Sample records for 21st century approach

  1. Astroinformatics: A 21st Century Approach to Astronomy

    Borne, Kirk D


    Data volumes from multiple sky surveys have grown from gigabytes into terabytes during the past decade, and will grow from terabytes into tens (or hundreds) of petabytes in the next decade. This exponential growth of new data both enables and challenges effective astronomical research, requiring new approaches. Thus far, astronomy has tended to address these challenges in an informal and ad hoc manner, with the necessary special expertise being assigned to e-Science or survey science. However, we see an even wider scope and therefore promote a broader vision of this data-driven revolution in astronomical research. For astronomy to effectively cope with and reap the maximum scientific return from existing and future large sky surveys, facilities, and data-producing projects, we need our own information science specialists. We therefore recommend the formal creation, recognition, and support of a major new discipline, which we call Astroinformatics. Astroinformatics includes a set of naturally-related specialti...

  2. Approaches to defining deltaic sustainability in the 21st century

    Day, John W.; Agboola, Julius; Chen, Zhongyuan; D'Elia, Christopher; Forbes, Donald L.; Giosan, Liviu; Kemp, Paul; Kuenzer, Claudia; Lane, Robert R.; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Syvitski, James; Yañez-Arancibia, Alejandro


    Deltas are among the most productive and economically important of global ecosystems but unfortunately they are also among the most threatened by human activities. Here we discuss deltas and human impact, several approaches to defining deltaic sustainability and present a ranking of sustainability. Delta sustainability must be considered within the context of global biophysical and socioeconomic constraints that include thermodynamic limitations, scale and embeddedness, and constraints at the level of the biosphere/geosphere. The development, functioning, and sustainability of deltas are the result of external and internal inputs of energy and materials, such as sediments and nutrients, that include delta lobe development, channel switching, crevasse formation, river floods, storms and associated waves and storm surges, and tides and other ocean currents. Modern deltas developed over the past several thousand years with relatively stable global mean sea level, predictable material inputs from drainage basins and the sea, and as extremely open systems. Human activity has changed these conditions to make deltas less sustainable, in that they are unable to persist through time structurally or functionally. Deltaic sustainability can be considered from geomorphic, ecological, and economic perspectives, with functional processes at these three levels being highly interactive. Changes in this functioning can lead to either enhanced or diminished sustainability, but most changes have been detrimental. There is a growing understanding that the trajectories of global environmental change and cost of energy will make achieving delta sustainability more challenging and limit options for management. Several delta types are identified in terms of sustainability including those in arid regions, those with high and low energy-intensive management systems, deltas below sea level, tropical deltas, and Arctic deltas. Representative deltas are ranked on a sustainability range

  3. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    David Scott


    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  4. Immunomics: a 21st century approach to vaccine development for complex pathogens.

    De Sousa, Karina P; Doolan, Denise L


    Immunomics is a relatively new field of research which integrates the disciplines of immunology, genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics to characterize the host-pathogen interface. Herein, we discuss how rapid advances in molecular immunology, sophisticated tools and molecular databases are facilitating in-depth exploration of the immunome. In our opinion, an immunomics-based approach presides over traditional antigen and vaccine discovery methods that have proved ineffective for highly complex pathogens such as the causative agents of malaria, tuberculosis and schistosomiasis that have evolved genetic and immunological host-parasite adaptations over time. By using an integrative multidisciplinary approach, immunomics offers enormous potential to advance 21st century antigen discovery and rational vaccine design against complex pathogens such as the Plasmodium parasite.

  5. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin


    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  6. Countering 21st Century Threats

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae


    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...... (UW). Other obstacles such as resolving tensions in U.S. statutory law between traditional military and intelligence activities, bridging the gap with non-security Departments and Agencies, and developing the necessary trust with bilateral and multilateral partners are components that need...

  7. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    Honey, K. T.


    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist

  8. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.


    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  9. An Interdisciplinary Approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM to Enhance 21st Century Skills in Malaysia.

    Lee Chuo Hiong


    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach for Biology, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (BTEM is suggested to develop 21st century skills in the Malaysian context. BTEM allows students to master biological knowledge and at the same time to be adroit in other sub discipline skills. Students master factual knowledge of biology and skills of the 21st century simultaneously. The two main teaching and learning strategies applied in BTEM are problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning. Students are exposed to real world problems that require them to undergo inquiry processes to discover the inventive solutions. The content knowledge of biology adheres to the Malaysian Integrated Curriculum for Secondary Schools. The essence of engineering is inventive problem solving. Incorporation of information communication technologies in teaching and learning will be able to fulfil the needs of the current Net Generation. Mathematics plays an important role as computational tools, especially in analysing data. The highlighted 21st century skills in BTEM include digital literacy, inventive thinking, effective communication, high productivity, and spiritual and noble values.

  10. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    Fedoroff, Nina V


    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  11. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Lincoln, Stephen F


    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  12. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John


    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  13. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    Randell, B P


    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  14. Statistics in the 21st century

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T


    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  15. Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach

    Martz, Joseph C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stevens, Patrice A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Branstetter, Linda [SNL; Hoover, Edward [SNL; O' Brien, Kevin [SNL; Slavin, Adam [SNL; Caswell, David [STANFORD UNIV


    Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear

  16. A Modern Approach to the Traditional Textbook: Bringing Introductory Geology Courses into the 21st Century

    Workman Ford, K.; Ford, K. R.


    Undergraduate introductory geology courses are required in many colleges nationwide as part of the general education requirement. As a result, a large portion of those students are non-majors and most are not science majors. Textbooks used in these courses are often extensive with respect to the amount of material covered which tends to be overwhelming to the average student. Thus, students often purchase the pricey textbook but turn to their smartphones, notebooks, and laptops for answers. Before the development of the internet, students spent many hours in libraries and with their textbooks organizing and retrieving information. However, new technologies in the 21st century have essentially replaced traditional textbooks with students turning to online search engines, such as Google, to study and to complete homework assignments. Presently, online search engines may be more intuitive, but what's going on in the background isn't intuitive at all, and few students have a clear understanding of how search engines operate. Effectively this leads to students without the conception of how to build an adequate search strategy independent of search engines. Often, students are directed to online encyclopedias that may have erroneous information. Here, we employ an alternative to traditional textbooks and online search engines by implementing a guidebook with electronic resources for online activities and homework assignments. The proposed guidebook is roughly modeled after the American Geosciences Institute's Geoscience Handbook: AGI Data Sheets 4th, revised edition, and will include diagrams, graphs, charts, and pictures of basic geologic principles, processes, and earth materials. Along with the information, each topic will have online resources including sites for general reading, specific assignments that require visiting scientifically sound websites (i.e., USGS, GSA, AGU, Science, Nature), online self-assessment activities, and Google Earth activities. In addition

  17. The 21st Century Information Environment.

    Badger, Rod

    This paper on the 21st century information environment begins with a section that discusses the impact of e-commerce over the next ten years. The second section addresses government focus areas, including ensuring a telecommunications infrastructure, developing the IT (information technology) industry, promoting innovation and entrepreneurship,…

  18. Toward the 21st Century for Women

    Osborn, Ruth H.


    The International Women's Year Conference decided that the key to the future for women throughout the world was continuing education enabling women to gain a sense of self realization, promote family life, increase options, and to contribute their talents to a better world in the 21st century. (Author/BP)

  19. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    Brügger, Niels


    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...

  20. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew


    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  1. Soaring into the 21st Century.

    Burke, John


    Describes the implementation of ideas from the National Congress on Catholic Schools for the 21st Century at Saint Thomas Aquinas School in the South Bronx. Discusses Catholic identity, school spirit, social change, and school development with respect to the school's long-range planning for success in an economically depressed neighborhood. (MAB)

  2. Life Sciences in the 21 st Century

    Zou Chenglu (C. L. Tsou)


    This article presents a retrospective of the achievements of life sciences in the 20th century and a prospective in the 21 st century.primarily,because of the emergence of molecular biology in the 20th cetury,life sciences have grown up from a descriptive discipline to an exact science.Biology in the 21st century features a unification between analysis and integration,i.e.the unification of analysis and func-tional research.More and more interdisciplinary integration will be based on works of penetrating analyses.Secondly.the deeper understanding of all living phenomena will lead to a unified connition of the essence of life so that general biology in the genuine sese of the term will come into being.finally,basic research on the life sciences will produce an unprecedented influence on all aspects of human life.

  3. Medicine in 21st Century



    An ancient Chinese theme of "Shen Nong tasted hundred herbs and confronted seventy toxicities a day" means generally that medicine was created by the ancient labor people, although there's no trace of the real Shen Nong. Accordingly some animals would take certain herbs for stopping traumatic bleeding just as our ancestors done. Medicine iniated a long time ago but the development of modern medicine is really a little bit more than hundred years, Pasteur discovered bacteria and reported in 1857, not yet 150 years from now. Virchow discovered cell cleavage and thus founded modern basic cellular pathology somewhat a year later than the former. Mendels bean test opened a new era for genetic research and concluded in 1863. Roentgen discovered X-ray in 1895 and We've celebrated the 100th anniversary of the X-ray discovery several years ago. The earliest application of penicillin was in 1940, not yet 60 years ago. The medicine possesses a jumping development during the recent half century in association with the advancement of synthetic chemistry, electronic and bioscientific technolgy.

  4. The Implementation and Assessment of a Shared 21st Century Learning Vision: A District-Based Approach

    Gunn, Thelma M.; Hollingsworth, Maurice


    Traditional educational patterns are giving way to more innovative modes and methods of learning, primarily due to radical technological changes that have increased the availability of information and improved communication. In an attempt to address this shift toward 21st century skills and learning, a single school district began a large-scale,…

  5. Detergents of the 21st century

    Ho Tan Tai Louis


    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  6. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    In the 21st century, human reproduction increasingly involves decisions about which gametes to fertilize, which embryos to implant, or which fetuses to abort. The term ‘selective reproduction’ refers to these increasingly widespread efforts to bring specific kinds of children into being....... To this end, selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) have been developed and routinized over the last few decades. In today’s world, selective reproduction is taking place on a historically unprecedented scale; through sex-selective abortions following ultrasound scans, termination of pregnancies following...... detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...

  7. A multidisciplinary approach of the status of women in Europe in the 20th-21st century

    Irina IONESCU


    Full Text Available The 20th century was marked by the feminine revolution and the change of status of women throughout the world. The following article wishes to approach from a multidisciplinary perspective the contrasting differences of the woman’s condition in two different “worlds” (Occidental and the Balkans given the access of women towards education, social attitude and the afferent politics for women. These indexes influence the rate of participation of women in the working field, thus, they play a crucial role in the personal development of them. The comparative analysis of the specialized literature points out the main characteristics of women from France and Germany (as defining parts of the Occidental Europe and Turkey and Bosnia (representative countries for the Balkans and the Islamic part of the continent throughout the 20th and the 21st century. Although there is a common set of features, it is the differences that draw attention regarding the unequal participation of women in the social, economical and political life.

  8. Integrated Approach to Peace & Human Security in the 21st Century

    Garry Jacobs


    Full Text Available Humanity has made remarkable progress during the past two centuries in advancing peace, democracy, human rights, economic development and social equality. The evolution of human relations has progressed far from the time when physical violence, war and conquest were the predominant form of international relations. Diplomacy has evolved from political negotiations at the conference table to mutually beneficial economic exchange and creative cultural integration. But the ideal of peace and human security for all human beings remains elusive, distant and utopian. Violence and insecurity persist and social harmony is threatened by the competition for political supremacy, markets, jobs and scarce resources. Thousands of nuclear weapons remain armed and on alert. Existential ecological threats increase daily. The roots of war and violence remain intact, even if their most horrendous expressions have receded from view. The permanent abolition of war and achievement of human security for all cannot be attained by narrowly conceived political alliances or collective security agreements. The negative concept of peace as the absence of war needs to be replaced by a positive conception of peace as the essential condition for the fullest development of human potential. The narrow concept of security in military and political terms needs to be replaced by an inclusive conception that views security as an emergent property of effective and harmonious social organization founded on the ultimate value of the human being. Peace and security are fundamental attributes of society as a whole. They can only be achieved by a comprehensive, integrated approach that addresses the roots of violence and disharmony in all forms—political, military, economic, social, cultural and ecological. This will require radical democratization of international institutions, establishment of an effective global legal process, abandonment of outmoded conceptions of national

  9. 21st Century South African Science Fiction



    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  10. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)


    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  11. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    Darbyshire Philip


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice.

  12. Regional Design Approach in Designing Climatic Responsive Administrative Building in the 21st Century

    Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina Binti; Ismail, Alice Sabrina


    The objective of this paper is to explicate on the study of modern administrative building in Malaysia which portrays regional design approach that conforms to the local context and climate by reviewing two case studies; Perdana Putra (1999) and former Prime Minister's Office (1967). This paper is significant because the country's stature and political statement was symbolized by administrative building as a national icon. In other words, it is also viewed as a cultural object that is closely tied to a particular social context and nation historical moment. Administrative building, therefore, may exhibit various meanings. This paper uses structuralism paradigm and semiotic principles as a methodological approach. This paper is of importance for practicing architects and society in the future as it offers new knowledge and understanding in identifying the suitable climatic consideration that may reflect regionalist design approach in modern administrative building. These elements then may be adopted in designing public buildings in the future with regional values that are important for expressing national culture to symbolize the identity of place and society as well as responsive to climate change.

  13. A higher-taxon approach to rodent conservation priorities for the 21st century

    Amori, G.


    Full Text Available Although rodents are not considered among the most threatened mammals, there is ample historical evidence concerning the vulnerability to extinction of several rodent phylogenetic lineages. Owing to the high number of species, poor taxonomy and the lack of detailed information on population status, the assessment of threat status according to IUCN criteria has still to be considered arbitrary in some cases. Public appreciation is scarce and tends to overlook the ecological role and conservation problems of an order representing about 41 percent of mammalian species. We provide an overview of the most relevant information concerning the conservation status of rodents at the genus, subfamily, and family level. For species¿poor taxa, the importance of distinct populations is highlighted and a splitter approach in taxonomy is adopted. Considering present constraints, strategies for the conservation of rodent diversity must rely mainly on higher taxon and hot-spot approaches. A clear understanding of phyletic relationships among difficult groups -such as Rattus, for instance- is an urgent goal. Even if rodent taxonomy is still unstable, high taxon approach is amply justified from a conservation standpoint as it offers a more subtle overview of the world terrestrial biodiversity than that offered by large mammals. Of the circa 451 living rodent genera, 126 (27,9 %, representing 168 living species, deserve conservation attention according to the present study. About 76 % of genera at risk are monotypic, confirming the danger of losing a considerable amount of phylogenetic distinctiveness.

  14. Boosting 21st Century Skills through Moroccan ELT Textbooks

    Hassan Ait Bouzid


    Research shows that the changing realities of the 21st century necessitate a fundamental shift in language education towards promoting 21st Century Skills. This paper investigates the extent to which three Moroccan ELT textbooks currently used in teaching second year Baccalaureate students in public high school provide activities that help learners build skills that match the needs of the 21st century. It also explores the types of activities that are used to promote these skills and eventual...

  15. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.


    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  16. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    Wedrychowicz, Halina


    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  17. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    David W. Johnson


    Full Text Available The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1 a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2 the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3 the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4 the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges include cooperative learning. In this article the nature of cooperative learning will be reviewed, the underlying theory of social interdependence will be discussed, and the results of the research on cooperative learning will be briefly reviewed. The way in which cooperative learning contributes to meeting the four challenges will then be discussed.

  18. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Jones, Jacqueline


    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  19. Science for the 21st Century


    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  20. [Multidisciplinary treatment of lung cancer in 21st century].

    Aikawa, Hirokazu; Sagawa, M; Usuda, K; Ueno, M; Tanaka, M; Machida, Y; Sakuma, T


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Recently, big progress in the treatment of lung cancer has been achieved, such as new anti-cancer drugs, molecular targeted therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, etc. Multidisciplinary approach has been required to the therapy for lung cancer patients. In this paper, we introduce The 21st Century Multidisciplinary Center in Kanazawa Medical University, and the Hokuriku Training Program for Making Specialists in Cancer Treatment.

  1. Technology Born Fictions for the Cities of 21st Century

    Mehmet Rıfat Akbulut


    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies will undoubtely be leading determinants of urban landscape in the 21st century. Until the present day, it was assumed that urban landscapes were being shaped by conventional factors such as demography, social and economical structure, transportion, infrastructure, building technologies etc. In spite of many speculative approaches, recent developments in information and communication technologies can offer us some clues which may go beyond mere speculation. The“intelligent city” which is based on “autonomous” and “intelligent” objects and agents promising novel solutions to urban problems. Mobile communication is also another promising domain to offer creative solutions to some cronical urban problems. All these novelties provide sufficient reasons to think about new urban structures based upon information technologies.This paper is an attempt to discuss probable effects of information technologies, as new dynamics to shape the urban environment and urban life of the 21st century.

  2. A Paradigm for Systems Thinking as a Real-Time Approach for Human Adaptation in the 21st Century

    Melissa J. Mills


    Full Text Available Contemporary neuroscientists, human anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists suggest that the human species is still evolving. The productivity of science, research, education and capital investment can be seen in the phenomenal growth of the human population. Yet the trajectories that have brought us to the present-day apex of material well-being and social health are not sustainable. How can we take the deep advances in distinct academic disciplines and bring them together in ways that inform and coordinate human ingenuity to meet and address the challenges of the 21st century? By taking contemporary research results from a broad range of disciplines and applying them to human dynamics through definable structures, humans are empowered to leverage their capacity to find solutions through joint intention.

  3. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)


    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  4. Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century


    Vision & Strategy: Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century Daniel L. Villeneuve* and Natàlia Garcia-Reyero In the 20th century, predicting...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Predictive Ecotoxicology in the 21st Century 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...century ecotoxicology can do Researchers have, for the first time, identi- fied the mechanisms of action of two toxins released by certain microalgae

  5. A probabilistic approach to 21st century regional sea-level projections using RCP and High-end scenarios

    Jackson, Luke P.; Jevrejeva, Svetlana


    Sea-level change is an integrated climate system response due to changes in radiative forcing, anthropogenic land-water use and land-motion. Projecting sea-level at a global and regional scale requires a subset of projections - one for each sea-level component given a particular climate-change scenario. We construct relative sea-level projections through the 21st century for RCP 4.5, RCP 8.5 and High-end (RCP 8.5 with increased ice-sheet contribution) scenarios by aggregating spatial projections of individual sea-level components in a probabilistic manner. Most of the global oceans adhere to the projected global average sea level change within 5 cm throughout the century for all scenarios; however coastal regions experience localised effects due to the non-uniform spatial patterns of individual components. This can result in local projections that are 10‧s of centimetres different from the global average by 2100. Early in the century, RSL projections are consistent across all scenarios, however from the middle of the century the patterns of RSL for RCP scenarios deviate from the High-end where the contribution from Antarctica dominates. Similarly, the uncertainty in projected sea-level is dominated by an uncertain Antarctic fate. We also explore the effect upon projections of, treating CMIP5 model ensembles as normally distributed when they might not be, correcting CMIP5 model output for internal variability using different polynomials and using different unloading patterns of ice for the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.

  6. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.


    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  7. Pediatrics in 21(st) Century and Beyond.

    Singh, Meharban


    Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21(st) century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling

  8. Genome Evolution in the 21st Century

    Shapiro, James


    Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

  9. Texting While Parenting: a 21st Century Trap

    ... html Texting While Parenting: A 21st Century Trap Smartphones can get in the way of family life, and stress is the result, study finds To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news ...

  10. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.


    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  11. Power and Influence: Global Dynamics in the 21st Century


    publications/WorkingPapers/WP165.pdf>. Nuńez, Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture for the Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace...2005) Sheth, Jagdish N. and Rajendra S. Sisodia. Tectonic Shift: The Geoeconomic Realignment of Globalizing Markets. Thousand Oaks: Response, 2006...Joseph R. A 21st Century Security Architecture for the Americas: Multilateral Cooperation, Liberal Peace, and Soft Power. Carlisle Barracks: U.S

  12. Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force


    SUBTITLE Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Blending Worship for the 21st Century Military Force 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...outsiders, inclusion of cultural diversity and intergenerational fellowship.43 Sam Harris saw the benefit of faith and worship and contends that we need

  13. [Media for 21st century--towards human communication media].

    Harashima, H


    Today, with the approach of the 21st century, attention is focused on multi-media communications combining computer, visual and audio technologies. This article discusses the communication media target and the technological problems constituting the nucleus of multi-media. The communication media is becoming an environment from which no one can escape. Since the media has such a great power, what is needed now is not to predict the future technologies, but to estimate the future world and take to responsibility for future environments.

  14. FY 1998 Blue Book: Computing, Information, and Communications: Technologies for the 21st Century

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — As the 21st century approaches, the rapid convergence of computing, communications, and information technology promises unprecedented opportunities for scientific...

  15. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Narayanan, M.


    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  16. Dance Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Gilbert, Anne Green


    Margaret H'Doubler brought the magic of dance to the 20th century, yet the 21st century has yet to find a person to rekindle the same public desire for dance education. Consequently, the future of dance education in the next century is hard to predict. Based on an informal survey of fellow advisory board members of Dance and the Child…

  17. Rice production in China in the early 21st Century


    @@ Rice is the staple food crop in China. In the second half of the 20th century, rice has played an important role in feeding a large number of people. In the 21st century, rice will still be a main food crop in China and make great contribution to Chinese people's life.

  18. Software Engineering Technology for the 21st Century


    In this paper we will discuss the software engineering technologyfor the 21 st century. First we review development over the last half-century, overview application re quirement and environment, accept a challenge. Then we outline following software engineering techniques: 1) Process;2) Analysis;3) Design;4) UML;5) Component;6) Java +XML;7) Integrated;8) Quality(ISO9000&CMM).

  19. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Holmes, Bruce J.


    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  20. Interview: 21st century battlefield pain management.

    Buckenmaier, Colonel Chester 'trip'


    Colonel Chester 'Trip' Buckenmaier 3rd, MD, speaks to Dominic Chamberlain, Assistant Commissioning Editor: Colonel Buckenmaier is the current Director of the Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Management (MD, USA) and Fellowship Director of the Acute Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia program at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Washington DC (USA). He is an Associate Professor in Anesthesiology at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda (MD, USA), and a Diplomat with the American Board of Anesthesiology. He attended Catawba College (NC, USA), on a Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) scholarship, graduating with a degree in Biology and Chemistry in 1986. He then attended East Carolina University in Greenville (NC, USA), receiving a Master in Science in Biology in 1988. In 1992, he graduated from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, completing his Anesthesia Residency at Walter Reed. In addition, he completed a 1-year Fellowship in Regional Anesthesia at Duke University (NC, USA) in 2002, resulting in the creation of the only Acute Pain Medicine Fellowship in the US military at Walter Reed (Washington, DC, USA). In September 2003, he deployed with the 21st Combat Support Hospital to Balad (Iraq), and demonstrated that the use of advanced regional anesthesia can be accomplished in a forward deployed environment. He performed the first successful continuous peripheral nerve block for pain management in a combat support hospital. In April 2009, he deployed to Camp Bastion (Afghanistan) with the British military and ran the first acute pain service in a theater of war. The Defense and Veterans Center for Integrative Pain Medicine (DVCIPM) is dedicated to improving pain management throughout the continuum of care for service personnel and their families.

  1. Space medicine research: Needs for the 21st century

    Pepper, L. J.


    Space medicine research in the 21st century will continue to focus on the four major areas including: (1) expansion of the current incomplete knowledge base of clinical and subclinical physiological changes due to microgravity; (2) development of countermeasures to extend the capabilities of the human performance envelope in extended duration flights; (3) development of novel methods for delivering all aspects of a comprehensive health care system in extreme remote conditions: and (4) further research and application of systems for biological materials processing. New space transportation vehicles will place unique physiologic and human factors demands on the human system, while providing better access to platforms for materials processing. Success in meeting the demands in each of the noted research areas will require an extensive, interactive team approach. Personnel from the medical research,operational, developmental, and basic science communities will be essential to success.

  2. Infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals in the 21st century

    Das, Satya S.; Wareham, David W. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Microbiology; Britton, Keith E. [St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hall, Anne V. [Harefield Hospital, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Microbiology Dept.


    Infection continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine has an important role in aiding the diagnosis of particularly deep-seated infections such as abscesses, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and infections of prosthetic devices. Established techniques such as radiolabelled leucocytes are sensitive and specific for inflammation but do not distinguish between infective and non-infective inflammation. The challenge for Nuclear Medicine in infection imaging in the 21st century is to build on the recent trend towards the development of more infection specific radiopharmaceuticals, such as radiolabelled anti-infectives (e.g. 99 m Tc ciprofloxacin). In addition to aiding early diagnosis of infection, through serial imaging these agents might prove very useful in monitoring the response to and determining the optimum duration of anti-infective therapy. This article reviews the current approach to infection imaging with radiopharmaceuticals nd the future direction it might take. (author)

  3. The good doctor: professionalism in the 21st century.

    Tsou, Amy Y; Creutzfeldt, Claire J; Gordon, James M


    Medical professionalism faces distinctive challenges in the 21st century. In this chapter, we review the history of professionalism, address specific challenges physicians face today, and provide an overview of efforts to address these issues, including behavioral and virtue ethics approaches. First, we discuss core features professions share and the development of codes of medical ethics that guide the practice of western medicine. Second, we address challenges related to the doctor-patient relationship, continuity of care, cultural competence, conflicts of interest, and the regulation of quality of care through maintenance of certification. We then explore three cultural trajectories that have deeply influenced medical practice: the technologic imperative, physicians' collective neglect of structural factors impacting medicine, and the rise of commercialism. Finally, we describe efforts to address these challenges, focusing on the Physician Charter developed by the American Board of Internal Medicine and widely endorsed by medical boards and societies internationally.

  4. Training Ranges in the 21st Century


    warfighting tactical principles established during the early 19th Century. In making training as real as possible, in the spirit of “Train As We Fight...few use restrictions. Early on, installations were established in rural areas, but, during the last century, the population exploded, and some...CMTC), Hohenfels Training Area ( HTA ), Germany; and the Joint Readiness Training Center, Fort Polk, Louisiana. o MCTCs focus on brigade task force

  5. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership



    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  6. Understanding China's Curriculum Reform for the 21st Century

    Law, Wing-Wah


    This article uses curriculum-making frameworks to analyse and reconstruct the Chinese curriculum-making model and unpack the dynamics, complexity and constraints of China's curriculum reform since the early 1990s. It argues that curriculum reform is China's main human capital development strategy for coping with the challenges of the 21st century,…

  7. Attention, and Other 21st-Century Social Media Literacies

    Rheingold, Howard


    If educators want to discover how they can engage students as well as themselves in the 21st century, they must move beyond skills and technologies. They must explore the interconnected social media literacies of (1) attention; (2) participation; (3) cooperation; (4) network awareness; and (5) critical consumption. In this article, the author…

  8. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank


    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  9. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    Siegle, Del


    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  10. School Business Management in the 21st Century.

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    As society's fundamental characteristics change, schools and school leaders must be prepared to modify the educational enterprise to meet the new and unique needs of adults and youngsters in the 21st century. To anticipate and control change, the school business manager must be able to project future trends, issues, and challenges. In this volume,…

  11. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.


    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  12. Cyber Portfolio: The Innovative Menu for 21st Century Technology

    Robles, Ava Clare Marie O.


    Cyber portfolio is a valuable innovative menu for teachers who seek out strategies or methods to integrate technology into their lessons. This paper presents a straightforward preparation on how to innovate a menu that addresses the 21st century skills blended with higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligence, technology and multimedia.…

  13. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    Jones, Virginia R.


    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  14. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Garvey, Gregory P.


    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  15. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.


    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  16. Upholding humanity: challenges of peace in the 21st century

    Gaay Fortman, B. de


    In this presentation we shall, first of all, explore the background to the topic for today as formulated by the organisers: Peace in the 21st century: between the supranational and the grassroots. From there some remarks will follow on the meaning of commemoration and liberation by giving you a very

  17. Building 21st. Century literacies through digital animated storytelling

    Gjedde, Lisa


    -based learning for learner’s engagement, motivation and multimodal learning in a mixed methods study based on surveys, interviews and observations. The key literacy skills needed for 21st. Century learners have shifted from a predominant focus on verbal text towards multimodal literacies, that combine the visual...

  18. Implementing 21st Century Literacies in First-Year Composition

    Froehlich, Maggie Gordon; Froehlich, Peter Alan


    In November 2008, the National Council of Teachers of English published "The NCTE Definition of 21st Century Literacies" (21CL); its objectives include using technology, producing and analyzing multimedia texts, accessing and evaluating complex research sources, building relationships to enable collaboration, considering the diversity of a global…

  19. Adventurous Lives: Teacher Qualities for 21st Century Learning

    Faulkner, Julie; Latham, Gloria


    What kinds of teachers are needed for 21st century learners? While there is recognition that curriculum content, classroom practices and learning environments must alter, there is less attention focussed on the teachers' dispositions for negotiating uncertainty. In this paper, the authors turn their attention to the importance of teachers' lives…

  20. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    Qasem, I.


    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these sca

  1. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.


    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  2. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    Kassing, Gayle


    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  3. Glaciers in 21st Century Himalayan Geopolitics

    Kargel, J. S.; Wessels, R.; Kieffer, H. H.


    Maoist insurgency. (5) Glacier lakes are in many cases very fragile and their natural dams routinely rupture, causing devastating floods. A rising regional terrorist threat in several countries could target these dams and precipitate calamitous and terrifying results. (6) Over the next century, retreating glaciers may open new corridors for trade and human migration across the Himalaya and pave the way for possible new economic, military and political alliances in the region. (7) Glacier retreat might open new sanctuaries for terrorists and open new corridors for possible ground-based military offensive action across the HKH ranges. The documentation of glacier characteristics that may influence their trafficability, and projections of future glacier extent and behavior are relevant to wide ranging concerns of the region's inhabitants. Satellite remote sensing and mapping of glaciers is one approach to defining and monitoring the problems and opportunities presented by HKH glaciers. Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) is a joint USGS/NASA Pathfinder project that has formed a global consortium of glaciologists in several regional centers that are mapping and monitoring the HKH glaciers using repeat-pass ASTER and Landsat ETM+ data. We are currently building a comprehensive satellite multispectral image and GIS database that is providing detailed information on the state and rates of change of each glacier in the HKH region and other areas of the world. Merging these results with DEMs allows a predictive capability that could be useful in policy development and security planning.

  4. PR in the 21st Century.

    Forbush, Dan; Toon, John


    The ways in which advancing technology will affect college and university public relations and the mass media in the next century are examined, and a survey of 60 campus public relations specialists and 40 journalists concerning predicted changes is reported. Implications for campus communications with the media are also discussed. (MSE)

  5. Academic Freedom in the 21st Century

    Tierney, William G.; Lechuga, Vicente M.


    Throughout the 20th century, academic freedom was a foundational value for the academy in the United States. The concept of academic freedom pertains to the right of faculty to enjoy considerable autonomy in their research and teaching. The assumption that drives academic freedom is that the country benefits when faculty are able to search for…

  6. Defining War for the 21st Century


    over the centuries. It adapted to medievalism , the rise of the nation state, and the emergence of international organizations, so it can adapt to a...Dr. Vlahos has published over 80 articles, appearing in, among oth- ers, Foreign Affairs, Washington Quarterly, The Times Literary Supplement

  7. Curriculum for the 21st Century.

    Pratt, David


    Urges reconsideration of educational ends. Suggests eight curriculum principles that can help Canadian schools move into the next century. Explains six educational needs roughly based on Maslow's hierarchy (aesthetic needs, need for meaning, self-actualization, self-concept, social needs, need for survival) and relates them to curriculum…

  8. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century

    Greenberg, J M; Shen, Chuanjian


    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the properties of dust in very young galaxies will be an important probe of the rates of star formation in terms of the production and destruction of dust grains. Future observations of dust at high spectral and spatial resolution will provide detailed information on processes in collapsing clouds up to star formation. Space missions to comets in the next century will first study them in situ but ultimately will bring back pristine nucleus material which will contain the end product of the collapsing protosolar molecular cloud at ...

  9. Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century


    The past century of interstellar dust has brought us from first ignoring it to finding that it plays an important role in the evolution of galaxies. Current observational results in our galaxy provide a complex physical and chemical evolutionary picture of interstellar dust starting with the formation of small refractory particles in stellar atmospheres to their modification in diffuse and molecular clouds and ultimately to their contribution to star forming regions. Observations of the prope...

  10. Egyptian Agriculture in the 21st Century

    Rosenzweig, C; Hillel, D.


    In order to perform a proper, integrated assessment of potential climate change impacts on Egypt it was necessary to accurately identify important and impending issues and problems which are and will be facing the Egyptian agriculture sector into the next century. To this aim, two experts in the fields of Agronomy and Irrigated Agriculture in the Middle East were asked to travel to Egypt in order to assess the current state of Egyptian agriculture and pose possible questions and scenarios tha...

  11. The 21st century chemistry journal

    Bachrach, Steven M


    Internet publication will radically alter how chemists will publish their research in the next century. In this article, we describe two fundamental changes: enhanced chemical publication which allows chemists to publish materials that cannot be published on paper and end-user customization which allows readers to read articles prepared to meet their specifications. These concepts have been implemented within the Internet Journal of Chemistry, a new journal designed to employ the latest techn...

  12. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.


    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  13. The play approach to learning in the context of families and schools: an alternative paradigm for nutrition and fitness education in the 21st century.

    Rickard, K A; Gallahue, D L; Gruen, G E; Tridle, M; Bewley, N; Steele, K


    An alternative paradigm for nutrition and fitness education centers on understanding and developing skill in implementing a play approach to learning about healthful eating and promoting active play in the context of the child, the family, and the school. The play approach is defined as a process for learning that is intrinsically motivated, enjoyable, freely chosen, nonliteral, safe, and actively engaged in by young learners. Making choices, assuming responsibility for one's decisions and actions, and having fun are inherent components of the play approach to learning. In this approach, internal cognitive transactions and intrinsic motivation are the primary forces that ultimately determine healthful choices and life habits. Theoretical models of children's learning--the dynamic systems theory and the cognitive-developmental theory of Jean Piaget--provide a theoretical basis for nutrition and fitness education in the 21st century. The ultimate goal is to develop partnerships of children, families, and schools in ways that promote the well-being of children and translate into healthful life habits. The play approach is an ongoing process of learning that is applicable to learners of all ages.


    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs


    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  15. Osteogenic Sarcoma: A 21st Century Review.

    Osasan, Stephen; Zhang, Mingyong; Shen, Fan; Paul, Paulose J; Persad, Sujata; Sergi, Consolato


    Compared to other bone tumors, bone osteogenic sarcoma (BOS) continues to confer a much grimmer prognosis as the survival benefit of traditional chemotherapy treatment regimens is still unsatisfactory. Chemotherapy was demonstrated to be effective in eradicating both primary tumor and pulmonary metastases in the last century, with effective agents used in various combination regimens having changed the survival rate from less than 10% to 75%. The most common primary bone cancer, BOS is conventionally a primary intramedullary high-grade malignant tumor characterized by malignant cells forming immature bone or osteoid. BOS is a disease with diverse morphological presentations. The treatment of all morphological variants seem to have been the same for over 30 years. The introduction of antiproliferative agents such as insulin growth factor-binding protein 3 hold promise of a potentially veritable therapeutic target. In this review, we highlight recent data on osteosarcoma to consolidate a platform able to connect bench and bedside.

  16. Space Biology in the 21st century

    Halstead, Thora W.; Krauss, Robert W.


    Space Biology is poised to make significant contributions to science in the next century. A carefully crafted, but largely ground-based, program in the United States has evolved major questions that require answers through experiments in space. Science, scientists, and the new long-term spacecrafts designed by NASA will be available for the first time to mount a serious Space Biology effort. The scientific challenge is of such importance that success will provide countless benefits to biologically dependent areas such as medicine, food, and commerce in the decades ahead. The international community is rapidly expanding its role in this field. The United States should generate the resources that will allow progress in Space Biology to match the recognized progress made in aeronautics and the other space sciences.

  17. Inquiry-based science: Preparing human capital for the 21 st century and beyond

    Boyd, Yolanda F.

    High school students need to graduate with 21st century skills to be college and career ready and to be competitive in a global marketplace. A positive trend exists favoring inquiry-based instructional practices that purportedly not only increase science content knowledge, but also 21 st century skill development. A suburban school district, Areal Township (pseudonym), implemented an inquiry-based science program based on this trend; however, the degree to which the program has been meeting students' needs for science content knowledge and 21st century skills development has not been explored. If we were to understand the process by which an inquiry-based science program contributes to attainment of science content and 21st century skill development, then we might be able to improve the delivery of the program and provide a model to be adopted by other schools. Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to engage with multiple stakeholders to formatively assess the successes and obstacles for helping students to achieve science content and 21st century skills through an inquiry-based curriculum. Using constructivist theory, this study aimed to address the following central research question: How does the implementation of an inquiry-based program within the Areal Township School District (ATSD) support the acquisition of science content knowledge and the development of 21st century skills? This study found that 21st century skill development is embedded in inquiry-based instructional practices. These practices engage students in meaningful learning that spirals in content and is measured using diverse assessments. Time to do inquiry-based science and adequate time for collegial collaboration were obstacles for educators in grades K-5. Other obstacles were turnkey professional development and a lack of ongoing program monitoring, as a result of imposed extrinsic factors from state and federal mandates. Lastly, it was discovered that not all parts of

  18. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan


    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  19. Infectious diseases in the 21st century.

    Kumate, J


    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past.

  20. Socrates Meets the 21st Century

    Lege, Jerry


    A inquiry-based approach called the "modelling discussion" is introduced for structuring beginning modelling activity, teaching new mathematics from examining its applications in contextual situations, and as a general classroom management technique when students are engaged in mathematical modelling. An example which illustrates the style and…

  1. 21st Century Steam for Asteroid Mitigation

    Dearborn, D S


    The systematic requirements to divert an object on an earth-impacting course are developed relating the minimum velocity perturbation (both magnitude and direction) to the time available before impact. This, coupled with the accuracy to which orbits can be determined, restricts the time available for any mitigation technology to operate. Because nuclear energy densities are nearly a million times higher than those possible with chemical bonds, it is the most mass efficient means for storing delivering energy with today's technology. The question is how to most effectively apply that energy. This paper will examine the simple case of shattering the body, as well as a more controlled approach in which one or more small velocity increments divert a body. The optimal approach depends on the detailed circumstances, but in either case, already developed technology permits a successful diversion with a few years to decades of notice. The success of nuclear options on relatively short timescales permits consideration of other technologies that while not so well developed might be sufficiently improved to divert small (100 meter) bodies.

  2. 21st Century Kinematics : The 2012 NSF Workshop


    21st Century Kinematics focuses on algebraic problems in the analysis and synthesis of mechanisms and robots, compliant mechanisms, cable-driven systems and protein kinematics. The specialist contributors provide the background for a series of presentations at the 2012 NSF Workshop. The text shows how the analysis and design of innovative mechanical systems yield increasingly complex systems of polynomials, characteristic of those systems. In doing so, takes advantage of increasingly sophisticated computational tools developed for numerical algebraic geometry and demonstrates the now routine derivation of polynomial systems dwarfing the landmark problems of even the recent past. The 21st Century Kinematics workshop echoes the NSF-supported 1963 Yale Mechanisms Teachers Conference that taught a generation of university educators the fundamental principles of kinematic theory. As such these proceedings will be provide admirable supporting theory for a graduate course in modern kinematics and should be of consid...

  3. DOE pollution prevention in the 21st century



    This document presents abstracts of the topics covered in the DOE Pollution Prevention in the 21st Century conference held July 9-11, 1996. These topics include: model facilities; Federal/NEPA/stake- holders; microchemistry; solvents and reduction; education and outreach; return on investments; energy management; decontamination and decommissioning; planning and regulations; environmental restoration; recycling; affirmative procurement in the executive branch; construction and demolition; materials exchange; and ISO 2000.

  4. Aviation Security Force Assistance: A 21st Century Imperative


    narrative to address the “irregular” challenges proliferating into the 21st century. Much of the focus was directly related to building the capacity of...a holistic narrative for AvSFA, has developed a different perspective on their roles and missions relative to aviation in SFA. The Joint Force as a...mission with the Honduran Air Force in January and February 2012, exercised the comprehensive components of nascent Air Force general purpose forces

  5. Strategic Leader Development for a 21st Century Army


    Fall of Strategic Planning. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1994. Northouse , Peter G. Leadership : Theory and Practice . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage...the 21st-Century Army,” Parameters, (Autumn 2001), 18. 40 Elliott Jaques and Stephen D. Clement, Executive Leadership : A Practical Guide to...Stephen D. Clement. Executive Leadership : A Practical Guide to Managing Complexity. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1994. Mintzberg, Henry. The Rise and

  6. Energy in ASEAN: An outlook into the 21st century

    Arismunandar, A.; Dupuis, P.

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was formed in Bangkok in 1967 by five countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. A sixth nation, recently independent Brunei Darussalam, joined the association in 1984. The story on enery in the ASEAN is presented. The topics covered include the following: energy resources; energy demand versus elasticity; how to cope with energy demand; and an outlook into the 21st century.

  7. 78 FR 7387 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Renewal AGENCY: Agricultural Research Service, USDA. ACTION: Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The Secretary of Agriculture has...

  8. A Comparative Analysis of International Frameworks for 21st Century Competences: Implications for National Curriculum Policies

    Voogt, Joke; Roblin, Natalie Pareja


    National curricula need to change drastically to comply with the competences needed for the 21st century. In this paper eight frameworks describing 21st century competences were analysed. A comprehensive search for information about 21st century competences was conducted across the official websites of the selected frameworks, resulting in 32…

  9. How 21st century droughts affect food and environmental security

    Kogan, Felix

    The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.

  10. Epidemiologic trends of leprosy for the 21st century.

    Schreuder, Pieter A M; Noto, Salvatore; Richardus, Jan Hendrik


    Major gaps still exist in the knowledge about leprosy, particularly with regard to how it spreads. Leprosy epidemiology remains complicated due to the specific characteristics of Mycobacterium leprae. To describe epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, the first part of this paper gives an overview of the epidemiology of leprosy, followed by past trends and the present situation of new-case detection as a proxy of the incidence. The third part, regarding predicted epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, elaborates on the main topic of this paper. With limited diagnostic tools to detect infection with M leprae, other methods are necessary to estimate trends in incidence and transmission. A computer program has been developed for modeling the transmission and control of leprosy (SIMLEP). The effect of failure to sustain early case detection beyond 2005 on leprosy incidence and case detection is shown. Important unanswered questions are whether the incubation period is contagious and how rapid close contacts of leprosy patients are infected. As long as such key questions remain unanswered, it will be difficult to estimate the impact of control strategies on the transmission of M leprae on resulting disease incidence. In the meantime we can expect that the global new-case detection trends will stay more or less stable or only decrease slightly for many years to come. There is a need of new preventive interventions to change this situation and reduce the incidence of leprosy in the 21st century.

  11. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Erika Varga


    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  12. The flipped classroom stimulates greater learning and is a modern 21st century approach to teaching today's undergraduates.

    Mortensen, C J; Nicholson, A M


    Many classrooms in higher education still rely on a transformative approach to teaching where students attend lectures and earn course grades through examination. In the modern age, traditional lectures are argued by some as obsolete and do not address the learning needs of today’s students. An emerging pedagogical approach is the concept of the flipped classroom. The flipped classroom can simply be described as students viewing asynchronous video lectures on their own and then engaging in active learning during scheduled class times. In this study, we examined the flipped classroom teaching environment on student learning gains in an Introduction to Equine Science course. Students (n = 130) were asked to view 7.5 h of recorded lectures divided into 8 learning modules, take online quizzes to enforce lecture viewing, take 3 in-class exams, and prepare to participate in active learning during scheduled class times. Active learning approaches included individual activities, paired activities, informal small groups, and large group activities. When compared to students in the traditional lecture format in earlier years, students in the flipped format scored higher on all 3 exams (P < 0.05), with both formats taught by the same instructor. Analysis of ACT scores demonstrated no intellectual capacity differences between the student populations. To evaluate any gains in critical thinking, flipped format students were asked to take the Cornell Critical Thinking Exam (version X). Scores improved from the pretest (50.8 ± 0.57) to the posttest (54.4 ± 0.58; P < 0.01). In the flipped course, no correlations were found with student performance and interactions with online content. Students were asked in class to evaluate their experiences based on a 5-point Likert scale: 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The flipped classroom was ranked as an enjoyable learning experience with a mean of 4.4 ± 0.10, while students responded positively to other pointed questions

  13. Analysis of the proposed EU regulation concerning biocide products and its opportunities for alternative approaches and a toxicology for the 21st century (t4 report).

    Ferrario, Daniele; Rabbit, Richard R


    On June 12, 2009, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a Regulation concerning the placement on the market and use of biocidal products, which, when it enters into force on January 1, 2013, will repeal and replace Directive 98/8/EC. The main reason for the revision of the current Directive was to promote best practices for environmental and human health protection, along with implementation of current developments in safety testing in order to create safer biocides. Moreover, the proposed Regulation aims to take into consideration the newest legislation on chemicals. This article evaluates the proposed Regulation in comparison to Directive 98/8/EC. Although the new proposal requires the sharing of vertebrate animal test data, both for product authorization and for newly developed active substances, it misses - in contrast to REACH - the opportunity to recognize the accelerating development of alternative approaches to animal testing, most recently with new momentum provided by "Toxicity Testing for the 21st Century", and to support the evolution of toxicology towards a new approach to testing. The new methods promise not only to decrease animal pain and suffering, but also to provide faster results and better prediction for human risk assessment compared to traditional methods. Unfortunately, methods mandated for human risk assessment in the proposal are still mainly based on traditional animal study extrapolation. We put forward and discuss possible alternative strategies, such as in vitro testing, integrated testing strategies, toxicokinetics, "omics", systems biology, bioinformatics, and computational modeling, all of which could be more encouraged by the proposal. Current opportunities to improve our tools for biocide risk assessment are discussed, delineating advantages, limitations, and development needs. It is suggested to open the proposed Regulation to alternative approaches that are based on human biology more than on extrapolation from animals

  14. The EarthLabs Approach to Curriculum and Professional Development: Earth Science Education in the 21st Century

    Mote, A. S.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.


    Humans are modifying planet Earth at an alarming rate without fully understanding how our actions will affect the atmosphere, hydrosphere, or biosphere. Recognizing the value of educating people to become citizens who can make informed decisions about Earth's resources and challenges, Texas currently offers Earth and Space Science as a rigorous high school capstone course. The new course has created a need for high quality instructional resources and professional development to equip teachers with the most up to date content knowledge, pedagogical approaches, and technological skills to be able to teach a rigorous Earth and Space Science course. As a participant in the NSF-sponsored Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution teacher professional development program, I was selected to participate in a curriculum development project led by TERC to create Earth System Science and climate change resources for the EarthLabs collection. To this end, I am involved in multiple phases of the EarthLabs project, including reviewing the lab-based units during the development phase, pilot teaching the units with my students, participating in research, and ultimately delivering professional development to other teachers to turn them on to the new modules. My partnership with the EarthLabs project has strengthened my teaching practice by increasing my involvement with curriculum development and collaboration and interaction with other Earth science educators. Critically evaluating the lab modules prior to delivering the lessons to my students has prepared me to more effectively teach the EarthLabs modules in my classroom and present the material to other teachers during professional development workshops. The workshop was also strengthened by planning meetings held with EarthLabs partner teachers in which we engaged in lively discussions regarding misconceptions in Earth science, held by both students and adults, and pedagogical approaches to uncover these misconceptions

  15. Modeling global water use for the 21st century: Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS initiative and its approaches

    Y. Wada


    Full Text Available To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water use increased by nearly 6 times during the last 100 years and continues to grow. As water demands get closer and closer to the water availability in many regions, each drop of water becomes increasingly valuable and water must be managed more efficiently and intensively. However, soaring water use worsens water scarcity condition already prevalent in semi-arid and arid regions, increasing uncertainty for sustainable food production and economic development. Planning for future development and investments requires that we prepare water projections for the future. However, estimations are complicated because the future of world's waters will be influenced by a combination of environmental, social, economic, and political factors, and there is only limited knowledge and data available about freshwater resources and how they are being used. The Water Futures and Solutions initiative (WFaS coordinates its work with other on-going scenario efforts for the sake of establishing a consistent set of new global water scenarios based on the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs and the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs. The WFaS "fast-track" assessment uses three global water models, namely H08, PCR-GLOBWB, and WaterGAP. This study assesses the state of the art for estimating and projecting water use regionally and globally in a consistent manner. It provides an overview of different approaches, the uncertainty, strengths and weaknesses of the various estimation methods, types of management and policy decisions for which the current estimation methods are useful. We also discuss additional information most needed to be able to improve water use estimates and be able to assess a greater range of management options across the water-energy-climate nexus.

  16. Modeling Global Water Use for the 21st Century: Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) Initiative and Its Approaches

    Wada, Y.; Florke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Eisner, S.; Fischer, G.; Tramberend, S.; Satoh, Y.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Yillia, P.; Ringler, C.; Burek, P.; Wiberg, D.


    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water use increased by nearly 6 times during the last 100 years, and continues to grow. As water demands get closer and closer to the water availability in many regions, each drop of water becomes increasingly valuable and water must be managed more efficiently and intensively. However, soaring water use worsens water scarcity conditions already prevalent in semi-arid and arid regions, increasing uncertainty for sustainable food production and economic development. Planning for future development and investments requires that we prepare water projections for the future. However, estimations are complicated because the future of the world's waters will be influenced by a combination of environmental, social, economic, and political factors, and there is only limited knowledge and data available about freshwater resources and how they are being used. The Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative coordinates its work with other ongoing scenario efforts for the sake of establishing a consistent set of new global water scenarios based on the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and the representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The WFaS "fast track" assessment uses three global water models, namely H08, PCR-GLOBWB, and WaterGAP. This study assesses the state of the art for estimating and projecting water use regionally and globally in a consistent manner. It provides an overview of different approaches, the uncertainty, strengths and weaknesses of the various estimation methods, types of management and policy decisions for which the current estimation methods are useful. We also discuss additional information most needed to be able to improve water use estimates and be able to assess a greater range of management options across the water-energy-climate nexus.

  17. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century

    JI JinJun; HUANG Mei; LI KeRang


    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC.a-1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  18. Prediction of carbon exchanges between China terrestrial ecosystem and atmosphere in 21st century


    The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.

  19. L.S. Vygotsky in the 21st century

    Ardila A.


    Full Text Available Although Lev Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition was proposed almost one century ago, new scientific and technological advances have significantly supported many of his ideas and hypotheses. His cultural-historical theory of psychological processes, and his contributions to educational psychology, have continued growing without interruption. In this paper, three of Vygotsky’s hypotheses are examined in light of 21st century scientific developments: The influence of cultural factors on human cognition. A diversity of research studies in different countries has corroborated the crucial impact of culture on cognitive test performance; The role of language in higher psychological processes. According to Vygotsky’s cultural-historical approach, cognitive processes (“complex psychological processes” are social in origin, but complex and hierarchical in their structure. Intrinsic to the systemic organization of higher cognitive processes is the engagement of external artifacts (objects, symbols, signs, which have an independent history of development within a culture; and The hypothesis that thought and general complex cognition is associated with certain “inner speech.” Some contemporary neuroimaging studies (particularly PET and fMRI analyzing “inner speech” have been carried out. These studies have attempted to find the areas of the brain involved in “inner speech.” These scientific advances significantly support Vygotsky’s interpretation of human cognition. It has been found that inner speech depends on activity in Broca’s area and related brain network activity in the left hemisphere. Hence, inner speech is closely related to grammar, language production, and executive functions. Vygotsky’s important contribution to the understanding of psychological processes has stimulated, and continues to stimulate, a substantial amount of research in this area.

  20. Questioning the Role of "21st-Century Skills" in Arts Education Advocacy Discourse

    Logsdon, Leann F.


    The revised Core Arts Standards offer music educators the chance to examine the contradictions that currently permeate the arts advocacy discourse. This article examines the emphasis on 21st-century workplace skills in claims made by arts advocacy proponents. An alternative approach focuses instead on lifelong learning in the arts and the array of…

  1. Salamanca as Simbolyc Reference: the 21st Century City in Tierra Violenta de Luciano Egido

    Ana Eva Rodríguez Valentín


     It is a city that, apparently, lives in the past but that isn't immune to the mechanisms rule the 21st century. In this approach, the literary text is a source of different analytical lines for understanding the urban temporalities and the dialectics of both the public project and the urban heritage.

  2. Critical Thinking for 21st-Century Education: A Cyber-Tooth Curriculum?

    Higgins, Steve


    It is often assumed that the advent of digital technologies requires fundamental change to the curriculum and to the teaching and learning approaches used in schools around the world to educate this generation of "digital natives" or the "net generation". This article analyses the concepts of 21st-century skills and critical…

  3. "The Invisibles"...Disability in China in the 21st Century

    Campbell, Anne; Uren, Marie


    This study explores the effects of traditional beliefs, Confucian ideology, Chinese government policy and western influences on China's inclusion of people with a disability in the Chinese community in the 21st century. Using visual ethnography and an auto-ethnographic approach, the study examines data obtained over a period of five years to…

  4. Industrial training approach using GPM P5 Standard for Sustainability in Project Management: a framework for sustainability competencies in the 21st century

    Johan, Kartina; Mohd Turan, Faiz


    Malaysian Engineering Accreditation (Engineering Programme Accreditation Manual, 2007) requires all bachelor degree in engineering programmes to incorporate a minimum of two months industrial training in order for the programme to be accredited by the council. The industrial training has the objective to provide students on the insights of being an engineer at the workplace hence increasing their knowledge in employability skills prior to graduation. However the current structure of industrial training is not able to inculcate good leadership ability and prepare students with sustainability competencies needed in the era of Sustainable Development (SD). This paper aims to study project management methodology as a framework to create a training pathway in industrial training for students in engineering programs using Green Project Management (GPM) P5 standard for sustainability in project management. The framework involves students as interns, supervisors from both university and industry and also participation from NonProfit Organisation (NPO). The framework focus on the development of the student's competency in employability skills, lean leadership and sustainability competencies using experiential learning approach. Deliverables of the framework include internship report, professional sustainability report using GPM P5 standard and competency assessment. The post-industrial phase of the framework is constructed for students to be assessed collaboratively by the university, industry and the sustainability practitioner in the country. The ability for the interns to act as a change agent in sustainability practices is measured by the competency assessment and the quality of the sustainability report. The framework support the call for developing holistic students based on Malaysian Education Blueprint (Higher Education) 2015-2025 and address the gap between the statuses of engineering qualification to the sustainability competencies in the 21st century in

  5. Responsible Management Education for 21st Century Leadership

    Markus Prandini


    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2008/09 financial crisis, business schools had to face increasing criticism to have failed equipping their students with a broad and critical understanding of management and business practices which go beyond pure self-interest. Business schools are supposed to contribute to a holistic understanding of management which creates value along a triple bottom line: profit, people and planet. The triple bottom line finds its realization in the concept of sustainable corporate responsibility. This paper discusses possible approaches for business schools how to educate students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society at large and to work for an inclusive and sustainable global economy. On the basis of the recently published Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME as well as contemporary learning theories, the paper provides concrete recommendations how to foster students’ development towards long-term thinking, responsible business leaders. The paper argues that student learning needs to occur within powerful learning environments to provide an active, problem-based and self-directed acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. Two approaches to create best-practice learning environments are real-life case studies and real-life student projects which both lead to a strong buy in of students, faculty and company partners. Both approaches are exemplified with the bachelor degree program International Management at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (Switzerland. As a conclusion, a responsible management education fosters the students’ knowledge, skills and attitudes towards responsible business leadership to shape the future direction of the 21st century.

  6. After the book information services for the 21st century

    Stachokas, George


    Libraries and librarians have been defined by the book throughout modern history. What happens when society increasingly lets print go in favour of storing, retrieving and manipulating electronic information? What happens after the book? After the Book explores how the academic library of the 21st Century is first and foremost a provider of electronic information services. Contemporary users expect today's library to provide information as quickly and efficiently as other online information resources. The book argues that librarians need to change what they know, how they work, and how they ar

  7. Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear Bombers in the 21st Century


    REPORT DATE 02-04-10 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED 31-07-09 to 16-06-10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dinosaur or Phoenix: Nuclear...WARFIGHTING SCHOOL DINOSAUR OR PHOENIX: NUCLEAR BOMBERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY by John W. Morehead Colonel, United States Air Force A paper...can argue Secretary Gates’ decision to halt development of a follow-on bomber indicates the DOD views nuclear bombers as dinosaurs no longer needed as



    The 21st Century is the time for human seeking harmonizing with environment and carrying out sustainable development strategy. But sustainable development is facing many challenges. They may mainly include the follows: challenge comes from the contradiction between human and the earth, challenge of local benefit conflict to human common goal, challenge of competition to fairness, challenge of unbalanced development in regions and countries, challenge of diversity and challenge of calamity. Challenges are not only pressure, but also the motive force. Challenge exists, the motive force would never stop. Sustainable development was born in challenges, is developing in contradiction and will sustain in conflict.

  9. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Ljiljana Gavrilović


    The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important ...

  10. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet)


    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system. 21CPP Mexico activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing policymakers, regulators, and system operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP Mexico taps into deep networks of expertise and professional connections.

  11. Coal industry of Russia in early 21st century

    Malyshev, Y.N.; Trubetskoy, K.N. [Russian Union of Coal Producers, Moscow (Russia)


    The Russian coal industry enters 21st century as a completely revived and re-engineered profitable sector of the national economy, which is able to meet the national demand for coal and also to gradually expand the Russian annual exports of high quality coals to 40 MT. For the immediate future the improvement of coal sector efficiency on the basis of radical restructuring, introducing of the latest advanced technologies and product quality upgrading as well as the quantitative expansion of coal production, can be considered as the key direction for development. 4 refs., 4 annexs.


    Tetyana V. Danylova


    address gender issues in program development. In the 21st century issues of gender equity should be a priority at all levels.

  13. 21st Century jobs initiative - building the foundations for a 21st Century economy. Final main report



    The 21st Century Jobs Initiative has been launched in the context of new realities in Washington, D.C., rapid restructuring of the US economy and accelerating changes in the makeup of the East Tennessee economy driven by these and other external economic forces. Continuing downward pressure on Federal budgets for programs that support three key institutions in the region - DOE`s Oak Ridge complex, the Tennessee Valley Authority and research programs of the University of Tennessee - are especially threatening to the region. With a large part of its economy dependent on Federal spending, the area is at risk of troublesome impacts that could ripple out from the Oak Ridge and Knoxville home of these institutions throughout the entire 15-county {open_quotes}Resource Valley.{close_quotes} As these economic forces play out in the region`s economy, important questions arise. How will East Tennessee {open_quotes}earn its living{close_quotes} in the future if the Federal government role in the economy shrinks? What kind of new industries will be formed to replace those at risk due to Federal cutbacks and economic restructuring? Where will the jobs come from for the next generation of job seekers? These are among the questions driving the 21st Century Jobs Initiative, an action-oriented program designed and implemented by local leaders in response to the economic challenges facing East Tennessee. Fortunately, the region`s economy is strong today. Unemployment is at near record lows in most counties. Moreover, leaders are increasingly aware of the threats on the horizon and are already moving to action. And the impacts from the forces at work on the economy will probably come slowly, over the next decade or so. Based on economic research and input from local leaders knowledgeable about the economy, the 21st Century Jobs Initiative has set forth a strategic economic development plan for the region.

  14. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin


    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  15. The 21st century decline in damaging European windstorms

    L. C. Dawkins


    of the footprint exceeding 20 ms−1 over land, A20, is shown to be a good predictor of windstorm damage. This damaging characteristic has decreased in the 21st century, due to a statistically significant decrease in the relative frequency of windstorms exceeding 20 ms−1 in north-western Europe, although an increase is observed in southern Europe. This is explained by a decrease in the quantiles of the footprint wind gust speed distribution above approximately 18 ms−1 at locations in this region. In addition, an increased variability in the number of windstorm events is observed in the 21st century. Much of the change in A20 is explained by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. The correlation between winter total A20 and winter-averaged mean sea-level pressure resembles the NAO pattern, shifted eastwards over Europe, and a strong positive relationship (correlation of 0.715 exists between winter total A20 and winter-averaged NAO. The shifted correlation pattern, however, suggests that other modes of variability may also play a role in the variation in windstorm losses.

  16. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data

    Jang, Hyewon


    Gaps between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the US Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work activity for the two groups. We aimed to condense dimensions of the 52 key areas by categorizing them according to the Katz and Kahn (1978) framework and testing for inter-rater reliability. Our findings show frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education do not encompass all important STEM competencies. Implications for STEM education programs are discussed, including how they can bridge gaps between education and important workplace competencies.

  17. Training Librarians for 21st Century Repository Services: Emerging Trends

    Helen Emasealu


    Full Text Available The paper reviewed the emerging roles of the 21st century librarians, charged with the responsibility to manage repository services across libraries in present-day information technology environment. Librarians need to be trained and empowered with requisite skills and knowledge needed for successful management of the ICT driven repository initiatives that the 21st century demands. Literature was reviewed on the roles and responsibilities of librarians, training needs and opportunities, career path and recruitment of librarians, and community support necessary for effective and efficient implementation and management of repository initiatives. This entails the ability to comprehend trends and change patterns which are essential for providing research focused and user-friendly models in open repository services that are based on thorough analytical understanding of the challenges of emerging trends. To achieve this requires the training and retraining of librarians to reposition them as information specialists in their career path. The role of the library as an integral part of its social environment is to educate the community about the existence of an open repository by building partnership with community-oriented research centres through seminars, workshops, symposium, training, and awareness programmes. The study recommends that librarians should strategize and collaborate with researchers to make open repository an essential research tool.

  18. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    Khoury, Muin J [National Institutes of Health; Lam, Tram Kim [National Institutes of Health; Ioannidis, John [Stanford University; Hartge, Patricia [National Institutes of Health; Spitz, Margaret R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Huston; Buring, Julie E. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital; Chanock, Stephen J. [National Institutes of Health; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL; Zauber, Ann [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; Schully, Sheri D [National Institutes of Health


    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  19. Rethinking Global Water Governance for the 21st Century

    Ajami, N. K.; Cooley, H.


    Growing pressure on the world's water resources is having major impacts on our social and economic well-being. According to the United Nations, today, at least 1.1 billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Pressures on water resources are likely to continue to worsen in response to decaying and crumbling infrastructure, continued population growth, climate change, degradation of water quality, and other challenges. If these challenges are not addressed, they pose future risks for many countries around the world, making it urgent that efforts are made to understand both the nature of the problems and the possible solutions that can effectively reduce the associated risks. There is growing understanding of the need to rethink governance to meet the 21st century water challenges. More and more water problems extend over traditional national boundaries and to the global community and the types and numbers of organizations addressing water issues are large and growing. Economic globalization and transnational organizations and activities point to the need for improving coordination and integration on addressing water issues, which are increasingly tied to food and energy security, trade, global climate change, and other international policies. We will present some of the key limitations of global water governance institutions and provide recommendations for improving these institutions to address 21st century global water challenges more effectively.

  20. Some Hot Spots in the Study of Chinese Drugs in the 21st Century



    @@ Mankind has entered the 21st century of high speed development in science and economics. Owing to the alteration of disease modes in the new century, the greatly elevated quality of human life and the arrival of aged society, the modes of medicine have obviously changed from the treatment mode to the prevention mode, the medical thought emphasizes more the holistic approach of human body.

  1. Main Dynamics of Turkish-African Relations in the 21st Century

    Therence Atabong Njuafac


    Full Text Available This paper is focused on an overview of Turkey’s increased engagement towards Africa, especially in terms of its potentials, future perspectives and limits of the relations. It portrays and examines the main essence of Turkey’s foreign policy in Africa, and equally analyses the main reason or aspects behind the relations with Africa within the 21st century. It tries to answer the questions of why Turkey has so much interest in Africa now. In other words, it explores more the economic interaction (diplomacy that fosters the relations between Turkey and Africa in the 21st century. It equally shows the economic aspects as key instrument in building relations between Turkey and Africa. This continent known as Africa in the 90s was never a concern to Turkey as it is in this 21st century, since Turkey paid more attention to its relations with the West, and its close neighbors like Middle East, Balkans, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It discusses some of the main political, economic, religious, cultural and strategic motivations behind Turkey’s interest in Africa, as well as some of the challenges face along the line in the 21st century. This paper consists of three main sections. The first section presents the relations between Turkey and Africa during Ottoman Empire, Turkish foreign policy toward Africa in Cold War period. It also gives an overview of Turkey’s relations with Africa, Turkey’s policy in Africa and the main elements shaping relations between Turkey and Africa. Then, the various approaches, mainly economic diplomacy approach in maintaining relations between Turkey and Africa in the 21st century are presented.Turkey’s increasing use of soft power strategies drive a great desire to tie both the economy of Turkey and Africa more closely. From the aforementioned, Turkey’s soft power content ranges from professional and cultural exchange, agriculture, and humanitarian assistance.

  2. Onwards! Reinforcing Democracy for the 21st Century

    Ismail Serageldin


    Full Text Available Universal suffrage has been the primary goal of democratic evolution. Despite elections and other measures taken to ensure democratic rights, some desired outcomes such as equality and transparency are not being met. The current mode of our democratic system is archaic in addressing the world’s multifaceted global crises. So, there’s a dire need to incorporate new elements of democratic governance to address the issue. Humanity now lives in a transition period, so the path may not be easy. But the scientific and technological revolution underway is rapidly changing the mindsets of people and helping them exercise their rights. The article thus focuses on how democracy serves as the best system to ensure human rights and provide for a better society and also, how current models of democratic governance which matured in the last century can be improved in the 21st century, which is instrumental for meeting the challenges humanity confronts today. – Editor



    Yanji is the biggest China Korean inhabited city. Based on a newly finished research project, this paper discusses strategic problems about Yanji towards 21st century. The general point of the authors is that at the beginning of new century,Yanji will play a more important role in Tumen River Delta development, regional economy cooperation in Korea Peninsula as well as Northeast Asia, and it will develop to be an important central city in this area. This paper puts forwards Yanji City′s developing goal, urban nature, and urban size, probes its regional orientation, and further probes how to establish The Yanji Urban Economy Cooperation Zone. The authors think that Yanji should depend on its intellect resources and other characteristic resources. Industry development need to pay much attention to modern agriculture, tertiary industry (especially commerce, trade and tourism) and dominant industries, and high-tech industry must give a special care, in order to establish a light industrial structure.

  4. Creation of a high spatiotemporal resolution global database of continuous mangrove forest cover for the 21st Century (CGMFC-21): A big-data fusion approach

    Hamilton, Stuart


    CGMFC-21 provides high resolution local, regional, national, and global estimates of annual mangrove forest levels using continuous data from 2000 through to 2012 with the goal of driving mangrove research questions pertaining to biodiversity, climate change, food security, livelihoods, fisheries support, and conservation that have been hindered until now by a lack of suitable data. CGMFC-21 provides the required spatiotemporal resolutions to not only set REDD baseline measures globally in a systematic manner, but also to account for forest degradation as well as deforestation on an annual basis. Countries showing relatively high levels of 21st Century mangrove loss include Myanmar, Guatemala, Malaysia, Cambodia, and Indonesia. Many nations that have reported mangrove deforestation in earlier periods such as Ecuador, Bangladesh and Nigeria, have stabilized their mangrove levels during this period. Indonesia remains by far the largest mangrove holding nation containing between 26.16% and 28.50% of the global m...

  5. Projections of Climate Change over China for the 21st Century

    LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; XU Ying; GAO Xuejie; DING Yihui


    The projections of climate changes in China for the 21st century by about 40 climate scenarios and multi-model ensembles have been investigated in this research. All the models with the different scenarios project a warming of 1.2℃ to 9.2℃ in China by the end of 21st century. Most of the projections point show the increasing of precipitation in China for the 21st century.

  6. Changes to postgraduate medical education in the 21st century.

    Patel, Mehool


    Medicine is a constantly evolving profession, especially with the advent of rapid advances in the scientific base that underpins this vocation. In order to ensure that training in medicine is contemporary with the continuous evolution of the profession, there has been a multitude of changes to postgraduate medical education, particularly in the UK. This article aims to provide an overview of relevant key changes to postgraduate medical education in the UK during the 21st century, including changes to the structure, governance and commissioning of medical education, effects of European Working Time Directive on training, recent recommendations in the Future Hospital Commission report and Shape of training report, and recent requirements for accreditation of medical education trainers. Many of these recommendations will require complex discussions often at organisational levels, hopefully with some realistic and pragmatic solutions for implementation.

  7. Identifying 21st century STEM competencies using workplace data

    Jang, Hyewon


    Gaps between Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and required workplace skills have been identified in industry, academia, and government. Educators acknowledge the need to reform STEM education to better prepare students for their future careers. We pursue this growing interest in the skills needed for STEM disciplines and ask whether frameworks for 21st century skills and engineering education cover all of important STEM competencies. In this study, we identify important STEM competencies and evaluate the relevance of current frameworks applied in education using the standardized job-specific database operated and maintained by the United States Department of Labor. Our analysis of the importance of 109 skills, types of knowledge and work activities, revealed 18 skills, seven categories of knowledge, and 27 work activities important for STEM workers. We investigate the perspectives of STEM and non-STEM job incumbents, comparing the importance of each skill, knowledge, and work...

  8. Reimagining Human Research Protections for 21st Century Science

    Bietz, Matthew; Bae, Deborah; Bigby, Barbara; Devereaux, Mary; Fowler, James; Waldo, Ann; Weibel, Nadir; Patrick, Kevin; Klemmer, Scott; Melichar, Lori


    Background Evolving research practices and new forms of research enabled by technological advances require a redesigned research oversight system that respects and protects human research participants. Objective Our objective was to generate creative ideas for redesigning our current human research oversight system. Methods A total of 11 researchers and institutional review board (IRB) professionals participated in a January 2015 design thinking workshop to develop ideas for redesigning the IRB system. Results Ideas in 5 major domains were generated. The areas of focus were (1) improving the consent form and process, (2) empowering researchers to protect their participants, (3) creating a system to learn from mistakes, (4) improving IRB efficiency, and (5) facilitating review of research that leverages technological advances. Conclusions We describe the impetus for and results of a design thinking workshop to reimagine a human research protections system that is responsive to 21st century science. PMID:28007687

  9. Challenges for Educational Technologists in the 21st Century

    Robin Mayes


    Full Text Available In 1972, Edsger Dijkstra claimed that computers had only introduced the new problem of learning to use them effectively. This is especially true in 2015 with regard to powerful new educational technologies. This article describes the challenges that 21st century educational technologists are, and will be, addressing as they undertake the effective integration of new technologies into K-12 educational systems and learning environments. The expanding Internet, ever more powerful mobile devices, and other innovations make the task of designing effective formal and informal learning challenging, especially in light of the high rate of change in these new technologies. While these technologies introduce many benefits, they are also causing serious threats to system security and personal privacy. Furthermore, as these technologies continue to evolve, ethical issues such as equal access to resources become imperative. Educational technologists must expand their forward-thinking leadership and planning competencies so as to ensure effective use of new technologies.

  10. Surgical appreciation of Robert Boyle in the 21st century.

    Murphy, D L


    Robert Boyle was known as the Father of Chemistry. He lived at a time when science and religion were closely linked. It was a pious and puritanical time, but also a time of great enlightenment. His original and paramount thesis, that air has weight, has given us Boyle's gas law. Another of his writings in the Cowlishaw Collection is on religion. It is stated that, at one stage, he was deliberating whether to be a scientist or a priest. Surgical appreciation of Boyle's law has poignant application in scientific methods and research in the 21st century. The development of advanced laparoscopic surgery represents a challenging new era in surgery that was not envisaged by our surgical predecessors. Basic surgical research into the effects of gas pressure on renal function and bowel response will be presented.

  11. Musical instruments in the 21st century identities, configurations, practices

    Campo, Alberto; Egermann, Hauke; Hardjowirogo, Sarah-Indriyati; Weinzierl, Stefan


    By exploring the many different types and forms of contemporary musical instruments, this book contributes to a better understanding of the conditions of instrumentality in the 21st century. Providing insights from science, humanities and the arts, authors from a wide range of disciplines discuss the following questions: · What are the conditions under which an object is recognized as a musical instrument? · What are the actions and procedures typically associated with musical instruments? · What kind of (mental and physical) knowledge do we access in order to recognize or use something as a musical instrument? · How is this knowledge being shaped by cultural conventions and temporal conditions? · How do algorithmic processes 'change the game' of musical performance, and as a result, how do they affect notions of instrumentality? · How do we address the question of instrumental identity within an instrument's design process? · What properties can be used to differentiate successful and unsuccessful ins...

  12. Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century

    Buhl, Mie; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    Social Aesthetics in Learning Practices in the 21st Century Due to the extensive reliance on media in our everyday perception of the surroundings we see a shift in relation to aesthetics from an individual focus to social negotiations around a situation. This article presents how individuals shape......, both, theoretically and through an explorative study: Theoretically we draw from visual culture (Buhl, 2012;Bourriaud, 2002; Mitchell, 2002), learning (Dohn, 2002) and digital media studies (Ejsing-Duun, 2011). The explorative case study is focused on the use of the mobile application Draw Something...... (Buhl and Ejsing-Duun, 2013), along with other current apps. In a case study we take them as examples of how technology facilitates our meeting with the world though the senses and how we decode and negotiate social aesthetic expressions. The intent of the article is to suggest and discuss an aesthetic...

  13. Between the Scylla and the Charybdis: Theological education in the 21st century in Africa

    Johan Buitendag


    Full Text Available The article reflects on the challenges of theological education in the 21st century and in Africa. Reputation, impact, success and funding have become the driving forces of the modern university. However, we are living in the 21st century and in Africa with a subsequent frame of reference that is holistic and faith-based. The article therefore argues for a multi- and transdisciplinary approach towards the nature of a university and recognition of the unique contribution theological education can contribute. Due to the inherently cooperative nature of theological scholarship, theological education could be able to avoid the extremes of the Scylla and the Charybdis, that is, fideism and secularisation, and therefore be able to survive at an academic institution. Both sectarianism and scientism should be avoided. Theological education in Africa needed to travel the same difficult road of theological faculties in Europe in the previous century.

  14. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L


    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  15. There Is More to Love: Meeting and Mating in The 21st Century

    Carbino, Jessica M.


    This dissertation explores how individuals meet and mate in the 21st Century. Technology has always influenced the way we date, but meeting a partner online is increasingly common. I employ a mixed methods approach to understand the complex online dating space. Using three unique data sources, I explore how facial attractiveness, gender, and third parties structure online dating interactions. In chapter one, I examine the influence of facial attractiveness and demographic factors on initiati...

  16. 21st Century Skills In The Teaching Of Foreign Languages At Primary And Secondary Schools

    Cruz, Mário; Orange, Edite


    Taking an experiential communicative approach (Fernández-Corbacho, 2014) into account, enriched by gamifi-cation strategies (Foncubierta & Rodríguez, 2015), in this paper we intend to disseminate teaching practices in English and Spanish as Foreign Languages at primary/secondary schools, which account for the development of 21st Century Skills, namely: collaboration and communication, creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving. Therefore, we will present practices...

  17. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science


    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  18. 76 FR 48797 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting


    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: August 30-31, 2011. ADDRESSES: Rooms... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  19. 77 FR 26725 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting AGENCY... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are May 29-30, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5... consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming...

  20. 77 FR 46681 - Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture; Notice of Meeting... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting... the biotechnology industry, the organic food industry, farming communities, the seed industry,...

  1. 77 FR 11064 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting


    ... Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES: The meeting dates are March 5-6, 2012..., 2012. The AC21 consists of members representing the biotechnology industry, the organic food...

  2. Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century

    Casey, Heather


    This article explores the development of teacher identity in the 21st century. The simple way to describe this discussion of identity is that it is complex. In an attempt to unpack this complexity, this article begins with a discussion of definitions of teacher identity; then links that discussion to the literature on how 21st-century web 2.0…

  3. Challenges to learning and schooling in the digital networked world of the 21st century

    Voogt, J.M.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.


    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, gi

  4. 21st Century Learning: Law-Related Education in South Tucson

    Golston, Syd


    This article describes the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. This Arizona high school magnet law program offers the ideal 21st century education--one that teaches skills through core subjects and interdisciplinary themes, uses innovative learning methods, and emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Students agree that the program has helped…

  5. Assessing 21st Century Skills: A Guide to Evaluating Mastery and Authentic Learning

    Greenstein, Laura


    The Common Core State Standards clearly define the skills students need for success in college and the 21st century workplace. The question is, how can you measure student mastery of skills like creativity, problem solving, and use of technology? Laura Greenstein demonstrates how teachers can teach and assess 21st century skills using authentic…

  6. Intelligent manufacture adapts to agile manufacture production mode in the 21st century

    Li Xurong


    The paper describes the characteristics of the intelligent manufacturing system and production mode in the21st century in the information age, therefore draws a conclusion that the intelligent manufacturing system adapts to agilemanufacture (AM for short) production mode in the 21 st century.

  7. Leading the 21st-century academic library successful strategies for envisioning and realizing preferred futures

    Eden, Bradford Lee


    Leading the 21st Century Academic Library: Successful Strategies for Envisioning and Realizing Preferred Futures will explore the new roles and directions academic libraries are taking in the 21st century as a consequence of visionary leadership in exploring diverse futures.

  8. Infusing Creativity and Technology in 21st Century Education: A Systemic View for Change

    Henriksen, Danah; Mishra, Punya; Fisser, Petra


    In this article, we explore creativity alongside educational technology, as fundamental constructs of 21st century education. Creativity has become increasingly important, as one of the most important and noted skills for success in the 21st century. We offer a definition of creativity; and draw upon a systems model of creativity, to suggest…

  9. Challenges to Learning and Schooling in the Digital Networked World of the 21st Century

    Voogt, J.; Erstad, O.; Dede, C.; Mishra, P.


    This article elaborates on the competencies, often referred to as 21st century competencies, that are needed to be able to live in and contribute to our current (and future) society. We begin by describing, analysing and reflecting on international frameworks describing 21st century competencies, giving special attention to digital literacy as one…

  10. Higher Education Administration and Globalization in the 21st Century in India

    Jabbarifar, Taghi


    This article deals with the changing scenario and management responsibilities of higher education in the 21st century in India. Of course, for those looking for challenges of management in higher education as a field, the future is not going to be a disappointment. Maybe by the end of the first decade of the 21st century management of higher…

  11. Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students

    Miller, Abby; Valle, Katherine; Engle, Jennifer; Cooper, Michelle


    This report, "Access to Attainment: An Access Agenda for 21st Century College Students," examines the challenges facing 21st century students and presents strategies for addressing these challenges through policy-and practice-based solutions at the institutional, state and national levels. Recommendations include implementing a…

  12. 21st Century innovators. Interview by Joe Flower.

    Newbold, P; Linton, P


    Last spring, The Healthcare Forum and 3M together announced the 21st Century Innovator Awards. They hoped to spotlight examples of the most forward-thinking organizations in American healthcare--organizations that could demonstrate readiness for the next century through the process of rebuilding their systems and structures. THF and 3M were looking for models for success with: (1) an organizational vision for the future, (2) an integrated planning process which reflected that vision, and (3) a measurable future benefit to the communities they served. The call elicited responses from more than 40 organizations across the country. THF and 3M were overwhelmed by both their range and quality. Choosing was difficult. But last September two winners were unveiled at the THF-3M Visionary Leadership conference in Hilton Head, South Carolina. Memorial Hospital and Health System of South Bend, Indiana, took the large, urban, regional, and national award for its progress in the long, tough process of revisioning itself according to a strategic concept CEO Phil Newbold calls "Quality Through People." The small, rural, and suburban prize went to Yavapai Regional Medical Center in Prescott, Arizona, where CEO Pat Linton is attempting to shape a "Total Healing Environment." We asked Joe Flower to visit both sites and send back an eyewitness report on what makes these two progressive organizations models for healthcare in the '90s and beyond.

  13. State, nation and democracy on the 21st century

    Nidia Catherine González Piñeros


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between State and Nation in the recent events in Japan and Bolivia, cases in which the universally shared ideas about development and democracy are met with the common criteria for the majority of the countries in the world. This relationship is analyzed comparing the particularities of each context regarding the concepts mentioned. Japan, despite being considered as an economically developed country, is criticized for its lack of exercise of democratic, popular politics. That country, despite being in the 21st century, remains a constitutional monarchy. Thus, given the catastrophic episode from March, 2011, the destiny of the citizens was defined by the imperial family. Bolivia, for its part, since the beginning of this century has managed a national reconstruction that has re-founded the Constitution and, therefore, the nation and the State. However, this democratic reorganization now faces a number of dilemmas where the State is debating between democracy and authoritarianism, as well as between liberal development and development from a communal perspective.

  14. An animal protection perspective on 21st century toxicology.

    Stephens, Martin L


    The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) strongly endorses the vision for the future of toxicity testing proposed in the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century. Although crafted primarily with the aim of better assessing the public health risks from chemical exposures, the vision would have a major impact on advancing both alternative testing methods and animal welfare. Consequently, The HSUS seeks to have the vision implemented expeditiously. The HSUS is pleased that the report has elicited considerable discussion and debate and garnered a certain level of approval and applaud current implementation efforts. However, these efforts do not fully capture the vision and strategy outlined by the NRC. The HSUS believes that the timely implementation of the NRC vision warrants a large-scale "Human Toxicology Project" akin to the Human Genome Project of the late 20th century. The HSUS spearheaded the formation of the Human Toxicology Project Consortium to help marshal the necessary will, funding, and research for this effort. Our sister organization, the Humane Society International, is embarking on a related effort with European partners. The HSUS cofounded a website,, devoted exclusively to the scientific and policy issues central to advancing nonanimal methods of toxicity testing. The NRC report has provided a unified framework by which to systematically incorporate the fruits of modern biology and technology into hazard identification and risk assessment, to the betterment not only of toxicity testing and public health, but also of animal protection.




    Full Text Available Recent major political uprisings are indicating the extent to which social learning Web 2.0 technologies, can infl uence change in informal learning settings. Recognition and a discussion of the potential of that infl uence in formal learning settings have only just begun. This article describes a study of an international distance learning project in 2004, using a variety of Web 2.0 technologies, including video-based web conferencing, that sought to initiate and respond to this urgent need for dialogue in the research. Self-selected participants took part in a 5-week English as a foreign language (EFL program, a joint NATO sponsored Canadian and Romanian Ministry of Defense-supported initiative. Clear evidence of linguistic knowledge construction and of important changes to participants’ learner identities, indicates the power of these technologies to support the kind of learning that can lead to the development of global citizens and the skills they will increasingly require in the 21st century.

  16. Tuberculosis: a new vision for the 21st century.

    Small, Peter M


    accelerate the development of new tools for the future. Simple improvements in tuberculosis control, such as expanding the use of under-utilized technologies, can have enormous impact. Fixed-dose combinations have existed for over 25 years, and could help ensure that more patients complete treatment; yet globally, only 15 percent of patients are using them. We also need new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics, as well as innovations in tuberculosis control and case management. Better diagnostics are already available, and new drugs and vaccines are coming. But more commitment and resources are needed. Better prevention and control of tuberculosis is the surest way to stop drug resistance. To ensure that drug resistance does not pose a wider threat, we need to employ a number of equally important approaches. These include improved basic tuberculosis control, increased use of underutilized technologies such as fixed-dose combinations, and new technologies and health systems innovations. At the same time, we should expand access to M/XDR-TB treatment and diagnostics for those who already have drug resistant tuberculosis. Some of the most innovative solutions can come from the private sector and through partnerships. An untapped market of two billion people carries the tuberculosis bacterium. Since tuberculosis requires a comprehensive approach, companies should also explore opportunities to work together and pool complementary technologies to ensure new tools are used most effectively. Japan is poised to play a leading role in the discovery, development and delivery of tuberculosis solutions in the 21st century.

  17. Diabetes type 2 pandemic in 21st century.

    Ginter, E; Simko, V


    In the second half of the 20th century it became obvious that a relentless increase in diabetes type 2 (DM) affecting the economically affluent countries, is gradually afflicting also the developing world. This review juxtaposes the threat that the DM epidemic represents to mankind, with the astonishing recent discoveries on the role of obesity and of the body fat in this metabolic disorder. Presently, the highest prevalence of DM is in Saudi Arabia, a country deep in riches generated by its oil wells. DM is very high, in over 10% of adults in the USA, Switzerland and Austria. Prevalence is low in Norway, China and in Iceland. Predictions of epidemiologists for the first third of the 21st century claim up to 2.5 times increase in DM in the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, India, rest of Asia and in the Latin America. In China the number of patients with DM will double but in the economically advanced countries that experienced rise in DM in the 20th century, the increase will be only about 50%. Remarkably, a lowest increase in DM is expected in the countries that formerly belonged to the Soviet political space. Increasing urbanization, aging populations, obesity, and falling levels of physical activity are all contributing to the rise of DM worldwide. The main cause of DM pandemic is growing prevalence of obesity, in Europe and in the Latin America. In the North America obesity is considered to be responsible for 90% of DM in females. Male obesity is associated with DM slightly less, at 70-80% in the European Union and in the US. The precise mechanism by which obesity leads to insulin resistance and to DM is not completely described but it may be related to several biochemical factors, such as abnormalities in free fatty acids, adipokines, leptin and other substances (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 24).

  18. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos


    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  19. Being Black and Brown in the 21st Century

    Pierre W. Orelus


    Full Text Available Depending on one’s level of understanding and awareness about the plight of Black and Brown people, one might argue that they are better off today than they were 50 years ago or so, especially when one remembers the Jim Crow era during which Black and Brown people were ruthlessly brutalized, particularly by White supremacist groups such as the Klu Klux Kan. However, if one critically analyzed the achievement gap between students of color and their White counterparts, the decline in incomes, and other forms of educational and socioeconomic inequality that Black and Brown people, particularly poor students of color, have been experiencing for the last several decades or so, one would realize that substantially nothing has changed for them. In light of this view, this article explores the educational and socioeconomic conditions of People of Color, including those of linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, it examines the ways and the degree to which lack of resources combined with institutional racism and the legacy of slavery continue to limit the life chances of Black and Brown people in the 21st century. The author ends this article making recommendations to counter inequality in schools and society at large that Black and Brown people have been facing.

  20. Young Adult Dystopias: Bildungsroman for the 21st Century

    Ljiljana Gavrilović


    Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.

  1. Cyberbullying: a 21st Century Health Care Phenomenon.

    Carter, Jemica M; Wilson, Feleta L


    This study examined bullying and cyberbullying prevalence among 367 adolescents 10 to 18 years of age who were attending schools and community organizations in suburban and urban neighborhoods in the Midwest United States. The correlational design investigated adolescents' daily use of technology that could be used to cyberbully peers, such as cell phones, computers, email, and the Internet. Results showed that 30% of participants had been bullied during school, and 17% had been cyberbullied, with online social networking sites the most common media employed (68%). The majority of participants owned or had access to computers (92%), email accounts (88%), social networking accounts (e.g., Facebook or MySpace) (82%), and cell phones (79%). Daily technology use included an average of two hours on a computer and a median of 71 text messages per day. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant differences in bullying or cyberbullying prevalence based on location (urban or suburban) or demographic characteristics. Given the substantial presence of cyberbullying and the increase in technology use among adolescents in the 21st century, nurses need knowledge of the phenomenon to plan assessments in clinical practice. Early identification and assessment of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators, and development and implementation of effective interventions are needed to reduce this form of bullying among adolescents.

  2. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A


    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  3. Bionic autonomic neuromodulation revolutionizes cardiology in the 21st century.

    Sunagawa, Kenji


    In this invited session, we would like to address the impact of bionic neuromodulation on cardiovascular diseases. It has been well established that cardiovascular dysregulation plays major roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. This is the reason why most drugs currently used in cardiology have significant pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular regulatory system. Since the ultimate center for cardiovascular regulation is the brainstem, it is conceivable that autonomic neuromodulation would have significant impacts on cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of this framework, we first developed a bionic, neurally regulated artificial pacemaker. We then substituted the brainstem by CPU and developed a bionic artificial baroreflex system. We further developed a bionic brain that achieved better regulatory conditions than the native brainstem in order to improve survival in animal model with heart failure. We recently developed a bionic neuromodulation system to reduce infarction size following acute myocardial infarction. We believe that the bionic neuromodulation will inspire even more intricate applications in cardiology in the 21(st) century.

  4. Maunder's Butterfly Diagram in the 21st Century

    Hathaway, David H.


    E. Walter Maunder created his first "Butterfly Diagram" showing the equatorward drift of the sunspot latitudes over the course of each of two solar cycles in 1903. This diagram was constructed from data obtained through the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) starting in 1874. The RGO continued to acquire data up until 1976. Fortunately, the US Air Force (USAF) and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have continued to acquire similar data since that time. This combined RGO/USAF/NOAA dataset on sunspot group positions and areas now extends virtually unbroken from the 19th century to the 21st century. The data represented in the Butterfly Diagram contain a wealth of information about solar activity and the solar cycle. Solar activity (as represented by the sunspots) appears at mid-latitudes at the start of each cycle. The bands of activity spread in each hemisphere and then drift toward the equator as the cycle progresses. Although the equator itself tends to be avoided, the spread of activity reaches the equator at about the time of cycle maximum. The cycles overlap at minimum with old cycle spots appearing near the equator while new cycle spots emerge in the mid-latitudes. Large amplitude cycles tend to have activity starting at higher latitudes with the activity spreading to higher latitudes as well. Large amplitude cycles also tend to be preceded by earlier cycles with faster drift rates. These drift rates may be tied to the Sun s meridional circulation - a component in many dynamo theories for the origin of the sunspot cycle. The Butterfly Diagram must be reproduced in any successful dynamo model for the Sun.

  5. Health sector reforms for 21 st century healthcare

    Darshan Shankar


    Full Text Available The form of the public health system in India is a three tiered pyramid-like structure consisting primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The content of India′s health system is mono-cultural and based on western bio-medicine. Authors discuss need for health sector reforms in the wake of the fact that despite huge investment, the public health system is not delivering. Today, 70% of the population pays out of pocket for even primary healthcare. Innovation is the need of the hour. The Indian government has recognized eight systems of healthcare viz., Allopathy, Ayurveda, Siddha, Swa-rigpa, Unani, Naturopathy, Homeopathy, and Yoga. Allopathy receives 97% of the national health budget, and 3% is divided amongst the remaining seven systems. At present, skewed funding and poor integration denies the public of advantage of synergy and innovations arising out of the richness of India′s Medical Heritage. Health seeking behavior studies reveal that 40-70% of the population exercise pluralistic choices and seek health services for different needs, from different systems. For emergency and surgery, Allopathy is the first choice but for chronic and common ailments and for prevention and wellness help from the other seven systems is sought. Integrative healthcare appears to be the future framework for healthcare in the 21 st century. A long-term strategy involving radical changes in medical education, research, clinical practice, public health and the legal and regulatory framework is needed, to innovate India′s public health system and make it both integrative and participatory. India can be a world leader in the new emerging field of "integrative healthcare" because we have over the last century or so assimilated and achieved a reasonable degree of competence in bio-medical and life sciences and we possess an incredibly rich and varied medical heritage of our own.

  6. 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Providing Afterschool and Summer Learning Support to Communities Nationwide

    Afterschool Alliance, 2014


    The 21st Century Community Learning Centers (21st CCLC) initiative is the only federal funding source dedicated exclusively to before-school, afterschool, and summer learning programs. Each state education agency receives funds based on its share of Title I funding for low-income students at high-poverty, low performing schools. Funds are also…

  7. Hilbert problems for the geosciences in the 21st century

    M. Ghil


    Full Text Available The scientific problems posed by the Earth's fluid envelope, and its atmosphere, oceans, and the land surface that interacts with them are central to major socio-economic and political concerns as we move into the 21st century. It is natural, therefore, that a certain impatience should prevail in attempting to solve these problems. The point of this review paper is that one should proceed with all diligence, but not excessive haste: "festina lente," as the Romans said two thousand years ago, i.e. "hurry in a measured way." The paper traces the necessary progress through the solutions to the ten problems: 1. What is the coarse-grained structure of low-frequency atmospheric variability, and what is the connection between its episodic and oscillatory description? 2. What can we predict beyond one week, for how long, and by what methods? 3. What are the respective roles of intrinsic ocean variability, coupled ocean-atmosphere modes, and atmospheric forcing in seasonal-to-interannual variability? 4. What are the implications of the answer to the previous problem for climate prediction on this time scale? 5. How does the oceans' thermohaline circulation change on interdecadal and longer time scales, and what is the role of the atmosphere and sea ice in such changes? 6. What is the role of chemical cycles and biological changes in affecting climate on slow time scales, and how are they affected, in turn, by climate variations? 7. Does the answer to the question above give us some trigger points for climate control? 8. What can we learn about these problems from the atmospheres and oceans of other planets and their satellites? 9. Given the answer to the questions so far, what is the role of humans in modifying the climate? 10. Can we achieve enlightened climate control of our planet by the end of the century? A unified framework is proposed to deal with these problems in succession, from the shortest to the longest timescale, i.e. from weeks to

  8. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    E. L. Nasonov


    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs Р BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  9. Global peat erosion risk assessment for the 21st Century

    Li, Pengfei; Irvine, Brian; Holden, Joseph


    Many peatlands across the world are suffering from degradation and erosion exacerbated by human influences. Blanket peat erosion has adverse impacts on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, reservoir capacity and water quality, and also leads to accelerated carbon release. Bioclimatic modelling suggests that some areas, which are currently suitable for active peat growth, may be no longer under a climate supporting the accumulation of peat by the end of the century. Peat erosion in these marginal regions is thus more likely. A recently developed blanket peat erosion model, PESERA-PEAT, was established through significantly modifying the grid version of the Pan-European Soil Erosion Assessment model (PESERA-GRID) to explicitly include the freeze-thaw and desiccation processes, which appear to be the crucial drivers of peat erosion, and typical land management practices in blanket peatlands such as artificial drainage, grazing and managed burning. Freeze-thaw and desiccation are estimated based on climate (i.e. temperature) and soil moisture conditions. Land management practices interact with hydrology, erosion and vegetation growth via their influence on vegetation cover, biomass and soil moisture condition. The model has been demonstrated to be robust for blanket peat erosion modelling with riverine sediment flux data in the UK. In this paper, the PESERA-PEAT model is applied to investigate the impact of environmental change on the blanket peat erosion at a global scale. Climatic scenarios to the end of 21st Century were derived, as part of the QUEST-GSI initiative, from the outputs of seven global climate models: CGCM3 and CCCMA (Canada); CSIRO Mark III (Australia); IPSL (France); ECHAM5 (Germany); CCSM (US National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)); HadCM3 and HadGEM1 (UK). Land management practice such as artificial drainage is considered to examine if it is possible to buffer the impact of climate change on erosion through managing blanket peatlands in

  10. Roadmap and technical white papers for the 21st century truck partnership

    None, None


    21st Century Truck Partnership will support the development and implementation of technologies that will cut fuel use and emissions and enhance safety, affordability, and performance of trucks and buses.

  11. Five Forces of 21st Century Innovation Strategy: Insights for Leaders

    Arent, Douglas J.; Pless, Jacquelyn; Statwick, Patricia


    Understanding these dynamics informs 21st century innovation strategies that government and business leaders rely upon to address modern technological, social, environmental, and demographic realities. This Research Highlight previews JISEA's continuing work on innovation strategy.

  12. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    Martinez-Rey, J.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.; Tagliabue, A.; Gruber, N.


    The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2) conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr-1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around -0.009 W m-2 K-1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  13. World Future Mapping and Scenarios for the 21st Century

    Vareikis Egidijus


    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to describe the methods of future studies, its possibilities and limitations, as well as to make some predictions about the real picture of the development of the 21st century. However, the planning is still not very reliable, and far from a “road map” framework. Thus, future studies are still balancing between science and scientific/artistic fiction. The set of methods of future investigation permits one to compose a few or even up to dozens of medium term or long term scenarios of the world’s future. There are a few well-proven laws of social and economic development as well as some partially predictable phenomena in the area of environment, biology, human ethic, etc. No future planning is secure from unpredictable phenomena – “black swans” – and their impact, nor secure from “political decisions” that destroy natural developments in society. So no one scenario can pretend to be absolutely right. The most frequent future scenarios are based on the wish to implement a copy of an existing “happy nation”, to fight undesirable trends, and create some kind of “dream society” while stimulating positives and inhibiting negative trends. The final version of a scenario depends also upon the “human factors”, e.g. knowledge, stereotypes of thinking, as well as the wishes of those who are financing the project. Generally they are “happy end” projects. This makes scenarios rather useless. Only the independent experts that present more realistic and reliable scenarios can help in the planning of medium term and long term futures. Currently many scenarios foresee the so-called American or European way of development, which is in fact the continuation of the existing world order. There is a growing number of publications about the emergence of China (and Russia as a great power as well as possibilities of a New Caliphate, New Messiah or new Orwellian style regimes.

  14. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.


    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  15. Oceanic N2O emissions in the 21st century

    J. Martinez-Rey


    Full Text Available The ocean is a substantial source of nitrous oxide (N2O to the atmosphere, but little is known on how this flux might change in the future. Here, we investigate the potential evolution of marine N2O emissions in the 21st century in response to anthropogenic climate change using the global ocean biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. We implemented two different parameterizations of N2O production, which differ primarily at low oxygen (O2 conditions. When forced with output from a climate model simulation run under the business-as-usual high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5, our simulations suggest a decrease of 4 to 12% in N2O emissions from 2005 to 2100, i.e., a reduction from 4.03/3.71 to 3.54/3.56 Tg N yr−1 depending on the parameterization. The emissions decrease strongly in the western basins of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while they tend to increase above the Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs, i.e., in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in the northern Indian Ocean. The reduction in N2O emissions is caused on the one hand by weakened nitrification as a consequence of reduced primary and export production, and on the other hand by stronger vertical stratification, which reduces the transport of N2O from the ocean interior to the ocean surface. The higher emissions over the OMZ are linked to an expansion of these zones under global warming, which leads to increased N2O production associated primarily with denitrification. From the perspective of a global climate system, the averaged feedback strength associated with the projected decrease in oceanic N2O emissions amounts to around −0.009 W m−2 K−1, which is comparable to the potential increase from terrestrial N2O sources. However, the assesment for a compensation between the terrestrial and marine feedbacks calls for an improved representation of N2O production terms in fully coupled next generation of Earth System Models.

  16. The sea level fingerprint of 21st century ice mass fluxes

    Bamber, J.; Riva, R.


    The sea level contribution from glacial sources has been accelerating during the 21st century (Meier et al., 2007; Velicogna, 2009). This contribution is not distributed uniformly across the world's oceans due to both oceanographic and gravitational effects. We compute the sea level signature of 21st century ice mass fluxes due to changes in the gravity field, Earth's rotation and related effects. Mass loss from Greenland results in a relative sea level (RSL) reduction for much of North Weste...

  17. Editorial: Digital systems supporting cognition and exploratory learning in 21st century

    Demetrios G. Sampson


    Full Text Available Digital systems and digital technologies are globally investigated for their potential to transform learning and teaching towards offering unique learning experiences to the 21st century learners. This Special Issue on Digital Systems supporting Cognition and Exploratory Learning in 21st Century aims to contribute to the dialogue between the educational technology and educational psychology research community and the educational practitioners on current issues towards large scale take-up of educational technology.

  18. Scientific Workflow Systems for 21st Century e-Science, New Bottle or New Wine?

    Zhao, Yong; Foster, Ian


    With the advances in e-Sciences and the growing complexity of scientific analyses, more and more scientists and researchers are relying on workflow systems for process coordination, derivation automation, provenance tracking, and bookkeeping. While workflow systems have been in use for decades, it is unclear whether scientific workflows can or even should build on existing workflow technologies, or they require fundamentally new approaches. In this paper, we analyze the status and challenges of scientific workflows, investigate both existing technologies and emerging languages, platforms and systems, and identify the key challenges that must be addressed by workflow systems for e-science in the 21st century.

  19. 76 FR 14895 - Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture


    ... Agricultural Research Service Request for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st...: Notice of request for nominations to the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture... the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). DATES:...

  20. Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research.

    Langley, Gill; Austin, Christopher P; Balapure, Anil K; Birnbaum, Linda S; Bucher, John R; Fentem, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C; Fowle, John R; Kavlock, Robert J; Kitano, Hiroaki; Lidbury, Brett A; Muotri, Alysson R; Peng, Shuang-Qing; Sakharov, Dmitry; Seidle, Troy; Trez, Thales; Tonevitsky, Alexander; van de Stolpe, Anja; Whelan, Maurice; Willett, Catherine


    Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual framework that repurposes the 21st-century transition underway in toxicology. Human disease should be conceived as resulting from integrated extrinsic and intrinsic causes, with research focused on modern human-specific models to understand disease pathways at multiple biological levels that are analogous to adverse outcome pathways in toxicology. Systems biology tools should be used to integrate and interpret data about disease causation and pathophysiology. Such an approach promises progress in overcoming the current roadblocks to understanding human disease and successful drug discovery and translation. A discourse should begin now to identify and consider the many challenges and questions that need to be solved.

  1. Teaching in a 21st Century Educational Context: A Case Study to Explore the Alignment between Vision, Instruction and the Needs of a 21st Century Workplace

    Lendis, Evagkelia Irene


    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate how one secondary school, known for its high quality educational program, is infusing the pedagogical elements that are conducive for a 21st century education. The administration's vision along with teacher interviews and classroom observations were used to understand if the school was…

  2. A View from Japan. Citizenship for the 21st Century: The Role of the Social Studies. Fourth in a Series.

    Nakayama, Shuichi


    Points out problems in planning a social studies curriculum that will prepare Japanese society for the 21st Century. Claiming that the current curricula is ethnocentric, looks at objectives and teaching strategies for developing a global approach. Recommends development of a global information network to increase awareness of the interrelatedness…

  3. The Teaching of Afro-Brazilian and Indigenous Culture and History in Brazilian Basic Education in the 21st Century

    Guimarães, Selva


    This paper approaches the public policies for teaching Afro-Brazilian and indigenous history and culture in Brazil in the 21st century. It is part of a broader study about the implementation and impacts of Federal Laws 10.639/2009 and 11.645/2008, which made the study of these topics mandatory across the national territory. Our methodology…

  4. Fostering Creativity in the Classroom through Animated Storytelling - Challenges and Potentials for Arts-integration in 21st. Century Learning

    Gjedde, Lisa


    Creativity has been termed one of the most important skills of the 21st. Century classroom. While a traditional approach to education has not had a big emphasis on creativity in most subjects, the emerging learner-centered paradigm, as well as learners’ everday use of media, is making many...

  5. Evidence-based toxicology for the 21st century: opportunities and challenges.

    Stephens, Martin L; Andersen, Melvin; Becker, Richard A; Betts, Kellyn; Boekelheide, Kim; Carney, Ed; Chapin, Robert; Devlin, Dennis; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Fowle, John R; Harlow, Patricia; Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Holsapple, Michael; Jacobs, Abigail; Judson, Richard; Naidenko, Olga; Pastoor, Tim; Patlewicz, Grace; Rowan, Andrew; Scherer, Roberta; Shaikh, Rashid; Simon, Ted; Wolf, Douglas; Zurlo, Joanne


    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration (EBTC) was established recently to translate evidence-based approaches from medicine and health care to toxicology in an organized and sustained effort. The EBTC held a workshop on "Evidence-based Toxicology for the 21st Century: Opportunities and Challenges" in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA on January 24-25, 2012. The presentations largely reflected two EBTC priorities: to apply evidence-based methods to assessing the performance of emerging pathway-based testing methods consistent with the 2007 National Research Council report on "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century" as well as to adopt a governance structure and work processes to move that effort forward. The workshop served to clarify evidence-based approaches and to provide food for thought on substantive and administrative activities for the EBTC. Priority activities include conducting pilot studies to demonstrate the value of evidence-based approaches to toxicology, as well as conducting educational outreach on these approaches.

  6. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  7. Primates in 21st century ecosystems: does primate conservation promote ecosystem conservation?

    Norconk, Marilyn A; Boinski, Sue; Forget, Pierre-Michel


    Contributors to this issue of the American Journal of Primatology were among the participants in an invited symposium at the 2008 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation meeting in Paramaribo, Suriname. They were asked to assess how essential primates are to tropical ecosystems and, given their research interests, discuss how primate research contributes to the broader understanding about how ecosystems function. This introduction to the issue is divided into three parts: a review of the roles that nonhuman primates play in tropical ecosystems; the implementation of large-scale landscape methods used to identify primate densities; and concerns about the increasingly porous boundaries between humans, nonhuman primates, and pathogens. Although 20th century primate research created a rich database on individual species, including both theoretical and descriptive approaches, the dual effects of high human population densities and widespread habitat destruction should warn us that creative, interdisciplinary and human-related research is needed to solve 21st century problems.

  8. Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century: Report on the American Chemical Society Presidential Event

    Gettys, Nancy S.


    On Sunday morning, March 29, 1998, during the 215th American Chemical Society National Meeting in Dallas, TX, a special Presidential Event, "Challenges for Chemistry in the 21st Century", was held. It was sponsored by the American Chemical Society Committee on Science and Chemical and Engineering News as part of its 75th Anniversary. Six outstanding scientists spoke on the future of their chosen fields of study to a standing-room-only audience. The intensity and enthusiasm of these men and women were inspiring. Several common themes emerged. According to these experts, the next century will require greater education in science and technology for the public and greater emphasis on interdisciplinary approaches to science by scientists. The completion of the human genome project and technological advances, including the development of nanotechnology, will be the driving forces of research in chemistry.

  9. The politics of plasticity: Sex and gender in the 21st century brain

    Kleinherenbrink, A.V.


    The Politics of Plasticity examines how sex and gender are imag(in)ed in the 21st century brain. At the beginning of this century, the idea that the brain is plastic (i.e. that its structure and function change throughout life) began to replace the idea that adult brains are fixed. The claim that se

  10. Critical Thinking Skills for Rehabilitation Professionals in the 21st Century

    Lewis, Allen N.; King, Eric S.; Pitt, Jenelle S.; Getachew, Almaz; Shamburger, Aisha


    Critical thinking (CT) is an essential tool for rehabilitation professionals in the 21st century. Well developed CT skills are indicated for rehabilitation professionals in the new century to promote continuous quality improvement of the service delivery system. Such improvement will occur as rehabilitation professionals learn to routinely…

  11. Strategy on China's Security-oriented Disaster Reduction in the 21st Century

    JIN Lei


    This paper presents a study of strategies on the construction of China's scientific and caltural capacities for security-oriented disaster reduction from a cross-disciplinary perspective and based on an analysis of the causes of disasters and accidents in China in the 20th century and a prediction of the disaster situation in the 21st century.

  12. Potential Damage to Modern Building Materials from 21st Century Air Pollution

    Peter Brimblecombe


    Full Text Available The evolution of damage to building materials has been estimated for the 21st century, with a particular focus on aluminum, zinc, copper, plastic, paint, and rubber in urban areas. We set idealized air pollution and climates to represent London and Prague across the period 1950–2100. Environmental parameters were used to estimate future recession, corrosion, and loss of properties through published damage or dose-response functions. The 21st century seems to provide a less aggressive environment for stone and metals than recent times. Improvements in air quality are the most relevant drivers for this amelioration. Changes in climate predicted for the 21st century do not alter this picture. On the other hand, polymeric materials, plastic, paint, and rubber might show slightly increased rates of degradation, to some extent the result of enhanced oxidant concentrations, but also the possibility of contributions from more solar radiation.

  13. 21st Century Policing: The Institutionalization of Homeland Security in Local Law Enforcement Organizations


    hard to identify before they act, and hard to track down afterwards.”27 One example of a “lone wolf” operation is Timothy McVeigh’s bombing of the...1534. 76 Warren E. Leary , “Devising 21st-Century Escape Routes for Creative Exits,” New York Times, October 9, 2001, F4 . 45 organization should...University Press, 1992. 53 Lacqueur, Walter. Terrorism. Boston, MA: Little Brown and Company, 1977. Leary , Warren E. “Devising 21st-Century Escape

  14. Student Motivation in the 21st Century – Slovak Experience

    Rozvadský Gugová Gabriela


    Full Text Available One of the five primary objectives of the European Union within the framework of Europe 2020 is to increase the proportion of the tertiary educated population. The research task titled “The motivation of the student in the 21st century” is intended to address the factors that have both an impact on the decision of students to pursue higher studies and affect the choice of a specific field of study and a preferred form of study. The stimulus to the exploration was sparked by the mentioned EU initiative, interesting statistical data, the growing number of students studying in the external form compared to the daily option, and an increase of students from abroad. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the causes of these trends. Motivation of students is not researched in a systematic way in Slovakia, even though it is an important factor in a student’s decisionmaking process to study. Information was obtained by a questionnaire distributed to 105 students, evaluated using SPSS software and application of descriptive statistics.

  15. The Salmonella Mutagenicity Assay: The Stethoscope of Genetic Toxicology for the 21st Century

    Claxton, Larry D.; de A. Umbuzeiro, Gisela; DeMarini, David M.


    Objectives According to the 2007 National Research Council report Toxicology for the Twenty-First Century, modern methods (e.g., “omics,” in vitro assays, high-throughput testing, computational methods) will lead to the emergence of a new approach to toxicology. The Salmonella mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay has been central to the field of genetic toxicology since the 1970s. Here we document the paradigm shifts engendered by the assay, the validation and applications of the assay, and how the assay is a model for future in vitro toxicology assays. Data sources We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge using key words relevant to the Salmonella assay and additional genotoxicity assays. Data extraction We merged the citations, removing duplicates, and categorized the papers by year and topic. Data synthesis The Salmonella assay led to two paradigm shifts: that some carcinogens were mutagens and that some environmental samples (e.g., air, water, soil, food, combustion emissions) were mutagenic. Although there are > 10,000 publications on the Salmonella assay, covering tens of thousands of agents, data on even more agents probably exist in unpublished form, largely as proprietary studies by industry. The Salmonella assay is a model for the development of 21st century in vitro toxicology assays in terms of the establishment of standard procedures, ability to test various agents, transferability across laboratories, validation and testing, and structure–activity analysis. Conclusions Similar to a stethoscope as a first-line, inexpensive tool in medicine, the Salmonella assay can serve a similar, indispensable role in the foreseeable future of 21st century toxicology. PMID:20682480

  16. Moving with climbing plants from Charles Darwin's time into the 21st century.

    Isnard, Sandrine; Silk, Wendy K


    We provide an overview of research on climbing plants from Charles Darwin to the present day. Following Darwin's interests, this review will focus on functional perspectives including attachment mechanisms and stem structure and function. We draw attention to a number of unsolved problems inviting future research. These include the mechanism for establishment of the twining habit, a quantitative description following the development of a tissue element through space and time, the chemistry of sticky exudates, the microstructure of xylem and the capacity for water storage, the vulnerability to embolism, and the mechanism for embolism repair. In conclusion we cite evidence that, in response to increasing CO(2) concentration, anthropic perturbation and/ or increasing forest fragmentation, lianas are increasing relative to tree species. In the 21st century, we are returning to the multiscale, multidisciplinary approach taken by Darwin to understand natural history.

  17. Multiculturalism and Diversity in the 21st Century Europe

    Oana MATEI


    Full Text Available During the present time, the debate regarding European minorities is a problem of high interest. Even if it is a discussion of Basques and Catalans, Turks and Greeks in Cyprus, Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, Hungarians in Romania or genocide in the former Yugoslavia, the matter is high on the agenda. After centuries of confrontations in Europe, the European Union tries to legitimate the issue of national minorities, willing to eliminate any kind of discrimination and to preserve cultural identity. Recommendation 1201/1993 of the Council of Europe intended to draw up an additional protocol on the rights of minorities to the European Convention of Human Rights in order to provide the Council with a suitable mediation instrument.Considering the diversity of peoples and cultures living for centuries within the European space and their important contribution to the cultural development of the European states and civilization, the Recommendation seeks to recognize the rights of persons belonging to a national minority within a state and the international protection of those rights as an aspect of international co-operation, able to end the ethnic, linguistic and religious confrontations, and to guarantee justice, democracy and peace [1]. Nevertheless, at the beginning of the third millennium, the topic of minorities is still an actual one.Antony Alcock’s [2] book, A History of the Protection of Regional Cultural Minorities in Europe (From the Edict of Nantes to the Present Days, is an important study of the main historical events that changed the European approach of the issue of national minorities, providing an original account of the historical foundations of this direction of research. The book is divided in five parts, with seven chapters in total, accompanied by an introductory study, a comprehensive conclusion, two appendixes (one showing the main minorities and the percentage from the total population in 37 European states

  18. The 21st Century: The Century of Biology on Earth and Beyond

    Tarter, Jill C.; SETI Team


    In a bold 2004 paper, Craig Venter and Daniel Cohen* claimed that whereas the 20th century had been the Century of Physics (Special and General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Big Bang Cosmology, Dark Matter and Dark Energy, the Standard Model of Particle Physics…) the 21st century would be the century of biology. They outlined the fantastic potential of genomic research to define the current century. Wondrous as these predictions were, and as rapidly as they have played out and over-delivered during this past decade, these predictions were too parochial. This century will permit us the first opportunities to study biology beyond Earth; biology as we don’t yet know it, and biology that we have exported off the surface of our planet.The technologies needed for discovering biology beyond Earth are different depending on whether you are searching for microbes or mathematicians, and depending on whether you are searching in-situ or remotely. In many cases the necessary technologies do not yet exist, but like genomics, they will probably develop more rapidly, and in more ways, than anyone of us can now imagine. The developing toolkit of the astronomers (stellar, planetary, and exoplanetary) will be shaped and improved as a result of this focus for at least the rest of this century.* New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol 21, pp. 73-77, 2004

  19. Future dryness in the Southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    Cayan, D.R.; Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunova, A.


    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  20. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    N. Wanders


    Full Text Available Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971–2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five GCMs and four emission scenarios (RCPs, from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971–2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40–52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%, compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%. The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime, has a substantial influence on future hydrological drought characteristics.

  1. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    Van Lanen, Henny A. J.; Wanders, Niko; Wada, Yoshihide


    Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5o globally for 1971-2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs) and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs), from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP). Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM) was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971-2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt) is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40-52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4 %), compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20 %). The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a substantial

  2. Global hydrological droughts in the 21st century under a changing hydrological regime

    N. Wanders


    Full Text Available Climate change very likely impacts future hydrological drought characteristics across the world. Here, we quantify the impact of climate change on future low flows and associated hydrological drought characteristics on a global scale using an alternative drought identification approach that considers adaptation to future changes in hydrological regime. The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was used to simulate daily discharge at 0.5° globally for 1971–2099. The model was forced with CMIP5 climate projections taken from five global circulation models (GCMs and four emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways, RCPs, from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Drought events occur when discharge is below a threshold. The conventional variable threshold (VTM was calculated by deriving the threshold from the period 1971–2000. The transient variable threshold (VTMt is a non-stationary approach, where the threshold is based on the discharge values of the previous 30 years implying the threshold to vary every year during the 21st century. The VTMt adjusts to gradual changes in the hydrological regime as response to climate change. Results show a significant negative trend in the low flow regime over the 21st century for large parts of South America, southern Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean. In 40–52% of the world reduced low flows are projected, while increased low flows are found in the snow-dominated climates. In 27% of the global area both the drought duration and the deficit volume are expected to increase when applying the VTMt. However, this area will significantly increase to 62% when the VTM is applied. The mean global area in drought, with the VTMt, remains rather constant (11.7 to 13.4%, compared to the substantial increase when the VTM is applied (11.7 to 20%. The study illustrates that an alternative drought identification that considers adaptation to an altered hydrological regime has a

  3. Campus Activism in the 21st Century: A Historical Framing

    Broadhurst, Christopher J.


    This chapter frames campus activism by introducing the historical movements that have been important for higher education since the 18th century to the present and exploring the connections and shared characteristics among these various movements.

  4. Radically Rethinking Agriculture for the 21st Century

    Fedoroff, N. V.


    Population growth, arable land and fresh water limits, and climate change have profound implications for the ability of agriculture to meet this century\\'s demands for food, feed, fiber, and fuel while reducing the environmental impact of their production. Success depends on the acceptance and use of contemporary molecular techniques, as well as the increasing development of farming systems that use saline water and integrate nutrient flows. © 2010 American Association for the Advancement for Science. All Rights Reserved.

  5. 76 FR 3599 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology... Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21) for a 2- year period. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Committee Purpose: USDA supports the responsible development and application of biotechnology within...

  6. Re-Designing a School Library Media Center for the 21st Century

    Moyer, Mary; Baker, Rosalie M.


    The School Library Media Center at Delsea Regional High School was not meeting the needs of the students, staff and community of the 21st century and hence a re-design of the library space was needed. The re-design project included planning objectives, providing a scale drawing and involving key players as stakeholders.

  7. Using Form+Theme+Context (FTC) for Rebalancing 21st-Century Art Education

    Sandell, Renee


    This article addresses the need to rebalance 21st-century art education for inclusion and integration leading to fuller art engagement in an increasingly visual world. I expand upon the form versus content canon in art and offset the typically predominant use of sensory, formal, or technical qualities in comprehending meaning from, as well as in…

  8. Teaching 21st-Century Art Education in a "Virtual" Age: Art Cafe at Second Life

    Lu, Lilly


    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (VW) technology offers great potential for teaching contemporary digital art and growing digital visual culture in 21st-century art education. Such online virtual worlds are built and conceptualized based on information visualization and visual metaphors. Recently, an increasing number of…

  9. Enhancing 21st Century Skills with AR: Using the Gradual Immersion Method to Develop Collaborative Creativity

    Sanabria, Jorge C.; Arámburo-Lizárraga, Jesús


    As 21st century skills (e.g., creativity and collaboration) are informally developed by tech-savvy learners in the Digital Age, technology-based strategies to develop such skills in non-formal and formal contexts are necessary to reduce the gap between academic and business organizations on the one hand, and the revolutionary wave of self-taught…

  10. What Does Vygotsky Provide for the 21st-Century Language Arts Teacher?

    Smagorinsky, Peter


    L. S. Vygotsky, the psychologist and teacher from Byelorussia who became a central figure in Soviet psychological and educational circles in the 1920s and 1930s, has become a frequent citation in 21st-century scholarship. He is most-often invoked to support some form of instructional scaffolding, based on his idea of the zone of proximal…

  11. Educating for the 21st Century: Beyond Racist, Sexist, and Ecologically Violent Futures.

    Hutchinson, Francis P.


    Discusses resources of hope in educating for the 21st century, arguing the importance of active listening to children's voices and resistance to fatalistic fallacies regarding negative trends. The discussion examines principles from critical futurism and contemporary movements of educational innovation (including peace, multicultural, nonsexist,…

  12. FY 2001 Blue Book: Information Technology: The 21st Century Revolution

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — At the dawn of the 21st century, the U.S. is enjoying an era of unprecedented possibilities and prosperity built on dramatic advances in science and technology....

  13. Gamification: Questing to Integrate Content Knowledge, Literacy, and 21st-Century Learning

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Grabner-Hagen, Melissa M.


    This article showcases the use of gamification as a means to turn an existing curriculum into a game-based learning environment. The purpose of this article is to examine how gamification, coupled with effective pedagogy, can support the acquisition of 21st-century skills. Gamifying content allows students to earn experience points, badges, and…

  14. Public Relations and Its Education: 21st Century Challenges in Definition, Role and Function.

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    This paper asserts that the greatest challenge for 21st century public relations practitioners will be the identification of organizational values and their reconciliation with societal values within the context of a quickly and seemingly chaotic syncretizing popular culture. This function of public relations requires considerable practitioner…

  15. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils

    Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Hendon


    The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This…

  16. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    Konzack, Lars


    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark...

  17. Technological Readiness of the UAE Higher Education Institutions for the 21st Century

    Al Blooshi, Asma; Ezziane, Zoheir


    Educational institutions are considered as main indicator of a nation's competitiveness and the excellence of implementing their goals and objectives increase a nation's sense of competitiveness. Thus, it is important to receive a progress report showing how close the educational institutions are in accomplishing the 21st century visions and…

  18. Principles for Learning and Competences in the 21st-Century Curriculum

    Acedo, Clementina; Hughes, Conrad


    This article addresses the core competences, attitudes and knowledge that the authors believe will promote transformative learning in the 21st century and should, therefore, feature in curriculum design. It first defines the purpose of curriculum, stressing the need for a coherent worldwide understanding of what is meant and intended by…

  19. Preparing Youth for the 21st Century Knowledge Economy: Youth Programs and Workforce Preparation

    Cochran, Graham R.; Ferrari, Theresa M.


    In the 21st century, the idea of preparing youth for the workforce has taken on new meaning. The shift to a knowledge economy has brought widespread concern that young people are entering the workforce without the skills employers value most, such as communication, critical thinking, leadership, and teamwork skills. As youth programs evaluate how…

  20. Galileo Educational Network: Creating, Researching, and Supporting 21st Century Learning

    Friesen, Sharon


    School and classroom structures designed to meet the needs of the industrial past cannot "maintain the temperature required for sustaining life." Recent learning sciences research findings compel educators to invent new learning environments better suited to meet the demands of the 21st century. These new learning environments require different…

  1. School Censorship in the 21st Century: A Guide for Teachers and School Library Media Specialists.

    Simmons, John S.; Dresang, Eliza T.

    As the world enters the 21st century, the access to information and freedom of speech provided by the Internet and other digital technologies have revolutionized the nature of censorship challenges and opened an entirely new realm of legal and social ramifications for censorship in United States schools. In the midst of this digital revolution,…

  2. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    Berg, N.; Wever,; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.


    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing str

  3. Teacher Education Preparation Program for the 21st Century. Which Way Forward for Kenya?

    Katitia, David Melita Ole


    Teacher quality is always cited as the most significant efficiency of teacher preparation programs. This paper discusses the aspects of Teacher education factor that influences student achievement. There has always been an increased interest in examining the preparation program for the 21st century in Kenya and recommending the way forward for our…

  4. Scenarios of biodiversity loss in southern Africa in the 21st century

    Biggs, R.H.; Simons, H.; Bakkenes, M.; Scholes, R.J.; Eickhout, B.; Vuuren, van D.; Alkemade, R.


    The rich biodiversity of southern Africa has to date been relatively unimpacted by the activities of modern society, but to what degree will this situation persist into the 21st century? We use a leading global environmental assessment model (IMAGE) to explore future land use and climate change in s

  5. 21 Ways to 21st Century Skills: Why Students Need Them and Ideas for Practical Implementation

    Kaufman, Kristina J.


    The push for 21st century skills (TFCS) is not a new concept. Setting a diversified goal of education with aims of honing in on student needs and reflecting a better, more relevant education is something that has evolved throughout history. The world today reflects global influence and increased competitiveness in every way. Teaching TFCS is a…

  6. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    David, Miriam E.


    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK…

  7. The Role of ICT in the Teaching and Learning of History in the 21st Century

    Adesote, S. A; Fatoki, O. R


    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at…

  8. A Genealogy of the "Future": Antipodean Trajectories and Travels of the "21st Century Learner"

    Williams, Carolyn; Gannon, Susanne; Sawyer, Wayne


    In this paper, from the particular positioning of educational researchers working in Australia, we unpack the figure of the "21st century learner" from both broad and specific perspectives. The paper begins with a policy genealogy that traces this figure through networks of documents, events and bodies that transcend borders and…

  9. Mark Rein•Hagen’s Foundational Influence on 21st Century Vampiric Media

    Konzack, Lars


    Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark ...

  10. Using Shaun Tan's Work to Foster Multiliteracies in 21st-Century Classrooms

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.; Kersten, Sara; Rhoades, Mindi


    This paper explores work in multimodality and design as it relates to 21st century multiliteracies. After outlining the concept of a multiliteracies pedagogy, this paper describes multimodality and multimodal texts. Moving from the theoretical to the practical, this paper primarily explores selected multimodal works of Shaun Tan and the…

  11. Theater for the 21st Century and beyond: The New Digital Stagecraft

    Popovich, George


    The Virtual Theatricality Lab uses media innovations such as digital video, stereoscopic 3D projection, motion capture, and real time virtual reality navigation. These resources nurture the daring creative visions of theater artists who will embrace the multidimensional technological performance arena of the 21st century and beyond. (Contains 2…

  12. A Confrontation with Diversity: Communication and Culture in the 21st Century.

    Calloway-Thomas, Carolyn; Garner, Thurmon


    Explores the framework of "creolization" and its implications for the communication discipline. Examines social and cultural factors that could shape the nature and content of persuasion in the 21st century. Emphasizes the intersection between deterritorialization and diversity. Proposes a research agenda that will include collections of…

  13. Recruiting the Strategic Corporal in the 21st Century (Through the Year 2010)


    troubling age of national aggression, transnational threats, and terrorism spurred by ethnic conflict.5 With the demise of the Soviet Union, the...U.S. feminism and social power. Woulfe, J. (1998). Into the Crucible: Making Marines for the 21st Century. California: Presidio Press.

  14. Developing the 21st-Century Social Studies Skills through Technology Integration

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam


    Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS) should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration…

  15. SLA for the 21st Century: Disciplinary Progress, Transdisciplinary Relevance, and the Bi/Multilingual Turn

    Ortega, Lourdes


    The goals of this article are to appraise second language acquisition's (SLA) disciplinary progress over the last 15 years and to reflect on transdisciplinary relevance as the field has completed 40 years of existence and moves forward into the 21st century. I first identify four trends that demonstrate vibrant disciplinary progress in SLA. I then…

  16. Life designing: a paradigm for career construction in the 21st century

    Savickas, M.L.; Nota, L.; Rossier, J.; Dauwalder, J.P.; Duarte, M.E.; Guichard, J.; Soresi, S.; van Esbroeck, R.; van Vianen, A.E.M.


    At the beginning of the 21st century, a new social arrangement of work poses a series of questions and challenges to scholars who aim to help people develop their working lives. Given the globalization of career counseling, we decided to address these issues and then to formulate potentially innovat

  17. Coastal sea level changes, observed and projected during the 20th and 21st century

    Carson, M.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.; A. Slangen, A. B.; Katsman, C. A.; W. van de Wal, R. S.; Church, J.; White, N.


    Timeseries of observed and projected sea level changes for the 20th and 21st century are analyzed at various coastal locations around the world that are vulnerable to climate change. Observed time series are from tide gauges and altimetry, as well as from reconstructions over the last 50 years. CMIP

  18. Distance Education within the 21st Century and Its Application to Rehabilitation Education

    Dziekan, Kathryn; Main, Doug


    Historically, distance education applications served a select group of students through self-paced technical short courses that required scant to little interaction with their instructors. Today's 21st century distance education focuses on a) reaching underserved prospective students within a social justice framework, b) global recruitment, and c)…

  19. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Vijay Rajput, MD


    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  20. Using "The Joy Luck Club" to Teach Core Standards and 21st Century Literacies

    Burns, Leslie David; Botzakis, Stergios G.


    In this article the authors illustrate an instructional unit based on a Common Core grades 9-10 illustrative text--Amy Tan's "Two Kinds" from "The Joy Luck Club." They demonstrate how teachers can meet the new standards "and" respond to students' 21st-century needs by using this modern classic along with other traditional and new media resources.…

  1. 75 FR 36062 - Notice of Enforcement Policy Symposium on Combating Counterfeiting in the 21st Century


    ... 21st Century AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public symposium. SUMMARY: To focus on the United States Government enforcement policy regarding counterfeit goods involving health and safety concerns and the United States Patent and Trademark...

  2. Multiple Intelligences: The Most Effective Platform for Global 21st Century Educational and Instructional Methodologies

    McFarlane, Donovan A.


    This paper examines the theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) as the most viable and effective platform for 21st century educational and instructional methodologies based on the understanding of the value of diversity in today's classrooms and educational institutions, the unique qualities and characteristics of individual learners, the…

  3. Mobile Devices: Toys or Learning Tools for the 21st Century Teenagers?

    Kee, Ch'ng Lay; Samsudin, Zarina


    Learning is interwoven in daily life and so it can be take place at anytime and anywhere by using mobile device. In the 21st century, mobile devices have become ubiquitous, affordable and accessible for the teenagers. The teenagers have the opportunity to perform the learning activities by using the mobile devices. However, what are they used…

  4. Advances and Challenges for Nutrient Management in China in the 21st Century

    Sims, J.T.; Ma, L.; Oenema, O.; Dou, Z.; Zhang, F.S.


    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via pr

  5. Re-Imagining the 21st Century School Library: From Storage Space to Active Learning Space

    Grigsby, Susan K. S.


    As libraries adjust to the needs of the 21st century, there needs to be a different way of thinking in regards to its design. School libraries have traditionally been designed as large rooms for the storage of materials for research and pleasure reading. As more and more districts focus their attention on digital acquisitions, the need for storage…

  6. A 21st Century Science, Technology, and Innovation Strategy for Americas National Security


    aspects of national security. With guidance from the President and Congress, strategic direction and investment priorities for national security science ...interconnected, fast- evolving science and technology landscape that presents new threats and opportunities, the policy directions called for in this...A 21ST CENTURY SCIENCE , TECHNOLOGY, AND INNOVATION STRATEGY FOR AMERICA’S NATIONAL SECURITY PRODUCT OF THE Committee on Homeland and National

  7. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning

    Prensky, Marc


    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  8. Australian Information Education in the 21st Century--The Synergy among Research, Teaching and Practice

    Nastasie, Daniela L.


    In 2011 a group of Australian Library and Information Science academics led by Prof. Helen Partridge conducted an investigation into the Australian Library and Information Science education in the 21st century. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC) and the final report, titled "Re-conceptualising and…

  9. Developing the Vision: An L4L Job Description for the 21st Century

    Ballard, Susan


    The release of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs" has provided school library media specialists with the opportunity to "develop new visions for learning" (AASL 2009), and to rethink what their roles are, and what skills and characteristics are required of them to…


    Krewski, D.; Acosta, D.; Andersen, M.


    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal ...

  11. 21st-Century Mentor Texts: Developing Critical Literacies in the Information Age

    Gainer, Jesse


    This column explores the idea of using 21st-century mentor texts to guide students in the development of critical literacy. The column focuses on one example from the U.S. presidential election of 2012 to illustrate how teachers might engage students to unpack the socially constructed nature of literacy. The author argues that the changing reading…

  12. Virtual Issue: Carbohydrates in the 21(st) Century: Synthesis and Applications.

    Fairbanks, Antony J


    Creative with carbohydrates! This Virtual Issue on Carbohydrates in the 21 (st) Century: Synthesis and Applications highlights current research in the carbohydrate field in which synthesis underpins the development of novel applications of sugar-based materials in medicine, diagnostics, and as antiinfectives.

  13. Virtual Issue: Carbohydrates in the 21st Century: Synthesis and Applications†

    Antony J. Fairbanks


    Creative with carbohydrates! This Virtual Issue on Carbohydrates in the 21 st Century: Synthesis and Applications highlights current research in the carbohydrate field in which synthesis underpins the development of novel applications of sugar‐based materials in medicine, diagnostics, and as antiinfectives.

  14. A Case Study of 21st Century Skills Programs and Practices

    McLachlan, Kurt


    Skills, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and innovation are necessary for the 21st Century. The economy and the forums of international business and globalization demand skilled workers. Some schools in the United States are producing such workers, however it is unclear the programs and practices these schools utilize. This study…

  15. CONNECT: Linking Energy, Security, and Prosperity in the 21st Century - JISEA 2017 Annual Report


    This report demonstrates 2016 highlights of the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis' (JISEA's) work. The Annual Report overviews JISEA's research and analysis accomplishments in natural gas and methane emissions; nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems; the 21st Century Power Partnership; and more.

  16. What Knowledge Is of Most Worth: Teacher Knowledge for 21st Century Learning

    Kereluik, Kristen; Mishra, Punya; Fahnoe, Chris; Terry, Laura


    This article offers a critical review of the literature on 21st century knowledge frameworks, with a particular focus on what this means for teachers and teacher educators. The authors accomplish this by identifying common themes and knowledge domains in 15 reports, books, and articles that describe the kinds of knowledge that researchers state…

  17. 21st Century-Based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-Cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-Laden Dentistry Program

    Quieng, Marjorie C.; Lim, Pearly P.; Lucas, Maria Rita D.


    Teaching and learning in the 21st century aims to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social…

  18. Preparing Teachers and Librarians to Collaborate to Teach 21st Century Skills: Views of LIS and Education Faculty

    Latham, Don; Gross, Melissa; Witte, Shelbie


    This article discusses the results of an exploratory research project in which library and information studies (LIS) faculty and education faculty were asked about their views on teaching pre-service school librarians and teachers 21st Century Skills (as defined by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills) and librarian-teacher collaboration.…

  19. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco


    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  20. Education for the 21st Century: Lessons and Challenges

    Carneiro, Roberto; Draxler, Alexandra


    On the basis of proposals contained in the 1996 report "Learning: the Treasure Within" by the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century (established by UNESCO), the authors examine the influence and pertinence of its construct of education on the four pillars learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, and learning…

  1. Design or Decline: America Facing the 21st Century.

    Shapira, Nathan H.


    Discusses the role of industrial design in the twenty-first century. Explains that technology has widened the gap between rich and poor societies. Argues that future designers must concern themselves with the quality of life. Includes a description of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Industrial Design Program. (KM)

  2. Boko Haram: Religion and Violence in the 21st Century

    John O. Voll


    Full Text Available Boko Haram in Nigeria provides an important example of the combination of religion and violence in the conditions of the twenty-first century. It is both a movement in the pattern of religiously-justified violence and a significant representative of the emergence of new types of modern terrorism in recent years. This article examines both of these aspects of Boko Haram as an example of religious violence. In the general development of religiously justified violence, Boko Haram is the heir to a long jihad tradition in West Africa. Its emergence follows well-established patterns of older militant Muslim groups, but it also departs significantly from those patterns as it shapes itself as a movement in the patterns of contemporary, twenty-first century modes of religious violence. Boko Haram is also identified, in twenty-first century terms, as a religious terrorist organization. As a religious terrorist group, it fits the pattern of what David Rapoport calls the fourth wave—the religious wave—of modern terrorism. However, in the second decade of the twenty-first century, Boko Haram exhibits characteristics of a new style of religious terrorism that is more like the so-called Islamic State than the older type of terrorist organization of al-Qa’idah.

  3. Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the 21st Century

    Estrada, Fernando


    This review of the book by Thomas Piketty, The capital in the XXI century, presents the central themes of the work and exposes its scope on the relationship between inequality and wealth. In particular a positive reflections on the progressive tax is added.

  4. The Effects of Using Multimodal Approaches in Meaning-Making of 21st Century Literacy Texts Among ESL Students in a Private School in Malaysia

    Malini Ganapathy


    Full Text Available In today’s globalised digital era, students are inevitably engaged in various multimodal texts due to their active participation in social media and frequent usage of mobile devices on a daily basis. Such daily activities advocate the need for a transformation in the teaching and learning of ESL lessons in order to promote students’ capabilities in making meaning of different literacy texts which students come across in their ESL learning activities. This paper puts forth the framework of Multimodality in the restructuring of the teaching and learning of ESL with the aim of investigating its effects and students perspectives on the use of multimodal approaches underlying the Multiliteracies theory. Using focus group interviews, this qualitative case study examines the effectiveness of ESL teaching and learning using the Multimodal approaches on literacy in meaning-making among 15 students in a private school in Penang, Malaysia. The results confirm the need to reorientate the teaching and learning of ESL with the focus on multimodal pedagogical practices as it promotes positive learning outcomes among students. The implications of this study suggest that the multimodal approaches integrated in the teaching and learning of ESL have the capacity to promote students’ autonomy in learning, improve motivation to learn and facilitate various learning styles. Keywords: Multimodal Approaches; Multiliteracies; Monomodal; Flipped Classroom; Literacy; Multimodal texts; Ipad

  5. Alternative approaches for vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: A review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status

    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessing chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate or...

  6. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems (Fact Sheet)


    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). Sources of flexibility exist--and can be enhanced--across all of the physical and institutional elements of the power system, including system operations and markets, demand side resources and storage; generation; and transmission networks. Accessing flexibility requires significant planning to optimize investments and ensure that both short- and long-time power system requirements are met.

  7. A 21st century technique for food control: Electronic noses

    Peris, Miguel, E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Escuder-Gilabert, Laura [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, C/Vicente Andres Estelles s/n, E-46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)


    This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses (e-noses) and their most important applications in food control in this new century. The three components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, detection system, and data processing system) are described. Special attention is devoted to the promising mass spectrometry based e-noses, due to their advantages over the more classical gas sensors. Applications described include process monitoring, shelf-life investigation, freshness evaluation, authenticity assessment, as well as other general aspects of the utilization of electronic noses in food control. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in food control are also mentioned.

  8. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    Lewis, Ted G


    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  9. Challenges for chemical sciences in the 21st century

    Čeković Živorad


    Full Text Available Chemistry and chemical engineering have changed very significantly in the last half century. From classical sciences they have broadened their scope into biology, medicine, physics, material science, nanotechnology, computation and advanced methods of process engineering and control. The applications of chemical compounds, materials and knowledge have also dramatically increased. The development of chemical sciences in the scientifically most advanced countries, at the end of the last century was extrapolated to the next several decades in this review and challenges for chemists and chemical engineers are described. Research, discovery and invention across the entire spectrum of activities in the chemical sciences, from fundamental molecular-level chemistry to large-scale chemical processing technology are summarized. The strong integration of chemical science and engineering into all other natural sciences, agriculture, environmental science, medicine, as well as into physics, material science and information technology is discussed. Some challenges for chemists and chemical engineers are reviewed in the following fields: i synthesis and manufacturing of chemical products, ii chemistry for medicine and biology, iii new materials, iv chemical and physical transformations of materials, v chemistry in the solving of energy problems (generation and savings, vi environmental chemistry: fundamental and practical challenges.

  10. Epilepsy on the silver screen in the 21st century.

    Baxendale, Sallie


    Epilepsy remains an attractive vehicle for filmmakers in the twenty-first century. This review examines the themes of twenty-one films, released between 2000 and 2014, that feature a character with epilepsy or a pivotal scene involving a seizure. Epilepsy continues to be associated with the supernatural in modern cinematic output. Demonic possession and epilepsy now share a similar cinematic lexicon. Unfortunately, the overlap is more than just visual. Supernatural treatments of narratives that claim to be 'based on a true story' of someone with epilepsy continue to blur the lines between medical and spiritual realms. Although there has been a steady progression away from concealment of the condition, epilepsy continues to signal 'otherness' in movie characters and seldom in a good way. All too often, a character has epilepsy to maximize the unease of the audience with them; it is a device that is used to signal 'this character is not like you'. However, amongst the hackneyed negative stereotypes, accurate portrayals of the condition are beginning to emerge, not least due to active collaborations between filmmakers and epilepsy advocacy groups. Far from being worthy, it is heartening that these films are also those that are the most absorbing and thought-provoking of the cinematic output thus far this century. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity".

  11. Taking refuge from modernity: 21st century hermits.

    Boyd, I; Rubin, Gj; Wessely, S


    Idiopathic environmental intolerances, such as 'multiple chemical sensitivity' and 'electrosensitivity,' can drastically affect the quality of life of those affected. A proportion of severely affected patients remove themselves from modern society, to live in isolation away from the purported causal agent of their ill health. This is not a new phenomenon; reports of hermits extend back to the 3(rd) century AD. We conducted a literature review of case reports relating to ancient hermits and modern day reclusion resulting from idiopathic environmental intolerance, in order to explore whether there are similarities between these two groups and whether the symptoms of these 'illnesses of modernity' are simply a present-day way of reaching the end-point of reclusion. Whilst there were some differences between the cases, recurring themes in ancient and modern cases included: dissatisfaction with society, a compulsion to flee, reports of a constant struggle and a feeling of fighting against the establishment. The similarities which exist between the modern-day cases and the historical hermits may provide some insight into the extreme behaviours exhibited by this population. The desire to retreat from society in order to escape from harm has existed for many centuries, but in different guises.

  12. Alternative approaches to vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: A review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status

    Lillicrap, Adam; Belanger, Scott; Burden, Natalie; Du Pasquier, David; Embry, Michelle; Halder, Marlies; Lampi, Mark; Lee, Lucy; Norberg-King, Teresa J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schirmer, Kristin; Thomas, Paul


    The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessment of chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimized wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organisms for environmental risk assessments has been banned; in other situations, the number of organisms tested has been dramatically reduced or the severity of the procedure refined. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve a complete replacement of vertebrate organisms to generate environmental hazard data. The development of animal alternatives is based not just on ethical considerations but also on reducing the cost of performing vertebrate ecotoxicity tests and in some cases on providing better information aimed at improving environmental risk assessments. The present Focus article provides an overview of the considerable advances that have been made toward alternative approaches for ecotoxicity assessments over the last few decades.

  13. The RNA world in the 21st century-a systems approach to finding non-coding keys to clinical questions.

    Schmitz, Ulf; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Gupta, Shailendra K; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio


    There was evidence that RNAs are a functionally rich class of molecules not only since the arrival of the next-generation sequencing technology. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) could be the key to accelerated diagnosis and enhanced prediction of disease and therapy outcomes as well as the design of advanced therapeutic strategies to overcome yet unsatisfactory approaches.In this review, we discuss the state of the art in RNA systems biology with focus on the application in the systems biomedicine field. We propose guidelines for analysing the role of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in human pathologies. We introduce RNA expression profiling and network approaches for the identification of stable and effective RNomics-based biomarkers, providing insights into the role of ncRNAs in disease regulation. Towards this, we discuss ways to model the dynamics of gene regulatory networks and signalling pathways that involve ncRNAs. We also describe data resources and computational methods for finding putative mechanisms of action of ncRNAs. Finally, we discuss avenues for the computer-aided design of novel RNA-based therapeutics.

  14. Historical development of administration architecture in Malaysia (15th-21st century)

    Mohidin, H. H. B.; Ismail, A. S.


    The main purpose of this paper is to document the development of the state administration building in Malaysia before and after the independence era, in relation to the evolutionary period of Malaysia's political, social and economic history. Multiple case study approach [19] is applied by referring to six prominent case studies to represent state administrative buildings from various phases of Malaysian history beginning from 14th century to 21st century as exemplar. Since this paper formulates new ways to approach and describes state administrative building design and factors that influence them, it uses interpretivism paradigm and (semiotics) as methodological approach to study the relationship between the building design and contextual elements. This paper, therefore, offers new insights, which not only add to knowledge in this field by widening and strengthening the understanding of state administrative architecture in Malaysia, but also are valuable for range of associated fields including architectural semiotics and non verbal communication. This is because this paper reveals deep understandings of the built form and material environment operating as a sign in a cultural and social context.

  15. 21st century change in ocean response to climate forcing

    Marčelja, Stjepan


    Modeling globally averaged information on climate forcing from the land surface temperature data, the sea surface temperatures (SST) and the empirically determined relationship between the changes in SST and the turbulent diffusion of heat into the upper ocean demonstrates a consistent link. The modeling is accurate throughout the 20th century despite the different phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) or the strong divergence between land and ocean surface warming. It only fails during the last 15 years when SST drops well below the trend. The finding reinforces the view that slower global warming over the previous 15 years is not a caused by a negative phase of the IPO or by the variations in the upper ocean (top 700 m) warming but results from a change in the ocean behavior leading to increased heat transfer into the deeper ocean.

  16. African power in the 21st century and beyond

    Saavedra-Rivano Neantro


    Full Text Available The paper examines the concept of international power in connection with demographic trends as forecast by the United Nations. It focuses its attention on the situation of Africa, a region projected to become the second largest in terms of population by the turn of the century. The argument to be developed is that the large number of new entrants to labor markets of African countries will likely be deprived of the labor skills necessary to allow them earn a livelihood. The “demographic dividend” will thus be denied and the consequences will be felt not only in Africa but in the world at large, most acutely in Europe. To prevent the rise of this “disruptive” power in Africa the paper offers some novel ideas on how to redesign Official Development Assistance (ODA so as to promote human capital investment.

  17. The Charter of Venice in the 21 st century

    Francisco Javier López Morales


    Full Text Available The Venice Charter (1964 meant -50 years ago- an important step for the worldwide application of normative principles as for theory and the practice of the architectural restoration. The objective of this article is to present and to recognize, fifty years after its promulgation, the importance and the influence of the Venice Charter in the theory and practice of the restoration and urban-architectural conservation. This study is the result of the deductive analysis of the facts that have been evidenced along the half century of existence of this document. We can affirm that to the date that its statements and definitions have universal validity because its technical postulates set the tone so that the criteria, the philosophy and the methods had a wider notion of the monuments as well as of the historic centers: their consequent rescue, conservation and enhancement. The application of the doctrinal postulates of the Venice Charter has experienced a relentless and permanent evolution of concepts. These range from the diverse ways of looking at the monuments and the heritage sites, including the territory, to the landscapes and cultural routes, to the new notions of rescue, restoration, conservation and safeguarding, according to the transformation of the social, economic, cultural and tourist life of the monument areas, adding to this, the impact that it has had in the multidisciplinary technical formation of the responsible for their safeguarding.

  18. Biotechnology in the 21st Century (Review Paper

    M.R. Das


    Full Text Available The two technologies that will essentially determine the shape of things to come in the present century are biotechnology and information technology. A merger of biotechnology and information technology is happening right now, a significant example of which is the success of the human genome project. Biotechnology can be said to have started with the unravelling of the structure of DNA in 1953. The next decade saw exciting developments in our understanding of the fundamentals of functioning of biological system, including the role of DNA in protein synthesis. The discovery of reverse transcriptase and restriction enzymes in 1970s paved the way for further advances, including recombinant DNA and hybridoma technologies, often called 'genetic engineering'. The discovery of polymerase chain reaction in 1986 laid the foundation for large-scale applications of biotechnology in various fields. The practical applications of mapping of the entire human genome would be enormous in terms of better overall health care (diagnosis, therapy and management of disorders. In the field of flora and fauna, it generally happens that biotechnologically-rich countries have poor biodiversity and vice versa. But countries like India and China that have rich biodiversity have, by the use of biotechnology, the potential to become also biotechnologically rich.

  19. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    Drucker, H.


    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  20. Long-range Prediction of climatic Change in the Eastern Seaboard of Thailand over the 21st Century using various Downscaling Approaches

    Bejranonda, Werapol; Koch, Manfred; Koontanakulvong, Sucharit


    the different scales of the hydrological (local to regional) and of the GCM (global), one is faced with the problem of 'downscaling' the coarse grid resolution output of the GCM to the fine grid of the hydrological model. Although there have been numerous downscaling approaches proposed to that regard over the last decade, the jury is still out about the best method to use in a particular application. The focus here is on the downscaling part of the investigation, i.e. the proper preparation of the GCM's output to serve as input, i.e. the driving force, to the hydrological model (which is not further discussed here). Daily ensembles of climate variables computed by means of the CGCM3 model of the Canadian Climate Center which has a horizontal grid resolution of approximately the size of the whole study basin are used here, indicating clearly the need for downscaling. Daily observations of local climate variables available since 1971 are used as additional input to the various downscaling tools proposed which are, namely, the stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG), the statistical downscaling model (SDSM), and a multiple linear regression model between the observed variables and the CGCM3 predictors. Both the 2D and the 3D versions of the CGCM3 model are employed to predict, 100 years ahead up to year 2100, the monthly rainfall and temperatures, based on the past calibration period (training period) 1971-2000. To investigate the prediction performance, multiple linear regression, autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are applied to the time series of the observation data which are aggregated into monthly time steps to be able compare them with the downscaling results above. Likewise, multiple linear regression and ARIMA models also executed on the CGCM3 predictors and the Pacific / Indian oceans indices as external regressors to predict short-term local climate variations. The results of the various downscaling method are

  1. Beyond protection: Expanding "conservation opportunity" to redefine conservation planning in the 21st century.

    Liberati, Marjorie R; Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Vokoun, Jason C


    The protected lands estate increased dramatically during the 20th century and forms the backbone of current fisheries and wildlife conservation in North America. However, there is increasing evidence that modern conservation goals cannot be achieved by only focusing on adding new acreage, particularly with opportunistic protection. In the 21st century, flexibility and adaptability of conservation options can be accomplished by expanding the vocabulary of conservation planning beyond protection. We suggest a conceptual framework that considers suites of objectives to translate the broad goal of "conservation" into multiple implementation-specific objectives. These objectives form the "PCRM-PI" approach: protect, connect, restore, manage, partner, and inform. We use a case study to illustrate the limitations of protection-centric planning and how expanding the definition of conservation opportunity can help planners do more on the landscape. We suggest that the PCRM-PI approach with implementation-specific objectives is an effective way to bridge planning-implementation gaps and translate broad, landscape-level conservation goals into implementable actions.

  2. Advanced nuclear power plants for the 21st century

    Graham, J. [BNFL, Inc. (United States)


    This paper examines, following four issues: capacity; the closure of the fuel cycle; deregulation; and the need to maintain the development of the advanced systems. Demand is a governing parameter: if one doesn`t need the power then there is no need to increase generating capacity. However, there is no question but that the population is growing. All predictions are that new generating capacity will be needed -- the questions are when and how? Until the various issues involved in deregulation are played through it is not clear what form markets will take for the longer term or how investment in large-capital-cost facilities will fit into the financial structure. Deregulation needs the time to throw light on these matters and to gain some experience in the various financial options. The lack of closure of the fuel cycle is both a cost and public perception issue. The US program, as a result of a cold-war paranoia against recycling the partially used fuel, is based upon the final disposal of useful supplies of energy. However, the program itself is plagued with poor management, delays, and uncertainties that are due, in no small measure, to half-uttered thoughts by all concerned, that this is the wrong policy. Current efforts to rethink the policy, and its implementing projects, are welcome. Finally, if it is important to keep design options for advanced nuclear power plants open for the future, then it necessary to maintain valid research and development programs for those designs. Current US policy is damaging to a number of the more advanced options. This paper discusses the candidate systems: LWR, ALMR, HTGR, and CANDU systems for the special contributions they may each provide in an ideal electrical generating industry of the mid-twenty-first century, and makes suggestions for the future. (J.P.N.)

  3. The Indispensability of the Humanities for the 21st Century

    Don A. Habibi


    Full Text Available This essay surveys the state of the humanities at this critical time. What will be the role of the humanities at the end of this century and beyond? I discuss the “crisis of the humanities” by examining the current challenges of globalization, economic shifts, and extensive budget cuts. I also discuss the social and political divisions that contribute to a crisis within the humanities. Since the culture wars that began in the 1960’s, the content, scope, and focus of the humanities have changed dramatically, and this has impacted how the humanities are perceived and valued by the general public. The second half of the essay makes the case for the vital importance of the humanities. I argue that the fate of the humanities is inseparable from the future of human beings. I highlight the current problems of war, environmental degradation, and mass surveillance that must be managed before they overwhelm and derail the potential for dramatic progress. Following recent scholarship and research trends, I explain how technological advancements will lead to the most significant evolutionary changes to the human being in aeons. Through technologies such as bionics, transgenesis, robotics, genetic engineering, and artificial intelligence, Homo sapiens might be enabled to transcend its former limits and usher in an era of transhumanism. The relevant question is: What do we want to be? I argue that enhancement technologies will make their beneficiaries more robotic and less human, and explain why we must treasure the advantages of our distinctly human capacities and resist the prospect of empowering ourselves to become automatons. My underlying thesis is that developing an understanding of the most insightful ideas and cultivating an appreciation for the greatest creative works that humankind has produced will be crucial for maintaining our humanity. The humanities thus make a unique and indispensable contribution to defining what and who we want our

  4. Teaching Critical Thinking: Using Seminars for 21st Century Literacy

    Roberts, Terry; Billings, Laura


    Help students meet today's literacy demands with this new book from Terry Roberts and Laura Billings. The authors show how a seminar approach can lead students deeper into a text and improve their speaking, listening, and writing skills, as recommended by the Common Core State Standards. Roberts and Billings provide easy-to-follow information on…

  5. Public Health Security in the 21st Century

    Ramesh Kumar Verma


    Full Text Available Global cooperation, collaboration, and investment are necessary to ensure a safer future. This means a multi-sectoral approach to managing the problem of global disease that includes governments, industry, public and private financiers, academia, international organizations and civil society, all of whom have responsibilities for building public health security.

  6. Old-Time Teaching in the 21st Century

    Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle; Gehrke, Nathalie J.; Yamamoto, Kaoru


    This is the story of three professors who found collective success in certain old-time approaches to teaching. Using three different first-person perspectives from Professors Burg, Piedmont, and Kamke, we examine some of the key components of such teaching orientation that may be helpful for professors navigating increased enrollments, while…

  7. Network news: innovations in 21st century systems biology.

    Arkin, Adam P; Schaffer, David V


    A decade ago, seminal perspectives and papers set a strong vision for the field of systems biology, and a number of these themes have flourished. Here, we describe key technologies and insights that have elucidated the evolution, architecture, and function of cellular networks, ultimately leading to the first predictive genome-scale regulatory and metabolic models of organisms. Can systems approaches bridge the gap between correlative analysis and mechanistic insights?

  8. Active thermochemistry tables : thermochemistry for the 21st century.

    Ruscic, B.; Pinzon, R. E.; von Laszewski, G.; Kodeboyina, D.; Burcat, A.; Leahy, D.; Montoya, D.; Wagner, A. F.; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.; SNL; LANL


    Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) are a good example of a significant breakthrough in chemical science that is directly enabled by the US DOE SciDAC initiative. ATcT is a new paradigm of how to obtain accurate, reliable, and internally consistent thermochemistry and overcome the limitations that are intrinsic to the traditional sequential approach to thermochemistry. The availability of high-quality consistent thermochemical values is critical in many areas of chemistry, including the development of realistic predictive models of complex chemical environments such as combustion or the atmosphere, or development and improvement of sophisticated high-fidelity electronic structure computational treatments. As opposed to the traditional sequential evolution of thermochemical values for the chemical species of interest, ATcT utilizes the Thermochemical Network (TN) approach. This approach explicitly exposes the maze of inherent interdependencies normally ignored by the conventional treatment, and allows, inter alia, a statistical analysis of the individual measurements that define the TN. The end result is the extraction of the best possible thermochemistry, based on optimal use of all the currently available knowledge, hence making conventional tabulations of thermochemical values obsolete. Moreover, ATcT offer a number of additional features that are neither present nor possible in the traditional approach. With ATcT, new knowledge can be painlessly propagated through all affected thermochemical values. ATcT also allows hypothesis testing and evaluation, as well as discovery of weak links in the TN. The latter provides pointers to new experimental or theoretical determinations that can most efficiently improve the underlying thermochemical body of knowledge.

  9. Active Thermochemical Tables: thermochemistry for the 21st century

    Ruscic, Branko [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pinzon, Reinhardt E [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Laszewski, Gregor von [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kodeboyina, Deepti [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Burcat, Alexander [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Leahy, David [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Montoy, David [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wagner, Albert F [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)


    Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) are a good example of a significant breakthrough in chemical science that is directly enabled by the US DOE SciDAC initiative. ATcT is a new paradigm of how to obtain accurate, reliable, and internally consistent thermochemistry and overcome the limitations that are intrinsic to the traditional sequential approach to thermochemistry. The availability of high-quality consistent thermochemical values is critical in many areas of chemistry, including the development of realistic predictive models of complex chemical environments such as combustion or the atmosphere, or development and improvement of sophisticated high-fidelity electronic structure computational treatments. As opposed to the traditional sequential evolution of thermochemical values for the chemical species of interest, ATcT utilizes the Thermochemical Network (TN) approach. This approach explicitly exposes the maze of inherent interdependencies normally ignored by the conventional treatment, and allows, inter alia, a statistical analysis of the individual measurements that define the TN. The end result is the extraction of the best possible thermochemistry, based on optimal use of all the currently available knowledge, hence making conventional tabulations of thermochemical values obsolete. Moreover, ATcT offer a number of additional features that are neither present nor possible in the traditional approach. With ATcT, new knowledge can be painlessly propagated through all affected thermochemical values. ATcT also allows hypothesis testing and evaluation, as well as discovery of weak links in the TN. The latter provides pointers to new experimental or theoretical determinations that can most efficiently improve the underlying thermochemical body of knowledge.

  10. Negotiation mastery tools for the 21st century negotiator

    Horton, Simon


    Evil dolphins, the discovery of Viagra, the negotiating tactics of Genghis Khan, words of wisdom from Val Doonican''s mum, how to set up your own cult and a love affair with a crocodile - just some of the stories used to illustrate the principles involved in becoming a negotiation master. Most inexperienced negotiators and many experienced ones believe that, whilst in theory win-win is the best approach, in practice it can be too soft and leaves you open for the other side to take advantage. ...

  11. Artists and the mind in the 21st century

    Geoffrey eKoetsch


    Full Text Available In 2008, Lesley University Professors Geoffrey Koetsch and Ellen Schön conducted an informal survey of New England artists to ascertain the degree to which recent work in neuroscience had impacted the visual arts. The two curators mounted an exhibition (MINDmatters May-June, 2008 at the Laconia Gallery in Boston in which they showcased the work of artists who had chosen mental processes as their primary subject. These artists were reacting to the new vision of the mind revealed by science; their inquiry was subjective, sensory, and existential, not empirical. They approached consciousness from several vantage points. Some of the artists had had personal experience with pathologies of the brain such as dementia or cancer and were puzzling out the phenomenon consuming the mind of a loved one. They looked to neuroscience for clarity and understanding. Some artists were personally involved with new techniques of cognitive psychotherapy. Others were inspired by the sheer physical beauty of the brain as revealed by new imaging technologies. Two of the artists explored the links between meditation, mindfulness practice and neuroscience. Issues such as the boundary and binding problems were approached, as well as the challenge of creating visual metaphors for neural processes. One artist visualized the increasing transparency of the body as researchers introduce more and more invasive technologies.

  12. Artists and the mind in the 21st century.

    Koetsch, Geoffrey


    In 2008, Lesley University Professors Geoffrey Koetsch and Ellen Schön conducted an informal survey of New England artists to ascertain the degree to which recent work in neuroscience had impacted the visual arts. The two curators mounted an exhibition (MINDmatters May-June, 2008) at the Laconia Gallery in Boston in which they showcased the work of artists who had chosen mental processes as their primary subject. These artists were reacting to the new vision of the mind revealed by science; their inquiry was subjective, sensory, and existential, not empirical. They approached consciousness from several vantage points. Some of the artists had had personal experience with pathologies of the brain such as dementia or cancer and were puzzling out the phenomenon consuming the mind of a loved one. They looked to neuroscience for clarity and understanding. Some artists were personally involved with new techniques of cognitive psychotherapy. Others were inspired by the sheer physical beauty of the brain as revealed by new imaging technologies. Two of the artists explored the links between meditation, mindfulness practice and neuroscience. Issues such as the "boundary" and "binding" problems were approached, as well as the challenge of creating visual metaphors for neural processes. One artist visualized the increasing transparency of the body as researchers introduce more and more invasive technologies.

  13. Preparing Stabilisation for 21st Century Security Challenges

    Steven A. Zyck


    Full Text Available Stabilisation, as a concept and set of practices, has proliferated over the past two decades and is now implicitly integrated into a range of global frameworks. However, this enthusiasm has at times risked turning this increasingly common, albeit contested, idea into a piece of jargon that discounts its unique facets: a focus on all sorts of violence, not just conflict, that create political instability and human harm and a problem-solving approach that draws selectively on various forms of intervention (e.g., statebuilding, counterinsurgency, peacekeeping, etc. without being beholden to any one toolkit. The pragmatism inherent within the concept of stabilisation will grow increasingly important as new security challenges emerge or proliferate. These include the fragmentation and regionalisation of conflict systems, transnational organised crime, large-scale migration and new, disruptive technologies. Novel approaches rooted in big data and technology will increasingly need to be applied. Most importantly, in foreign policy, military and development communities often driven by perceptions about what causes, ends or prevents violence, stabilisation must maintain its agnostic, problem-solving roots and allegiance to evidence over ideology.

  14. Designing Complex Systems for the 21st Century


    , energy, and medicine. Integrating consumer choice models into product design demonstrates the potential of combining analytical choice modeling with social networks for studying the social influence on new product adoption. It is concluded in this presentation that as systems continue to grow...... organization with conflicting goals, and the difficulty in understanding the socio-technical interfaces. Classical systems engineering approaches which focus on processes for cascading engineering requirements from higher to lower system levels is no longer suited to dealing with the global and socio...... preference into enterprise-driven product design. Research in multiscale design presents the significant benefits of using computational design techniques for designing novel materials, new products, and new processes with exceptional system performance across diverse application domains such as material...

  15. Nutritional translation blended with food science: 21st century applications.

    Ferruzzi, Mario G; Peterson, Devin G; Singh, R Paul; Schwartz, Steven J; Freedman, Marjorie R


    This paper, based on the symposium "Real-World Nutritional Translation Blended With Food Science," describes how an integrated "farm-to-cell" approach would create the framework necessary to address pressing public health issues. The paper describes current research that examines chemical reactions that may influence food flavor (and ultimately food consumption) and posits how these reactions can be used in health promotion; it explains how mechanical engineering and computer modeling can study digestive processes and provide better understanding of how physical properties of food influence nutrient bioavailability and posits how this research can also be used in the fight against obesity and diabetes; and it illustrates how an interdisciplinary scientific collaboration led to the development of a novel functional food that may be used clinically in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. Customer value & business success in the 21st century.

    Szablowski, P A


    Many health care organizations are realizing the importance of understanding the needs and expectations of customers and prospective customers, coupled with developing services that best meet and exceed those expectations. These concepts represent an innovative yet fundamental approach to building success beyond the clinical aspects. To create, build on, and measure the "customer value factor" in its bottom line, health care organizations must (1) understand how meeting and exceeding the needs and expectations of customers will become the most significant differentiator of true business value, (2) learn how to develop realistic, measurable, and successful customer value processes within complex organizations, (3) understand how customer value can link with the power of strategic communications to become the new currency for the next millennium.

  17. Medical diagnosis: a crucial problem in the 21st Century

    Emiliano Diez y Martínez de la Cotera


    Full Text Available A review of the history of medicine was conducted in order to evaluate the evolution of “diagnosis” and it was concluded that it was firstly defined by Hippocrates almost two thousand and five hundred years ago. The evolution of the concept is analyzed according to the scientific developments of each epoch. Different methods and their stages to obtain a diagnose are exposed. Similarities of the scientific and clinical methods are analyzed, as a necessary procedure for a good medical diagnosis. Different forms of doctor patient relationship are described, as an essential step for an accurate diagnosis. Medicine is approached as a totally uncertain, probabilistic science aimed to a final diagnosis. It is also emphasized that scientific and technological development bring us adequate tools for taking better decisions in order to facilitate medical diagnosis and its confrontation, not only in a single patient but in the analysis of its effectiveness in groups and communities. Basic pieces of advice are provided on how to obtain diagnoses in daily medical practice. Finally, two patterns in medical procedures are exposed: the Galenic and the Hippocratic.

  18. Operational environmental satellite archives in the 21st Century

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Bates, John J.; Privette, Jeff; Vizbulis, Rick


    NASA, NOAA, and USGS collections of Earth science data are large, federated, and have active user communities and collections. Our experience raises five categories of issues for long-term archival: *Organization of the data in the collections is not well-described by text-based categorization principles *Metadata organization for these data is not well-described by Dublin Core and needs attention to data access and data use patterns *Long-term archival requires risk management approaches to dealing with the unique threats to knowledge preservation specific to digital information *Long-term archival requires careful attention to archival cost management *Professional data stewards for these collections may require special training. This paper suggests three mechanisms for improving the quality of long-term archival: *Using a maturity model to assess the readiness of data for accession, for preservation, and for future data usefulness *Developing a risk management strategy for systematically dealing with threats of data loss *Developing a life-cycle cost model for continuously evolving the collections and the data centers that house them.

  19. Sustaining Vaccine Confidence in the 21st Century

    Karin Hardt


    Full Text Available Vaccination provides many health and economic benefits to individuals and society, and public support for immunization programs is generally high. However, the benefits of vaccines are often not fully valued when public discussions on vaccine safety, quality or efficacy arise, and the spread of misinformation via the internet and other media has the potential to undermine immunization programs. Factors associated with improved public confidence in vaccines include evidence-based decision-making procedures and recommendations, controlled processes for licensing and monitoring vaccine safety and effectiveness and disease surveillance. Community engagement with appropriate communication approaches for each audience is a key factor in building trust in vaccines. Vaccine safety/quality issues should be handled rapidly and transparently by informing and involving those most affected and those concerned with public health in effective ways. Openness and transparency in the exchange of information between industry and other stakeholders is also important. To maximize the safety of vaccines, and thus sustain trust in vaccines, partnerships are needed between public health sector stakeholders. Vaccine confidence can be improved through collaborations that ensure high vaccine uptake rates and that inform the public and other stakeholders of the benefits of vaccines and how vaccine safety is constantly assessed, assured and communicated.

  20. A Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector for the 21st Century

    Currie, D.; Dell-Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G.

    Over the past forty years, Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo Cube Corner (CCR) Retroreflector arrays has supplied almost all of the significant tests of General Relativity. The LLR program has evaluated the PPN parameters and addressed, for example, the possible change in the gravitational constant and the properties of the self-energy of the gravitational field. In addition, LLR has provided significant information on the composition and origin of the moon. These arrays are the only experiment of the Apollo program that are still in operation. Initially the Apollo Lunar Arrays contributed a negligible portion of the error budget used to achieve these results. Over the decades, the performance of ground stations has greatly upgraded so that the ranging accuracy has improved by more than two orders of magnitude, i.e., a factor of 140. Now, after forty years, because of the lunar librations the existing Apollo retroreflector arrays contribute significant fraction of the limiting errors in the range measurements. The University of Maryland, as the Principal Investigator for the original Apollo arrays, is now proposing a new approach to the Lunar Laser CCR array technology. The investigation of this new technology, with Professor Currie as Principal Investigator, is currently being supported by two NASA programs and, in part, also by INFN/LNF. Thus after the proposed installation on the next Lunar landing, the new arrays will support ranging observations that are a factor 100 more accurate than the current Apollo LLRRAs, from the centimeter level to the micron level. The new fundamental physics and the lunar physics that this new LLRRA can provide will be described. In the design of the new array, there are three major challenges: 1) Validate that the specifications of the CCR required for the new array, with are significantly beyond the properties of current CCRs, can indeed be achieved. 2) Address the thermal and optical effects of the absorption of solar

  1. Global water dynamics: issues for the 21st century.

    Simonovic, Slobodan P


    The WorldWater system dynamics model has been developed for modeling the global world water balance and capturing the dynamic character of the main variables affecting water availability and use in the future. Despite not being a novel approach, system dynamics offers a new way of addressing complex systems. WorldWater simulations are clearly demonstrating the strong feedback relation between water availability and different aspects of world development. Results of numerous simulations are contradictory to the assumption made by many global modelers that water is not an issue on the global scale. Two major observations can be made from early simulations: (a) the use of clean water for dilution and transport of wastewater, if not dealt with in other ways, imposes a major stress on the global world water balance; and (b) water use by different sectors is demonstrating quite different dynamics than predicted by classical forecasting tools and other water-models. Inherent linkages between water quantity and quality sectors with food, industry, persistent pollution, technology, and non-renewable resources sectors of the model create shoot and collapse behavior in water use dynamics. This paper discusses a number of different water-related scenarios and their implications on the global water balance. In particular, two extreme scenarios (business as usual - named "Chaos", and unlimited desalination - named "Ocean") are presented in the paper. Based on the conclusions derived from these two extreme cases a set of more moderate and realistic scenarios (named "Conservation") is proposed and their consequences on the global water balance are evaluated.

  2. Managing medical groups: 21st century challenges and the impact of physician leadership styles.

    Martin, William E; Keogh, Timothy J


    Physician group managers and administrators charged with leading medical groups in the 21st century face a set of old and new challenges and opportunities. Leadership is assumed to make the difference between a successful and not-so-successful medical group. Yet, there is little research about how physician manager leadership styles contribute to the success of medical group practices. This article is a study of physician leadership styles using the DiSC, based upon a sample of 232 physician managers. Dominance (D) and conscientiousness (C) were the two dominant styles found in this study. Moreover, the two dominant combination leadership styles fall under the categories of the "creative" and the 'perfectionist." The article formulates practical recommendations for both physician managers and administrators for leading medical groups to respond more effectively to the challenges and opportunities facing medical groups in the 21st century.

  3. Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program, a government-industry research partnership



    The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.

  4. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.


    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  5. I-LLINI Partnerships for 21st Century Teachers

    Read, K.; Wong, K.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Tomkin, J.; Hug, B.; Williams, M.; Pianfetti, E.


    I-LLINI Partnerships is two-year State funded program to initiate enhance communication between the faculty at University of Illinois and K-12 teachers in the surrounding communities. The program focuses on math and science with a particular emphasis on the use of technology to teaching math and science to middle-school aged children. The Partnership provides participating teachers with a suite of technology including a computer, digital camera, and software, as well as a small stipend. University partners include representatives from the Departments of Mathematics as well as the Department of Atmospheric Sciences and the Department of Geology. The Atmospheric Sciences and Geology faculty have partnered to provide content using an Earth Systems Science approach to presenting content to the teachers. Additionally, teachers provide feedback to university faculty with relation to how they might better prepare future science teachers. Teacher participants are required to attend a series of workshops during the academic year as well as a summer workshop. The first workshop was held June 2008 on the University of Illinois campus. Our poster will highlight the first workshop providing a discussion and photographs of the activities, an analysis of the benefits and challenges - both to the university representatives as well as the teachers ­ and a summary of future changes planned for the 2009 summer workshop. During the second morning of the workshop, the science teachers participated in an EcoBlitz via a field trip to a collect data from a stream near campus. During the EcoBlitz, math teachers attended tutorial sessions on campus on statistical analysis software. The EcoBliz teachers were provided with instruments and equipment necessary to collect data on the weather conditions and water quality of the stream. Instruments included a temperature probe, turbidity sensor, dissolved oxygen sensor and a hand held weather instrument. Data was recorded with Vernier Lab


    Chandra Reka Ramachandiran; Malissa Maria Mahmud; Nazean Jomhari


    Learning has changed in the 21st Century. The learning process is no longer confined to the classroom alone, but extends to a global classroom. Students now use instructional technologies to synthesize newly acquired knowledge, collaborate with peers, solve problems, and formulate correct decisions. Therefore, communication becomes a vital process to ensure that learning takes place. Although it has been shown that effective two-way communication between the instructor and the learner is impo...

  7. Concepts of Play and Play Culture for the 21st Century

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Toft, Herdis; Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg


    BIN Norden conference 2014 Accepted panel ________________________________________ Concepts of Play and Play Culture for the 21st Century Participants in the panel are: Associate professor Herdis Toft, University of Southern Denmark (organizer), Professor Beth Juncker, University of Copenhagen, A...... and gender? • How do you conceive the concept of play in relation to concepts of ‘the magic circle’ and of atmosphere (mood) and aesthetics (mode)?...

  8. Three focal points for education systems in the 21st century

    Desjardins, Richard


    Strong and shared growth increasingly depend on the capacity of nations to develop, deploy and upgrade the skills of their citizens. Within this context, the following places an emphasis on three focal points for education systems in the 21st century. The first focus is on essential skills....... The second focus is on the effectiveness of impact of education on economic and social outcomes. The third focus is on the dynamic elements of skill formation and skill use....

  9. Power Systems of the Future: A 21st Century Power Partnership Thought Leadership Report (Fact Sheet)


    Powerful trends in technology, policy environments, financing, and business models are driving change in power sectors globally. In light of these trends, the question is no longer whether power systems will be transformed, but rather how these transformations will occur. Power Systems of the Future, a thought leadership report from the 21st Century Power Partnership, explores these pathways explores actions that policymakers and regulators can take to encourage desired power system outcomes.

  10. Long-Lived Digital Data Collections Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century


    increasingly restrictive default rules” for creative, digital works (see http://www. The digital preservation program of the...Enabling Research and Education in the 21st Century54 Hodge, Gail, and Evelyn Frangakis. 2004. Digital Preservation and Permanent Access to...Information Managers Group, focuses on operational digital preservation systems specifically in science and technology (S&T). It considers the wide range of

  11. A Bold 21st Century Strategy for U.S. Airborne ISR


    Staff G-2, United States Army , 7 April 2004,14-20. 27 Richard Meinhart , Strategic Planning by the Chairmen, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1990 to 2005...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT A BOLD 21ST CENTURY STRATEGY FOR U.S. ARMY AIRBORNE ISR by Mr. Jack L...Kimberly Department of Army Civilian Colonel John H. Schnibben Project Adviser This SRP is submitted in partial fulfillment of

  12. Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies



    This report sums up the conference ''Energy use and sustainable development in the 21st century - Local action and national strategies'' that was held in Oslo in 1999. The purpose of the conference was to stimulate the development of climate- and energy strategies and actions that support a sustainable use of energy locally and regionally. The report discusses important points from the various contributions and from the workshops of the conference.

  13. Teacherpreneurs: a bold brand of teacher leadership for 21st-century teaching and learning.

    Berry, Barnett


    Challenges facing our public schools demand a bold brand of teacher leadership. Teacherpreneurs, effective teachers who teach students regularly but also incubate and execute the kinds of policies and pedagogies students deserve, represent a new culture of training and ingenuity. Teachers who lead outside the classroom but do not lose their connection to students are best positioned to develop and disseminate best policies and practices for 21st-century teaching and learning.

  14. Libraries in the early 21st century, v.2 an international perspective


    Following the pattern of the first volume, the second volume of Libraries in the early 21st century: An international perspective extends the range of countries covered. Each chapter covers a different country and describes the modern history, development of libraries and library technology. The careful selection of countries achieves good representation of professional library work on all continents.This two-volume work represents an excellent contribution to international librarianship and allows comparative studies both at graduate and professional level.

  15. Anticipative management for coral reef ecosystem services in the 21st century.

    Rogers, Alice; Harborne, Alastair R; Brown, Christopher J; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Castro, Carolina; Chollett, Iliana; Hock, Karlo; Knowland, Cheryl A; Marshell, Alyssa; Ortiz, Juan C; Razak, Tries; Roff, George; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena; Saunders, Megan I; Wolff, Nicholas H; Mumby, Peter J


    Under projections of global climate change and other stressors, significant changes in the ecology, structure and function of coral reefs are predicted. Current management strategies tend to look to the past to set goals, focusing on halting declines and restoring baseline conditions. Here, we explore a complementary approach to decision making that is based on the anticipation of future changes in ecosystem state, function and services. Reviewing the existing literature and utilizing a scenario planning approach, we explore how the structure of coral reef communities might change in the future in response to global climate change and overfishing. We incorporate uncertainties in our predictions by considering heterogeneity in reef types in relation to structural complexity and primary productivity. We examine 14 ecosystem services provided by reefs, and rate their sensitivity to a range of future scenarios and management options. Our predictions suggest that the efficacy of management is highly dependent on biophysical characteristics and reef state. Reserves are currently widely used and are predicted to remain effective for reefs with high structural complexity. However, when complexity is lost, maximizing service provision requires a broader portfolio of management approaches, including the provision of artificial complexity, coral restoration, fish aggregation devices and herbivore management. Increased use of such management tools will require capacity building and technique refinement and we therefore conclude that diversification of our management toolbox should be considered urgently to prepare for the challenges of managing reefs into the 21st century.

  16. Teaching Students to Learn and to Work Well with 21st Century Skills: Unpacking the Career and Life Skills Domain of the New Learning Paradigm

    Kivunja, Charles


    In "Do You Want Your Students to Be Job-Ready With 21st Century Skills?" Kivunja (2014a) draws on the work by the Partnership For Teaching 21st Century Skills (P21) reported by Trilling and Fadel (2009), to articulate that the skills that young people need to succeed as individuals, citizens and workers in the 21st century fall into four…

  17. The role of methane in projections of 21st century stratospheric water vapour

    Revell, Laura E.; Stenke, Andrea; Rozanov, Eugene; Ball, William; Lossow, Stefan; Peter, Thomas


    Stratospheric water vapour (SWV) is an important component of the Earth's atmosphere as it affects both radiative balance and the chemistry of the atmosphere. Key processes driving changes in SWV include dehydration of air masses transiting the cold-point tropopause (CPT) and methane oxidation. We use a chemistry-climate model to simulate changes in SWV through the 21st century following the four canonical representative concentration pathways (RCPs). Furthermore, we quantify the contribution that methane oxidation makes to SWV following each of the RCPs. Although the methane contribution to SWV maximizes in the upper stratosphere, modelled SWV trends are found to be driven predominantly by warming of the CPT rather than by increasing methane oxidation. SWV changes by -5 to 60 % (depending on the location in the atmosphere and emissions scenario) and increases in the lower stratosphere in all RCPs through the 21st century. Because the lower stratosphere is where water vapour radiative forcing maximizes, SWV's influence on surface climate is also expected to increase through the 21st century.


    Mohammad Imam FARISI


    Full Text Available Recently, technology has become an educational necessity in global-digital era. Facing these phenomena, social studies (SS should make innovations related to changes of 21st-century skills and learning paradigm, which is characterized by the principles of disclosure of information, computing, automation, and communication. Technology integration into SS learning is one of the learning innovations in the global-digital era, and powerfully supports the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS as stated in their visions: meaningful, powerful, value-based, challenging, and active. It also strongly supports the development of three core skills of the 21st-century, including learning and innovation skills; information, media and technology skills; life and career skills that developed in partnership with the Partnership Forum for 21st-Century Skills (P21. This paper examines and describes academics evolution toward a commitment and further developments in research; 21stcentury skills map for the SS; and the implications for developing teachers’ competences and teachers’ education curriculum.



    Challenges and corresponding strategies for Chinas petroleum refining industry in 21st century were described in this paper. Entering 21st century, many countries put more concerns on environmental protection and the possibility of continual development. Production of clean fuel with low sulfur, low olefin and low aromatics to reduce toxic material emission, clean production and free-toxic emission and development of environmental friendly products and technologies will be the main themes of worlds refining industry. The challenges faced by Chinas petroleum refining industry are those from inadequate crude sources, from plant scale and its economic benefit, from processing configuration and product structure, from inferior crude and high quality products and from environmental protection and sustaining development, etc. As long as china recognizes the development trend of overall refining technology and carry out long term strategy for technological innovation and progress, its petroleum refining industry will definitely undergo a greater development and become more capable in market competition in the 21st century.

  20. Juan Mayorga's adaptations of Lope: La dama boba in the 21st century

    Mónica Molanes


    Full Text Available The adaptations made by one of today’s most eminent playwrights, Juan Mayorga, on the texts by Lope de Vega which were represented during the first decade of the 21st century allow us to analyse some of the most relevant aspects in the reception, canonization and theatrical interpretation of 17th century theatre. This study will thus focus on Lope’s La Dama Boba and the adaptation offered by Juan Mayorga for the Compañía Nacional de Teatro Clásico, directed by Helena Pimenta in 2002.

  1. [Integrating society and nature in the struggle against hunger in the 21st century].

    Abramovay, Ricardo


    Understanding the contemporary world requires a naturalist view, wherein the work of Josué de Castro is one of the most important expressions: taking a comprehensive approach to social life and reproduction of the natural environment that supports it - including the nature of humans themselves, their bodies - is the cornerstone of the geographic method practiced in Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger]. This method is important for studying regions where hunger severely afflicts the populations, and also offers an important key for interpreting the food problems that are forecast for the 21st century, when the world population is expected to increase by nearly 50%. The food production challenges in the coming years--and which this article discusses briefly--cannot be solved with the techniques that characterized the so-called Green Revolution. Rather, they require a more refined understanding of the links between the social and ecological systems, an interface in which the work of Josué de Castro provides fundamental inspiration.

  2. Collaborative cancer epidemiology in the 21st century: the model of cancer consortia.

    Burgio, Michael R; Ioannidis, John P A; Kaminski, Brett M; Derycke, Eric; Rogers, Scott; Khoury, Muin J; Seminara, Daniela


    During the last two decades, epidemiology has undergone a rapid evolution toward collaborative research. The proliferation of multi-institutional, interdisciplinary consortia has acquired particular prominence in cancer research. Herein, we describe the characteristics of a network of 49 established cancer epidemiology consortia (CEC) currently supported by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This collection represents the largest disease-based research network for collaborative cancer research established in population sciences. We describe the funding trends, geographic distribution, and areas of research focus. The CEC have been partially supported by 201 grants and yielded 3,876 publications between 1995 and 2011. We describe this output in terms of interdisciplinary collaboration and translational evolution. We discuss challenges and future opportunities in the establishment and conduct of large-scale team science within the framework of CEC, review future prospects for this approach to large-scale, interdisciplinary cancer research, and describe a model for the evolution of an integrated Network of Cancer Consortia optimally suited to address and support 21st-century epidemiology.

  3. Global warming projection in the 21st century based on an observational data-driven model

    Zeng, Xubin; Geil, Kerrie


    Global warming has been projected primarily by Earth system models (ESMs). Complementary to this approach, here we provide the decadal and long-term global warming projections based on an observational data-driven model. This model combines natural multidecadal variability with anthropogenic warming that depends on the history of annual emissions. It shows good skill in decadal hindcasts with the recent warming slowdown well captured. While our ensemble mean temperature projections at the end of 21st century are consistent with those from ESMs, our decadal warming projection of 0.35 (0.30-0.43) K from 1986-2005 to 2016-2035 is within their projection range and only two-thirds of the ensemble mean from ESMs. Our predicted warming rate in the next few years is slower than in the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a greater warming rate. Our projection uncertainty range is just one-third of that from ESMs, and its implication is also discussed.

  4. 77 FR 48948 - Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture Meeting; Correction


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Notice of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and... meeting of the Advisory Committee on Biotechnology and 21st Century Agriculture (AC21). The notice...

  5. 21st Century-based Soft Skills: Spotlight on Non-cognitive Skills in a Cognitive-laden Dentistry Program

    Marjorie C. Quieng


    Full Text Available Teaching and learning in the 21st century aim to produce students proficient in content knowledge, specific abilities, literacy, numeracy, and technology uses. From these 21st century skills, soft skills were delineated from these learning outcomes; and defined as intra- and interpersonal skills vital for personal development, social participation, and workplace success. This study has two goals: to determine the perceived extent of integration of 21st century-based soft skills in the cognitive-laden dentistry curriculum, and to examine the perceived 21st century-based soft skills of the student participants to serve as baseline data for future research. Communication, and relationship and collaboration skills will be critical components to motivate students; in turn, when students are motivated, it will encourage them to think critically and initiate actions toward the achievement of their goals.

  6. Twenty-First Century Creativity: An Investigation of How the Partnership for 21st Century Instructional Framework Reflects the Principles of Creativity

    Guo, Jiajun; Woulfin, Sarah


    The purpose of this study is to consider how the 21st-century learning framework reflects principles of creativity. This article provides a qualitative analysis of the Partnership for 21st Century's (P21) policy documents, with a specific focus on how the principles of creativity, one of the 4Cs (creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and…

  7. Agility, Adaptability + Appropriateness: Conceiving, Crafting & Constructing an Architecture of the 21st Century

    Brian R. Sinclair,


    Full Text Available Architectural design in our current times has tended to generate buildings which, despite their aesthetic qualities, frequently prove static, rigid and intractable. The intense and significant production of architecture around the planet has created a situation whereby modification of the existing building stock is costly, difficult and at times implausible. Beginning in the mid-twentieth century architects began to more seriously question narrow design approaches and in response explored more open, mutable and responsive ways of building. Architects such as Kisho Kurokawa and Cedric Price, in an effort to envision more resilient & robust solutions, explored methods of design and construction which afforded greater user control, modification and customization of environments. As opposed to buildings in which users needed to adapt to environmental constraints, these progressive designers imagined spaces that adjusted to user needs. A significant challenge to these visionaries was a lag between thinking and technology – quite simply construction proved unable to fully address concept. Today the world has changed in dramatic ways, with advancements in technology, expectations of society, and a quest for greater sustainability all driving a push for more agile, adaptable and appropriate Architecture. The present paper critically contemplates the condition of contemporary building design, examines emerging trends, and postulates an innovative model & philosophy for realizing a more responsive, responsible and fitting Architecture for the 21st Century. While considering historical initiatives, theories and practices, the paper also examines contemporary applications and future possibilities, arguing that many forces hold promise to align in ways before unimaginable. Advancing from the established foundation of Open Building (OB research and practice, and building upon a holistic and inter-connected strategy (Sinclair 2009 for environmental design

  8. Liberal Arts and Sciences Education for the 21st Century Knowledge Economy: A Case Study of Amsterdam University College, The Netherlands

    Klein Bog, Deirdre; Wende, van der Marijk; Jung, Insung; Nishimura, Mikiko; Sasao, Toshiaki


    This chapter describes how Amsterdam University College (AUC), a liberal arts and science honours college in The Netherlands, promotes internationalization and adopts a global approach in its curriculum and academic community. It shows how global learning outcomes and 21st century skills can be fost

  9. 21st century climate change in the European Alps—A review

    Gobiet, Andreas, E-mail: [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Kotlarski, Sven, E-mail: [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Beniston, Martin, E-mail: [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland); Heinrich, Georg, E-mail: [Wegener Center for Climate and Global Change, University of Graz, Brandhofgasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Rajczak, Jan, E-mail: [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stoffel, Markus, E-mail: [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Site de Battelle − Bâtiment D, 7, route de Drize − 1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland)


    Reliable estimates of future climate change in the Alps are relevant for large parts of the European society. At the same time, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in the climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. In particular, it explicitly considers the reliability and uncertainty of climate projections. Results show that besides Alpine temperatures, also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be affected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity, and more intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500–2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic parameters and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. - Highlights: • Warming is expected to accelerate throughout the 21st century in the Alpine region. • Seasonal shifts in precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity are expected. • Precipitation and temperature extremes are expected to intensify. • Snow cover

  10. Nitrogen, land and water inputs in changing cattle farming systems. A historical comparison for France, 19th-21st centuries.

    Chatzimpiros, Petros; Barles, Sabine


    This paper provides an original account of the long-term regional metabolism in relation to the cattle rearing in western France starting by the precise formulation of animal diets at three key dates of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. We established links between the demand in fodder of the meat and dairy sectors and the necessary inputs of nitrogen, water and land as well as the land cover changes occurring on the affected local and remote cattle acreage. The average agricultural productivity for fodder supply is estimated at about 50 kg N/ha in the mid-19th, 54 kg N/ha in the early 20th and 150 kg N/ha at the turning of the 21st century. Jointly for the dairy and meat productions, the potential efficiency in the conversion of the vegetal into animal protein more than doubled over the studied period, passing from less than 9% in the 19th to 20% in the 21st century. The current cattle sector is sustained for about 25% by land situated beyond the regional frontiers and uses water at intensities that approach or exceed the availability of renewable water. The nitrogen pollution is expressed in terms of the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) and, by comparison to the N recovered in products, is used to define the N-Environmental Efficiency of the farming. We discuss the historical succession of the factors that contributed to the growth of the meat and milk production and make a comparison of the impacts and policy between the local and distant resources.

  11. Studies of 21st-Century Precipitation Trends Over West Africa

    Druyan, Leonard M.


    West Africa includes a semi-arid zone between the Sahara Desert and the humid Gulf of Guinea coast, approximately between 10 N and 20 N, which is irrigated by summer monsoon rains. This article refers to the region as the Sahel. Rain-fed agriculture is the primary sustenance for Sahel populations, and severe droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s), therefore, have devastating negative societal impacts. The future frequency of Sahel droughts and the evolution of its hydrological balance are therefore of great interest. The article reviews 10 recent research studies that attempt to discover how climate changes will affect the hydrology of the Sahel throughout the 21st century. All 10 studies rely on atmosphere ocean global climate model (AOGCM) simulations based on a range of greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Many of the simulations are contained in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archives for Assessment Reports #3 and #4. Two of the studies use AOGCM data to drive regional climate models. Seven studies make projections for the first half of the 21st century and eight studies make projections for the second half. Some studies make projections of wetter conditions and some predict more frequent droughts, and each describes the atmospheric processes associated with its prediction. Only one study projects more frequent droughts before 2050, and that is only for continent-wide degradation in vegetation cover. The challenge to correctly simulate Sahel rainfall decadal trends is particularly daunting because multiple physical mechanisms compete to drive the trend upwards or downwards. A variety of model deficiencies, regarding the simulation of one or more of these physical processes, taints models climate change projections. Consequently, no consensus emerges regarding the impact of anticipated greenhouse gas forcing on the hydrology of the Sahel in the second half of the 21st century.

  12. Transforming Pedagogies:
Integrating 21st Century Skills And Web 2.0 Technology

    Shelia Y. TUCKER


    Full Text Available According to (P21, Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d., unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today’s education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these changing conditions in order to thrive. Students must be equipped to live in a multifaceted, multitasking, technology-driven world. And, regardless of their economic background, we must also ensure that all students have equal access to this new technological world. Collaborative learning theory which is connected to constructivism pedagogy requires students to work together to solve problems. Students need lifelong learning skills i.e., communication and information skills, problem-solving and thinking skills, and interpersonal and self-directional skills. The challenge becomes to deliberately incorporate learning skills into classrooms strategically and broadly. In this digital age, students must learn to use tools essential to everyday life and workplace productivity. They live in a world of almost unlimited streams of profound information, difficult choices and enormous opportunity. Teachers can create a 21st century context for learning by taking students out into the world, by bringing the world into the classroom, and by creating opportunities for students to collaboratively interact with each other (Learning for the, n.d.. One way of accomplishing this task is by employing the use of the Internet to connect Web 2.0 technology and 21st century skills. These skills are essential due to increased global competition, rising workforce capabilities, and accelerated technological change (Learning for the, n.d..

  13. Projections of 21st century climate of the Columbia River Basin

    Rupp, David E.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Mote, Philip W.


    Simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 provide projections of 21st century climate in the Columbia River Basin under scenarios of anthropogenic activity given by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The multi-model ensemble 30-year mean annual temperature increases by 2.8 °C (5.0 °C) by late 21st century under RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) over the 1979-1990 baseline, with 18% (24%) more warming in summer. By late 21st century, annual precipitation increases by 5% (8%), with an 8% (14%) winter increase and a 4% (10%) summer decrease, but because some models project changes of opposite sign, confidence in these sign changes is lower than those for temperature. Four questions about temperature and precipitation changes were addressed: (1) How and why do climate projections vary seasonally? (2) Is interannual variability in seasonal temperature and precipitation projected to change? (3) What explains the large inter-model spread in the projections? (4) Do projected changes in climate depend on model skill? Changes in precipitation and temperature vary seasonally as a result of changes in large-scale circulation and regional surface energy budget, respectively. Interannual temperature variability decreases slightly during the cool seasons and increases in summer, while interannual precipitation variability increases in all seasons. The magnitude of regional warming is linked to models' global climate sensitivity, whereas internal variability dominates the inter-model spread of precipitation changes. Lastly, GCMs that better reproduce historical climate tend to project greater warming and larger precipitation increases, though these results depend on the evaluation method.

  14. From policy coherence to 21st century convergence: a whole-of-society paradigm of human and economic development.

    Dubé, Laurette; Addy, Nii A; Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick


    The 20th century saw accelerated human and economic development, with increased convergence in income, wealth, and living standards around the world. For a large part, owing to the well-entrenched Western-centric linear and siloed industrialization pattern, this positive transformation has also been associated with complex societal challenges at the nexus of agricultural, industrial, and health sectors. Efforts at cross-sectoral policy coherence have been deployed with limited success. To go beyond what has been possible thus far, the whole-of-society (WoS) paradigm for human and economic development proposes a 21st century convergence where, instead of the rest (of the world) converging with the West, sectoral and cross-sectoral efforts converge in their single and collective policy and action on a common target of human and economic development. In this paper, we first review and discuss contributions and limitations of policy coherence approaches. We then elaborate the institutional foundation of the WoS paradigm, taking as an anchor the well-established model of polycentric governance that views individuals, and state, market, and community, forming society as part of the same complex adaptive system. Actors within such systems self-organize into nested hierarchies that operate at multiple scales and move toward 21st century convergence of human and economic development.

  15. Lope de Vega and History on the Stages of the 20th and 21st Centuries

    Purificació Mascarell


    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine, on the one hand, the presence of Lope’s historical dramas on contemporary stage to confirm their continuity; and, on the other, to reflect on the distinctive features of the staging of these dramas from a specific corpus of performances dating from the last decades. The goal is to observe the current relevance of these dramas and performances, to study under what ethical and aesthetic assumptions characters are now represented and the historical episodes that Lope used in the creation of his fictions, as well as to analyze the possible connections between History, Lope and the audience of the 21st century.

  16. NASA Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald


    The Space Biology Research Associate Program for the 21st Century provided a unique opportunity to train individuals to conduct biological research in hypo- and hyper-gravity, and to conduct ground-based research. This grant was developed to maximize the potential for Space Biology as an emerging discipline and to train a cadre of space biologists. The field of gravitational and space biology is rapidly growing at the future of the field is reflected in the quality and education of its personnel. Our chief objective was to train and develop these scientists rapidly and in a cost effective model.

  17. The globalization and environmental sustainability of LNG: Is LNG a fuel for the 21st century?

    Sakmar, Susan


    As the world enters the 21st Century, policy makers around the world are grappling with issues related to energy security, energy poverty, global climate change, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while meeting an expected increase in demand for all energy sources. As a clean burning fuel, many policy leaders have suggested that LNG can play an important role as the world struggles to develop a more environmental sustainable energy future. Others claim that the safety and environmental impact of LNG, including life-cycle emissions, may nullify any clean burning benefit LNG might otherwise provide.

  18. Is the Partner the Don Quixote of the 21st Century Corporate World?

    Bévort, Frans; Poulfelt, Flemming


    A large and growing proportion of the organizations in the contemporary knowledge economy are organized as professional partnerships as is the case of professional service firms (PSFs). As these firms have grown larger (e. g. Big4: Deloitte, PwC, E&Y, KPMG), the way of organizing is under pressure...... for change. This raises the question of whether the Partner ownership and management model is a relic of the past - and the partner a Don Quixote-figure of the 21st century corporate world? Based on an ethnographic study of a PSF in Denmark, and data from other sources, the paper analyzes the changing...

  19. [Perspectives in researches on grassland ecology for the early 21st century in China].

    Liang, Cunzhu; Zhu, Tingcheng; Wang, Deli; Lü, Xinlong


    Grassland degeneration is a prominent problem in China. More in-depth studies should be carried out on the key problem--grassland degeneration for Chinese grassland ecologists in the early 21st century. Some hot research fields were restoration ecology, interface ecology, grazing ecology, health diagnoses and evaluation for grasslands. Among them, restoration ecology was the foundation for restoring degenerative grasslands; interface ecology involved with the point of contact for analyzing degenerative grasslands; grazing ecology was the effective way to control degenerative grasslands; diagnoses of grassland health benefited accurately appraising degenerative levels of grasslands; and evaluation for grassland was also considered as an estimation on services and benefits of grassland ecosystems.

  20. Future trends and geographical distribution of potential evapotranspiration in Germany throughout the 21st century

    Rauch, E.; Panferov, O.; Doering, C.


    Recent climate projections for the 21st century (e.g. ECHAM5-MPIOM) show strong changes of the global climate. Forests in Germany are exposed to these changes, which include increase of temperature, changes of seasonal precipitation patterns and possibly the increase of frequency of extreme meteorological events as droughts, rain and wind storms. Present study focuses on the characterization of possible future developments of potential evapotranspiration (PET) throughout the 21st Century under conditions of SRES scenarios A1B and B1. The FAO-56-Penman-Monteith (ALLEN et al., 1998) was implemented. Climate scenario data were downscaled by the regional climate model Climate Local Model (CLM) to the spatial resolution of about 0.2°*0.2° and used to calculate PET for Germany. The spatial and temporal variability of PET in Germany during the 21st century is examined and causes of variation discussed. Areas within Germany with particularly stronger - hot spots - and weaker - cold spots - changes in PET are identified and analyzed in detail. Two hot spots, the Saarland and the Black Forest, and a cold spot, East Brandenburg, were identified. The deviating development of the hot/cold spots are traced back to the stronger or weaker development of the energy balance, which is higher in the hot spots and lower in the cold spot. The spatially differential development of PET could be traced back to the regionally different development of the meteorological variables. The contributions of various meteorological variables to the temporal trend detected in the PET are then determined. Clear trends in the annual sums or means could be described for several component variables of PET. Some variables do not show any noteworthy trend in annual mean but changes in their seasonal variability. The annual PET sums do not increase so much as expected when seen in relation to the temperature increase predicted for the 21st century, particularly in SRES A1B. PET in B1 does not evolve as

  1. English Continues to Be the World StandardLanguage in the 21st Century



    @@ The world is in various stages of social, economic, and demographic transition. Economically and politically, the world has changed more rapidly in the past few years than at any time since 1945. The emerging global economy is both competitive and interdependent. It reflects the availability of modern communications and production technologies in most parts of the world. So, do we need to be concerned about the future of the English language in the 21st century? According to The Economist (1996), English continues to be the world standard language, and there is no major threat to the language or to its global popularity. But, changes are coming.

  2. Challenges of Epidemiologists of Developing Countries in the 21st Century

    Mohsen Rezaeian


    Full Text Available There are many published articles which cover current and future challenges of epidemiology. However, up until now, most of them are written by developed world epidemiologists. Therefore, despite a common use of assumptions, they did not have the opportunity to discuss the different range of practical tasks and priorities away from developed countries. The topics covered are; facing poverty, non-democratic government that has links to developed countries, man-made and natural disasters, handling low-quality data and accessing it, and finally improving contribution to the world epidemiological knowledge for the 21st century.

  3. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve


    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.

  4. The Impact of Technological Change on Military Manpower in the 21st Century


    11ners. flat data bases volume. equity operatuial planning "TIhe Federaiin" h,--h r-,hn I her’stchial, Man s.imiar A,, uilgarchv Duplicated opera!ing... foot soldier who will continue to be the key to future combat operations. In addition Wickham emph sed the importance of command, control...G.J., "Moving C3 Into the 21st Century," Signal, pp. 91-94, August 1989. Mannle, T.E., and Risser , D.T., Estimating the Manpower, Personnel, and

  5. [Acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock - trends at the beginning of 21st century].

    Rokyta, Richard


    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a clinical syndrome of different etiology and several clinical presentations. Cardiogenic shock patients have highest long-term mortality. In contrast to chronic heart failure, we have no evidence of therapeutic benefit for any treatment strategy from randomized clinical trials. Search for new pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies is ongoing. Both causal and symptomatic treatment of AHF episode should be initiated as soon as possible. This review is focused on trends in acute heart failure therapy at the beginning of 21st century.

  6. Individuals, knowledge and governance in the 21st-century society

    Andrea Cerroni


    Full Text Available The knowledge society is a new social species that, despite many uncertainties and some (old and new ambiguities, is emerging on the horizon of the 21st century. Placed at the convergence of two long-term processes (society of individuals and knowledge society, it is characterised by the social-economic process of knowledge circulation, which can be divided into four fundamental phases (generation, institutionalisation, spreading and socialisation. The current situation also sees the traditional (modern structure of knowledge being outdated by the convergence of nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, information technologies and neuro-cognitive technologies (NBIC. In the background, the need arises to cross the cultural frontier of modernity.

  7. Acute pancreatitis at the beginning of the 21st century: The state of the art

    Alfredo F Tonsi; Matilde Bacchion; Stefano Crippa; Giuseppe Malleo; Claudio Bassi


    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas which can lead to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality in 20% of patients. Gallstones and alcohol consumption are the most frequent causes of pancreatitis in adults. The treatment of mild acute pancreatitis is conservative and supportive; however severe episodes characterized by necrosis of the pancreatic tissue may require surgical intervention. Advanced understanding of the pathology, and increased interest in assessment of disease severity are the cornerstones of future management strategies of this complex and heterogeneous disease in the 21st century.

  8. The Competitiveness of China in the 21st Century: Analysing China's Human Capital

    DVOŘÁKOVÁ, Markéta


    The diploma thesis aims to discourse how China´s competitiveness has developed in the 21st century, with a special focus on human capital as one of the key factors of production that greatly fosters competitive advantage. The first chapter builds up a theoretical framework for the research part of the thesis. It reviews the concepts of competitiveness, Michael Porter´s diamond, and the theory of human capital. The second chapter examines trends and challenges of China´s competitive advantage ...

  9. Re-orienting crop improvement for the changing climatic conditions of the 21st century

    Mba Chikelu


    Full Text Available Abstract A 70% increase in food production is required over the next four decades to feed an ever-increasing population. The inherent difficulties in achieving this unprecedented increase are exacerbated by the yield-depressing consequences of climate change and variations and by the pressures on food supply by other competing demographic and socioeconomic demands. With the dwindling or stagnant agricultural land and water resources, the sought-after increases will therefore be attained mainly through the enhancement of crop productivity under eco-efficient crop production systems. ‘Smart’ crop varieties that yield more with fewer inputs will be pivotal to success. Plant breeding must be re-oriented in order to generate these ‘smart’ crop varieties. This paper highlights some of the scientific and technological tools that ought to be the staple of all breeding programs. We also make the case that plant breeding must be enabled by adequate policies, including those that spur innovation and investments. To arrest and reverse the worrisome trend of declining capacities for crop improvement, a new generation of plant breeders must also be trained. Equally important, winning partnerships, including public-private sector synergies, are needed for 21st century plant breeding to bear fruits. We also urge the adoption of the continuum approach to the management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture as means to improved cohesion of the components of its value chain. Compellingly also, the National Agricultural Research and Extension System of developing countries require comprehensive overhauling and strengthening as crop improvement and other interventions require a sustained platform to be effective. The development of a suite of actionable policy interventions to be packaged for assisting countries in developing result-oriented breeding programs is also called for.

  10. Efficacy of geoengineering to limit 21st century sea-level rise.

    Moore, J C; Jevrejeva, S; Grinsted, A


    Geoengineering has been proposed as a feasible way of mitigating anthropogenic climate change, especially increasing global temperatures in the 21st century. The two main geoengineering options are limiting incoming solar radiation, or modifying the carbon cycle. Here we examine the impact of five geoengineering approaches on sea level; SO(2) aerosol injection into the stratosphere, mirrors in space, afforestation, biochar, and bioenergy with carbon sequestration. Sea level responds mainly at centennial time scales to temperature change, and has been largely driven by anthropogenic forcing since 1850. Making use a model of sea-level rise as a function of time-varying climate forcing factors (solar radiation, volcanism, and greenhouse gas emissions) we find that sea-level rise by 2100 will likely be 30 cm higher than 2000 levels despite all but the most aggressive geoengineering under all except the most stringent greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. The least risky and most desirable way of limiting sea-level rise is bioenergy with carbon sequestration. However aerosol injection or a space mirror system reducing insolation at an accelerating rate of 1 W m(-2) per decade from now to 2100 could limit or reduce sea levels. Aerosol injection delivering a constant 4 W m(-2) reduction in radiative forcing (similar to a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 18 months) could delay sea-level rise by 40-80 years. Aerosol injection appears to fail cost-benefit analysis unless it can be maintained continuously, and damage caused by the climate response to the aerosols is less than about 0.6% Global World Product.

  11. Tropical Warm Semi-Arid Regions Expanding Over Temperate Latitudes In The Projected 21st Century

    Rajaud, A.; de Noblet, N. I.


    Two billion people today live in drylands, where extreme climatic conditions prevail, and natural resources are limited. Drylands are expected to expand under several scenarios of climatic change. However, relevant adaptation strategies need to account for the aridity level: it conditions the equilibrium tree-cover density, ranging from deserts (hyper-arid) to dense savannas (sub-humid). Here we focus on the evolution of climatically defined warm semi-arid areas, where low-tree density covers can be maintained. We study the global repartition of these regions in the future and the bioclimatic shifts involved. We adopted a bioclimatological approach based on the Köppen climate classification. The warm semi-arid class is characterized by mean annual temperatures over 18°C and a rainfall-limitation criterion. A multi-model ensemble of CMIP5 projections for three representative concentration pathways was selected to analyze future conditions. The classification was first applied to the start, middle and end of the 20th and 21st centuries, in order to localize past and future warm semi-arid regions. Then, time-series for the classification were built to characterize trends and variability in the evolution of those regions. According to the CRU datasets, global expansion of the warm semi-arid area has already started (~+13%), following the global warming trend since the 1900s. This will continue according to all projections, most significantly so outside the tropical belt. Under the "business as usual" scenario, the global warm semi-arid area will increase by 30% and expand 12° poleward in the Northern Hemisphere, according to the multi-model mean. Drying drives the conversion from equatorial sub-humid conditions. Beyond 30° of latitude, cold semi-arid conditions become warm semi-arid through warming, and temperate conditions through combined warming and drying processes. Those various transitions may have drastic but also very distinct ecological and sociological


    Chandra Reka Ramachandiran


    Full Text Available Learning has changed in the 21st Century. The learning process is no longer confined to the classroom alone, but extends to a global classroom. Students now use instructional technologies to synthesize newly acquired knowledge, collaborate with peers, solve problems, and formulate correct decisions. Therefore, communication becomes a vital process to ensure that learning takes place. Although it has been shown that effective two-way communication between the instructor and the learner is important to attain sustainability in the learning environment, it is a difficult task to meet. Different learning rates and styles were identified as the core factors that led to this difficulty. Hence, the need arises to meet the demand of the 21st Century Learning via the implementation of an effective learning tool. In response to these changes, this research aims to assess the student’s performance and the association between the learner’s performance and positive communication skills. A total of 18 undergraduate students from an Institutions of Higher Education (IHE participated in this case study. The results of the study indicated that Morfo can efficiently assess communication skills in an introductory computing course. It is also reported that the respondents were able to engage in higher-order thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation via Morfo reflecting their individuality and enhancing their communication skills. Besides that, the findings also suggest that there is a significant association between the communication skills and the learner’s individual performance.

  13. Mechanisms and Feedbacks Causing Changes in Upper Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century

    Oman, Luke; Waugh, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.


    Stratospheric ozone is expected to increase during the 21st century as the abundance of halogenated ozone-depleting substances decrease to 1960 values. However, climate change will likely alter this "recovery" of stratospheric ozone by changing stratospheric temperatures, circulation, and abundance of reactive chemical species. Here we quantity the contribution of different mechanisms to changes in upper stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM), using multiple linear regression analysis applied to simulations using either Alb or A2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios. In both these scenarios upper stratospheric ozone has a secular increase over the 21st century. For the simulation using the Alb GHG scenario, this increase is determined by the decrease in halogen amounts and the greenhouse gas induced cooling, with roughly equal contributions from each mechanism. There is a larger cooling in the simulation using the A2 GHG scenario, but also enhanced loss from higher NOy and HOx concentrations, which nearly offsets the increase due to cooler temperatures. The resulting ozone evolutions are similar in the A2 and Alb simulations. The response of ozone due to feedbacks from temperature and HOx changes, related to changing halogen concentrations, are also quantified using simulations with fixed halogen concentrations.

  14. Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance during 20th and 21st centuries

    X. Fettweis


    Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4. These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

  15. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.


    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are: Creativity and Innovation Communication and Collaboration Research and Information Literacy Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Digital Citizenship Technology Operations and Concepts

  16. Functional response of U.S. grasslands to the early 21st-century drought.

    Moran, M Susan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E; Huete, Alfredo; McClaran, Mitchel P; Zhang, Yongguang; Hamerlynck, Erik P; Augustine, David J; Gunter, Stacey A; Kitchen, Stanley G; Peters, Debra P C; Starks, Patrick J; Hernandez, Mariano


    Grasslands across the United States play a key role in regional livelihood and national food security. Yet, it is still unclear how this important resource will respond to the prolonged warm droughts and more intense rainfall events predicted with climate change. The early 21st-century drought in the southwestern United States resulted in hydroclimatic conditions that are similar to those expected with future climate change. We investigated the impact of the early 21st-century drought on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of six desert and plains grasslands dominated by C4 (warm season) grasses in terms of significant deviations between observed and expected ANPP. In desert grasslands, drought-induced grass mortality led to shifts in the functional response to annual total precipitation (P(T)), and in some cases, new species assemblages occurred that included invasive species. In contrast, the ANPP in plains grasslands exhibited a strong linear function of the current-year P(T) and the previous-year ANPP, despite prolonged warm drought. We used these results to disentangle the impacts of interannual total precipitation, intra-annual precipitation patterns, and grassland abundance on ANPP, and thus generalize the functional response of C4 grasslands to predicted climate change. This will allow managers to plan for predictable shifts in resources associated with climate change related to fire risk, loss of forage, and ecosystem services.

  17. The sea level fingerprint of 21st century ice mass fluxes

    J. Bamber


    Full Text Available The sea level contribution from glacial sources has been accelerating during the 21st century (Meier et al., 2007; Velicogna, 2009. This contribution is not distributed uniformly across the world's oceans due to both oceanographic and gravitational effects. We compute the sea level signature of 21st century ice mass fluxes due to changes in the gravity field, Earth's rotation and related effects. Mass loss from Greenland results in a relative sea level (RSL reduction for much of North Western Europe and Eastern Canada. RSL rise from this source is concentrated around South America. Losses in West Antarctica marginally compensate for this and produce maxima along the coastlines of North America, Australia and Oceania. The combined far-field pattern of wastage from all ice melt sources, is dominated by losses from the ice sheets and results in maxima at latitudes between 20° N and 40° S across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, affecting particularly vulnerable land masses in Oceania. The spatial pattern of RSL variations due to the observed ice mass loss is temporally invariant. Thus, sea level rise, based on the land ice losses considered here, will be amplified for this sensitive region.

  18. Transforming Science Teaching Environment for the 21st Century Primary School Pupils



    Full Text Available The transformation of technology in the 21st century has produced children who are technology savvy and exposed to the internet and social networking at a very young age. These children are already in our school system. Thus teachers too need to use technology and transform the learning environment to meet the requirements of these children. This article discusses the need for transforming the primary school science teaching environment so that school children could have meaningful learning using tools familiar to them. However, while some parts of Malaysia are developing very rapidly, others are not developing as rapidly. School children in some areas are just as contented to share a single desktop computer without the Internet for a lesson. Thus teachers need to be creative to transform and improvise the learning environment to meet the pupils’ needs. This article discusses a case study on seven excellent teachers of primary school science from different parts of Malaysia. The findings of the study indicated that the excellent teachers have improvised their teachings and teaching environment to meet the needs of their pupils and the curriculum for 21st century learning.

  19. Stratospheric Temperature Changes and Ozone Recovery in the 21st Century

    HU Yongyun; XIA Yan; GAO Mei; LU Daren


    Increasing greenhouse gases and likely ozone recovery will be the two most important factors influencing changes in stratospheric temperatures in the 21st century. The radiative effect of increasing greenhouse gases will cause cooling in the stratosphere, while ozone recovery will lead to stratospheric warming. To investigate how stratospheric temperatures change under the two opposite forcings in the 21st century, we use observed ozone and reanalysis data as well as simulation results from four coupled oceanic and atmospheric general circulation models (GISS-ER, GFDL-CM20, NCAR-CCSM3, and UKMO-HadCM3) used in the IPCC (Intergovernment Panel for Climate Change) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Observational analysis shows that total column ozone and lower stratospheric temperatures all show increasing in the past 10 years, while middle stratospheric temperatures demonstrate cooling. IPCC AR4 simulations show that greenhouse forcing alone will lead to stratospheric cooling. However, with forcing of both increasing greenhouse gases and ozone recovery, the middle stratosphere will be cooled, while the lower stratosphere will be warmed. Warming magnitudes vary from one model to another. UKMO-HadCM3 generates relatively strong warming for all three greenhouse scenarios, and warming extends to 40 hPa. GFDL-CM20 and NCAR-CCSM3 produce weak warming, and warming mainly exists at lower levels, below about 60 hPa. In addition, we also discuss the effect of temperature changes on ozone recovery.


    Madalina Antoaneta RADOI


    Full Text Available The latest four decades have marked by their width, speed and radicality a true “revolution” on the financial market, a transformation and restructuring of financial services, of financial instruments which were used, of transaction systems, but also of competitive processes. The importance that should be given to such transformations of financial systems is given, as well, by their impact, both at the micro- and at the macro- levels, on the economy as a whole.The evolution of the European financial market at the beginning of the 21st century has followed the general trend of global markets. As a main tendency of financial market restructuring at the European level we should keep in mind the fact that there was an opening towards private financing according to the American model, due to the necessity to attract international capital resources, a process which is still ongoing.The integration of the European financial markets at the beginning of the 21st century follows the general process of financial globalization which develops rapidly on several structures of financial systems.

  1. Emerging infectious diseases at the beginning of the 21st century.

    Lashley, Felissa R


    The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases involves many interrelated factors. Global interconnectedness continues to increase with international travel and trade; economic, political, and cultural interactions; and human-to-human and animal-to-human interactions. These interactions include the accidental and deliberate sharing of microbial agents and antimicrobial resistance and allow the emergence of new and unrecognized microbial disease agents. As the 21st century begins, already new agents have been identified, and new outbreaks have occurred. Solutions to limiting the spread of emerging infectious diseases will require cooperative efforts among many disciplines and entities worldwide. This article defines emerging infectious diseases, summarizes historical background, and discusses factors that contribute to emergence. Seven agents that have made a significant appearance, particularly in the 21st century, are reviewed, including: Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, human monkeypox, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), West Nile virus, and avian influenza. The article provides for each agent a brief historical background, case descriptions, and health care implications.


    Evgeniy Mikhaylovich Neyolov


    Full Text Available The article looks at the various aspects of appropriating the Christian traditions by Russian fantasy writing. We show that the Christian tradition has most significantly revealed itself in the genre of fantasy writing which is in high demand among early 21st century readers. Both the content and the formal poetics of this tradition have been taken into account here. One of the typical fantasy protagonists is a hero yearning for God, which is a familiar staple of Russian literature. By default fantasy deals with demonolog, thus becoming closely linked to Christian tradition of the struggle against evil. Demon (or devil being a popular character in fantasy writing, the forgotten traditions of Old Russian literature get re-actualized in 20th and early 21st century and the demonological image includes both the demonic and the human. We conclude that contemporary fantasy authors develop their own versions of the Christian tradition, removing the conflict between the “faith” and “invention” typical for fantasy writing.

  3. A 1,200-year perspective of 21st century drought in southwestern North America.

    Woodhouse, Connie A; Meko, David M; MacDonald, Glen M; Stahle, Dave W; Cook, Edward R


    A key feature of anticipated 21st century droughts in Southwest North America is the concurrence of elevated temperatures and increased aridity. Instrumental records and paleoclimatic evidence for past prolonged drought in the Southwest that coincide with elevated temperatures can be assessed to provide insights on temperature-drought relations and to develop worst-case scenarios for the future. In particular, during the medieval period, ∼AD 900-1300, the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than all but the most recent decades. Paleoclimatic and model data indicate increased temperatures in western North America of approximately 1 °C over the long-term mean. This was a period of extensive and persistent aridity over western North America. Paleoclimatic evidence suggests drought in the mid-12th century far exceeded the severity, duration, and extent of subsequent droughts. The driest decade of this drought was anomalously warm, though not as warm as the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The convergence of prolonged warming and arid conditions suggests the mid-12th century may serve as a conservative analogue for severe droughts that might occur in the future. The severity, extent, and persistence of the 12th century drought that occurred under natural climate variability, have important implications for water resource management. The causes of past and future drought will not be identical but warm droughts, inferred from paleoclimatic records, demonstrate the plausibility of extensive, severe droughts, provide a long-term perspective on the ongoing drought conditions in the Southwest, and suggest the need for regional sustainability planning for the future.

  4. Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Shkolnik, I. M.; Nadyozhina, E. D.; Pavlova, T. V.; Molkentin, E. K.; Semioshina, A. A.


    An approach to ground thermodynamics description using a coupled system of atmospheric regional climate and ground heat transfer models is improved by accounting for the time varying snow density. The simulations are compared to available observational analyses, and the sensitivity of the ground thermal regime to variable snow density is analysed. Projected changes of the ground thermal regime in the 21st century relative to the late 20th century are shown and compared to earlier estimates.

  5. Climate change and malaria risk in Russia in 21st century

    Malkhazova, S.; Shartova, N.


    The purpose of this research is development of prognostic model of malaria risk for Russia in the 21st century according to climate scenario IPCC "А2". The following issues have been formulated to reach the goal of the research: - define the basic epidemiological parameters describing malaria situation and methods of data processing; - creating of maps of malaria risk; - analysis of changes in malaria distribution for predictable future climate conditions in comparison with conditions of a modern climate. A lot of reasons (biological, social and economic) impact on malaria distribution. Nevertheless, incubation period of the parasite first of all depends on temperature. This is a primary factor that defines a potential area of infection, ability and specificity to transmit malaria. According to this, the model is based on the relationship between climate (average daily temperature) and the intensity of malaria transmission. The object of research is malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, which has for Russia the greatest importance because it has the lowest minimal temperature threshold for development. Climate data is presented by daily average temperatures of air for three analyzed periods. 1961 -1989 describes a modern climate and corresponds to the minimum 30-year period that is necessary for an assessment of climate and changes connected with biotic components. Prognostic malaria model is based on predicted daily average temperatures for 2046-2065 (the middle of century) and 2089-2100 (the end of century). All data sets are presented in the grid 2х20. The conclusion on possible changes in malaria distribution and transmission in the middle and the end of the 21st century: There is going to be the increase of duration of effective temperatures period (period when parasite development is possible), period of effective susceptibility to infection of mosquitoes (period when malaria transmission cycle is possible); shift of the beginning of malaria transmission

  6. Climate change and malaria risk in the European part of Russia in 21st century

    Shartova, N.; Malkhazova, S.


    The purpose of this research is development of prognostic model of malaria risk for European part of Russia (EPR) in the 21st century according to climate scenario IPCC "A2". The following issues have been formulated to reach the goal of the research: define the basic epidemiological parameters describing malaria situation and methods of data processing; creating of maps of malaria risk; analysis of changes in malaria distribution for predictable future climate conditions in comparison with conditions of a modern climate. A lot of reasons (biological, social and economic) impact on malaria distribution. Nevertheless, incubation period of the parasite first of all depends on temperature. This is a primary factor that defines a potential area of infection, ability and specificity to transmit malaria. According to this, the model is based on the relationship between climate (average daily temperature) and the intensity of malaria transmission. The object of research is malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax, which has for Russia (particularly for EPR) the greatest importance because it has the lowest minimal temperature threshold for development. Climate data is presented by daily average temperatures of air for three analyzed periods. 1961 -1989 describes a modern climate and corresponds to the minimum 30-year period that is necessary for an assessment of climate and changes connected with biotic components. Prognostic malaria model is based on predicted daily average temperatures for 2046-2065 (the middle of century) and 2089-2100 (the end of century). All data sets for EPR are presented in the grid 2x2. The conclusion on possible changes in malaria distribution and transmission in the middle and the end of the 21st century: There is going to be the increase of duration of effective temperatures period (period when parasite development is possible), period of effective susceptibility to infection of mosquitoes (period when malaria transmission cycle is possible); shift

  7. [Surgery and the Japan Surgical Society at the beginning of the 21st century].

    Hatakeyama, K


    Numerous advances in medicine occurred during the latter half of the 20th century, and progress will accelerate in the 21st century. In particular, research in molecular biology has made significant advances, and it was reported that the human genome was almost completely deciphered in June 2000. This will contribute greatly to genetic research in malignant diseases. The development of regenerative medicine, such as cell transplantation using differentiated embryonic or mesenchymal stem cell, will have a significant effect on the field of surgery. The Japan Surgical Society must apply the new knowledge being made available to realize the concept of integrative medicine, in which surgery will play a major role. Substantial changes in postgraduate and continuing education and training of surgeons may be necessary. Other topics for discussion include risk management in the case of surgical accidents and medical ethics based on the Declaration of Helsinki.

  8. The Crisis of Japanese Identity in the 21st Century and Watsuji Tetsurō’s Ethics

    Kristýna VOJTÍŠKOVÁ


    Full Text Available According to some thinkers, in the 21st century, the Japanese society is facing a crisis of values. The postmodern approach to the individual and society may be one of the causes of this problem. In this point of view, an inadequate grasp of the relationship between the individual and the society seems to play an important role. The problem of this relationship was elaborated by the early 20th century philosopher Watsuji Tetsurō who endeavoured to re-define the role of an individual in the society. This paper attempts to examine the contemporary problem of Japanese identity from the perspective of Watsuji’s conception of interpersonal relationships.

  9. Expert voices for change: bridging the silos-towards healthy and sustainable settings for the 21st century.

    Dooris, Mark


    The settings approach to health promotion, first advocated in the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, was introduced as an expression of the 'new public health', generating both acclaim and critical discourse. Reflecting an ecological model, a systems perspective and whole system thinking, the approach has been applied in a wide range of geographical and organisational contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study undertaken through in-depth interviews with key individuals widely acknowledged to have been the architects and pilots of the settings movement. Exploring the development of the settings approach, policy and practice integration, and connectedness 'outwards', 'upwards' and 'beyond health', it concludes that the settings approach has much to offer-but will only realise its potential impact on the wellbeing of people, places and the planet if it builds bridges between silos and reconfigures itself for the globalised 21st century.

  10. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul


    ) status. OBJECTIVES: To compare the birth weight distributions of the INTERGROWTH-21st international standard to commonly used US references and examine the differences in the prevalence and neonatal mortality risk of SGA status (below the 10th percentile of a population reference). DESIGN, SETTING...... variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000......IMPORTANCE: This study introduces how the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) international birth weight standards alter our previous understanding and interpretations of fetal growth restriction as represented by small for gestational age (SGA...

  11. Supporting food security in the 21st century through resource-conserving increases in agricultural production

    Uphoff Norman


    Full Text Available Abstract The Green Revolution was accomplished under a set of demographic, economic, climatic and other conditions in the 20th century that have been changing and will surely be different and more difficult in the decades ahead. The suitability and sustainability of any given agricultural technology depends on factors like resource availability and productivity, energy costs, and environmental constraints. The achievements of Green Revolution technologies in the 1960s and 1970s came at a critical time of impending food shortages, and the world’s people would be worse off without them. However, the rate of yield improvement for cereal production has been slowing since the mid-1980s. Looking ahead at the foreseeable circumstances under which 21st century agricultural producers must try to assure food security, there will be need for technologies that are less dependent on resources that are becoming relatively scarcer, like arable land and water, or becoming relatively more costly, like energy and petrochemical-based inputs. This paper considers agroecologically-based innovations that reduce farmers’ dependence on external inputs, relying more on endogenous processes and existing potentials in plants and soil systems. Such resource-conserving production represents a different approach to meeting food security goals. While these innovations are not yet fully understood and are still being researched, there are good agronomic reasons to account for their effectiveness, and scientific validations are accumulating. Enough successes have been recorded from making changes in the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients that more attention from researchers, policy-makers and practitioners is warranted, especially given the need to adapt to, and to mitigate the effects of, climate change. The same agroecological concepts and management methods that are enhancing factor productivity in rice production are giving similar results with other crops

  12. Global drought in the 20th and 21st centuries : analysis of retrospective simulations and future projections of soil moisture

    Sheffield, J.


    We describe the analysis of global and regional drought over the second half of the 20th century from a retrospective model simulation of the terrestrial water cycle, and projected 21st century changes using multi-scenario data from multiple climate models. A global meteorological forcing dataset is

  13. National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative: Meeting America's Economic and Security Challenges in the 21st Century

    Association of American Universities, 2006


    The Association of American Universities (AAU) calls on the Administration, Congress, and academia, with the help of the business sector, to implement a 21st Century National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative aimed at meeting the economic and security challenges we will face over the next half-century. Government and America's…

  14. Snow Cover on the Arctic Sea Ice: Model Validation, Sensitivity, and 21st Century Projections

    Blazey, Benjamin Andrew

    The role of snow cover in controlling Arctic Ocean sea ice thickness and extent is assessed with a series of models. Investigations with the stand alone Community Ice CodE (CICE) show, first, a reduction in snow depth triggers a decrease in ice volume and area, and, second, that the impact of increased snow is heavily dependent on ice and atmospheric conditions. Hindcast snow depths on the Arctic ice, simulated by the fully coupled Community Climate System Model (CCSM) are validated with 20th century in situ snow depth measurements. The snow depths in CCSM are found to be deeper than observed, likely due to excessive precipitation produced by the component atmosphere model. The sensitivity of the ice to the thermal barrier imposed by the biased snow depth is assessed. The removal of the thermodynamic impact of the exaggerated snow depth increases ice area and volume. The initial increases in ice due to enhanced conductive flux triggers feedback mechanisms with the atmosphere and ocean, reinforcing the increase in ice. Finally, the 21st century projections of decreased Arctic Ocean snow depth in CCSM are reported and diagnosed. The changes in snow are dominated by reduced accumulation due to the lack of autumn ice cover. Without this platform, much of the early snowfall is lost directly to the ocean. While this decrease in snow results in enhanced conductive flux through the ice as in the validation sensitivity experiment, the decreased summer albedo is found to dominate, as in the CICE stand alone sensitivity experiment. As such, the decrease in snow projected by CCSM in the 21st century presents a mechanism to continued ice loss. These negative (ice growth due decreased insulation) and positive (ice melt due to decreased albedo) feedback mechanisms highlight the need for an accurate representation snow cover on the ice in order to accurately simulate the evolution of Arctic Ocean sea ice.

  15. Predicting 21st-century polar bear habitat distribution from global climate models

    Durner, G.M.; Douglas, D.C.; Nielson, R.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; McDonald, T.L.; Stirling, I.; Mauritzen, Mette; Born, E.W.; Wiig, O.; Deweaver, E.; Serreze, M.C.; Belikov, Stanislav; Holland, M.M.; Maslanik, J.; Aars, J.; Bailey, D.A.; Derocher, A.E.


    Projections of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) sea ice habitat distribution in the polar basin during the 21st century were developed to understand the consequences of anticipated sea ice reductions on polar bear populations. We used location data from satellitecollared polar bears and environmental data (e.g., bathymetry, distance to coastlines, and sea ice) collected from 1985 to 1995 to build resource selection functions (RSFs). RSFs described habitats that polar bears preferred in summer, autumn, winter, and spring. When applied to independent data from 1996 to 2006, the RSFs consistently identified habitats most frequently used by polar bears. We applied the RSFs to monthly maps of 21st-century sea ice concentration projected by 10 general circulation models (GCMs) used in the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, under the A1B greenhouse gas forcing scenario. Despite variation in their projections, all GCMs indicated habitat losses in the polar basin during the 21st century. Losses in the highest-valued RSF habitat (optimal habitat) were greatest in the southern seas of the polar basin, especially the Chukchi and Barents seas, and least along the Arctic Ocean shores of Banks Island to northern Greenland. Mean loss of optimal polar bear habitat was greatest during summer; from an observed 1.0 million km2 in 1985-1995 (baseline) to a projected multi-model mean of 0.32 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-68% change). Projected winter losses of polar bear habitat were less: from 1.7 million km2 in 1985-1995 to 1.4 million km2 in 2090-2099 (-17% change). Habitat losses based on GCM multi-model means may be conservative; simulated rates of habitat loss during 1985-2006 from many GCMs were less than the actual observed rates of loss. Although a reduction in the total amount of optimal habitat will likely reduce polar bear populations, exact relationships between habitat losses and population demographics remain unknown. Density and energetic

  16. Earthquake: Game-based learning for 21st century STEM education

    Perkins, Abigail Christine

    To play is to learn. A lack of empirical research within game-based learning literature, however, has hindered educational stakeholders to make informed decisions about game-based learning for 21st century STEM education. In this study, I modified a research and development (R&D) process to create a collaborative-competitive educational board game illuminating elements of earthquake engineering. I oriented instruction- and game-design principles around 21st century science education to adapt the R&D process to develop the educational game, Earthquake. As part of the R&D, I evaluated Earthquake for empirical evidence to support the claim that game-play results in student gains in critical thinking, scientific argumentation, metacognitive abilities, and earthquake engineering content knowledge. I developed Earthquake with the aid of eight focus groups with varying levels of expertise in science education research, teaching, administration, and game-design. After developing a functional prototype, I pilot-tested Earthquake with teacher-participants (n=14) who engaged in semi-structured interviews after their game-play. I analyzed teacher interviews with constant comparison methodology. I used teachers' comments and feedback from content knowledge experts to integrate game modifications, implementing results to improve Earthquake. I added player roles, simplified phrasing on cards, and produced an introductory video. I then administered the modified Earthquake game to two groups of high school student-participants (n = 6), who played twice. To seek evidence documenting support for my knowledge claim, I analyzed videotapes of students' game-play using a game-based learning checklist. My assessment of learning gains revealed increases in all categories of students' performance: critical thinking, metacognition, scientific argumentation, and earthquake engineering content knowledge acquisition. Players in both student-groups improved mostly in critical thinking, having

  17. Implications of changes in freshwater flux from the Greenland ice sheet for the climate of the 21st century

    Fichefet, T.; Poncin, C.; Goosse, H.; Huybrechts, Philippe; Janssens, I.; Le Treut, H.


    Two simulations of the 21st century climate have been carried out using, on the one hand, a coarse resolution climate general circulation model and, on the other hand, the same model coupled to a comprehensive model of the Greenland ice sheet. Both simulations display a gradual global warming up to 2080. In the experiment that includes an interactive ice sheet component, a strong and abrupt weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation occurs at the end of the 21st century. This fe...

  18. Social development of 21st century and reform of China's elementary education

    Ye Lan


    The Chinese society of the 21st century is at a critical period of transformation.The emergence of globalization and informationalization are the most striking changes of the current Chinese society.The profound change in the social transformation and its penetrating influence on people's lives has revealed the disadvantages of the present education.For 10 years,the"New Elementary Education",based on the background of Chinese society,and the demand for school education reform clearly puts forward the necessity of education reform in the period of social transformation,in other words,education should achieve its transformational development.This paper presents a deep research of globalization and informationalization,which are the background of Chinese social transformation.On this basis,the paper examines the implication of"school transformational reform"of the present-day Chinese elementary education,and finally proposes some steps for achieving"school transformational reform".

  19. [Public health in Quebec at the dawn of the 21st century].

    Colin, C


    This paper summarises the status of public health in Quebec at the dawn of the 21st century. After introducing the current definition, the author lays out five basic functions of public health in Quebec: knowledge and surveillance of populations health and wellbeing, health protection; prevention of disease, trauma and social problems that influence health; health and wellbeing promotion; and service organization and evaluation. The organization of public health services is then described at the local level (CLSC), regional level (Public health units) and national level (Ministry, Public health directorate and National Institute of Public Health). Finally, the trends and priorities elaborated over the last ten years, as well as the National Public Health Program to be implemented over the next ten years are described.

  20. GCM Projections for the Pacific Decadal Oscillation under Greenhouse Forcing for the 21st Century

    Lapp, S. L.; St. Jacques, J.; Barrow, E.; Sauchyn, D.


    The climatology and hydrology of the Pacific Northwest display strong periodic cycles which are correlated with the low-frequency Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The PDO’s signature is seen throughout the North Pacific region, with significant associations with hydrology and ecology in Alaska, northeastern Siberia, Manchuria, Korea and Japan. Therefore, the status of the PDO in a warmer world caused by anthropogenic climate change is of great interest. We developed 21st century projections of the PDO, using data from archived runs of the most recent high-resolution global climate models (GCMs) from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) Phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The capacities of the current highest-resolution GCMs to project the future status of the PDO are just beginning to be explored. In this presentation, we examine the potential for the mean climate of the North Pacific to shift to more positive or negative PDO phase-like conditions.

  1. Laboratories for the 21st Century: An Introduction to Low-Energy Design (Revised)


    This booklet is an introduction to several new strategies for designing, developing, and retrofitting energy-efficient laboratories. It is the result of a collaboration among staff at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), several national laboratories, and their contractors. They are collaborating to meet the goals of a joint EPA-DOE initiative, 'Laboratories for the 21st Century,' which was established to help government and private-sector laboratory designers, engineers, owners, and operators work together to increase operating efficiency and reduce costs. This booklet describes many energy-efficient strategies that can be done during laboratory planning and programming; design; engineering; and commissioning, operation, and maintenance. There is also a discussion of on-site power generation and clean sources of electricity from renewable energy.

  2. The demographic picture of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century

    Rašević Mirjana


    Full Text Available The central part of this paper is devoted to establishing the demographic picture of the City of Belgrade at the beginning of the 21st century. The authors discuss the number of inhabitants and the components of demographic growth through natural increase (fertility and mortality on the one hand and net migration on the other. Special attention was paid to the problem of refugees (the number and special distribution of refugees. Age and sex structure, the structure by marital status, as well as educational, and economic structures were analyzed. Current ethnic structure, as well as the changes in this structure since the early 1990s, were also presented. The analysis of the demographic picture has made it possible, first of all, to show the implications for the future of the established population trends, and second of all, to single out the basic demographic problems that need to be addressed strategically by the City of Belgrade and by the State.

  3. Public health in South-East Asia in the 21st century.


    This paper presents the proceedings of the Regional Conference on Public Health in Southeast Asia in the 21st Century, held in Calcutta, India, on November 22-24, 1999. Organized by the WHO, the conference reviewed the progress in Public Health education and training, practice and research in the countries of the region. Discussions were focused on the quality of the Schools of Public Health, professional capacities, societal commitment, shrinking resources for health and the resultant need for greater efficiency of interventions and the realization of national Public Health goals. It also stressed the importance of Public Health for national, socioeconomic and political development. Moreover, the participants identified key strategies and initiatives for strengthening Public Health in the region. These measures include focusing on the promotion of health in all settings; social mobilization and community action; strengthening the scientific and ethical foundation for evidence-based policy formulation in Public Health; and the creation of an Executive Management Team.

  4. Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges

    Giménez, Àlvaro; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Rucinski, Slavek


    An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and ev...

  5. A Decade of 21st-Century Dinosaur Research at IVPP

    Corwin Sullivan


    @@ In the first decade of the 21st century,a larger number of important new dinosaur specimens have come from China than from any other country.The Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology(IVPP)has been at the forefront of the scientific effort to document and analyze these fossils,in collaboration with a wide range of other institutions in China and around the world.Recently discovered Chinese specimens,described by IVPP researchers and their collaborators,have shed considerable new light on the evolution of several important dinosaur groups and on various aspects of dinosaur biology.Some of the findings of these studies would have seemed even twenty or thirty years ago to be closer to the realm of science fiction than paleontological reality.

  6. Opportunities and challenges of strengthening veterinary toxicology in Africa in the 21st century.

    Rumbeiha, W K


    Veterinary toxicology is the specialty of veterinary medicine dealing with the study, diagnosis and treatment of effects of natural and man-made chemicals, forms of energy, and gasses in the animal kingdom. Historically, veterinary toxicology has been narrowly defined as the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning in domesticated animals and poultry, but the profession has grown to include food safety and environmental toxicology. Veterinary toxicology is most well-developed and recognized as a specialty in North America where professional societies and specialty board certification exist. In many parts of Africa, perhaps with the exception of South Africa, veterinary toxicology has not evolved in more than 40 years. The importance of veterinary toxicology in the modern era can not be over emphasized. This report examines the status of veterinary toxicology in Africa at the beginning of the 21st century and offers arguments why it is important for African governments to devote more resources to strengthen it.

  7. 21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe

    Engler, R.; Randin, C.F.; Thuiller, W.


    Continental-scale assessments of 21st century global impacts of climate change on biodiversity have forecasted range contractions for many species. These coarse resolution studies are, however, of limited relevance for projecting risks to biodiversity in mountain systems, where pronounced...... microclimatic variation could allow species to persist locally, and are ill-suited for assessment of species-specific threat in particular regions. Here, we assess the impacts of climate change on 2632 plant species across all major European mountain ranges, using high-resolution (ca. 100 m) species samples...... by 2070–2100. While our high-resolution analyses consistently indicate marked levels of threat to cold-adapted mountain florae across Europe, they also reveal unequal distribution of this threat across the various mountain ranges. Impacts on florae from regions projected to undergo increased warming...

  8. Up to the Challenge: The Role of Career and Technical Education and 21st Century Skills in College and Career Readiness

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2010


    This report highlights the demand for skills in the global economy and the ways in which educators can meet this demand by drawing on both career and technical education and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills' Framework for 21st Century Learning. Twenty-first century skills and career and technical education are essential in every state,…

  9. The physical drivers of historical and 21st century global precipitation changes

    Thorpe, Livia; Andrews, Timothy


    Historical and 21st century global precipitation changes are investigated using data from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Atmosphere-Ocean-General-Circulation-Models (AOGCMs) and a simple energy-balance model. In the simple model, precipitation change in response to a given top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing is calculated as the sum of a response to the surface warming and a direct ‘adjustment’ response to the atmospheric radiative forcing. This simple model allows the adjustment in global mean precipitation to atmospheric radiative forcing from different forcing agents to be examined separately and emulates the AOGCMs well. During the historical period the AOGCMs simulate little global precipitation change despite an increase in global temperature—at the end of the historical period, global multi-model mean precipitation has increased by about 0.03 mm day-1, while the global multi-model mean surface temperature has warmed by about 1 K, both relative to the pre-industrial control means. This is because there is a large direct effect from CO2 and black carbon atmospheric forcing that opposes the increase in precipitation from surface warming. In the 21st century scenarios, the opposing effect from black carbon declines and the increase in global precipitation due to surface warming dominates. The cause of the spread between models in the global precipitation projections (which can be up to 0.25 mm day-1) is examined and found to come mainly from uncertainty in the climate sensitivity. The spatial distribution of precipitation change is found to be dominated by the response to surface warming. It is concluded that AOGCM global precipitation projections are in line with expectations based on our understanding of how the energy and water cycles are physically linked.

  10. Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models

    L. Bopp


    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes of their physical, chemical and biological environment. Among these changes, warming, acidification, deoxygenation and changes in primary productivity by marine phytoplankton can be considered as four of the major stressors of open ocean ecosystems. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades, these changes will be amplified. Here, we use the most recent simulations performed in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 to assess how these stressors may evolve over the course of the 21st century. The 10 Earth System Models used here project similar trends in ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced primary productivity for each of the IPCC's representative concentration parthways (RCP over the 21st century. For the "business-as-usual" scenario RCP8.5, the model-mean changes in 2090s (compared to 1990s for sea surface temperature, sea surface pH, global O2 content and integrated primary productivity amount to +2.73 °C, −0.33 pH unit, −3.45% and −8.6%, respectively. For the high mitigation scenario RCP2.6, corresponding changes are +0.71 °C, −0.07 pH unit, −1.81% and −2.0% respectively, illustrating the effectiveness of extreme mitigation strategies. Although these stressors operate globally, they display distinct regional patterns. Large decreases in O2 and in pH are simulated in global ocean intermediate and mode waters, whereas large reductions in primary production are simulated in the tropics and in the North Atlantic. Although temperature and pH projections are robust across models, the same does not hold for projections of sub-surface O2 concentrations in the tropics and global and regional changes in net primary productivity.

  11. Modeling biomass burning and related carbon emissions during the 21st century in Europe

    Migliavacca, Mirco


    In this study we present an assessment of the impact of future climate change on total fire probability, burned area, and carbon (C) emissions from fires in Europe. The analysis was performed with the Community Land Model (CLM) extended with a prognostic treatment of fires that was specifically refined and optimized for application over Europe. Simulations over the 21st century are forced by five different high-resolution Regional Climate Models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B. Both original and bias-corrected meteorological forcings is used. Results show that the simulated C emissions over the present period are improved by using bias corrected meteorological forcing, with a reduction of the intermodel variability. In the course of the 21st century, burned area and C emissions from fires are shown to increase in Europe, in particular in the Mediterranean basins, in the Balkan regions and in Eastern Europe. However, the projected increase is lower than in other studies that did not fully account for the effect of climate on ecosystem functioning. We demonstrate that the lower sensitivity of burned area and C emissions to climate change is related to the predicted reduction of the net primary productivity, which is identified as the most important determinant of fire activity in the Mediterranean region after anthropogenic interaction. This behavior, consistent with the intermediate fire-productivity hypothesis, limits the sensitivity of future burned area and C emissions from fires on climate change, providing more conservative estimates of future fire patterns, and demonstrates the importance of coupling fire simulation with a climate driven ecosystem productivity model.

  12. The Effectiveness of Traditional and 21st Century Teaching Tools on Students' Science Learning

    Bellflower, Julie V.

    Any student seeking a high school diploma from the public school system in one U.S. state must pass the state's high school graduation test. In 2009, only 88% of students at one high school in the state met the basic proficiency requirements on the science portion of the test. Because improved science education has been identified as an explicit national goal, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine whether traditional teaching tools (notes, lecture, and textbook) or 21st century teaching tools (online tutorials, video games, YouTube, and virtual labs) lead to greater gains in students' science learning. Bruner's constructivist and Bandura's social cognitive theories served as the foundations for the study. Quantitative research questions were used to investigate the relationship between the type of teaching tools used and student learning gains. Quantitative data from students' pre and posttests were collected and analyzed using a dependent samples t-test. Qualitative data were collected through a focus group interview and participant journals. Analysis of the qualitative data included coding the data and writing a descriptive narrative to convey the findings. Results showed no statistically significant differences in students' science achievement: both types of teaching tools led to student learning gains. As a result, an action plan was developed to assist science educators in the implementation of traditional and 21st century teaching tools that can be used to improve students' science learning. Implications for positive social change included providing science educators with a specific plan of action that will enhance students' science learning, thereby increasing science scores on the state and other high stakes tests.

  13. Spatial distribution of temperature extremes changes in Poland in 21st century

    Jędruszkiewicz, Joanna


    There is a general agreement that changes in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather and climate events have profound impacts on both human society and the economy. In the recent years a numerous weather events have affected human health and caused enormous economic losses. A long-lasting heat waves influence society far more than rare occurred extreme high temperature. On the other hand a winter warming and frequent exceedance of 0°C during winter will be disruptive i.e. for the wheel transport and roads condition in Poland. This work is focused on the study of the spatial diversity of minimum and maximum temperature in 21st century in Poland. Firstly the shift in distribution (PDF) and cumulative distribution (CDF) of the daily maximum temperature in summer and minimum temperature in winter between control and scenario periods was compared among different part of the country. Secondly the changes in the characteristic percentiles of the temperature extremes were analyzed. Furthermore the spatial changes in the duration and frequency of the heat waves in Poland were studied. Moreover the future prediction of changes in characteristic days as hot days (Tmax≥30°C), summer days (Tmax≥25°C), tropical nights (Tmin≥20°C), frost days (Tmin<0°C), etc. were spatially compared. The diurnal temperature range (DTR) is expected to change remarkably in 21st century depending on the area of Poland. The daily minimum and maximum 2-meter temperature date have been obtained from seven different regional climate models and corrected by quintile mapping method afterwards. The Polish station data for the control period have been gained from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute.

  14. The role of HFCs in mitigating 21st century climate change

    Y. Xu


    Full Text Available There is growing international interest in mitigating climate change during the early part of this century by reducing emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs, in addition to reducing emissions of CO2. The SLCPs include methane (CH4, black carbon aerosols (BC, tropospheric ozone (O3 and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs. Recent studies have estimated that by mitigating emissions of CH4, BC, and O3 using available technologies, about 0.5 to 0.6 °C warming can be avoided by mid-21st century. Here we show that avoiding production and use of high-GWP (global warming potential HFCs by using technologically feasible low-GWP substitutes to meet the increasing global demand can avoid as much as another 0.5 °C warming by the end of the century. This combined mitigation of SLCPs would cut the cumulative warming since 2005 by 50% at 2050 and by 60% at 2100 from the CO2-only mitigation scenarios, significantly reducing the rate of warming and lowering the probability of exceeding the 2 °C warming threshold during this century.

  15. Keeping the human: neuroethics and the conciliation of dissonant values in the 21st century

    Gini A


    Full Text Available Adriana Gini,1,2,* Denis Larrivee,2,3,* Michele Farisco,4,5 Vittorio Alessandro Sironi6 1Neuroradiology Division, Neuroscience Department, San Camillo-Forlanini Medical Center, Rome, Italy; 2International Neuroethics Society, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Educational Outreach Office, Catholic Dioceses of Charleston, SC, USA; 4Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5Biogem Genetic Research Center, Ariano Irpino, Italy; 6Research Center on the History of Biomedical Thought, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Studied since antiquity, the human brain has recently been the inspiration for an international neuroscientific entrepreneurship, the Human Brain Project in Europe and the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies initiative in the USA. Different in their approach, both regard the human brain as one of the greatest challenges of 21st century science and the organ that makes us “human”. However, it is mainly the necessity of developing new therapies that affect up to a billion people worldwide, which has propelled the search for extensive expertise and investment in neuroscience research. The debate on ethical and social policy issues as well as the research and medical strategies of such gigantic efforts has involved participants as diverse as neuroscientists, philosophers, scholars in ethics and law, politicians, and the general public, rendering modern neuroscience an interdisciplinary and conflictual endeavor. In fact, the brain is described as the biological underpinning of our thoughts, emotions, perceptions, free willed actions, and memories, features unique to our humanity. In this review, three neuroscientists and a philosopher from the neuroethics community provide their perspectives for an up-to-date survey of salient neuroethical issues, ie, modulation of free will and

  16. Can a 1960s library be transformed for the 21st century?

    Nadine Delcarmine


    Full Text Available This paper describes the renovation of Grenoble University's library. It is the main inter-university documentary cooperation service (SICD2 network in Grenoble, which serves two Universities: Stendhal and Pierre Mendès France. Administratively it is attached to the latter. After the 1989 Micquel Report, which was a severe appraisal of France's university libraries, the state showed its intention to upgrade them by preparing the U2000 programme. The objectives were to create more working places, unrestricted access to documentation, improve user comfort, and change the image of the libraries. In June 1994, replying to representations by the President of Grenoble's Université Pierre Mendès-France (UPMF on safety problems at the Law and Humanities Library, the Construction and Maintenance Department at the Ministry of Education requested an "all-encompassing approach to upgrading work, covering safety and refurbishment to as-new standard", and stipulated that "this policy review should be conducted as part of the preparation of the new establishment contract". This context gave rise to the rehabilitation and restructuring of the library. In 1995, the universities and the SICD set themselves an ambition: to turn the 1960s library into a documentary resource for the 21st century, making it the lynchpin of the SICD library network and providing suitable premises. The project symbolically called "Doc2000" was created. After a long gestation period, during which funding was gradually secured, the project entered the execution phase. The relevance of the project was tested by numerous twists and turns: a fruitless invitation to tender and shifting project ownership; three university presidents; two SICD directors and one interim-director, who also directed the university library; and the involvement of two project leaders. I intend to show how hard it is for the library, at the end of the process chain, to reconcile and align the scheduling of the

  17. Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3%Drought over China in the 21st Century: Results of RegCM3

    LIU Ke; JIANG Da-Bang; MA Jian-Yong


    Based on 150-year simulations of a regional climate model, RegCM3, under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario, the effective drought index (EDI) is used to project the future drought change in China. During the baseline period 1986–2005, RegCM3 was found to reliably simulate the spatial pattern of drought over the country. Over the 21st century, the regionally averaged EDI should increase, corresponding to a decrease of drought, while the probability of extreme drought events should increase. Geographically, drought should clearly increase in Northeast China, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, Southwest China, and southern Tibet but decrease in most parts of the rest of the country.

  18. 21st Century Ergonomic Education, From Little e to Big E

    Barsky, Constance K


    Despite intense efforts, contemporary educational systems are not enabling individuals to function optimally in modern society. The main reason is that reformers are trying to improve systems that are not designed to take advantage of the centuries of history of the development of today's societies. Nor do they recognize the implications of the millions of years of history of life on earth in which humans are the latest edition of learning organisms. The contemporary educational paradigm of "education for all" is based on a 17th century model of "printing minds" for passing on static knowledge. This characterizes most of K-12 education. In contrast, 21st Century education demands a new paradigm, which we call Ergonomic Education. This is an education system that is designed to fit the students of any age instead of forcing the students to fit the education system. It takes into account in a fundamental way what students want to learn -- the concept "wanting to learn" refers to the innate ability and desire to...

  19. [High-priority research directions in genetics, and the breeding of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in the 21st century].

    Kornienko, A V; Podvigina, O A; Zhuzhzhalova, T P; Fedulova, T P; Bogomolov, M A; Oshevnev, V P; Butorina, A K


    High-priority research directions for the genetics and breeding of the sugar beet in the 21st century were developed with consideration of the available scientific achievements of domestic and foreign scholars. These directions unite the classical and molecular approaches to solving the problems of increasing the effectiveness of sugar beet breeding carried out on a genetic basis, and they correspond to the contemporary level of scientific research. Seven such directions are proposed.

  20. Reform of School Science Curriculum for the 21st Century: Science-Technology-Society Theme in Japanese Context.

    Nakayama, Genzo

    Today, on the eve of the 21st century, Japan is becoming an internationalized, information centered civilization. The sophistication of modern science and technology will create a demand for people who are highly productive in handling knowledge and sensitive in their manipulation of it. This advance of science and technology will also require an…

  1. Use of Technology in the Classroom as Perceived by Public School Teachers in Milwaukee during Early 21st Century

    Skinner, Sharon F.


    This project utilized descriptive methodology to examine the research question, how is technology being used in the classroom, as perceived by public school teachers in Milwaukee during early 21st century? In order to fully analyze this question, both quantitative and qualitative data were utilized. The researcher developed a survey for the…

  2. Hepatology in the 21st century - Gene transfer, hepatocyte transplantation, DNA chips, cyberspace and ... a friendly hospital

    Jansen, PLM


    What to expect for hepatology in the 21st century? If science is allowed to proceed at its current rate, expectations can hardly be underestimated. Bound by the present day's limitations we are only able to see a glimpse of what could be available 100 years from now. For the next few decades, the gl

  3. 21st Century Skills and the English Foreign Language Classroom: A Call for More Awareness in Colombia

    Fandiño, Yamith José


    The 21st century demands the explicit integration of learning strategies, digital competences and career abilities. Schools in general and EFL classrooms in particular should provide students with practices and processes focused on acquiring and developing, among other things, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, self-direction, and…

  4. Educating Engineers: Preparing 21st Century Leaders in the Context of New Modes of Learning--Summary of a Forum

    Olson, Steve, Ed.


    The National Academy of Engineering's 2012 forum, "Educating Engineers: Preparing 21st Century Leaders in the Context of New Modes of Learning," opened with presentations by six speakers who looked at the future of engineering and engineering education from their perspectives as educators, administrators, entrepreneurs, and innovators. Each…

  5. Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region

    Inoue, Yukiko; Bell, Suzanne


    With the emphasis on faculty experiences and efforts to enhance higher learning in less-developed regions, "Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region" is a comprehensive study of teaching applications involving educational technology. The book encourages collaboration across…

  6. The Effect of a Stimulating Learning Environment on Pre-Service Teachers' Motivation and 21st Century Skills

    Nissim, Yonit; Weissblueth, Eyal; Scott-Webber, Lennie; Amar, Shimon


    We investigated the effect of an innovative technology-supported learning environment on pre-service student teachers' motivation and 21st century skills. Students and instructors filled-in the Active Learning Post Occupancy Evaluation (AL-POE) questionnaire. Analysis included tests for individual items and a comparison of the overall mean,…

  7. Women's Career Investment and the Returns: Career Benefits and Barriers in the 21st Century Green Economy

    Johnson, Philomena M.


    The key to building successful strategies as a higher education practitioner promoting 21st century green economy career awareness for women attending urban universities, demands advocating for benefits, and subverting potential barriers, to positively influence career choices. Women's career investment and returns increase when proper strategies…

  8. Library Spaces for 21st-Century Learners: A Planning Guide for Creating New School Library Concepts

    Sullivan, Margaret


    "Library Spaces for 21st-Century Learners: A Planning Guide for Creating New School Library Concepts" focuses on planning contemporary school library spaces with user-based design strategies. The book walks school librarians and administrators through the process of gathering information from students and other stakeholders involved in…

  9. Far Away, so Close: Preservices School Library Media Specialists' Perceptions of AASL's "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner"

    Mardis, Marcia A.; Dickinson, Gail K.


    Preservice school library media specialists will implement the AASL Standards for the "21st Century Learner" in their new roles. Drafted in 2007, the Standards reflect principles which school library media specialist must impart to learners to prepare them to be knowledge consumers, producers, and communicators in global environments. Because many…

  10. The stagnation of the Mexican male life expectancy in the first decade of the 21st century

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; García-Guerrero, Víctor Manuel; Echarri-Cánovas, Carlos Javier


    OBJECTIVES: In the first decade of the 21st century, the Mexican life expectancy changed from a long trend of increase to stagnation. These changes concur with an increase in deaths by homicides that the country experienced in that decade, and an obesity epidemic that had developed over the last ...

  11. The Role of the United Nations in the 21st Century: A Case for an International Police Force


    Globalization The spread of technology that has resulted in increased information flow has also fostered the spread of global business . Multi-national...corporations are now the rule rather than the exception when it comes to 21st Century business. The reality of a global business community that

  12. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Science and Technology Facility, Golden, Colorado (Brochure)

    Van Geet, O.


    As a Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) partner, NREL set aggressive goals for energy savings, daylighting, and achieving a LEED Gold rating (through the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design program) for its S&TF building.

  13. Skills Needed to Survive and Thrive as a Scholar in the 21st Century: Information, Knowledge, and Publication Management

    Conceição, Simone C. O.


    The changes in the way our work is created, published, and disseminated have implications for our own professional development and require us to be aware of the necessary skills. In this article, I identify three important skills scholars need to have and tools to be effective, efficient, and productive scholars in the 21st century: information…

  14. 21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 41

    Ananiadou, Katerina; Claro, Magdalean


    This paper discusses issues related to the teaching and assessment of 21st century skills and competencies in OECD countries drawing on the findings of a questionnaire study and other relevant background material such as white papers or curriculum documents. Although all OECD countries were invited to participate in the questionnaire survey,…

  15. Solo but Not Separate: Preparing 21st-Century School Library Professionals Who Can "Go It Alone"

    Pasco, Becky


    Preparing school librarians for a diverse array of 21st-century educational environments is a daunting task. Faculty in school library preparation programs send candidates out into sparsely populated rural areas, dense urban settings, and everything in between. Some candidates will provide services and resources in updated, modern facilities,…

  16. Radiative forcing and climate response to projected 21st century aerosol decreases

    D. M. Westervelt


    Full Text Available It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted to protect human health. For instance, global emissions of aerosols and their precursors are projected to decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios. The removal of aerosols will cause unintended climate consequences, including an unmasking of global warming from long-lived greenhouse gases. We use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 3 (GFDL CM3 to simulate future climate over the 21st century with and without the aerosol emission changes projected by each of the RCPs in order to isolate the radiative forcing and climate response resulting from the aerosol reductions. We find that the projected global radiative forcing and climate response due to aerosol decreases do not vary significantly across the four RCPs by 2100, although there is some mid-century variation, especially in cloud droplet effective radius, that closely follows the RCP emissions and energy consumption projections. Up to 1 W m−2 of radiative forcing may be unmasked globally from 2005 to 2100 due to reductions in aerosol and precursor emissions, leading to average global temperature increases up to 1 K and global precipitation rate increases up to 0.09 mm d−1. Regionally and locally, climate impacts can be much larger, with a 2.1 K warming projected over China, Japan, and Korea due to the reduced aerosol emissions in RCP8.5, as well as nearly a 0.2 mm d−1 precipitation increase, a 7 g m−2 LWP decrease, and a 2 μm increase in cloud droplet effective radius. Future aerosol decreases could be responsible for 30–40% of total climate warming by 2100 in East Asia, even under the high greenhouse gas emissions scenario (RCP8.5. The expected unmasking of global warming caused

  17. A Review on Ethnic Minority Linguistic Research Since the 21st Century

    Deng Wenbin


    Since the 21st century, research in the field of ethnic minority linguistics has seen new developments in China. The contents and achieve-ments of this research have mainly been concentrated in the following areas:The first being descriptive research into the eth-nic minority languages, including comprehensive de-scriptive research of some specific ethnic minority languages, especially those newly discovered ethnic minority languages, and descriptive research into a particular aspect of ethnic minority languages, inclu-ding their grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. The second being synchronic comparative studies of ethnic minority languages, including comparative studies between Chinese and ethnic minority langua-ges, and comparative studies between ethnic minority languages. The third being diachronic comparative studies of ethnic minority languages. These include a discussion on the generic issues of the Sino-Tibetan language family, and the reconstruction of the com-mon ancestral words in Sino-Tibetan languages. The fourth being the research into the rescue of endan-gered minority languages. In 2000, China held a seminar on endangered languages for the first time, marking the point when academic circles in China started to realize the urgency of protecting endan-gered languages. The fifth being the research into bi-lingual education in ethnic minorities. Since the ad-vent of the 21st century, research into bilingual edu-cation in ethnic minorities has progressed in leaps and bounds, and a great many papers and scholarly works related to this field have been published. The sixth being the study of the translation of ethnic mi-nority languages. This has become an important field of ethnic minority language research in China. In the new century, research papers on the translation of ethnic minority languages are fewer in number than the actual works of translation, and their main con-tent includes discussions on translation between two specific languages, or the

  18. Prospects for tooth regeneration in the 21st century: a perspective.

    Chai, Yang; Slavkin, Harold C


    The prospects for tooth regeneration in the 21st century are compelling. Using the foundations of experimental embryology, developmental and molecular biology, the principles of biomimetics (the mimicking of biological processes), tooth regeneration is becoming a realistic possibility within the next few decades. The cellular, molecular, and developmental "rules" for tooth morphogenesis are rapidly being discovered. The knowledge gained from adult stem cell biology, especially associated with dentin, cartilage, and bone tissue regeneration, provides additional opportunities for eventual tooth organogenesis. The centuries of tooth development using xenotransplantation, allotransplantation, and autotransplantation have resulted in many important insights that can enhance tooth regeneration. In considering the future, several lines of evidence need to be considered: (1) enamel organ epithelia and dental papilla mesenchyme tissues contain stem cells during postnatal stages of life; (2) late cap stage and bell stage tooth organs contain stem cells; (3) odontogenic adult stem cells respond to mechanical as well as chemical "signals"; (4) presumably adult bone marrow as well as dental pulp tissues contain "odontogenic" stem cells; and (5) epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are pre-requisite for tooth regeneration. The authors express "guarded enthusiasm," yet there should be little doubt that adult stem cell-mediated tooth regeneration will be realized in the not too distant future. The prospects for tooth regeneration could be realized in the next few decades and could be rapidly utilized to improve the quality of human life in many nations around the world.

  19. Mastery learning: it is time for medical education to join the 21st century.

    McGaghie, William C


    Clinical medical education in the 21st century is grounded in a 19th-century model that relies on longitudinal exposure to patients as the curriculum focus. The assumption is that medical students and postgraduate residents will learn from experience, that vicarious or direct involvement in patient care is the best teacher. The weight of evidence shows, however, that results from such traditional clinical education are uneven at best. Educational inertia endorsed until recently by medical school accreditation policies has maintained the clinical medical education status quo for decades.Mastery learning is a new paradigm for medical education. Basic principles of mastery learning are that educational excellence is expected and can be achieved by all learners and that little or no variation in measured outcomes will result. This Commentary describes the origins of mastery learning and presents its essential features. The Commentary then introduces the eight reports that comprise the mastery learning cluster for this issue of Academic Medicine. The reports are intended to help medical educators recognize advantages of the mastery model and begin to implement mastery learning at their own institutions. The Commentary concludes with brief statements about future directions for mastery learning program development and research in medical education.

  20. Annual minimum temperature variations in early 21st century in Punjab, Pakistan

    Jahangir, Misbah; Maria Ali, Syeda; Khalid, Bushra


    Climate change is a key emerging threat to the global environment. It imposes long lasting impacts both at regional and national level. In the recent era, global warming and extreme temperatures have drawn great interest to the scientific community. As in a past century considerable increase in global surface temperatures have been observed and predictions revealed that it will continue in the future. In this regard, current study mainly focused on analysis of regional climatic change (annual minimum temperature trends and its correlation with land surface temperatures in the early 21st century in Punjab) for a period of 1979-2013. The projected model data European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) has been used for eight Tehsils of Punjab i.e., annual minimum temperatures and annual seasonal temperatures. Trend analysis of annual minimum and annual seasonal temperature in (Khushab, Noorpur, Sargodha, Bhalwal, Sahiwal, Shahpur, Sillanwali and Chinoit) tehsils of Punjab was carried out by Regression analysis and Mann-Kendall test. Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was used in comparison with Model data for the month of May from the years 2000, 2009 and 2010. Results showed that no significant trends were observed in annual minimum temperature. A significant change was observed in Noorpur, Bhalwal, Shahpur, Sillanwali, Sahiwal, Chinoit and Sargodha tehsils during spring season, which indicated that this particular season was a transient period of time.

  1. The North American iron ore industry: a decade into the 21st century

    Jorgenson, John D.; Perez, A. A


    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen another period of transformation, with the failure of a number of steel companies and with consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are changing rapidly. Consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures, divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes to ensure availability of feedstocks all played a role in recent developments in the North American iron ore industry. Canadian and U.S. iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream production, although isolated, must also be considered within the context of the changing global economy. Projects using new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96-98% iron content and other projects designed to produce steel at minesites may once again change the face of the iron ore industry. Social and environmental issues related to sustainable development have had a significant effect on the North American iron ore industry.

  2. Boreal snow cover variations induced by aerosol emissions in the middle of the 21st century

    M. Ménégoz


    Full Text Available We used a coupled climate-chemistry model to quantify the impacts of aerosols on snow cover both for the present-day and for the middle of the 21st century. Black carbon (BC deposition over continents induces a reduction in the Mean Number of Days With Snow at the Surface (MNDWS that ranges from 0 to 10 days over large areas of Eurasia and Northern America for the present-day relative to the pre-industrial period. This is mainly due to BC deposition during the spring, a period of the year when the remaining of snow accumulated during the winter is exposed to both strong solar radiation and large amount of aerosol deposition induced themselves by a high level of transport of particles from polluted areas. North of 30° N, this deposition flux represents 222 Gg BC month−1 on average from April to June in our simulation. A large reduction in BC emissions is expected in the future in the Radiative Concentration Pathway (RCP scenarios. Considering this scenario in our simulation leads to a decrease in the spring BC deposition down to 110 Gg month−1 in the 2050s in the RCP8.5 scenario. However, despite the reduction of the aerosol impact on snow, the MNDWS is strongly reduced by 2050, with a decrease ranging from 10 to 100 days from pre-industrial values over large parts of the Northern Hemisphere. This reduction is essentially due to temperature increase, which is quite strong in the RCP8.5 scenario in the absence of climate mitigation policies. Moreover, the projected sea-ice retreat in the next decades will open new routes for shipping in the Arctic. However, a large increase in shipping emissions in the Arctic by the mid 21st century does not lead to significant changes of BC deposition over snow-covered areas in our simulation. Therefore, the MNDWS is clearly not affected through snow darkening effects associated to these Arctic ship emissions. In an experiment without nudging toward atmospheric reanalyses, we simulated

  3. A look into the 21st century as viewed by a Mayo Health System patient care executive.

    McBeth, A


    The 21st century needs to be dedicated to the broader vision of building healthy communities. The challenge for us as leaders in the communities in which we live and work will be to develop a nondisparate shared vision of health that serves all populations from birth to death. Disparity benchmarks and indicators will be key in order to achieve the U.S. Surgeon General's commitment to eliminate the disparities in health in this new century. Florence Nightingale's 19th century vision of creating an environment of healing--together with the Mayo brothers' primary value that the needs of the patient come first, which were set forth during the same time period--needs to guide us as we embark upon our 21st century journey.

  4. Emerging technologies for the detection of rabies virus: challenges and hopes in the 21st century.

    Anthony R Fooks

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of rabies is routinely based on clinical and epidemiological information, especially when exposures are reported in rabies-endemic countries. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays that appear to be negative, even when undertaken late in the disease and despite the clinical diagnosis, have a tendency, at times, to be unreliable. These tests are rarely optimal and entirely dependent on the nature and quality of the sample supplied. In the course of the past three decades, the application of molecular biology has aided in the development of tests that result in a more rapid detection of rabies virus. These tests enable viral strain identification from clinical specimens. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. Indeed the challenges in the 21st century for the development of rabies diagnostics are not of a technical nature; these tests are available now. The challenges in the 21st century for diagnostic test developers are two-fold: firstly, to achieve internationally accepted validation of a test that will then lead to its acceptance by organisations globally. Secondly, the areas of the world where such tests are needed are mainly in developing regions where financial and logistical barriers prevent their implementation. Although developing countries with a poor healthcare infrastructure recognise that molecular-based diagnostic assays will be unaffordable for routine use, the cost/benefit ratio should still be measured. Adoption of rapid and affordable rabies diagnostic tests for use in developing countries highlights the importance of sharing and transferring technology through laboratory twinning between the developed and the developing countries. Importantly for developing countries, the benefit of molecular methods as tools is the capability for a differential diagnosis of human diseases that present with similar clinical symptoms. Antemortem

  5. GCMs-based spatiotemporal evolution of climate extremes during the 21st century in China

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yongqin David; Singh, Vijay P.


    Changes in the hydrological cycle being caused by human-induced global warming are triggering variations in observed spatiotemporal distributions of precipitation and temperature extremes, and hence in droughts and floods across China. Evaluation of future climate extremes based on General Circulation Models (GCMs) outputs will be of great importance in scientific management of water resources and agricultural activities. In this study, five precipitation extreme and five temperature extreme indices are defined. This study analyzes daily precipitation and temperature data for 1960-2005 from 529 stations in China and outputs of GCMs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) and Phase 5 (CMIP5). Downscaling methods, based on QQ-plot and transfer functions, are used to downscale GCMs outputs to the site scale. Performances of GCMs in simulating climate extremes were evaluated using the Taylor diagram. Results showed that: (1) the multimodel CMIP5 ensemble performs the best in simulating observed extreme conditions; (2) precipitation processes are intensifying with increased frequency and intensity across entire China. The southwest China, however, is dominated by lengthening maximum consecutive dry days and also more heavy precipitation extremes; (3) warming processes continue with increasing warm nights, decreasing frost days, and lengthening heat waves during the 21st century; (4) changes in precipitation and temperature extremes exhibit larger changing magnitudes under RCP85 scenario; (5) for the evolution of changes in extremes, in most cases, the spatial pattern keeps the same, even though changing rates vary. In some cases, area with specific changing properties extends or shrinks gradually. The directions of trends may alter during the evolution; and (6) changes under RCP85 become more and more pronounced as time elapses. Under the peak-and-decline RCP26, changes in some cases do not decrease correspondingly during 2070-2099 even though the

  6. Multiple stressors of ocean ecosystems in the 21st century: projections with CMIP5 models

    L. Bopp


    Full Text Available Ocean ecosystems are increasingly stressed by human-induced changes of their physical, chemical and biological environment. Among these changes, warming, acidification, deoxygenation and changes in primary productivity by marine phytoplankton can be considered as four of the major stressors of open ocean ecosystems. Due to rising atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades, these changes will be amplified. Here, we use the most recent simulations performed in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 to assess how these stressors may evolve over the course of the 21st century. The 10 Earth system models used here project similar trends in ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and reduced primary productivity for each of the IPCC's representative concentration pathways (RCPs over the 21st century. For the "business-as-usual" scenario RCP8.5, the model-mean changes in the 2090s (compared to the 1990s for sea surface temperature, sea surface pH, global O2 content and integrated primary productivity amount to +2.73 (±0.72 °C, −0.33 (±0.003 pH unit, −3.45 (±0.44% and −8.6 (±7.9%, respectively. For the high mitigation scenario RCP2.6, corresponding changes are +0.71 (±0.45 °C, −0.07 (±0.001 pH unit, −1.81 (±0.31% and −2.0 (±4.1%, respectively, illustrating the effectiveness of extreme mitigation strategies. Although these stressors operate globally, they display distinct regional patterns and thus do not change coincidentally. Large decreases in O2 and in pH are simulated in global ocean intermediate and mode waters, whereas large reductions in primary production are simulated in the tropics and in the North Atlantic. Although temperature and pH projections are robust across models, the same does not hold for projections of subsurface O2 concentrations in the tropics and global and regional changes in net primary productivity. These high uncertainties in projections of primary productivity and subsurface

  7. Teaching Ocean Sciences in the 21st Century Classroom: Lab to Classroom Videoconferencing

    Peach, C. L.; Gerwick, W.; Gerwick, L.; Senise, M.; Jones, C. S.; Malloy, K.; Jones, A.; Trentacoste, E.; Nunnery, J.; Mendibles, T.; Tayco, D.; Justice, L.; Deutscher, R.


    Teaching Ocean Science in the 21st Century Classroom (TOST) is a Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE CA) initiative aimed at developing and disseminating technology-based instructional strategies, tools and ocean science resources for both formal and informal science education. San Diego Unified School District (SDUSD), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) and the Lawrence Hall of Science (LHS) have established a proving ground for TOST activities and for development of effective, sustainable solutions for researchers seeking to fulfill NSF and other funding agency broader impact requirements. Lab to Classroom Videoconferencing: Advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) are making it easier to connect students and researchers using simple online tools that allow them to interact in novel ways. COSEE CA is experimenting with these tools and approaches to identify effective practices for providing students with insight into the research process and close connections to researchers and their laboratory activities. At the same time researchers, including graduate students, are learning effective communication skills and how to align their presentations to specific classroom needs - all from the comfort of their own lab. The lab to classroom videoconferencing described here is an ongoing partnership between the Gerwick marine biomedical research lab and a group of three life science teachers (7th grade) at Pershing Middle School (SDUSD) that started in 2007. Over the last 5 years, the Pershing science teachers have created an intensive, semester-long unit focused on drug discovery. Capitalizing on the teacher team’s well-developed unit of study and the overlap with leading-edge research at SIO, COSEE CA created the videoconferencing program as a broader impact solution for the lab. The team has refined the program over 3 iterations, experimenting with structuring the activities to most effectively reach the students. In the

  8. Asylum vs sovereignty in the 21st century: How nation-state's breach international law to block access to asylum.


    Asylum was created by the international community in the 20th century to provide legal protection to individuals fleeing persecution by nation states; but the ability to secure asylum has been fundamentally reshaped by sovereign national interests in the 21st century. This paper has two objectives. First it explores the various ways in which nation-states have adopted policies and pursued agendas which prevent asylum seekers from gaining access to countries of asylum, which criminalize many w...

  9. School Buildings for the 21st Century Some Features of New School Buildings in Iceland

    Anna Kristín Sigurðardóttir


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify features of change in the recent design of school buildings in Iceland, and how they might affect teaching practices. Environmental and architectonic features characterising school buildings designed and built at the beginning of the 21st century are examined in light of challenges involving architecture, educational ideology, school policy and digital technology. The sample for the study consists of 20 schools located in four municipalities. Four of the school buildings were developed and built in this century, while the other 16 were designed in the 20th century. The design of all of the buildings was explored and reviewed by a multidisciplinary team. Data was collected by observations and photography at each school site, as well as by reviewing technical documents. The relationship between school design and school practices was studied through a questionnaire survey among all teachers, in order to find out whether teachers working in new environments differ from teachers in more traditional classroom settings. The results indicate a clear shift in the design of educational buildings. Flexibility, flow, openness and teamwork seem to guide recent school design. Clusters of classrooms or open spaces, transparent or movable boundaries, as well as shared spaces allowing for manifold interactions in flexible groups seem to be replacing traditional classrooms along confining corridors. Teachers working in open classroom environments collaborate more often than their counterparts. Teaching practices are also characterised by more opportunities for pupils to choose between tasks and enjoy more variation regarding group division and workspace arrangements.

  10. Where will the stem cells lead us? Prospects for dentistry in the 21 st century

    S Durga Sreenivas


    Full Text Available It is dentists′ dream to achieve bone repair with predictability, but without donor site morbidity as well as reconstruction of injured or pathologically damaged complex dental structures, however, this will no longer be a dream as these are being made into a reality using stem cell science. Stem cell science is clearly an intriguing and promising area of science. Stem cells have been isolated from a variety of embryonic and adult tissues. Dental stem cells are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs brought new enthusiasm among the researchers because of their easy accessibility, high quality and they don′t pose the same ethical concerns and controversy in comparison with embryonic stem cells. This review article provides brief insights about stem cell basics, the state of art in human dental stem cell research and its possible impact on future dentistry. Even though most of these modalities are still in infancy, it is evident that the 21 st century dentist is going to play a critical role in the field of medicine. The aim of this article is to bring awareness among the dentists about the huge potential associated with the use of stem cells in a clinical setting, as well as proper understanding of related problems.

  11. Curriculum as praxis: Ensuring quality technical education in Singapore for the 21st century.

    Tiew Ming Yek


    Full Text Available Singapore, a small island city-state, has achieved notable economic advancement within 40 years since independence. It is fast becoming a global city and a knowledge society. In education and training, the Singapore system has evolved from its British roots. Macro performance indicators of participation rate, literacy rate and mean years of schooling, show that the current education system can be regarded as highly successful. The contributions of general education as well as technical education and training to the overall success of the nation are often cited. Technical education and training, which is globally perceived as having a lower status than "academic" curricula, has largely overcome its "image" problem in Singapore. Singaporeans have seemingly embraced technical education and training as an accessible, attractive mode of education, which therefore enjoys a high participation rate. The success and quality of technical education and training were affirmed when its main provider, the Institute of Technical Education, became the first educational institution in Singapore to win the Singapore Quality Award in October 2005. This paper provides a review of the contemporary education system and curriculum in Singapore with a focus on technical education and training vis-à-vis a vision of education and training in and for postmodern knowledge societies. Suggestions are made on how the technical education and training sector in Singapore can further develop and thrive in the 21st century, while continuing to be accessible and of high quality.

  12. A case study: Transforming a vaudeville theatre into a 21st century multi-purpose hall

    Talaske, Richard H.; Hoffman, Ian B.; Laney, Jonathan P.


    Originally constructed in 1927 as an atmospheric, vaudeville theatre, the Coronado enjoyed 50 years as host to a true variety of events. In the 1970s, functional and space limitations became a catalyst for touring events to avoid the Coronado, and the theatre fell into disrepair. In the mid-1990s, a renovation was planned (completed January 2001) to restore the glory of the original theatre and upgrade it to be a viable multi-purpose hall for the 21st century. By annexing two neighboring buildings, many of the space limitations could be overcome in both the front- and back-of-house. The scope included a significantly enlarged stage and stagehouse, performer support spaces, expanded lobby spaces, quiet ventilation systems, and a new music rehearsal room. Acoustically, a primary goal was to upgrade the hall for both reinforced music/theatre performances and unreinforced, orchestral performances. However, historical regulations prevented modification to the room shape and configuration. In order to make the room suitable for unreinforced music, two primary acoustic features were instituted-a semi-custom concert enclosure for the stage and an acoustic enhancement system for the audience chamber. For theatrical and popular music events, a new performance audio system was designed and integrated into the hall.

  13. Inter-Disciplinary Inquiry-Based Science Experiences for the 21st Century

    Suzanne Lunsford


    Full Text Available Inter-disciplinary Inquiry-Based Science Experiences that have Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM in the undergraduate learning experiences are the learning experiences needed for the 21st century. The laboratory research experiences for my undergraduate science education students working on development of sensors to analysis of field samples changes a typical traditional classroom into a highly interactive learning environment. The inquiry-based labs are required to engage students into problem solving with the process of critical thinking skills. These problem-based skills enable students to generate, evaluate and share their research findings for their sensors developed. The students are required to design the sensor to analyze a sample collected on a field trip. The sensor(s developed to the samples collected on a field trip are analyzed by technology such as cyclic voltammetry (CV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV, square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF and Raman Spectroscopy [1-3]. The results of the SWASV will be shared to show the students success at learning how to utilize and develop novel sensors in this talk related to heavy metal detection in water sampling.

  14. 21st Century Global Freshwater Security: Can it Exist and Can Scientists Communicate the Challenges?

    Famiglietti, J. S.


    Climate models and decades of satellite data are converging on the unfortunate reality that Earth's water cycle is changing. Paleoclimate indicators remind us that this has always been the case. Freshwater is constantly being exchanged among the atmosphere, ocean, land and ice reservoirs, while on land, patterns of precipitation, evapotranspiration, flooding and drought are shifting. The evolving water cycle of the 21st century will likely be stronger, more variable, and will result in broad swaths of mid-latitude drying, accelerated by the depletion of the world's major groundwater aquifers. A well-defined geography of freshwater 'haves' and 'have-nots' is clearly emerging. What does water sustainability mean under such dynamic climate and hydrologic conditions, in particular when coupled with future projections of population growth? How will water managers cope with these new normals, and how will food and energy production be impacted? The responsibility of communicating this changing global water landscape falls squarely on the shoulders of the academic-research community, yet the challenge of doing so is daunting. In this Special Lecture I will review what our latest research tells us, and I will share my personal experiences with science communication and water diplomacy.

  15. 21st-Century Theories of Literature: A Critical Reflection on an Interdisciplinary Event

    Philip Gaydon


    Full Text Available The authors reflect upon the successes and difficulties of developing and running 21st-Century Theories of Literature: Essence, Fiction, and Value, an interdisciplinary conference held at the University of Warwick on 27-29 March 2014.The aim of the conference was to encourage a more sustained focus on the overlap between two disciplines which, prima facie, have a lot in common: philosophical aesthetics (and in particular its literary branch, the philosophy of literature and  literary studies (of which literary theory may be considered a subdivision. Because both deal with literature and have an investment in the idea of theorisation, one might have thought that there was no need to encourage active dialogue and it would arise naturally from the needs of each field. However, in the current institutional state of affairs where philosophy departments and literature departments often have little overlap, ‘aesthetics’ and ‘literary theory’ are two very distinct entities, and interaction is underdeveloped even when room for it does exist. As such, we judged that there was a need for such a prompting. This piece presents the rationale for our conference, and describes its preparation, development and outcomes.Photo credit: Wittgenstein Vector, copyright eXegesis -  J. Robles, M.D. Rose-Steel, S. M. Steele, 2014.

  16. A classic model animal in the 21st century: recent lessons from the leech nervous system.

    Wagenaar, Daniel A


    The medicinal leech (genus Hirudo) is a classic model animal in systems neuroscience. The leech has been central to many integrative studies that establish how properties of neurons and their interconnections give rise to the functioning of the animal at the behavioral level. Leeches exhibit several discrete behaviors (such as crawling, swimming and feeding) that are each relatively simple. Importantly, these behaviors can all be studied - at least at a basal level - in the isolated nervous system. The leech nervous system is particularly amenable to such studies because of its distributed nature; sensory processing and generation of behavior occur to a large degree in iterated segmental ganglia that each contain only ∼400 neurons. Furthermore, the neurons are relatively large and are arranged with stereotyped topography on the surface of the ganglion, which greatly facilitates their identification and accessibility. This Commentary provides an overview of recent work on the leech nervous system, with particular focus on circuits that underlie leech behavior. Studies that combine the unique features of the leech with modern optical and genetic techniques are also discussed. Thus, this Commentary aims to explain the continued appeal of the leech as an experimental animal in the 21st century.

  17. Stereochemistry of coordination compounds. From alfred werner to the 21st century.

    von Zelewsky, Alex


    As a contribution to the scientific symposium, November 22nd, 2013, commemorating the Nobel Prize awarded to Alfred Werner in 1913, a presentation of the development of stereochemistry of coordination compounds during the past 120 years was given. Stereochemistry was fundamental to Werner's theory of coordination compounds. After Werner's death in 1919, stereochemistry in this field did not progress much further for almost 20 years, but then developed continuously. It was realized that stereochemical features of elements showing coordination numbers larger than four are responsible for an almost unlimited number of stereochemical possibilities, thus opening a molecular world of new structures. In the beginning of the 21st century, interest in the field rose again considerably, mainly due to the potential of stereoselective catalysis, and the self-assembly of supramolecular structures. An end of these developments is not in sight. Here an abbreviated version of the lecture is given. A PowerPoint(®) file, or a video of the presentation, can be downloaded.

  18. Assessing changes in precipitation and temperature over the Iberian Peninsula during the 21st century

    Bernardino, Mariana; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima; Pinto, Armando


    Climate is a major factor driving the spatio-temporal distribution of most ecological systems and human activities, due to their vulnerability to inter-annual climate variability and to climate change. These systems are very sensitive to changes in traditional patterns of regional climate but also to the frequency and magnitude of extreme events. Changes in surface air temperature extremes and precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula were investigated using one of the high resolution climate simulations produced by the Euro-Cordex consortium. Two sets of simulations forced with the new IPCC AR5 emission scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, with a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km were used to compute climate indices defined by the European Climate Assessment (ECA) project, for present (1970-2010) and for the 21st century climates. Changes in magnitude and in the spatial patterns of these indices were evaluated and once the expected impacts in different sectors are related with these changes, the results provide information to be used in sectoral adaption measures, namely in tourism, water, agriculture, human health, energy and infrastructures.

  19. The alternative strategies of the development of the nuclear power industry in the 21st century

    Goverdovskii, A. A.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Rachkov, V. I.


    This paper emphasizes the urgency of scientific-and-technical and sociopolitical problems of the modern nuclear power industry without solving of which the transition from local nuclear power systems now in operation to a large-scale nuclear power industry would be impossible. The existing concepts of the longterm strategy of the development of the nuclear power industry have been analyzed. On the basis of the scenarios having been developed it was shown that the most promising alternative is the orientation towards the closed nuclear fuel cycle with fast neutron reactors (hereinafter referred to as fast reactors) that would meet the requirements on the acceptable safety. It was concluded that the main provisions of "The Strategy of the Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia for the First Half of the 21st Century" approved by the Government of the Russian Federation in the year 2000 remain the same at present as well, although they require to be elaborated with due regard for new realities in the market for fossil fuels, the state of both the Russian and the world economy, as well as tightening of requirements related to safe operation of nuclear power stations (NPSs) (for example, after the severe accident at the Fukushima nuclear power station, Japan) and nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

  20. The Prospect of Neutron Scattering In the 21st Century: A Powerful Tool for Materials Research

    E. Kartini


    Full Text Available Over the last 60 years research reactors (RRs have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind, such as radioisotope production for medicine, industry, research and education. Neutron scattering has been widely used for research and development in materials science. The prospect of neutron scattering as a powerful tool for materials research is increasing in the 21st century. This can be seen from the investment of several new neutron sources all over the world such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS in USA, the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (JPARC in Japan, the new OPAL Reactor in Australia, and some upgrading to the existing sources at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK; Institute of Laue Langevin (ILL in Grenoble, France and Berlin Reactor, Germany. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactor have also been involved in this technique, such as India, Malaysia and Indonesia. The Siwabessy Multipurpose Reactor in Serpong, Indonesia that also produces thermal neutron has contributed to the research and development in the Asia Pacific Region. However, the international joint research among those countries plays an important role on optimizing the results.

  1. Tropospheric temperature response to stratospheric ozone recovery in the 21st century

    Y. Hu


    Full Text Available Recent simulations predicted that the stratospheric ozone layer will likely return to pre-1980 levels in the middle of the 21st century, as a result of the decline of ozone depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol. Since the ozone layer is an important component in determining stratospheric and tropospheric-surface energy balance, the recovery of stratospheric ozone may have significant impact on tropospheric-surface climate. Here, using multi-model results from both the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC-AR4 models and coupled chemistry-climate models, we show that as ozone recovery is considered, the troposphere is warmed more than that without considering ozone recovery, suggesting an enhancement of tropospheric warming due to ozone recovery. It is found that the enhanced tropospheric warming is mostly significant in the upper troposphere, with a global and annual mean magnitude of ~0.41 K for 2001–2050. We also find that relatively large enhanced warming occurs in the extratropics and polar regions in summer and autumn in both hemispheres, while the enhanced warming is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. Enhanced warming is also found at the surface. The global and annual mean enhancement of surface warming is about 0.16 K for 2001–2050, with maximum enhancement in the winter Arctic.

  2. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Pathological Narcissism in Prolonged Conflicts and Wars of the 21st Century.

    Burkle, Frederick M


    The end of the Cold War brought with it many protracted internal conflicts and wars that have lasted for decades and whose persistent instability lies at the heart of both chronic nation-state and regional instability. Responsibility for these chronically failed states has been attributed to multiple unresolved root causes. With previous governance and parties to power no longer trusted or acceptable, the vacuum of leadership in many cases has been filled with "bad leadership." This Concept piece argues that in a number of cases opportunistic leaders, suffering from severe antisocial character disorders, have emerged first as saviors and then as despots, or as common criminals claiming to be patriots, sharing a psychological framework that differs little from those responsible for World War II and the Cold War that followed. I describe the identifying characteristics of this unique and poorly understood subset of the population who are driven to seek the ultimate opportunity to control, dictate, and live out their fantasies of power on the world scene and discuss why their destructive actions remain unabated in the 21st century. Their continued antisocial presence, influence, and levels of violence must be seen as a global security and strategic issue that is not amenable to conventional diplomatic interventions, negotiations, mediations, or international sanctions.

  3. Rorschach score validation as a model for 21st-century personality assessment.

    Bornstein, Robert F


    Recent conceptual and methodological innovations have led to new strategies for documenting the construct validity of test scores, including performance-based test scores. These strategies have the potential to generate more definitive evidence regarding the validity of scores derived from the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM) and help resolve some long-standing controversies regarding the clinical utility of the Rorschach. After discussing the unique challenges in studying the Rorschach and why research in this area is important given current trends in scientific and applied psychology, I offer 3 overarching principles to maximize the construct validity of RIM scores, arguing that (a) the method that provides RIM validation measures plays a key role in generating outcome predictions; (b) RIM variables should be linked with findings from neighboring subfields; and (c) rigorous RIM score validation includes both process-focused and outcome-focused assessments. I describe a 4-step strategy for optimal RIM score derivation (formulating hypotheses, delineating process links, generating outcome predictions, and establishing limiting conditions); and a 4-component template for RIM score validation (establishing basic psychometrics, documenting outcome-focused validity, assessing process-focused validity, and integrating outcome- and process-focused validity data). The proposed framework not only has the potential to enhance the validity and utility of the RIM, but might ultimately enable the RIM to become a model of test score validation for 21st-century personality assessment.

  4. More than a Museum: Natural History is Relevant in 21st Century Environmental Science

    Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Barrows, C. W.


    In the Anthropocene, the relevancy of natural history in environmental science is challenged and marginalized today more than ever. We tested the hypothesis that natural history is relevant to the fields of environmental science and ecology by assessing the values, needs, and decisions related to natural history of graduate students and environmental science professionals across 31 universities and various employers, respectively, in California. Graduate students surveyed (93.3%) agreed that natural history was relevant to science, approximately 70% believed it "essential" for conducting field-based research; however, 54.2% felt inadequately trained to teach a natural history course and would benefit from additional training in natural history (> 80%). Of the 185 professionals surveyed, all felt that natural history was relevant to science and "essential" or "desirable" in their vocation (93%). Our results indicate a disconnect between the value and relevancy of natural history in 21st century ecological science and opportunities for gaining those skills and knowledge through education and training.

  5. Indoor air quality in the 21st century: search for excellence.

    Fanger, P O


    Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, even though existing standards and guidelines are met. The reason is that the requirements specified in these standards are rather low, allowing a substantial group of people to become dissatisfied and to be adversely affected. A paradigm shift from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environments is foreseen in the 21st century. Based on existing information and on new research results, five principles are suggested as elements behind a new philosophy of excellence: 1) better indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases SBS symptoms; 2) unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided; 3) the air should be served cool and dry to the occupants; 4) "personalized air", i.e. a small amount of clean air, should be served gently, close to the breathing zone of each individual; and 5) individual control of the thermal environment should be provided. These principles of excellence are compatible with energy efficiency and sustainability.

  6. Teaching Math in the 21st Century, by Barry Garelick [book review

    Richard P. Phelps


    Full Text Available Barry Garelick recently retired from a long career as an analyst for the Environmental Protection Agency. Probably most individuals toward the end of their careers prepare for a retirement of less work and increased leisure; Garelick attended evening classes to become a public school teacher. (Incidentally, he has written entertainingly about his graduate school experience in earlier publications. He timed his teacher’s certification to coincide with his retirement from the federal government, moved to the west coast, passed his California licensure examinations in mathematics, and started looking for work. Teaching Math in the 21st Century lightheartedly journals Garelick’s experience during a school year in which he substituted at two schools for full-time teachers on long leaves of absence. Each chapter is a short story about a day’s experience with a teaching challenge, a challenging experience with a student, or experiences with parents, faculty, or administration. His chapters could sequence a slice-of-life television series about an ordinary guy with good intentions trying to do an essential job for skeptical kids who need him, hamstrung by an out-of-touch bureaucracy mostly posing impediments.

  7. Afghanistan’s significance for Russia in the 21st Century: Interests, Perceptions and Perspectives

    Sangar Kaneshko


    Full Text Available Since President Barack Obama set the end of 2014 as the deadline to complete the planned troop withdrawal from Afghanistan, numerous commentators have sought to assess Russia’s Afghan policy since September 11, 2001 and anticipate Moscow’s strategy in ‘post-2014’ Afghanistan. This paper maintains that an assessment/evaluation of Afghanistan’s significance for Russia in the current system of international relations is needed to understand Moscow’s current and future Afghan strategy. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify and analyse the major factors, which lead to a conceptualization of Russia’s interests in Afghanistan. When assessing Russia’s interests in Afghanistan, one must take into account a plethora of significant issues, including Putin’s ‘great-power’ rhetoric; geopolitical, geostrategic, and geo-economic rivalries in the wider region; security threats such as the illegal narcotics emanating from Afghanistan and global terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism; the rivalry and competition for energy resources; and control over pipeline routes and energy corridors. The analysis of these substantiating factors demonstrate why in the 21st century the Afghan problem remains a significant challenge to Russia’s ‘great power’ identity, to its international strategy abroad, to its strategically important ‘near abroad,’ and to the country’s domestic socio-economic policy

  8. The Twins Study: NASA's First Foray into 21st Century Omics Research

    Kundrot, C. E.; Shelhamer, M.; Scott, G. B. I.


    The full array of 21st century omics-based research methods should be intelligently employed to reduce the health and performance risks that astronauts will be exposed to during exploration missions beyond low Earth Orbit. In March of 2015, US Astronaut Scott Kelly will launch to the International Space Station for a one year mission while his twin brother, Mark Kelly, a retired US Astronaut, remains on the ground. This situation presents an extremely rare flight opportunity to perform an integrated omics-based demonstration pilot study involving identical twin astronauts. A group of 10 principal investigators has been competitively selected, funded, and teamed together to form the Twins Study. A very broad range of biological function are being examined including the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, gut microbiome, immunological response to vaccinations, indicators of atherosclerosis, physiological fluid shifts, and cognition. The plans for the Twins Study and an overview of initial results will be described as well as the technological and ethical issues raised for such spaceflight studies. An anticipated outcome of the Twins Study is that it will place NASA on a trajectory of using omics-based information to develop precision countermeasures for individual astronauts.

  9. A Naive Glance to Postmodern Architecture in 21st Century: Termination or Transformation?

    Lerzan ARAS


    Full Text Available Too many years have past since Venturi’s Las Vegas analysis. Our taste, point of views, and of course our societal structure has changed. Gene Roddenberry’s cult TV series Star Trek which remained years on screen, turned out to be naive, and charming but also deficient for us. Communication channels have been increased. Technology’s rapid progress has surprised even itself. Lyotard’s analysis about postmodern conditions, or Hassan’s renewed descriptions about postmodernism should be moved to another dimension. As Hassan speaks, "... Postmodernism became more than an artistic style or historical trend or Zeitgeist, it is a way of reading all our signs under the mandate of misprision." (Hassan, 2003 For some critics, the postmodern architecture is about to come to a ‘cul de sac’ while we are experiencing the first quarter of the 21st century. But the matter for question is, whether the postmodern architecture is undergoing a transformation, or the point at issue is a termination. This study aims to evaluate postmodern architecture at this threshold after a short reminder of the past.

  10. International Order in the 21st Century and China's Foreign Strategy

    Cui Liru; Fu Mengzi; Yuan Peng


    @@ Dramatic changes have occurred in the post-Cold War world strategic configuration and international order with their replacements burgeoning. This confronts nations, big powers in particular, with new strategic choices. Indeed unfolding before us is a contention among them for seizing the initiative in the emerging international landscape in the 21st century.Thus how to correctly assess and respond to these changes for pursuing a reasonable strategy and selecting a right policy option is not only a matter of primary concern for the academic community, but also a major foreign policy task before a rapidly growing China. For this, a symposium on this theme was recently sponsored by the Editorial Department of Contemporary International Relations to solicit from a dozen or so Beijingbased well-known scholars and experts for their views on and policy suggestions for such issues as the current overall strategic picture, global configuration, trends of the international order and the strategic environment facing China. Excerpts of their major views are as follows.

  11. Dynamic EROI Assessment of the IPCC 21st Century Electricity Production Scenario

    Charles Neumeyer


    Full Text Available The Energy Return on Investment (EROI is an important measure of the energy gain of an electrical power generating facility that is typically evaluated based on the life cycle energy balance of a single facility. The EROI concept can be extended to cover a collection of facilities that comprise a complete power system and used to assess the expansion and evolution of a power system as it transitions from one portfolio mix of technologies to another over time. In this study we develop a dynamic EROI model that simulates the evolution of a power system and we perform an EROI simulation of one of the electricity production scenarios developed under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC covering the global supply of electricity in the 21st century. Our analytic tool provides the means for evaluation of dynamic EROI based on arbitrary time-dependent demand scenarios by modeling the required expansion of power generation, including the plowback needed for new construction and to replace facilities as they are retired. The results provide insight into the level of installed and delivered power, above and beyond basic consumer demand, that is required to support construction during expansion, as well as the supplementary power that may be required if plowback constraints are imposed. In addition, sensitivity to EROI parameters, and the impact of energy storage efficiency are addressed.

  12. New energy strategies for the 21st century: A Russian perspective

    Margulov, G.D. [International Fuel and Energy Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The new energy strategy developed by Russian scientists and specialists working in the International Fuel and Energy Association is a doctrine for the further liberalization of the energy sector; pooling of new know-how and efforts of the world community for economic progress; rejecting established stereotypes of lifestyles based on inefficient energy use thereby improving the quality of life; increasing the role and responsibilities of the individual in the process of arresting environment degradation; ensuring gradual decreases in energy consumption at existing costs; and reducing social divides. The article outlines the two stages of the strategy for the development of the energy sector, the first until the year 2030, the second extending to the middle of the 21st century. The first stage will give priority to natural gas usage and intensification of energy conservation measures, the second will tackle the problems of balancing the shares of petroleum, coal and natural gas, develop new and renewable energy and strengthen the resource-technological base of the coal industry and of nuclear energy. The importance of interaction with the government, the international community, social organisations and with the energy sector companies and commercial banks is discussed. 1 ref.

  13. Spirituality for democracy: Spiritual resources for democratic participation in the 21st century

    Roderick R. Hewitt


    Full Text Available The topic invites us to explore spirituality for democracy and to identify and critique the spiritual resources that are needed for democratic participation in the 21st century. The statement specifically focused on for and not of democracy. Modern expressions of democracy are in crisis. Every context is teething with challenges and conflicts between government sand their citizens concerning how much influence through participation should be allowed in the decision-making process of governance. This topic is of extreme importance for academic discourse because the malaise that has crept into contemporary forms of democratic governance calls for urgent attention. Democratic forms of governance are not set in stone. Rather, they are formed as a result of human deliberation and praxis and cultural developments and must therefore remain open for further reformation. It is this intrinsic capacity for renewal that opens democracy to converse with spirituality. This article begins with identifying the key terms that constitute the academic building blocks of this study. The inherent contradictions in the use of these terms are noted in order to arrive at a theoretical construct to converse with the key concepts of spirituality, democracy, spiritual resources and democratic participation.Through the use of the post colonial lenses of Rastafari hermeneutics, a theoretical framework will be employed to map a life-giving path for contemporary expressions of spirituality for democracy and to identify the resources needed for democratic participation.

  14. The Thrill of Discovery: Nuclear Physics Research in the 21st Century

    Al-Khalili, J.S. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)


    To many people outside our field, both scientists and the general public, nuclear physics is no longer regarded as being at the forefront of scientific endeavour. Indeed it is often met with outright hostility. Other physicists will point out that the last time a Nobel Prize was awarded in the field was in 1975. This paper, based on a lecture delivered during an Open Plenary Session of the recent International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC2004, which was aimed at a non-specialist audience, will seek to dispel this myth. Nuclear physics is currently enjoying a period of rapid advances. Many new discoveries have been made in the past few years, from neutron halos and nuclear molecules to a new form of radioactive decay via two protons; from hints of a new particle consisting of five quarks to new 'superheavy' elements. This talk will give a personal perspective on why, far from looking with envy at our neighbours in areas of physics that currently enjoy a higher media profile, we have more than enough to keep us busy and excited in the 21st century.

  15. Klein and Lacan meet 21st century schizoid man: fairy stories for the modern era.

    Charles, Marilyn


    Melanie Klein invited us into the phenomenology of the schizoid dilemma through her depictions of the paranoid-schizoid position. By inserting his recursive arrows, Bion extended this conceptualization, showing us the folly of believing that we can ever entirely move beyond the frightening fantasies and realities of social exclusion and isolation. The 21st century has brought, along with the explosion of technology, an expulsion from the social order of many children who have found refuge from isolation and humiliation in the more accessible and less terrifying world of media and technological invention. What may look like narcissism can mask a terrible underlying schizoid failure to enter into the human race. This is the realm of fantasy run amok, where desire becomes alien and alienated such that one is haunted and hunted down by its very possibility. In this universe, conceptualizations from Klein, Bion, and Lacan help us to locate the individual who has become caught in a massive psychic retreat such that there is no subject because there are no objects. To illustrate, I describe my work with a young man who is living in a terrible "zombie zone" where people are not real and therefore are incomprehensible and terribly dangerous. The poignancy of his dilemma is heartbreaking. Perhaps that is one lesson we can still take from our old fairy tales: when one's heart can be broken by another's plight, then comes the possibility of a healing, an entry through that piercing of what had been impenetrable.

  16. Epidemiology of stroke in Europe and trends for the 21st century.

    Béjot, Yannick; Bailly, Henri; Durier, Jérôme; Giroud, Maurice


    Despite major improvements in primary prevention and acute treatment over the last decades, stroke is still a devastating disease. At the beginning of the 21st century, the age-standardized incidence of stroke in Europe ranged from 95 to 290/100,000 per year, with one-month case-fatality rates ranging from 13 to 35%. Approximately 1.1 million inhabitants of Europe suffered a stroke each year, and ischemic stroke accounted for approximately 80% of cases. Although global stroke incidence is declining, rates observed in young adults are on the rise, thus suggesting a need for strategies to improve prevention. In addition, because of the ageing population, the absolute number of stroke is expected to dramatically increase in coming years: by 2025, 1.5 million European people will suffer a stroke each year. Beyond vital prognosis, stroke patients are also at increased risk of poor outcome within the first year of the event including re-hospitalisation (33%), recurrent event (7 to 13%), dementia (7 to 23%) mild cognitive disorder (35 to 47%), depression (30 to 50%), and fatigue (35% to 92%), all of them contributing to affect health related quality of life. Given these observations, an urgent development of acute care provision, as well as resources for post-stroke therapeutic strategies, is needed.

  17. Probabilistic projections of 21st century climate change over Northern Eurasia

    Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Schlosser, Adam; Scott, Jeffery; Gao, Xiang


    We present probabilistic projections of 21st century climate change over Northern Eurasia using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), an integrated assessment model that couples an Earth system model of intermediate complexity with a two-dimensional zonal-mean atmosphere to a human activity model. Regional climate change is obtained by two downscaling methods: a dynamical downscaling, where the IGSM is linked to a three-dimensional atmospheric model, and a statistical downscaling, where a pattern scaling algorithm uses climate change patterns from 17 climate models. This framework allows for four major sources of uncertainty in future projections of regional climate change to be accounted for: emissions projections, climate system parameters (climate sensitivity, strength of aerosol forcing and ocean heat uptake rate), natural variability, and structural uncertainty. The results show that the choice of climate policy and the climate parameters are the largest drivers of uncertainty. We also find that different initial conditions lead to differences in patterns of change as large as when using different climate models. Finally, this analysis reveals the wide range of possible climate change over Northern Eurasia, emphasizing the need to consider these sources of uncertainty when modeling climate impacts over Northern Eurasia.

  18. Advances and challenges for nutrient management in china in the 21st century.

    Sims, J T; Ma, L; Oenema, O; Dou, Z; Zhang, F S


    Managing agricultural nutrients to provide a safe and secure food supply while protecting the environment remains one of the great challenges for the 21st century. The fourth International Nutrient Management Symposium (INMS), held in 2011 at the University of Delaware, addressed these issues via presentations, panel sessions, and field tours focused on latest technologies and policies available to increase nutrient use efficiency. Participants from the United States, Europe, Canada, and China discussed global trends and challenges, balancing food security and the environment in countries with struggling and emerging economics, nutrient management and transport at the catchment scale, new technologies for managing fertilizer and manure nutrients, and adaptive nutrient management practices for farm to watershed scales. A particular area of interest at the fourth INMS was nutrient management progress and challenges in China over the past 40 years. China's food security challenges and rapidly growing economy have led to major advances in agricultural production systems but also created severe nutrient pollution problems. This special collection of papers from the fourth INMS gives an overview of the remarkable progress China has made in nutrient management and highlights major challenges and changes in agri-environmental policies and practices needed today. Lessons learned in China are of value to both developing and developed countries facing the common task of providing adequate food for an expanding world population, while protecting air and water quality and restoring damaged ecosystems.

  19. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Daniel Cardoso


    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  20. Ecosystem vulnerability of China under B2 climate scenario in the 21st century

    WU ShaoHong; DAI ErFu; HUANG Mei; SHAO XueMei; LI ShuangCheng; TAO Bo


    This paper applies climate change scenarios in China based on the SRES assumptions with the help of RCMs projections by PRECIS (providing regional climates for impacts studies) system introduced to China from.he Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research at a high-resolution (50 kmx50 km)over China.This research focuses on B2 scenario of SRES.A biogeochemical model "Atmosphere Vegetation Integrated Model (AV1M2)" was applied to simulating ecosystem status in the 21st century.Then vulnerability of ecosystems was assessed based on a set of index of mainly net primary production (NPP) of vegetation.Results show that climate change would affect ecosystem of China severely and there would be a worse trend with the lapse of time.The regions where having vulnerable ecological background would have heavier impacts while some regions with better ecological background would also receive serious impacts.Extreme climate even would bring about worse impact on the ecosystems.Open shrub and desert steppe would be the two most affected types.When the extreme events happen,vulnerable ecosystem would extend to part of defoliate broad-leaved forest,woody grassland and evergreen conifer forest.Climate change would not always be negative.It could be of some benefit to cold region during the near-term.However,in view of mid-term to long-term negative impact on ecosystem vulnerability would be enormously.

  1. Exploring the Cosmic Frontier Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century

    Lobanov, Andrei P; Cesarsky, Catherine; Diamond, Phillip J


    In the coming decades, astrophysical science will benefit enormously from the construction and operation of several major international ground- and space based facilities, such as ALMA, Herschel/Planck, and SKA in the far infrared to radio band, Extremely Large Telescopes, JWST and GAIA in the optical to near infrared regime, XEUS and Constellation-X in the X-ray, and GLAST in the Gamma-ray regime. These and other new instruments will have a major impact in a wide range of scientific topics including the cosmological epoch of reionization, galactic dynamics and nuclear activity, stellar astronomy, extra-solar planets, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and many others. On May 18-21, 2004, the Max-Planck-Society’s Harnack-Haus in Dahlem, Berlin hosted the international symposium "Exploring the Cosmic Frontier: Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century". The symposium in Berlin was dedicated to exploring the complementarity and synergies between different branches of astrophysical research, by presenting ...

  2. Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat of the 21st Century: A Global Perspective

    Mir M. Ali


    Full Text Available The tall building is the most dominating symbol of the cities and a human-made marvel that defies gravity by reaching to the clouds. It embodies unrelenting human aspirations to build even higher. It conjures a number of valid questions in our minds. The foremost and fundamental question that is often asked: Why tall buildings? This review paper seeks to answer the question by laying out arguments against and for tall buildings. Then, it provides a brief account of the historic and recent developments of tall buildings including their status during the current economic recession. The paper argues that as cities continue to expand horizontally, to safeguard against their reaching an eventual breaking point, the tall building as a building type is a possible solution by way of conquering vertical space through agglomeration and densification. Case studies of some recently built tall buildings are discussed to illustrate the nature of tall building development in their respective cities. The paper attempts to dispel any discernment about tall buildings as mere pieces of art and architecture by emphasizing their truly speculative, technological, sustainable, and evolving nature. It concludes by projecting a vision of tall buildings and their integration into the cities of the 21st century.

  3. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS: Technology for the 21st century

    Đakov Tatjana A.


    Full Text Available Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS are miniturized devices that can sense the environment, process and analyze information, and respond with a variety of mechanical and electrical actuators. MEMS consists of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, electrical and electronics devices on a common silicon substrate. Micro-electro-mechanical systems are becoming a vital technology for modern society. Some of the advantages of MEMS devices are: very small size, very low power consumption, low cost, easy to integrate into systems or modify, small thermal constant, high resistance to vibration, shock and radiation, batch fabricated in large arrays, improved thermal expansion tolerance. MEMS technology is increasingly penetrating into our lives and improving quality of life, similar to what we experienced in the microelectronics revolution. Commercial opportunities for MEMS are rapidly growing in broad application areas, including biomedical, telecommunication, security, entertainment, aerospace, and more in both the consumer and industrial sectors on a global scale. As a breakthrough technology, MEMS is building synergy between previously unrelated fields such as biology and microelectronics. Many new MEMS and nanotechnology applications will emerge, expanding beyond that which is currently identified or known. MEMS are definitely technology for 21st century.

  4. Projected Changes in Kppen Climate Types in the 21st Century over China

    SHI Ying; GAO Xue-Jie; WU Jia


    Future changes in the climate regimes over China as measured by the Kppen climate classification are reported in this paper. The analysis is based on a high-resolution climate change simulation conducted by a regional climate model (the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) RegCM3) driven by the global model of Center for Climate System Research (CCSR)/National Institute for Environment Studies (NIES)/Frontier Research Center for Global Change (FRCGC) MIROC3.2_hires (the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. Validation of the model performances is presented first. The results show that RegCM3 reproduces the present-day distribution of the Kppen climate types well. Significant changes of the types are found in the future over China, following the simulated warming and precipitation changes. In southern China, the change is characterized by the replacement of subtropical humid (Cr) by subtropical winter-dry (Cw). A pronounced decrease of the cold climate types is found over China, e.g., tundra (Ft) over the Tibetan Plateau and sub-arctic continental (Ec) over northeast China. The changes are usually greater in the end compared with the middle of the 21st century.

  5. Peripartum hysterectomy in the first decade of the 21st century.

    Tadesse, W


    We reviewed the role of peripartum hysterectomy (PH) in the first decade of the 21st century. The study was confined to women who delivered a baby weighing 500 g or more between 2000 and 2009, and who required a hysterectomy within 72 h of delivery for obstetric reasons. Individual case records were reviewed. There were 19 cases of PH in 78,961 deliveries giving an incidence of 1 in 4,156 (0.02%). Of the 19 cases, 95% were delivered by caesarean section and 89% had one or more prior sections. The indications were placental bed pathology (79%), uterine atony (16%) and uterine trauma (5%). Of the 19 hysterectomies, 16 (84%) were total and a gynaecological oncologist was involved in nine (56%) of these cases. There were no maternal or fetal deaths, but a mother required an average blood transfusion of 10 units. The overall rate of PH was remarkably low compared with other studies but it is likely to increase in the future because of the strong association between increasing caesarean section rates and placental bed pathology. The potential involvement of the cervix and other pelvic structures by placental pathology means that PH in the future will be more challenging, and the hysterectomy will need to be total rather than subtotal.

  6. Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise.

    Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T; Perrette, Mahé; Nicholls, Robert James; Tol, Richard S J; Marzeion, Ben; Fettweis, Xavier; Ionescu, Cezar; Levermann, Anders


    Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2-4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25-123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3-9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US$ 12-71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure.

  7. Projections of Wind Changes for 21st Century in China by Three Regional Climate Models

    JIANG Ying; LUO Yong; ZHAO Zongci; SHI Ying; XU Yinlong; ZHU Jinhong


    This paper examines the capability of three regional climate models(RCMs),i.e.,RegCM3(the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model),PRECIS(Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies)and CMM5(the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-the National Center for Atmospheric Research of USA,NCAR Mesoscale Model)to simulate the near-surface-layer winds(10 m above surface)all over China in the late 20th century.Results suggest that like global climate models(GCMs),these RCMs have the certain capability of imitating the distribution of mean wind speed and fail to simulate the greatly weakening wind trends for the past 50 years in the country.However,RCMs especially RegCM3 have the better capability than that of GCMs to simulate the distribution and change feature of mean wind speed.In view of their merits,these RCMs were used to project the variability of near-surface-layer winds over China for the 21st century.The results show that 1)summer mean wind speed for 2020-2029 will be lower compared to those in 1990-1999 in most area of China; 2)annual and winter mean wind speed for 2081-2100 will be lower than those of 1971-1990 in the whole China; and 3)the changes of summer mean wind speed for 2081-2100 are uncertain.As a result,although climate models are absolutely necessary for projecting climate change to come,there are great uncertainties in projections,especially for wind speed,and these issues need to be further explored.

  8. Ethnic Diversity of Population in Vojvodina at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Snežana Stojšin


    Full Text Available Vojvodina, an autonomous province in the Republic of Serbia, is ethnically one of the most heterogeneous regions of Europe and therefore represents an inexhaustible subject of research. There are more than 20 ethnic groups living in Vojvodina. According to the most recent 2011 census, there are 1,931,809 people living in Vojvodina and the Serbs make the largest ethnic group, 66.7% of the total population. Hungarians make 13.0% of the total population of Vojvodina and with a somewhat smaller proportion come the Slovaks, Croats, Rroma and Rromanians. In the period between the two censuses the reduction in the number of members of all ethnic groups was recorded and the only ethnic group that increased in number was the Rroma. Different socio-economic and demographic trends have had a great influence on the reduction of the share of members of almost all ethnic groups in the total population of Vojvodina in the last decades. First of all, it was influenced by forced migrations in the nineties of the previous century caused by the war on the territory of former Yugoslavia and its disintegration, a period of transition. The goal of this paper is to analyze the ethnic structure of the population in Vojvodina, as well as the factors which have had the most significant impact on the changes in the structure at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The importance of this analysis is reflected in better understanding of the status of different ethnic groups in Vojvodina and a better quality of their inclusion in social, cultural and political life.

  9. Exploring consensus in 21st century projections of climatically suitable areas for African vertebrates

    Garcia, Raquel A; Burgess, Neil D; Cabeza, Mar; Rahbek, Carsten; Araújo, Miguel B


    Africa is predicted to be highly vulnerable to 21st century climatic changes. Assessing the impacts of these changes on Africa's biodiversity is, however, plagued by uncertainties, and markedly different results can be obtained from alternative bioclimatic envelope models or future climate projections. Using an ensemble forecasting framework, we examine projections of future shifts in climatic suitability, and their methodological uncertainties, for over 2500 species of mammals, birds, amphibians and snakes in sub-Saharan Africa. To summarize a priori the variability in the ensemble of 17 general circulation models, we introduce a consensus methodology that combines co-varying models. Thus, we quantify and map the relative contribution to uncertainty of seven bioclimatic envelope models, three multi-model climate projections and three emissions scenarios, and explore the resulting variability in species turnover estimates. We show that bioclimatic envelope models contribute most to variability, particularly in projected novel climatic conditions over Sahelian and southern Saharan Africa. To summarize agreements among projections from the bioclimatic envelope models we compare five consensus methodologies, which generally increase or retain projection accuracy and provide consistent estimates of species turnover. Variability from emissions scenarios increases towards late-century and affects southern regions of high species turnover centred in arid Namibia. Twofold differences in median species turnover across the study area emerge among alternative climate projections and emissions scenarios. Our ensemble of projections underscores the potential bias when using a single algorithm or climate projection for Africa, and provides a cautious first approximation of the potential exposure of sub-Saharan African vertebrates to climatic changes. The future use and further development of bioclimatic envelope modelling will hinge on the interpretation of results in the light

  10. 21st Century changes in snow climate in Northern Europe: a high-resolution view from ENSEMBLES regional climate models

    Raeisaenen, Jouni [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48 (Erik Palmenin aukio 1), University of Helsinki (Finland); Eklund, Joonas [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48 (Erik Palmenin aukio 1), University of Helsinki (Finland); Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503 (Erik Palmenin aukio 1), Helsinki (Finland)


    Changes in snow amount in northern Europe are analysed from 11 regional model simulations of 21st century climate under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B scenario. These high-resolution models collectively indicate a future decrease in the water equivalent of the snow pack (SWE). Although winter precipitation increases, this is insufficient to compensate for the increased fraction of liquid precipitation and increased snowmelt caused by higher temperatures. The multi-model mean results suggest a slight increase in March mean SWE only locally in mountains of northern Sweden, and even there, snow is reduced earlier in winter and later in spring. The nature of the changes remains the same throughout the 21st century, but their magnitude increases with time as the greenhouse gas forcing grows larger. The geographical patterns of the change support the physically intuitive view that snow is most vulnerable to warming in areas with relatively mild winter climate. A similar relationship emerges when comparing the 11 simulations with each other: the ratio between the relative SWE decrease and winter mean temperature change is larger (smaller) for simulations with higher (lower) late 20th century winter temperatures. Despite the decrease in long-term mean SWE, individual snow-rich winters do occur in the simulations, but they become increasingly uncommon towards the end of the 21st century. (orig.)

  11. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners?

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain


    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands.

  12. The Importance of Establishing and Maintaining Continuity of Knowledge during 21st Century Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities

    Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL; Wishard, Bernard [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Bean, Robert [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA; Blair, Dianna [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lawson, Ray [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Weeks, George [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting


    During this century, the entire nuclear fuel cycle will expand and become increasingly more global, taxing both the resources and capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to maintain an effective Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) and its ability to provide timely detection of diversion. Uranium that currently is mined and milled in one country will be converted, enriched, and fabricated into fuel for reactors in an expanding set of new countries. This expansion will make it harder to guarantee that regional activities stay regional and that diversion detection is timely unless new and sustainable tools are developed to improve inspector effectiveness. To deal with this emerging reality, the IAEA must increase its use of unattended monitoring and employ new tools and methods that enhance CoK during all phases of the fuel cycle. This approach will help provide useful information to aid in detecting undeclared activities and create opportunities for timely and appropriate responses to events well before they enter phases of greater concern (e.g., enrichment). The systems that maintain CoK of safeguarded assets rely on containment and surveillance (C/S) technologies. The 21st century fuel cycle will require increased use of these technologies and systems, plus greater implementation of unattended systems that can securely collect data when inspectors are not present.

  13. Achieving patient engagement in multiple sclerosis: A perspective from the multiple sclerosis in the 21st Century Steering Group.

    Rieckmann, Peter; Boyko, Alexey; Centonze, Diego; Elovaara, Irina; Giovannoni, Gavin; Havrdová, Eva; Hommes, Otto; Kesselring, Jurg; Kobelt, Gisela; Langdon, Dawn; LeLorier, Jacques; Morrow, Sarah A; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Schippling, Sven; Thalheim, Christoph; Thompson, Heidi; Vermersch, Patrick


    While advances in medicine, technology and healthcare services offer promises of longevity and improved quality of life (QoL), there is also increasing reliance on a patient׳s skills and motivation to optimize all the benefits available. Patient engagement in their own healthcare has been described as the 'blockbuster drug of the century'. In multiple sclerosis (MS), patient engagement is vital if outcomes for the patient, society and healthcare systems are to be optimized. The MS in the 21st Century Steering Group devised a set of themes that require action with regard to patient engagement in MS, namely: 1) setting and facilitating engagement by education and confidence-building; 2) increasing the importance placed on QoL and patient concerns through patient-reported outcomes (PROs); 3) providing credible sources of accurate information; 4) encouraging treatment adherence through engagement; and 5) empowering through a sense of responsibility. Group members independently researched and contributed examples of patient engagement strategies from several countries and examined interventions that have worked well in areas of patient engagement in MS, and other chronic illnesses. The group presents their perspective on these programs, discusses the barriers to achieving patient engagement, and suggests practical strategies for overcoming these barriers. With an understanding of the issues that influence patient engagement in MS, we can start to investigate ways to enhance engagement and subsequent health outcomes. Engaging patients involves a broad, multidisciplinary approach.

  14. 21st-Century Sea Level Rise, Economic Growth, and Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers of California

    Loaiciga, H. A.; Pingel, T.


    21st-century sea-level rise predictions for California's coastal waters range from 0.10 m to 0.80 m. In coastal semiarid aquifers of California with low topographic relief and heavy groundwater pumping this might lead to pervasive landward migration of seawater plumes. In other coastal aquifers with pronounced seaward hydraulic gradient, the effect of sea-level rise might not be as pronounced. This paper implements a variable- fluid-density, 3-D, finite element numerical flow and transport model to assess the evolution of coastal aquifer salinity during the 21st century due to sea level rise by ice melting and oceanic thermal expansion, and by extraction driven by economic and population growth in semiarid coastal regions of California. The paper focuses on contrasting two different hydrogeologic settings in two heavily mined coastal aquifer with a state- of-the-art numerical simulation model.

  15. Mexico and the 21st Century Power Partnership: Paving the Way to a Greener, Smarter, More Flexible Grid

    None, None


    The 21st Century Power Partnership's program in Mexico (21CPP Mexico) is one initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial carried out in cooperation with government and local stakeholders, drawing upon an international community of power system expertise.The overall goal of this program is to support Mexico's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon system.

  16. Rizal’s Legacy for the 21st Century: Progressive Education, Social Entrepreneurship and Community Development in Dapitan


    Rizal’s four years in Dapitan have not been fully explored for the light they can shed on contemporary issues in community development and education. In particular, the significance of the school he founded in Talisay has not merited scholarly commentary. Those fruitful four years in Dapitan have become Rizal’s most unappreciated legacy, yet they are precisely what make Rizal singularly relevant to the 21st century. This essay explains why.

  17. A reflection upon the «new» rights. prospects and challenges in the 21st Century

    Gabriela Fauth


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the paradigm shift that comes from thetransition from Modernity to postmodernity process and the challenges faced today in the legal field. Furthermore, the aim is to reflect upon the so-called«new» rights, focusing on the environmental law and urban planning law, considered the precursors of this postmodern perspective on the law. Finally, it presents its challenges and prospects for the 21st Century.

  18. Climate Change Projections for the 21st Century by the NCC/IAP T63 Model with SRES Scenarios

    XU Ying; ZHAO Zongci; LUO Yong; GAO Xuejie


    The projections of climate change in the globe and East Asia by the NCC/IAP T63 model with the SRES A2 and A1B scenarios have been investigated in this paper. The results pointed out a global warming of 3.6℃/100 yr and 2.5℃/100 yr for A2 and A1B during the 21st century, respectively. The warming in high and middle latitudes will be more obvious than that in low latitudes, especially in the winter hemisphere.The warming of 5.1℃/100 yr for A2 and 3.6℃/100 yr for A1B over East Asia in the 21st century will be much higher than that in the globe. The global mean precipitation will increase by about 4.3%/100 yr for A2 and 3.4%/100 yr for A1B in the 21st century, respectively. The precipitation will increase in most parts of the low and high latitudes and decrease in some regions of the subtropical latitudes. The linear trends of the annual mean precipitation anomalies over East Asia will be 9.8%/100 yr for A2 and 5.2%/100 yr for A1B, respectively. The drier situations will occur over the northwestern and southeastern parts of East Asia.The changes of the annual mean temperature and precipitation in the globe for the 21st century by the NCC/IAP T63 model with SRES A2 and A1B scenarios are in agreement with a number of the model projections.

  19. Careers and retention of staff in the 21st century world of work: Introduction to the special edition

    Melinde Coetzee


    Full Text Available How to cite this article: Coetzee, M., & Gunz, H. (2012. Careers and retention of staff in the 21st century world of work: Introduction to the special edition. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 10(2, Art. #505, 4 pages. sajhrm.v10i2.505

  20. Rizal’s Legacy for the 21st Century: Progressive Education, Social Entrepreneurship and Community Development in Dapitan

    Floro Quibuyen


    Full Text Available Rizal’s four years in Dapitan have not been fully explored for the light they can shed on contemporary issues in community development and education. In particular, the significance of the school he founded in Talisay has not merited scholarly commentary. Those fruitful four years in Dapitan have become Rizal’s most unappreciated legacy, yet they are precisely what make Rizal singularly relevant to the 21st century. This essay explains why.