuals who work with these kinds of challenges on a day-to-day basis, politicians and other decision-makers, and people who are actively engaged in research and development. This report represents a stark contrast to the report published by the government-appointed energy co mission, a commission which was unable to demonstrate how Norway could both increase energy production and decrease energy consumption, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions in compliance with our international commitments. The report documents that up until the year 2020, Norway can free up one sixth of the electricity produced, reduce CO2 emissions by over 50%, produce 50

  4. Green Heat and Power. Eco-effective Energy Solutions in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norway has emerged as a major producer of oil, gas, and hydropower during the lifetimes of the authors of this report. Our accumulated experience in working on environmental conservation spans approximately 50 years, with our main area of concentration being energy and the environment. Although river systems have been harnessed into pipes and many oil fields have been developed, on the threshold of a new century we feel confident that the majority would agree that our future energy needs cannot be based and sustained on the exploitation of the natural environment. This report outlines how Norway can reposition itself to become an important energy supplier that can help solve environmental problems instead of create them. It is also a guide to what we think is important to know about energy and the challenges facing the environment. It is all too easy to become swamped by information, which is why we have elected to focus firmly on essentials. We not only look at the solutions of the past, we look into what the future may bring. New thinking and approaches to the problems that are as yet little known are outlined in detail. We seek to present solutions developed from a more integrated ''big-picture'' perspective. Our target audience is people with a general interest in the subject, individuals who work with these kinds of challenges on a day-to-day basis, politicians and other decision-makers, and people who are actively engaged in research and development. This report represents a stark contrast to the report published by the government-appointed energy co mission, a commission which was unable to demonstrate how Norway could both increase energy production and decrease energy consumption, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions in compliance with our international commitments. The report documents that up until the year 2020, Norway can free up one sixth of the electricity produced, reduce CO2 emissions by over 50%, produce 50 TWh of renewable

  5. Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency helps its Member States to use nuclear technology for a broad range of peaceful purposes, one of the most important of which is generating electricity. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011 caused anxiety about nuclear safety throughout the world and raised questions about the future of nuclear power. Two years on, it is clear that the use of nuclear power will continue to grow in the coming decades, although growth will be slower than was anticipated before the accident. Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes plan to expand them. Many new countries, both developed and developing, plan to introduce nuclear power. The factors contributing to this growing interest include increasing global demand for energy, as well as concerns about climate change, volatile fossil fuel prices, and security of energy supply. It will be difficult for the world to achieve the twin goals of ensuring sustainable energy supplies and curbing greenhouse gases without nuclear power. The IAEA helps countries that opt for nuclear power to use it safely and securely. Countries that have decided to phase out nuclear power will have to deal with issues such as plant decommissioning, remediation, and waste management for decades to come. The IAEA also assists in these areas. I am grateful to the Russian Federation for hosting the 2013 International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century in St Petersburg in June. This timely conference provides a valuable opportunity to take stock of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. A high level of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power is essential for the future of the sector. Much valuable work has been done in the past two years to improve safety. But much remains to be done. It is vitally important that the momentum is maintained and that everything is done to ensure that nuclear power is as safe as humanly

  6. The influence of environment and energy macro surroundings on the development of tourism in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicić, Dobrica

    2012-06-01

    Trying to anticipate the future of tourism may be a particularly fraught task. However, this does not mean that trying to predict the future of tourism is not without value. From a business perspective, examining the future enables firms to anticipate new business conditions and develop new strategies. From a destination perspective, reflections on the future enable consideration of how to maintain or improve the qualities of a destination. The paper is focused on an analysis of the impacts of the energy and ecological macro environments on tourism trends in 21st century. Mass international tourism has thrived on the abundant and cheap supply of energy, and this may be about to change as the world moves towards 'Peak Oil'. The resultant scarcity and high price of all energy fuels will produce changes in human activities, specifically in tourism. The basis of the health of the economy is the health of the environment. Therefore issues of global environmental changes are increasingly influencing consideration of trends in tourism. In this looming transitional era tourism needs to make some dramatic changes to harmonize with the new realities of a post-energy world affected additionaly by global warming and other environmental changes. PMID:22856267

  7. The influence of environment and energy macro surroundings on the development of tourism in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicić, Dobrica

    2012-06-01

    Trying to anticipate the future of tourism may be a particularly fraught task. However, this does not mean that trying to predict the future of tourism is not without value. From a business perspective, examining the future enables firms to anticipate new business conditions and develop new strategies. From a destination perspective, reflections on the future enable consideration of how to maintain or improve the qualities of a destination. The paper is focused on an analysis of the impacts of the energy and ecological macro environments on tourism trends in 21st century. Mass international tourism has thrived on the abundant and cheap supply of energy, and this may be about to change as the world moves towards 'Peak Oil'. The resultant scarcity and high price of all energy fuels will produce changes in human activities, specifically in tourism. The basis of the health of the economy is the health of the environment. Therefore issues of global environmental changes are increasingly influencing consideration of trends in tourism. In this looming transitional era tourism needs to make some dramatic changes to harmonize with the new realities of a post-energy world affected additionaly by global warming and other environmental changes.

  8. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  9. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  10. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity. PMID:26710571

  11. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  12. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement of regional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards

  13. Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  14. Ionizing radiation in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper begins with the author's personal experience in Poland on the occasion of Chernobyl nuclear accident followed by main lessons that the author could deduce from the accident. After the discovery of ionizing radiation at the end of 19th century, social perception has altered between acceptance and rejection stemming from recognition of the basic aspects: usefulness for medical applications and for technical and scientific aims, beneficial effects of their low levels, and harmful effects of high levels. The author explains how linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption according to which even the lowest, near zero doses of radiation may cause cancer genetic harm has become established. Comparing the natural radioactivity of the earth's crust with the activity of much shorter-lived radioactive wastes from the nuclear power cycle, it is concluded that none of the man-made component of the radioactive wastes has higher-toxicity than the natural Th 232. The paper concludes by stating that one century has not been long enough to adapt mentally to ionizing radiation and radioactivity and perhaps 21st century will suffice for this adaptation. (S. Ohno)

  15. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  16. Energy in the 21st Century: From Resource to Environmental and Lifestyle Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Grubler, A

    1991-01-01

    After more than 15 years of energy global studies it appears that resource limits and volatile prices are no longer the most important determinants of future energy systems. Instead, improved social and environmental compatibility of energy systems is now in the forefront.

  17. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-12-31

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions.

  18. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  19. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This CD-ROM contains the proceedings from the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century Conference XII held July 9-11, 1996. Topics included model facilities, federal and NEPA stakeholders, microchemistry, source 4 solvents and reduction, education and outreach planning, return on investment, energy management, decontamination and decommissioning, planning and regulations, environmental restoration, solid waste, recycling, affirmative procurement in the executive branch, construction and demolition, international and ISO 14000, and poster sessions

  20. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000

  1. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  2. Global energy prospects in the 21st century: a battery-based society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Susumu; Ishihara, Kaoru

    Current energy needs are nearly totally dependent on fossil fuels. This is causing global warming and exhaustion of resources; it is important to switch to more efficient and effective energy use. These circumstances are expanding the role of secondary batteries. Non-fossil fuels such as photovoltaic cells and wind energy are unstable, but combining them with secondary batteries improves their stability as electric power sources. If electrical load leveling between day and night can be achieved by storing electric power, it will be possible to achieve a high capacity utilization rate for generating facilities that have high generating efficiency and produce little CO 2. Depending on the generating mix, the practicalization of electric vehicles will serve not only to alleviate air pollution, but also to limit CO 2 emissions. There are hopes for the development of large-capacity lithium secondary batteries with long cycle life, high energy density, high power density, and high energy efficiency.

  3. Teaching 21st Century Skills: An ASCD Action Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Any school interested in preparing students for learning and working in 21st century academic and job settings needs this resource to explain to teachers the new skills students need and provide teachers with tools to teach and reinforce these skills. Based on the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this action tool defines what…

  4. Fusion energy for space missions in the 21st century: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Norman R.

    1991-01-01

    Future space missions were hypothesized and analyzed, and the energy source of their accomplishment investigated. The missions included manned Mars, scientific outposts to and robotic sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids, as well as fly-by and rendezvous missions with the Oort Cloud and the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Space system parametric requirements and operational features were established. The energy means for accomplishing missions where delta v requirements range from 90 km/sec to 30,000 km/sec (High Energy Space Mission) were investigated. The need to develop a power space of this magnitude is a key issue to address if the U.S. civil space program is to continue to advance as mandated by the National Space Policy. Potential energy options which could provide the propulsion and electrical power system and operational requirements were reviewed and evaluated. Fusion energy was considered to be the preferred option and was analyzed in depth. Candidate fusion fuels were evaluated based upon the energy output and neutron flux. Additionally, fusion energy can offer significant safety, environmental, economic, and operational advantages. Reactors exhibiting a highly efficient use of magnetic fields for space use while at the same time offering efficient coupling to an exhaust propellant or to a direct energy convertor for efficient electrical production were examined. Near term approaches were identified. A strategy that will produce fusion powered vehicles as part of the space transportation infrastructure was developed. Space program resources must be directed toward this issue as a matter of the top policy priority.

  5. Oil refineries in the 21st Century. Energy efficient, cost effective, environmentally benign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocic, O. [NIS-Oil Refinery Pancevo (Czechoslovakia)

    2005-07-01

    How to improve energy efficiency and cost effectiveness in petroleum processing. Intensified global competition among refineries together with declining oil reserves is leading to a fewer and larger production sites and forcing operators to optimize both costs and energy consumption. However, these tasks are unattainable without precise knowledge of the economic and technological fundamentals of refining crude oil. Here, the author provides a detailed and well-founded approach to the methodology, information and criteria necessary for analyzing energy use, economics and the environmental impact, as well as practical solutions for fulfilling the requirements of the Kyoto agreement. In addition, he describes in sufficient detail the energy streams within a refinery. From the contents: Technological and Energy Characteristics of Chemical Process Industry; Economic and Technological Aspects of Oil Refineries; Instruments for Determining Energy and Processing Efficiency of - Crude Distillation - Vacuum Distillation - Vacuum Residue Visbreaking - Bitumen Blowing - Catalytic Reforming - Catalytic Cracking - Gas Concentration - Jet Fuel Hydrodesulphurization - Gas Oil Hydrodesulphurization - Alkylation. A practical guide for refinery engineers, managers, and consultants, as well as all engineers involved in the design of process technologies, in developed as well as developing countries. (orig.)

  6. Teaching about 21st Century Energy Sources to Pre-college Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Andrew P.; Morgan, J.; Ritter, C.; DeLooper, J.; Guilbert, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years, the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has led a weeklong summer workshop on alternative energy sources for high school students. We have several versions of the workshop, depending upon the students participating. Recently, we offered the workshop to students attending a science magnet school, students from a large, urban school, and “learning different” students. Students perform a variety of “design and build” projects, one for each of the major energy sources. Energy sources typically explored include solar, hydrogen fuel cells, and fusion. Along with the laboratory exercises, students work on virtual experiments, computer simulations and some lecture. This summer, we will begin a four-week professional development program centered on the same topic. Participants will use their work in the laboratory and classroom to develop inquiry-based curricula, aligned with State and National standards that use energy as a theme for exploring various topics in physics and physical science. A description of each workshop will be given along with results from various exit surveys that probe the impact of the workshop on student attitudes towards energy.

  7. Achieving cheap clean energy for all in the 21^st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-11-01

    Energy is essential for modern life and is a critical resource that we take for granted. Unfortunately, we are increasingly confronted by many unsettling questions: Is there enough cheap oil and gas remaining and should we start changing our life styles towards energy efficiency? What will be the price of oil and gas next year and will we face shortages? Are rising prices reflective of greed and manipulation or geopolitics or of real constraints? Will renewable sources provide a significant fraction of our energy needs? Is global warming already happening and is it a result of our ``addiction to oil''? If the answer to these is ``yes'', then what can we, as individuals, do to help ourselves, the nation, and the world? This talk will attempt to answer these questions by examining the global oil, gas and other resources, emerging constraints and opportunities, and geopolitics.

  8. Energy needs for the 21st century and South Africa's strategies to meet them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her Excellency L. Xingwana, Deputy Minister of Minerals and Energy, South Africa, noted that the President of South Africa has announced that in eight years universal access to electricity would be achieved. This means an additional three million households will be supplied through the electricity grid. Currently in excess of 300 000 new households per annum are being supplied with electricity. She stated that in a country that has abundant uranium resources, ways of utilizing this resource for peace and economic development would continue to be sought. The pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) was borne out of the need to ensure security of supply through diversity. She commented that the decision to proceed with the PBMR project was taken with a full understanding that successful commissioning of the project will contribute towards efforts aimed at meeting the Millennium Development Goals and will enhance sustainable socioeconomic development. She noted that the IAEA Statute, inter alia, advocates that Member States have the inalienable right to access and/or acquire nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. She then added that for nuclear energy to succeed a lot of effort has to go towards superior designs that are economically viable and proliferation resistant. Nuclear energy cannot thrive without social acceptance. Programmes aimed at educating the public on the benefits of nuclear energy must be enhanced. It is necessary to guard against talking amongst ourselves and to reach out to society. The development and maintenance of a national infrastructure to ensure a peaceful and safe use of nuclear power is essential. In this regard, she expressed her gratitude for the work done by the IAEA in supporting Member States and hoped that these programmes will in future be enhanced, as the dawn of a nuclear energy future is no longer in question. She asked that the international community strengthen regional bodies, for example AFRA (African Regional Co

  9. Basic Research Needs for Geosciences: Facilitating 21st Century Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, D. J.; Orr, F. M.; Benson, S. M.; Celia, M.; Felmy, A.; Nagy, K. L.; Fogg, G. E.; Snieder, R.; Davis, J.; Pruess, K.; Friedmann, J.; Peters, M.; Woodward, N. B.; Dobson, P.; Talamini, K.; Saarni, M.

    2007-06-01

    To identify research areas in geosciences, such as behavior of multiphase fluid-solid systems on a variety of scales, chemical migration processes in geologic media, characterization of geologic systems, and modeling and simulation of geologic systems, needed for improved energy systems.

  10. EU energy policies towards the 21st century: a business intelligence report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the EU energy policy, and examines the single market, the internal electricity and gas markets, and the single market with respect to coal, oil and biofuel. The environmental policy, the control of air quality, climate change policies, security of supplies, and economic and social cohesion are addressed. Nuclear issues, research and demonstration programmes, EU enlargement, and international affairs are discussed. (UK)

  11. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental issues in the 21st century D.B. Chambers SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada Abstract. This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards -- environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others -- will be

  12. Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: the example of coal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaccard, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politic...

  13. Nuclear fusion as an energy option for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the point of view of the engineering, it is even a long road to travel before it is possible to build an economically competitive fusion reactor. In contrast, for each obstacle in the road different forms can be devised of approaching it, and the future is promising, whenever the necessary financing exists to support the investigations. The fusion can contribute to satisfy the energy necessities for the development of the civilization in a sustainable way, to medium term if it is used in symbiosis with the fission reactors, providing fuel and transmuting radioactive waste. In any event, this focus should be developed spreading the safety primarily in mind, and so the processes are economically competitive. Just as it can be appreciate in the sections of this work, the investigation in fusion requires of determination, discipline, and it is not for the weak of spirit. While other energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, they should take advantage in Mexico, the fusion is the more plaintiff, and it requires of scientific and technological resources of forefront. In certain form, together with the fission technology, it determines the crossroad that separates to the developed countries of those that are 'developing'. Brazil, South Korea, China and India, aware of the necessity of enough energy sources to sustain their development, they have already taken the initiative to accept the challenge. It corresponds Mexico to follow the example, or to stay in the status of 'developing country.' (Author)

  14. Laboratories for the 21st Century Best Practices: Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-06-01

    Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH – non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 – Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate “should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory” it specifically indicates that it is intended to “provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.” The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that pro-vide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure laboratories.

  15. Orthovoltage energies for palliative care in the 21st century: Is there a need?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alimonte, Laura, E-mail: Laura.Dalimonte@sunnybrook.c [Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); Sinclair, Emily [Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, M4N 3M5 (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Seed, Sharon [Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Objective: The primary objective was to describe the patterns of practice for patients with rib metastases who were treated with radiation therapy for pain relief. The secondary objective was to determine if wait times and better access to radiation treatment for this patient population could be improved with the utilization of an orthovoltage treatment machine. Methods and Materials: Cancer registry data for patients with rib disease and radiation therapy technique were collected from January 2007 to December 2008. The data was examined to establish the utilization rate of orthovoltage treatment. Results: The data demonstrated that orthovoltage treatment was an underutilized technique for the palliative treatment of rib disease. More than half of the patients were treated with high energy (6 MV) photon beam with either a single direct photon field (16.2%) or a two field photon technique (47.4%). Electron beam technique represented 35.1% of treatments while orthovoltage constituted only 1.2% of rib treatments. Conclusion: The use of orthovoltage X-ray beams has been demonstrated to be an underutilized radiotherapy treatment technique at this institution. Orthovoltage treatment is a simple radiotherapy technique with a short setup time that may be a solution for minimizing treatment burden for an already overburdened patient population.

  16. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  17. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, James

    2006-03-01

    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  18. Texting While Parenting: a 21st Century Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Texting While Parenting: A 21st Century Trap Smartphones can get in the way of family life, and stress is the result, study finds To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news ...

  19. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the ICRP's current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards - environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others - will be increasingly important in the future. What level of risk is it reasonable to accept? What is meant by 'reasonable'? How much risk can be engineered away, for how long, and at what

  20. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  1. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Emasealu; Susan Nnadozie Umeozor

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, car...

  2. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  3. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anne Green

    2005-01-01

    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  4. Proceeding of the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21-st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fourth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Technology of Nuclear Fuel Cycle facing the Challenge of Energy Need on the 21st Century, held on 1-2 December in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 36 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  5. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  6. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.

    2012-12-01

    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  7. Software Engineering Technology for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the software engineering technologyfor the 21 st century. First we review development over the last half-century, overview application re quirement and environment, accept a challenge. Then we outline following software engineering techniques: 1) Process;2) Analysis;3) Design;4) UML;5) Component;6) Java +XML;7) Integrated;8) Quality(ISO9000&CMM).

  8. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  9. Informing 21st-Century Risk Assessments with 21st-Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burke, Thomas A.; Jones, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding and preventing adverse impacts from chemicals in the environment is fundamental to protecting public health, and chemical risk assessments are used to inform public health decisions in the United States and around the world. Traditional chemical risk assessments focus on health effects of environmental contaminants on a chemical-by-chemical basis, largely based on data from animal models using exposures that are typically higher than those experienced by humans. Results from environmental epidemiology studies sometimes show effects that are not observed in animal studies at human exposure levels that are lower than those used in animal studies. In addition, new approaches such as Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21) and exposure forecasting (ExpoCast) are generating mechanistic data that provide broad coverage of chemical space, chemical mixtures, and potential associated health outcomes, along with improved exposure estimates. It is becoming clear that risk assessments in the future will need to use the full range of available mechanistic, animal, and human data to integrate multiple types of data and to consider nontraditional health outcomes and end points. This perspective was developed at the “Strengthening the Scientific Basis of Chemical Safety Assessments” workshop, which was cosponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, where gaps between the emerging science and traditional chemical risk assessments were explored, and approaches for bridging the gaps were considered. PMID:27035154

  10. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity." PMID:8291948

  11. Interview: 21st century battlefield pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckenmaier, Colonel Chester 'trip'

    2013-07-01

    Colonel Chester 'Trip' Buckenmaier 3rd, MD, speaks to Dominic Chamberlain, Assistant Commissioning Editor: Colonel Buckenmaier is the current Director of the Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management (MD, USA) and Fellowship Director of the Acute Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Washington DC (USA). He is an Associate Professor in Anesthesiology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda (MD, USA), and a Diplomat with the American Board of Anesthesiology. He attended Catawba College (NC, USA), on a Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) scholarship, graduating with a degree in Biology and Chemistry in 1986. He then attended East Carolina University in Greenville (NC, USA), receiving a Master in Science in Biology in 1988. In 1992, he graduated from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, completing his Anesthesia Residency at Walter Reed. In addition, he completed a 1-year Fellowship in Regional Anesthesia at Duke University (NC, USA) in 2002, resulting in the creation of the only Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship in the US military at Walter Reed (Washington, DC, USA). In September 2003, he deployed with the 21st Combat Support Hospital to Balad (Iraq), and demonstrated that the use of advanced regional anesthesia can be accomplished in a forward deployed environment. He performed the first successful continuous peripheral nerve block for pain management in a combat support hospital. In April 2009, he deployed to Camp Bastion (Afghanistan) with the British military and ran the first acute pain service in a theater of war. The Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Medicine (DVCIPM) is dedicated to improving pain management throughout the continuum of care for service personnel and their families.

  12. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  13. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  14. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  15. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  16. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  17. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  18. 21st Century Skills and the Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigeman, Sally; Bruecken, Peter

    2009-11-01

    What content knowledge and skills will today's physics students need to acquire to be successful employees in the 21st century? How can today's physics classrooms prepare students for collaboration in a global work environment? What kind of instruction can engage physics students in learning that supports these demands? Attend this session to find out what motivates today's Net Generation.

  19. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  20. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  1. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  2. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qasem, I.

    2010-01-01

    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these sca

  3. Grandma Moses in the 21st Century. Learning from Exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the life and career of Grandma Moses who was born as Anna Mary Robertson and painted in the style of folk or naive art. Addresses the art exhibition entitled "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century" that explores the recurring themes in her artwork. (CMK)

  4. 21st Century Knowledge and Skills in Educator Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create the foundation for ongoing dialogue around how 21st century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in educator preparation, and to guide the development of resources and services to support educator programs. This paper aims to: (1) Develop a blueprint for building the models, tools, resource…

  5. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  6. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  7. 21st Century Skills: Prepare Students for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lotta C.; Miller, Teresa Northern

    2011-01-01

    Skills students will need for the society in which they will work and live shouldn't be thought of as "one more thing to teach," but rather training integrated across all curricula. This article takes a look at 21st century skills and how these skills directly impact teaching and learning. Classroom teachers need to be familiar with these skills…

  8. 21st Century Learning and Progressive Education: An Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The seminal tenets of progressive education bear a striking resemblance to the newly fashionable principles associated with with a new movement known as "21st Century Education". This article traces the development of progressive education principles, starting with the founding of the Progressive Education Association, and shows their close…

  9. Upholding humanity: challenges of peace in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2000-01-01

    In this presentation we shall, first of all, explore the background to the topic for today as formulated by the organisers: Peace in the 21st century: between the supranational and the grassroots. From there some remarks will follow on the meaning of commemoration and liberation by giving you a very

  10. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan

    2013-01-01

    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  11. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  12. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  13. Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    "Emerging: Negotiating Identity in a 21st Century American Seminary" is an ethnographic investigation involving a diverse group of students as they experience their first year of graduate-level theological education at a Protestant seminary in the United States. The study analyzes the observations and student interviews that form the core of the…

  14. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, David

    1983-01-01

    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  15. PR in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, Dan; Toon, John

    1994-01-01

    The ways in which advancing technology will affect college and university public relations and the mass media in the next century are examined, and a survey of 60 campus public relations specialists and 40 journalists concerning predicted changes is reported. Implications for campus communications with the media are also discussed. (MSE)

  16. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, J M; Shen, Chuanjian

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the properties of dust in very young galaxies will be an important probe of the rates of star formation in terms of the production and destruction of dust grains. Future observations of dust at high spectral and spatial resolution will provide detailed information on processes in collapsing clouds up to star formation. Space missions to comets in the next century will first study them in situ but ultimately will bring back pristine nucleus material which will contain the end product of the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud at ...

  17. Egyptian Agriculture in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, C; Hillel, D.

    1994-01-01

    In order to perform a proper, integrated assessment of potential climate change impacts on Egypt it was necessary to accurately identify important and impending issues and problems which are and will be facing the Egyptian agriculture sector into the next century. To this aim, two experts in the fields of Agronomy and Irrigated Agriculture in the Middle East were asked to travel to Egypt in order to assess the current state of Egyptian agriculture and pose possible questions and scenarios tha...

  18. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, J. Mayo; Shen, Chuanjian

    2000-01-01

    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the prope...

  19. The 21st century chemistry journal

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Bachrach

    1999-01-01

    Internet publication will radically alter how chemists will publish their research in the next century. In this article, we describe two fundamental changes: enhanced chemical publication which allows chemists to publish materials that cannot be published on paper and end-user customization which allows readers to read articles prepared to meet their specifications. These concepts have been implemented within the Internet Journal of Chemistry, a new journal designed to employ the latest techn...

  20. Geotectonic hypotheses at the beginning of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Strutinski, C.; Stan, R.; Puste, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution to the volume honouring Ott Ch. Hilgenberg the main directions of thought in the field of geotectonics at the beginning of the 21st century are reviewed. However, because of its seminal importance for the geological thinking during most of the last century, the Wegener (continental drift) hypothesis is also included and opens the review. It is followed by the critical presentation of Plate tectonics and the hypotheses of Earth expansion, Surge tectonics and Wrench tectoni...

  1. POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  2. Evolution of the framework for 21st century competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdenka Z. Salas-Pilco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the successive changes and evolution of the frameworks for 21st century competencies, since the appearance of the first conceptual models during the final years of the last century, and also it is a review of the competencies that are needed in the 21st century with a special focus on the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT competencies. The included frameworks have been elaborated by diverse institutions such as international organizations, private consortia and also governments as a guideline for educational policies in elementary and secondary schools. Later, the frameworks are compared and analyzed according to a classification of the competencies into general categories, in order to visualize some trends and obtain some insights about the direction they are heading. Finally, it provides some suggestions for the conception of future frameworks.

  3. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  4. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2002-05-01

    Glaciers are ablating rapidly the world over. Nowhere are the rates of retreat and downwasting greater than in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) region. It is estimated that over the next century, 40,000 square kilometers of present glacier area in the HKH region will become ice free. Most of this area is in major valleys and the lowest glaciated mountain passes. The existence and characteristics of glaciers have security impacts, and rapidly changing HKH glaciers have broad strategic implications: (1) Glaciers supply much of the fresh water and hydroelectric power in South and Central Asia, and so glaciers are valuable resources. (2) Shared economic interests in water, hydroelectricity, flood hazards, and habitat preservation are a force for common cause and reasoned international relations. (3) Glaciers and their high mountains generally pose a natural barrier tending to isolate people. Historically, they have hindered trade and intercultural exchanges and have protected against aggression. This has further promoted an independent spirit of the region's many ethnic groups. (4) Although glaciers are generally incompatible with human development and habitation, many of the HKH region's glaciers and their mountains have become sanctuaries and transit routes for militants. Siachen Glacier in Kashmir has for 17 years been "the world's highest battlefield," with tens of thousands of troops deployed on both sides of the India/Pakistan line of control. In 1999, that conflict threatened to trigger all-out warfare, and perhaps nuclear warfare. Other recent terrorist and military action has taken place on glaciers in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. As terrorists are forced from easily controlled territories, many may tend to migrate toward the highest ground, where definitive encounters may take place in severe alpine glacial environments. This should be a major concern in Nepali security planning, where an Army offensive is attempting to reign in an increasingly robust and brutal

  5. Neutron Therapy in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Kroc, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether or not neutron therapy works has been answered. It is a qualified yes, as is the case with all of radiation therapy. But, neutron therapy has not kept pace with the rest of radiation therapy in terms of beam delivery techniques. Modern photon and proton based external beam radiotherapy routinely implements image-guidance, beam intensity-modulation and 3-dimensional treatment planning. The current iteration of fast neutron radiotherapy does not. Addressing these deficiencies, however, is not a matter of technology or understanding, but resources. The future of neutron therapy lies in better understanding the interaction processes of radiation with living tissue. A combination of radiobiology and computer simulations is required in order to optimize the use of neutron therapy. The questions that need to be answered are: Can we connect the macroscopic with the microscopic? What is the optimum energy? What is the optimum energy spectrum? Can we map the sensitivity of the various tissues of...

  6. Water in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piechota, Thomas C

    2013-02-08

    This research project focused on sustainability issues in the southwest U.S. with an emphasis on water and energy. The efforts were directed through the UNLV Urban Sustainability Office with the funding used to develop a sustainability strategic plan; conduct extensive community outreach in the greater metropolitan area; provide seed money for multidisciplinary research teams to conduct studies in the areas of ecological, socio-cultural, and economic sustainability leading to community-based solutions; and to provide service-learning opportunities for UNLV graduate and undergraduate students. The research advanced understanding of urban and regional water issues with a particular focus on climate change and climate variability in the southwest. In addition, various events were held to promote discussion on energy, water, and sustainability discussions in the community. The impact of this research was broad dissemination of research through 13 peer-reviewed publications, learning opportunities for countless students as a result of class room equipment upgrades (see report for upgrade details), and new research funding for further advancement of these research efforts.

  7. Framework for Energy Neutral Treatment for the 21st Century Through Energy Efficient Aeration (WERF Report INFR2R12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeration is commonly identified as the most significant energy use in the treatment of wastewater and therefore garners significant focus in reducing energy use in the ultimate aspirational goal of achieving net energy neutrality for water resource recovery. This research establi...

  8. Soldier communication net for the 21st century digitized battlespace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Libo; Zhang, Yutian

    1999-07-01

    This paper present soldier communication net scheme, which survives and operates in the 21st century battlefield environment. First, it analyzes the features, the need, function of the soldier communication net on the 21st century battlefield environment. Secondly it presents a layered model of the soldier communication net, derived from the OSI theory, and discusses the design of the 3 layers, link layer, link controller and input/output applications layer. Thirdly, it present some key technical discussion concerning with the direct-sequence-spread-spectrum communication, code/decode and low power consumption. Finally, it gives the conclusion that spread spectrum time division system is the best scheme of soldier communication net.

  9. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  10. Technology Born Fictions for the Cities of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Rıfat Akbulut

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies will undoubtely be leading determinants of urban landscape in the 21st century. Until the present day, it was assumed that urban landscapes were being shaped by conventional factors such as demography, social and economical structure, transportion, infrastructure, building technologies etc. In spite of many speculative approaches, recent developments in information and communication technologies can offer us some clues which may go beyond mere speculation. The“intelligent city” which is based on “autonomous” and “intelligent” objects and agents promising novel solutions to urban problems. Mobile communication is also another promising domain to offer creative solutions to some cronical urban problems. All these novelties provide sufficient reasons to think about new urban structures based upon information technologies.This paper is an attempt to discuss probable effects of information technologies, as new dynamics to shape the urban environment and urban life of the 21st century.

  11. Nanotechnology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is the manipulation structures in materials that are smaller than one billionth of a meter in size. Various successful advances in nanotechnology compelled an almost universal interest in the study of nanomaterials worldwide. The diminutive size of nanomaterials that are smaller than or comparable to a virus (20-450 nm), a protein (5-50 nm), or a gene (2nm wide and 10-100 nm long) pave the way to innumerable engineering and manipulations that triggered a multitude of applications in electronics, solar energy, optics, sports, security, food, agriculture, biology, construction, water, and medicine. The structural features and properties of nanomaterials that are in between those of single atoms/molecules and continuous bulk materials with at least one dimension in the nanometer range bring physical, chemical, electronic, and magnetic properties incomparable with any other materials. Various kinds of nanomaterials possess common as well as individual properties or group properties that allow their unique applications. The broad scope of nanotechnology can be thought of as a territory within which a range of disciplines converge, including chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, medicine, biology, pharmacology, biotechnology, construction, automotive and aviation, microfabrication, systems architecture for computing, and many more. Nanotechnology holds promise to change the way most things have been designed and manufactured, including drugs, vaccines, fertilizers, TV screens, light fixtures, surgery, skin care products, tennis rackets, cars, paints, and objects unimaginable at this point. Advances in nanotechnology holds promise to repair the damage we have done to our environment, capturing carbon out of the air to return it back to the earth, or using it to build light, strong, diamond-like materials that nanotech-enabled human-scale technology will depend on. Nanotechnology is revolutionizing a wide array of consumer products and

  12. Antinomies of Capital in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the 21st century" has been the most important book economy in recent times. Its aim integrates the debate theories of growth, income distribution, inequality and differences between the extremes income and income of the majority. The work predicts a slow increase in the share of capital income and inequality. His proposal for a global tax on capital is a way to evaluate such tendencies.

  13. ICT Supported Cooperative Learning - Towards Attaining 21st Century Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Ramli Rohaini; Ramli Rohaiza

    2013-01-01

    Today?s job market demands not only sound technical skills from their potential employees. When employers talk about graduates being job ready, they really mean that the graduates possess the skills of the 21st century, which include ability to seek information and critically analyze situations, ability to challenge ideas, being innovative and being able to communicate ideas. In realizing these needs, education systems have long since started to look into incorporating activities that could h...

  14. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research

    OpenAIRE

    Sciences, Committee on Planning a Global Library of the Mathematical

    2014-01-01

    Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research discusses how information about what the mathematical literature contains can be formalized and made easier to express, encode, and explore. Many of the tools necessary to make this information system a reality will require much more than indexing and will instead depend on community input paired with machine learning, where mathematicians' expertise can fill the gaps of automatization. This report proposes the establishment of...

  15. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  16. The Role of the School District toward Preparing Students for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Torres, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation reflects the outcomes of a small school district that is successfully incorporating 21st century skills with the demands set forth by our current educational policy, No Child Left Behind. Considerations regarding globalization, future work force and work skills, definition of 21st century skills, supporting 21st century skills in…

  17. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  18. A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: implications for national curriculum policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Pareja Roblin, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites

  19. International conference: nuclear power for the 21 st century; Conference internationale: L'energie nucleaire au 21. siecle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    It is widely recognised that global energy demand will rise substantially during this century. The increased industrialization and urbanization of developing countries will produce large increases in energy demand in regions that currently have very low per capita energy use. This increasing demand for energy will need to be met in order to improve living standards for at least half of the world population and to reduce the economic imbalances between countries and regions. At the same time the use of fossil fuel based energy is identified as a major cause of environmental damage. The release of greenhouse gases from burning of fossil fuel in power stations and for transport is seen as a contributor to global warming. It is widely recognised that continued exploitation of fossil fuels and release of carbon dioxide will need to be controlled. After a prolonged period of slow development of nuclear power, confined to some countries in the world, it is now being recognised that nuclear energy has a potentially significant role to play in meeting the energy needs of the planet without damaging the environment. Developments in technology make the economics of nuclear power more attractive, and they may become even more so as fossil fuel prices continue to rise.or a widespread use of nuclear power, however, there remain concerns on the safety, security, waste and proliferation aspects. The global application of safety standards and appropriate security measures are required to ensure acceptable levels of protection. Effective control measures are required to ensure that non-proliferation commitments are honored. Handling nuclear waste safely and securely is achievable, but continues to remain as a public concern. The broad strategic objectives of the Conference are the following: to review the role of nuclear power and to define the potential benefits (energy security, sustainability and improved environmental protection) that expanding nuclear power offers to meet the

  20. Nuclear energy technology innovation and restructuring electric power industry for sustainable development in Korea in 21st century - issues and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After TMI and Chernobyl accidents, concerns on nuclear safety and radiation health risk from radioactive wastes become the target issues for anti-nuclear. Nevertheless, nuclear power is a substantial contributor to the world electricity production, supplying more than 16 % of global electricity. The objectives of Korean nuclear energy technology innovation are to improve safety, economic competitiveness, energy security and the effectiveness of radioactive waste management in harmony with environment. Meeting such objectives, public concerns on safety and health risks would be cleared. Innovative nuclear energy system will certainly enhance socio-political acceptance and enable wider application of nuclear energy for sustainable development in Korea in the 21st Century. In parallel to such technology innovations, the effective first phase restructuring of electric power industry is in progress to enhance management efficiency and customer services. The power generation division of the former state-run utility, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) was separated and divided into six companies - five thermal power and one hydro and nuclear power generation companies - in last April. After the reorganization of KEPCO and the break-up of monopoly, the new electric power industry will be driven by market force. (author)

  1. 2000 U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Plan: Strength through Science Powering the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    2000-09-01

    The Department of Energy conducts programs relating to energy resources, national nuclear security, environmental quality, and science. In each of these areas, the US is facing significant challenges. Our economic well-being depends on the continuing availability of reliable and affordable supplies of clean energy. Our Nation's security is threatened by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Our environment is under threat from the demands a more populated planet and the legacies of 20th-century activities. Science and the technology derived from it offer the promise to improve the Nation's health and well-being and broadly expand human knowledge. In conducting its programs, the Department of Energy (DOE) employs unique scientific and technical assets, including 30,000 scientists, engineers, and other technical staff, in a complex of outstanding national laboratories that have a capital value of over $45 billion. Through its multidisciplinary research and development activities and its formidable assemblage of scientific and engineering talent, DOE focuses its efforts on four programmatic business lines: (1) Energy Resources--promoting the development and deployment of systems and practices that provide energy that is clean, efficient, reasonably priced, and reliable. (2) National Nuclear Security--enhancing national security through military application of nuclear technology and by reducing global danger from the potential spread of weapons of mass destruction. (3) Environmental Quality--cleaning up the legacy of nuclear weapons and nuclear research activities, safely managing nuclear materials, and disposing of radioactive wastes. (4) Science--advancing science and scientific tools to provide the foundation for DOE's applied missions and to provide remarkable insights into our physical and biological world. In support of the above four business lines, DOE provides management services to ensure that the technical programs can run efficiently. Our

  2. The 21st century decline in damaging European windstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Laura C.; Stephenson, David B.; Lockwood, Julia F.; Maisey, Paul E.

    2016-08-01

    A decline in damaging European windstorms has led to a reduction in insured losses in the 21st century. This decline is explored by identifying a damaging windstorm characteristic and investigating how and why this characteristic has changed in recent years. This novel exploration is based on 6103 high-resolution model-generated historical footprints (1979-2014), representing the whole European domain. The footprint of a windstorm is defined as the maximum wind gust speed to occur at a set of spatial locations over the duration of the storm. The area of the footprint exceeding 20 ms-1 over land, A20, is shown to be a good predictor of windstorm damage. This damaging characteristic has decreased in the 21st century, due to a statistically significant decrease in the relative frequency of windstorms exceeding 20 ms-1 in north-western Europe, although an increase is observed in southern Europe. This is explained by a decrease in the quantiles of the footprint wind gust speed distribution above approximately 18 ms-1 at locations in this region. In addition, an increased variability in the number of windstorm events is observed in the 21st century. Much of the change in A20 is explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The correlation between winter total A20 and winter-averaged mean sea-level pressure resembles the NAO pattern, shifted eastwards over Europe, and a strong positive relationship (correlation of 0.715) exists between winter total A20 and winter-averaged NAO. The shifted correlation pattern, however, suggests that other modes of variability may also play a role in the variation in windstorm losses.

  3. Estimating Total Solar Irradiance during the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Victor Manuel Velasco; Mendoza, Blanca; Herrera, Graciela Velasco

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction and prediction of solar activity is one of the current problems in dynamo theory and global climate modeling. We estimate the Total Solar Irradiance for the next hundred years based on the Least Square Support Vector Machine. We found that the next secular solar minimum will occur between the years 2003 and 2063 with an average of 1365.4W/m2 close to the Dalton or Modern minima. We calculate the radiative forcing between the modern maximum and the 21st century minimum to be...

  4. Estimating Total Solar Irradiance during the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, Victor Manuel Velasco; Herrera, Graciela Velasco

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction and prediction of solar activity is one of the current problems in dynamo theory and global climate modeling. We estimate the Total Solar Irradiance for the next hundred years based on the Least Square Support Vector Machine. We found that the next secular solar minimum will occur between the years 2003 and 2063 with an average of 1365.4W/m2 close to the Dalton or Modern minima. We calculate the radiative forcing between the modern maximum and the 21st century minimum to be -0.1W/m2.

  5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FACING CHALLENGES IN 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

  6. After the book information services for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Stachokas, George

    2014-01-01

    Libraries and librarians have been defined by the book throughout modern history. What happens when society increasingly lets print go in favour of storing, retrieving and manipulating electronic information? What happens after the book? After the Book explores how the academic library of the 21st Century is first and foremost a provider of electronic information services. Contemporary users expect today's library to provide information as quickly and efficiently as other online information resources. The book argues that librarians need to change what they know, how they work, and how they ar

  7. Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century Due to the extensive reliance on media in our everyday perception of the surroundings we see a shift in relation to aesthetics from an individual focus to social negotiations around a situation. This article presents how individuals shape......, both, theoretically and through an explorative study: Theoretically we draw from visual culture (Buhl, 2012;Bourriaud, 2002; Mitchell, 2002), learning (Dohn, 2002) and digital media studies (Ejsing-Duun, 2011). The explorative case study is focused on the use of the mobile application Draw Something...... approach in which the process of decoding and negotiations around practices in social media is significant....

  8. Coal industry of Russia in early 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, Y.N.; Trubetskoy, K.N. [Russian Union of Coal Producers, Moscow (Russia)

    2001-06-01

    The Russian coal industry enters 21st century as a completely revived and re-engineered profitable sector of the national economy, which is able to meet the national demand for coal and also to gradually expand the Russian annual exports of high quality coals to 40 MT. For the immediate future the improvement of coal sector efficiency on the basis of radical restructuring, introducing of the latest advanced technologies and product quality upgrading as well as the quantitative expansion of coal production, can be considered as the key direction for development. 4 refs., 4 annexs.

  9. Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Evidence on a broad range of time scales, from Proterozoic to the most recent periods, shows that the Earth's climate responds sensitively to global forcings. In the past few decades the Earth's surface has warmed rapidly, apparently in response to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The conventional view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate in the 21st century. I will describe an alternate scenario that would slow the rate of global warming and reduce the danger of dramatic climate change. But reliable prediction of future climate change requires improved knowledge of the carbon cycle and global observations that allow interpretation of ongoing climate change.

  10. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  11. THE CHINA’S ENERGY SECURITY IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Sergeevich Krasantsov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article was to determine the level of the Chinese energy security that was built up for last several decades. In order to reach the set aim the author figured the current condition of the energy sector within the leading states of the Asia-Pacific Region and compared it with a similar condition ofChina. The condition’s characteristics included the following: Chinese energy balance, oil production, import and consumption, energy efficiency, CO2 emissions, electricity amount produced by using the renewable energy sources (hydropower, wind energy, sun energy and nuclear energy. In addition the authorities’ plans for the expansion of the mentioned renewable and nuclear energy production were as well discovered. The probable threats of the energy security and possible obstacles for the extensive means of sustaining the country’s energy security were also brought up.Statistical, comparative and analytical methods were applied in the process of the current research. As a result the PRC was found to be at a threshold to energetic crisis. In order to avoid the scenario two innovative methods were proposed as the means of avoiding the possible future crisis and sustaining energy security.The research results can be applied in determining the domestic and foreign policy of China as well as the foreign policies of the PRC’s energetic partners both within the Asia-Pacific Region and beyond its borders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-39

  12. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Emasealu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  13. The Ways to Strengthen Democracy in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shazia kiyani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the weaknesses of different democracies of the world in 21st century and suggests some solutions to them. Among the living democracies of the world all of them are not exemplary and among the mediocre ones too all of them are not too bad. Some of the countries are justifying with the splendid principle of democracy and leaving the examples of good governance, self reliance, supremacy of Law and Rule of Equality for the rest of the world. On the other hand some of the countries are still striving hard to establish or retrieve the democracy. We need an ideal of democracy which renders it possible to access to what degree a world government serving a sovereign world parliament could be democratic and independent in order to be prosperous and capable of standing on its own feet in the 21st century. A strong democratic system of government is the only way out for the self reliance and stability of the country. This paper is aimed to identify the problems faced by today’s democratic countries and their solution.

  14. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyewon

    2016-04-01

    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  15. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Muin J [National Institutes of Health; Lam, Tram Kim [National Institutes of Health; Ioannidis, John [Stanford University; Hartge, Patricia [National Institutes of Health; Spitz, Margaret R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Buring, Julie E. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital; Chanock, Stephen J. [National Institutes of Health; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Zauber, Ann [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Schully, Sheri D [National Institutes of Health

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  16. New and renewable energy. Prospects for the 21st century. Conclusions in response to the Public Consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives details of the key elements of the UK government's policy on renewable energy sources and provides a guide to the new Renewables Obligation. The aims, strategy and targets of the government's policy, market stimulation, the Renewable Energy Obligation, the climate change levy, and the supporting programme including research, development, demonstration and dissemination are examined. Regional planning and targets are reviewed. (UK)

  17. DREAM-World: a simple model of energy-related carbon emissions in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G.

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes DREAM-World, a simple model of global carbon emissions using logistic equations to describe the variations, over the period 1900-2100, in world population, GDP per capita, energy intensity and carbon intensity. The resulting simulations of historical and projected future carbon emissions are in reasonably good agreement with both the historical emissions data and with three published future emission scenarios, chosen to reflect a wide range of possibilities. The use of logistic equations highlights the need to consider when the inflection points in key variables, such as GDP per capita, will occur in future. The modelling exercise also highlights the fact that, because energy intensity cannot in principle reach zero whereas carbon intensity can, energy efficiency improvements can only buy time in the carbon abatement process: a shift to carbon-free energy sources is ultimately required - if global economic growth is to continue. (Author)

  18. Life cycle analysis of world electricity in the 21st century using the world energy LCA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, T.; Uchiyama, Y.; Ito, K.; Hayashibe, H. [Technova Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    World energy and electricity demand by the year 2100 has been analyzed using the World Energy LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) Model. Three energy scenarios are set-up: the current fossil fuel-intensive pattern, as well as renewable-intensive and nuclear intensive alternatives. The performance of CO{sub 2} emissions, resource availability, total investment costs, indirect energy consumption from the life-cycle standpoint and total fatality risks are compared between these scenarios. The result shows that the renewable and nuclear scenarios achieve the 1990 CO{sub 2} emission levels by 2100, while the total investment cost and indirect energy consumption for the renewable scenario would hamper its wide scale adoption. In the case of the current fossil-fuel scenario, coal is used for as much as 53% of primary energy, which gives about a three times higher fatality rate compared with the other scenarios. Although resource availability will not constrain all three scenarios, the marginal production cost of oil and gas will double by the year 2100. As a whole, the nuclear scenario becomes advantageous from the comparisons made in the present study. 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. CATALYTIC RESEARCH FOR CLEAN ENERGY AND ULTRA-CLEAN FUELS IN THE 21st CENTURY--Future Perspectives%21世纪清洁能源与超清洁燃料催化研究的展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春山

    2002-01-01

    The global growth in energy consumption in the 20th century and the situations around the energy supply and demand of energy and fuels are briefly discussed. Future perspectives in terms of needs and opportunities for catalytic research in the area of energy and resources are presented, with emphasis placed on the clean energy and the clean transportation fuels in the early parts of the 21st century. More environmentally-friendly, comprehensive and efficient utilization of energy sources is emphasized as a direction for future catalytic research.

  20. Energy supply in the 21st century - the role of nuclear power. Opening speech of the winter meeting 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decisions in the energy sector are of a long-term character and, therefore, also need reliable boundary conditions for all energy sources. Nuclear power has been in the focus of political and societal debate for years. Because of its great importance to German energy supply, the operators of nuclear power plants agreed with the present federal government on a compromise about the residual operating life of the present nuclear power plants and on a number of additional framework conditions. The singular national political solution in Germany differs markedly from the current or intended expansion of nuclear power in other countries, such as China, Finland, and Romania. Solving future problems in energy supply requires a common effort on a European level. Only in this way will it be possible to create the approx. 200,000 MW of new generating capacity required after 2010 in the opinion of the EU Commission. The political and social framework conditions for this development will have to be established soon. For this purpose, research in all pertinent areas must be promoted and economic boundary conditions must be guaranteed. This is true in particular of nuclear technology, an area in which all parties concerned should seek to preserve know-how on a continuous basis. Nuclear power has the potential to contribute to solutions of future problems. It is up to us to tap this potential. (orig.)

  1. A 'must-go path' scenario for sustainable development and the role of nuclear energy in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase in the world population has accelerated the consumption of fossil fuels and deepened the pollution of global environment. As a result of these human activities, it is now difficult to clearly guarantee the sustainable future of humankind. An intuitional 'must-go path' scenario for the sustainable development of human civilization is proposed by extrapolating the human historical data over 30 years between 1970 and 2000. One of the most important parameters in order to realize the 'must-go path' scenario is the sustainability of energy without further pollution. In some countries an expanded use of nuclear energy is advantageous to increase sustainability, but fast reactor technology and closed fuel cycle have to be introduced to make it sustainable. In other countries, the development of cost-effective renewable energy, and the clean use of coal and oil are urgently needed to reduce pollution. The effect of fast nuclear reactor technology on sustainability as an option for near-term energy source is detailed in this paper. More cooperation between countries and worldwide collaboration coordinated by international organizations are essential to make the 'must-go path' scenario real in the upcoming 20 or 30 years.

  2. YANJI CITY ORIENTATION AND INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT TOWARDS 21ST CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Yanji is the biggest China Korean inhabited city. Based on a newly finished research project, this paper discusses strategic problems about Yanji towards 21st century. The general point of the authors is that at the beginning of new century,Yanji will play a more important role in Tumen River Delta development, regional economy cooperation in Korea Peninsula as well as Northeast Asia, and it will develop to be an important central city in this area. This paper puts forwards Yanji City′s developing goal, urban nature, and urban size, probes its regional orientation, and further probes how to establish The Yanji Urban Economy Cooperation Zone. The authors think that Yanji should depend on its intellect resources and other characteristic resources. Industry development need to pay much attention to modern agriculture, tertiary industry (especially commerce, trade and tourism) and dominant industries, and high-tech industry must give a special care, in order to establish a light industrial structure.

  3. Onwards! Reinforcing Democracy for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Serageldin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Universal suffrage has been the primary goal of democratic evolution. Despite elections and other measures taken to ensure democratic rights, some desired outcomes such as equality and transparency are not being met. The current mode of our democratic system is archaic in addressing the world’s multifaceted global crises. So, there’s a dire need to incorporate new elements of democratic governance to address the issue. Humanity now lives in a transition period, so the path may not be easy. But the scientific and technological revolution underway is rapidly changing the mindsets of people and helping them exercise their rights. The article thus focuses on how democracy serves as the best system to ensure human rights and provide for a better society and also, how current models of democratic governance which matured in the last century can be improved in the 21st century, which is instrumental for meeting the challenges humanity confronts today. – Editor

  4. Heat stress and societal impacts in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; de Sherbinin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Heat is the number-one weather related killer in the US and around the world. As a result of rising temperatures and steady or slightly rising levels of specific humidity, heat stress is projected to become increasingly severe. Here we show that heat stress as measured by two common indices -- the heat index and the wet-bulb temperature -- is projected to rapidly and dramatically increase, and that by mid-century crippling summertime conditions are possible across some of the most densely populated regions of the planet. Many of these regions are places where cooling infrastructure is scarce, adaptive capacity is low, and populations are rapidly rising. We find that by the end of the 21st century, the habitability of some regions of the planet may be questionable due to heat stress alone, and in many other regions severe impacts to human health, infrastructure, agriculture, and economic performance will create significant societal stress and necessitate rapid adaptation.

  5. The advent of battery-based societies and the global environment in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Susumu; Ishihara, Kaoru

    In paving the way for a new electricity-based civilization in the 21st century, we hope to find the key to solving the trilemma of securing energy and resources, maintaining economic growth, and preserving the environment. In these circumstances, secondary batteries are expected to be used on a large scale in a new field—for energy purposes and to positively affect preservation of the global environment, resulting in the advent of a new battery-based society in the 21st century. It is important to develop secondary batteries not only with high specific energy for convenience, but also with large capacity, high energy efficiency and long life cycle for effective use of primary energy resources including natural energy. Lithium secondary batteries are a promising option.

  6. Projections of Climate Change over China for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; XU Ying; GAO Xuejie; DING Yihui

    2005-01-01

    The projections of climate changes in China for the 21st century by about 40 climate scenarios and multi-model ensembles have been investigated in this research. All the models with the different scenarios project a warming of 1.2℃ to 9.2℃ in China by the end of 21st century. Most of the projections point show the increasing of precipitation in China for the 21st century.

  7. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Hyewon

    2015-01-01

    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the United States Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work...

  8. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  9. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation.

  10. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehool

    2016-08-01

    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation. PMID:27481371

  11. Designing Complex Systems for the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    organization with conflicting goals, and the difficulty in understanding the socio-technical interfaces. Classical systems engineering approaches which focus on processes for cascading engineering requirements from higher to lower system levels is no longer suited to dealing with the global and socio......-technical aspects of the 21st century complex systems. This presentation will first explore the research challenges and opportunities in designing complex “engineered” systems, and then focus on two specific topics in this area, i.e., (1) design of multiscale systems and (2) integrating heterogeneous consumer...... preference into enterprise-driven product design. Research in multiscale design presents the significant benefits of using computational design techniques for designing novel materials, new products, and new processes with exceptional system performance across diverse application domains such as material...

  12. Coal research strategies for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a personal view of the research strategies which will be necessary to develop the new generations of equipment and new concepts and processes which will be required by the coal industry into the 21st century. It is claimed that the economics of coal supply and availability will continue to ensure that coal retains a very significant role as long as it is not targeted by taxes, regulation or penalties which are specifically intended to take it out of contention. In the author opinion, the coal industry needs to show that coal can be produced safely and with acceptable environmental impacts for future land use. These issues of community concern impact on all coal mining companies, and the need is a common one to maintain industry wide collaborative support for research to provide the technological innovation which will be an essential part of their solutions

  13. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  14. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mayes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective integration of new technologies into K-12 educational systems and learning environments. The expanding Internet, ever more powerful mobile devices, and other innovations make the task of designing effective formal and informal learning challenging, especially in light of the high rate of change in these new technologies. While these technologies introduce many benefits, they are also causing serious threats to system security and personal privacy. Furthermore, as these technologies continue to evolve, ethical issues such as equal access to resources become imperative. Educational technologists must expand their forward-thinking leadership and planning competencies so as to ensure effective use of new technologies.

  15. Clinical informatics: a workforce priority for 21st century healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan E; Drake, Lesley E; Harris, Julie-Gai B; Watson, Kay; Pohlner, Peter G

    2011-05-01

    This paper identifies the contribution of health and clinical informatics in the support of healthcare in the 21st century. Although little is known about the health and clinical informatics workforce, there is widespread recognition that the health informatics workforce will require significant expansion to support national eHealth work agendas. Workforce issues including discipline definition and self-identification, formal professionalisation, weaknesses in training and education, multidisciplinarity and interprofessional tensions, career structure, managerial support, and financial allocation play a critical role in facilitating or hindering the development of a workforce that is capable of realising the benefits to be gained from eHealth in general and clinical informatics in particular. As well as the national coordination of higher level policies, local support of training and allocation of sufficient position hours in appropriately defined roles by executive and clinical managers is essential to develop the health and clinical informatics workforce and achieve the anticipated results from evolving eHealth initiatives.

  16. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Satya S.; Wareham, David W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Microbiology; Britton, Keith E. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hall, Anne V. [Harefield Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Microbiology Dept.

    2002-09-01

    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  17. 21世纪前半叶长江流域水能开发%Hydraulic Energy Development of Changjiang Valley in First 5 Decades of 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU; Zhong-en

    2001-01-01

    The Changjiang River Valley is rich in hydraulic energy resources. A r ough estimation of the technically developable volume and the economically devel opable volume for the Changjiang River Valley was drawn out on the basis of new data. According to the estimation, the developable water energy resources of the whole valley is 257 627.60 MW with an annual energy output of 1 195.142 billion kW *h - respectively amounting to 120.6% and 116.3% of the General Investigation resu lt in 1980. The proportion of economically developable volume in the technically devel opable volume ranges the medium level in the world. According to the 3-step plan for the national economic and social development, the economic situation of our country will come up to the standard of medium-developed countries in the mid of the 21st century. Calculation reports from related departments show that the na tional electric power requirement in the Year 2050 will be 6 200 billion kW*h ( basic scheme) ~11 600 billion kW*h (ideal scheme) while the electric power req u irement of the South-west, Central and East areas of the nation within the Chang jiang River Valley will amount to 44% ~ 50 %. In order to satisfy the electric p ower requirement of the national economic and social development, the developmen t and utilization of the hydraulic energy in the Changjiang River Valley should be speeded up by stressing its strategic position and taking effective m easures. T he structure of the electric energy components of the three areas will be improv ed with the increasing proportion of the hydroelectricity. The hydroelectricity should be mainly developed in the South-west area; both the hydroelectric and fossil-f ired power should be developed in the Central China; the fossil-fired power shou ld be mainly developed in the combination of hydropower while nuclear po wer w ill be properly developed in the East China. In the Year 2050, the development o f the economically developable hydraulic energy in

  18. The Challenge of Ethical Liberalism to Jewish Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Reinventing Jewish Education for the 21st Century" by Jonathan Woocher. The author agrees with Jonathan Woocher that American Jewish education in the 21st century requires change no less comprehensive than that initiated by Samson Benderly and his students around a century ago, and that this should…

  19. Keynote speech by Angel Gurria, OECD Secretary-General, at the International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Energy in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global crisis has exposed not only the paramount challenges of today's global economy and the remarkable level of interdependence among our nations. It has also confronted us with our duty to define the kind of global economy we need for tomorrow. It is our responsibility to devise sound policies for a stronger, cleaner and fairer global economy. Clean and affordable energy, including access to safe and secure nuclear power, should be a central element of our efforts. This is essential not only for a sustainable economy, but also for the future of our planet. The crisis has prompted us to act immediately and in concert. Take the example of our hosts, the People's Republic of China. In the face of the economic slowdown, they responded rapidly and in a comprehensive fashion. Importantly, they increased government spending, stimulated domestic demand and are looking into effective ways to enhance social policies. The turmoil showed that China and all of us need to be more involved in international economic co-operation. We are profoundly affected by the policies implemented by each of our countries. There is no better example than energy to illustrate our interdependence. Holding this meeting in Beijing shows the importance China places in international co-operation and recognises the role China could play in designing clean and safe energy solutions for the future. For me, coming to Beijing is also an opportunity to stress the high significance of the OECD partnership with China. Our Organisation is now more open and plural, welcoming new members and having launched an 'enhanced engagement' process with the most important emerging economies. Forging a more structured and stronger partnership with China is fundamental in such a process. It is based on our mutual interest to develop global solutions to global challenges, such as nuclear energy in the 21st century. Thus, I urge you to look into three important issues, which we should address in the years to come

  20. Integrative Technology: 21st Century Technology for 21st Century Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemagno, Ph. D.

    2004-03-01

    Integrative technology, the merging of nanotechnology, biotechnology and informatics offers an opportunity for realizing true advances in the manner in which technology interacts with humanity. Using the power of nanotechnology to manipulate matter, that is the placing of molecules where we want, when we want, to perform functions that we want. Using the inspiration of biotechnology both to co-opt the tools of molecular manufacturing and to provide a baseline understanding of the way nature manipulates matter and information. And finally, using Informatics to create a robust framework for transforming the information implicit in molecular and larger scale interactions to engineer Complex Adaptive Systems that exhibit embedded higher-order behavior. Collectively these technologies established the basis for Integrative Technology, a new IT. The first examples of the implementation of Integrated Technology are manifested in the synthesis of a new class of smart materials. These materials have the potential to emulate much of the functionality associated with living systems such as the active transport and transformation of matter and information and, the transduction of energy into different forms. We will present the details of the technological demands and the results of efforts associated with the production of these new functional materials. Elements of the discussion will include the genetic engineering of active biological molecules into engineering building blocks, the precision assembly of these molecules into a stable, "active" material and, the promise of embedding intelligent behavior into the matrix of the assembled matter.

  1. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  2. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y; Xia, Y.; Fu, Q

    2010-01-01

    Observations show a stabilization or a weak increase of the stratospheric ozone layer since the late 1990s. Recent coupled chemistry-climate model simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a results of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the 1987 Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recove...

  3. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y; Xia, Y.; Fu, Q

    2011-01-01

    Recent simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a result of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of stratospheric ozone may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model results from both the Intergovernme...

  4. Leading the 21st-century academic library successful strategies for envisioning and realizing preferred futures

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2015-01-01

    Leading the 21st Century Academic Library: Successful Strategies for Envisioning and Realizing Preferred Futures will explore the new roles and directions academic libraries are taking in the 21st century as a consequence of visionary leadership in exploring diverse futures.

  5. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  6. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6, 2012..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food...

  7. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: August 30-31, 2011. ADDRESSES: Rooms... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  8. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  9. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  10. Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellotti, Francesco; Bottino, Rosa Maria; Nadolski, Rob; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar

    2012-01-01

    Bellotti, F., Bottino, R. M., Nadolski, R. J., & Fernández Manjón, B. (2012, 4-6 July). Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities. Presentation at the Workshop Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities, 12th IE

  11. Intelligent manufacture adapts to agile manufacture production mode in the 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xurong

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the characteristics of the intelligent manufacturing system and production mode in the21st century in the information age, therefore draws a conclusion that the intelligent manufacturing system adapts to agilemanufacture (AM for short) production mode in the 21 st century.

  12. Higher Education Administration and Globalization in the 21st Century in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarifar, Taghi

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the changing scenario and management responsibilities of higher education in the 21st century in India. Of course, for those looking for challenges of management in higher education as a field, the future is not going to be a disappointment. Maybe by the end of the first decade of the 21st century management of higher…

  13. Aiming Talent Development toward Creative Eminence in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Much has been written about the social and scientific problems that face the world in the 21st century, including climate change and economic inequality. In this context, the development of talented individuals who can tackle these problems is most important. In this article, the authors discuss the implications of 21st-century challenges for the…

  14. 77 FR 27253 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... (FR vol. 76, no. 224, pgs. 72003-72004). No comments were received. Agency: Institute of Museum and... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program... improvements to the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian (LB21) Grant Program. The information gathered...

  15. Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the development of teacher identity in the 21st century. The simple way to describe this discussion of identity is that it is complex. In an attempt to unpack this complexity, this article begins with a discussion of definitions of teacher identity; then links that discussion to the literature on how 21st-century web 2.0…

  16. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  17. Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.M.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, gi

  18. The Urbanization Pattern of China in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengxin; Yao Shimou; Wang Gefang

    2005-01-01

    The 21st century is referred to as a "century for cities" or "era for cities" and China has also speeded up its process of urbanization. It is very important to choose a scientific urbanization pattern to exert the function of cities and realize our dream for China to become a powerful modernized country.It's concluded from history since 1800 that the pattern of the world urbanization has transformed from "extensive" to "intensive". However, it is still an extensive pattern in China, and there are many problems behind the splendid achievements, reflected on the urbanization process of our country since 1949. Today, sustainable development and the knowledge economy are the themes of the cities; it is inevitable to change our urbanization pattern.Based on the dialectic relationship of quality and quantity, the article points out that urbanization should not only focus on quantity but also on quality in China. High quality and multiform urbanization pattern is an inevitable choice of China, and the development of the region can also be exalted by the radiation of the cities. But what's the real meaning of the new pattern? What's its difference from the western countries'? The article discusses its content according to the reality of China.

  19. Diabetes type 2 pandemic in 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in diabetes type 2 (DM) affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This review juxtaposes the threat that the DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of the body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of DM is in Saudi Arabia, a country deep in riches generated by its oil wells. DM is very high, in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with DM will double but in the economically advanced countries that experienced rise in DM in the 20th century, the increase will be only about 50%. Remarkably, a lowest increase in DM is expected in the countries that formerly belonged to the Soviet political space. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity, and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of DM worldwide. The main cause of DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity, in Europe and in the Latin America. In the North America obesity is considered to be responsible for 90% of DM in females. Male obesity is associated with DM slightly less, at 70-80% in the European Union and in the US. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to DM is not completely described but it may be related to several biochemical factors, such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  20. [Cardiovascular diseases, medical apocalypse of the 21st century?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Małgorzata; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to bring forward and realise the size of cardiovascular diseases and the burden of its numbers that concern practising doctors in Lower Silesia, in Poland, Europe and the world. Every fourth patient knocking at the GP's door comes with a problem with the circulatory system. These diseases are the reason for every second in hospitalization or referral to a specialist. The most common diagnosis is not the common cold but arterial hypertension. Three of the most common diseases in patients over 65 years old are: hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and atherosclerosis of the brain arteries. Poland belongs to the group of developed countries with an emerging economy, where degenerative diseases dominate, and cardiovascular diseases account for the biggest problems within the Health System. Nearly half of male deaths (46%) and over half of female deaths (56%) are the consequence of cardiovascular diseases. 80% of people around the world live in developing economies, where cardiovascular diseases cause 23% of all deaths. Every fifth person lives in a developed country and has a 50% chance of dying because of cardiovascular diseases. Will these diseases become "the number one killer" of the 21st century? 27% lost healthy life years are due to arterial hypertension, ischeamic heart disease, and congestive heart failure so their epidemiology is being regarded in this article. PMID:15518325

  1. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents. PMID:26201169

  2. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  3. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  4. UKRAINE AND POLAND: FACING THE 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tsependa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a common strategic framework is a decisive factor in the Ukrainian-Polish relations in the current social and political context. The complexity of the partnership between the two states arise from their geographical location on the borderline between civilizations, the site of historical cataclysms. At the same time, national sovereignty of was always a high priority for both peoples. The recognition of Ukraine’s independence by Poland marked a new stage of rapprochement between Warsaw and Kyiv, the act being evidence of maturity of the Polish political elite. Poland made its best to promote the interest of Ukraine in the international political arena. The article suggests periodization in the history of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Ukrainian policy can be modelled on Poland’s experience of the transformation of society. Being a member of the European Union, Poland advocates the idea of European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. Increased economic cooperation is one of the aspects of the Ukrainian-Polish partnership. Cooperation at regional level, between local government bodies is also important for the relations between the two states. Step by step, visa regulations are being liberalized, interpersonal contacts broadened. The beginning of the 21st century witnesses a change in political consciousness of Ukrainian and Polish people, who reconsider painful events from their past.

  5. Temperature increase of 21st century mitigation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuuren, D P; Meinshausen, M; Plattner, G-K; Joos, F; Strassmann, K M; Smith, S J; Wigley, T M L; Raper, S C B; Riahi, K; de la Chesnaye, F; den Elzen, M G J; Fujino, J; Jiang, K; Nakicenovic, N; Paltsev, S; Reilly, J M

    2008-10-01

    Estimates of 21st Century global-mean surface temperature increase have generally been based on scenarios that do not include climate policies. Newly developed multigas mitigation scenarios, based on a wide range of modeling approaches and socioeconomic assumptions, now allow the assessment of possible impacts of climate policies on projected warming ranges. This article assesses the atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, radiative forcing, and temperature increase for these new scenarios using two reduced-complexity climate models. These scenarios result in temperature increase of 0.5-4.4 degrees C over 1990 levels or 0.3-3.4 degrees C less than the no-policy cases. The range results from differences in the assumed stringency of climate policy and uncertainty in our understanding of the climate system. Notably, an average minimum warming of approximately 1.4 degrees C (with a full range of 0.5-2.8 degrees C) remains for even the most stringent stabilization scenarios analyzed here. This value is substantially above previously estimated committed warming based on climate system inertia alone. The results show that, although ambitious mitigation efforts can significantly reduce global warming, adaptation measures will be needed in addition to mitigation to reduce the impact of the residual warming. PMID:18838680

  6. Fluid mechanics films in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary; Tremblay, Gabrielle; Cimbala, John; Dodson, Lori; Miller, J. D.

    2006-11-01

    The 1960's-era National Committee for Fluid Mechanics Films produced 39 famous 16mm films - dated but still in use - with 3 million dollars of NSF funding. Here we examine the nature of new fluid mechanics films, goals, media changes, and practicality. Examples are given of new narrated videos produced to illustrate chapters of a basic fluids text and provide a ``glimpse through the laboratory window.'' Both experiments and CFD are featured, though the facilities needed for the former are declining. The fundamentally-visual nature of the topic is emphasized with no repetition of text or equations. We believe this visual nature of fluid mechanics is the key to its role in renewed efforts to bolster US science education. This is one - not the only - paradigm for new fluid mechanics films. While inflation makes such film production perhaps 6 times more expensive than in the 1960's, there are offsetting economies based on consumer video technology and digital desktop production. Nonetheless, funding new educational fluid mechanics videos in the 21st century remains a daunting prospect.

  7. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  8. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre W. Orelus

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  9. Langley Ground Facilities and Testing in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Kilgore, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A strategic approach for retaining and more efficiently operating the essential Langley Ground Testing Facilities in the 21st Century is presented. This effort takes advantage of the previously completed and ongoing studies at the Agency and National levels. This integrated approach takes into consideration the overall decline in test business base within the nation and reduced utilization in each of the Langley facilities with capabilities to test in the subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic speed regimes. The strategy accounts for capability needs to meet the Agency programmatic requirements and strategic goals and to execute test activities in the most efficient and flexible facility operating structure. The structure currently being implemented at Langley offers agility to right-size our capability and capacity from a national perspective, to accommodate the dynamic nature of the testing needs, and will address the influence of existing and emerging analytical tools for design. The paradigm for testing in the retained facilities is to efficiently and reliably provide more accurate and high-quality test results at an affordable cost to support design information needs for flight regimes where the computational capability is not adequate and to verify and validate the existing and emerging computational tools. Each of the above goals are planned to be achieved, keeping in mind the increasing small industry customer base engaged in developing unpiloted aerial vehicles and commercial space transportation systems.

  10. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  11. Bionic autonomic neuromodulation revolutionizes cardiology in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    In this invited session, we would like to address the impact of bionic neuromodulation on cardiovascular diseases. It has been well established that cardiovascular dysregulation plays major roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This is the reason why most drugs currently used in cardiology have significant pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular regulatory system. Since the ultimate center for cardiovascular regulation is the brainstem, it is conceivable that autonomic neuromodulation would have significant impacts on cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of this framework, we first developed a bionic, neurally regulated artificial pacemaker. We then substituted the brainstem by CPU and developed a bionic artificial baroreflex system. We further developed a bionic brain that achieved better regulatory conditions than the native brainstem in order to improve survival in animal model with heart failure. We recently developed a bionic neuromodulation system to reduce infarction size following acute myocardial infarction. We believe that the bionic neuromodulation will inspire even more intricate applications in cardiology in the 21(st) century.

  12. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  13. Health sector reforms for 21(st) century healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Darshan

    2015-01-01

    The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India's health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India's Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21(st) century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India's public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own. PMID:25878456

  14. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2005-01-01

    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  15. Health sector reforms for 21 st century healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India′s health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India′s Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21 st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India′s public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  16. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakmar, Susan

    2010-09-15

    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  17. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghil

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to

  18. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  19. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  20. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  1. Responsible Management Education for 21st Century Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Prandini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, business schools had to face increasing criticism to have failed equipping their students with a broad and critical understanding of management and business practices which go beyond pure self-interest. Business schools are supposed to contribute to a holistic understanding of management which creates value along a triple bottom line: profit, people and planet. The triple bottom line finds its realization in the concept of sustainable corporate responsibility. This paper discusses possible approaches for business schools how to educate students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society at large and to work for an inclusive and sustainable global economy. On the basis of the recently published Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME as well as contemporary learning theories, the paper provides concrete recommendations how to foster students’ development towards long-term thinking, responsible business leaders. The paper argues that student learning needs to occur within powerful learning environments to provide an active, problem-based and self-directed acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Two approaches to create best-practice learning environments are real-life case studies and real-life student projects which both lead to a strong buy in of students, faculty and company partners. Both approaches are exemplified with the bachelor degree program International Management at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (Switzerland. As a conclusion, a responsible management education fosters the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards responsible business leadership to shape the future direction of the 21st century.

  2. Myyntikanavat ja tuotantoprosessit Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulun koulutusviennissä : Case: 21st Century Educators

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, Sami

    2012-01-01

    Tein opinnäytetyöni Tampereen ammattikorkeakoululle tukemaan koulutusviennin kehitystä tulevien vuosien aikana 21st Century Educators – koulutusohjelman näkökulmasta. 21st Century Educators on Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulussa kehitetty virtuaalisessa oppimisympäristössä toimiva pedagoginen opettajakoulutusohjelma. Koulutus on suhteellisen uusi, sillä sille on ehditty tekemään vasta yksi toteutus Yhdistyneissä Arabiemiirikunnissa. Opinnäytetyössäni selvitin 21st Century Educators – koulutus...

  3. Strategy and main directions of the Russian nuclear power engineering development in the first half of the 21-st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directions of the state policy of Russia on nuclear power engineering development in the 21-st century are considered. The conclusion is made, that the state energy policy, in realization, whereof the nuclear power engineering should play the key role, as the factor of energy supply stability, is necessary for assuring the energy security of Russia

  4. Global peat erosion risk assessment for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Irvine, Brian; Holden, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Many peatlands across the world are suffering from degradation and erosion exacerbated by human influences. Blanket peat erosion has adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, reservoir capacity and water quality, and also leads to accelerated carbon release. Bioclimatic modelling suggests that some areas, which are currently suitable for active peat growth, may be no longer under a climate supporting the accumulation of peat by the end of the century. Peat erosion in these marginal regions is thus more likely. A recently developed blanket peat erosion model, PESERA-PEAT, was established through significantly modifying the grid version of the Pan-European Soil Erosion Assessment model (PESERA-GRID) to explicitly include the freeze-thaw and desiccation processes, which appear to be the crucial drivers of peat erosion, and typical land management practices in blanket peatlands such as artificial drainage, grazing and managed burning. Freeze-thaw and desiccation are estimated based on climate (i.e. temperature) and soil moisture conditions. Land management practices interact with hydrology, erosion and vegetation growth via their influence on vegetation cover, biomass and soil moisture condition. The model has been demonstrated to be robust for blanket peat erosion modelling with riverine sediment flux data in the UK. In this paper, the PESERA-PEAT model is applied to investigate the impact of environmental change on the blanket peat erosion at a global scale. Climatic scenarios to the end of 21st Century were derived, as part of the QUEST-GSI initiative, from the outputs of seven global climate models: CGCM3 and CCCMA (Canada); CSIRO Mark III (Australia); IPSL (France); ECHAM5 (Germany); CCSM (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)); HadCM3 and HadGEM1 (UK). Land management practice such as artificial drainage is considered to examine if it is possible to buffer the impact of climate change on erosion through managing blanket peatlands in

  5. Five Forces of 21st Century Innovation Strategy: Insights for Leaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Pless, Jacquelyn; Statwick, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Understanding these dynamics informs 21st century innovation strategies that government and business leaders rely upon to address modern technological, social, environmental, and demographic realities. This Research Highlight previews JISEA's continuing work on innovation strategy.

  6. FY 1998 Blue Book: Computing, Information, and Communications: Technologies for the 21st Century

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — As the 21st century approaches, the rapid convergence of computing, communications, and information technology promises unprecedented opportunities for scientific...

  7. Education for Life and Work Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Skills, CODDLA2C; Education, CF; Assessment, BOTA; Education, DOBASSA; Council, NR

    2013-01-01

    " Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century describes this important set of key skills that increase deeper learning, college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher ...

  8. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-01

    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  9. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  10. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martinez-Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2 conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5, our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr−1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around −0.009 W m−2 K−1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  11. Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Bellotti, Francesco; Bottino, Rosa Maria; Nadolski, Rob; Fernández Manjón, Baltasar

    2012-01-01

    Bellotti, F., Bottino, R. M., Nadolski, R. J., & Fernández Manjón, B. (2012, 4-6 July). Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities. Presentation at the Workshop Game based learning for 21st century transferable skills: challenges and opportunities, 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2012), Rome, Italy: IEEE Computer Society CPS.

  12. Editorial: Digital systems supporting cognition and exploratory learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Sampson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital systems and digital technologies are globally investigated for their potential to transform learning and teaching towards offering unique learning experiences to the 21st century learners. This Special Issue on Digital Systems supporting Cognition and Exploratory Learning in 21st Century aims to contribute to the dialogue between the educational technology and educational psychology research community and the educational practitioners on current issues towards large scale take-up of educational technology.

  13. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Brimblecombe; Grossi, Carlota M.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environm...

  14. 9th International Frumkin symposium: Electrochemical technologies and materials for 21st century. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts of the 9th International Frumkin symposium: Electrochemical technologies and materials for 21st century are presented. The symposium was held 24-29 October 2010 in Moscow. The symposium included the following microsymposiums: Electrical double layer and electrochemical kinetics (from phenomenological to molecular level); New processes, materials and devices for successful electrochemical transformation of energy; Corrosion and protection of materials; General and local corrosion; Electroactive composition materials; Bioelectrochemistry. The Frumkin symposium includes plenary lectures, oral and poster presentations. Official language of the symposium is English

  15. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  16. Multimodel Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution over the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J. F.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura, T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from 14 chemistry-climate models, driven by prescribed levels of halogens and greenhouse gases. There is general agreement among the models that total column ozone reached a minimum around year 2000 at all latitudes, projected to be followed by an increase over the first half of the 21st century. In the second half of the 21st century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off, or even decrease depending on the latitude. Separation into partial columns above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely caused by differences in the model projections of ozone in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and is projected to return to 1960 levels well before the end of the century, although there is a spread among models in the dates that ozone returns to specific historical values. We find decreasing halogens and declining upper atmospheric temperatures, driven by increasing greenhouse gases, contribute almost equally to increases in upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere, an increase in upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in most of the models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century, returning to 1960 levels well before the end of the century in most models.

  17. Strategy on China's Security-oriented Disaster Reduction in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Lei

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study of strategies on the construction of China's scientific and caltural capacities for security-oriented disaster reduction from a cross-disciplinary perspective and based on an analysis of the causes of disasters and accidents in China in the 20th century and a prediction of the disaster situation in the 21st century.

  18. Potential damage to modern building materials from 21st century air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota Maria

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950-2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation. PMID:20098955

  19. Microtechnology: The key to the technical challenges of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-08-01

    Through the ages each culture and civilization has expressed its values and world view in the form of monuments derived from its most advanced and valued technologies. From pyramids to cathedrals, skyscrapers and moon rockets, our technology has enabled us to leave our mark on the landscape and in the minds of our people. In the 21st century, the compelling technology will be that of the micro-world, enabling the fabrication of structures with features smaller than the wavelengths of light. Such structures will allow use to monitor and control electrical, chemical, and optical phenomena in ways never before imagined. As in the past we will continue to create monuments, but the technological monuments of the 21st century will likely be viewed through a microscope. This report provides a discussion of microtechnology in the 21st century.

  20. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  1. Challenges for chemical sciences in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čeković Živorad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry and chemical engineering have changed very significantly in the last half century. From classical sciences they have broadened their scope into biology, medicine, physics, material science, nanotechnology, computation and advanced methods of process engineering and control. The applications of chemical compounds, materials and knowledge have also dramatically increased. The development of chemical sciences in the scientifically most advanced countries, at the end of the last century was extrapolated to the next several decades in this review and challenges for chemists and chemical engineers are described. Research, discovery and invention across the entire spectrum of activities in the chemical sciences, from fundamental molecular-level chemistry to large-scale chemical processing technology are summarized. The strong integration of chemical science and engineering into all other natural sciences, agriculture, environmental science, medicine, as well as into physics, material science and information technology is discussed. Some challenges for chemists and chemical engineers are reviewed in the following fields: i synthesis and manufacturing of chemical products, ii chemistry for medicine and biology, iii new materials, iv chemical and physical transformations of materials, v chemistry in the solving of energy problems (generation and savings, vi environmental chemistry: fundamental and practical challenges.

  2. Student Motivation in the 21st Century – Slovak Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozvadský Gugová Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the five primary objectives of the European Union within the framework of Europe 2020 is to increase the proportion of the tertiary educated population. The research task titled “The motivation of the student in the 21st century” is intended to address the factors that have both an impact on the decision of students to pursue higher studies and affect the choice of a specific field of study and a preferred form of study. The stimulus to the exploration was sparked by the mentioned EU initiative, interesting statistical data, the growing number of students studying in the external form compared to the daily option, and an increase of students from abroad. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the causes of these trends. Motivation of students is not researched in a systematic way in Slovakia, even though it is an important factor in a student’s decisionmaking process to study. Information was obtained by a questionnaire distributed to 105 students, evaluated using SPSS software and application of descriptive statistics.

  3. International conference: nuclear power for the 21 st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognised that global energy demand will rise substantially during this century. The increased industrialization and urbanization of developing countries will produce large increases in energy demand in regions that currently have very low per capita energy use. This increasing demand for energy will need to be met in order to improve living standards for at least half of the world population and to reduce the economic imbalances between countries and regions. At the same time the use of fossil fuel based energy is identified as a major cause of environmental damage. The release of greenhouse gases from burning of fossil fuel in power stations and for transport is seen as a contributor to global warming. It is widely recognised that continued exploitation of fossil fuels and release of carbon dioxide will need to be controlled. After a prolonged period of slow development of nuclear power, confined to some countries in the world, it is now being recognised that nuclear energy has a potentially significant role to play in meeting the energy needs of the planet without damaging the environment. Developments in technology make the economics of nuclear power more attractive, and they may become even more so as fossil fuel prices continue to rise.or a widespread use of nuclear power, however, there remain concerns on the safety, security, waste and proliferation aspects. The global application of safety standards and appropriate security measures are required to ensure acceptable levels of protection. Effective control measures are required to ensure that non-proliferation commitments are honored. Handling nuclear waste safely and securely is achievable, but continues to remain as a public concern. The broad strategic objectives of the Conference are the following: to review the role of nuclear power and to define the potential benefits (energy security, sustainability and improved environmental protection) that expanding nuclear power offers to meet the

  4. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI JinJun; HUANG Mei; LI KeRang

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  5. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  6. Meeting of Energy Needs During the Period of Raw Materials Insufficiency in the 21st Century (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and Slovakia cooperation - draft of project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the work is to give into the mutual harmony long term planning of nuclear energy (contemporary power station has supposed lifetime 70 years and will need at least ten years from the decision to full realization) with the possibility of raw materials supply during the whole lifetime. But situation is not so uniquely directed only to nuclear energy - classical sources (coal, gas and oil) are supposed to be exhausted surely in this century (coal could be regionally dependent) and specially Europe will be practically net consumer of energy raw materials. Ways to stabilize market could be production of hydrogen and use of U238 and Th232 in the new reactors. But developments needed to influence practical industrial demand is about 30 years to be able to start to build up industrial new type nuclear power-stations and money of the order of several billion dollars. At the same time political unification has consequence on local raw material resources, which could hardly be interpreted only as the local or national ownership. Their price could sharply rise and there will be pressure to use it not only for energy production, but also as the chemical raw material. Moreover it is expected that in the half of this century the price of natural uranium will be limiting factor for the contemporary PWR reactors use and that there will be necessary to start fast breeders or use thorium fuel to cover demands. Last estimations about the oil peaking and its consequences are included. Armenia, Lithuania and Ukraine representatives expressed will to join the project. Common will is expressed in the presentation to try to understand commonly the future development and to find common solution to the future challenges (Authors)

  7. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  8. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  9. The physical drivers of historical and 21st century global precipitation changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical and 21st century global precipitation changes are investigated using data from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Atmosphere-Ocean-General-Circulation-Models (AOGCMs) and a simple energy-balance model. In the simple model, precipitation change in response to a given top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is calculated as the sum of a response to the surface warming and a direct ‘adjustment’ response to the atmospheric radiative forcing. This simple model allows the adjustment in global mean precipitation to atmospheric radiative forcing from different forcing agents to be examined separately and emulates the AOGCMs well. During the historical period the AOGCMs simulate little global precipitation change despite an increase in global temperature—at the end of the historical period, global multi-model mean precipitation has increased by about 0.03 mm day−1, while the global multi-model mean surface temperature has warmed by about 1 K, both relative to the pre-industrial control means. This is because there is a large direct effect from CO2 and black carbon atmospheric forcing that opposes the increase in precipitation from surface warming. In the 21st century scenarios, the opposing effect from black carbon declines and the increase in global precipitation due to surface warming dominates. The cause of the spread between models in the global precipitation projections (which can be up to 0.25 mm day−1) is examined and found to come mainly from uncertainty in the climate sensitivity. The spatial distribution of precipitation change is found to be dominated by the response to surface warming. It is concluded that AOGCM global precipitation projections are in line with expectations based on our understanding of how the energy and water cycles are physically linked. (letters)

  10. Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century

    KAUST Repository

    Fedoroff, N. V.

    2010-02-11

    Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century\\'s demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact of their production. Success depends on the acceptance and use of contemporary molecular techniques, as well as the increasing development of farming systems that use saline water and integrate nutrient flows. © 2010 American Association for the Advancement for Science. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Advanced nuclear power plants for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [BNFL, Inc. (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This paper examines, following four issues: capacity; the closure of the fuel cycle; deregulation; and the need to maintain the development of the advanced systems. Demand is a governing parameter: if one doesn`t need the power then there is no need to increase generating capacity. However, there is no question but that the population is growing. All predictions are that new generating capacity will be needed -- the questions are when and how? Until the various issues involved in deregulation are played through it is not clear what form markets will take for the longer term or how investment in large-capital-cost facilities will fit into the financial structure. Deregulation needs the time to throw light on these matters and to gain some experience in the various financial options. The lack of closure of the fuel cycle is both a cost and public perception issue. The US program, as a result of a cold-war paranoia against recycling the partially used fuel, is based upon the final disposal of useful supplies of energy. However, the program itself is plagued with poor management, delays, and uncertainties that are due, in no small measure, to half-uttered thoughts by all concerned, that this is the wrong policy. Current efforts to rethink the policy, and its implementing projects, are welcome. Finally, if it is important to keep design options for advanced nuclear power plants open for the future, then it necessary to maintain valid research and development programs for those designs. Current US policy is damaging to a number of the more advanced options. This paper discusses the candidate systems: LWR, ALMR, HTGR, and CANDU systems for the special contributions they may each provide in an ideal electrical generating industry of the mid-twenty-first century, and makes suggestions for the future. (J.P.N.)

  12. Reading for Learning: Literacy Supports for 21st-Century Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Louis M.; Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. work force is changing. Professional and related occupations and service occupations will be the fastest-growing sectors for the foreseeable future. Both demand strong communication skills for sharing complex ideas across diverse communities. In addition, the 21st-century economy will require its members to think creatively and critically…

  13. Scenarios of biodiversity loss in southern Africa in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggs, R.H.; Simons, H.; Bakkenes, M.; Scholes, R.J.; Eickhout, B.; Vuuren, van D.; Alkemade, R.

    2008-01-01

    The rich biodiversity of southern Africa has to date been relatively unimpacted by the activities of modern society, but to what degree will this situation persist into the 21st century? We use a leading global environmental assessment model (IMAGE) to explore future land use and climate change in s

  14. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing str

  15. Race to the Future: Integrating 21st Century Skills into Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Emilio; Yaussy, Daniel; Yaussy, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Race to the Future is an exciting and dynamic activity modeled after the reality television show "The Amazing Race." It exemplifies how 21st century skills can be incorporated into core subject instruction and at the same time positively enhance student engagement. In this activity, students work quickly and cooperatively with their teammates and…

  16. Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to public-sector pensions, writes lead author Michael B. Lafferty in this report, "A major public-policy (and public-finance) problem has been defined and measured, debated and deliberated, but not yet solved. Except where it has been." As recounted in "Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century", these…

  17. 21st Century Paradigms for Pre-Service Teacher Technology Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Judy; Gong, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated major course changes in 11 sections of a stand-alone educational technology course redesigned around 21st century skill sets as opposed to technical skill development. Conducted in the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 with a random sample of 100 pre-service teachers, independent and paired sample t tests and correlational…

  18. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria in order to provide suggestions for its effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while print media…

  19. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  20. 21st-Century Priorities for Leadership Education and Prospective School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    What are the major priorities for preparing educational leaders for their work in school communities? Clues to this question are nestled within higher education curricula. Prevalent 21st-century priorities that governing standards specify, such as innovation, assessment, distributed leadership, and technology, must be vigorously shaped into social…

  1. Using "The Joy Luck Club" to Teach Core Standards and 21st Century Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Leslie David; Botzakis, Stergios G.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors illustrate an instructional unit based on a Common Core grades 9-10 illustrative text--Amy Tan's "Two Kinds" from "The Joy Luck Club." They demonstrate how teachers can meet the new standards "and" respond to students' 21st-century needs by using this modern classic along with other traditional and new media resources.…

  2. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Research, Education, and Economics, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture intends to renew the Advisory Committee...

  3. Life designing: a paradigm for career construction in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Savickas; L. Nota; J. Rossier; J.P. Dauwalder; M.E. Duarte; J. Guichard; S. Soresi; R. van Esbroeck; A.E.M. van Vianen

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially innovat

  4. Advances and Challenges for Nutrient Management in China in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sims, J.T.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Dou, Z.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via pr

  5. Salamanca as Simbolyc Reference: the 21st Century City in Tierra Violenta de Luciano Egido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eva Rodríguez Valentín

    2016-07-01

     It is a city that, apparently, lives in the past but that isn't immune to the mechanisms rule the 21st century. In this approach, the literary text is a source of different analytical lines for understanding the urban temporalities and the dialectics of both the public project and the urban heritage.

  6. A US perspective on nuclear prospects for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to comment upon nuclear prospects in the 21st century, from a US perspective. This will be done in broad, general terms, rather than in the technical terms that nuclear specialists use most of the time

  7. Digital Andragogy: A Richer Blend of Initial Teacher Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackley, Susan; Sheffield, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the term "andragogy" (adult education) and develops a new concept based upon an analysis of the skills and dispositions of 21st century learners in initial teacher education through the lens of adult education: "digital andragogy." In order to engage and retain students and revitalise education courses by…

  8. Teacher Candidate Responses to Digital Games: 21st-Century Skills Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.; Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Researchers conducted a mixed-methods study with 21 undergraduate university students majoring in education to determine their ability to recognize the motivational factors and 21st-century learning skills associated with digital games. Results suggest that students in the study were able to detect the learning skills embedded in games. The…

  9. 21 Ways to 21st Century Skills: Why Students Need Them and Ideas for Practical Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The push for 21st century skills (TFCS) is not a new concept. Setting a diversified goal of education with aims of honing in on student needs and reflecting a better, more relevant education is something that has evolved throughout history. The world today reflects global influence and increased competitiveness in every way. Teaching TFCS is a…

  10. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK higher…

  11. The Development of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missett, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted studies, linked by investigation into the development of thinking skills deemed necessary for the 21st Century. While educators and policy makers advocate teaching students creative and critical thinking skills to address an increasingly global and complex world, they simultaneously…

  12. Love, Peace, and Wisdom in Education: A Vision for Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing

    2006-01-01

    Author Jing Lin contends that there is a great need for educators to reconceptualize education in the 21st century. Here, she discusses the danger of global wars, environmental breakdown, moral vacuum and nihilism in society, and the problems in current debates on school reform. This book calls for a school that facilitates the formation of a…

  13. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  14. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at http://dewey.info>; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  15. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2012-01-01

    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  16. Critical Thinking for 21st-Century Education: A Cyber-Tooth Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the advent of digital technologies requires fundamental change to the curriculum and to the teaching and learning approaches used in schools around the world to educate this generation of "digital natives" or the "net generation". This article analyses the concepts of 21st-century skills and critical…

  17. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…

  18. Principles for Learning and Competences in the 21st-Century Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Clementina; Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the core competences, attitudes and knowledge that the authors believe will promote transformative learning in the 21st century and should, therefore, feature in curriculum design. It first defines the purpose of curriculum, stressing the need for a coherent worldwide understanding of what is meant and intended by…

  19. Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills and Web 2.0 Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Shelia Y.

    2014-01-01

    According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today's education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these…

  20. Life Design: A Paradigm for Career Intervention in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    A new paradigm is implicit within the constructivist and narrative methods for career intervention that have emerged in the 21st century. This article makes that general pattern explicit by abstracting its key elements from the specific instances that substantiate the new conceptual model. The paradigm for life design interventions constructs…

  1. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  2. Teaching 21st Century Process Skills to Strengthen and Enhance Family and Consumer Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenson, Andrea B.; Fox, Wanda S.

    2011-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals need to be equipped with a set of strategies and tools to prepare their students for the challenges they will face in the 21st century. Nationwide, educators are integrating a set of skills deemed essential for student success in college and a career. Building upon these skills and the process areas…

  3. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2016-01-01

    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  4. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  5. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…

  6. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  7. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require different…

  8. Distance Education within the 21st Century and Its Application to Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekan, Kathryn; Main, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Historically, distance education applications served a select group of students through self-paced technical short courses that required scant to little interaction with their instructors. Today's 21st century distance education focuses on a) reaching underserved prospective students within a social justice framework, b) global recruitment, and c)…

  9. FY 2001 Blue Book: Information Technology: The 21st Century Revolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — At the dawn of the 21st century, the U.S. is enjoying an era of unprecedented possibilities and prosperity built on dramatic advances in science and technology....

  10. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  11. 21st Century Change Drivers: Considerations for Constructing Transformative Models of Special Education Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Marcia L.; Spooner, Fred; Nagro, Sarah; Vasquez, Eleazar; Dunn, Cari; Leko, Melinda; Luckner, John; Bausch, Margaret; Donehower, Claire; Jones, Jennie L.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary challenges confronting special education teachers include, in part, workload, role ambiguity, evaluation, and shortages. Based on these and other challenges, the piece-meal fragmented approach to pre- and in-service training, which exists currently, needs to be replaced with 21st century models of special education teacher development…

  12. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajput, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  13. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasie, Daniela L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  14. Dewey Redux: Virtual Dewey Resources Deliver Trusted, Familiar 21st-Century Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamich, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Where do school librarians go to find out the latest on how the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is being used (and will be used) in the 21st-century virtual-knowledge world? The answer is two great websites containing: (1) the most current information on both Dewey and linked data at ; (2) Dewey here-and-now…

  15. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.

    2015-01-01

    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  16. Teachers' Level of Awareness of 21st Century Occupational Roles in Rivers State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, Chineze M.; Kaegon, Leesi E. S. P.; Okata, Fanny Chiemezie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the teachers' level of awareness of 21st century occupational roles in Rivers state secondary schools. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The population of study comprised of 247 public secondary schools and 57 private secondary schools in Port Harcourt metropolis of Rivers state which gave a…

  17. Above and Beyond: Working Together to Transform Our Colleges for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Bob

    2014-01-01

    "Reclaiming the American Dream" is the cornerstone of American Association of Community Colleges's (AACC) 21st-Century Initiative, launched in 2011 with the goal of outfitting an additional 5 million students with degrees, certificates, or other credentials by 2020. In Phase 1 of the initiative, featured was a nationwide "listening…

  18. 21st-Century Literacies, Critical Media Pedagogies, and Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    In the second decade of the 21st century, information has been globalized, digitized, and sped up to move at the speed of thought. Being literate in this new world means programming personal websites, sending e-mails from mobile devices and spending hours communicating via virtual social networks. Our students are products of this world. However,…

  19. Questioning the Role of "21st-Century Skills" in Arts Education Advocacy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Leann F.

    2013-01-01

    The revised Core Arts Standards offer music educators the chance to examine the contradictions that currently permeate the arts advocacy discourse. This article examines the emphasis on 21st-century workplace skills in claims made by arts advocacy proponents. An alternative approach focuses instead on lifelong learning in the arts and the array of…

  20. Public Relations and Its Education: 21st Century Challenges in Definition, Role and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that the greatest challenge for 21st century public relations practitioners will be the identification of organizational values and their reconciliation with societal values within the context of a quickly and seemingly chaotic syncretizing popular culture. This function of public relations requires considerable practitioner…

  1. 21st-Century Mentor Texts: Developing Critical Literacies in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This column explores the idea of using 21st-century mentor texts to guide students in the development of critical literacy. The column focuses on one example from the U.S. presidential election of 2012 to illustrate how teachers might engage students to unpack the socially constructed nature of literacy. The author argues that the changing reading…

  2. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark...

  3. Re-Designing a School Library Media Center for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Mary; Baker, Rosalie M.

    2004-01-01

    The School Library Media Center at Delsea Regional High School was not meeting the needs of the students, staff and community of the 21st century and hence a re-design of the library space was needed. The re-design project included planning objectives, providing a scale drawing and involving key players as stakeholders.

  4. The Mass Media in Distance Education in Nigeria in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuji, Sydney N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the use of mass media in distance education in Nigeria with a view to making suggestions for their effective use during the 21st century. Distance education programmes, especially those of the Universities of Ibadan and Lagos are examined. These two institutions made bold and commendable efforts. However, while the…

  5. Mobile Devices: Toys or Learning Tools for the 21st Century Teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…

  6. Curricular Adaptations in Inpatient Child Psychiatry for the 21st Century: The Flexner Model Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cathy K.; Guerrero, Anthony; Matsu, Courtenay; Takeshita, Junji; Haning, William; Schultz, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe curricular modifications created in response to the changing culture of medical education, health care systems, academic medicine, and generational differences. The authors propose a model child psychiatry inpatient curriculum that is sustainable within a community teaching hospital in the 21st century. Methods: The…

  7. What Knowledge Is of Most Worth: Teacher Knowledge for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereluik, Kristen; Mishra, Punya; Fahnoe, Chris; Terry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical review of the literature on 21st century knowledge frameworks, with a particular focus on what this means for teachers and teacher educators. The authors accomplish this by identifying common themes and knowledge domains in 15 reports, books, and articles that describe the kinds of knowledge that researchers state…

  8. Coastal sea level changes, observed and projected during the 20th and 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, M.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.; A. Slangen, A. B.; Katsman, C. A.; W. van de Wal, R. S.; Church, J.; White, N.

    2015-01-01

    Timeseries of observed and projected sea level changes for the 20th and 21st century are analyzed at various coastal locations around the world that are vulnerable to climate change. Observed time series are from tide gauges and altimetry, as well as from reconstructions over the last 50 years. CMIP

  9. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  10. A New 21st Century Approach for Battling Bullying: How We Can Empower Our Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Clearly, U.S. schools must prepare students with the academic insights and skills necessary for success in work and life in the 21st century. But they also must ensure that students gain responsible social relationship skills. These social competencies are equally important for success in work and life. By focusing on such social competencies,…

  11. A study on the role of nuclear energy in the demand-supply structure in the 21st century. Towards the use of hydrogen and electricity energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is said that global warming has been caused by the massive consumption of fossil fuel such as oil and coal. As a fundamental measure to solve this problem, hydrogen is highly expected to be the next-generation energy source, the by-product after combustion of which is water. Previous studies have concentrated on the examination of hydrogen-producing systems that use such means as sunlight or wind power generation and transporting liquefied hydrogen to Japan (NEDO WE-NET Plan). In this study, a simulation using the energy demand-supply model was conducted in view of the advent of an energy system that is based on hydrogen and electrical energy while taking hydrogen production by means of nuclear power such as a high-temperature gas reactor into consideration. On the basis of the results, the conditions for dissemination of use of hydrogen and the role of nuclear power were examined. As a result, we found that widespread use of hydrogen will be promoted by environmental regulations and that hydrogen produced by means of nuclear power, which does not produce carbon dioxide at the time of production, will likely play an important role. (author)

  12. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership: Paving the Way to a Greener, Smarter, More Flexible Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise.The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system.

  13. Boko Haram: Religion and Violence in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O. Voll

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Boko Haram in Nigeria provides an important example of the combination of religion and violence in the conditions of the twenty-first century. It is both a movement in the pattern of religiously-justified violence and a significant representative of the emergence of new types of modern terrorism in recent years. This article examines both of these aspects of Boko Haram as an example of religious violence. In the general development of religiously justified violence, Boko Haram is the heir to a long jihad tradition in West Africa. Its emergence follows well-established patterns of older militant Muslim groups, but it also departs significantly from those patterns as it shapes itself as a movement in the patterns of contemporary, twenty-first century modes of religious violence. Boko Haram is also identified, in twenty-first century terms, as a religious terrorist organization. As a religious terrorist group, it fits the pattern of what David Rapoport calls the fourth wave—the religious wave—of modern terrorism. However, in the second decade of the twenty-first century, Boko Haram exhibits characteristics of a new style of religious terrorism that is more like the so-called Islamic State than the older type of terrorist organization of al-Qa’idah.

  14. 21st Century Readers' Aids: Past History and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the development of library subject guides (often referred to as pathfinders) from the late 1800s to the present. During this period, subject guides have changed both their focus and format. The needs of academic institutions at the turn of the 20th century were very different than they are today, and…

  15. Design or Decline: America Facing the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Nathan H.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the role of industrial design in the twenty-first century. Explains that technology has widened the gap between rich and poor societies. Argues that future designers must concern themselves with the quality of life. Includes a description of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Industrial Design Program. (KM)

  16. Education for the 21st Century: Lessons and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Roberto; Draxler, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of proposals contained in the 1996 report "Learning: the Treasure Within" by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (established by UNESCO), the authors examine the influence and pertinence of its construct of education on the four pillars learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, and learning…

  17. Tree fruit breeding for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit producers world-wide are facing challenges including climate change, reductions in available labor, the need for reduced chemical inputs, the spread of native and exotic pests and pathogens, and consumer demands for improved fruit quality and health benefits. Over the past quarter century, ou...

  18. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  19. Green Heat and Power. Eco-effective Energy Solutions in the 21st Century; Groenn kraft og varme. Miljoeeffektive energiloesninger i det 21. aarhundre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, T.; Buch, C.; Kruse, B; Sauar, E.

    1999-06-01

    Norway has emerged as a major producer of oil, gas, and hydropower during the lifetimes of the authors of this report. Our accumulated experience in working on environmental conservation spans approximately 50 years, with our main area of concentration being energy and the environment. Although river systems have been harnessed into pipes and many oil fields have been developed, on the threshold of a new century we feel confident that the majority would agree that our future energy needs cannot be based and sustained on the exploitation of the natural environment. This report outlines how Norway can reposition itself to become an important energy supplier that can help solve environmental problems instead of create them. It is also a guide to what we think is important to know about energy and the challenges facing the environment. It is all too easy to become swamped by information, which is why we have elected to focus firmly on essentials. We not only look at the solutions of the past, we look into what the future may bring. New thinking and approaches to the problems that are as yet little known are outlined in detail. We seek to present solutions developed from a more integrated ''big-picture'' perspective. Our target audience is people with a general interest in the subject, individuals who work with these kinds of challenges on a day-to-day basis, politicians and other decision-makers, and people who are actively engaged in research and development. This report represents a stark contrast to the report published by the government-appointed energy co mission, a commission which was unable to demonstrate how Norway could both increase energy production and decrease energy consumption, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse-gas emissions in compliance with our international commitments. The report documents that up until the year 2020, Norway can free up one sixth of the electricity produced, reduce CO2 emissions by over 50%, produce 50

  20. 21st century change in ocean response to climate forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Marčelja, Stjepan

    2015-01-01

    Modeling globally averaged information on climate forcing from the land surface temperature data, the sea surface temperatures (SST) and the empirically determined relationship between the changes in SST and the turbulent diffusion of heat into the upper ocean demonstrates a consistent link. The modeling is accurate throughout the 20th century despite the different phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) or the strong divergence between land and ocean surface warming. It only fai...

  1. Boko Haram: Religion and Violence in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    John O. Voll

    2015-01-01

    Boko Haram in Nigeria provides an important example of the combination of religion and violence in the conditions of the twenty-first century. It is both a movement in the pattern of religiously-justified violence and a significant representative of the emergence of new types of modern terrorism in recent years. This article examines both of these aspects of Boko Haram as an example of religious violence. In the general development of religiously justified violence, Boko Haram is the heir to ...

  2. Australia: Identity, Fear and Governance in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Pietsch, Juliet; Aarons, Haydn

    2012-01-01

    The latter years of the first decade of the twenty-first century were characterised by an enormous amount of challenge and change to Australia and Australians. Australia’s part in these challenges and changes is borne of our domestic and global ties, our orientation towards ourselves and others, and an ever increasing awareness of the interdependency of our world. Challenges and changes such as terrorism, climate change, human rights, community breakdown, work and livelihood, and crime are no...

  3. Some Hot Spots in the Study of Chinese Drugs in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖培根

    2004-01-01

    @@ Mankind has entered the 21st century of high speed development in science and economics. Owing to the alteration of disease modes in the new century, the greatly elevated quality of human life and the arrival of aged society, the modes of medicine have obviously changed from the treatment mode to the prevention mode, the medical thought emphasizes more the holistic approach of human body.

  4. A 21st century technique for food control: Electronic noses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peris, Miguel, E-mail: mperist@qim.upv.es [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Escuder-Gilabert, Laura [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, C/Vicente Andres Estelles s/n, E-46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-04-06

    This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses (e-noses) and their most important applications in food control in this new century. The three components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, detection system, and data processing system) are described. Special attention is devoted to the promising mass spectrometry based e-noses, due to their advantages over the more classical gas sensors. Applications described include process monitoring, shelf-life investigation, freshness evaluation, authenticity assessment, as well as other general aspects of the utilization of electronic noses in food control. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in food control are also mentioned.

  5. Psychiatry in 21 st century: The road ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantanava Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of becoming more humane in its approach with improvements in understanding of mental illnesses over last century, psychiatry still has a long way to go. At this point in time, on one hand the world faces issues like terrorism, wars and global warming; while on the other it is witnessing economic and gender empowerment like never before. With technology providing us with immense opportunities to advance care for the mentally ill, we are closer than ever to finding the holy-grail of psychiatry, and overcoming daunting challenges.

  6. A 21st century technique for food control: Electronic noses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses (e-noses) and their most important applications in food control in this new century. The three components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, detection system, and data processing system) are described. Special attention is devoted to the promising mass spectrometry based e-noses, due to their advantages over the more classical gas sensors. Applications described include process monitoring, shelf-life investigation, freshness evaluation, authenticity assessment, as well as other general aspects of the utilization of electronic noses in food control. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in food control are also mentioned.

  7. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  8. Epilepsy on the silver screen in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy remains an attractive vehicle for filmmakers in the twenty-first century. This review examines the themes of twenty-one films, released between 2000 and 2014, that feature a character with epilepsy or a pivotal scene involving a seizure. Epilepsy continues to be associated with the supernatural in modern cinematic output. Demonic possession and epilepsy now share a similar cinematic lexicon. Unfortunately, the overlap is more than just visual. Supernatural treatments of narratives that claim to be 'based on a true story' of someone with epilepsy continue to blur the lines between medical and spiritual realms. Although there has been a steady progression away from concealment of the condition, epilepsy continues to signal 'otherness' in movie characters and seldom in a good way. All too often, a character has epilepsy to maximize the unease of the audience with them; it is a device that is used to signal 'this character is not like you'. However, amongst the hackneyed negative stereotypes, accurate portrayals of the condition are beginning to emerge, not least due to active collaborations between filmmakers and epilepsy advocacy groups. Far from being worthy, it is heartening that these films are also those that are the most absorbing and thought-provoking of the cinematic output thus far this century. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". PMID:26907968

  9. Epilepsy on the silver screen in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy remains an attractive vehicle for filmmakers in the twenty-first century. This review examines the themes of twenty-one films, released between 2000 and 2014, that feature a character with epilepsy or a pivotal scene involving a seizure. Epilepsy continues to be associated with the supernatural in modern cinematic output. Demonic possession and epilepsy now share a similar cinematic lexicon. Unfortunately, the overlap is more than just visual. Supernatural treatments of narratives that claim to be 'based on a true story' of someone with epilepsy continue to blur the lines between medical and spiritual realms. Although there has been a steady progression away from concealment of the condition, epilepsy continues to signal 'otherness' in movie characters and seldom in a good way. All too often, a character has epilepsy to maximize the unease of the audience with them; it is a device that is used to signal 'this character is not like you'. However, amongst the hackneyed negative stereotypes, accurate portrayals of the condition are beginning to emerge, not least due to active collaborations between filmmakers and epilepsy advocacy groups. Far from being worthy, it is heartening that these films are also those that are the most absorbing and thought-provoking of the cinematic output thus far this century. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity".

  10. 21st century change in ocean response to climate forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Marčelja, Stjepan

    2015-01-01

    Modeling globally averaged information on climate forcing from the land surface temperature data, the sea surface temperatures (SST) and the empirically determined relationship between the changes in SST and the turbulent diffusion of heat into the upper ocean demonstrates a consistent link. The modeling is accurate throughout the 20th century despite the different phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) or the strong divergence between land and ocean surface warming. It only fails during the last 15 years when SST drops well below the trend. The finding reinforces the view that slower global warming over the previous 15 years is not a caused by a negative phase of the IPO or by the variations in the upper ocean (top 700 m) warming but results from a change in the ocean behavior leading to increased heat transfer into the deeper ocean.

  11. Between the Scylla and the Charybdis: Theological education in the 21st century in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on the challenges of theological education in the 21st century and in Africa. Reputation, impact, success and funding have become the driving forces of the modern university. However, we are living in the 21st century and in Africa with a subsequent frame of reference that is holistic and faith-based. The article therefore argues for a multi- and transdisciplinary approach towards the nature of a university and recognition of the unique contribution theological education can contribute. Due to the inherently cooperative nature of theological scholarship, theological education could be able to avoid the extremes of the Scylla and the Charybdis, that is, fideism and secularisation, and therefore be able to survive at an academic institution. Both sectarianism and scientism should be avoided. Theological education in Africa needed to travel the same difficult road of theological faculties in Europe in the previous century.

  12. Multiculturalism and Diversity in the 21st Century Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana MATEI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the present time, the debate regarding European minorities is a problem of high interest. Even if it is a discussion of Basques and Catalans, Turks and Greeks in Cyprus, Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, Hungarians in Romania or genocide in the former Yugoslavia, the matter is high on the agenda. After centuries of confrontations in Europe, the European Union tries to legitimate the issue of national minorities, willing to eliminate any kind of discrimination and to preserve cultural identity. Recommendation 1201/1993 of the Council of Europe intended to draw up an additional protocol on the rights of minorities to the European Convention of Human Rights in order to provide the Council with a suitable mediation instrument.Considering the diversity of peoples and cultures living for centuries within the European space and their important contribution to the cultural development of the European states and civilization, the Recommendation seeks to recognize the rights of persons belonging to a national minority within a state and the international protection of those rights as an aspect of international co-operation, able to end the ethnic, linguistic and religious confrontations, and to guarantee justice, democracy and peace [1]. Nevertheless, at the beginning of the third millennium, the topic of minorities is still an actual one.Antony Alcock’s [2] book, A History of the Protection of Regional Cultural Minorities in Europe (From the Edict of Nantes to the Present Days, is an important study of the main historical events that changed the European approach of the issue of national minorities, providing an original account of the historical foundations of this direction of research. The book is divided in five parts, with seven chapters in total, accompanied by an introductory study, a comprehensive conclusion, two appendixes (one showing the main minorities and the percentage from the total population in 37 European states

  13. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  14. Biotechnology in the 21st Century (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Das

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The two technologies that will essentially determine the shape of things to come in the present century are biotechnology and information technology. A merger of biotechnology and information technology is happening right now, a significant example of which is the success of the human genome project. Biotechnology can be said to have started with the unravelling of the structure of DNA in 1953. The next decade saw exciting developments in our understanding of the fundamentals of functioning of biological system, including the role of DNA in protein synthesis. The discovery of reverse transcriptase and restriction enzymes in 1970s paved the way for further advances, including recombinant DNA and hybridoma technologies, often called 'genetic engineering'. The discovery of polymerase chain reaction in 1986 laid the foundation for large-scale applications of biotechnology in various fields. The practical applications of mapping of the entire human genome would be enormous in terms of better overall health care (diagnosis, therapy and management of disorders. In the field of flora and fauna, it generally happens that biotechnologically-rich countries have poor biodiversity and vice versa. But countries like India and China that have rich biodiversity have, by the use of biotechnology, the potential to become also biotechnologically rich.

  15. Green revolution: preparing for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khush, G S

    1999-08-01

    In the 1960s there were large-scale concerns about the world's ability to feed itself. However, widespread adoption of "green revolution" technology led to major increases in food-grain production. Between 1966 and 1990, the population of the densely populated low-income countries grew by 80%, but food production more than doubled. The technological advance that led to the dramatic achievements in world food production over the last 30 years was the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice. These varieties are responsive to fertilizer inputs, are lodging resistant, and their yield potential is 2-3 times that of varieties available prior to the green revolution. In addition, these varieties have multiple resistance to diseases and insects and thus have yield stability. The development of irrigation facilities, the availability of inorganic fertilizers, and benign government policies have all facilitated the adoption of green-revolution technology. In the 1990s, the rate of growth in food-grain production has been lower than the rate of growth in population. If this trend is not reversed, serious food shortages will occur in the next century. To meet the challenge of feeding 8 billion people by 2020, we have to prepare now and develop the technology for raising farm productivity. We have to develop cereal cultivars with higher yield potential and greater yield stability. We must also develop strategies for integrated nutrient management, integrated pest management, and efficient utilization of water and soil resources. PMID:10464789

  16. Understanding Resource Nationalism in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Llewelyn; Kreyling, Sean J.

    2010-07-26

    Resource nationalism in oil-importing states appears on the rise. Oil price volatility underpinned by demand growth has led China, India and others to increase state support for national-flag firms in order to increase the state’s energy self-sufficiency. Both Chinese and Indian National Oil Companies (NOCs) have made energy investments worldwide, including in Sudan and Iran. Long-standing oil importers such as the United States and Japan have reenergized policies designed to increase domestic production of crude and crude substitutes, or have subsidized national-flag firms, in the name of energy independence.

  17. International nuclear institutions and utilities structures for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of international nuclear institutions during the 20th Century has been extraordinary. It has included international government institutions, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency; international scientific organizations, such as the International Committee on Radiological Protection; international operating support organizations, such as the World Association of Nuclear Operators; and international professional society organizations, such as the International Nuclear Societies Council. We should now examine the relevance of the current institutions and how they can be enhanced for the 21st Century. Examples of potential changes include the following. The scope of government's international responsibilities is being significantly expanded by the Convention of Nuclear Safety of Radioactive Waste Management and Spent Fuel. The implementation of these new conventions will require major actions during the next century. The science upon which international standards have been developed is vastly improved and the assessment is changing. Thus, the guidance provided by organizations such as the ICRP will need to be re-evaluated. The World Association of Nuclear Operators has focuses on operating programs but this scope may be too narrow for the future as designs and standards evolve. The nuclear professional societies have contributed a great deal to the exchange of technology throughout the world but this traditional role may need to be revised in order that political decisions match the relevant scientific data. In addition to the changes within these institutions for the next century, the electric utilities that produce nuclear power will be restructured in many countries. The concept of privatization of utilities and their disaggregation from an integrated generation, transmission and distribution company into separate entities is proceeding quickly. The structure of the utility system will be markedly different in a few years from that which we

  18. Utility Management in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubbe, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of the factors that must be examined and the issues to be addressed when assessing an institution's utility systems. Describes the management, planning, financing, and political dynamics surrounding the ownership of an institution's energy facilities. (GR)

  19. Multi-Model Assessment of the Factors Driving Stratospheric Ozone Evolution Over the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, L. D.; Plummer, D. A.; Waugh, D. W.; Austin, J.; Scinocca, J.; Douglass, A. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T.; Akiyoshi, H.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Butchart, N.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cugnet, D.; Dhomse, S.; Eyring, V.; Frith, S.; Hardiman, S. C.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Mancini, E.; Marchand, M.; Michou, M.; Morgenstern, O.; Nakamura T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 is examined in simulations from fourteen chemistry-climate models. There is general agreement among the models at the broadest levels, showing column ozone decreasing at all latitudes from 1960 to around 2000, then increasing at all latitudes over the first half of the 21st century, and latitudinal variations in the rate of increase and date of return to historical values. In the second half of the century, ozone is projected to continue increasing, level off or even decrease depending on the latitude, resulting in variable dates of return to historical values at latitudes where column ozone has declined below those levels. Separation into partial column above and below 20 hPa reveals that these latitudinal differences are almost completely due to differences in the lower stratosphere. At all latitudes, upper stratospheric ozone increases throughout the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels before the end of the century, although there is a spread among the models in dates that ozone returns to historical values. Using multiple linear regression, we find decreasing halogens and increasing greenhouse gases contribute almost equally to increases in the upper stratospheric ozone. In the tropical lower stratosphere an increase in tropical upwelling causes a steady decrease in ozone through the 21st century, and total column ozone does not return to 1960 levels in all models. In contrast, lower stratospheric and total column ozone in middle and high latitudes increases during the 21st century and returns to 1960 levels.

  20. Solar Architecture - indoor - climate design for the 21 st century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Energy-efficient construction - intelligent solutions for tomorrow's architecture For the first time, a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of solar construction in a single volume - from urban-planning to passive and active energy systems and the development of new insulating materials. Solar Architecture presents an over-view of planning instruments and techniques that allow the assessment and implementation of the appropriate measures The book contains a wide range of innovative solutions,

  1. The Indispensability of the Humanities for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don A. Habibi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay surveys the state of the humanities at this critical time. What will be the role of the humanities at the end of this century and beyond? I discuss the “crisis of the humanities” by examining the current challenges of globalization, economic shifts, and extensive budget cuts. I also discuss the social and political divisions that contribute to a crisis within the humanities. Since the culture wars that began in the 1960’s, the content, scope, and focus of the humanities have changed dramatically, and this has impacted how the humanities are perceived and valued by the general public. The second half of the essay makes the case for the vital importance of the humanities. I argue that the fate of the humanities is inseparable from the future of human beings. I highlight the current problems of war, environmental degradation, and mass surveillance that must be managed before they overwhelm and derail the potential for dramatic progress. Following recent scholarship and research trends, I explain how technological advancements will lead to the most significant evolutionary changes to the human being in aeons. Through technologies such as bionics, transgenesis, robotics, genetic engineering, and artificial intelligence, Homo sapiens might be enabled to transcend its former limits and usher in an era of transhumanism. The relevant question is: What do we want to be? I argue that enhancement technologies will make their beneficiaries more robotic and less human, and explain why we must treasure the advantages of our distinctly human capacities and resist the prospect of empowering ourselves to become automatons. My underlying thesis is that developing an understanding of the most insightful ideas and cultivating an appreciation for the greatest creative works that humankind has produced will be crucial for maintaining our humanity. The humanities thus make a unique and indispensable contribution to defining what and who we want our

  2. Recovery in the 21st Century: From Shame to Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbley, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Through the "war on drugs," the just-say-no campaign, and into the early years of this century, the overarching approach to substance use disorders (SUDs) called for a single outcome (abstinence) and a single methodology (spiritual connection with a higher power) as the remedy for SUDs. Those who did not become permanently abstinent or rejected the spiritual approach were seen as "not ready" or "in denial."A seismic shift in thinking about "addiction" and "recovery" began in earnest in the 1990s. In 2005, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration brought together leaders of the treatment and recovery field for the historic National Summit on Recovery to develop broad-based consensus on guiding principles for recovery and elements of recovery-oriented systems of care.Major changes associated with the recovery-oriented approach include viewing SUDs as chronic, rather than acute, problems that require long-term support and focusing on recovery management rather than disease management. Complete abstinence is not an absolute requirement for wellness for all persons with SUDs. There are "many pathways to recovery," not only the 12-Step approach (White & Kurtz, 2006). Sustained recovery is self-directed and requires personal choices, the support of peers and allies, and community reinforcement as well as a strength-based approach and the use of research-based interventions. This Perspectives column addresses the historical context for the transformation toward a recovery-oriented system of care, highlights federal efforts to promote recovery-oriented approaches, and describes recovery-oriented terminology to reduce misconceptions, labeling, and stigmatization and promote recovery for individuals, families, and communities. PMID:27272998

  3. Vision in elasmobranchs and their relatives: 21st century advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, T J; Theiss, S M; Collin, S P; Hart, N S

    2012-04-01

    This review identifies a number of exciting new developments in the understanding of vision in cartilaginous fishes that have been made since the turn of the century. These include the results of studies on various aspects of the visual system including eye size, visual fields, eye design and the optical system, retinal topography and spatial resolving power, visual pigments, spectral sensitivity and the potential for colour vision. A number of these studies have covered a broad range of species, thereby providing valuable information on how the visual systems of these fishes are adapted to different environmental conditions. For example, oceanic and deep-sea sharks have the largest eyes amongst elasmobranchs and presumably rely more heavily on vision than coastal and benthic species, while interspecific variation in the ratio of rod and cone photoreceptors, the topographic distribution of the photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells in the retina and the spatial resolving power of the eye all appear to be closely related to differences in habitat and lifestyle. Multiple, spectrally distinct cone photoreceptor visual pigments have been found in some batoid species, raising the possibility that at least some elasmobranchs are capable of seeing colour, and there is some evidence that multiple cone visual pigments may also be present in holocephalans. In contrast, sharks appear to have only one cone visual pigment. There is evidence that ontogenetic changes in the visual system, such as changes in the spectral transmission properties of the lens, lens shape, focal ratio, visual pigments and spatial resolving power, allow elasmobranchs to adapt to environmental changes imposed by habitat shifts and niche expansion. There are, however, many aspects of vision in these fishes that are not well understood, particularly in the holocephalans. Therefore, this review also serves to highlight and stimulate new research in areas that still require significant attention. PMID

  4. Downtown district cooling: A 21st century approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    On December 1, 1992, the Board of Directors of the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA) met on Chicago`s historic Navy Pier and ushered in a new era of competition for energy supply in Chicago. The MPEA, a state agency created for the purposes of promoting and operating fair and exposition facilities within the Chicago area (including the McCormick Place exposition center and Navy Pier), voted to accept a third-party proposal to provide district heating and cooling services to the existing McCormick Place facilities and a million square feet of new exposition space. The winning bidder was a joint venture between Trigen Energy, the nation`s largest provider of district energy services, and Peoples Gas, the gas distribution company which serves Chicago. This vote culminated two years of effort by the Energy Division of Chicago`s Department of Environment to analyze the feasibility and promote the implementation of a district energy system to serve the expanded McCormick Place and its environs in the South Loop neighborhood. Initial services began in November, 1993, with a new hot and cold water piping system interconnecting the three existing exhibition facilities. The final buildout of the system, with a combined peak demand predicted at 160 MMBtu of heating and 15,920 tons of and cooling, is scheduled for completion in the summer of 1997.

  5. 21st Century Locomotive Technology: Quarterly Technical Status Report 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lembit Salasoo; Ramu Chandra

    2010-02-19

    Thermal testing of a subscale locomotive sodium battery module was initiated.to validate thermal models. The hybrid trip optimizer problem was formulated. As outcomes of this project, GE has proceeded to commercialize trip optimizer technology, and has initiated work on a state-of-the-art battery manufacturing plant for high energy density, sodium-based batteries.

  6. Short-term prediction towards the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.; Madsen, Henrik;

    2000-01-01

    A new chapter in the continued and exiting story of short-term prediction has begun! The paper will describe a new project funded by the Dnaisn Ministry of Energy where all the Danish utilities (Elkraft, ELsam, Eltra, and SEAS) will participate. The goal of the project is to develop and implement...

  7. Photonics-based process control for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Don W.; Gelberg, Sarah

    2003-12-01

    When we say that a process is "controlled" we mean that we know as much as it is possible to know about that process. When we say that a process has been "characterized", we mean that we know exactly how many critical steps there are, and that we know exactly what happens in each of those steps. Every step has a metric and a tolerance. When that metric is monitored and measured, preferably on a real-time basis, manufacturing management has the necessary data to control that process, and to reap the benefits that come with such control. Developing and installing the instrumentation needed to measure processes required the better part of the 20th Century. Today's process instrumentation can measure every conceivable physical parameter, record it, and communicate it anywhere in the world. This method does have its drawbacks: such instrumentation can be expensive, and often the parameters being measured are only indirectly related to the process. The benefits, however, of a stable, reliable process are worth the effort. The technology that supports instrumentation continually improves, as indeed, it has to if it is not to become obsolete in short order. For some time, however, the greatest improvement in the field has been in improving measurement of physical parameters based on physics, engineering and computer science. However better that focus becomes, process instrumentation development now has an alternative path. Although the end hardware, of course, is still physical, the path is based on a different model: biology, rather than physics. This new path emulates the neural network--that is, the brain. Using neural networks for process control is as old as processes themselves. Long before today's sophisticated instruments, a person would examine a process for some time, learn how it worked, and make a judgement about how well it was actually doing what it was supposed to do. Decisions about process performance were based on what someone observed, and

  8. Buildings for the 21st Century, Summer 2001. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Newsletter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The summer issue includes information on technology roadmap initiatives, new energy computer simulation software, an educational CD with energy lessons for teachers, a CD with energy-saving tips, a study on the efficiency of clothes washers, a loan program in New York, and a calendar of meetings and conferences

  9. Global oil risks in the early 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deepwater Horizon incident demonstrated that most of the oil left is deep offshore or in other difficult to reach locations. Moreover, obtaining the oil remaining in currently producing reservoirs requires additional equipment and technology that comes at a higher price in both capital and energy. In this regard, the physical limitations on producing the ever-increasing quantities of oil are highlighted as well as the possibility of the peak of production occurring this decade. The economics of oil supply and demand are also briefly discussed showing why the available supply is basically fixed in the short to medium term. Also, an alarm bell for economic recessions is shown to be when energy takes a disproportionate amount of total consumer expenditures. In this context, risk mitigation practices in government and business are called for. As for the former, early education of the citizenry of the risk of economic contraction is a prudent policy to minimize potential future social discord. As for the latter, all business operations should be examined with the aim of building in resilience and preparing for a scenario in which capital and energy are much more expensive than in the business-as-usual one. - Highlights: ► Review of the physical background to peak oil and current oil situation. ► Economics of oil supply and demand are examined to identify imminent challenges. ► Investigation of the financial and energy transition risks associated with peak oil. Oil scarcity and price volatility induce certain governmental and business risks. ► General risk mitigation is vital and peak oil preparations should be undertaken.

  10. The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. Water conservation also means, less use of water. This in turn, results in less strain on the city sewage treatment plants. This may also imply that one uses less energy for heating water. For example, the city of Los Angeles has grown by more than a million over the past thirty years. Regardless, the city still uses almost the same amount of water even now. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability

  11. Elements of Physics for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Hofer, Werner A

    2013-01-01

    Given the experimental precision in condensed matter physics -- positions are measured with errors of less than 0.1pm, energies with about 0.1meV, and temperature levels are below 20mK -- it can be inferred that standard quantum mechanics, with its inherent uncertainties, is a model at the end of its natural lifetime. In this presentation I explore the elements of a future deterministic framework based on the synthesis of wave mechanics and density functional theory at the single-electron level.

  12. Astrophysics of the 21st Century - Exploring the Extreme Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Louis M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will give an overview of the NASA Universe Division Beyond Einstein program. The Beyond Einstein program consists of a series of exploratory missions to investigate the most important and pressing problems in modern-day astrophysics - including searches for Dark Energy and studies of the earliest times in the universe, during the inflationary period after the Big Bang. A variety of new technologies are being developed both in the science instrumentation these missions will use and in the spacecraft that will carry those instruments.

  13. Industrial Wireless Technology for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-12-01

    In July 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program sponsored the Industrial Wireless Workshop as a forum for articulating some long-term goals that may help guide the development of industrial wireless sensor systems. Over 30 individuals, representing manufacturers and suppliers, end users, universities, and national laboratories, attended the workshop in San Francisco and participated in a series of facilitated sessions. The workshop participants cooperatively developed a unified vision for the future and defined specific goals and challenges. This document presents the results of the workshop as well as some context for non-experts.

  14. Sustainable Life Labs for the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SaffaB.RIFFAT

    2003-01-01

    The School of the Built Environment has a worldwide reputation for its innovative research into sustainable technologies including absorption/adsorption heat pumps, ejector refrigeration systems, desiccant technology, hybrid/solar driven CHP systems, solar/thermal systems and ground-source heat pumps. The School has obtained grants from the Engineering, Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), the European Commission and industry to develop several new technologies, which have been licensed to industry. The School has also established new research facilities including the Marmont Centre for Renewable Energy, the David Wilson Eco-House, Sustainable Research Building and Jubilee Campus. This paper reviews some of the School''s recently funded research projects and facilities.

  15. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  16. CVD diamond as a 21st century engineering material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Diamond is one of the most extraordinary materials known. For almost any physical property you can think of, diamond is top of the list. It is the hardest, strongest and stiffest known material, it conducts heat better than copper, is transparent from the deep ultraviolet to the far infrared, is resistant to acids and bases, and has one of the lowest thermal expansion coefficients. However, until recently diamond has only been available in the form of gemstones, obtained from mines. These are prized for jewellery, but have only limited engineering or scientific applications. However, over the past 20 years, scientists have discovered how to produce thin films of pure diamond using Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD), using as a starting material nothing more exotic than methane and hydrogen gases. The extraordinary properties of diamond have already enabled such films to find applications as hard, wear-resistant coatings in engineering components and machine tools, as heat spreaders, and as specialised optical windows. The possibility of doping the films to produce semiconducting diamond, suggests exciting future applications for these materials as electronic devices and sensors. Furthermore, the unusual electron emission properties of diamond make it a candidate for the electrode in the next generation of flat panel displays, solar cells or even quantum computers. In this talk, I will briefly describe how CVD diamond films are produced and outline some of the important chemistry and physics of the deposition process [1]. I shall also discuss the various uses of these films, and speculate about some of the more exciting potential future applications, such as quantum computing, biosensors, atmospheric-pressure microplasmas [2], brain-computer interfaces and designer neural nets [3], including those which are relevant to energy production, such as thermionic energy generation from focused solar heat [4], and efficient electrochemical electrodes made from

  17. Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Akos; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power--including fission and fusion processes--is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come. There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields--from material sciences to safety demonstration--to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged.

  18. Defining nuclear security in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A conference devoted to Reducing the Risks from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials presupposes that such risks exist. Few would disagree, but what are they? While debate on the nature and severity of risks associated with nuclear energy will always remain, it is easy to define a set of risks that are almost universally acknowledged. These include: (1) Nuclear warfare between states; (2) Continued proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-grade nuclear materials to states and non-state actors; (3) Terrorists or non-state actor acquisition or use nuclear weapons or nuclear materials; (4) Terrorists or non-state actors attack on a nuclear facility; and (5) Loss or diversion of nuclear weapons or materials by a state to unauthorized uses. These are listed in no particular order of likelihood or potential consequence. They are also very broadly stated, each one could be broken down into a more detailed set of discrete risks or threats. The fact that there is a strong consensus on the existence of these risks is evidence that we remain in an era of nuclear insecurity. This becomes even clearer when we note that most major trends influencing the probability of these risks continue to run in a negative direction.

  19. Superconducting Super Collider: A step in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAshan, M.

    1991-08-01

    The development of superconducting materials and the development of helium temperature refrigeration technology have both been propelled by their wide application in large-scale scientific research. The development of materials and technology for the Tevatron proton storage ring at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL USA, in the decade of the seventies provided the basis in the decade of the eighties, for example, for the use of superconducting helium-cooled whole-body magnets for magnetic resonance imaging in medical diagnosis. In the decade of the nineties a number of particle accelerators for high energy physics will be constructed in national and international laboratories around the world. These devices will employ superconductivity on an ambitious scale, and their operation will require more than double the amount of helium refrigeration capacity now installed worldwide. This large increase in the use of helium refrigeration will have a significant effect on the technology and on the industry that produces it. The largest of these accelerator projects is the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) now under construction at a new laboratory near Dallas, TX USA. This report discusses the development of this cryogenic system for the SSC magnets.

  20. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  1. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  2. Gauging Teachers' Needs with Regard to Technology- Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) of 21st Century Skills in the Classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Martínez-Monés, Alejandra; Boon, Jo; Rodríguez-Triana, María Jesús; Villagrá-Sobrino, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Several trends in society have led to a request towards schools to integrate 21st Century Skills and technology enhanced formative assessment (TEFA) in their curricula. Although there are frameworks defined at an international level, implementation of technology enhanced formative assessment of 21st

  3. Radiative forcing and climate response to projected 21st century aerosol decreases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Westervelt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted to protect human health. For instance, global emissions of aerosols and their precursors are projected to decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios. The removal of aerosols will cause unintended climate consequences, including an unmasking of global warming from long-lived greenhouse gases. We use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 3 (GFDL CM3 to simulate future climate over the 21st century with and without the aerosol emission changes projected by each of the RCPs in order to isolate the radiative forcing and climate response resulting from the aerosol reductions. We find that the projected global radiative forcing and climate response due to aerosol decreases do not vary significantly across the four RCPs by 2100, although there is some mid-century variation, especially in cloud droplet effective radius, that closely follows the RCP emissions and energy consumption projections. Up to 1 W m−2 of radiative forcing may be unmasked globally from 2005 to 2100 due to reductions in aerosol and precursor emissions, leading to average global temperature increases up to 1 K and global precipitation rate increases up to 0.09 mm d−1. Regionally and locally, climate impacts can be much larger, with a 2.1 K warming projected over China, Japan, and Korea due to the reduced aerosol emissions in RCP8.5, as well as nearly a 0.2 mm d−1 precipitation increase, a 7 g m−2 LWP decrease, and a 2 μm increase in cloud droplet effective radius. Future aerosol decreases could be responsible for 30–40% of total climate warming by 2100 in East Asia, even under the high greenhouse gas emissions scenario (RCP8.5. The expected unmasking of global warming caused

  4. Radiative forcing and climate response to projected 21st century aerosol decreases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.; Golaz, J.-C.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2015-11-01

    It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted to protect human health. For instance, global emissions of aerosols and their precursors are projected to decrease by as much as 80 % by the year 2100, according to the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. The removal of aerosols will cause unintended climate consequences, including an unmasking of global warming from long-lived greenhouse gases. We use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Climate Model version 3 (GFDL CM3) to simulate future climate over the 21st century with and without the aerosol emission changes projected by each of the RCPs in order to isolate the radiative forcing and climate response resulting from the aerosol reductions. We find that the projected global radiative forcing and climate response due to aerosol decreases do not vary significantly across the four RCPs by 2100, although there is some mid-century variation, especially in cloud droplet effective radius, that closely follows the RCP emissions and energy consumption projections. Up to 1 W m-2 of radiative forcing may be unmasked globally from 2005 to 2100 due to reductions in aerosol and precursor emissions, leading to average global temperature increases up to 1 K and global precipitation rate increases up to 0.09 mm day-1. However, when using a version of CM3 with reduced present-day aerosol radiative forcing (-1.0 W m-2), the global temperature increase for RCP8.5 is about 0.5 K, with similar magnitude decreases in other climate response parameters as well. Regionally and locally, climate impacts can be much larger than the global mean, with a 2.1 K warming projected over China, Japan, and Korea due to the reduced aerosol emissions in RCP8.5, as well as nearly a 0.2 mm day-1 precipitation increase, a 7 g m-2 LWP decrease, and a 2 μm increase in

  5. Female leaders in the 21st century in a masculine world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kessler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century shows an increase in the number of women occupying leadership positions. The challenge is: How do they lead in a context which is still male dominated? Often female leaders simply try to copy the male leadership style they are familiar with. But sometimes, in doing so, they lose their femininity and the organisation misses out on the specific opportunities of female leadership. One aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and strengths of a female leadership style such as pro-social behaviour and a panorama view. We will also deal with the issue of how women approach power and the power bases women would typically use. One conclusion is that we need the benefits of both male and female leadership for the 21st century

  6. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  7. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  8. A Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, D.; Dell-Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G.

    Over the past forty years, Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo Cube Corner (CCR) Retroreflector arrays has supplied almost all of the significant tests of General Relativity. The LLR program has evaluated the PPN parameters and addressed, for example, the possible change in the gravitational constant and the properties of the self-energy of the gravitational field. In addition, LLR has provided significant information on the composition and origin of the moon. These arrays are the only experiment of the Apollo program that are still in operation. Initially the Apollo Lunar Arrays contributed a negligible portion of the error budget used to achieve these results. Over the decades, the performance of ground stations has greatly upgraded so that the ranging accuracy has improved by more than two orders of magnitude, i.e., a factor of 140. Now, after forty years, because of the lunar librations the existing Apollo retroreflector arrays contribute significant fraction of the limiting errors in the range measurements. The University of Maryland, as the Principal Investigator for the original Apollo arrays, is now proposing a new approach to the Lunar Laser CCR array technology. The investigation of this new technology, with Professor Currie as Principal Investigator, is currently being supported by two NASA programs and, in part, also by INFN/LNF. Thus after the proposed installation on the next Lunar landing, the new arrays will support ranging observations that are a factor 100 more accurate than the current Apollo LLRRAs, from the centimeter level to the micron level. The new fundamental physics and the lunar physics that this new LLRRA can provide will be described. In the design of the new array, there are three major challenges: 1) Validate that the specifications of the CCR required for the new array, with are significantly beyond the properties of current CCRs, can indeed be achieved. 2) Address the thermal and optical effects of the absorption of solar

  9. Dynamic EROI Assessment of the IPCC 21st Century Electricity Production Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Neumeyer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Return on Investment (EROI is an important measure of the energy gain of an electrical power generating facility that is typically evaluated based on the life cycle energy balance of a single facility. The EROI concept can be extended to cover a collection of facilities that comprise a complete power system and used to assess the expansion and evolution of a power system as it transitions from one portfolio mix of technologies to another over time. In this study we develop a dynamic EROI model that simulates the evolution of a power system and we perform an EROI simulation of one of the electricity production scenarios developed under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC covering the global supply of electricity in the 21st century. Our analytic tool provides the means for evaluation of dynamic EROI based on arbitrary time-dependent demand scenarios by modeling the required expansion of power generation, including the plowback needed for new construction and to replace facilities as they are retired. The results provide insight into the level of installed and delivered power, above and beyond basic consumer demand, that is required to support construction during expansion, as well as the supplementary power that may be required if plowback constraints are imposed. In addition, sensitivity to EROI parameters, and the impact of energy storage efficiency are addressed.

  10. Three focal points for education systems in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Strong and shared growth increasingly depend on the capacity of nations to develop, deploy and upgrade the skills of their citizens. Within this context, the following places an emphasis on three focal points for education systems in the 21st century. The first focus is on essential skills. The...... second focus is on the effectiveness of impact of education on economic and social outcomes. The third focus is on the dynamic elements of skill formation and skill use....

  11. Libraries in the early 21st century, v.2 an international perspective

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Following the pattern of the first volume, the second volume of Libraries in the early 21st century: An international perspective extends the range of countries covered. Each chapter covers a different country and describes the modern history, development of libraries and library technology. The careful selection of countries achieves good representation of professional library work on all continents.This two-volume work represents an excellent contribution to international librarianship and allows comparative studies both at graduate and professional level.

  12. CHRISTIAN TRADITIONS IN 20TH—21ST CENTURY RUSSIAN FANTASY WRITING (ARTICLE 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Evgeniy Mikhaylovich Neyolov

    2012-01-01

    The article looks at the various aspects of appropriating the Christian traditions by Russian fantasy writing. We show that the Christian tradition has most significantly revealed itself in the genre of fantasy writing which is in high demand among early 21st century readers. Both the content and the formal poetics of this tradition have been taken into account here. One of the typical fantasy protagonists is a hero yearning for God, which is a familiar staple of Russian literature. By defaul...

  13. Teacherpreneurs: a bold brand of teacher leadership for 21st-century teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett

    2013-04-19

    Challenges facing our public schools demand a bold brand of teacher leadership. Teacherpreneurs, effective teachers who teach students regularly but also incubate and execute the kinds of policies and pedagogies students deserve, represent a new culture of training and ingenuity. Teachers who lead outside the classroom but do not lose their connection to students are best positioned to develop and disseminate best policies and practices for 21st-century teaching and learning.

  14. Building interdisciplinary leadership skills among health practitioners in the 21st century: an innovative training model

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti eNegandhi; Himanshu eNegandhi; Ritika eTiwari; Kavya eSharma; Sanjay P Zodpey; Zahiruddin eQuazi; Abhay eGaidhane; Jayalakshmi eN.; Meenakshi eGijare; Rajiv eYeravdekar

    2015-01-01

    Transformational learning is the focus of 21st century global educational reforms. In India there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners, and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nur...

  15. Place-Based Education: Does it Improve 21st Century Skills?

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Motallebzadeh; Zahra Kafi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the possible significant effects of project-based instruction on the improvement of Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ awareness of 21st century skills. To this end, the sample population was selected from Iranian intermediate learners studying at Zabansara Language School, Mashhad, Iran. Therefore, 50 male and female students were assigned randomly to experimental and control groups, 25 in each. For collecting the quantitative data for the study, a 21...

  16. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  17. Importance of Nitrogen Availability on Land Carbon Sequestration in Northern Eurasia during the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, D. W.; Melillo, J. M.; Monier, E.; Sokolov, A. P.; Lu, X.; Zhuang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, and the application of nitrogen fertilizers provide subsidies to land ecosystems that can increase nitrogen availability for vegetation production and thereby influence land carbon dynamics. In addition, enhanced decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) from warming soils and permafrost degradation may also increase nitrogen availability in Northern Eurasia. Here, we examine how changes in nitrogen availability may influence land carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia during the 21st century by comparing results for a "business as usual" scenario (the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways or RCP 8.5) and a stabilization scenario (RCP 4.5) between a version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model that does not consider the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation and soil thermal dynamics on land carbon dynamics (TEM 4.4) and a version that does consider these dynamics (TEM 6.0). In these simulations, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fixation, and fertilizer applications provide an additional 3.3 Pg N (RCP 4.5) to 3.9 Pg N (RCP 8.5) to Northern Eurasian ecosystems over the 21st century. Land ecosystems retain about 38% (RCP4.5) to 48% (RCP 8.5) of this nitrogen subsidy. Net nitrogen mineralization estimated by TEM 6.0 provide an additional 1.0 Pg N to vegetation than estimated by TEM 4.4 over the 21st century from enhanced decomposition of SOM including SOM formerly protected by permafrost. The enhanced nitrogen availability in TEM 6.0 allows Northern Eurasian ecosystems to sequester 1.8x (RCP 8.5) to 2.4x (RCP 4.5) more carbon over the 21st century than estimated by TEM 4.4. Our results indicate that consideration of nitrogen subsidies and soil thermal dynamics have a large influence on how simulated land carbon dynamics in Northern Eurasia will respond to future changes in climate, atmospheric chemistry, and disturbances.

  18. Restructuring leadership for 21st century schools : how transformational leadership and trust cultivate teacher leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Longwell-McKean, Paula Cheree

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature on effective leadership styles has emerged as 21st century leaders face higher student expectations, more demands on teachers and lack of support from the public. An examination of the effects of transactional and transformational leadership provides educators with indications as to the best practices with regard to transforming the direction of schools. Proponents of transformational leadership recommend this approach as the best fit for today's changing times. T...

  19. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    J. Martinez-Rey; L. Bopp; M. Gehlen; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.

    2014-01-01

    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with outp...

  20. Radiative forcing and climate response to projected 21st century aerosol decreases

    OpenAIRE

    Westervelt, D. M.; Horowitz, L.W.; V. Naik; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted to protect human health. For instance, global emissions of aerosols and their precursors are projected to decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) sce...

  1. Faculty-Librarian Partnerships to Teach Information Skills for the 21st Century.

    OpenAIRE

    Rader, Hannelore B.

    2001-01-01

    It is most important that students in higher education receive adequate education for productive work and scholarship in the technological information environment of the 21st century. Changes in the workforce, a knowledge-based economy, virtual environments, life-long learning and related factors are changing the climate within higher education around the world. Students must be prepared throughout their tenure in higher education to become productive employees and life long learners. One ver...

  2. Female leaders in the 21st century in a masculine world

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Kessler

    2014-01-01

    The 21st century shows an increase in the number of women occupying leadership positions. The challenge is: How do they lead in a context which is still male dominated? Often female leaders simply try to copy the male leadership style they are familiar with. But sometimes, in doing so, they lose their femininity and the organisation misses out on the specific opportunities of female leadership. One aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities and strengths of a female leadership style ...

  3. Modelling soil erosion risk and its impacts in the mediterranean area for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bissonnais, Yves; Cerdan, Olivier; Cheviron, Bruno; Darboux, Frédéric; Desprats, Jean-François; Fouché, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Soil degradation and erosion will be influenced during the 21st century both by climate and related or anthropogenic land use changes. Many current negative impacts of soil erosion may thus be amplified, and as certain soil thresholds are exceeded, potentially new and different problems could arise. Soils in the Mediterranean environment may be particularly vulnerable to such global changes because of contrasted climate, low vegetation cover and specific poor soil characteristics. It is there...

  4. FOR A SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL TRANSITION: 21ST CENTURY ORGANISATIONS REALIGN THEMSELVES AROUND VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Associate lecturer François Silva

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discus the changes that confronting our society. The modernity is perceived like an expression of man's control over himself and over nature through reason in a desire for unlimited expansion, therefore implying that growth could be infinite. Consequently, the new logics of the 21st century concern the globalisation of trade and the issues of sustainable development and social responsibility.

  5. Transforming students into 21st century thinkers through an ASL curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, John Charles

    2012-01-01

    This writing explores some of the challenges educators of deaf children are facing in classrooms across America. The 21st century has brought unprecedented levels of diversity to classrooms and deaf students are not immune to this phenomenon. Social learning is at a premium as students face challenges in their overall development. The identification of these challenges is followed by a discussion of innovative instructional methods such as : scaffolding, cooperative learning, and inquiry-base...

  6. Mid-21st Century Changes to Surface Hydrology Over the Los Angeles Region

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Marla Ann

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores projected mid-21st century changes to surface hydrological fluxes and states in the Los Angeles region at 2km resolution. This work quantifies and describes potential impacts of climate change to precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration and soil column moisture content in the Los Angeles region. Little previous research has focused on the impacts of climate change to water resources and surface hydrology in this region. We simulate detailed climatologies of surface hydro...

  7. A Conceptual Framework for the Integration of 21st Century Skills in Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chuo Hiong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to propose the conceptual framework for the integration of 21st century skills in biology education in Malaysia. An interdisciplinary approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM is suggested to imbibe 21st century skills into the existing Biology curriculum. Solving complex and interdisciplinary worldwide biology problems will require students to understand what connections exist across disciplines and how to make those connections. BTEM allows students to master biological knowledge and at the same time to be adroit in other sub disciplinary skills. The main teaching and learning strategies that apply in the BTEM subjects are problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning which require the coordination of both knowledge and skills simultaneously. This is intended to enhance the students’ abilities to construct their own knowledge through the relevant hands-on and minds-on activities. The essence of engineering is production of design for the inventive problem solving. Integrating advanced information communication technologies such as e-tools and World Wide Web resources are believed to be able to fulfil the learning style needs of the current ‘Net Generation’. Mathematics plays an important role providing computational tools for biology and engineering, especially in analysing data. The expected outcomes of BTEM implementation are the inculcation of 21st century skills digital literacy, inventive thinking, effective communication, high productivity, spiritual and noble values in Malaysian students.

  8. DEVELOPING THE 21ST-CENTURY SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imam FARISI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration into SS learning is one of the learning innovations in the global-digital era, and powerfully supports the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS as stated in their visions: meaningful, powerful, value-based, challenging, and active. It also strongly supports the development of three core skills of the 21st-century, including learning and innovation skills; information, media and technology skills; life and career skills that developed in partnership with the Partnership Forum for 21st-Century Skills (P21. This paper examines and describes academics evolution toward a commitment and further developments in research; 21stcentury skills map for the SS; and the implications for developing teachers’ competences and teachers’ education curriculum.

  9. CHALLENGES AND CORRESPONDING STRATEGIES FOR CHINAS PETROLEUM REFINING INDUSTRY IN 21st CENTURY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Challenges and corresponding strategies for Chinas petroleum refining industry in 21st century were described in this paper. Entering 21st century, many countries put more concerns on environmental protection and the possibility of continual development. Production of clean fuel with low sulfur, low olefin and low aromatics to reduce toxic material emission, clean production and free-toxic emission and development of environmental friendly products and technologies will be the main themes of worlds refining industry. The challenges faced by Chinas petroleum refining industry are those from inadequate crude sources, from plant scale and its economic benefit, from processing configuration and product structure, from inferior crude and high quality products and from environmental protection and sustaining development, etc. As long as china recognizes the development trend of overall refining technology and carry out long term strategy for technological innovation and progress, its petroleum refining industry will definitely undergo a greater development and become more capable in market competition in the 21st century.

  10. Teaching Students to Learn and to Work Well with 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Career and Life Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In "Do You Want Your Students to Be Job-Ready With 21st Century Skills?" Kivunja (2014a) draws on the work by the Partnership For Teaching 21st Century Skills (P21) reported by Trilling and Fadel (2009), to articulate that the skills that young people need to succeed as individuals, citizens and workers in the 21st century fall into four…

  11. Feeding and fueling the cities of the 21st century: Implications of declining energy quality and availability on the future growth and development of urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Stephen B.

    This dissertation comprises an introduction and four manuscripts and is organized into two main sections: agriculture and energy. Three of the four manuscripts have been published, and the fourth has been accepted for publication pending minor revisions. The agriculture section contains the first two manuscripts: The first manuscript is an analysis of the edible energy efficiency of US and Canadian agriculture. The main conclusion of this study was that the efficiency of US agriculture increased three-fold from its low in 1970 to 2000. Yet agricultural efficiency has returned to the level of only the 1940s and has increased much more slowly over the past two decades. In the second manuscript, I quantify the food demand, production, and footprint for Onondaga County and Syracuse, NY over the past 100 years. I find that the county could meet only 15% of its food demand from current farmland. The energy equivalent to approximately 2.8 million barrels of oil is required each year to grow and ship the food demanded by county residents. The energy section contains manuscripts three and four. The third manuscript contains a quantification of the transitions in the energy metabolism over the growth and maturation of a US city, by comparing the urban respiration of fuels to the annual net primary production of the land in and immediately surrounding the city. The fourth manuscript examines the net energy and greenhouse gas balance for willow energy-crop systems, a potential source of local energy production. We estimate that an EROI of 18:1 to 43:1 is possible at the farm-gate. Finally, I assess the opportunities for improving the energy metabolism of the City of Syracuse, using both supply and demand-based interventions. After considering many of the interventions available to improve the energy metabolism of the city, no one technology or policy or combination thereof appears to have the potential to replace fossil fuel consumption or reduce energy demand to the level

  12. Can nuclear energy support civilized society in the 21st century? From a civilization based on chemical reactions to a civilization based on nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Nations passed and adopted 'Principles of Sustainable Development' in 1992, as a resolution on the sustainable development of mankind. It advocates maintaining the ecological system to support the earth, while presenting the ethical issue of 'impartiality within a generation', the reduction of absolute poverty and also 'impartiality between generations', in particular 'not leaving a negative legacy to the next generation'. The issue of the appropriate handling of waste is by nature an issue of safety and resources, but is also an ethical issue. Nuclear power generation is more likely to conserve the environment, if the comparison between radioactive waste and carbon dioxide is considered. The creation of hydrogen by nuclear energy resembles the ecological relationship between the sun and the earth in that it consists of the conversion of nuclear energy into chemical energy. Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, particle acceleration and lasers can all be found in the universe. It will be possible to find a future for nuclear energy by learning from and imitating nature. If the future of nuclear energy is seen from the viewpoint of sustainability, it can be expected that energy resources will be secured and the environment will be conserved by a system of nuclear energy, which will hopefully grow into a comprehensive nuclear science and technology that supports the civilization at its roots. (orig.)

  13. Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2013-06-21

    Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

  14. PHWR advanced fuel R and D for the 21st Century in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    cycles, SEU, LWR/PHWR synergism (RU, MOX, TANDEM) and Th could be also considered for CANDU fuel cycles in the 21st century, because CANDU fuel cycle flexibility arises naturally from excellent neutron economy, on-power fuelling, and simple fuel design. The advanced fuel cycles can be utilized in the CANFLEX 43-element fuel bundle. However, the CANDU-PHWR advanced fuel R and D for the 21st century in Korea shall take into account 'nuclear safety', 'nuclear waste', 'non-proliferation' and 'economics' in the favor of the arguments from the public, international environment, and utilities. (author)

  15. Conference on Nuclear Energy and Science for the 21st Century: Atoms for Peace Plus Fifty - Washington, D.C., October 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaltzgraff, Robert L [Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis

    2006-10-22

    This conference's focus was the peaceful uses of the atom and their implications for nuclear science, energy security, nuclear medicine and national security. The conference also provided the setting for the presentation of the prestigious Enrico Fermi Prize, a Presidential Award which recognizes the contributions of distinguished members of the scientific community for a lifetime of exceptional achievement in the science and technology of nuclear, atomic, molecular, and particle interactions and effects. An impressive group of distinguished speakers addressed various issues that included: the impact and legacy of the Eisenhower Administration’s “Atoms for Peace” concept, the current and future role of nuclear power as an energy source, the challenges of controlling and accounting for existing fissile material, and the horizons of discovery for particle or high-energy physics. The basic goal of the conference was to examine what has been accomplished over the past fifty years as well as to peer into the future to gain insights into what may occur in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear science, nuclear medicine, and the control of nuclear materials.

  16. A multipurpose pollution-free high temperature heat supply system for 21st century service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 21st century, increasing environmental concerns, together with decreasing fossil fuel resources, will result in a gradual transition in the power industry to the use of nuclear energy on a global scale. The demand for energy to meet growing populations and the needs of industry, transportation, and the heating market, will be based on the increasing use of electricity and hydrogen, these being produced, first by fission and later by fusion reactors. The realization of this scenario will be the deployment of a high temperature reactor (HTR), which together with a heat transport loop constitutes a nuclear heat source (NHS). The initial large-scale use of the NHS will likely be for nuclear process heat, namely the fossil-free production of hydrogen by thermochemical water splitting. The same NHS will also be used for the high efficiency generation of electricity using an indirect cycle helium gas turbine. An important stepping stone towards this goal will be the operation of a high temperature test reactor (HTTR) currently under construction in Japan. This will pave the way for introduction of the HTR for hydrogen production and electricity generation around the year 2020. This paper puts into perspective technological aspects of a futuristic, pollution free, high temperature nuclear heat source

  17. Afghanistan’s significance for Russia in the 21st Century: Interests, Perceptions and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangar Kaneshko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since President Barack Obama set the end of 2014 as the deadline to complete the planned troop withdrawal from Afghanistan, numerous commentators have sought to assess Russia’s Afghan policy since September 11, 2001 and anticipate Moscow’s strategy in ‘post-2014’ Afghanistan. This paper maintains that an assessment/evaluation of Afghanistan’s significance for Russia in the current system of international relations is needed to understand Moscow’s current and future Afghan strategy. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify and analyse the major factors, which lead to a conceptualization of Russia’s interests in Afghanistan. When assessing Russia’s interests in Afghanistan, one must take into account a plethora of significant issues, including Putin’s ‘great-power’ rhetoric; geopolitical, geostrategic, and geo-economic rivalries in the wider region; security threats such as the illegal narcotics emanating from Afghanistan and global terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism; the rivalry and competition for energy resources; and control over pipeline routes and energy corridors. The analysis of these substantiating factors demonstrate why in the 21st century the Afghan problem remains a significant challenge to Russia’s ‘great power’ identity, to its international strategy abroad, to its strategically important ‘near abroad,’ and to the country’s domestic socio-economic policy

  18. Nuclear fusion as an energy option for the 21st Century; La fusion nuclear como opcion energetica para el Siglo 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera V, J.J.E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Under the point of view of the engineering, it is even a long road to travel before it is possible to build an economically competitive fusion reactor. In contrast, for each obstacle in the road different forms can be devised of approaching it, and the future is promising, whenever the necessary financing exists to support the investigations. The fusion can contribute to satisfy the energy necessities for the development of the civilization in a sustainable way, to medium term if it is used in symbiosis with the fission reactors, providing fuel and transmuting radioactive waste. In any event, this focus should be developed spreading the safety primarily in mind, and so the processes are economically competitive. Just as it can be appreciate in the sections of this work, the investigation in fusion requires of determination, discipline, and it is not for the weak of spirit. While other energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, they should take advantage in Mexico, the fusion is the more plaintiff, and it requires of scientific and technological resources of forefront. In certain form, together with the fission technology, it determines the crossroad that separates to the developed countries of those that are 'developing'. Brazil, South Korea, China and India, aware of the necessity of enough energy sources to sustain their development, they have already taken the initiative to accept the challenge. It corresponds Mexico to follow the example, or to stay in the status of 'developing country.' (Author)

  19. What is the role of Europe in the 21st century?

    OpenAIRE

    Busek, Erhard

    2013-01-01

    Unquestionably, the 20th century was a “European century”, but there are doubts whether the 21st century is a European one or not! This depends on Europe itself and the capacity to formulate its role. Obviously, we are in a new stage of Europe. History knows Europe in different stages. It makes no sense to define all periods, but for the influence of the past you may mention some of these on contemporary Europe: - We had the Europe of aristocracy partly until World War I, wh...

  20. 21st Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie C. Quieng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning in the 21st century aim to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social participation, and workplace success. This study has two goals: to determine the perceived extent of integration of 21st century-based soft skills in the cognitive-laden dentistry curriculum, and to examine the perceived 21st century-based soft skills of the student participants to serve as baseline data for future research. Communication, and relationship and collaboration skills will be critical components to motivate students; in turn, when students are motivated, it will encourage them to think critically and initiate actions toward the achievement of their goals.

  1. Milk Proteins, Peptides, and Oligosaccharides: Effects against the 21st Century Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is the most complete food for mammals, as it supplies all the energy and nutrients needed for the proper growth and development of the neonate. Milk is a source of many bioactive components, which not only help meeting the nutritional requirements of the consumers, but also play a relevant role in preventing various disorders. Milk-derived proteins and peptides have the potential to act as coadjuvants in conventional therapies, addressing cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, intestinal health, and chemopreventive properties. In addition to being a source of proteins and peptides, milk contains complex oligosaccharides that possess important functions related to the newborn’s development and health. Some of the health benefits attributed to milk oligosaccharides include prebiotic probifidogenic effects, antiadherence of pathogenic bacteria, and immunomodulation. This review focuses on recent findings demonstrating the biological activities of milk peptides, proteins, and oligosaccharides towards the prevention of diseases of the 21st century. Processing challenges hindering large-scale production and commercialization of those bioactive compounds have been also addressed.

  2. Assessing changes in precipitation and temperature over the Iberian Peninsula during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, Mariana; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima; Pinto, Armando

    2016-04-01

    Climate is a major factor driving the spatio-temporal distribution of most ecological systems and human activities, due to their vulnerability to inter-annual climate variability and to climate change. These systems are very sensitive to changes in traditional patterns of regional climate but also to the frequency and magnitude of extreme events. Changes in surface air temperature extremes and precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula were investigated using one of the high resolution climate simulations produced by the Euro-Cordex consortium. Two sets of simulations forced with the new IPCC AR5 emission scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, with a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km were used to compute climate indices defined by the European Climate Assessment (ECA) project, for present (1970-2010) and for the 21st century climates. Changes in magnitude and in the spatial patterns of these indices were evaluated and once the expected impacts in different sectors are related with these changes, the results provide information to be used in sectoral adaption measures, namely in tourism, water, agriculture, human health, energy and infrastructures.

  3. Opportunity of nuclear analytical techniques in environmental sciences at the 21 st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several frontier fields in environmental sciences at the 21 st century were successively outlined, including: (1) economic analysis and risk assessment; (2) environmental monitoring and ecology; (3) chemicals and environment; (4) energy system and environment; (5) industrial ecology; and (6) population and health. Afterwards, opportunity and challenge of nuclear analytical techniques in the mentioned-above environmental fields were explored. It was stated that (1) the inherent features of nuclear analytical techniques should be fully used and exploited; (2) the role of nuclear analytical techniques in quantitative and scientific risk assessment of environmental pollutants should be strengthened; (3) the position of nuclear analytical techniques in quality assurance system of environmental monitoring should be clearly recognized; (4) the ability of nuclear analytical techniques in study of chemical speciation and its effects of pollutant should be made of use; (5) the nuclear analytical techniques for study of new molecular bio-marker and environmental toxicology should be established; and (6) the application of nuclear analytical techniques in identification of new pollutants and their sources should be emphasized

  4. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Xia, Y.; Fu, Q.

    2011-08-01

    Recent simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a result of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of stratospheric ozone may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model results from both the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR4) models and coupled chemistry-climate models, we show that as ozone recovery is considered, the troposphere is warmed more than that without considering ozone recovery, suggesting an enhancement of tropospheric warming due to ozone recovery. It is found that the enhanced tropospheric warming is mostly significant in the upper troposphere, with a global and annual mean magnitude of ~0.41 K for 2001-2050. We also find that relatively large enhanced warming occurs in the extratropics and polar regions in summer and autumn in both hemispheres, while the enhanced warming is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Enhanced warming is also found at the surface. The global and annual mean enhancement of surface warming is about 0.16 K for 2001-2050, with maximum enhancement in the winter Arctic.

  5. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a result of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of stratospheric ozone may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model results from both the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR4 models and coupled chemistry-climate models, we show that as ozone recovery is considered, the troposphere is warmed more than that without considering ozone recovery, suggesting an enhancement of tropospheric warming due to ozone recovery. It is found that the enhanced tropospheric warming is mostly significant in the upper troposphere, with a global and annual mean magnitude of ~0.41 K for 2001–2050. We also find that relatively large enhanced warming occurs in the extratropics and polar regions in summer and autumn in both hemispheres, while the enhanced warming is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Enhanced warming is also found at the surface. The global and annual mean enhancement of surface warming is about 0.16 K for 2001–2050, with maximum enhancement in the winter Arctic.

  6. WATTec '92. Innovation in the 21st century: Excellence through continuous improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WATTec '92 will concentrate on five areas of major importance in today's world: Training and Education - What can be done to meet future needs and ensure that new technology is applied in the workplace? What innovative approaches can be taken to interest young people in careers in science and engineering? Productivity - What is the role of the scientist and engineer in the factory of the future? What must be done by large industries and small manufacturers to compete in the global economy? What innovative steps can be taken to make the most of our nation's resources and advantages while reducing disadvantages relative to others in the global economy? Technology - What are the technologies of the future and how will we use, share, understand and adopt these technologies? And how do we transfer them, not only within an individual business or institution, but to laboratories, educators, and others? How do we extend America's record for inventiveness while improving commercialization and work leadership in the technologies we create? Resources - What are the materials that will shape the world and how will they shape the technical profession in the 21st Century? How do we make the most of our natural resources, conserving them for best uses while protecting the environment and meeting the demands of international competition? The Nineteenth Annual WATTec Conference and Exhibition will focus on these and related questions in wide-ranging sessions sponsored by more than 40 technical professional societies. Papers within the scope of the Energy Data Base have been processed separately

  7. 21st Century Global Freshwater Security: Can it Exist and Can Scientists Communicate the Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models and decades of satellite data are converging on the unfortunate reality that Earth's water cycle is changing. Paleoclimate indicators remind us that this has always been the case. Freshwater is constantly being exchanged among the atmosphere, ocean, land and ice reservoirs, while on land, patterns of precipitation, evapotranspiration, flooding and drought are shifting. The evolving water cycle of the 21st century will likely be stronger, more variable, and will result in broad swaths of mid-latitude drying, accelerated by the depletion of the world's major groundwater aquifers. A well-defined geography of freshwater 'haves' and 'have-nots' is clearly emerging. What does water sustainability mean under such dynamic climate and hydrologic conditions, in particular when coupled with future projections of population growth? How will water managers cope with these new normals, and how will food and energy production be impacted? The responsibility of communicating this changing global water landscape falls squarely on the shoulders of the academic-research community, yet the challenge of doing so is daunting. In this Special Lecture I will review what our latest research tells us, and I will share my personal experiences with science communication and water diplomacy.

  8. Is psychiatry scientific? A letter to a 21st century psychiatry resident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Jose

    2013-09-01

    During the development of the DSM-5, even the lay press questioned psychiatr's scientific validity. This review provides 21st century psychiatry residents with ways of answering these attacks by defining the concepts and history of psychiatry (a branch of medicine), medicine and science. Psychiatric language has two levels: first, describing symptoms and signs (19th century descriptive psychopathology developed in France and Germany), and second, describing disorders (psychiatric nosology was developed in the early 20th century by Kraepelin and resuscitated by the US neo-Kraepelinian revolution leading to the DSM-III). Science is a complex trial-and-error historical process that can be threatened by those who believe too much in it and disregard its limitations. The most important psychiatric advances, electroconvulsive therapy and major psychopharmacological agents, were discovered by "chance", not by scientific planning. Jaspers's General Psychopathology is a complex 100-year-old book that describes: 1) psychiatric disorders as heterogeneous and 2) psychiatry as a hybrid scientific discipline requiring a combination of understanding (a social science method) and explanation (a natural science method). In the 21st century Berrios reminds us of psychiatry's unfortunate methodological issues due to hybrid symptoms and disorders, some of which are better understood as problems in communication between interacting human beings; in those situations neuroscience methods such as brain imaging make no sense. A new language is needed in psychiatry. East Asian psychiatry residents, who are not particularly attached to the antiquated language currently used, may be particularly equipped for the task of recreating psychiatric language using 21st century knowledge. PMID:24302942

  9. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award: The Public Obligation of Scientists in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Henry

    2002-04-01

    As many as ten billion people may be alive at the end of the 21st century. Without order-of-magnitude changes in the productivity of systems for satisfying this population’s needs and whimsies, we face starkly growing worldwide inequality, unsustainable plundering of shrinking supplies of natural resources, or both. Can we invent energy sources that are sustainable, affordable, and consistent with security? Can we mimic the ability of biological systems and build small, inexpensive machines that can fabricate tens of thousands of products on demand from simple raw materials? Can we use information and communication systems to optimize design and performance (the human brain uses half the energy of modern Pentium chips but most people seem much more clever.) Can we cut the resources needed to move people and things from point to point or to maintain homes and office spaces with comfortable light by an order of magnitude? As an APS summer study proved nearly three decades ago, there is much room for optimism about what we can do to address these problems and much has been learned since this initial foray. But there is there less room to be optimistic about changing incentive systems to reflect what we collectively want to do. Scientists who recognize what is possible can not in conscience ignore the complex, frustrating, and morally perilous world of domestic and international politics. Learning to be effective is not easy. Understanding political systems is not easy and being effective means engaging in the agonizing business of sorting through third or fourth-best solutions that are vastly better than no solution at all. The century can not end well without an effective partnership between science and politics.

  10. Twenty-First Century Creativity: An Investigation of How the Partnership for 21st Century Instructional Framework Reflects the Principles of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiajun; Woulfin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to consider how the 21st-century learning framework reflects principles of creativity. This article provides a qualitative analysis of the Partnership for 21st Century's (P21) policy documents, with a specific focus on how the principles of creativity, one of the 4Cs (creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and…

  11. 21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobiet, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.gobiet@uni-graz.at [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kotlarski, Sven, E-mail: sven.kotlarski@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Beniston, Martin, E-mail: martin.beniston@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland); Heinrich, Georg, E-mail: g.heinrich@uni-graz.at [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Rajczak, Jan, E-mail: jan.rajczak@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stoffel, Markus, E-mail: markus.stoffel@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500–2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. - Highlights: • Warming is expected to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Alpine region. • Seasonal shifts in precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity are expected. • Precipitation and temperature extremes are expected to intensify. • Snow cover

  12. 21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500–2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. - Highlights: • Warming is expected to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Alpine region. • Seasonal shifts in precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity are expected. • Precipitation and temperature extremes are expected to intensify. • Snow cover

  13. Developing 21st century skills through the use of student personal learning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert D.

    This research was conducted to study the development of 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills of students at the high school level through the use of online social network tools. The importance of this study was based on evidence high school and college students are not graduating with the requisite skills of communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills yet employers see these skills important to the success of their employees. The challenge addressed through this study was how high schools can integrate social network tools into traditional learning environments to foster the development of these 21st century skills. A qualitative research study was completed through the use of case study. One high school class in a suburban high performing town in Connecticut was selected as the research site and the sample population of eleven student participants engaged in two sets of interviews and learned through the use social network tools for one semester of the school year. The primary social network tools used were Facebook, Diigo, Google Sites, Google Docs, and Twitter. The data collected and analyzed partially supported the transfer of the theory of connectivism at the high school level. The students actively engaged in collaborative learning and research. Key results indicated a heightened engagement in learning, the development of collaborative learning and research skills, and a greater understanding of how to use social network tools for effective public communication. The use of social network tools with high school students was a positive experience that led to an increased awareness of the students as to the benefits social network tools have as a learning tool. The data supported the continued use of social network tools to develop 21st century communication, collaboration, and digital literacy skills. Future research in this area may explore emerging social network tools as well as the long term impact these tools

  14. Transforming Pedagogies:
Integrating 21st Century Skills And Web 2.0 Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelia Y. TUCKER

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to (P21, Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d., unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today’s education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these changing conditions in order to thrive. Students must be equipped to live in a multifaceted, multitasking, technology-driven world. And, regardless of their economic background, we must also ensure that all students have equal access to this new technological world. Collaborative learning theory which is connected to constructivism pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems. Students need lifelong learning skills i.e., communication and information skills, problem-solving and thinking skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The challenge becomes to deliberately incorporate learning skills into classrooms strategically and broadly. In this digital age, students must learn to use tools essential to everyday life and workplace productivity. They live in a world of almost unlimited streams of profound information, difficult choices and enormous opportunity. Teachers can create a 21st century context for learning by taking students out into the world, by bringing the world into the classroom, and by creating opportunities for students to collaboratively interact with each other (Learning for the, n.d.. One way of accomplishing this task is by employing the use of the Internet to connect Web 2.0 technology and 21st century skills. These skills are essential due to increased global competition, rising workforce capabilities, and accelerated technological change (Learning for the, n.d..

  15. Is the Partner the Don Quixote of the 21st Century Corporate World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the organizations in the contemporary knowledge economy are organized as professional partnerships as is the case of professional service firms (PSFs). As these firms have grown larger (e. g. Big4: Deloitte, PwC, E&Y, KPMG), the way of organizing is under pressure...... for change. This raises the question of whether the Partner ownership and management model is a relic of the past - and the partner a Don Quixote-figure of the 21st century corporate world? Based on an ethnographic study of a PSF in Denmark, and data from other sources, the paper analyzes the changing...

  16. An Analysis of Accounting Brazilian Studies Published in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ewerton Alex Avelar; Terence Machado Boina; Lívia Maria de Pádua Ribeiro; Thiago de Sousa Santos

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a research that analyzed features of studies published on the main Brazilian journals of Accounting in the 21st Century. The data were collected from 2,334 papers published in the 17 main Brazilian journals in according to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). Primarily, those papers had examined using the content analysis and organized in predefined categories. After that, the data were analyzed using the following techniques: c...

  17. The Competitiveness of China in the 21st Century: Analysing China's Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    The diploma thesis aims to discourse how China´s competitiveness has developed in the 21st century, with a special focus on human capital as one of the key factors of production that greatly fosters competitive advantage. The first chapter builds up a theoretical framework for the research part of the thesis. It reviews the concepts of competitiveness, Michael Porter´s diamond, and the theory of human capital. The second chapter examines trends and challenges of China´s competitive advantage ...

  18. [Perspectives in researches on grassland ecology for the early 21st century in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cunzhu; Zhu, Tingcheng; Wang, Deli; Lü, Xinlong

    2002-06-01

    Grassland degeneration is a prominent problem in China. More in-depth studies should be carried out on the key problem--grassland degeneration for Chinese grassland ecologists in the early 21st century. Some hot research fields were restoration ecology, interface ecology, grazing ecology, health diagnoses and evaluation for grasslands. Among them, restoration ecology was the foundation for restoring degenerative grasslands; interface ecology involved with the point of contact for analyzing degenerative grasslands; grazing ecology was the effective way to control degenerative grasslands; diagnoses of grassland health benefited accurately appraising degenerative levels of grasslands; and evaluation for grassland was also considered as an estimation on services and benefits of grassland ecosystems.

  19. Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cerroni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge society is a new social species that, despite many uncertainties and some (old and new ambiguities, is emerging on the horizon of the 21st century. Placed at the convergence of two long-term processes (society of individuals and knowledge society, it is characterised by the social-economic process of knowledge circulation, which can be divided into four fundamental phases (generation, institutionalisation, spreading and socialisation. The current situation also sees the traditional (modern structure of knowledge being outdated by the convergence of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information technologies and neuro-cognitive technologies (NBIC. In the background, the need arises to cross the cultural frontier of modernity.

  20. 21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engler, R.; Randin, C. F.; Thuiller, W.;

    2011-01-01

    Continental-scale assessments of 21st century global impacts of climate change on biodiversity have forecasted range contractions for many species. These coarse resolution studies are, however, of limited relevance for projecting risks to biodiversity in mountain systems, where pronounced...... that change in precipitation, not only warming, plays an important role in determining the potential impacts of climate change on vegetation....... microclimatic variation could allow species to persist locally, and are ill-suited for assessment of species-specific threat in particular regions. Here, we assess the impacts of climate change on 2632 plant species across all major European mountain ranges, using high-resolution (ca. 100 m) species samples...

  1. Acute pancreatitis at the beginning of the 21st century: The state of the art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfredo F Tonsi; Matilde Bacchion; Stefano Crippa; Giuseppe Malleo; Claudio Bassi

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas which can lead to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality in 20% of patients. Gallstones and alcohol consumption are the most frequent causes of pancreatitis in adults. The treatment of mild acute pancreatitis is conservative and supportive; however severe episodes characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic tissue may require surgical intervention. Advanced understanding of the pathology, and increased interest in assessment of disease severity are the cornerstones of future management strategies of this complex and heterogeneous disease in the 21st century.

  2. Scientific Workflow Systems for 21st Century e-Science, New Bottle or New Wine?

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yong; Foster, Ian

    2008-01-01

    With the advances in e-Sciences and the growing complexity of scientific analyses, more and more scientists and researchers are relying on workflow systems for process coordination, derivation automation, provenance tracking, and bookkeeping. While workflow systems have been in use for decades, it is unclear whether scientific workflows can or even should build on existing workflow technologies, or they require fundamentally new approaches. In this paper, we analyze the status and challenges of scientific workflows, investigate both existing technologies and emerging languages, platforms and systems, and identify the key challenges that must be addressed by workflow systems for e-science in the 21st century.

  3. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Therapeutic Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Murray, Barbara E; Rice, Louis B; Arias, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are serious health threats due in part to their ability to persist in rugged environments and their propensity to acquire antibiotic resistance determinants. Enterococci have now established a home in our hospitals and possess mechanisms to defeat most currently available antimicrobials. This article reviews the history of the struggle with this pathogen, what is known about the traits associated with its rise in the modern medical environment, and the current understanding of therapeutic approaches in severe infections caused by these microorganisms. As the 21st century progresses, vancomycin-resistant enterococci continue to pose a daunting clinical challenge. PMID:27208766

  4. Ultra-slow muon generation by laser resonant ionization towards the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At KEK-MSL we have been pursuing the Ultra-Slow Muon Project, in which thermal muonium atoms (designated as Mu; consisting of a μ+ and an e-) are generated from the surface of a hot tungsten foil, placed at the primary 500 MeV proton beam line, and ionized by intense lasers synchronized with the emission of Mu. In the 21st century, it will be extended to the intense slow-muon facility of M-arena at the JOINT PROJECT of KEK and JAERI, where 3 GeV, 333 μA of proton beam is available, for the surface science, atomic physics, etc. (author)

  5. A Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, lunar laser ranging to the Apollo retroreflector arrays, which are still operational after four decades, has produced some of the best tests of General Relativity. Since the ground Observatories have improved their accuracy by a factor of 200, the lunar hardware, due to the lunar librations, now limits the ranging accuracy. The Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st Century program plans to deploy new packages that will improve the ranging accuracy by a factor of ten to one hundred in the next few years

  6. The nursing organization and the transformation of health care delivery for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, M J

    1998-01-01

    Market transformations occurring within the health care industry require new patterns of organization and management to meet the increasing complexity of service delivery. A greater understanding of the innovation and entrepreneurial dynamic allows administrators, managers, and leaders to create a new vision of service delivery. Central management and leadership objectives include the development of service technologies that capitalize upon the inherent knowledge of workers to meet consumer needs. A strong sense of innovation and entrepreneurship leading to the introduction of new or improved nursing technologies is a primary component in the evolution of professional nursing practice for the 21st century. PMID:9505707

  7. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezaeian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century.

  8. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century. PMID:26853284

  9. English Continues to Be the World StandardLanguage in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凤梅

    2004-01-01

    @@ The world is in various stages of social, economic, and demographic transition. Economically and politically, the world has changed more rapidly in the past few years than at any time since 1945. The emerging global economy is both competitive and interdependent. It reflects the availability of modern communications and production technologies in most parts of the world. So, do we need to be concerned about the future of the English language in the 21st century? According to The Economist (1996), English continues to be the world standard language, and there is no major threat to the language or to its global popularity. But, changes are coming.

  10. Hitachi product data management system toward the 21st century by CALS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIPDM21 (Hitachi Product Data Management System for the 21st century) is a comprehensive computer information management system which has been developed for the purpose of plant life cycle business support in terms of the electronics information exchange and sharing between the disciplines using the product data management technology. The system consists of core systems (Engineering Data Control System, Integrated Commodity Database system, and Document Management System) and business application systems. In the present development phase, the system is being enhanced to support CALS standards including EDT, SGML, and STEP, and to support information exchange and sharing with outside the company including clients, construction companies, and domestic/international vendors. (author)

  11. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist

  12. 21st Century Science for Sustainable Development in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Meeting the Millennium Development Goals and, ultimately, eradicating extreme poverty, engages experts from many academic disciplines and different parts of society- climatologists, earth engineers, ecologists, economists, public health specialists, social activists, and politicians. We are in the midst of exciting technological and scientific breakthroughs that make it realistic to end extreme poverty by 2025. Indeed, the experiences of China and India in recent years have illustrated that technology can accelerate economic development to impressively high rates. India, which boasts growth rates of nearly 8% over the past decade, may end hunger among its population as early as 2007, thanks in large part to the Green Revolution underway there. The work of agronomists and economists are not unrelated - the science behind soil nutrients, water, and germplasm all fuel sustainable development. Science and technology are important ingredients for growth, and they are improving at an ever-increasing rate. When applied for the sake of human benefit, we have a tool of unprecedented strength. But the developing world has also reached a point of unprecedented environmental stress. Biodiversity faces serious threats, as do water supplies, forests, and the atmosphere. Developing and developed nations continue to grapple with the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions. We must maintain our scientific investigations and analysis while ensuring that development policy addresses long-term environmental needs. The energy sector is one obvious example. Several developing countries, China and India included, harbor vast coal deposits. Fueling development with coal will drastically exacerbate the ongoing spiral of man-made climate change. My presentation will focus on the contributions that 21st century science can make-indeed, must make-to ensure that sustainable development occurs and we meet the Millennium Challenge of cutting extreme poverty in half by 2015.

  13. A Curious Conundrum; The State of Holographic Portraiture in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology of producing (true) hologram portraits was first introduced in the late 1960's. From this time, a number of individuals and organizations worldwide have specialized in providing holographic portraiture services with varying degrees of achievement. Yet today, some 45 years later, holographic portraiture remains an obscure and niche form of displaying an individual's likeness. Despite all of this technology's promising and unique attributes, and the astonishing fact of holography being the most accurate and realistic form of imaging available today; true holographic portraits continues to be a form of portraiture largely unknown to the general public and has never achieved large-scale commercial success. This paper will present a brief history of holographic portraiture, designating the different types of 3-D hologram portraits available today, and their uses. Emphasis will be given to true holographic pulsed portraiture in which the subject itself is recorded holographically using high-energy pulsed lasers. Possible cause and effect for explaining the present demise of this type of portrait making will be discussed along with recent advancements and future developments in this fledgling field which could ultimately lead to a 'tipping point' in large-scale consumer and commercial awareness and desirability of the medium. The author will share his experiences in operating pulsed holographic portraiture studios for over the last 15 years including the vision of a new type of holographic portrait studio for the 21st century which he hopes will attain the level of success enabling a next generation of commercially viable holographic portrait studios for the future.

  14. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations show a stabilization or a weak increase of the stratospheric ozone layer since the late 1990s. Recent coupled chemistry-climate model simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a results of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the 1987 Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of the ozone layer may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model ensemble results from both the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR4 models and coupled chemistry-climate models, we show that as ozone recovery is considered, the troposphere is warmed more than that without considering ozone recovery, suggesting an enhancement of tropospheric warming due to ozone recovery. It is found that the enhanced tropospheric warming is mostly significant in the upper troposphere, with a global mean magnitude of ~0.41 K for 2001–2050. We also find that relatively large enhanced warming occurs in the extratropics and polar regions in summer and autumn in both hemispheres while the enhanced warming is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Enhanced warming is also found at the surface. The strongest enhancement of surface warming is located in the Arctic in boreal winter. The global annual mean enhancement of surface warming is about 0.16 K for 2001–2050.

  15. Ozone recovery may enhance global warming in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Y.; Hu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Observations show a stabilization or weak increasing of the stratospheric ozone layer since the late 1990s. Recent coupled chemistry-climate model simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a result of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the 1987 Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of the ozone layer may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model ensemble results from both the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR4) models and coupled chemistry-climate models, we show that as ozone recovery is considered, the troposphere is warmed more than that without considering ozone recovery, suggesting an enhancement of tropospheric warming due to ozone recovery. It is found that the enhanced tropospheric warming is mostly significant in the upper troposphere, with global mean magnitudes of about 0.41 K for A1B scenario and about 0.2 K for A2 and B1 scenarios over the period of 2001-2050. We also find that relatively large enhanced warming occurs in the extratratropics and polar regions in summer and autumn in both hemispheres while the enhanced warming is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Enhanced warming is also found at the surface. The strongest enhancement of surface warming is located in the Arctic in boreal winter. The global annual mean enhancement of surface warming is about 0.16 K, 0.08 K and 0.13 K for A1B, A2, and B1 over 2001-2050, respectively.

  16. Exhaustive Versus Randomized Searchers for Nonlinear Optimization in 21st Century Computing: Solar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Syamal K.; AliShaykhian, Gholam

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple multi-dimensional exhaustive search method to obtain, in a reasonable time, the optimal solution of a nonlinear programming problem. It is more relevant in the present day non-mainframe computing scenario where an estimated 95% computing resources remains unutilized and computing speed touches petaflops. While the processor speed is doubling every 18 months, the band width is doubling every 12 months, and the hard disk space is doubling every 9 months. A randomized search algorithm or, equivalently, an evolutionary search method is often used instead of an exhaustive search algorithm. The reason is that a randomized approach is usually polynomial-time, i.e., fast while an exhaustive search method is exponential-time i.e., slow. We discuss the increasing importance of exhaustive search in optimization with the steady increase of computing power for solving many real-world problems of reasonable size. We also discuss the computational error and complexity of the search algorithm focusing on the fact that no measuring device can usually measure a quantity with an accuracy greater than 0.005%. We stress the fact that the quality of solution of the exhaustive search - a deterministic method - is better than that of randomized search. In 21 st century computing environment, exhaustive search cannot be left aside as an untouchable and it is not always exponential. We also describe a possible application of these algorithms in improving the efficiency of solar cells - a real hot topic - in the current energy crisis. These algorithms could be excellent tools in the hands of experimentalists and could save not only large amount of time needed for experiments but also could validate the theory against experimental results fast.

  17. INTEGRATION OF EUROPEAN FINANCIAL MARKETS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Antoaneta RADOI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest four decades have marked by their width, speed and radicality a true “revolution” on the financial market, a transformation and restructuring of financial services, of financial instruments which were used, of transaction systems, but also of competitive processes. The importance that should be given to such transformations of financial systems is given, as well, by their impact, both at the micro- and at the macro- levels, on the economy as a whole.The evolution of the European financial market at the beginning of the 21st century has followed the general trend of global markets. As a main tendency of financial market restructuring at the European level we should keep in mind the fact that there was an opening towards private financing according to the American model, due to the necessity to attract international capital resources, a process which is still ongoing.The integration of the European financial markets at the beginning of the 21st century follows the general process of financial globalization which develops rapidly on several structures of financial systems.

  18. Functional response of U.S. grasslands to the early 21st-century drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E; Huete, Alfredo; McClaran, Mitchel P; Zhang, Yongguang; Hamerlynck, Erik P; Augustine, David J; Gunter, Stacey A; Kitchen, Stanley G; Peters, Debra P C; Starks, Patrick J; Hernandez, Mariano

    2014-08-01

    Grasslands across the United States play a key role in regional livelihood and national food security. Yet, it is still unclear how this important resource will respond to the prolonged warm droughts and more intense rainfall events predicted with climate change. The early 21st-century drought in the southwestern United States resulted in hydroclimatic conditions that are similar to those expected with future climate change. We investigated the impact of the early 21st-century drought on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of six desert and plains grasslands dominated by C4 (warm season) grasses in terms of significant deviations between observed and expected ANPP. In desert grasslands, drought-induced grass mortality led to shifts in the functional response to annual total precipitation (P(T)), and in some cases, new species assemblages occurred that included invasive species. In contrast, the ANPP in plains grasslands exhibited a strong linear function of the current-year P(T) and the previous-year ANPP, despite prolonged warm drought. We used these results to disentangle the impacts of interannual total precipitation, intra-annual precipitation patterns, and grassland abundance on ANPP, and thus generalize the functional response of C4 grasslands to predicted climate change. This will allow managers to plan for predictable shifts in resources associated with climate change related to fire risk, loss of forage, and ecosystem services.

  19. Why Does the Stratosphere Get Wetter During the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Douglass, A. R.; Oman, L.

    2014-12-01

    All chemistry-climate models predict that 1) the TTL warms during the 21st century and 2) that the humidity of air entering the stratosphere increases over this same period. It seems reasonable to conclude that the former causes the latter, but to our knowledge no one has actually tested that. We do so here by analyzing one chemistry-climate model in detail (the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM) and find that the warming of the TTL explains only a fraction of the increase in humidity of air entering the stratosphere. We do this by using meteorological fields from the model to drive a trajectory model, which estimates the water vapor variations in response to the large-scale temperature field. Water vapor simulated by the trajectory model increases by about one quarter of the amount it increases in the GEOSCCM. We conclude that, over the 21st century, an increase in the flux of ice through the TTL is responsible for most of the increase in the humidity of air entering the stratosphere in this model.

  20. Why Does the Stratosphere Get Moister During the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessler, A.E.; Schoberl, M. R.; Ye, H.; Wang, T.; Oman, L.; Douglass, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    All chemistry-climate models predict that 1) the TTL warms during the 21st century and 2) that the humidity of air entering the stratosphere increases over this same period. It seems reasonable to conclude that the former causes the latter, but to our knowledge no one has actually tested that. We do so here by analyzing one chemistry-climate model in detail (the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model, GEOSCCM) and find that the warming of the TTL explains only a fraction of the increase in humidity of air entering the stratosphere. We do this by using meteorological fields from the model to drive a trajectory model, which estimates the water vapor variations in response to the large-scale temperature field. Water vapor simulated by the trajectory model increases by about one quarter of the amount it increases in the GEOSCCM. We conclude that, over the 21st century, an increase in the flux of ice through the TTL is responsible for most of the increase in the humidity of air entering the stratosphere in this model.

  1. Projected Risk of Flooding Disaster over China in 21st Century Based on CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rouke; Xu, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Based on the simulations from CMIP5 models, using climate indices which have high correlation with historical disaster data, and in combination with terrain elevation data and the socio-economic data, to project the flooding disaster risk, the vulnerability of flooding hazard affected body and the risk of flooding hazard respectively during the near term(2015-2039), medium term(2045-2069) and long term(2075-2099) under RCP8.5. According to the IPCC AR5 WGII, we used risk evaluation model of disaster: R=E*H*V. R on behalf of disaster risk index. H, E and V express risk, exposure and vulnerability respectively. The results show that the extreme flooding disaster risk will gradually increase during different terms in the future, and regions with high risk level of flooding hazard are might mainly located in southeastern and eastern China. Under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas emissions scenario, the high risk of flooding disaster in future might mainly appear in eastern part of Sichuan, most of North China, and major of East China. Compared with the baseline period,21st century forward, although the occurrence of floods area changes little, the regional strong risk will increase during the end of the 21st century. Due to the coarse resolution of climate models and the methodology for determining weight coefficients, large uncertainty still exists in the projection of the flooding disaster risk.

  2. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are: Creativity and Innovation Communication and Collaboration Research and Information Literacy Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Digital Citizenship Technology Operations and Concepts

  3. Stratospheric Temperature Changes and Ozone Recovery in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yongyun; XIA Yan; GAO Mei; LU Daren

    2009-01-01

    Increasing greenhouse gases and likely ozone recovery will be the two most important factors influencing changes in stratospheric temperatures in the 21st century. The radiative effect of increasing greenhouse gases will cause cooling in the stratosphere, while ozone recovery will lead to stratospheric warming. To investigate how stratospheric temperatures change under the two opposite forcings in the 21st century, we use observed ozone and reanalysis data as well as simulation results from four coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulation models (GISS-ER, GFDL-CM20, NCAR-CCSM3, and UKMO-HadCM3) used in the IPCC (Intergovernment Panel for Climate Change) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Observational analysis shows that total column ozone and lower stratospheric temperatures all show increasing in the past 10 years, while middle stratospheric temperatures demonstrate cooling. IPCC AR4 simulations show that greenhouse forcing alone will lead to stratospheric cooling. However, with forcing of both increasing greenhouse gases and ozone recovery, the middle stratosphere will be cooled, while the lower stratosphere will be warmed. Warming magnitudes vary from one model to another. UKMO-HadCM3 generates relatively strong warming for all three greenhouse scenarios, and warming extends to 40 hPa. GFDL-CM20 and NCAR-CCSM3 produce weak warming, and warming mainly exists at lower levels, below about 60 hPa. In addition, we also discuss the effect of temperature changes on ozone recovery.

  4. Quantifying Uncertainty in Projections of Stratospheric Ozone Over the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, A. J.; Hawkins, E.; Eyring, V.; Cionni, I.; Bodeker, G. E.; Kinnison, D. E.; Akiyoshi, H.; Frith, S. M.; Garcia, R.; Gettelman, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Nakamura, T.; Pawson, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Bekki, S.; Braesicke, P.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S.; Marchand, M.; Mancini, E.; Morgenstern, O.; Pitari, G.; Plummer, D.; Pyle, J. A.; Rozanov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Future stratospheric ozone concentrations will be determined both by changes in the concentration of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and by changes in stratospheric and tropospheric climate, including those caused by changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Since future economic development pathways and resultant emissions of GHGs are uncertain, anthropogenic climate change could be a significant source of uncertainty for future projections of stratospheric ozone. In this pilot study, using an ensemble of opportunity of chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations, the contribution of scenario uncertainty from different plausible emissions pathways for 10 ODSs and GHGs to future ozone projections is quantified relative to the contribution from model uncertainty and internal variability of the chemistry-climate system. For both the global, annual mean ozone concentration and for ozone in specific geographical regions, differences between CCMs are the dominant source of uncertainty for the first two-thirds of the 21 st century, up-to and after the time when ozone concentrations 15 return to 1980 values. In the last third of the 21st century, dependent upon the set of greenhouse gas scenarios used, scenario uncertainty can be the dominant contributor. This result suggests that investment in chemistry-climate modelling is likely to continue to refine projections of stratospheric ozone and estimates of the return of stratospheric ozone concentrations to pre-1980 levels.

  5. Quantifying uncertainty in projections of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Charlton-Perez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Future stratospheric ozone concentrations will be determined both by changes in the concentration of ozone depleting substances (ODSs and by changes in stratospheric and tropospheric climate, including those caused by changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs. Since future economic development pathways and resultant emissions of GHGs are uncertain, anthropogenic climate change could be a significant source of uncertainty for future projections of stratospheric ozone. In this pilot study, using an "ensemble of opportunity" of chemistry-climate model (CCM simulations, the contribution of scenario uncertainty from different plausible emissions pathways for ODSs and GHGs to future ozone projections is quantified relative to the contribution from model uncertainty and internal variability of the chemistry-climate system. For both the global, annual mean ozone concentration and for ozone in specific geographical regions, differences between CCMs are the dominant source of uncertainty for the first two-thirds of the 21st century, up-to and after the time when ozone concentrations return to 1980 values. In the last third of the 21st century, dependent upon the set of greenhouse gas scenarios used, scenario uncertainty can be the dominant contributor. This result suggests that investment in chemistry-climate modelling is likely to continue to refine projections of stratospheric ozone and estimates of the return of stratospheric ozone concentrations to pre-1980 levels.

  6. The potential to narrow uncertainty in projections of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Charlton-Perez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Future stratospheric ozone concentrations will be determined both by changes in the concentration of ozone depleting substances (ODSs and by changes in stratospheric and tropospheric climate, including those caused by changes in anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs. Since future economic development pathways and resultant emissions of GHGs are uncertain, anthropogenic climate change could be a significant source of uncertainty for future projections of stratospheric ozone. In this pilot study, using an "ensemble of opportunity" of chemistry-climate model (CCM simulations, the contribution of scenario uncertainty from different plausible emissions pathways for ODSs and GHGs to future ozone projections is quantified relative to the contribution from model uncertainty and internal variability of the chemistry-climate system. For both the global, annual mean ozone concentration and for ozone in specific geographical regions, differences between CCMs are the dominant source of uncertainty for the first two-thirds of the 21st century, up-to and after the time when ozone concentrations return to 1980 values. In the last third of the 21st century, dependent upon the set of greenhouse gas scenarios used, scenario uncertainty can be the dominant contributor. This result suggests that investment in chemistry-climate modelling is likely to continue to refine projections of stratospheric ozone and estimates of the return of stratospheric ozone concentrations to pre-1980 levels.

  7. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hendon SHEIKH ABDULLAH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This article discusses the need for transforming the primary school science teaching environment so that school children could have meaningful learning using tools familiar to them. However, while some parts of Malaysia are developing very rapidly, others are not developing as rapidly. School children in some areas are just as contented to share a single desktop computer without the Internet for a lesson. Thus teachers need to be creative to transform and improvise the learning environment to meet the pupils’ needs. This article discusses a case study on seven excellent teachers of primary school science from different parts of Malaysia. The findings of the study indicated that the excellent teachers have improvised their teachings and teaching environment to meet the needs of their pupils and the curriculum for 21st century learning.

  8. The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGONIGLE, Ian Vincent; Benjamin, Ruha

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biological and computational technologies are changing the way different social groups imagine race, gender, kinship, citizenship and disease risk. Existing taxonomies are being displaced or reconfigured, impacting the ways in which people are governed, how lives are lived, how groups are known and how power is exercised. Herein we report on a two-day international symposium that we co-organized, titled 'The molecularization of identity: science and subjectivity in the 21st century,' that was held on 29-30 April 2016 at the Program on Science, Technology and Society, at Harvard University. The symposium drew upon the tools and expertise from multiple disciplines and diverse geographical regions and consisted of 24 original research presentations and an interdisciplinary roundtable. Specific attention was paid to the bioethical, material and lived dimensions of recent developments in molecular technologies, and discussions interrogated the complex ways in which the 'molecular realm' is an emerging site for constituting human identities in the 21st century. Herein we summarize some of the key findings of the conference and raise three further issues for practitioners and researchers to consider in relation to the broader impact of genetics research. Namely: transnational governance of emerging biotechnologies; representation of different interest groups in policy decisions; and rights of access to emerging technologies. PMID:27376979

  9. A Future State for NASA Laboratories - Working in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Harris, Charles E.; Antcliff, Richard R.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The name "21 st Century Laboratory" is an emerging concept of how NASA (and the world) will conduct research in the very near future. Our approach is to carefully plan for significant technological changes in products, organization, and society. The NASA mission can be the beneficiary of these changes, provided the Agency prepares for the role of 21st Century laboratories in research and technology development and its deployment in this new age. It has been clear for some time now that the technology revolutions, technology "mega-trends" that we are in the midst of now, all have a common element centered around advanced computational modeling of small scale physics. Whether it is nano technology, bio technology or advanced computational technology, all of these megatrends are converging on science at the very small scale where it is profoundly important to consider the quantum effects at play with physics at that scale. Whether it is the bio-technology creation of "nanites" designed to mimic our immune system or the creation of nanoscale infotechnology devices, allowing an order of magnitude increase in computational capability, all involve quantum physics that serves as the heart of these revolutionary changes.

  10. 21st Century Learning Skills Embedded in Climate Literacy Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T. G.; Blaney, L.

    2011-12-01

    Trilling and Fadel's "21st Century Learning Skills" defines a vision of how to infuse an expanded set of skills, competencies and flexibilities into the classroom. Among these skills are global awareness, health and environmental literacy. The authors contend that in order for our students to compete, they will need critical thinking and problem solving skills, communication and collaboration, and creativity and innovation. Students will also need to be digital savvy. This poster outlines a program of preparing teachers to implement inquiry-based modules that allow students to exercise hypothetical deductive reasoning to address climate literacy issues such as: the Dust Bowl, thermohaline circulation, droughts, the North Atlantic Oscillation, climate variability and energy challenges. This program is implemented through the Earth System Science Education Alliance. ESSEA supports the educational goal of "attracting and retaining students in science careers" and the associated goal of "attracting and retaining students in science through a progression of educational opportunities for students, teachers and faculty." ESSEA provides long-duration educator professional development that results in deeper content understanding and confidence in teaching global climate change and science disciplines. The target audience for this effort is pre-service and in-service K-12 teachers. The ESSEA program develops shared educational resources - including modules and courses - that are based on NASA and NOAA climate science and data. The program is disseminated through the ESSEA Web site: http://essea.courses.strategies.org. ESSEA increases teachers' access to high-quality materials, standards-based instructional methods and content knowledge. Started in 2000 and based on online courses for K-12 teachers, ESSEA includes the participation of faculty at 45 universities and science centers. Over 3,500 pre- and in-service K-12 teachers have completed ESSEA courses. In addition to 21st

  11. A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A; Meko, David M; MacDonald, Glen M; Stahle, Dave W; Cook, Edward R

    2010-12-14

    A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ∼AD 900-1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1 °C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future.

  12. On Recovery of the Ozone Layer in the Northern Hemisphere in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    Time recovery of the ozone layer in the latitudinal zones of 0°-85° N, 0°-30° N, 30°-60° N and 60°-85° N in the 21st century has been evaluated. Evaluations have been made using an interactive chemical dynamical radiative two-dimensional (2-D) model of the middle atmosphere Socrates (height 0-120 km). As initial data for calculations for the first time the greenhouse gas concentration scenarios of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) RCP 4.5 and RCP 6.0 have been used. According to the scenario RCP 4.5 a stabilization of the radiative forcing must occur before the end of the twenty-first century, and according to the scenario RCP 6.0 - in the 22nd century. It has been shown that under both scenarios, the recovery of the ozone layer in the northern hemisphere (0°-85° N) can take place in 2035, and in zones of 0°-30° N, 30°-60° N and 60°-85° N does in 2020, 2030 and 2035, respectively. It has been also shown that after recovery the ozone layer will continue to grow and by the end of the 21st century will reach the stationary level exceeding undisturbed level of 1960 at 2.7% (scenario RCP 4.5) and 3.6% (scenario RCP 6.0) in zone 0°-85° N. It seems to be not smaller ecological threat than depletion of the ozone layer at the end of the twentieth century. The results obtained are in good agreement with the known literary data (see, for example, Table 3-3 in "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010"), indicating that the model Socrates and "concentration" scenarios of IPCC can successfully be used for such calculations.

  13. Results from the 2010 INMM International Containment and Surveillance Workshop focused on Concepts for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) held an International Workshop on 'Containment and Surveillance: Concepts for the 21st Century' on June 6-11, 2010 at the Oak National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The National Nuclear Security Administration Offices of Non-proliferation Research and Development and Office of Nuclear Safeguards sponsored the event. The workshop focused on determining concepts and needs for 21st century containment and surveillance (C/S) systems that support International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards and future arms control agreements. Panel discussions from subject matter experts and international practitioners provided the daily topical theme of the following areas of C/S: authentication, tagging, sealing, containment verification, and surveillance systems. Each panel discussion was followed with a question and answer session with the audience and an afternoon breakout session. The facilitated breakout sessions were used to compile and determine future needs. Individuals attending the workshop included C/S experts and practitioners; IAEA and arms control inspectors, technology providers, vendors, students and individuals with an interest in or desire to learn about future C/S system needs. The primary goal for the workshop was to produce a document that details the future research and development needs for C/S systems that support nuclear safeguards and arms control missions. This paper will present a compilation of the information obtained from breakout sessions at the workshop. (author)

  14. Reinstatement of material research in the 21st century; 21 seiki ni okeru zairyo kenkyu no fukken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinbara, K. [Osaka Univercity, Osaka (Japan). Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research

    2000-03-10

    Just before the 21st century, Japan is demanded most importantly of reforming the industrial structures, breeding new industries, and working on global environment and energy problems. To solve these problems, emergence of material technologies based on original ideas is indispensable. However, Japan lacks a temperament to value original ideas and support them in positive manners. Structuring unique ideas and concepts with high originality is one of the most important intellectual production activities for human being. Understanding that these activities require incessant challenging spirit and accumulation of exhaustive efforts, a system should be structured to give the highest honor to researchers and groups who have made successes in this respect. It should be understood that development of the material technologies requires huge amount of fund, human resources and time, and national strategies should be established as required. Habitat segregation is to be moved forward in research and development, and a system will be built that links effectively the seed oriented research by universities and national research institutes with the need oriented research by business enterprises. The 21st century will be an age that many people can dream of their own success. (NEDO)

  15. Supporting food security in the 21st century through resource-conserving increases in agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uphoff Norman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Green Revolution was accomplished under a set of demographic, economic, climatic and other conditions in the 20th century that have been changing and will surely be different and more difficult in the decades ahead. The suitability and sustainability of any given agricultural technology depends on factors like resource availability and productivity, energy costs, and environmental constraints. The achievements of Green Revolution technologies in the 1960s and 1970s came at a critical time of impending food shortages, and the world’s people would be worse off without them. However, the rate of yield improvement for cereal production has been slowing since the mid-1980s. Looking ahead at the foreseeable circumstances under which 21st century agricultural producers must try to assure food security, there will be need for technologies that are less dependent on resources that are becoming relatively scarcer, like arable land and water, or becoming relatively more costly, like energy and petrochemical-based inputs. This paper considers agroecologically-based innovations that reduce farmers’ dependence on external inputs, relying more on endogenous processes and existing potentials in plants and soil systems. Such resource-conserving production represents a different approach to meeting food security goals. While these innovations are not yet fully understood and are still being researched, there are good agronomic reasons to account for their effectiveness, and scientific validations are accumulating. Enough successes have been recorded from making changes in the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients that more attention from researchers, policy-makers and practitioners is warranted, especially given the need to adapt to, and to mitigate the effects of, climate change. The same agroecological concepts and management methods that are enhancing factor productivity in rice production are giving similar results with other crops

  16. 21-st century precipitation estimation in the Danube middle and lower basin by EVT modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, C.; Mares, I.; Mihailescu, M.; Stanciu, A.

    2010-09-01

    The simulated precipitation for the 20-th and 21-st centuries at 10 stations from the Danube middle and lower basin are analysed together with the daily pressure values at sea level from March, April, May for 42 years obtained from the four GCMs (CNRM, ECHAM5-MPI, EGMAM and IPSL). For the 20-th century the period 1958-1999 was considered and for the 21-st century 2 periods of 42 years were selected: 2009-2050 and 2051-2092 from the A1B scenario. In the pressure field, the predictors from three key zones were selected as being significant for the precipitation behavior from the Danube middle and lower basin. A nonhomogeneus hidden Markov model (NHMM) with 7 states was applied for the precipitation from 10 stations, for observations and also for each of the considered scenarios, with 3 predictors defined in the key points. The precipitation values were corrected by bias and the predictors were the same for all models, calculated from pressure values corrected by bias. After the modelling of the daily precipitation through a NHMM, a simulation was done on 100 achievements each one with 42 years and 90 days each year. In this way, the daily maximum precipitation amounts during spring from 4200 years were selected. This simulation was necessary in order to increase the statistical selection volume necessary within the modelling through distribution of the extreme values. From these precipitation simulated with NHMM for 4200 years, the maximum daily amounts during spring were selected and then modelled with a generalized distribution of the extreme values (GEV). For the modelling by generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) the daily precipitation values which exceed a certain threshold were selected. After testing several thresholds values, it was concluded that the most adequate is the 50 mm threshold for each of the 10 considered stations. Also it was made an average of the precipitation on the 10 considered stations and from the analysis of the different thresholds it

  17. Snow Cover on the Arctic Sea Ice: Model Validation, Sensitivity, and 21st Century Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazey, Benjamin Andrew

    The role of snow cover in controlling Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness and extent is assessed with a series of models. Investigations with the stand alone Community Ice CodE (CICE) show, first, a reduction in snow depth triggers a decrease in ice volume and area, and, second, that the impact of increased snow is heavily dependent on ice and atmospheric conditions. Hindcast snow depths on the Arctic ice, simulated by the fully coupled Community Climate System Model (CCSM) are validated with 20th century in situ snow depth measurements. The snow depths in CCSM are found to be deeper than observed, likely due to excessive precipitation produced by the component atmosphere model. The sensitivity of the ice to the thermal barrier imposed by the biased snow depth is assessed. The removal of the thermodynamic impact of the exaggerated snow depth increases ice area and volume. The initial increases in ice due to enhanced conductive flux triggers feedback mechanisms with the atmosphere and ocean, reinforcing the increase in ice. Finally, the 21st century projections of decreased Arctic Ocean snow depth in CCSM are reported and diagnosed. The changes in snow are dominated by reduced accumulation due to the lack of autumn ice cover. Without this platform, much of the early snowfall is lost directly to the ocean. While this decrease in snow results in enhanced conductive flux through the ice as in the validation sensitivity experiment, the decreased summer albedo is found to dominate, as in the CICE stand alone sensitivity experiment. As such, the decrease in snow projected by CCSM in the 21st century presents a mechanism to continued ice loss. These negative (ice growth due decreased insulation) and positive (ice melt due to decreased albedo) feedback mechanisms highlight the need for an accurate representation snow cover on the ice in order to accurately simulate the evolution of Arctic Ocean sea ice.

  18. CESM-simulated 21st Century Changes in Large Scale Crop Water Requirements and Yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, S.; Badger, A.; Drewniak, B. A.; O'Neill, B. C.; Ren, X.

    2014-12-01

    We assess potential changes in crop water requirements and corresponding yields relative to the late 20th century in major crop producing regions of the world by using the Community Land Model (CLM) driven with 21st century meteorology from RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations. The RCP4.5 simulation allows us to explore the potential for averted societal impacts when compared to the RCP8.5 simulation. We consider the possibility for increased yields and improved water use efficiency under conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2 due to the CO2 fertilization effect (also known as concentration-carbon feedback). We address uncertainty in the current understanding of plant CO2 fertilization by repeating the simulations with and without the CO2 fertilization effect. Simulations without CO2 fertilization represent the radiative effect of elevated CO2 (i.e., warming) without representing the physiological effect of elevated CO2 (enhanced carbon uptake and increased water use efficiency by plants during photosynthesis). Preliminary results suggest that some plants may suffer from increasing heat and drought in much of the world without the CO2 fertilization effect. On the other hand plants (especially C3) tend to grow more with less water when models include the CO2 fertilization effect. Performing 21st century simulations with and without the CO2 fertilization effect brackets the potential range of outcomes. In this work we use the CLM crop model, which includes specific crop types that differ from the model's default plant functional types in that the crops get planted, harvested, and potentially fertilized and irrigated according to algorithms that attempt to capture human management decisions. We use an updated version of the CLM4.5 that includes cotton, rice, and sugarcane, spring wheat, spring barley, and spring rye, as well as temperate and tropical maize and soybean.

  19. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, M.; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, M.C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, J.; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  20. Space activity in the 21 st century forum at unispace III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Karl H.; Zhdanovich, Olga V.

    2000-07-01

    During the 21st Century, space activity will have a profound influence on life on Earth and on the development of society. Space activity will touch ever more firmly on the provision of the necessities and qualities of life and will accelerate the movement of nations towards the concept of the global village. A study by Prospective 2100, a group identifying major global trends for the next century, ranked space activity as one of the twelve most important factors for shaping the next century, alongside such items as education, ocean cities, the planetary garden, caring and sharing. The International Space University, ISU, the International Astronautical Federation, IAF, and Prospective 2100 joined forces to study in detail how this influence of space activity would be manifested in the next century. The one-day forum at UNISPACE III was one of a number of international, intercultural and interdisciplinary fora held during the past year to consider what would be the most appropriate space activity for the next century to meet the needs of humanity. The findings and recommendations of the forum are presented in this report.