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Sample records for 219b promotes growth

  1. The beneficial endophyte Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b promotes growth and delays the onset of the drought response in Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hanhong; Sicher, Richard C; Kim, Moon S; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Strem, Mary D; Melnick, Rachel L; Bailey, Bryan A

    2009-01-01

    Theobroma cacao (cacao) is cultivated in tropical climates and is exposed to drought stress. The impact of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma hamatum isolate DIS 219b on cacao's response to drought was studied. Colonization by DIS 219b delayed drought-induced changes in stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, and green fluorescence emissions. The altered expression of 19 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (seven in leaves and 17 in roots with some overlap) by drought was detected using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. Roots tended to respond earlier to drought than leaves, with the drought-induced changes in expression of seven ESTs being observed after 7 d of withholding water. Changes in gene expression in leaves were not observed until after 10 d of withholding water. DIS 219b colonization delayed the drought-altered expression of all seven ESTs responsive to drought in leaves by > or = 3 d, but had less influence on the expression pattern of the drought-responsive ESTs in roots. DIS 219b colonization had minimal direct influence on the expression of drought-responsive ESTs in 32-d-old seedlings. By contrast, DIS 219b colonization of 9-d-old seedlings altered expression of drought-responsive ESTs, sometimes in patterns opposite of that observed in response to drought. Drought induced an increase in the concentration of many amino acids in cacao leaves, while DIS 219b colonization caused a decrease in aspartic acid and glutamic acid concentrations and an increase in alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations. With or without exposure to drought conditions, colonization by DIS 219b promoted seedling growth, the most consistent effects being an increase in root fresh weight, root dry weight, and root water content. Colonized seedlings were slower to wilt in response to drought as measured by a decrease in the leaf angle drop. The primary direct effect of DIS 219b colonization was promotion of root growth, regardless of water status, and an

  2. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2-19b light curve (Armstrong+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, D. J.; Santerne, A.; Veras, D.; Barros, S. C. C.; Demangeon, O.; Lillo-Box, J.; McCormac, J.; Osborn, H. P.; Tsantaki, M.; Almenara, J.-M.; Barrado, D.; Boisse, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Brown, D. J. A.; Bruno, G.; Rey Cerda, J.; Courcol, B.; Deleuil, M.; Diaz, R. F.; Doyle, A. P.; Hebrard, G.; Kirk, J.; Lam, K. W. F.; Pollacco, D. L.; Rajpurohit, A.; Spake, J.; Walker, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    The Near Infrared Transiting ExoplanetS (NITES) Telescope is a semi-robotic 0.4m (f/10) Meade LX200GPS Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope installed at the ORM, La Palma. One transit of K2-19b was observed on 2015 Feb 28. The telescope was defocused slightly to 3.3 FWHM and 814 images of 20s exposure time were obtained with 5s dead time between each. Observations were obtained without a filter. The table presents data taken with the NITES telescope shown in Figure 1 of the publication. (1 data file).

  4. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes.

  5. Mass determination of K2-19b and K2-19c from radial velocities and transit timing variations

    CERN Document Server

    Nespral, D; Deeg, H J; Borsato, L; Fridlund, M C V; Barragan, O; Grziwa, S; Korth, J; Cabrera, J; Csizmadia, Sz; Nowak, G; Kuutma, T; Saario, J; Eigmuller, P; Erikson, A; Guenther, E W; Hatzes, A P; Rodriguez, P Montanes; Palle, E; Patzold, M; Prieto-Arranz, J; Rauer, H; Sebastian, D

    2016-01-01

    We present FIES@NOT and HARPS-N@TNG radial velocity follow-up observations of K2-19, a compact planetary system hosting three planets, of which the two larger ones, namely K2-19b and K2-19c, are close to the 3:2 mean motion resonance. The masses of these larger planets have previously been derived from transit timing only. An analysis considering only the radial velocity measurements is able to detect only K2-19b, the largest and more massive planet in the system, with a mass of $71.7\\pm6.3$ M${_\\oplus}$. We also used the TRADES code to simultaneously model both our RV measurements and the existing transit-timing measurements. We derived a mass of K2-19b of $59.5^{+7.2}_{-11.4}$ M${_\\oplus}$ and of K2-19c of $9.7^{+3.9}_{-2.0}$ M${_\\oplus}$. A prior K2-19b mass estimated by Barros 2015, based exclusively on transit timing measurements, is only consistent with our combined TTV and RV analysis, but not with our analysis based purely on RV measurements. K2-19b supports the suspicion that planet masses and densit...

  6. Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Yeon-Sik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L. A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900 through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting

  7. The Key to Promoting Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The low contribution of consumption to economic growth has become a source of anxiety for Chinese economic officials. With a sharp decline in exports as a result of the international financial crisis, the Chinese Government hopes that consumption will become a new engine of economic growth. The aim of promoting domestic demand is very clear in the 4-trillion-yuan ($586-billion) economic stimulus package the government approved last fall. How should we assess the present situation of consumption in China and its future course? At the Global Think Tank Summit held in Beijing on July 4, Ma Jiantang, Commissioner of the National Bureau of Statistics, Wang Guangqian, President of the Central University of Finance and Economics, and Yuan Yue, Chairman of the Board of Horizon Research Consultancy Group, shared their opinions.

  8. Biosensor for organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Sun, Samio; Li, Chen-Zhong; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rosen, Barry P

    2014-01-21

    The toxic metalloid arsenic is widely distributed in food, water, and soil. While inorganic arsenic enters the environment primarily from geochemical sources, methylarsenicals either result from microbial biotransformation of inorganic arsenic or are introduced anthropogenically. Methylarsenicals such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA) have been extensively utilized as herbicides, and aromatic arsenicals such as roxarsone (Rox) are used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. Organoarsenicals are degraded to inorganic arsenic. The toxicological effects of arsenicals depend on their oxidation state, chemical composition, and bioavailability. Here we report that the active forms are the trivalent arsenic-containing species. We constructed a whole-cell biosensor utilizing a modified ArsR repressor that is highly selective toward trivalent methyl and aromatic arsenicals, with essentially no response to inorganic arsenic. The biosensor was adapted for in vitro detection of organoarsenicals using fluorescence anisotropy of ArsR-DNA interactions. It detects bacterial biomethylation of inorganic arsenite both in vivo and in vitro with detection limits of 10(-7) M and linearity to 10(-6) M for phenylarsenite and 5 × 10(-6) M for methylarsenite. The biosensor detects reduced forms of MSMA and roxarsone and offers a practical, low cost method for detecting activate forms and breakdown products of organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters.

  9. Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Non-pathogenic soilborne microorganisms can promote plant growth, as well as suppress diseases. Plant growth promotion is taken to result from improved nutrient acquisition or hormonal stimulation. Disease suppression can occur through microbial antagonism or induction of resistance in the plant. Se

  10. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  11. Health council report 'Antimicrobial growth promoters'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goettsch, W; Degener, JE

    1999-01-01

    The Health Council of the Netherlands has issued a report on the risk of development of resistance among bacteria as result of the use of antibiotics as growth promotors in livestock farming. The committee appointed by the Health Council conclude that the use of antimicrobial growth promotors contri

  12. Does tax competition really promote growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Lockwood, Ben

    2010-01-01

    setting (two or more jurisdictions) maximizes the rate of growth, as the constant returns to scale present with endogenous growth implies "extreme" tax competition. Stochastic shocks imply that households face a portfolio choice problem, which dampens down tax competition and may raise taxes above...

  13. Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria inhabiting around/on the root surface and are directly or indirectly involved in promoting plant growth and development via production and secretion of various regulatory chemicals in the vicinity of rhizosphere. Generally, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria facilitate the plant growth directly by either assisting in resource acquisition (nitrogen, phosphorus and essential minerals or modulating plant hormone levels, or indirectly by decreasing the inhibitory effects of various pathogens on plant growth and development in the forms of biocontrol agents. Various studies have documented the increased health and productivity of different plant species by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under both normal and stressed conditions. The plant-beneficial rhizobacteria may decrease the global dependence on hazardous agricultural chemicals which destabilize the agro-ecosystems. This review accentuates the perception of the rhizosphere and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria under the current perspectives. Further, explicit outlooks on the different mechanisms of rhizobacteria mediated plant growth promotion have been described in detail with the recent development and research. Finally, the latest paradigms of applicability of these beneficial rhizobacteria in different agro-ecosystems have been presented comprehensively under both normal and stress conditions to highlight the recent trends with the aim to develop future insights.

  14. Method of Promoting Single Crystal Growth During Melt Growth of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The method of the invention promotes single crystal growth during fabrication of melt growth semiconductors. A growth ampoule and its tip have a semiconductor source material placed therein. The growth ampoule is placed in a first thermal environment that raises the temperature of the semiconductor source material to its liquidus temperature. The growth ampoule is then transitioned to a second thermal environment that causes the semiconductor source material in the growth ampoule's tip to attain a temperature that is below the semiconductor source material's solidus temperature. The growth ampoule so-transitioned is then mechanically perturbed to induce single crystal growth at the growth ampoule's tip.

  15. Growth-related alterations during liver carcinogenesis: Effect of promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seglen, P.O.; Gerlyng, P. (Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

    1990-08-01

    Bromodeoxyuridine labeling of DNA, binuclearity counting, and flow cytometric analysis of isolated hepatocytes and hepatocyte nuclei has been used to assess heptocellular growth patterns related to liver carcinogenesis. Three growth patterns can be distinguished. Mononucleating growth is observed during liver regeneration and after treatment with the tumor promoter 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and its analogue 4-AAF. In this growth mode binucleation does not occur, resulting in a decrease in the fraction of binucleated cells. Binucleating growth is observed during normal liver development and after treatment with compounds such as phenobarbital, characterized by progressive polyploidization and maintenance of a binucleated cell fraction. Diploid growth is the growth pattern of neoplastic liver hepatocytes. Most of the cells in neoplastic lesions (foci, nodules, and carcinomas) are diploid, in contrast to the normal liver. Diploid tumor cells have a much higher proliferative activity than tetraploid tumor cells, suggesting that the latter may posses a limited growth potential that makes abrogation of binucleation proliferatively advantageous.

  16. Halotolerant Rhizobacteria Promote Growth and Enhance Salinity Tolerance in Peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kulkarni, Jayant; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Use of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a promising strategy to improve the crop production under optimal or sub-optimal conditions. In the present study, five diazotrophic salt tolerant bacteria were isolated from the roots of a halophyte, Arthrocnemum indicum. The isolates were partially characterized in vitro for plant growth promoting traits and evaluated for their potential to promote growth and enhanced salt tolerance in peanut. The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology indicated that these bacterial isolates belong to the genera, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium, and Ochrobactrum. All isolates were nifH positive and able to produce indole -3-acetic acid (ranging from 11.5 to 19.1 μg ml−1). The isolates showed phosphate solubilisation activity (ranging from 1.4 to 55.6 μg phosphate /mg dry weight), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (0.1 to 0.31 μmol α-kB/μg protein/h) and were capable of reducing acetylene in acetylene reduction assay (ranging from 0.95 to 1.8 μmol C2H4 mg protein/h). These isolates successfully colonized the peanut roots and were capable of promoting the growth under non-stress condition. A significant increase in total nitrogen (N) content (up to 76%) was observed over the non-inoculated control. All isolates showed tolerance to NaCl ranging from 4 to 8% in nutrient broth medium. Under salt stress, inoculated peanut seedlings maintained ion homeostasis, accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and showed enhanced growth compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Overall, the present study has characterized several potential bacterial strains that showed an enhanced growth promotion effect on peanut under control as well as saline conditions. The results show the possibility to reduce chemical fertilizer inputs and may promote the use of bio-inoculants. PMID:27790198

  17. Halotolerant rhizobacteria promote growth and enhance salinity tolerance in peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR is a promising strategy to improve the crop production under optimal or sub-optimal conditions. In the present study, five diazotrophic salt tolerant bacteria were isolated from the roots of a halophyte, Arthrocnemum indicum. The isolates were partially characterized in vitro for plant growth promoting traits and evaluated for their potential to promote growth and enhanced salt tolerance in peanut. The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology indicated that these bacterial isolates belong to the genera, Klebisiella, Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Ochrobactrum. All isolates were nifH positive and able to produce indole -3-acetic acid (ranging from 11.5 to 19.1 µg ml-1. The isolates showed phosphate solubilisation activity (ranging from 1.4 to 55.6 µg phosphate /mg dry weight, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (0.1 to 0.31 µmol α-kB/µg protein/h and were capable of reducing acetylene in acetylene reduction assay (ranging from 0.95 to 1.8 µmol C2H4 mg protein/h. These isolates successfully colonized the peanut roots and were capable of promoting the growth under non-stress condition. A significant increase in total nitrogen (N content (up to 76% was observed over the non-inoculated control. All isolates showed tolerance to NaCl ranging from 4-8% in nutrient broth medium. Under salt stress, inoculated peanut seedlings maintained ion homeostasis, accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS and showed enhanced growth compared to non-inoculated seedlings. Overall, the present study has characterized several potential bacterial strains that showed an enhanced growth promotion effect on peanut under control as well as saline conditions. The results show the possibility to reduce chemical fertilizer inputs and may promote the use of bio-inoculants.

  18. Overcoming the contradiction between promoting economic growth and transforming the economic growth pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张其仔; 郭朝先; 白玫

    2009-01-01

    Promoting economic growth has become the first and foremost objective of macro-control since China experienced a drastic economic downturn in the fourth quarter of 2008. Now China is at a special stage of transition characterized by the transformation of the economic growth mode. While promoting economic growth, the government must effectively coordinate the relationship between economic growth and the transformation of growth mode. This is not a task that can be done easily. To promote economic growth, the central government has selected a number of industries and formulated an industrial revitalization plan for each of these them. Revitalizing these industries helps promote economic growth at the present stage but propelling these industries alone still cannot fully meet the requirements for transforming the economic growth pattern. To coordinate the relationship between promoting economic growth and transforming the economic growth pattern, it is currently imperative to adjust China’s industrial upgrading strategy and to pay attention to intra-industrial upgrading, particularly process upgrading.

  19. Growth-promotion of plants with depolymerized alginates by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Tham, Le Xuan; Yoshii, Fumio; Dang, Vo Huy; Mitomo, Hiroshi; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-07-01

    Alginate has been degraded by gamma-ray irradiation from a Co-60 source in liquid state (aqueous solution) and in solid state (powder form). The irradiated alginate with a molecular weight less than 10 4 shows a strong effect on the growth-promotion of rice and peanut. Low concentration of degraded alginate from 4% solution irradiated at 100 kGy is effective for the growth-promotion of plants and the suitable concentrations are ca 50 ppm for rice and ca 100 ppm for peanut.

  20. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 μg/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion.

  1. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard R. Glick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide increases in both environmental damage and human population pressure have the unfortunate consequence that global food production may soon become insufficient to feed all of the world's people. It is therefore essential that agricultural productivity be significantly increased within the next few decades. To this end, agricultural practice is moving toward a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach. This includes both the increasing use of transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as a part of mainstream agricultural practice. Here, a number of the mechanisms utilized by plant growth-promoting bacteria are discussed and considered. It is envisioned that in the not too distant future, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB will begin to replace the use of chemicals in agriculture, horticulture, silviculture, and environmental cleanup strategies. While there may not be one simple strategy that can effectively promote the growth of all plants under all conditions, some of the strategies that are discussed already show great promise.

  2. Induced systemic resistance by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pelt, J.A. van; Verhagen, B.W.M.; Ton, J.; Wees, A.C.M. van; Léon-Kloosterziel, K.M.; Loon, L.C. van

    2003-01-01

    Rhizobacteria are present in large numbers on the root surface, where plant exudates and lysates provide nutrients. Selected strains of beneficial, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) trigger a plant-mediated induced systemic resistance (ISR) response that is effective against a broad spectr

  3. Promoting Moral Growth through Pluralism and Social Justice Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    Issues of morality, including deciding among competing values and negotiating obligations to self and community, are pervasive and saturate many aspects of life. This article explores the role of educating for pluralism and social justice in promoting moral growth among college students. James Rest's four-component model of moral maturity frames…

  4. Residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Two major trends are observed in the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents. First is the selection of sample material for monitoring the use of registered veterinary drugs. Traditionally meat, kidney and liver were analyzed but, due to the food scandals in which meat was very ofte

  5. Catecholamines promote Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Li

    Full Text Available Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM. We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn't play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC.

  6. Catecholamines promote Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Chen, Zhaohui; Bei, Weicheng; Su, Zhipeng; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Huanchun; Zhou, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Catecholamines are host stress hormones that can induce the growth of many bacteria by facilitating iron utilization and/or regulate the expression of virulence genes through specific hormone receptors. Whether these two responsive pathways are interconnected is unknown. In our previous study, it was found that catecholamines can regulate the expression of a great number of genes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine respiratory pathogen. However, bacterial growth was not affected by catecholamines in rich medium. In this study, it was discovered that catecholamines affected A. pleuropneumoniae growth in chemically defined medium (CDM). We found that serum inhibited A. pleuropneumoniae growth in CDM, while epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine promoted A. pleuropneumoniae growth in the CDM containing serum. The known bacterial hormone receptor QseC didn't play roles in this process. Ion-supplementation and transcriptome analysis indicated that serum addition resulted in iron-restricted conditions which were alleviated by the addition of catecholamines. Transferrin, one of the components in serum, inhibited the growth of A. pleuropneumoniae in CDM, an effect reversed by addition of catecholamines in a TonB2-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate that catecholamines promote A. pleuropneumoniae growth by regulating iron-acquisition and metabolism, which is independent of the adrenergic receptor QseC.

  7. Plant growth promoters and methods of using them

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-05

    New plant growth regulators, including compounds and compositions, and methods of use including for promoting root growth. The compounds are carotenoid oxidation products, and a preferred example is 3-OH--β-apo-13-Carotenone. A method comprising promoting the growth of at least one plant with use of an effective amount of at least one composition comprising an effective amount of at least one compound which is represented by A-B-C, wherein B is a bivalent polyene moiety, A is a monovalent moiety linked to B by a six-membered carbon ring, wherein the ring has at least one substituent linked to the ring by an oxygen atom, and C is a monovalent moiety linked to B by a carbonyl group. Synergistic effects can be used with combinations of compounds.

  8. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  9. Multiple effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens volatile compounds: plant growth promotion and growth inhibition of phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Shashidar; Matzén, Staffan; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan

    2016-06-01

    Biotic interactions through volatile organic compounds (VOC) are frequent in nature. This investigation aimed to study the role of ITALIC! BacillusVOC for the beneficial effects on plants observed as improved growth and pathogen control. Four ITALIC! Bacillus amyloliquefacienssubsp. ITALIC! plantarumstrains were screened for VOC effects on ITALIC! Arabidopsis thalianaCol-0 seedlings and ITALIC! Brassicafungal phytopathogens. VOC from all four ITALIC! Bacillusstrains could promote growth of ITALIC! Arabidopsisplants resulting in increased shoot biomass but the effects were dependent on the growth medium. Dose response studies with UCMB5113 on MS agar with or without root exudates showed significant plant growth promotion even at low levels of bacteria. ITALIC! BacillusVOC antagonized growth of several fungal pathogens ITALIC! in vitro However, the plant growth promotion efficacy and fungal inhibition potency varied among the ITALIC! Bacillusstrains. VOC inhibition of several phytopathogens indicated efficient microbial antagonism supporting high rhizosphere competence of the ITALIC! Bacillusstrains. GC-MS analysis identified several VOC structures where the profiles differed depending on the growth medium. The ability of ITALIC! Bacillusstrains to produce both volatile and soluble compounds for plant growth promotion and disease biocontrol provides examples of rhizosphere microbes as an important ecosystem service with high potential to support sustainable crop production.

  10. Plant Growth Promotion Induced by Phosphate Solubilizing Endophytic Pseudomonas Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eOtieno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilisers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilisation is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilise the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilisation. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacterial isolates to produce gluconic acid, solubilise insoluble phosphate and stimulate the growth of Pea plants (Pisum sativum. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte isolates thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilising abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic isolates produced gluconic acid (14-169 mM and have moderate to high phosphate solubilisation capacities (~ 400-1300 mg L-1. When inoculated to Pea plants grown in sand/soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophyte isolates that produced medium to high levels of gluconic acid also displayed enhanced plant growth promotion effects.

  11. Plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2013-12-01

    Present study deals with the isolation of rhizobacteria and selection of plant growth promoting bacteria from Crocus sativus (Saffron) rhizosphere during its flowering period (October-November). Bacterial load was compared between rhizosphere and bulk soil by counting CFU/gm of roots and soil respectively, and was found to be ~40 times more in rhizosphere. In total 100 bacterial isolates were selected randomly from rhizosphere and bulk soil (50 each) and screened for in-vitro and in vivo plant growth promoting properties. The randomly isolated bacteria were identified by microscopy, biochemical tests and sequence homology of V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA gene. Polyphasic identification categorized Saffron rhizobacteria and bulk soil bacteria into sixteen different bacterial species with Bacillus aryabhattai (WRF5-rhizosphere; WBF3, WBF4A and WBF4B-bulk soil) common to both rhizosphere as well as bulk soil. Pseudomonas sp. in rhizosphere and Bacillus and Brevibacterium sp. in the bulk soil were the predominant genera respectively. The isolated rhizobacteria were screened for plant growth promotion activity like phosphate solubilization, siderophore and indole acetic acid production. 50 % produced siderophore and 33 % were able to solubilize phosphate whereas all the rhizobacterial isolates produced indole acetic acid. The six potential PGPR showing in vitro activities were used in pot trial to check their efficacy in vivo. These bacteria consortia demonstrated in vivo PGP activity and can be used as PGPR in Saffron as biofertilizers.This is the first report on the isolation of rhizobacteria from the Saffron rhizosphere, screening for plant growth promoting bacteria and their effect on the growth of Saffron plant.

  12. [Influence endophytic bacteria to promote plants growth in stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napora, Anna; Kacprzak, Małgorzata; Nowak, Kamil; Grobelak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The growth of plants under stress conditions is often assisted by microorganisms colonizing the rhizosphere (the root zone of the highest microbial activity). One of the most important bacterial groups to encourage the growth of plants (PGPB) are endophytes. These microorganisms penetrate living cells of plants and there they lead the microbiological activity as endosymbionts. These microorganisms can effectively promote the growth of plants under stress conditions and stimulate biochemical activities: nitrogen fixation, production of growth hormones (auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins), reduction of the high concentration of ethylene as well as facilitation of the collection plant minerals and water. This paper is an attempt to summarize the current state of knowledge about the biochemical activity of bacterial endophytes.

  13. Auxins as one of the factors of plant growth improvement by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ambreen; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) promote plant growth by various mechanisms such as phytohormone production, enhanced water and nutrient uptake, improved nitrogen availability in the soil, production of ACC-deaminase for ethylene breakdown, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production etc. Microbial auxin production is the major factor not only responsible for strengthening the plant-microbe relationship but it also promotes plant growth and development in a positive manner. Thus, bacterial auxin production potential can be exploited for plant growth improvement that may be effective in reducing the hazardous effects of chemical fertilizers on the ecosystem used to obtain higher yields. The present review gives a better understanding of various factors and mechanisms involved in auxin production by PGPR that may be helpful in proper exploitation of these natural resources in a beneficial way.

  14. Pochonia chlamydosporia promotes the growth of tomato and lettuce plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia is one of the most studied biological agents used to control plant-parasitic nematodes. This study found that the isolates Pc-3, Pc-10 and Pc-19 of this fungus promote the growth of tomato and lettuce seedlings. The isolate Pc-19 colonized the rhizoplane of tomato seedlings in only 15 days and produced a large quantity of chlamydospores. This isolate was able to use cellulose as a carbon source, in addition to glucose and sucrose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed that hyphae of the P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 penetrated the epidermal cells of the tomato roots. These three P. chlamydosporia isolates promote the growth of tomato and lettuce.

  15. A biosensor for organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The toxic metalloid arsenic is widely distributed in food, water, and soil. While inorganic arsenic enters the environment primarily from geochemical sources, methylarsenicals either result from microbial biotransformation of inorganic arsenic or are introduced anthropogenically. Methylarsenicals such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA) have been extensively utilized as herbicides, and aromatic arsenicals such as roxarsone (Rox) are used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. Organoar...

  16. Neuronal Activity Promotes Glioma Growth through Neuroligin-3 Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Humsa S; Johung, Tessa B; Caretti, Viola; Noll, Alyssa; Tang, Yujie; Nagaraja, Surya; Gibson, Erin M; Mount, Christopher W; Polepalli, Jai; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Woo, Pamelyn J; Malenka, Robert C; Vogel, Hannes; Bredel, Markus; Mallick, Parag; Monje, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Active neurons exert a mitogenic effect on normal neural precursor and oligodendroglial precursor cells, the putative cellular origins of high-grade glioma (HGG). By using optogenetic control of cortical neuronal activity in a patient-derived pediatric glioblastoma xenograft model, we demonstrate that active neurons similarly promote HGG proliferation and growth in vivo. Conditioned medium from optogenetically stimulated cortical slices promoted proliferation of pediatric and adult patient-derived HGG cultures, indicating secretion of activity-regulated mitogen(s). The synaptic protein neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) was identified as the leading candidate mitogen, and soluble NLGN3 was sufficient and necessary to promote robust HGG cell proliferation. NLGN3 induced PI3K-mTOR pathway activity and feedforward expression of NLGN3 in glioma cells. NLGN3 expression levels in human HGG negatively correlated with patient overall survival. These findings indicate the important role of active neurons in the brain tumor microenvironment and identify secreted NLGN3 as an unexpected mechanism promoting neuronal activity-regulated cancer growth.

  17. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan eVacheron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The rhizosphere supports the development and activity of a huge and diversified microbial community, including microorganisms capable to promote plant growth. Among the latter, Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR colonize roots of monocots and dicots, and enhance plant growth by direct and indirect mechanisms. Modification of root system architecture by PGPR implicates the production of phytohormones and other signals that lead, mostly, to enhanced lateral root branching and development of root hairs. PGPR also modify root functioning, improve plant nutrition and influence the physiology of the whole plant. Recent results provided first clues as to how PGPR signals could trigger these plant responses. Whether local and/or systemic, the plant molecular pathways involved remain often unknown. From an ecological point of view, it emerged that PGPR form coherent functional groups, whose rhizosphere ecology is influenced by a myriad of abiotic and biotic factors in natural and agricultural soils, and these factors can in turn modulate PGPR effects on roots. In this paper, we address novel knowledge and gaps on PGPR modes of action and signals, and highlight recent progress on the links between plant morphological and physiological effects induced by PGPR. We also show the importance of taking into account the size, diversity and gene expression patterns of PGPR assemblages in the rhizosphere to better understand their impact on plant growth and functioning. Integrating mechanistic and ecological knowledge on PGPR populations in soil will be a prerequisite to develop novel management strategies for sustainable agriculture.

  18. EFFICIENCY OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR IN SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Morgado González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are an alternative for promoting sugarcane (Saccharum spp. development. Growth promotion was evaluated in sugarcane vitroplants inoculated separately with twenty-four strains of seven different bacterial species. Total indole synthesis and phosphate solubilization activity were determined in each strain. The experimental unit was one 5 L pot filled with a sterile mixture of farm soil-agrolite and one plant. The experimental design was completely random. Inoculation consisted of 1.0 mL of bacterial suspension (1 × 107 CFU. Plant height, stem diameter, number of shoots, leaf area and dry matter of shoot and root were determined every two weeks. The Ochrobactrum anthropi strains N208 and IMP311 and Pseudomonas luteola IMPCA244 had the highest production of total indoles (116.69, 115.70 and 117.34 µg mL-1, respectively. The Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains CA158 and 79 exhibited the highest values of phosphate solubilization (222.43 and 216.38 µg mL-1, respectively. In general, plant height increased 27.75%, stem diameter 30.75%, number of tillers 38.5%, leaf area 49%, aerial dry matter 59.75% and root dry matter 59.5%. P. luteola, P. f luorescens, O. anthropi and S. maltophilia exhibited the highest values of the leaf area index, net assimilation, and relative and absolute growth rates. P. luteola IMPCA244, O. anthropi IMP311, Aeromonas salmonicida N264, Burkholderia cepacia N172, P. f luorescens N50 and S. maltophilia 79 promoted the highest values in different response variables throughout the study. Before using these strains as sugarcane biofertilizer, additional studies are required.

  19. Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium produces gibberellins and promotes plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Sumera Afzal; Iqbal, Ilyas; Na, Chae-In; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hwang, Young-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, In-Jung

    2009-08-01

    We isolated 10 endophytic fungi from the roots of drought stressed soybean cultivar Hwangkeumkong and bioassayed on waito-c rice and soybean seedlings, in order to identify plant growth-promoting fungi. The fungal isolate D-2-1 provided the best result for plant height and biomass promotion as compared to wild type Gibberella fujikuroi. The D-2-1 culture filtrate (CF) was analyzed for the presence of gibberellins (GAs) and it was observed that all physiologically active GAs, especially gibberellic acid, were present in higher amounts (GA1, 0.24 ng/ml; GA3, 8.99 ng/ml; GA4, 2.58 ng/ml and GA7, 1.39 ng/ml) in conjunction with physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA15, GA19, and GA24. The fungal isolate D-2-1 was identified as a new strain of Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Plant growth promotion and GAs production capacity of genus Chrysosporium have been reported for the first time in this study.

  20. HDM2 promotes WIP1-mediated medulloblastoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Meghan C; Read, Tracy-Ann; Schniederjan, Matthew J; Gandhi, Khanjan; Castellino, Robert C

    2012-04-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant childhood brain tumor. The protein phosphatase and oncogene WIP1 is over-expressed or amplified in a significant number of primary human medulloblastomas and cell lines. In the present study, we examine an important mechanism by which WIP1 promotes medulloblastoma growth using in vitro and in vivo models. Human cell lines and intracerebellar xenografted animal models were used to study the role of WIP1 and the major TP53 regulator, HDM2, in medulloblastoma growth. Stable expression of WIP1 enhances growth of TP53 wild-type medulloblastoma cells, compared with cells with stable expression of an empty-vector or mutant WIP1. In an animal model, WIP1 enhances proliferation and reduces the survival of immunodeficient mice bearing intracerebellar xenografted human medulloblastoma cells. Cells with increased WIP1 expression also exhibit increased expression of HDM2. HDM2 knockdown or treatment with the HDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a, the active enantomer of Nutlin-3, specifically inhibits the growth of medulloblastoma cells with increased WIP1 expression. Nutlin-3a does not affect growth of medulloblastoma cells with stable expression of an empty vector or of mutant WIP1. Knockdown of WIP1 or treatment with the WIP1 inhibitor CCT007093 results in increased phosphorylation of known WIP1 targets, reduced HDM2 expression, and reduced growth specifically in WIP1 wild-type and high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. Combined WIP1 and HDM2 inhibition is more effective than WIP1 inhibition alone in blocking growth of WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. Our preclinical study supports a role for therapies that target WIP1 and HDM2 in the treatment of medulloblastoma.

  1. Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2011-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth. Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in organic form. Phytic acid as phytate (salts of phytic acid) is the major form of organic phosphorus in soil and it is not readily available to plants as a source of phosphorus because it either forms a complex with cations or adsorbs to various soil components. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms are ubiquitous in soils and could play an important role in supplying P to plants. Microorganisms utilizing phytate are found in cultivated soils as well as in wetland, grassland and forest soils. Various fungi and bacteria (including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) hydrolyze this organic form of phosphorus secreting phosphatases such as phytases and acidic/alkaline phosphatases. A large number of transgenic plants have been developed which were able to utilize sodium phytate as sole source of phosphorus. However, the recombinant phytases were similar to their wild type counterparts in terms of their properties. Increased phytase/phosphatase activity in transgenic plants may be an effective approach to promote their phytate-phosphorus utilization. The extracellular phytase activity of transgenic plant roots is a significant factor in the utilization of phosphorus from phytate. Furthermore, this indicated that an opportunity exists for using gene technology to improve the ability of plants to utilize accumulated forms of soil organic phosphorus. This review is focused on the role of phytases and phytase producing microbes in promoting the growth of different plants.

  2. Effect of fenbendazole on growth promotion in Mecheri lambs

    OpenAIRE

    V. Ranganathan; S. Vasanthakumar; Muralidharan, J.; K. Karunanithi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the study was to find out the effect of fenbendazole on the growth promotion in stunted mecheri lambs. Materials and methods: The study was conducted with three groups of ten mecheri lambs each. Group I served as untreated control and group II and III were treated with fenbendazole @ 5 mg/kg body weight and 7.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All the lambs were subjected to haemato-biochemical observations, body weight recording and collection of faeces for egg counting...

  3. Embryonic morphogen nodal promotes breast cancer growth and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela F Quail

    Full Text Available Breast cancers expressing human embryonic stem cell (hESC-associated genes are more likely to progress than well-differentiated cancers and are thus associated with poor patient prognosis. Elevated proliferation and evasion of growth control are similarly associated with disease progression, and are classical hallmarks of cancer. In the current study we demonstrate that the hESC-associated factor Nodal promotes breast cancer growth. Specifically, we show that Nodal is elevated in aggressive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and Hs578t human breast cancer cell lines, compared to poorly aggressive MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines. Nodal knockdown in aggressive breast cancer cells via shRNA reduces tumour incidence and significantly blunts tumour growth at primary sites. In vitro, using Trypan Blue exclusion assays, Western blot analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 and cleaved caspase-9, and real time RT-PCR analysis of BAX and BCL2 gene expression, we demonstrate that Nodal promotes expansion of breast cancer cells, likely via a combinatorial mechanism involving increased proliferation and decreased apopotosis. In an experimental model of metastasis using beta-glucuronidase (GUSB-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPSVII mice, we show that although Nodal is not required for the formation of small (<100 cells micrometastases at secondary sites, it supports an elevated proliferation:apoptosis ratio (Ki67:TUNEL in micrometastatic lesions. Indeed, at longer time points (8 weeks, we determined that Nodal is necessary for the subsequent development of macrometastatic lesions. Our findings demonstrate that Nodal supports tumour growth at primary and secondary sites by increasing the ratio of proliferation:apoptosis in breast cancer cells. As Nodal expression is relatively limited to embryonic systems and cancer, this study establishes Nodal as a potential tumour-specific target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  4. Growth Promotion of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. by Salt-Tolerant Plant Growth Promotion Rhizobacteria under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabborova D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the most serious factors limiting the productivity of agriculture. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria (PGPR which produce phytohormones is one of the options to mitigate salt stress in plants and improve their growth and improvement under saline conditions. We study the effect of salt-tolerant P.putidaNUU8strain on plant growth of Glycyrrhizaglabra L. under saline soils. The treatment inoculation of P. putidaNUU8strainstatistically significantly increased roots and shoots length plant–1 over the control under a pot experiment. The results showed that inoculation of Glycyrrhizaglabra with of salt-tolerant P.putidaNUU8can enhance salt tolerance and plant growth under soil saline conditions. In our previous study we reported that the salinity did not inhibit the IAA production by strain. Strain P. putidaNUU8appeared to produce IAA in media contained NaCl up to 9 % and it was able to growth at high salt condition.Salt-stressed Glycyrrhizaglabra inoculated with the P. putidaNUU8sharply increased than uninoculated plants. Inoculation of P. putidaNUU8 strain significantly improved the root length 56% and shoots lenth 49% of Glycyrrhizaglabracompared with uninoculated control.

  5. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Soon; Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-09-01

    Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  6. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Soon Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.

  7. Endocrine fibroblast growth factor FGF19 promotes prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu; Dakhova, Olga; Creighton, Chad J; Ittmann, Michael

    2013-04-15

    Prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. There is broad evidence that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are important in prostate cancer initiation and progression, but the contribution of particular FGFs in this disease is not fully understood. The FGF family members FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 comprise a distinct subfamily that circulate in serum and act in an endocrine manner. These endocrine FGFs require α-Klotho (KL) and/or β-Klotho (KLB), two related single-pass transmembrane proteins restricted in their tissue distribution, to act as coreceptors along with classic FGF receptors (FGFR) to mediate potent biologic activity. Here we show that FGF19 is expressed in primary and metastatic prostate cancer tissues, where it functions as an autocrine growth factor. Exogenous FGF19 promoted the growth, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation of prostate cancer cells at low ligand concentrations. FGF19 silencing in prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine FGF19 decreased invasion and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Consistent with these observations, KL and/or KLB were expressed in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility that additional endocrine FGFs may also exert biologic effects in prostate cancer. Our findings support the concept that therapies targeting FGFR signaling may have efficacy in prostate cancer and highlight FGF19 as a relevant endocrine FGF in this setting.

  8. Promotion of protein crystal growth by actively switching crystal growth mode via femtosecond laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Yusuke; Maruyama, Mihoko; Yoshimura, Masashi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Tachibana, Masaru; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Adachi, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Mori, Yusuke

    2016-11-01

    Large single crystals with desirable shapes are essential for various scientific and industrial fields, such as X-ray/neutron crystallography and crystalline devices. However, in the case of proteins the production of such crystals is particularly challenging, despite the efforts devoted to optimization of the environmental, chemical and physical parameters. Here we report an innovative approach for promoting the growth of protein crystals by directly modifying the local crystal structure via femtosecond laser ablation. We demonstrate that protein crystals with surfaces that are locally etched (several micrometers in diameter) by femtosecond laser ablation show enhanced growth rates without losing crystal quality. Optical phase-sensitive microscopy and X-ray topography imaging techniques reveal that the local etching induces spiral growth, which is energetically advantageous compared with the spontaneous two-dimensional nucleation growth mode. These findings prove that femtosecond laser ablation can actively switch the crystal growth mode, offering flexible control over the size and shape of protein crystals.

  9. Growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, R.; Tam, L. T.; Anh, H. T. L.; Quynh, H. T. H.; Thom, L. T.; Nhat, P. V.; Thu, N. T. H.; Hong, D. D.; Wakisaka, M.

    2016-04-01

    A growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis M135 was investigated. The growth promotion effect was obtained that was 1.27 times greater than that obtained by the control by adding 500 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag and culturing for 60 days. The lipid content decreased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag, whereas the carbohydrate content remained constant. The protein content of S. platensis M135 increased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag when cultured at day 45. The superoxide dismutase activity of S. platensis M135 exhibited a decreasing trend in a time-dependent manner and an increasing trend in the control. The superoxide dismutase activity was lower than that of the control at day 1 but was higher at day 30. No genetic damage was observed up to 500 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag at 30 days of culture. Recovery from genetic damage was observed at 1,000 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag but not at higher concentrations.

  10. A biosensor for organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Sun, Samio; Li, Chen-Zhong; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic metalloid arsenic is widely distributed in food, water, and soil. While inorganic arsenic enters the environment primarily from geochemical sources, methylarsenicals either result from microbial biotransformation of inorganic arsenic or are introduced anthropogenically. Methylarsenicals such as monosodium methylarsonic acid (MSMA) have been extensively utilized as herbicides, and aromatic arsenicals such as roxarsone (Rox) are used as growth promoters for poultry and swine. Organoarsenicals are degraded to inorganic arsenic. The toxicological effects of arsenicals depend on their oxidation state, chemical composition, and bioavailability. Here we report that the active forms are the trivalent arsenic-containing species. We constructed a whole-cell biosensor utilizing a modified ArsR repressor that is highly selective toward trivalent methyl and aromatic arsenicals, with essentially no response to inorganic arsenic. The biosensor was adapted for in vitro detection of organoarsenicals using fluorescence anisotropy of ArsR-DNA interactions. It detects bacterial biomethylation of inorganic arsenite both in vivo and in vitro with detection limits of 10−7 M and linearity to 10−6 M for phenylarsenite and 5×10−6 M for methylarsenite. The biosensor detects reduced forms of MSMA and roxarsone and offers a practical, low cost method for detecting activate forms and breakdown products of organoarsenical herbicides and growth promoters. PMID:24359149

  11. Bukholderia strains promote Mimosa spp. growth but not Macroptilium atropurpureum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliane Sírio Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship and symbiotic efficiency of 14 strains of Burkholderia isolated from rupestrian grasslands, using M. atropurpureum and Mimosa tenuiflora as trap plants, with the species M. atropurpureum, Mimosa bimucronata and M. foliolosa. For the nodulation and symbiotic efficiency test in M. atropurpureum, long-neck bottles containing nutrient solution were used. The experiments with Mimosa spp. were carried out in tubes containing vermiculite (160 cm3 and sand (80 cm3 (2:1. The parameters under evaluation were number of nodules, nodules dry matter production, shoots dry matter, roots dry matter, and total dry matter production for all the species analyzed; and plant height, diameter, and the Dickson quality index for Mimosa species. Of the 14 tested strains, two nodulated M. atropurpureum; however, they were ineffective in promoting plant growth. All the tested strains established symbiosis with M. bimucronata, and 12 strains nodulated M. foliolosa. Of these, six promoted growth in M. bimucronata, and seven presented symbiotic efficiency in M. foliolosa. The strains UFLA 01-739, UFLA 01-748 and UFLA 01-751, isolated from M. tenuiflora, and UFLA 04-260 and UFLA 04-405, isolated from M. atropurpureum, stood out as potential inoculants for the Mimosa species evaluated in this study.

  12. Isolation and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from wheat rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion

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    M. Kaleem eABBASI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study was conducted to characterize the native plant growth promoting bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and root-endosphere in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK, Pakistan. Nine bacterial isolates were purified, screened in vitro for plant growth promoting (PGP characteristics and evaluated for their beneficial effects on the early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Among nine bacterial isolates, seven were able to produce indole-3- acetic acid in tryptophan-supplemented medium; seven were nitrogen fixer, and four were able to solubilize inorganic phosphate in vitro. Four different morphotypes were genotypically identified based on IGS-RFLP fingerprinting and representative of each morphotype was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis except Gram positive putative Bacillus sp. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, bacterial isolates AJK–3 and AJK-9 showing multiple PGP-traits were identified as Stenotrophomonas spp. while AJK-7 showed equal homologies to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Stenotrophomonas specie. Plant inoculation studies indicated that these PGPR strains provided a significant increase in shoot and root length, and shoot and root biomass. A significant increase in shoot N contents (up to 76% and root N contents (up to 32% was observed over the un-inoculated control. The study indicates the potential of these PGPR for inoculums production or biofertilizers for enhancing growth and nutrient content of wheat and other crops under field conditions. The study is the first report of wheat associated bacterial diversity in the Himalayan region of Rawalakot, AJK.

  13. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A; Cerise, Jane E; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M

    2015-10-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway results in rapid onset of anagen and subsequent hair growth. We show that JAK inhibition regulates the activation of key hair follicle populations such as the hair germ and improves the inductivity of cultured human dermal papilla cells by controlling a molecular signature enriched in intact, fully inductive dermal papillae. Our findings open new avenues for exploration of JAK-STAT inhibition for promotion of hair growth and highlight the role of this pathway in regulating the activation of hair follicle stem cells.

  14. Bacterial strains from floodplain soils perform different plant-growth promoting processes and enhance cowpea growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Martins da Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Certain nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes and other nodule endophytes perform different plant-growth promoting processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate 26 bacterial strains isolated from cowpea nodules grown in floodplain soils in the Brazilian savannas, regarding performance of plant-growth promoting processes and ability to enhance cowpea growth. We also identified these strains by 16S rRNA sequencing. The following processes were evaluated: free-living biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, solubilization of calcium, aluminum and iron phosphates and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. The abilities to nodulate and promote cowpea growth were evaluated in Leonard jars. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified 60 % of the strains as belonging to genus Paenibacillus. The following four genera were also identified: Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas. None of the strains fixed N2 free-living. Among the strains, 80 % solubilized Ca phosphate and one solubilized Al phosphate and none solubilized Fe phosphate. The highest IAA concentrations (52.37, 51.52 and 51.00 μg mL−1 were obtained in the 79 medium with tryptophan by Enterobacter strains UFPI B5-7A, UFPI B5-4 and UFPI B5-6, respectively. Only eight strains nodulated cowpea, however, all increased production of total dry matter. The fact that the strains evaluated perform different biological processes to promote plant growth indicates that these strains have potential use in agricultural crops to increase production and environmental sustainability.

  15. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, H; Fraga, R

    1999-10-01

    The use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria as inoculants simultaneously increases P uptake by the plant and crop yield. Strains from the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Rhizobium are among the most powerful phosphate solubilizers. The principal mechanism for mineral phosphate solubilization is the production of organic acids, and acid phosphatases play a major role in the mineralization of organic phosphorous in soil. Several phosphatase-encoding genes have been cloned and characterized and a few genes involved in mineral phosphate solubilization have been isolated. Therefore, genetic manipulation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria to improve their ability to improve plant growth may include cloning genes involved in both mineral and organic phosphate solubilization, followed by their expression in selected rhizobacterial strains. Chromosomal insertion of these genes under appropriate promoters is an interesting approach.

  16. Effect of fenbendazole on growth promotion in Mecheri lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to find out the effect of fenbendazole on the growth promotion in stunted mecheri lambs. Materials and methods: The study was conducted with three groups of ten mecheri lambs each. Group I served as untreated control and group II and III were treated with fenbendazole @ 5 mg/kg body weight and 7.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. All the lambs were subjected to haemato-biochemical observations, body weight recording and collection of faeces for egg counting before and after the treatment. Results: Fenbendazole in both the doses had beneficial effect on haemato-biochemical observations like haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total protein, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase besides showing efficacy as an anthelmintic. The drug also increased body weight gain significantly at higher dose as compared to untreated control. Conclusion: The results support that fenbendazole has the potential for modulating growth of stunted mecheri lambs. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 113-115

  17. Bioprospecting glacial ice for plant growth promoting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, Wilvis; Rondón, Johnma; Rengifo, Marcos; Ball, María M; Melfo, Alejandra; Gómez, Wileidy; Yarzábal, Luis Andrés

    2015-08-01

    Glaciers harbor a wide diversity of microorganisms, metabolically versatile, highly tolerant to multiple environmental stresses and potentially useful for biotechnological purposes. Among these, we hypothesized the presence of bacteria able to exhibit well-known plant growth promoting traits (PGP). These kinds of bacteria have been employed for the development of commercial biofertilizers; unfortunately, these biotechnological products have proven ineffective in colder climates, like the ones prevailing in mountainous ecosystems. In the present work, we prospected glacial ice collected from two small tropical glaciers, located above 4.900 m in the Venezuelan Andes, for cold-active PGP bacteria. The initial screening strategy allowed us to detect the best inorganic-P solubilizers at low temperatures, from a sub-sample of 50 bacterial isolates. Solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, aluminum- and iron-phosphate, occurred in liquid cultures at low temperatures and was dependent on medium acidification by gluconic acid production, when bacteria were supplied with an appropriate source of carbon. Besides, the isolates were psychrophilic and in some cases exhibited a broad range of growth-temperatures, from 4 °C to 30 °C. Additional PGP abilities, including phytohormone- and HCN production, siderophore excretion and inhibition of phytopathogens, were confirmed in vitro. Nucleotidic sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes allowed us to place the isolates within the Pseudomonas genus. Our results support the possible use of these strains to develop cold-active biofertilizers to be used in mountainous agriculture.

  18. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2 mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5α-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5 µg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth.

  19. Isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayson, F G; de Jesus, E G; Amemiya, Y; Moriyama, S; Hirano, T; Kawauchi, H

    2000-02-01

    We report the isolation, cDNA cloning, and growth promoting activity of rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus; Teleostei; Perciformes; Siganidae) growth hormone (GH). Rabbitfish GH was extracted from pituitary glands under alkaline conditions, fractionated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions containing GH were identified by immunoblotting with bonito GH antiserum. Under nonreducing conditions, the molecular weight of rabbitfish GH is about 19 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The purified hormone was potent in promoting growth in rabbitfish fry. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of the hormone significantly accelerated growth. This was evident 3 weeks after the start of the treatment, and its effect was still significant 2 weeks after the treatment was terminated. Rabbitfish GH cDNA was cloned to determine its nucleotide sequence. Excluding the poly (A) tail, rabbitfish GH cDNA is 860 base pairs (bp) long. It contained untranslated regions of 94 and 175 bp in the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. It has an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a signal peptide of 18 amino acids and a mature protein of 178 amino acid residues. Rabbitfish GH has 4 cysteine residues. On the amino acid level, rabbitfish GH shows high identity (71-74%) with GHs of other perciforms, such as tuna, sea bass, yellow tail, bonito, and tilapia, and less (47-49%) identity with salmonid and carp GHs.

  20. Cow placenta extract promotes murine hair growth through enhancing the insulin - like growth factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE, water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss.

  1. Inulin as a growth promoter in diets for rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Salas Montiel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty New Zealand rabbits aged 40 days were divided into 4 groups of 15 animals. The control group received a free diet of antibiotic growth promoter (AGP and inulin. The second group was supplemented with 2.5 g/kg of inulin. The third was administered AGP with 0.1 g/kg of flavomycin. Finally, the fourth group received a 2.5 and 0.1 g/kg inulin/AGP diet. Body weight gain was higher in the control group. Rabbits supplemented with inulin had lower values ​​of triglycerides compared with the control and AGP groups, and their glucose level was significantly lower than those treated with AGP. Additionally, serum calcium and magnesium concentrations were higher than the other groups, particularly with regard to AGP. The bone content with regard to calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in the groups treated with inulin was higher compared with the control; moreover, phosphorus and magnesium were higher than in the AGP group. The thickness of the mucosa and crypt depth in the caecum were significantly higher in rabbits treated with inulin than in the other groups, but especially compared with the AGP group. Also, triglyceride values ​​were lower for rabbits treated with inulin/AGP than for those treated with AGP and the bone magnesium concentration was significantly higher compared with the control group. In addition, inulin was shown to have positive effects on the rabbit, promoting increase in bone and serum calcium, magnesium and phosphorus, decrease in triglyceride levels, and improvement in the caecum (changes in morphology, crypt depth and mucosal thickness.

  2. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  3. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51×faster), ostrich oil (1.46×faster), and rhea oil (1.64×faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35×slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions.

  4. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria affect the growth and nutrient uptake of Fraxinus americana container seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

    2013-05-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important catalysts that regulate the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there is little information on the effect of PGPR inoculation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of forest container seedlings. This study determined the effects of a growth medium inoculated with PGPR on the nutrient uptake, nutrient accumulation, and growth of Fraxinus americana container seedlings. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation of the F. americana aerial parts with delayed seedling emergence time. Under fertilized conditions, the accumulation time of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the F. americana aerial parts was 13 days longer due to PGPR inoculation. PGPR increased the maximum daily P and K accumulations in fertilized seedlings by 9.31 and 10.44 %, respectively, but had little impact on unfertilized ones. Regardless of fertilizer application, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids, and organic acids significantly increased because of PGPR inoculation. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the root, shoot, and leaf yields by 19.65, 22.94, and 19.44 %, respectively, as well as the P and K contents by 8.33 and 10.60 %, respectively. Consequently, the N, P, and K uptakes increased by 19.85, 31.97, and 33.95 %, respectively. Hence, PGPR inoculation with fertilizer can be used as a bioenhancer for plant growth and nutrient uptake in forest container seedling nurseries.

  5. Plant extracts used as growth promoters in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSR Barreto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to assess the efficacy of plant extracts as alternatives for antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler diets. The performance experiment included 1,200 male broilers raised from 1 to 42 days of age. The metabolism experiment used 96 male broilers in the grower phase housed in metabolic cages for total excreta collection. At the end of the metabolism experiment, 24 birds were sacrificed to assess organ morphometrics. In both experiments, the following treatments were applied: control diet (CD; CD + 10 ppm avilamycin; CD + 1000 ppm oregano extract; CD + 1000 ppm clove extract; CD + 1000 ppm cinnamon extract; and CD + 1000 ppm red pepper extract. The microencapsulated extracts contained 20% of essential oil. No significant differences (P>0.05 in the studied performance parameters were observed among treatments. The dietary supplementation of the extracts did not influence (P>0.05 nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy values. In general, organ morphometrics was not affected by the experimental treatments, but birds fed the control diet had higher liver relative weight (P<0.05 as compared to those fed the diet containing red pepper extract, which presented the lowest liver relative weight. These results showed that there was no effect of the tested plant extracts on live performance or in organ morphometrics.

  6. The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyoung Kang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3β level, β-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5α-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of β-catenin pathway, and the 5α-reductase inhibition.

  7. Characterization of the bioactive metabolites from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and their exploitation as antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Emrin; Kumar, S Nishanth; Jacob, Jubi; Bommasani, Bhaskara; Lankalapalli, Ravi S; Morang, P; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2015-05-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterial strain, PM 105, isolated from a tea plantation soil from the North Eastern region of India was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa through classical and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Further studies with this strain confirmed broad spectrum antifungal activity against ten human and plant pathogenic fungal pathogens viz. Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Candida albicans, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Pencillium expansum, Rhizoctonia solani, Trichophyton rubrum besides growth-promoting property in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). However, no antibacterial property was exhibited by this strain against the four test bacterial pathogens tested in agar overlay method. The crude bioactive metabolites produced by this strain were isolated with three different solvents that exhibited significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Chloroform extract recorded significant antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting activity. Three major compounds viz. 1-hydroxyphenazine, pyocyanin, and phenazine-1-carboxamide were purified and characterized from crude extracts of this strain by various spectral data. The purified compounds recorded prominent antimicrobial activity but failed to establish the plant growth promotion activity in test crop plants under gnotobiotic conditions. Pyocyanin recorded significant antimicrobial activity, and best activity was recorded against T. rubrum (29 mm), followed by P. expansum (28 mm). These results suggest the use of PM 105 as plant growth-promoting agent in crop plants after successful field trials.

  8. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Rainer W

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA.In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials that are more suitable for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result, data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis. EU data for natural hormones in meat are even rarer because of the absence of "legal natural levels" for these hormones in compliance testing. With the exception of samples from the application sites - in the EU the site of injection of liquid hormone

  9. Plant growth promoting bacteria from cow dung based biodynamic preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, T K; Rao, D L N

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and 'Cow pat pit' (CPP) showed high counts of lactobacilli (10(9) ml(-1)) and yeasts (10(4) ml(-1)). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (10(4) ml(-1)) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (BD3) and Bacillus licheniformis (CPP1). This is the first report of L. xylanilyticus and B. licheniformis in biodynamic preparations. Only three carbon sources-dextrose, sucrose and trehalose out of 21 tested were utilized by all the bacteria. None could utilize arabinose, dulcitol, galactose, inositol, inulin, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose and sorbitol. All the strains produced indole acetic acid (1.8-3.7 μg ml(-1) culture filtrate) and ammonia. None could fix nitrogen; but all except B. safensis and B. licheniformis could solubilize phosphorous from insoluble tri-calcium phosphate. All the strains except L. xylaniliticus exhibited antagonism to the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia bataticola whereas none could inhibit Sclerotium rolfsi. In green house experiment in soil microcosms, bacterial inoculation significantly promoted growth of maize; plant dry weight increased by ~21 % due to inoculation with B. cereus (PG2). Results provide a basis for understanding the beneficial effects of biodynamic preparations and industrial deployment of the strains.

  10. Placental Growth Factor Promotes Cardiac Muscle Repair via Enhanced Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs improves post-injury cardiac muscle repair using ill-defined mechanisms. Recently, we have shown that production and secretion of placental growth factor (PLGF by MSCs play a critical role in the MSCs-mediated post-injury cardiac muscle repair. In this study, we addressed the underlying molecular mechanisms, focusing specifically on the interactions between MSCs, macrophages and endothelial cells. Methods: We isolated macrophages (BM-MΦ from mouse bone-marrow derived cells based on F4/80 expression by flow cytometry. BM-MΦ were treated with different doses of PLGF. Cell number was analyzed by a MTT assay. Macrophage polarization was examined based on CD206 expression by flow cytometry. PLGF levels in macrophage subpopulations were analyzed by RT-qPCR and ELISA. Effects of macrophages on vascularization were evaluated by a collagen gel assay using Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs co-cultured with PLGF-treated macrophages. Results: PLGF did not increase macrophage number, but dose-dependently polarized macrophages into a M2 subpopulation. M2 macrophages expressed high levels of PLGF. PLGF-polarized M2 macrophages significantly increased tubular structures in the collagen gel assay. Conclusion: Our data suggest that MSCs-derived PLGF may induce macrophage polarization into a M2 subpopulation, which in turn releases more PLGF to promote local neovascularization for augmenting post-injury cardiac muscle repair. This study thus sheds novel light on the role of PLGF in cardiac muscle regeneration.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Ochrobactrum intermedium Strain SA148, a Plant Growth-Promoting Desert Rhizobacterium

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2017-03-03

    Ochrobactrum intermedium strain SA148 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from sandy soil in the Jizan area of Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the 4.9-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting different pathways characteristic of plant growth promotion activity and environmental adaptation of SA148.

  12. Using Community Health Workers in Community-Based Growth Promotion: What Stakeholders Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Opoku, Ernest C.; Asunka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Nutrition and Malaria Control for Child Survival Project is a community-based growth promotion project that utilizes Community Health Workers (CHWs), referred to as Community Child Growth Promoters (CCGPs), as the principal change agents. The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of key stakeholders about the project and the role…

  13. Rapamycin promotes Schwann cell migration and nerve growth factor secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Haiwei; Zhang, Kaiming; Wang, Xinyu; Li, Shipu; Yin, Yixia

    2014-01-01

    Rapamycin, similar to FK506, can promote neural regeneration in vitro. We assumed that the mechanisms of action of rapamycin and FK506 in promoting peripheral nerve regeneration were similar. This study compared the effects of different concentrations of rapamycin and FK506 on Schwann cells and investigated effects and mechanisms of rapamycin on improving peripheral nerve regeneration. Results demonstrated that the lowest rapamycin concentration (1.53 nmol/L) more significantly promoted Schwa...

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor-B promotes in vivo angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Tamarat, Radia; Ebrahimian, Teni G; Le-Roux, Aude; Clergue, Michel; Emmanuel, Florence; Duriez, Micheline; Schwartz, Bertrand; Branellec, Didier; Lévy, Bernard I

    2003-07-25

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors have emerged as central regulators of the angiogenic process. However, involvement of VEGF-B, one of these factors, in angiogenesis remains obscure. Mice received subcutaneous injection of Matrigel alone or Matrigel with human recombinant protein rhVEGF-B167 or with rhVEGF-A165. After 14 days, cell ingrowth in the Matrigel plug was increased by 2.0- and 2.5-fold in rhVEGF-B167-treated and rhVEGF-A165-treated mice, respectively (P<0.01), in association with a raise in phospho-Akt/Akt (1.8-fold, P<0.01) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) (1.80- and 1.60-fold, respectively; P<0.05) protein levels measured by Western blot. VEGF-B-induced cell ingrowth was impaired by treatment with NOS inhibitor (NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester; L-NAME, 10 mg/kg per day). Treatment with neutralizing antibody directed against the VEGF-B receptor VEGF-R1 (anti-VEGFR1, 10 microg) completely abrogated VEGF-B-related effects. Proangiogenic effect of VEGF-B was confirmed in a mouse model of surgically induced hindlimb ischemia. Plasmids containing human form of VEGF-A (phVEGF-A165) or VEGF-B (phVEGF-B167 or phVEGF-B186) were administered by in vivo electrotransfer. Angiographic score at day 28 showed significant improvement in ischemic/nonischemic leg ratio by 1.4- and 1.5-fold in mice treated with phVEGF-B167 and phVEGF-B186, respectively (P<0.05). Laser Doppler perfusion data also evidenced a 1.5-fold increase in phVEGF-B167-treated and phVEGF-B186-treated mice (P<0.05). Such an effect was associated with an upregulation of phospho-Akt/Akt and eNOS protein levels in the ischemic legs and was hampered by treatment with anti-VEGFR1. This study demonstrates for the first time that VEGF-B, in part through its receptor VEGF-R1, promotes angiogenesis in association with an activation of Akt and eNOS-related pathways.

  15. STAT6 expression in glioblastoma promotes invasive growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Corinne M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma (GBM is a highly aggressive malignant primary brain tumor, characterized by rapid growth, diffuse infiltration of cells into both adjacent and remote brain regions, and a generalized resistance to currently available treatment modalities. Recent reports in the literature suggest that Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs play important roles in the regulation of GBM pathophysiology. Methods STAT6 protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting in GBM cell lines and by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray (TMA of glioma patient tissues. We utilized shRNA against STAT6 to investigate the effects of prolonged STAT6 depletion on the growth and invasion of two STAT6-positive GBM cell lines. Cell proliferation was assessed by measuring 3H-Thymidine uptake over time. Invasion was measured using an in vitro transwell assay in which cells invade through a type IV collagen matrix toward a chemoattractant (Fetal Bovine Serum. Cells were then stained and counted. Kaplan-Meyer survival curves were generated to show the correlation between STAT6 gene expression and patient survival in 343 glioma patients and in a subset of patients with only GBM. Gene expression microarray and clinical data were acquired from the Rembrandt 1 public data depository (https://caintegrator.nci.nih.gov/rembrandt/. Lastly, a genome-wide expression microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression in wild-type GBM cells to expression in stable STAT6 knockdown clones. Results STAT6 was expressed in 2 GBM cell lines, U-1242MG and U-87MG, and in normal astrocytes (NHA but not in the U-251MG GBM cell line. In our TMA study, STAT6 immunostaining was visible in the majority of astrocytomas of all grades (I-IV but not in normal brain tissue. In positive cells, STAT6 was localized exclusively in the nuclei over 95% of the time. STAT6-deficient GBM cells showed a reduction in 3H-Thymidine uptake compared to the wild

  16. Hpa1 harpin needs nitroxyl terminus to promote vegetative growth and leaf photosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaojie Li; Liping Han; Yanying Zhao; Zhenzhen You; Chunling Zhang; Zhenzhen You; Hansong Dong; Chunling Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Hpa1 is a harpin protein produced by Xanthomonas oryzae, an important bacterial pathogen of rice, and has the growth-promoting activity in plants. To understand the molecular basis for the function of Hpa1, we generated an inactive variant protein, Hpa1NT, by deleting the nitroxyl-terminal region of the Hpa1 sequence and compared Hpa1NT with the full-length protein in terms of the effects on vegetative growth and related physiological responses in Arabidopsis. When Hpa1 was applied to plants, it acted to enhance the vegetative growth but did not affect the floral development. Enhanced plant growth was accompanied by induced expression of growth-promoting genes in plant leaves. The growth-promoting activity of Hpa1 was further correlated with a physiological consequence shown as promoted leaf photosynthesis as a result of facilitated CO2 conduction through leaf stomata and mesophyll cells. On the contrary, plant growth, growth-promoting gene expression, and the physiological consequence changed little in response to the Hpa1NT treatment. These analyses suggest that Hpa1 requires the nitroxyl-terminus to facilitate CO2 transport inside leaf cells and promote leaf photosynthesis and vegetative growth of the plant.

  17. Differential growth stimulation response of potato towards inoculation with taxonomically diverse plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir eNaqqash

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizosphere engineering with beneficial plant growth promoting bacteria offers great promise for sustainable crop yield. Potato is an important food commodity that needs large inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. To overcome high fertilizer demand (especially nitrogen, five bacteria, i.e. Azospirillum sp.TN10, Agrobacterium sp.TN14, Pseudomonas sp.TN36, Enterobactersp. TN38 and Rhizobium sp. TN42 were isolated from the potato rhizosphere on nitrogen-free malate medium and identified based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Three strains, i.e. TN10, TN38 and TN42, showed nitrogen fixation (92.67-134.54 nmol h-1mg-1protein, while all showed the production of indole acetic acid in the presence and/or absence of L-tryptophan. Azospirillum sp. TN10 produced the highest amount of IAA, as measured by spectrophotometry (312.14 µg mL-1 and HPLC (18.3 µg mL-1. Inoculation with these bacteria under axenic conditions resulted in differential growth responses of potato. Azospirillum sp. TN10 incited the highest increase in potato fresh and dry weight over control plants, along with increased N contents of shoot and roots. All strains were able to colonize and maintain their population densities in the potato rhizosphere for upto 60 days, with Azospirillum sp. and Rhizobium sp. showing the highest survival. Plant root colonization potential was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy of root sections inoculated with Azospirillum sp. TN10. Of the five test strains, Azospirillum sp. TN10 has the greatest potential to increase the growth and nitrogen uptake of potato. Hence, it is suggested as a good candidate for the production of potato biofertilizer for integrated nutrient management with potato.

  18. Endophytic bacteria isolated from orchid and their potential to promote plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Deise Cristina; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Melo, Itamar Soares; de Carvalho Costa, Francisco Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Twelve endophytic bacteria were isolated from the meristem of in vitro Cymbidium eburneum orchid, and screened according to indole yield quantified by colorimetric assay, in vitro phosphate solubilization, and potential for plant growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. Eight strains with positive results were classified into the genus Paenibacillus by FAME profile, and evaluated for their ability to increase survival and promote the growth of in vitro germinated Cattleya loddigesii seedlings during the acclimatization process. The obtained results showed that all strains produced detectable indole levels and did not exhibit potential for solubilizing inorganic phosphate. Particularly, an increase of the total biomass and number of leaves was observed. Two strains of Paenibacillus macerans promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions. None of the treatments had a deleterious effect on growth of inoculated plants. These results suggest that these bacterial effects could be potentially useful to promote plant growth during seedling acclimatization in orchid species other than the species of origin.

  19. Plant Growth Promotion by Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacillus subtilis SYST2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hafiz A. S.; Gu, Qin; Wu, Huijun; Raza, Waseem; Hanif, Alwina; Wu, Liming; Colman, Massawe V.; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial volatiles play a significant role in promoting plant growth by regulating the synthesis or metabolism of phytohormones. In vitro and growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain SYST2 on hormone regulation and growth promotion in tomato plants. We observed a significant increase in plant biomass under both experimental conditions; we observed an increase in photosynthesis and in the endogenous contents of gibberellin, auxin, and cytokinin, while a decrease in ethylene levels was noted. VOCs emitted by SYST2 were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Of 11 VOCs tested in glass jars containing plants in test tubes, only two, albuterol and 1,3-propanediole, were found to promote plant growth. Furthermore, tomato plants showed differential expression of genes involved in auxin (SlIAA1. SlIAA3), gibberellin (GA20ox-1), cytokinin (SlCKX1), expansin (Exp2, Exp9. Exp 18), and ethylene (ACO1) biosynthesis or metabolism in roots and leaves in response to B. subtilis SYST2 VOCs. Our findings suggest that SYST2-derived VOCs promote plant growth by triggering growth hormone activity, and provide new insights into the mechanism of plant growth promotion by bacterial VOCs. PMID:28223976

  20. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Young; Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-12-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency.

  1. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-04-24

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants.

  2. The essential oils of Chamaecyparis obtusa promote hair growth through the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geun-Shik; Hong, Eui-Ju; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Choi, In-Gyu; Jang, Je-Won; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2010-01-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa) is a conifer in the cypress family Cupressaceae, native to northeast Asia. The essential oils of C. obtusa have antibacterial and antifungal effects and several products such as hygienic bands, aromatics, and shampoos contain these oils as a natural source of antimicrobial/antifungal agents. Interestingly, some consumers suffering from baldness and/or other forms of hair loss have reported a hair growth promoting effect of shampoos containing these oils. In the present study, the hair growth promoting effect of C. obtusa oils was elucidated in an animal model. C. obtusa oils promoted the early phase of hair growth in shaved mice. In addition, we examined the molecular effect of C. obtusa oils on the regulation of hair morphogenesis and hair growth using the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. In the current study of hair growth regulating genes, the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor (TGF beta 1), and keratinocyte growth factor(KGF) have been analyzed by real-time PCR in HaCaT cells. The essential oils of C. obtusa were divided into seven fractions for treatment of HaCaT cells. VEGF transcripts were induced by fractions 6 and 7; however, TGF beta 1 and KGF mRNA levels were unchanged by C. obtusa oils or fractions. Fraction 7 was separated into seven sub-fractions and studied further. Sub-fractions E and D significantly increased VEGF and KGF gene expression without up-regulating the hair growth inhibition factor, TGF beta 1. The components of the two sub-fractions were further analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Cuminol, eucarvone, and calamenene were common to these two sub-fractions, although the effects of these individual components were not determined. Taken together, these results suggest that C. obtusa oils promote hair growth in an animal model and a positive regulator of hair growth, VEGF, was induced by particular components of these oils.

  3. Understanding Youth Development: Promoting Positive Pathways of Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A conceptual model for understanding youth development is provided and the processes that enhance the adolescent experience and promote successful transition from childhood to adulthood are identified. Intended as a guide for professionals constructing and implementing policies and programs, the model is based on the proposition that development…

  4. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyser De La Torre-Ruiz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strains ACO-34A, ACO-40 and ACO-140 were Rhizobium daejeonense, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas mosselii, respectively. All of the strains were able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, solubilize phosphate, and had nitrogenase activity. Inoculation using the plant growth-promoting bacteria strains had a significant effect (p < 0.05 on plant growth and the sugar content of A. americana, showing that these native plant growth-promoting bacteria are a practical, simple, and efficient alternative to promote the growth of agave plants with proper biological characteristics for agroindustrial and biotechnological use and to increase the sugar content in this agave species.

  5. Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; KANG, YONG JUNG; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells ...

  6. The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Promoting Ovarian Cancer Growth and Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    home to tissue injury. Monocyte polarization into the classically activated pro- inflam - matory macrophages (M1) occurs early on in tissue repair, whereas...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0438 TITLE: The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Promoting Ovarian Cancer Growth and Spread PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Promoting Ovarian Cancer Growth and Spread 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0438 5c

  7. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents. A ....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  8. P-selectin-mediated platelet adhesion promotes tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cuiling; Wei, Bo; Zhou, Weijie; Yang, Yang; Li, Bin; Guo, Simei; Li, Jialin; Ye, Jie; Li, Jiangchao; Zhang, Qianqian; Lan, Tian; He, Xiaodong; Cao, Liu; Zhou, Jia; Geng, Jianguo; Wang, Lijing

    2015-03-30

    Blood platelets foster carcinogenesis. We found that platelets are accumulated in human tumors. P-selectin deficiency and soluble P-selectin abolish platelet deposition within tumors, decreasing secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis, thereby suppressing tumor growth. Binding of the P-selectin cytoplasmic tail to talin1 triggers the talin1 N-terminal head to interact with the β3 cytoplasmic tail. This activates αIIbβ3 and recruits platelets into tumors. Platelet infiltration into solid tumors occurs through a P-selectin-dependent mechanism.

  9. Different Growth Promoting Effects of Endophytic Bacteria on Invasive and Native Clonal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhi-Cong; Fu, Wei; Wan, Ling-Yun; Cai, Hong-Hong; Wang, Ning; Qi, Shan-Shan; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of Wedelia trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria, relative change ratios of the clonal traits and the ramets’ growth traits of W. trilobata were significantly greater than those of W. chinensis. Our results indicate that the growth-promoting effects of endophytes may differ between invasive and native clonal plants, and the endophytes of invasive plant may be host-specific to facilitate plant invasion. PMID:27252722

  10. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liu-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews.

  11. Different growth promoting effects of endophytic bacteria on invasive and native clonal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Cong eDai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of W. trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria, relative change ratios of the clonal traits and the ramets' growth traits of W. trilobata were significantly greater than those of W. chinensis. Our results indicate that the growth-promoting effects of endophytes may differ between invasive and native clonal plants, and the endophytes of invasive plant may be host-specific to facilitate plant invasion.

  12. Making Just Tenure and Promotion Decisions Using the Objective Knowledge Growth Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilize the Objective Knowledge Growth Framework (OKGF) to promote a better understanding of the evaluating tenure and promotion processes. Design/Methodology/Approach: A scenario is created to illustrate the concept of using OKGF. Findings: The framework aims to support decision makers in identifying the…

  13. Evaluation of Promalin to promote growth of young mangosteen seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major impediment to the development of a mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) industry is the long pre-bearing stage that seedlings take to produce fruits. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of Promalin on the growth of mangosteen seedlings. Promalin was applied as a foliar spray...

  14. Promoting Teacher Growth through Lesson Study: A Culturally Embedded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon

    2015-01-01

    Lesson Study has captured the attention of many international educators with its promise of improved student learning and sustained teacher growth. Lesson Study, however, has cultural underpinnings that a simple transference model overlooks. A culturally embedded approach attends to the existing cultural orientations and values of host schools.…

  15. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  16. Effects of Pruning to Promote Trunk Extension on Annual Growth Rhythm of Paulownia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGBaoping; LIJiyue; SUNZhiqiang; WENRuijun; QIAOJie; ZHOUHaijiang; LIZongran

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to confirm the optimal pruning intensity to promote paulownia growth. Annual dynamic of 8 growth indicators for pruning of three-year-old Paulownia to promote tnmk extension were simulated under 7 treatments. The results showed that annual growth process could be modeled reliably by Richards' function. Eight growth parameters were developed including fast-growing point (t0), initialp oint of fast-growing period (tl), final point of fast-growing period (t2), fast-growing period (t), growth period (Dg), maximum day increment (AGRmax), maximum annual increment (A). Effects of pruning to promote trunk extension on growth parameters were analyzed. Paulownia remaining 3-6 lower branches after pruning had relatively longer fast-growing period (t), growth period (Dg), higher average day increment (Am), maximum day increment (AGRmax) and maximum annual increment (A). Therefore, lower diameter growth of original trunk did not decrease significantly, and upper diameter growth increased to some extent, Height and diameter growth of grafting trunk, and form ratio of grafting trunk were relatively higher. Total stock volume increment was improved significantly under the condition that stock volume increment of original trunk did not decrease.

  17. Microbial phytases in phosphorus acquisition and plant growth promotion

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constituents in energy metabolism and biosynthesis of nucleic acids and cell membranes with an important role in regulation of a number of enzymes. Soil phosphorous is an important macronutrient for plant growth. Phosphorus deficiency in soil is a major problem for agricultural production. Total soil P occurs in either organic or in organic form. Phytic acid as phytate (salts of phytic acid) is the major form of organic phosphorus in soil and it is not readi...

  18. Promotion of lung tumor growth by interleukin-17

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Beibei; Guenther, James F.; Pociask, Derek A.; Wang, Yu; Kolls, Jay K.; You, Zongbing; Chandrasekar, Bysani; Shan, Bin; Sullivan, Deborah E.; Morris, Gilbert F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings demonstrate that inhaled cigarette smoke, the predominant lung carcinogen, elicits a T helper 17 (Th17) inflammatory phenotype. Interleukin-17A (IL-17), the hallmark cytokine of Th17 inflammation, displays pro- and antitumorigenic properties in a manner that varies according to tumor type and assay system. To investigate the role of IL-17 in lung tumor growth, we used an autochthonous tumor model (K-RasLA1 mice) with lung delivery of a recombinant adenovirus that expresses IL-...

  19. Pharmacologic inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling promotes hair growth

    OpenAIRE

    Harel, Sivan; Higgins, Claire A.; Cerise, Jane E.; Dai, Zhenpeng; Chen, James C.; Clynes, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Several forms of hair loss in humans are characterized by the inability of hair follicles to enter the growth phase (anagen) of the hair cycle after being arrested in the resting phase (telogen). Current pharmacologic therapies have been largely unsuccessful in targeting pathways that can be selectively modulated to induce entry into anagen. We show that topical treatment of mouse and human skin with small-molecule inhibitors of the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transc...

  20. Drosophila Golgi membrane protein Ema promotes autophagosomal growth and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsu; Naylor, Sarah A; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2012-05-01

    Autophagy is a self-degradative process in which cellular material is enclosed within autophagosomes and trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosomal biogenesis is well described; however mechanisms controlling the growth and ultimate size of autophagosomes are unclear. Here we demonstrate that the Drosophila membrane protein Ema is required for the growth of autophagosomes. In an ema mutant, autophagosomes form in response to starvation and developmental cues, and these autophagosomes can mature into autolysosomes; however the autophagosomes are very small, and autophagy is impaired. In fat body cells, Ema localizes to the Golgi complex and is recruited to the membrane of autophagosomes in response to starvation. The Drosophila Golgi protein Lva also is recruited to the periphery of autophagosomes in response to starvation, and this recruitment requires ema. Therefore, we propose that Golgi is a membrane source for autophagosomal growth and that Ema facilitates this process. Clec16A, the human ortholog of Ema, is a candidate autoimmune susceptibility locus. Expression of Clec16A can rescue the autophagosome size defect in the ema mutant, suggesting that regulation of autophagosome morphogenesis may be a fundamental function of this gene family.

  1. Short-Chain Chitin Oligomers: Promoters of Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Winkler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature after cellulose, and it forms an integral part of insect exoskeletons, crustacean shells, krill and the cell walls of fungal spores, where it is present as a high-molecular-weight molecule. In this study, we showed that a chitin oligosaccharide of lower molecular weight (tetramer induced genes in Arabidopsis that are principally related to vegetative growth, development and carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Based on plant responses to this chitin tetramer, a low-molecular-weight chitin mix (CHL enriched to 92% with dimers (2mer, trimers (3mer and tetramers (4mer was produced for potential use in biotechnological processes. Compared with untreated plants, CHL-treated plants had increased in vitro fresh weight (10%, radicle length (25% and total carbon and nitrogen content (6% and 8%, respectively. Our data show that low-molecular-weight forms of chitin might play a role in nature as bio-stimulators of plant growth, and they are also a known direct source of carbon and nitrogen for soil biomass. The biochemical properties of the CHL mix might make it useful as a non-contaminating bio-stimulant of plant growth and a soil restorer for greenhouses and fields.

  2. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Rocío M; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2016-05-05

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds.

  3. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Neyser De La Torre-Ruiz; Víctor Manuel Ruiz-Valdiviezo; Clara Ivette Rincón-Molina; Martha Rodríguez-Mendiola; Carlos Arias-Castro; Federico Antonio Gutiérrez-Miceli; Héctor Palomeque-Dominguez; Reiner Rincón-Rosales

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRN...

  4. Environmental Growth Conditions of Trichoderma spp. Affects Indole Acetic Acid Derivatives, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Plant Growth Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Jacobo, Maria F; Steyaert, Johanna M; Salazar-Badillo, Fatima B; Nguyen, Dianne Vi; Rostás, Michael; Braithwaite, Mark; De Souza, Jorge T; Jimenez-Bremont, Juan F; Ohkura, Mana; Stewart, Alison; Mendoza-Mendoza, Artemio

    2017-01-01

    Trichoderma species are soil-borne filamentous fungi widely utilized for their many plant health benefits, such as conferring improved growth, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Many Trichoderma species are able to produce the auxin phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and its production has been suggested to promote root growth. Here we show that the production of IAA is strain dependent and diverse external stimuli are associated with its production. In in vitro assays, Arabidopsis primary root length was negatively affected by the interaction with some Trichoderma strains. In soil experiments, a continuum effect on plant growth was shown and this was also strain dependent. In plate assays, some strains of Trichoderma spp. inhibited the expression of the auxin reporter gene DR5 in Arabidopsis primary roots but not secondary roots. When Trichoderma spp. and A. thaliana were physically separated, enhancement of both shoot and root biomass, increased root production and chlorophyll content were observed, which strongly suggested that volatile production by the fungus influenced the parameters analyzed. Trichoderma strains T. virens Gv29.8, T. atroviride IMI206040, T. sp. "atroviride B" LU132, and T. asperellum LU1370 were demonstrated to promote plant growth through volatile production. However, contrasting differences were observed with LU1370 which had a negative effect on plant growth in soil but a positive effect in plate assays. Altogether our results suggest that the mechanisms and molecules involved in plant growth promotion by Trichoderma spp. are multivariable and are affected by the environmental conditions.

  5. Effect of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Growth,Nodulation and Nutrient Accumulation of Lentil Under Controlled Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ZAFAR; M.K.ABBASI; M.A.KHAN; A.KHALIQ; T.SULTAN; M.ASLAM

    2012-01-01

    Application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been shown to increase legume growth and development under field and controlled environmental conditions.The present study was conducted to isolate plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from the root nodules of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) grown in arid/semi-arid region of Punjab,Pakistan and examined their plant growth-promoting abilities.Five bacterial isolates were isolated,screened in vitro for plant growth-promoting (PGP)characteristics and their effects on the growth of lentil were assessed under in vitro,hydroponic and greenhouse (pot experiment)conditions.All the isolates were Gram negative,rod-shaped and circular in form and exhibited the plant growth-promoting attributes of phosphate solubilization and auxin (indole acetic acid,IAA) production.The IAA production capacity ranged in 0.5-11.0 μgmL-1and P solubilization ranged in 3 16 mg L-1.When tested for their effects on plant growth,the isolated strains had a stimulatory effect on growth,nodulation and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake in plants on nutrient-deficient soil.In the greenhouse pot experiment,application of PGPR significantly increased shoot length,fresh weight and dry weight by 65%,43% and 63% and the increases in root length,fresh weight and dry weight were 74%,54% and 92%,respectively,as compared with the uninoculated control.The relative increases in growth characteristics under in vitro and hydroponic conditions were even higher.PGPR also increased the number of pods per plant,1000-grain weight,dry matter yield and grain yield by 50%,13%,28% and 29%,respectively,over the control.The number of nodules and nodule dry mass increased by 170% and 136%,respectively.After inoculation with effective bacterial strains,the shoot,root and seed N and P contents increased,thereby increasing both N and P uptake in plants. The root elongation showed a positive correlation (R2 =0.67) with the IAA

  6. Glycone-rich Soy Isoflavone Extracts Promote Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kailee A; Vemuri, Sravan; Alsahafi, Sameerh; Castillo, Rudy; Cheriyath, Venugopalan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with breast cancer risk, estrogenically active soy isoflavones are considered as an HRT alternative to alleviate menopausal symptoms. However, several recent reports challenged the health benefits of soy isoflavones and associated them with breast cancer promotion. While glyconic isoflavones are the major constituents of soybean seeds, due to their low cell permeability, they are considered to be biologically inactive. The glyconic isoflavones may exert their effects on membrane-bound estrogen receptors or could be converted to aglycones by extracellular β-glucosidases. Therefore, we hypothesized that despite their low cell permeability, soybean cultivars with high glyconic isoflavones may promote breast cancer cell growth. To test this, composition and estrogenic activity of isoflavones from 54 commercial soybean cultivars were determined. Soybean seeds produced in identical climate and growth conditions were used to minimize the effects of extraneous factors on isoflavone profile and concentrations. The glyconic daidzin concentration negatively correlated with genistin and with other aglycones. Relative to control, isoflavone extracts from 51 cultivars were estrogenic and promoted the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cell line MCF-7 from 1.14 to 4.59 folds and other three cultivars slightly reduced the growth. Among these, extracts from three cultivars were highly estrogenic and promoted MCF-7 cell growth by 2.59-4.64 folds (Psoy isoflavone extracts may exert estrogenic effects and promote ER+ breast cancer growth.

  7. A New Genetically Engineered Vaccine for Animal Growth Promotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文忠; 杜念兴; 李光地; 汪垣; 李载平

    1994-01-01

    The chemically synthesized somatostatin (ss) gene was fused in phase with the 3′-end ofhepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) gene.The fusion gene HBs/ss was then recomhined into thegenome of vaccinia virus.This recombinant virus (w-HBs/ss) can express hybrid HBsAg/ss particles whichpresent ss determinants on their surfaces,thereby bearing a good immunogenicity.This new strategical vac-cine of ss can elicit the production of antibody capable of neutralizing ss in the plasma,and consequently en-hance the growth of animals.

  8. Endophytic Phoma sp. isolated from medicinal plants promote the growth of Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHWINI KEDAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kedar A, Rathod D, Yadav A, Agarkar G, Rai M. 2014. Endophytic Phoma sp. isolated from medicinal plants promote the growth of Zea mays. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 132-139. Fungal endophytes are reported as rich sources of valuable secondary metabolites and could be used as bio-fertilizers. In the present study, we report growth promotion potential of two Phoma species isolated from Tinospora cordifolia and Calotropis procera on maize. The fungal endophytes enhanced growth in inoculated maize plants compared to non-inoculated plants. The main aim of this work was to assess the growth promotion activity of endophytic Phoma species on maize isolated from T. cordifolia and C. procera.

  9. Plant growth-promoting potential of endophytic fungi isolated from Solanum nigrum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdur Rahim; Ullah, Ihsan; Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Gun-Seok; Jung, Byung Kwon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Fungal endophytes have been characterized as producers of phytohormones and potent promoters of plant growth. In this study, two fungal endophytes, Fusarium tricinctum RSF-4L and Alternaria alternata RSF-6L, were isolated from the leaves of Solanum nigrum. Culture filtrates (CFs) from each isolate were initially screened for indole compounds, and assayed for their ability to promote the growth of Dongjin rice plants. Nearly all plant growth attributes examined (i.e., chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production) were significantly enhanced upon treatment with fungal CFs. Subsequently, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses were utilized to confirm the presence of phytohormones in the CF of each fungal endophytic isolate. These analyses revealed that RSF-4L and RSF-6L produced 54 and 30 µg/mL indole acetic acid, respectively, within their respective cultures. These findings suggest that the endophytes isolated in this study synthesize bioactive compounds that could play important roles in promoting plant growth.

  10. Root-associated bacteria promote grapevine growth: from the laboratory to the field

    KAUST Repository

    Rolli, Eleonora

    2016-08-18

    Background and Aims: Laboratory and greenhouse experiments have shown that root-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on grapevine growth; however, these effects have not been tested in the field. Here, we aimed to demonstrate whether bacteria of different geographical origins derived from different crop plants can colonize grapevine to gain a beneficial outcome for the plant leading to promote growth at the field scale. Methods: To link the ecological functions of bacteria to the promotion of plant growth, we sorted fifteen bacterial strains from a larger isolate collection to study in vitro Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) traits. We analysed the ability of these strains to colonise the root tissues of grapevine and Arabidopsis using green-fluorescent-protein-labelled strain derivatives and a cultivation independent approach. We assessed the ability of two subsets randomly chosen from the 15 selected strains to promote grapevine growth in two field-scale experiments in north and central Italy over two years. Parameters of plant vigour were measured during the vegetative season in de novo grafted vine cuttings and adult productive plants inoculated with the bacterial strains. Results: Beneficial bacteria rapidly and intimately colonized the rhizoplane and the root system of grapevine. In the field, plants inoculated with bacteria isolated from grapevine roots out-performed untreated plants. In both the tested vineyards, bacteria-promotion effects largely rely in the formation of an extended epigeal system endowed of longer shoots with larger diameters and more nodes than non-inoculated plants. Conclusions: PGP bacteria isolated in the laboratory can be successfully used to promote growth of grapevines in the field. The resulting larger canopy potentially increased the photosynthetic surface of the grapevine, promoting growth.

  11. Promotion of the Growth of Boron-Carbide Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranov, Yanko; Zhang, Daqing; McIlroy, David; Norton, Grant

    2000-03-01

    Boron carbide, is a wide bandgap semiconductor (2.1eV) with a high melting temperature in excess of 2400^circC. Initial studies indicate that nanowires of boron carbide approximately 25 ~30 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter can be grown by the technique of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition by a mode of the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism [1] at relatively low temperatures ( ~1150^circC). Through the use of boron based eutectics such as FeB, NiB and PtB nanowire growth at temperatures below 1150^circC. These metal borides have successively lower melting temperatures, respectively. In this paper we will discuss a simple technique for making submicron metal boride particles, as well as a simple means of depositing them onto a surface. In addition, the effect of droplet size on nanowire diameter and the stability of the size of the metal boride droplet during growth will be discussed. These studies demonstrate that the surface can be selectively seeded thereby controlling the location of the nanowires, i.e. select area deposition. Lastly, the techniques and materials used to grow boron carbide nanowires can easily be used to grow other types of nanowires, as well as carbon nanotubes. [1]. D. N. McIlroy, Daqing Zhang, Robert M. Cohen, J. Wharton, Yongjun Geng, M. Grant Norton, G. De Stasio, B.Gilbert, L.Perfetti, J.H.Streiff, B.Broocks and J.L. McHale, Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 4874

  12. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Ruiz, Neyser; Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Rincón-Molina, Clara Ivette; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Palomeque-Dominguez, Héctor; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strains ACO-34A, ACO-40 and ACO-140 were Rhizobium daejeonense, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas mosselii, respectively. All of the strains were able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphate, and had nitrogenase activity. Inoculation using the plant growth-promoting bacteria strains had a significant effect (pagave plants with proper biological characteristics for agroindustrial and biotechnological use and to increase the sugar content in this agave species.

  13. Growth promotion of Spirulina by steelmaking slag: application of solubility diagram to understand its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Reijiro; Nishida, Haruo; Hong, Dang Diem; Wakisaka, Minato

    2016-12-01

    A solubility diagram was employed to understand growth promotion of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis by steelmaking slag (SMS). The growth promotion effect of 112 % of freshwater microalga A. platensis was obtained using 5 g/L SMS. However, metabolites, such as pigments, and protein content of A. platensis were not significantly affected. Several metals dissolved in Spirulina-Ogawa-Terui medium were detected by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry just after the addition of SMS. The solubility diagram provides information on the chemical speciation of metal elements based on pH and concentration. It is a useful tool to understand the effect of metals on microalgal growth. The metal elements used to control microalgal growth are essential minerals but also act as a source of oxidative stress. Regarding the affecting mechanism of SMS, iron may be the primary element regulating microalgal growth via pathway involving reactive oxygen species, as revealed by superoxide dismutase assay.

  14. Promotion of growth by elevated carbon dioxide is coordinated through a flexible transcriptional network in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Dimas M; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Schippers, Jos H M

    2013-03-01

    Although gibberellins (GAs) promote many developmental responses in plants, little is known about how the hormone interacts with environmental signals at the molecular level for regulating plant growth. Recently, we have demonstrated that inhibition of growth by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) at ambient [CO₂] (350 µmol CO₂ mol(-1)) is reverted by elevated [CO₂] (750 μmol CO₂ mol(-1)). Our finding points to an important role of elevated [CO₂] as a signal allowing higher growth rates of low-GA plants. GA promotes plant growth via a complex transcriptional network that integrates multiple signaling pathways. Herein, we discuss how elevated [CO₂] stimulates biomass accumulation in a GA-independent manner by regulating the expression of growth-related genes.

  15. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-lin Xiong; Zhi-wei Chen; Ting-hua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promotein vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 μg/L) to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, lfuorescence mi-croscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These ifndings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews.

  16. Plant growth promotion by spermidine-producing Bacillus subtilis OKB105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan-Shan; Wu, Hui-Jun; Zang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Li-Ming; Zhu, Qing-Qing; Gao, Xue-Wen

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between plants and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a complex, reciprocal process. On the one hand, plant compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids serve as energy sources for PGPR. On the other hand, PGPR promote plant growth by synthesizing plant hormones and increasing mineral availability in the soil. Here, we evaluated the growth-promoting activity of Bacillus subtilis OKB105 and identified genes associated with this activity. The genes yecA (encoding a putative amino acid/polyamine permease) and speB (encoding agmatinase) are involved in the secretion or synthesis of polyamine in B. subtilis OKB105. Disruption of either gene abolished the growth-promoting activity of the bacterium, which was restored when polyamine synthesis was complemented. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture filtrates of OKB105 and its derivatives demonstrated that spermidine, a common polyamine, is the pivotal plant-growth-promoting compound. In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that treatment with B. subtilis OKB105 induced expansin gene (Nt-EXPA1 and Nt-EXPA2) expression and inhibited the expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene ACO1. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed that the ethylene content in plant root cells decreased in response to spermidine produced by OKB105. Therefore, during plant interactions, OKB105 may produce and secrete spermidine, which induces expansin production and lowers ethylene levels.

  17. Isolation of Pantoea ananatis from sugarcane and characterization of its potential for plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J F; Barbosa, R R; de Souza, A N; da Motta, O V; Teixeira, G N; Carvalho, V S; de Souza, A L S R; de Souza Filho, G A

    2015-11-30

    Each year, approximately 170 million metric tons of chemical fertilizer are consumed by global agriculture. Furthermore, some chemical fertilizers contain toxic by-products and their long-term use may contaminate groundwater, lakes, and rivers. The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria may be a cost-effective strategy for partially replacing conventional chemical fertilizers, and may become an integrated plant nutrient solution for sustainable crop production. The main direct bacteria-activated mechanisms of plant growth promotion are based on improvement of nutrient acquisition, siderophore biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria with growth-promoting activities from sugarcane. We extracted the bacterial isolate SCB4789F-1 from sugarcane leaves and characterized it with regard to its profile of growth-promoting activities, including its ability to colonize Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on its biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, this isolate was identified as Pantoea ananatis. The bacteria were efficient at phosphate and zinc solubilization, and production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid in vitro. The isolate was characterized by Gram staining, resistance to antibiotics, and use of carbon sources. This is the first report on zinc solubilization in vitro by this bacterium, and on plant growth promotion following its inoculation into A. thaliana. The beneficial effects to plants of this bacterium justify future analysis of inoculation of economically relevant crops.

  18. Gene expression of axon growth promoting factors in the deer antler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pita-Thomas

    Full Text Available The annual regeneration cycle of deer (Cervidae, Artiodactyla antlers represents a unique model of epimorphic regeneration and rapid growth in adult mammals. Regenerating antlers are innervated by trigeminal sensory axons growing through the velvet, the modified form of skin that envelopes the antler, at elongation velocities that reach one centimetre per day in the common deer (Cervus elaphus. Several axon growth promoters like NT-3, NGF or IGF-1 have been described in the antler. To increase the knowledge on the axon growth environment, we have combined different gene-expression techniques to identify and characterize the expression of promoting molecules not previously described in the antler velvet. Cross-species microarray analyses of deer samples on human arrays allowed us to build up a list of 90 extracellular or membrane molecules involved in axon growth that were potentially being expressed in the antler. Fifteen of these genes were analysed using PCR and sequencing techniques to confirm their expression in the velvet and to compare it with the expression in other antler and skin samples. Expression of 8 axon growth promoters was confirmed in the velvet, 5 of them not previously described in the antler. In conclusion, our work shows that antler velvet provides growing axons with a variety of promoters of axon growth, sharing many of them with deer's normal and pedicle skin.

  19. Effects of alternative promoters of growth on the performance and cost of production of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tomazini Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and prebiotics were compared to antimicrobials as alternative growth promoters in male broilers grown from 1 to 42 days of age. Eight treatments were evaluated: a control feed without antimicrobials or alternative growth promoters, a control feed with antimicrobials, a control feed with the antimicrobials colistine and avilamicine, three rations with probiotic Bacillus subtilis in different concentrations and/or under recommended usage, one ration with probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae in addition to a mixture of probiotic Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae, and one ration with mananoligossacarids (MOS plus betaglutanes. Antimicrobials and alternative growth promoters were added to an initial feed and to a growth feed common to all birds. Thirteen to 17 replicates of 50 birds of a Cobb line were utilized per treatment in a completely randomized design. Feed consumption, feed conversion and production costs did not significantly differ among treatments. The weights of 42-day-old birds fed on Bacillus subtilis (1,6 x 109CFU/g or the mixture of probiotics were higher or similar to the weights of birds fed on ration with antimicrobials. It was concluded that probiotics can replace antimicrobials as growth promoters for broilers up to 42 days of age without negative effects on growth performance and production cost.

  20. TOR Signaling Promotes Accumulation of BZR1 to Balance Growth with Carbon Availability in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Roh, Jeehee; Marchive, Chloé; Kim, Seong-Ki; Meyer, Christian; Sun, Yu; Wang, Wenfei; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-07-25

    For maintenance of cellular homeostasis, the actions of growth-promoting hormones must be attenuated when nutrient and energy become limiting. The molecular mechanisms that coordinate hormone-dependent growth responses with nutrient availability remain poorly understood in plants [1, 2]. The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator that integrates nutrient and energy signaling to regulate growth and homeostasis in both animals and plants [3-7]. Here, we show that sugar signaling through TOR controls the accumulation of the brassinosteroid (BR)-signaling transcription factor BZR1, which is essential for growth promotion by multiple hormonal and environmental signals [8-11]. Starvation, caused by shifting of light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings into darkness, as well as inhibition of TOR by inducible RNAi, led to plant growth arrest and reduced expression of BR-responsive genes. The growth arrest caused by TOR inactivation was partially recovered by BR treatment and the gain-of-function mutation bzr1-1D, which causes accumulation of active forms of BZR1 [12]. Exogenous sugar promoted BZR1 accumulation and seedling growth, but such sugar effects were largely abolished by inactivation of TOR, whereas the effect of TOR inactivation on BZR1 degradation is abolished by inhibition of autophagy and by the bzr1-1D mutation. These results indicate that cellular starvation leads sequentially to TOR inactivation, autophagy, and BZR1 degradation. Such regulation of BZR1 accumulation by glucose-TOR signaling allows carbon availability to control the growth promotion hormonal programs, ensuring supply-demand balance in plant growth.

  1. Selective growth promotion of bloom-forming raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo by a marine bacterial strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Aiko; Fujitani, Yoshiko; Nakayama, Natsuko; Tani, Akio; Ueki, Shoko

    2016-12-01

    Algal bloom is typically caused by aberrant propagation of a single species, resulting in its predomination in the local population. While environmental factors including temperature and eutrophication are linked to bloom, the precise mechanism of its formation process is still obscure. Here, we isolated a bacterial strain that promotes growth of Heterosigma akashiwo, a Raphidophyceae that causes harmful algal blooms. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain was identified as Altererythrobacter ishigakiensis, a member of the class Alphaproteobacteria. When added to culture, this strain facilitated growth of H. akashiwo and increased its cell culture yield significantly. Importantly, this strain did not affect the growth of other raphidophytes, Chattonella ovate and C. antiqua, indicating that it promotes growth of H. akashiwo in a species-specific manner. We also found that, in co-culture, H. akashiwo suppressed the growth of C. ovate. When A. ishigakiensis was added to the mixed culture, H. akashiwo growth was facilitated while C. ovate propagation was markedly suppressed, indicating that the presence of the bacterium enhances the dominance of H. akashiwo over C. ovate. This is the first example of selective growth promotion of H. akashiwo by a marine bacterium, and may exemplify importance of symbiotic bacterium on algal bloom forming process in general.

  2. Exopolysaccharide-Producing Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Under Salinity Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. K. UPADHYAY; J. S. SINGH; D. P. SINGH

    2011-01-01

    Salt-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can play an important role in alleviating soil salinity stress during plant growth and bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) can also help to mitigate salinity stress by reducing the content of Na+ available for plant uptake. In this study, native bacterial strains of wheat rhizosphere in soils of Varanasi, India, were screened to identify the EPS-producing salt-tolerant rhizobacteria with plant growth-promoting traits. The various rhizobacteria strains were isolated and identified using 16S rDNA sequencing. The plant growth-promoting effect of inoculation of seedlings with these bacterial strains was evaluated under soil salinity conditions in a pot experiment. Eleven bacterial strains which initially showed tolerance up to 80 g L-1 NaCl also exhibited an EPS-producing potential. The results suggested that the isolated bacterial strains demonstrated some of the plant growth-promoting traits such as phosphate solubilizing ability and production of auxin, proline, reducing sugars, and total soluble sugars, Furthermore, the inoculated wheat plants had an increased biomass compared to the un-inoculated plants.

  3. Isolation and selection of fluorescent pseudomonads based on multiple plant growth promotion traits and siderotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayamohan Subramanian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent pseudomonads, acclaimed plant associated bacterial group, are well-known plant growth promoting-biocontrol agents in rhizosphere arena. In this study, 144 fluorescent pseudomonad isolates from rhizosphere soil samples were screened with King's medium B supplemented with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ chelator and comprehensively profiled for plant growth promotion viz., production of indole acetic acid (IAA, siderophore, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, motility, phosphate solubilization, root growth promotion, and biofilm forming ability, along with two known control strains of pseudomonads. Iron and IAA regulated secondary metabolite siderophore production were investigated quantitatively. All isolates were positive for ammonia production and motility; 46% isolates were positive for hydrogen cyanide, 44% shown positivity for phosphate solubilization, and 40% isolates for siderophore production. Siderotyping showed production of hydroxamate type of siderophores which are known to be more efficient biocontrol agents. All isolates stimulated root growth to varying extent and had potentiality to form biofilms, a critical constituent for survival on different environments. Forty-two isolates of pseudomonads showed antagonistic behavior against the deleterious fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (MTCC1755. Based on the above observations and statistical analysis, 11 isolates were shortlisted for further scrutiny. The study of biogeographic correlation and secondary metabolite profiling in association with plant growth promotion focalizes significant assessment on the behavior and antagonistic action, which probably brings out a competent biocontrol agent in a sustainable eco-friendly dimension.

  4. PLANT-MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS IN THE RHIZOSPHERE – STRATEGIES FOR PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are a group of bacteria that can actively colonize plant rootsand enhance plant growth using different mechanisms: production of plant growth regulators like indoleacetic acid,gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene(Zahir et al., 2003, providing the host plant with fixed nitrogen, solubilizationof soil phosphorus, enhance Fe uptake, biocontrol, reducing the concentration of heavy metals. PGPR are perfectcandidates to be used as biofertilizers – eco-friendly alternative to common applied chemical fertilizer in today’sagriculture. The most important benefit of PGPR usage is related to the reduction of environmental pollution in conditionof increasing crop yield. This review presents the main mechanisms involved in PGPR promotion of plant growth.

  5. Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis for responsiveness to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermans, Paul C A; Bakker, Peter A H M; Pieterse, Corné M J

    2016-04-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae WCS417r stimulates lateral root formation and increases shoot growth in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). These plant growth-stimulating effects are partly caused by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the bacterium. Here, we performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study on natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis for the ability to profit from rhizobacteria-mediated plant growth-promotion. To this end, 302 Arabidopsis accessions were tested for root architecture characteristics and shoot fresh weight in response to exposure to WCS417r. Although virtually all Arabidopsis accessions tested responded positively to WCS417r, there was a large variation between accessions in the increase in shoot fresh weight, the extra number of lateral roots formed, and the effect on primary root length. Correlation analyses revealed that the bacterially-mediated increase in shoot fresh weight is related to alterations in root architecture. GWA mapping for WCS417r-stimulated changes in root and shoot growth characteristics revealed 10 genetic loci highly associated with the responsiveness of Arabidopsis to the plant growth-promoting activity of WCS417r. Several of the underlying candidate genes have been implicated in important plant growth-related processes. These results demonstrate that plants possess natural genetic variation for the capacity to profit from the plant growth-promoting function of a beneficial rhizobacterium in their rhizosphere. This knowledge is a promising starting point for sustainable breeding strategies for future crops that are better able to maximize profitable functions from their root microbiome.

  6. Sprouty2 down-regulation promotes axon growth by adult sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausott, Barbara; Vallant, Natalie; Auer, Maria; Yang, Lin; Dai, Fangping; Brand-Saberi, Beate; Klimaschewski, Lars

    2009-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play a prominent role in axonal growth during development and repair. Treatment with FGF-2 or overexpression of FGF receptors promotes peripheral axon regeneration mainly by activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The Ras/Raf/ERK pathway is under the control of Sprouty proteins acting as negative feedback inhibitors. We investigated the expression of Sprouty isoforms in adult sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) as well as the effects of Sprouty inhibition on axon growth by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Sprouty2 revealed the highest expression level in DRG neurons. Down-regulation of Sprouty2 promoted elongative axon growth by adult sensory neurons accompanied by enhanced FGF-2-induced activation of ERK and Ras, whereas Sprouty2 overexpression inhibited axon growth. Sprouty2 was not regulated in vivo in response to a sciatic nerve lesion. Together, our results imply that Sprouty2 is highly expressed in adult peripheral neurons and its down-regulation strongly promotes elongative axon growth by activation of the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway.

  7. Effect of radiation-degraded chitosan on growth promotion of flower plant in tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, Le Quang; Ha, Vo Thi Thu; Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    Radiation is a useful tool for degradation of polysaccharides, such as starch, carrageenan, alginate and chitin/chitosan. The viscosity molecular weight (Mw) of chitosan with 80% degree of deacetylation was reduced to 1.5 x 10{sup 5} by irradiation of 50kGy in solid phase. The solution of 10% of chitosan with Mw ca. 15 x 10{sup 5} was then irradiated at doses ranging 10-250kGy for further degradation and the products were supplemented into cultural media for testing of plant growth promotion effect. The results indicated that irradiated chitosan showed a strong growth-promotion effect on the increase of the length of shoot, the length of root and fresh biomass for flower plants namely Limonium latifolium, Eustoma grandiflorum and Chrysanthemum morifolium in tissue culture. The growth-promotion effect was obtained by the treatments with 50ppm of chitosan irradiated at the doses of 75-100kGy in 10% solution. The suitable concentrations of chitosan irradiated at 100kGy are ca. 100ppm for C. morifolium, 30ppm for E. grandiflorum and 40ppm for L. latifolium. In addition, our study also indicated that the survival ratio of transferred flower plantlets treated with irradiated chitosan was improved after acclimatizing for 30 days in the greenhouse. Accordingly, it is concluded that degraded chitosan obtained by radiation degradation technique is effective as a plant growth promoter as well as irradiated alginate. (author)

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Pancreatic Tumor Growth by Inducing Alternative Polarization of Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Mathew

    2016-03-01

    Significance: Targeting the stroma is emerging as a new paradigm in pancreatic cancer; however, efforts to that effect are hampered by our limited understanding of the nature and function of stromal components. Here, we uncover previously unappreciated heterogeneity within the stroma and identify interactions among stromal components that promote tumor growth and could be targeted therapeutically.

  9. Antimicrobial growth promoters and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. in poultry and swine, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, M. C.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2003-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial growth promoters in Danish food animal production was discontinued in 1998. Contrary to concerns that pathogen load would increase; we found a significant decrease in Salmonella in broilers, swine, pork, and chicken meat and no change in the prevalence of Campylobacter...

  10. Genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida S11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponraj, Paramasivan; Shankar, Manoharan; Ilakkiam, Devaraj; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2012-11-01

    Here we report the genome sequence of a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida S11. The length of the draft genome sequence is approximately 5,970,799 bp, with a G+C content of 62.4%. The genome contains 6,076 protein-coding sequences.

  11. Differential response of potato toward inoculation with taxonomically diverse plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naqqash, Tahir; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Hanif, Muhammad Kashif; Majeed, Afshan; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosphere engineering with beneficial plant growth promoting bacteria offers great promise for sustainable crop yield. Potato is an important food commodity that needs large inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. To overcome high fertilizer demand (especially nitrogen), five bacteria, i.e.

  12. The magic and menace of metagenomics: prospects for the study of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leveau, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to be a pragmatic primer into the field of metagenomics with special emphasis on the prospective contributions of metagenomics to the study of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). After an introduction into the concepts and methodologies of metagenomics and a discussion of

  13. Functional, genetic and chemical characterization of biosurfactants produced by plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida 267

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, M.; Tran, H.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida strain 267, originally isolated from the rhizosphere of black pepper, produces biosurfactants that cause lysis of zoospores of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The biosurfactants were characterized, the biosynthesis gene(s) partially identif

  14. Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals. PMID:24575079

  15. Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eLin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH, an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals.

  16. Epidermal growth factor promotes proliferation of dermal papilla cells via Notch signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Nan, Weixiao; Wang, Shiyong; Zhang, Tietao; Si, Huazhe; Wang, Datao; Yang, Fuhe; Li, Guangyu

    2016-08-01

    The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the development and growth of hair follicle is controversial. In the present study, 2-20 ng/ml EGF promoted the growth of mink hair follicles in vitro, whereas 200 ng/ml EGF inhibited follicle growth. Further, dermal papilla (DP) cells, a group of mesenchymal cells that govern hair follicle development and growth, were isolated and cultured in vitro. Treatment with or forced expression of EGF accelerated proliferation and induced G1/S transition in DP cells. Moreover, EGF upregulated the expression of DP mesenchymal genes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), as well as the Notch pathway molecules including Notch1, Jagged1, Hes1 and Hes5. In addition, inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by DAPT significantly reduced the basal and EGF-enhanced proliferation rate, and also suppressed cell cycle progression. We also show that the expression of several follicle-regulatory genes, such as Survivin and Msx2, were upregulated by EGF, and was inhibited by DAPT. In summary, our study demonstrates that the concentration of EGF is critical for the switch between hair follicle growth and inhibition, and EGF promotes DP cell proliferation via Notch signaling pathway.

  17. Nerve growth factor promotes in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells from tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-lin Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells promote neuronal regeneration and repair of brain tissue after injury, but have limited resources and proliferative ability in vivo. We hypothesized that nerve growth factor would promote in vitro proliferation of neural stem cells derived from the tree shrews, a primate-like mammal that has been proposed as an alternative to primates in biomedical translational research. We cultured neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews at embryonic day 38, and added nerve growth factor (100 µg/L to the culture medium. Neural stem cells from the hippocampus of tree shrews cultured without nerve growth factor were used as controls. After 3 days, fluorescence microscopy after DAPI and nestin staining revealed that the number of neurospheres and DAPI/nestin-positive cells was markedly greater in the nerve growth factor-treated cells than in control cells. These findings demonstrate that nerve growth factor promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells derived from tree shrews.

  18. Isolation and identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from cucumber rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion and disease suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikhul eIslam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are the rhizosphere bacteria that may be utilized to augment plant growth and suppress plant diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize PGPR indigenous to cucumber rhizosphere in Bangladesh, and to evaluate their ability to suppress Phytophthora crown rot in cucumber. A total of sixty six isolates were isolated, out of which ten (PPB1, PPB2, PPB3, PPB4, PPB5, PPB8, PPB9, PPB10, PPB11 and PPB12 were selected based on their in vitro plant growth promoting attributes and antagonism of phytopathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences identified these isolates as new strains of Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus subtilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and B. amyloliquefaciens. The selected isolates produced high levels (26.78 to 51.28 μg mL−1 of indole-3-acetic acid, while significant acetylene reduction activities (1.79 to 4.9 µmole C2H4 mg-1 protein h-1 were observed in eight isolates. Cucumber plants grown from seeds that were treated with these PGPR strains displayed significantly higher levels of germination, seedling vigor, growth, and N content in root and shoot tissue compared to non-treated control plants. All selected isolates were able to successfully colonize the cucumber roots. Moreover, treating cucumber seeds with these isolates significantly suppressed Phytophthora crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and characteristic morphological alterations in Ph. capsici hyphae that grew towards PGPR colonies were observed. Since these PGPR inoculants exhibited multiple traits beneficial to the host plants, they may be applied in the development of new, safe, and effective seed treatments as an alternative to chemical fungicides.

  19. Promotion of microalgal growth by co-culturing with Cellvibrio pealriver using xylan as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhangzhang; Lin, Weitie; Luo, Jianfei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a Cellvibrio pealriver-microalga co-cultivation mode was used to promote the growths of four microalgae by using xylan as feedstock. After 12days of cultivation, the biomass concentrations of Chlorella sacchrarophila, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in co-cultivation were equal to those in mixotrophic growth on glucose, and the Dunaliella was about 1.6-fold higher than that on glucose. The comparative transcriptomes analysis demonstrated that the xylose and xylan hydrolysates were catalyzed to some active substrates by C. pealriver via some functional enzymes; these active substrates are possibly responsible for the promotion of microalgal growth. This C. pealriver-microalga co-cultivation mode is a potential method to produce low-cost microalgal biodiesel by using hemicellulose as feedstock.

  20. The influence of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on the reduction of abiotic stresses in crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Alizadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are always subjected to biotic and abiotic stresses in the environment which haveinfluences on the growth and development of the plants. Beneficial free-living soil bacteria are usuallyreferred as Plant-Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria or PGPR. Different plant growth-promotingRhizosphere bacteria, including associative bacteria such as: Azospirillum, Bacillus, Pseudomonas andEnterobacter group have been used for their beneficial influences on plants. Typically, PGPRs areassociated with plants root and augment plant productivity and immunity; however, recent worksshowed that PGPRs not have just induced the systemic tolerance to abiotic stress such as salt anddrought, but also they have increased the nutrient uptake from soils, and as a result the hazardousaccumulation of nitrates and phosphates in the agricultural soils can be reduced by usage of them.

  1. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans.

  2. Functional role of bacteria from invasive Phragmites australis in promotion of host growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M. A.; Li, H-Y; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Bergen, M.; Torres, M. S.; White, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that bacterial endophytes may enhance the competitiveness and invasiveness of Phragmites australis. To evaluate this hypothesis, endophytic bacteria were isolated from P. australis. The majority of the shoot meristem isolates represent species from phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. We chose one species from each phylum to characterize further and to conduct growth promotion experiments in Phragmites. Bacteria tested include Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A9a, Achromobacter spanius B1, and Microbacterium oxydans B2. Isolates were characterized for known growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis activity. Potentially defensive antimicrobial lipopeptides were assayed for through application of co-culturing experiments and mass spectrometer analysis. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a and M. oxydans B2 produced IAA. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a secreted antifungal lipopeptides. Capability to promote growth of P. australis under low nitrogen conditions was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. All three isolates were found to increase the growth of P. australis under low soil nitrogen conditions and showed increased absorption of isotopic nitrogen into plants. This suggests that the Phragmites microbes we evaluated most likely promote growth of Phragmites by enhanced scavenging of nitrogenous compounds from the rhizosphere and transfer to host roots. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that endophytic bacteria play a role in enhancing growth of P. australis in natural populations. Gaining a better understanding of the precise contributions and mechanisms of endophytes in enabling P. australis to develop high densities rapidly could lead to new symbiosis-based strategies for management and control of the host.

  3. Functional Role of Bacteria from Invasive Phragmites australis in Promotion of Host Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M A; Li, H-Y; Kowalski, K P; Bergen, M; Torres, M S; White, J F

    2016-08-01

    We hypothesize that bacterial endophytes may enhance the competitiveness and invasiveness of Phragmites australis. To evaluate this hypothesis, endophytic bacteria were isolated from P. australis. The majority of the shoot meristem isolates represent species from phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. We chose one species from each phylum to characterize further and to conduct growth promotion experiments in Phragmites. Bacteria tested include Bacillus amyloliquefaciens A9a, Achromobacter spanius B1, and Microbacterium oxydans B2. Isolates were characterized for known growth promotional traits, including indole acetic acid (IAA) production, secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, phosphate solubilization, and antibiosis activity. Potentially defensive antimicrobial lipopeptides were assayed for through application of co-culturing experiments and mass spectrometer analysis. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a and M. oxydans B2 produced IAA. B. amyloliquefaciens A9a secreted antifungal lipopeptides. Capability to promote growth of P. australis under low nitrogen conditions was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. All three isolates were found to increase the growth of P. australis under low soil nitrogen conditions and showed increased absorption of isotopic nitrogen into plants. This suggests that the Phragmites microbes we evaluated most likely promote growth of Phragmites by enhanced scavenging of nitrogenous compounds from the rhizosphere and transfer to host roots. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that endophytic bacteria play a role in enhancing growth of P. australis in natural populations. Gaining a better understanding of the precise contributions and mechanisms of endophytes in enabling P. australis to develop high densities rapidly could lead to new symbiosis-based strategies for management and control of the host.

  4. Genome sequence of the plant growth promoting endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyh Taghavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpaxdeltoides cv. H11-11, a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1. Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots, root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis, colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase, plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol, and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further

  5. Rhizobial Inoculation, Alone or Coinoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Promotes Growth of Wetland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Hahn

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rhizobia and associative bacteria promote growth in rice plants (Oryza sativa L. through a series of mechanisms, but most studies on inoculation have been performed based on inoculation with these bacteria in a separate or singular manner. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of single/isolated inoculation and inoculation combined with symbiotic rhizobia from forage legume and with Azospirillum brasilense on promoting growth and the root colonization process in wetland rice. Two rhizobia among four isolates from a greenhouse and a laboratory experiment were selected that efficiently promoted seed germination and rice plant growth in a sterilized substrate and in soil. The two most efficient isolates (UFRGS Vp16 and UFRGS Lc348 were inoculated alone or in combination with a commercial product containing A. brasilense in two field experiments using two wetland rice cultivars over two growing seasons. In the field experiments, these isolates coinoculated with A. brasilense promoted larger increases in the agronomic variables of wetland rice compared to the control without inoculation. Confocal laser microscopy confirmed the presence of inoculated bacteria tagged with gfp (UFRGS Vp16, UFRGS Lc348, and A. brasilense colonizing the root surface of the rice seedlings, mainly in the root hairs and lateral roots.

  6. Growth promotion of Lactuca sativa in response to volatile organic compounds emitted from diverse bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincheira, Paola; Venthur, Herbert; Mutis, Ana; Parada, Maribel; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-12-01

    Agrochemicals are currently used in horticulture to increase crop production. Nevertheless, their indiscriminate use is a relevant issue for environmental and legal aspects. Alternative tools for reducing fertilizers and synthetic phytohormones are being investigated, such as the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as growth inducers. Some soil bacteria, such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus, stimulate Arabidopsis and tobacco growth by releasing VOCs, but their effects on vegetables have not been investigated. Lactuca sativa was used as model vegetable to investigate bacterial VOCs as growth inducers. We selected 10 bacteria strains, belonging to Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Serratia genera that are able to produce 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), a compound with proven growth promoting activity. Two-day old-seedlings of L. sativa were exposed to VOCs emitted by the selected bacteria grown in different media cultures for 7 days. The results showed that the VOCs released from the bacteria elicited an increase in the number of lateral roots, dry weight, root growth and shoot length, depending on the media used. Three Bacillus strains, BCT53, BCT9 and BCT4, were selected according to its their growth inducing capacity. The BCT9 strain elicited the greatest increases in dry weight and primary root length when L. sativa seedlings were subjected to a 10-day experiment. Finally, because acetoin only stimulated root growth, we suggest that other volatiles could be responsible for the growth promotion of L. sativa. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that bacteria volatiles can be used as growth-inducers as alternative or complementary strategies for application in horticulture species.

  7. Over-Expression of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-D Promotes Tumor Growth and Invasion in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The platelet-derived growth factor-D (PDGF-D was demonstrated to be able to promote tumor growth and invasion in human malignancies. However, little is known about its roles in endometrial cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression and functions of PDGF-D in human endometrial cancer. Alterations of PDGF-D mRNA and protein were determined by real time PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Up-regulation of PDGF-D was achieved by stably transfecting the pcDNA3-PDGF-D plasmids into ECC-1 cells; and knockdown of PDGF-D was achieved by transient transfection with siRNA-PDGF-D into Ishikawa cells. The MTT assay, colony formation assay and Transwell assay were used to detect the effects of PDGF-D on cellular proliferation and invasion. The xenograft assay was used to investigate the functions of PDGF-D in vivo. Compared to normal endometrium, more than 50% cancer samples showed over-expression of PDGF-D (p < 0.001, and high level of PDGF-D was correlated with late stage (p = 0.003, deep myometrium invasion (p < 0.001 and lympha vascular space invasion (p = 0.006. In vitro, over-expressing PDGF-D in ECC-1 cells significantly accelerated tumor growth and promoted cellular invasion by increasing the level of MMP2 and MMP9; while silencing PDGF-D in Ishikawa cells impaired cell proliferation and inhibited the invasion, through suppressing the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Moreover, we also demonstrated that over-expressed PDGF-D could induce EMT and knockdown of PDGF-D blocked the EMT transition. Consistently, in xenografts assay, PDGF-D over-expression significantly promoted tumor growth and tumor weights. We demonstrated that PDGF-D was commonly over-expressed in endometrial cancer, which was associated with late stage deep myometrium invasion and lympha vascular space invasion. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed PDGF-D could promote tumor growth and invasion through up-regulating MMP2/9 and inducing EMT. Thus, we

  8. Herbal plants and their derivatives as growth and health promoters in animal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Reza; Davoodi, Homa

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the effectiveness, modes of action and commercial application of herbal plants and their derivatives as growth promoters for animal. Feed supplements are a group of feed ingredients that can cause a desired animal response in a non-nutrient role such as pH shift, growth, or metabolic modifier (Hutjens, 1991). Common feed additives used in animal diets include immunostimulators, antimicrobials, antioxidants, pH control agents and enzymes. Herbal plants, are a new class of growth promoters and in recent years this feed additives have gained extensive attention in the feed industry. They are a wide variety of herbs, spices, and products derived thereof, and are mainly essential oils. Although numerous reports have demonstrated antioxidative and antimicrobial and immune stimulation efficacy in vitro, respective experimental in vivo evidence is still quite limited. A limited number of experimental comparisons of herbal plants feed additives with antibiotics or organic acid have suggested similar effects on the animal gut microflora. Gut microflora has significant effects on host nutrition, health, and growth performance by interacting with nutrient utilization and the development of gut system of the host. In addition, some phytogenic compounds seem to promote intestinal mucus production. However, the future of using herbs in animal feeding will in great measure depend on the knowledge of chemical structure, their value and characteristics of practical herbs or their extract physiological needs and well-being of animal, and, above all on consumer's preferences and expectations.

  9. Neurotensin, a novel target of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, promotes growth of neuroendocrine tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Tae; Liu, Chunming; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Weiss, Heidi L; Townsend, Courtney M; Evers, B Mark

    2015-03-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a pivotal role in regulating cell growth and differentiation by activation of the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex and subsequent regulation of a set of target genes that have one or more TCF-binding elements (TBEs). Hyperactivation of this pathway has been implicated in numerous malignancies including human neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Neurotensin (NT), an intestinal hormone, induces proliferation of several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including cancers of the pancreas and colon. Here, we analyzed the human NT promoter in silico and found at least four consensus TBEs within the proximal promoter region. Using a combination of ChIP and luciferase reporter assays, we identified one TBE (located ∼900 bp proximal from the transcription start site) that was immunoprecipitated efficiently by TCF4-targeting antibody; mutation of this site attenuated the responsiveness to β-catenin. We also confirmed that the promoter activity and the mRNA and protein expression levels of NT were increased by various Wnt pathway activators and decreased by Wnt inhibitors in NET cell lines BON and QGP-1, which express and secrete NT. Similarly, the intracellular content and secretion of NT were induced by Wnt3a in these cells. Finally, inhibition of NT signaling suppressed cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth and decreased expression levels of growth-related proteins in NET cells. Our results indicate that NT is a direct target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and may be a mediator for NET cell growth.

  10. Trypsin promotes C6 glioma cell proliferation in serum- and growth factor-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, H; Kurosaka, R; Ema, M; Ogawa, Y

    1996-07-01

    C6 glioma cells could be successively subcultured and maintained in serum- and growth factor-free medium (SF/GFF medium). C6 cell proliferation in SF/GFF medium was positively correlated with the initial cell density at plating. This correlation disappeared when the medium had been renewed early after cell adhesion (3 h after plating), suggesting that C6 cell growth depends on some diffusible factor in the medium before renewal, and that this factor is not secreted from C6 cells in the assay culture but is transferred from the cell suspension. The supernatant of trypsinized C6 cell suspension (SCS), trypsin-EDTA solution for routine cell harvesting use, and modified trypsin of protein sequencing grade all promoted C6 cell proliferation at, appropriate dilutions or concentrations under SF/GFF conditions. The growth promoting effects of SCS and trypsin-EDTA solution were completely inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor. These results demonstrate that the serine protease trypsin has a proliferative effect on C6 cells continuously subcultured in SF/GFF medium. In addition, it is suggested that trypsin used for cell dispersion is transferred from cell suspension into the culture, where it promotes C6 cell growth after passage in our SF/GFF subculture system.

  11. Isolation and characterization of plant growth promoting endophytic diazotrophic bacteria from Korean rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sang Hye; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Chun, Se-Chul

    2014-01-20

    We have isolated 576 endophytic bacteria from the leaves, stems, and roots of 10 rice cultivars and identified 12 of them as diazotrophic bacteria using a specific primer set of nif gene. Through 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nifH genes were confirmed in the two species of Penibacillus, three species of Microbacterium, three Bacillus species, and four species of Klebsiella. Rice seeds treated with these plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) showed improved plant growth, increased height and dry weight and antagonistic effects against fungal pathogens. In addition, auxin and siderophore producing ability, and phosphate solubilizing activity were studied for the possible mechanisms of plant growth promotion. Among 12 isolates tested, 10 strains have shown higher auxin producing activity, 6 isolates were confirmed as strains with high siderophore producing activity while 4 isolates turned out to have high phosphate-solubilizing activity. These results strongly suggest that the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria characterized in this study could be successfully used to promote plant growth and inducing fungal resistance in plants.

  12. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Hoffman, A.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Walla, M. D.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.; Monchy, S.

    2010-05-13

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to

  13. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sreevidya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20 °C to 40 °C, pH range of 7–11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40 but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40, hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40, indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea.

  14. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea.

  15. Effects of pesticides on plant growth promoting traits of Mesorhizobium strain MRC4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected pesticides [herbicides (metribuzin and glyphosate, insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and fungicides (hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin] at recommended and higher dose rates on plant growth promoting activities of the Mesorhizobium sp. isolated from chickpea-nodules. A total of 50 rhizobial strains recovered from the nodules of chickpea root systems were identified following morphological, biochemical and host-specificity tests and tested for pesticide-tolerance. Among these strains, the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 was specifically selected due to the highest tolerance levels for all selected pesticides and the maximum production of plant growth promoting substances. Strain MRC4 produced indole acetic acid (44 μg ml−1, siderophores [salicylic acid (35 μg ml−1 and 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid (19 μg ml−1], exo-polysaccharides (21 μg ml−1, HCN and ammonia. Under pesticide-stress, pesticide-concentration dependent progressive-decline in all plant growth promoting traits of the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 exposed was observed except for exo-polysaccharides which consistently increased with exceeding the concentration of each pesticide from recommended dose. For instance, hexaconazole at three times the recommended dose elicited the maximum stress on siderophore-biosynthesis by the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 and decreased salicylic acid and DHBA by 40% and 47%, respectively and the greatest stimulatory effect on exo-polysaccharides secretion was shown by imidacloprid which stimulated the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 to secrete EPS by 38%, compared to control. Generally, the maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting traits of Mesorhizobium was shown by glyphosate, thiamethoxam and hexaconazole, at three times the recommended rate among herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, respectively. This study revealed an additional aspect of the toxicological

  16. Empirical Analysis on the Role Rural Urbanization in Promoting Economic Growth by Expanding Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin WU

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization construction is a historical mission of China’s modernization construction,and is also the largest potential for expanding domestic demand. Actively promoting rural urbanization is favorable for expanding consumption and boosting economic growth. Through building VAR model using data of urbanization level and consumption in 1978- 2012,this paper made Granger causality test,impulse response analysis,and variance decomposition analysis on the relation between urbanization and economic growth. In addition,from comparing the effect of urbanization on expanding rural consumption and urban consumption,it is known that the effect of growth of urbanization rate on urban consumption is lower than rural consumption in short term,but urbanization level has a greater contribution to growth of urban consumption in the long run.

  17. Optimize flue gas settings to promote microalgae growth in photobioreactors via computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lian; Chen, Amelia B; Yu, Yi; Kucera, Leah; Tang, Yinjie

    2013-10-01

    Flue gas from power plants can promote algal cultivation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions(1). Microalgae not only capture solar energy more efficiently than plants(3), but also synthesize advanced biofuels(2-4). Generally, atmospheric CO2 is not a sufficient source for supporting maximal algal growth(5). On the other hand, the high concentrations of CO2 in industrial exhaust gases have adverse effects on algal physiology. Consequently, both cultivation conditions (such as nutrients and light) and the control of the flue gas flow into the photo-bioreactors are important to develop an efficient "flue gas to algae" system. Researchers have proposed different photobioreactor configurations(4,6) and cultivation strategies(7,8) with flue gas. Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates how to use models to predict the microalgal growth in response to flue gas settings. We perform both experimental illustration and model simulations to determine the favorable conditions for algal growth with flue gas. We develop a Monod-based model coupled with mass transfer and light intensity equations to simulate the microalgal growth in a homogenous photo-bioreactor. The model simulation compares algal growth and flue gas consumptions under different flue-gas settings. The model illustrates: 1) how algal growth is influenced by different volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO2; 2) how we can find optimal CO2 concentration for algal growth via the dynamic optimization approach (DOA); 3) how we can design a rectangular on-off flue gas pulse to promote algal biomass growth and to reduce the usage of flue gas. On the experimental side, we present a protocol for growing Chlorella under the flue gas (generated by natural gas combustion). The experimental results qualitatively validate the model predictions that the high frequency flue gas pulses can significantly improve algal cultivation.

  18. Stimulatory effects of arsenic-tolerant soil fungi on plant growth promotion and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (Psoil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16-293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20-222% and 34-760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils.

  19. Fe-Chlorophyllin Promotes the Growth of Wheat Roots Associated with Nitric Oxide Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Jiang; Yong Ren; Liefeng Zhang; Yifan Wang; Min Tong

    2010-01-01

    : Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from...

  20. The miR-24-Bim pathway promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in pancreatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Haiyang; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Likun; Li, Hongli; Deng, Ting; Qu, Yanjun; Duan, Jingjing; Bai, Ming; Ge, Shaohua; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Le; Huang, Dingzhi; Ba, Yi

    2015-12-22

    miRNAs are a group of small RNAs that have been reported to play a key role at each stage of tumorigenesis and are believed to have future practical value. We now demonstrate that Bim, which stimulates cell apoptosis, is obviously down-regulated in pancreatic cancer (PaC) tissues and cell lines. And Bim-related miR-24 is significantly up-regulated in PaC. The repressed expression of Bim is proved to be a result of miR-24, thus promoting cell growth of both cancer and vascular cells, and accelerating vascular ring formation. By using mouse tumor model, we clearly showed that miR-24 promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis by suppressing Bim expression in vivo. Therefore, a new pathway comprising miR-24 and Bim can be used in the exploration of drug-target therapy of PaC.

  1. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Saraswoti [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Hogberg, Nils [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Alstrom, Sadhna [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Peters, Lin [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lu, Megan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fiebig, Anne [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Finlay, Roger D. [Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  2. PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems.

  3. Dynamism of PGPR in bioremediation and plant growth promotion in heavy metal contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P R; Shaikh, S S; Sayyed, R Z

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal contamination, particularly of cultivable lands, is a matter of concern. Bioremediation helps in reversing such contamination to certain extent. Here, we report isolation, polyphasic identification and the role of siderophore producing rhizobacteria Alcaligenes feacalis RZS2 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa RZS3 in bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil and plant growth promotion activity in such contaminated soil. Siderophore produced by A. feacalis RZS2 and P. aeruginosa RZS3 strains chelated various heavy metal ions like MnCl₂.4H₂O, NiCl₂.6H₂O, ZnCl₂, CuCl₂ and CoCl₂ other than FeCl₃.6H2O at batch scale. Their bioremediation potential was superior over the chemical ion chelators like EDTA and citric acid. These isolates also promoted growth of wheat and peanut seeds sown in heavy metal contaminated soil. Effective root colonizing ability of these isolates was observed in wheat and peanut plants.

  4. SRPK2 promotes the growth and migration of the colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wu, Hai-Feng; Shen, Wei; Xu, Dong-Yan; Ruan, Ting-Yan; Tao, Guo-Qing; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2016-07-15

    Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related death in the world. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying this malignancy will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment. Serine-arginine protein kinase 2 (SRPK2) has been reported to be upregulated in several cancer types. However, its expression and functions in colon cancer remains unknown. In this study, it was found that the expression of SRPK2 was up-regulated in the clinical colon cancer samples. Overexpression of SRPK2 promoted the growth and migration of colon cancer cells, while knocking down the expression of SRPK2 inhibited the growth, migration and tumorigenecity of colon cancer cells. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that SRPK2 activated ERK signaling in colon cancer cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated the tumor promoting roles of SRPK2 in colon cancer cells and SRPK2 might be a promising therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  5. Expansion of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli by Use of Bovine Antibiotic Growth Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Chul; Chui, Linda; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used in food-producing animals to promote growth and prevent infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of bovine antibiotic growth promoters (bAGPs) on the propagation and spread of Shiga toxin (Stx)-encoding phages in Escherichia coli. Co-culture of E. coli O157:H7 and other E. coli isolated from cattle in the presence of sublethal concentrations of bAGPs significantly increased the emergence of non-O157, Stx-producing E. coli by triggering the SOS response system in E. coli O157:H7. The most substantial mediation of Stx phage transmission was induced by oxytetracyline and chlortetracycline, which are commonly used in agriculture. bAGPs may therefore contribute to the expansion of pathogenic Stx-producing E. coli.

  6. Connective tissue growth factor is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes cell invasion and growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Xiu; Ya-Hui Liu; David R Brigstock; Fang-Hui He; Rui-Juan Zhang; Run-Ping Gao

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the expression characteristics of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in histology and to elucidate the roles of CCN2 on hepatoma cell cycle progression and metastasis in vitro.METHODS:Liver samples from 36 patients (who underwent hepatic resection for the first HCC between 2006 and 2011) and 6 normal individuals were examined for transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) or CCN2 mRNA by in situ hybridization.Computer image analysis was performed to measure integrated optimal density of CCN2 mRNA-positive cells in carcinoma foci and the surrounding stroma.Fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) and E-cadherin were examined to evaluate the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition,α-smooth muscle actin and FSP-1 were detected to identify hepatic stellate cells,and CD34 was measured to evaluate the extent of vascularization in liver tissues by immunohistochemical staining.CCN2 was assessed for its stimulation of HepG2 cell migration and invasion using commercial kits while flow cytometry was used to determine CCN2 effects on HepG2 cell-cycle.RESULTS:In situ hybridization analysis showed that TGF-β1 mRNA was mainly detected in connective tissues and vasculature around carcinoma foci.In comparison to normal controls,CCN2 mRNA was enhanced 1.9-fold in carcinoma foci (12.36 ± 6.08 vs 6.42 ± 2.35)or 9.4-fold in the surrounding stroma (60.27 ± 28.71 vs 6.42 ± 2.35),with concomitant expression of CCN2 and TGF-β1 mRNA in those areas.Epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype related with CCN2 was detected in 12/36 (33.3%) of HCC liver samples at the edges between carcinoma foci and vasculature.Incubation of HepG2 cells with CCN2 (100 ng/mL) resulted in more of the cells transitioning into S phase (23.85 ± 2.35vs 10.94 ± 0.23),and induced a significant migratory (4.0-fold) and invasive (5.7-fold) effect.TGF-β1-induced cell invasion was abrogated by a neutralizing CCN2 antibody showing that CCN2

  7. Modulations of the chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome in response to anticoccidial and growth promoter treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Danzeisen

    Full Text Available With increasing pressures to reduce or eliminate the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion purposes in production animals, there is a growing need to better understand the effects elicited by these agents in order to identify alternative approaches that might be used to maintain animal health. Antibiotic usage at subtherapeutic levels is postulated to confer a number of modulations in the microbes within the gut that ultimately result in growth promotion and reduced occurrence of disease. This study examined the effects of the coccidiostat monensin and the growth promoters virginiamycin and tylosin on the broiler chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome. Using a longitudinal design, cecal contents of commercial chickens were extracted and examined using 16S rRNA and total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. A number of genus-level enrichments and depletions were observed in response to monensin alone, or monensin in combination with virginiamycin or tylosin. Of note, monensin effects included depletions of Roseburia, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus, and enrichments in Coprococcus and Anaerofilum. The most notable effect observed in the monensin/virginiamycin and monensin/tylosin treatments, but not in the monensin-alone treatments, was enrichments in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the metagenomic dataset identified enrichments in transport system genes, type I fimbrial genes, and type IV conjugative secretion system genes. No significant differences were observed with regard to antimicrobial resistance gene counts. Overall, this study provides a more comprehensive glimpse of the chicken cecum microbial community, the modulations of this community in response to growth promoters, and targets for future efforts to mimic these effects using alternative approaches.

  8. Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, M. S.; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M.J.; Malouin, F; Jacques, M.

    1996-01-01

    Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and ...

  9. Modulations of the chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome in response to anticoccidial and growth promoter treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzeisen, Jessica L; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Isaacson, Richard E; Tu, Zheng Jin; Johnson, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    With increasing pressures to reduce or eliminate the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion purposes in production animals, there is a growing need to better understand the effects elicited by these agents in order to identify alternative approaches that might be used to maintain animal health. Antibiotic usage at subtherapeutic levels is postulated to confer a number of modulations in the microbes within the gut that ultimately result in growth promotion and reduced occurrence of disease. This study examined the effects of the coccidiostat monensin and the growth promoters virginiamycin and tylosin on the broiler chicken cecal microbiome and metagenome. Using a longitudinal design, cecal contents of commercial chickens were extracted and examined using 16S rRNA and total DNA shotgun metagenomic pyrosequencing. A number of genus-level enrichments and depletions were observed in response to monensin alone, or monensin in combination with virginiamycin or tylosin. Of note, monensin effects included depletions of Roseburia, Lactobacillus and Enterococcus, and enrichments in Coprococcus and Anaerofilum. The most notable effect observed in the monensin/virginiamycin and monensin/tylosin treatments, but not in the monensin-alone treatments, was enrichments in Escherichia coli. Analysis of the metagenomic dataset identified enrichments in transport system genes, type I fimbrial genes, and type IV conjugative secretion system genes. No significant differences were observed with regard to antimicrobial resistance gene counts. Overall, this study provides a more comprehensive glimpse of the chicken cecum microbial community, the modulations of this community in response to growth promoters, and targets for future efforts to mimic these effects using alternative approaches.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell 1 (MSC1-based therapy attenuates tumor growth whereas MSC2-treatment promotes tumor growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth S Waterman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, there are many promising clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in cell-based therapies of numerous diseases. Increasingly, however, there is a concern over the use of MSCs because they home to tumors and can support tumor growth and metastasis. For instance, we established that MSCs in the ovarian tumor microenvironment promoted tumor growth and favored angiogenesis. In parallel studies, we also developed a new approach to induce the conventional mixed pool of MSCs into two uniform but distinct phenotypes we termed MSC1 and MSC2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we tested the in vitro and in vivo stability of MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes as well as their effects on tumor growth and spread. In vitro co-culture of MSC1 with various cancer cells diminished growth in colony forming units and tumor spheroid assays, while conventional MSCs or MSC2 co-culture had the opposite effect in these assays. Co-culture of MSC1 and cancer cells also distinctly affected their migration and invasion potential when compared to MSCs or MSC2 treated samples. The expression of bioactive molecules also differed dramatically among these samples. MSC1-based treatment of established tumors in an immune competent model attenuated tumor growth and metastasis in contrast to MSCs- and MSC2-treated animals in which tumor growth and spread was increased. Also, in contrast to these groups, MSC1-therapy led to less ascites accumulation, increased CD45+leukocytes, decreased collagen deposition, and mast cell degranulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations indicate that the MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes may be convenient tools for the discovery of critical components of the tumor stroma. The continued investigation of these cells may help ensure that cell based-therapy is used safely and effectively in human disease.

  11. Promoter polymorphism of transforming growth factor-β1 gene and ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B Tamizifar; KB Lankarani; S Naeimi; M Rismankar Zadeh; A Taghavi; A Ghaderi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the possible difference in two promoter polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene (-800G > A, -509C > T)between ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and normal subjects.METHODS: A total of 155 patients with established ulcerative colitis and 139 normal subjects were selected as controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms within the promoter region of TGF-β1 gene (-509C > T and -800G > A) were genotyped using PCR-RFLP.RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in genotype and allele frequency distributions between UC patients and controls for the -800G > A polymorphism of the TGF-β1 gene (P A of TGF-β1 gene promoter between Iranian patients with UC and normal subjects.

  12. The complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J; Glick, Bernard R

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated "housekeeping" genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup.

  13. Screening of Brazilian cacti rhizobacteria for plant growth promotion under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Santos, Suikinai Nobre; Silva, João Luiz da; Parma, Márcia Maria; Avila, Luciana Aparecida; Visconti, Alexandre; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Melo, Itamar Soares de

    2013-05-06

    Drought is one of the major problems worldwide. The search for new and efficient microorganisms, from unexplored environments, to be used in association with plants to alleviate the negative effects imposed by water stress, is an interesting alternative. Thus, cacti-associated bacteria from the Brazilian semi-arid region were isolated based on their ability to grow in medium with reduced water availability. Strains were tested for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS), as well as in vitro plant growth promotion traits. A great proportion of the isolates belong to the genus Bacillus. From a total of forty-eight bacteria, 65% were able to grow in medium with reduced water availability (0.919Aw), exopolysaccharide production was observed for 65% of the strains. The production of indole acetic acid (IAA) exceeding 51μgmL(-1) was observed for 4% and the high solubilization of Ca-P was verified for 6% of the isolates. No strain was able to produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN), 71% produced ammonia and 79% showed a halo of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) degradation. Zea mays L. growth promotion under water stress (30% of field capacity) was achieved by two strains of Bacillus spp. This is the first report to describe cacti-associated bacteria from Brazilian semi-arid with plant growth-promoting abilities.

  14. The complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Duan

    Full Text Available The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated "housekeeping" genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup.

  15. Soft matrices downregulate FAK activity to promote growth of tumor-repopulating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Youhua; Wood, Adam Richard; Jia, Qiong; Zhou, Wenwen; Luo, Junyu; Yang, Fang; Chen, Junwei; Chen, Junjian; Sun, Jian; Seong, Jihye; Tajik, Arash; Singh, Rishi; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-29

    Tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs) are a tumorigenic sub-population of cancer cells that drives tumorigenesis. We have recently reported that soft fibrin matrices maintain TRC growth by promoting histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylation and Sox2 expression and that Cdc42 expression influences H3K9 methylation. However, the underlying mechanisms of how soft matrices induce H3K9 demethylation remain elusive. Here we find that TRCs exhibit lower focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and H3K9 methylation levels in soft fibrin matrices than control melanoma cells on 2D rigid substrates. Silencing FAK in control melanoma cells decreases H3K9 methylation, whereas overexpressing FAK in tumor-repopulating cells enhances H3K9 methylation. Overexpressing Cdc42 or RhoA in the presence of FAK knockdown restores H3K9 methylation levels. Importantly, silencing FAK, Cdc42, or RhoA promotes Sox2 expression and proliferation of control melanoma cells in stiff fibrin matrices, whereas overexpressing each gene suppresses Sox2 expression and reduces growth of TRCs in soft but not in stiff fibrin matrices. Our findings suggest that low FAK mediated by soft fibrin matrices downregulates H3K9 methylation through reduction of Cdc42 and RhoA and promotes TRC growth.

  16. Evaluation of indigenous potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) on Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenejad, F; Yakhchali, B; Rasooli, I

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms such as Agaricus bisporus, are cultivated for food worldwide. Fruit body initiation in Agaricus bisporus is a phase change from the vegetative to the reproductive stage which depends on the presence of a casing layer with particular physical, chemical and microbiological properties. The phase change is achieved practically by environmental manipulation and the presence of naturally occurring bacteria such as Pseuodomonas putida. In this study, 274 individual bacterial isolates were collected by screening the casing layer of 14 edible mushroom farms. The isolates were analysed with respect to biochemical properties, organic and inorganic phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore and growth in the presence of volatile compound of 1-octen-3-ol. It was found that approximately 97% of the strains were able to grow in the presence of 1-octen-3-ol and 36% were able to solubilize phosphorus. Among the isolates, 23 strains were selected as potent mushroom growth promoting bacteria (MGPB) for inoculation of the casing layer. Field experiments using these strains showed various promoting effects on production of mushroom. Finally, 2 strains (strains Bt4 and Ps7) showing the highest increase in A. bisporus production, were characterized as Pseuodomonas putida by molecular methods and identified as the best suited growth promoting inoculants for application in production farms for increasing the mushroom yield.

  17. Growth-promoting effect on iron-sulfur proteins on axenic cultures of Entamoeba dispar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa S.A.M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A growth-promoting factor (GPF that promotes the growth of Entamoeba dispar under axenic culture conditions was found in fractions of mitochondria (Mt, hydrogenosomes (Hg and chloroplasts (Cp obtained from cells of six different protozoan, mammalian and plant species. We were able to extract the GPF from the Cp-rich leaf cells of a plant (spiderwort: Commelina communis L. in an acetone-soluble fraction as a complex of chlorophyll with low molecular weight proteins (molecular weight [MW] approximately 4,600. We also found that on treatment with 0.6 % complexes of 2-mercapthoethanol (2ME, complexes of chlorophyll-a with iron-sulphur (Fe-S proteins (e.g., ferredoxins [Fd] from spinach and Clostridium pasteurianum and noncomplex rubredoxin (Rd from C. pasteurianum have a growth-promoting effect on E. dispar. These findings suggest that E. dispar may lack a sufficient quantity of some essential components of Fe-S proteins, such as Fe-S center.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen promotes malignant glioma cell growth and inhibits cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Gang; Zhan, Yi-Ping; Pan, Shu-Yi; Wang, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Dun-Xiao; Gao, Kai; Qi, Xue-Ling; Yu, Chun-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequently diagnosed intracranial malignant tumor in adults. Clinical studies have indicated that hyperbaric oxygen may improve the prognosis and reduce complications in glioma patients; however, the specific mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. The present study investigated the direct effects of hyperbaric oxygen stimulation on glioma by constructing an intracranial transplanted glioma model in congenic C57BL/6J mice. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to assess the growth of intracranial transplanted GL261-Luc glioma cells in vivo, while flow cytometric and immunohistochemical assays were used to detect and compare the expression of the biomarkers, Ki-67, CD34 and TUNEL, reflecting the cell cycle, apoptosis and angiogenesis. BLI demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen promoted the growth of intracranially transplanted GL261-Luc glioma cells in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that hyperbaric oxygen promoted GL261-Luc glioma cell proliferation and also prevented cell cycle arrest. In addition, hyperbaric oxygen inhibited the apoptosis of the transplanted glioma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis also indicated that hyperbaric oxygen increased positive staining for Ki-67 and CD34, while reducing staining for TUNEL (a marker of apoptosis). The microvessel density was significantly increased in the hyperbaric oxygen treatment group compared with the control group. In conclusion, hyperbaric oxygen treatment promoted the growth of transplanted malignant glioma cells in vivo and also inhibited the apoptosis of these cells.

  19. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: their potential as antagonists and biocontrol agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Beneduzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria that colonize plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. PGPR are highly diverse and in this review we focus on rhizobacteria as biocontrol agents. Their effects can occur via local antagonism to soil-borne pathogens or by induction of systemic resistance against pathogens throughout the entire plant. Several substances produced by antagonistic rhizobacteria have been related to pathogen control and indirect promotion of growth in many plants, such as siderophores and antibiotics. Induced systemic resistance (ISR in plants resembles pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR under conditions where the inducing bacteria and the challenging pathogen remain spatially separated. Both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant to pathogens in several plant species. Rhizobacteria induce resistance through the salicylic acid-dependent SAR pathway, or require jasmonic acid and ethylene perception from the plant for ISR. Rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus are well known for their antagonistic effects and their ability to trigger ISR. Resistance-inducing and antagonistic rhizobacteria might be useful in formulating new inoculants with combinations of different mechanisms of action, leading to a more efficient use for biocontrol strategies to improve cropping systems.

  20. Key physiological properties contributing to rhizosphere adaptation and plant growth promotion abilities of Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibach-Paldi, Sharon; Burdman, Saul; Okon, Yaacov

    2012-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) that is being increasingly used in agriculture in a commercial scale. Recent research has elucidated key properties of A. brasilense that contribute to its ability to adapt to the rhizosphere habitat and to promote plant growth. They include synthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid, nitric oxide, carotenoids, and a range of cell surface components as well as the ability to undergo phenotypic variation. Storage and utilization of polybetahydroxyalkanoate polymers are important for the shelf life of the bacteria in production of inoculants, products containing bacterial cells in a suitable carrier for agricultural use. Azospirillum brasilense is able to fix nitrogen, but despite some controversy, as judging from most systems evaluated so far, contribution of fixed nitrogen by this bacterium does not seem to play a major role in plant growth promotion. In this review, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of physiological properties of A. brasilense that are important for rhizosphere performance and successful interactions with plant roots.

  1. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria associated with ancient clones of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Milko A; Shaharoona, Baby; Nadeem, Sajid M; de la Luz Mora, María; Crowley, David E

    2012-11-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are common components of the rhizosphere, but their role in adaptation of plants to extreme environments is not yet understood. Here, we examined rhizobacteria associated with ancient clones of Larrea tridentata in the Mohave desert, including the 11,700-year-old King Clone, which is oldest known specimen of this species. Analysis of unculturable and culturable bacterial community by PCR-DGGE revealed taxa that have previously been described on agricultural plants. These taxa included species of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes that commonly carry traits associated with plant growth promotion, including genes encoding aminocyclopropane carboxylate deaminase and β-propeller phytase. The PGPR activities of three representative isolates from L. tridentata were further confirmed using cucumber plants to screen for plant growth promotion. This study provides an intriguing first view of the mutualistic bacteria that are associated with some of the world's oldest living plants and suggests that PGPR likely contribute to the adaptation of L. tridentata and other plant species to harsh environmental conditions in desert habitats.

  2. Antagonizing Aspergillus parasiticus and Promoting Peanut Growth of Bacillus Isolated from Peanut Geocarposphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Wei; YAN Pei-sheng; WU Han-qi; LIN Feng

    2014-01-01

    A set of 38 Bacillus strains isolated from peanut geocarposphere soil were screened as potential biological control agent anti-Aspergillus parasiticus. Tip-culture method with rapid and quantitative characteristics was used to determine anti-A. parasiticus activity and the process of isolation could be accelerated with this method. 12 out of 38 Bacillus strains showed high anti-alfatoxin production activity. These 12 Bacillus strains were selected to identify the characteristics of promoting peanuts germination rate. Pot experiment in greenhouse was carried out by using these strains which can promote peanuts germination. Phytohormones in the fermentation broth were also detected as another important reference factor to select the isolates as biological control agent with PGPR features. These Bacillus strains isolated from peanut geocarposphere soil not only had high ability anti-Aspergillus parasiticus, but also promoted peanut growth. Therefore, these Bacillus strains were well adapted to peanut production in the ifeld as biological control agent with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) features.

  3. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of multi-trait plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for their growth promoting and disease suppressing effects on ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Raghavan; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Kumar, Aundy; Bini, Yogiyar Kundil; Subila, Kizhakke Purayil; Aravind, Ravindran

    2015-04-01

    In this study, 100 PGPR strains isolated from different varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) were first characterized for their morphological, biochemical, and nutrient mobilization traits in vitro. The PGPR were also screened in vitro for inhibition of Pythium myriotylum causing soft rot in ginger. Results revealed that only five PGPR showed >70% suppression of P. myriotylum. These 5 PGPR viz., GRB (Ginger rhizobacteria) 25--Burkholderia cepacia, GRB35--Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; GRB58--Serratia marcescens; GRB68--S. marcescens; GRB91--Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for further growth promotion and biocontrol studies in the green house and field. The green house study revealed that GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) and GRB68 (S. marcescens) registered markedly higher sprouting (96.3%) and lower disease incidence (48.1%) and greater rhizome yield (365.6 g pot(-1) and 384.4 g pot(-1), respectively), while control registered the lowest sprouting (66%), maximum soft rot incidence (100%) and lowest rhizome yield (134.4 g pot(-1)). In the field experiments also, GRB68 (S. marcescens) and GRB35 (B. amyloliquefaciens) registered the greatest sprouting (80% each), markedly lower soft rot incidence (5.2% and 7.3%, respectively) and higher yield (5.0 and 4.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) compared to chemicals like Streptomycin sulphate (73.0%, 18.5% and 2.3 kg(3)m(-2), respectively), Metalaxyl-Mancozeb (73.0%, 14.0% and 3.8 kg(3)m(-2), respectively) and control (73.0%, 25.1% and 2.2 kg 3m(-2), respectively). Overall, the results suggested that for growth promotion and management of soft rot disease in ginger, GRB35 B. amyloliquefaciens and GRB68 S. marcescens could be good alternatives to chemical measures. Since, the latter has been reported to be an opportunistic human pathogen, we recommend the use of B. amyloliquefaciens for integration into nutrient and disease management schedules for ginger cultivation.

  4. Activity screening of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from alfalfa rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahla pashapour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some rhizobacteria by various mechanisms influence plant growth as they are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Scientists identified some PGPR characters involved in promoting plant growth, while all these characters are not able to study. The aim of this study was to evaluate PGP activities of bacterial isolates, (45 isolates belonged to rhizobium and 2 bacterial isolates belonged to Pseudomonas fluorescens, which were isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa rhizosphere and root nodules grown around Zanjan. Materials and methods: These bacteria were isolated from alfalfa roots grown around Zinc industries in Zanjan province. After bacterial isolation and purification from root and soil samples, isolates were screened in vitro for plant growth promoting traits such as IAA (Indole Acetic Acid, ACC- deaminase (Amino Cyclopropan Carboxylate, HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide, siderophore, chitinase production and mineral and organic phosphate solubilization activities. Results: The results indicated that 43 bacterial isolates produced IAA (4.04- 4.95 μg/ml and 15 isolates produced ACC- deaminase (0.23- 1.05 μg/ml. Only one isolate (Rm66 produced high amount of HCN. Qualitative siderophore production was observed in 9 isolates. None of the isolates produced chitinase. Solubilization of mineral phosphate was commonly detected in 19 isolates (4.33- 5.86 μg/ml, and 15 isolates solubilized organic phosphate (1.66- 144.28 μg/ml. Discussion and conclusion: This study shows that most of the bacterial strains which isolated from alfalfa cultivated lands had PGP activities and also a good potential to increase plant growth after inoculation with to seeds as eco- friendly fertilizers.

  5. The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria on Transplants Growth and Lettuce Yield in Organic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczech Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of beneficial bacterial strain B125 (Enterobacter sp. and strain PZ9 (Bacillus sp. in lettuce transplants production significantly enhanced seed germination and plant biomass. The best effect was obtained when the mixture of B125 and PZ9 was used. Combined application of these bacteria significantly increased transplants biomass, which was about 45% higher than that in the control. However, after planting these transplants in organic field, generally, there were no differences in yield and nutrient content in plants treated and not treated with the bacteria, except for nitrogen and vitamin C. The lettuce grown from transplants treated with bacterial mixture B125 + PZ9 contained significantly higher nitrogen than plants from other treatments. Opposite to nitrogen, bacterial applications decreased the amount of vitamin C. The growth and organic lettuce composition was affected by planting time. The yield was higher in spring, but the concentration of nutrients in these plants was lower than that in plants harvested in autumn. Climatic and light conditions in the late season were the reasons for increased dry matter content, minerals, phenolic compounds, and vitamin C, as well as high concentration of nitrates.

  6. Growth promoting characteristics of rhizobacteria and AM Fungi for biomass amelioration of Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and mycorrhiza were evaluated on the growth (biomass and yield of Zea mays. In the present study, selective rhizospheric PGPR (Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Azospirillum brasilense and Streptomyces sp. and a combination of six strains of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Acaulospora morrowae, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus constrictum, Glomus mossae, Glomus aggregatum and Scutellospora calospora were isolated and identified with standard methods and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. PGPR and AMF were checked for their growth-promoting behavior under specific treatment conditions. The 30-48-day-old treated plants in all combinations showed a significantly higher mass value. The average dry weight from the shoot was in a range from 41-52% as compared to the control. This increase also translated into a higher mass value of the roots. Overall, an 82% growth rate was observed in terms of height as the consequence of biomass production, specifically in the case of AMF + rhizobacteria combination. We report an efficient, sustainable and cost-effective biofertilizer for enhanced biomass of Z. mays, one of the staple food crops worldwide.

  7. Thiazolidinediones Promote Axonal Growth through the Activation of the JNK Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Godoy, Juan A.; Alfaro, Ivan; Cabezas, Deny; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Bronfman, Miguel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    The axon is a neuronal process involved in protein transport, synaptic plasticity, and neural regeneration. It has been suggested that their structure and function are profoundly impaired in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous evidence suggest that Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-γ (PPARγ promote neuronal differentiation on various neuronal cell types. In addition, we demonstrated that activation of PPARγby thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs that selectively activate PPARγ prevent neurite loss and axonal damage induced by amyloid-β (Aβ). However, the potential role of TZDs in axonal elongation and neuronal polarity has not been explored. We report here that the activation of PPARγ by TZDs promoted axon elongation in primary hippocampal neurons. Treatments with different TZDs significantly increased axonal growth and branching area, but no significant effects were observed in neurite elongation compared to untreated neurons. Treatment with PPARγ antagonist (GW 9662) prevented TZDs-induced axonal growth. Recently, it has been suggested that the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays an important role regulating axonal growth and neuronal polarity. Interestingly, in our studies, treatment with TZDs induced activation of the JNK pathway, and the pharmacological blockage of this pathway prevented axon elongation induced by TZDs. Altogether, these results indicate that activation of JNK induced by PPARγactivators stimulates axonal growth and accelerates neuronal polarity. These novel findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of PPARγ on neuronal differentiation and validate the use of PPARγ activators as therapeutic agents in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23741474

  8. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid

    2016-06-17

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  9. A metabolic profile in Ruditapes philippinarum associated with growth-promoting effects of alginate hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Taga, Shigeru; Kishioka, Masanobu; Kawano, Shuichi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the growth-promoting effect of alginate hydrolysates (AHs) on the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, and to verify the physiological change occurring within a living R. philippinarum stimulated by AHs. We show that growth of clams was dramatically promoted by supplementing a diet of the diatom Chaetoceros neogracile with AHs at 4 mg/mL. Furthermore, metabolomics indicates that each state of starvation, food satiation, and sexual maturation have a characteristic pattern. In the groups given AHs in addition to C. neogracile in particular, excess carbohydrate was actively utilized for the development of reproductive tissue. In contrast, it appeared that clams in the groups given C. neogracile only were actively growing, utilizing their adequate carbohydrate resources. Meanwhile, the unfed groups have slowed growth because of the lack of an energy source. Hence, supplementation of AHs in addition to the algal diet may be an inexpensive way to shorten the rearing period of R. philippinarum. Moreover, metabolomics can evaluate the growth condition of R. philippinarum in a comprehensive way, and this approach is crucially important for not only the development of a mass culture method but also for the conservation of the clam resource in the field.

  10. Humic-Like Substances from Different Compost Extracts Could Significantly Promote Cucumber Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Da-Bing; WANG Qiu-Jun; WU Yun-Cheng; YU Guang-Hui; SHEN Qi-Rong; HUANG Qi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The effects of direct extracts of compost (DEC),aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC) on cucumber growth and the action mechanisms were evaluated based on the structure and activity analysis of humic-like substances.AFEC increased cucumber growth most significantly,followed by DEC and NAFEC,which was insignificant compared to the control treatment.Humic-like substances from compost extracts played an important role in promoting cucumber growth.Application of humic-like substances stimulated auxin-like activity and increased chlorophyll content and nitrogen accumulation in plants.The positive auxin-like activity of humic-like substances could be attributed to the relative distribution of special carbon groups,such as those with a large amount of peptidic and carbohydratic groups or with a low content of phenolic groups.In conclusion,the best growth promotion by application of AFEC was mainly attributed to the humic-like substances in the AFEC.

  11. Effect of some Trichoderma spp. isolates on promoting growth of cucumber seedlings under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taghinasab Darzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of some Trichoderma spp. isolates as growth promoters of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Inoculai of 19 Thrichoderma spp. isolates were prepared from disinfected wheat grain. The upper half of the soil in pots (containing field soil and sand was mixed with these inoculai at 3% ratio and the pots were irrigated with tap water for 28 days. After four weeks, the seedlings were sampled for growth comparison on stem length, root length and total fresh weight. The results showed that some isolates improved significantly the cucumber seedlings’ growth and others had inhibitory effect. Application of Trichoderma spp. 17 and T. longibraciatum increased stem length more than 74% as compared to control. Also, these isolates increased significantly P<0.05 the total fresh weight about 40% and 25%, respectively, as compared to control. Furthermore, Trichoderma sp. 19 decreased significantly the stem length, root length and total fresh weight as compared to control. These results show the ability of Persian Trichoderma spp. isolates in promoting cucumber growth and its potential for other plants.

  12. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha(-1)), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m(-1)). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha(-1) resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  13. Fatty acids identified in the Burmese python promote beneficial cardiac growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cecilia A; Magida, Jason A; Harrison, Brooke C; Wall, Christopher E; Marr, Thomas G; Secor, Stephen M; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2011-10-28

    Burmese pythons display a marked increase in heart mass after a large meal. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of this physiological heart growth with the goal of applying this knowledge to the mammalian heart. We found that heart growth in pythons is characterized by myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of cell proliferation and by activation of physiological signal transduction pathways. Despite high levels of circulating lipids, the postprandial python heart does not accumulate triglycerides or fatty acids. Instead, there is robust activation of pathways of fatty acid transport and oxidation combined with increased expression and activity of superoxide dismutase, a cardioprotective enzyme. We also identified a combination of fatty acids in python plasma that promotes physiological heart growth when injected into either pythons or mice.

  14. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhance Salinity Stress Tolerance in Okra through ROS-Scavenging Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sheikh Hasna; Kausar, Hossain; Saud, Halimi Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is a major environmental stress that limits crop production worldwide. In this study, we characterized plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase and examined their effect on salinity stress tolerance in okra through the induction of ROS-scavenging enzyme activity. PGPR inoculated okra plants exhibited higher germination percentage, growth parameters, and chlorophyll content than control plants. Increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, APX, and CAT) and upregulation of ROS pathway genes (CAT, APX, GR, and DHAR) were observed in PGPR inoculated okra plants under salinity stress. With some exceptions, inoculation with Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 had a significant influence on all tested parameters under salt stress, as compared to other treatments. Thus, the ACC deaminase-containing PGPR isolate Enterobacter sp. UPMR18 could be an effective bioresource for enhancing salt tolerance and growth of okra plants under salinity stress.

  15. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Saraswoti; Goodwin, Lynne A; Högberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Alström, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D

    2013-07-30

    Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project "Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens" awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI's Community Sequencing Program.

  16. Biological management of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in pea using plant growth promoting microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akansha; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial plant-microbe interactions play crucial roles in protection against large number of plant pathogens causing disease. The present study aims to investigate the growth promoting traits induced by beneficial microbes namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa PJHU15, Trichoderma harzianum TNHU27, and Bacillus subtilis BHHU100 treated singly and in combinations under greenhouse and field conditions to control Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plants treated with three microbe consortium enhanced plant growth maximally both in the presence and absence of the pathogen. Increase in plant length, total biomass, number of leaves, nodules and secondary roots, total chlorophyll and carotenoid content, and yield were recorded in plants treated with microbial consortia. Also, a decrease in plant mortality was observed in plants treated with microbial consortia in comparison to untreated control plants challenged with S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, the decrease in disease of all the treatments can be associated with differential improvement of growth induced in pea.

  17. Water soluble carbon nano-onions from wood wool as growth promoters for gram plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Manas; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2012-11-01

    Water-soluble carbon nano-onions (wsCNOs) isolated from wood wool--a wood-based pyrolysis waste product of wood, can enhance the overall growth rate of gram (Cicer arietinum) plants. Treatment of plants with upto 30 μg mL-1 of wsCNOs for an initial 10 day period in laboratory conditions led to an increase in the overall growth of the plant biomass. In order to examine the growth stimulating effects of wsCNOs under natural conditions, 10 day-old plants treated with and without wsCNOs were transplanted into soil of standard carbon and nitrogen composition. We observed an enhanced growth rate of the wsCNOs pre-treated plants in soil, which finally led to an increased productivity of plants in terms of a larger number of grams. On analyzing the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) content for the shoot and fruit sections of the plants treated with and without wsCNOs, only a minor difference in the composition was noticed. However, a slight increase in the percentage of carbon and hydrogen in shoots reflects the synthesis of more organic biomass in the case of treated plants. This work shows that wsCNOs are non-toxic to plant cells and can act as efficient growth stimulants which can be used as benign growth promoters.

  18. Does health promote economic growth? Portuguese case study: from dictatorship to full democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Sónia Maria Aniceto

    2014-07-01

    This paper revisits the debate on health and economic growth (Deaton in J Econ Lit 51:113-158, 2003) focusing on the Portuguese case by testing the relationship between growth and health. We test Portuguese insights, using time series data from 1960 to 2005, taking into account different variables (life expectancy, labour, capital, infant mortality) and considering the years that included major events on the political scene, such as the dictatorship and a closed economy (1960-1974), a revolution (1974) and full democracy and an open economy (1975-2005), factors that influence major economic, cultural, social and politic indicators. Therefore the analysis is carried out adopting Lucas' (J Monet Econ 22(1):3-42, 1988) endogenous growth model that considers human capital as one factor of production, it adopts a VAR (vector autoregressive) model to test the causality between growth and health. Estimates based on the VAR seem to confirm that economic growth influences the health process, but health does not promote growth, during the period under study.

  19. Carrageenans from red seaweeds as promoters of growth and elicitors of defense response in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushp Sheel Shukla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants incessantly encounter abiotic and biotic stresses that limit their growth and productivity. However, conversely, plant growth can also be induced by treatments with various abiotic and biotic elicitors. Carrageenans are sulfated linear polysaccharides that represent major cellular constituents of seaweeds belonging to red algae (Rhodophyta. Recent research has unraveled the biological activity of carrageenans and of their oligomeric forms, the oligo carrageenans (OCs, as promoters of plant growth and as elicitors of defense responses against pests and diseases. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which carrageenans and OCs mediate plant growth and plant defense responses. Carrageenans and OCs improve plant growth by regulating various metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and ancillary pathways, cell division, purine and pyrimidine synthetic pathways as well as metabolic pathways involved in nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Carrageenans and OCs also induce plant defense responses against viroids, viruses, bacteria, fungi and insects by modulating the activity of different defense pathways, including salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene signaling pathways. Further studies will likely substantiate the beneficial effects of carrageenans and of OCs on plant growth and plant defense responses and open new avenues for their use in agriculture and horticultural industry.

  20. Leptin activates chicken growth hormone promoter without chicken STAT3 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Daisuke; Namekawa, Shoko; Ohkubo, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that not only regulates food intake and energy homeostasis but also induces growth hormone (GH) mRNA expression and release, thereby controlling growth and metabolism in mammals. The molecular mechanism of leptin-induced regulation of GH gene transcription is unclear. The current study investigated the effects of leptin on the chicken GH (cGH) promoter and the molecular mechanism underlying leptin-induced cGH gene expression in vitro. Leptin activated the cGH promoter in the presence of chPit-1α in CHO cells stably expressing the chicken leptin receptor. Promoter activation did not require STAT-binding elements in the cGH promoter or STAT3 activity. However, JAK2 activation was required for leptin-dependent activity. JAK2-dependent pathways include p42/44 MAPK and PI3K, and inhibition of these pathways partially blocked leptin-induced cGH gene transcription. Although CK2 directly activates JAK2, a CK2 inhibitor blocked leptin-dependent activation of the cGH gene without affecting JAK2 phosphorylation. The CK2 inhibitor suppressed Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation. Additional data implicate Src family kinases in leptin-dependent cGH gene activation. These results suggest that leptin activates the cGH gene in the presence of chPit-1α via several leptin-activated kinases. Although further study is required, we suggest that the leptin-induced JAK2/p42/44 MAPK and JAK2/PI3K cascades are activated by Src-meditated CK2, leading to CBP phosphorylation and interaction with chPit-1α, resulting in transactivation of the cGH promoter.

  1. Evidence that endogenous relaxin promotes growth of the vagina and uterus during pregnancy in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, G; Hartzog, M G; Jennings, R L; Winn, R J; Sherwood, O D

    1997-02-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that endogenous relaxin promotes growth of the vagina during the second half of pregnancy in rats and that administration of porcine relaxin promotes growth of the uterus in nonpregnant or early pregnant gilts. This study examined the effects of circulating relaxin on growth of both the vagina and uterus during the last two thirds of the 114-day gestation period in gilts. Furthermore, this study employed an in vitro immunohistochemical localization technique to determine whether the vagina and uterus in pigs have specific relaxin-binding sites. Three groups of pregnant gilts were used: sham-ovariectomized controls (group C; n = 8), ovariectomized progesterone-treated (group OP; n = 6), and ovariectomized progesterone- plus relaxin-treated (group OPR; n = 7). Gilts were either sham ovariectomized or ovariectomized on day 40 of gestation. Hormone replacement therapy with progesterone (group OP), progesterone plus relaxin (group OPR), or hormone vehicles (group C) began on day 38 (progesterone) or day 40 (relaxin) and continued until day 110. On day 110, the vagina and uterus were collected, and wet weight, dry weight, and percent hydration were determined. Small pieces (2-3 cm3) of the vagina and uterus from groups C and OP were frozen and cryosectioned for the immunohistochemical localization of relaxin-binding sites. Relaxin promoted growth of both the vagina and uterus. The wet weights of both the vagina and uterus in relaxin-deficient gilts (group OP) were lower (P pig. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that both the vagina and uterus contain specific and saturable relaxin-binding sites in epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cells associated with blood vessels. We conclude that these cells probably initiate relaxin's effects on the vagina and uterus of the pregnant pig.

  2. Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingwu; Lou, Kai; Li, Chun

    2010-07-01

    Very little is known about the physiological interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria. We investigated the impact of three endophytic bacteria, Bacillus pumilus 2-1, Chryseobacterium indologene 2-2, and Acinetobacter johnsonii 3-1, on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of sugar beet. Endophyte-free plants were obtained first and infected with the bacteria. Measurements of total chlorophyll content revealed very significant differences between endophyte-free beet plants and some infected by endophytic bacteria. The maximum photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) was used to determine any photosynthetic effect on plants caused by biotic or abiotic factors. After 30 days of growth, there was significantly higher Fv/Fm for endophyte-infected than endophyte-free plants. The light response curves of beet showed that photosynthetic capacity was significantly increased in endophyte-infected plants. Photosynthesis of endophyte-free plants was saturated at 1,300 micromol m(-2) s(-1), whereas endophyte-infected plants were not saturated at the irradiance used. The effect seemed to be due to promotion of electron transport in the thylakoid membranes. Promotion of photosynthetic capacity in sugar beet was due to increased chlorophyll content, leading to a consequent increased carbohydrate synthesis. It is possible that the increased maximum yield of photosynthesis in sugar beet was promoted by phytohormones and produced by the bacteria.

  3. Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Wei [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Guifang [Department of Pathology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cai, Xiaojun [Department of Ophthalmology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Falck, John R. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 (United States); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2012-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. -- Highlights: ► CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes human breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. ► The pro-angiogenic effects of CYP4Z1 have

  4. The impact of stress on tumor growth: peripheral CRF mediates tumor-promoting effects of stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathopoulos Efstathios N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stress has been shown to be a tumor promoting factor. Both clinical and laboratory studies have shown that chronic stress is associated with tumor growth in several types of cancer. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF is the major hypothalamic mediator of stress, but is also expressed in peripheral tissues. Earlier studies have shown that peripheral CRF affects breast cancer cell proliferation and motility. The aim of the present study was to assess the significance of peripheral CRF on tumor growth as a mediator of the response to stress in vivo. Methods For this purpose we used the 4T1 breast cancer cell line in cell culture and in vivo. Cells were treated with CRF in culture and gene specific arrays were performed to identify genes directly affected by CRF and involved in breast cancer cell growth. To assess the impact of peripheral CRF as a stress mediator in tumor growth, Balb/c mice were orthotopically injected with 4T1 cells in the mammary fat pad to induce breast tumors. Mice were subjected to repetitive immobilization stress as a model of chronic stress. To inhibit the action of CRF, the CRF antagonist antalarmin was injected intraperitoneally. Breast tissue samples were histologically analyzed and assessed for neoangiogenesis. Results Array analysis revealed among other genes that CRF induced the expression of SMAD2 and β-catenin, genes involved in breast cancer cell proliferation and cytoskeletal changes associated with metastasis. Cell transfection and luciferase assays confirmed the role of CRF in WNT- β-catenin signaling. CRF induced 4T1 cell proliferation and augmented the TGF-β action on proliferation confirming its impact on TGFβ/SMAD2 signaling. In addition, CRF promoted actin reorganization and cell migration, suggesting a direct tumor-promoting action. Chronic stress augmented tumor growth in 4T1 breast tumor bearing mice and peripheral administration of the CRF antagonist antalarmin suppressed this

  5. N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine regulates Hedgehog signaling and promotes growth of cortical axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgi Kharebava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Axonogenesis, a process for the establishment of neuron connectivity, is central to brain function. The role of metabolites derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 that is specifically enriched in the brain, has not been addressed in axon development. In this study, we tested if synaptamide (N-docosahexaenoylethanolamine, an endogenous metabolite of DHA, affects axon growth in cultured cortical neurons. We found that synaptamide increased the average axon length, inhibited GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1 transcription and sonic hedgehog (Shh target gene expression while inducing cAMP elevation. Similar effects were produced by cyclopamine, a regulator of the Shh pathway. Conversely, Shh antagonized elevation of cAMP and blocked synaptamide-mediated increase in axon length. Activation of Shh pathway by a smoothened (SMO agonist (SAG or overexpression of SMO did not inhibit axon growth mediated by synaptamide or cyclopamine. Instead, adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 abolished synaptamide-mediated axon growth indicating requirement of cAMP elevation for this process. Our findings establish that synaptamide promotes axon growth while Shh antagonizes synaptamide-mediated cAMP elevation and axon growth by a SMO-independent, non-canonical pathway.

  6. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Vejan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer—thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability.

  7. Over-expression of thymosin beta 4 promotes abnormal tooth development and stimulation of hair growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hee-Jae; Philp, Deborah; Lee, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Hye-Sung; Kleinman, Hynda K; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Thymosin beta 4 has multi-functional roles in cell physiology. It accelerates wound healing, hair growth and angiogenesis, and increases laminin-5 expression in corneal epithelium. Furthermore, thymosin beta 4 stimulates tumor growth and metastasis by induction of cell migration and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis. Using a construct on the skin-specific keratin-5 promoter, we have developed thymosin beta 4 over-expressing transgenic mice to further study its functional roles. Thymosin beta 4 in adult skin and in embryonic stages of the transgenic mouse was analyzed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The over-expression of thymosin beta 4 was observed especially around hair follicles and in the teeth in the transgenic mice. We examined the phenotype of the thymosin beta 4 over-expressing mice. Hair growth was accelerated. In addition, the transgenic mice had abnormally-shaped white teeth and dull incisors. We found that the expression of laminin-5 was up-regulated in the skin of the transgenic mice. We conclude that thymosin beta 4 has an important physiological role in hair growth and in tooth development.

  8. Phytohormonal basis for the plant growth promoting action of naturally occurring biostimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Zaman, Mohammad; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of naturally occurring 'biostimulators' for enhancing the growth of agricultural and horticultural crops. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa, as well as marine algae-based seaweed extracts, can produce or contain biostimulators. The activity of biostimulators to promote plant growth is often attributed to their ability to directly or indirectly provide mineral nutrients (mostly N, but also P, S and other macro- and micro-nutrients) to plants. Alternatively, biostimulators are postulated to increase the plant's ability to assimilate these mineral nutrients, often in return for photo-assimilates (as occurs with certain bacteria and fungi associations). Although optimal growth of plants depends on the availability of adequate mineral nutritients, that growth (and also development, including reproduction) is also regulated by plant hormones (phytohormones), including gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins. This review describes and discusses the evidence that the presence or application of biostimulators also increases plant growth directly via phytohormone action and also influences the plant's ability to control its own hormone biosynthesis and homeostasis. Finally, it discusses the need for a better understanding of the role(s) that are played by the naturally occurring biostimulators associated with the plant in the crop field. It is suggested that better understanding will allow for optimal crop yield returns, since disruptions of phytohormone homeostasis in plant organs and tissues can yield either beneficial or sub-optimal outcomes.

  9. Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agricultural Sustainability-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejan, Pravin; Abdullah, Rosazlin; Khadiran, Tumirah; Ismail, Salmah; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) shows an important role in the sustainable agriculture industry. The increasing demand for crop production with a significant reduction of synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides use is a big challenge nowadays. The use of PGPR has been proven to be an environmentally sound way of increasing crop yields by facilitating plant growth through either a direct or indirect mechanism. The mechanisms of PGPR include regulating hormonal and nutritional balance, inducing resistance against plant pathogens, and solubilizing nutrients for easy uptake by plants. In addition, PGPR show synergistic and antagonistic interactions with microorganisms within the rhizosphere and beyond in bulk soil, which indirectly boosts plant growth rate. There are many bacteria species that act as PGPR, described in the literature as successful for improving plant growth. However, there is a gap between the mode of action (mechanism) of the PGPR for plant growth and the role of the PGPR as biofertilizer-thus the importance of nano-encapsulation technology in improving the efficacy of PGPR. Hence, this review bridges the gap mentioned and summarizes the mechanism of PGPR as a biofertilizer for agricultural sustainability.

  10. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Promotes Cell Migration, Tumor Growth of Colorectal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Kollmar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In a mouse model of established extrahepatic colorectal metastasis, we analyzed whether stromal cellderived factor (SDF 1 stimulates tumor cell migration in vitro, angiogenesis, tumor growth in vivo. METHODS: Using chemotaxis chambers, CT26.WT colorectal tumor cell migration was studied under stimulation with different concentrations of SDF-1. To evaluate angiogenesis, tumor growth in vivo, green fluorescent protein-transfected CT26.WT cells were implanted in dorsal skinfold chambers of syngeneic BALB/c mice. After 5 days, tumors were locally exposed to SDF-1. Cell proliferation, tumor microvascularization, growth were studied during a further 9-day period using intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology, immunohistochemistry. Tumors exposed to PBS only served as controls. RESULTS:In vitro, > 30% of unstimulated CT26.WT cells showed expression of the SDF-1 receptor CXCR4. On chemotaxis assay, SDF-1 provoked a dose-dependent increase in cell migration. In vivo, SDF-1 accelerated neovascularization, induced a significant increase in tumor growth. Capillaries of SDF-1-treated tumors showed significant dilation. Of interest, SDF-1 treatment was associated with a significantly increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a downregulation of cleaved caspase-3. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that the CXC chemokine SDF-1 promotes tumor cell migration in vitro, tumor growth of established extrahepatic metastasis in vivo due to angiogenesis-dependent induction of tumor cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptotic cell death.

  11. Neural Progenitor Cells Promote Axonal Growth and Alter Axonal mRNA Localization in Adult Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merianda, Tanuja T.; Jin, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The inhibitory environment of the spinal cord and the intrinsic properties of neurons prevent regeneration of axons following CNS injury. However, both ascending and descending axons of the injured spinal cord have been shown to regenerate into grafts of embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Previous studies have shown that grafts composed of glial-restricted progenitors (GRPs) and neural-restricted progenitors (NRPs) can provide a permissive microenvironment for axon growth. We have used cocultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons together with NPCs, which have shown significant enhancement of axon growth by embryonic rat GRP and GRPs/NRPs, both in coculture conditions and when DRGs are exposed to conditioned medium from the NPC cultures. This growth-promoting effect of NPC-conditioned medium was also seen in injury-conditioned neurons. DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs showed altered expression of regeneration-associated genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We found that levels of GAP-43 mRNA increased in DRG cell bodies and axons. However, hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (HAMP) mRNA decreased in the cell bodies of DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs, which is distinct from the increase in cell body HAMP mRNA levels seen in DRGs after injury conditioning. Endogenous GAP-43 and β-actin mRNAs as well as reporter RNAs carrying axonally localizing 3'UTRs of these transcripts showed significantly increased levels in distal axons in the DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs. These results indicate that axon growth promoted by NPCs is associated not only with enhanced transcription of growth-associated genes but also can increase localization of some mRNAs into growing axons. PMID:28197547

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase β (LPAATβ promotes the tumor growth of human osteosarcoma.

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    Farbod Rastegar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone with poorly characterized molecular pathways important in its pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that elevated lipid biosynthesis is a characteristic feature of cancer. We sought to investigate the role of lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase β (LPAATβ, aka, AGPAT2 in regulating the proliferation and growth of human osteosarcoma cells. LPAATβ can generate phosphatidic acid, which plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis as well as in cell proliferation and survival. Although elevated expression of LPAATβ has been reported in several types of human tumors, the role of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma progression has yet to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Endogenous expression of LPAATβ in osteosarcoma cell lines is analyzed by using semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of LPAATβ and silencing LPAATβ expression is employed to determine the effect of LPAATβ on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration in vitro and osteosarcoma tumor growth in vivo. We have found that expression of LPAATβ is readily detected in 8 of the 10 analyzed human osteosarcoma lines. Exogenous expression of LPAATβ promotes osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, while silencing LPAATβ expression inhibits these cellular characteristics. We further demonstrate that exogenous expression of LPAATβ effectively promotes tumor growth, while knockdown of LPAATβ expression inhibits tumor growth in an orthotopic xenograft model of human osteosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strongly suggest that LPAATβ expression may be associated with the aggressive phenotypes of human osteosarcoma and that LPAATβ may play an important role in regulating osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Thus, targeting LPAATβ may be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy for the clinical management of osteosarcoma. This

  13. Type I TARPs promote dendritic growth of early postnatal neocortical pyramidal cells in organotypic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mohammad I K; Jack, Alexander; Klatt, Oliver; Lorkowski, Markus; Strasdeit, Tobias; Kott, Sabine; Sager, Charlotte; Hollmann, Michael; Wahle, Petra

    2014-04-01

    The ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate glutamate receptors (AMPARs) have been implicated in the establishment of dendritic architecture. The transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) regulate AMPAR function and trafficking into synaptic membranes. In the current study, we employ type I and type II TARPs to modulate expression levels and function of endogenous AMPARs and investigate in organotypic cultures (OTCs) of rat occipital cortex whether this influences neuronal differentiation. Our results show that in early development [5-10 days in vitro (DIV)] only the type I TARP γ-8 promotes pyramidal cell dendritic growth by increasing spontaneous calcium amplitude and GluA2/3 expression in soma and dendrites. Later in development (10-15 DIV), the type I TARPs γ-2, γ-3 and γ-8 promote dendritic growth, whereas γ-4 reduced dendritic growth. The type II TARPs failed to alter dendritic morphology. The TARP-induced dendritic growth was restricted to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells and it did not affect interneurons. Moreover, we studied the effects of short hairpin RNA-induced knockdown of endogenous γ-8 and showed a reduction of dendritic complexity and amplitudes of spontaneous calcium transients. In addition, the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of γ-8 was required for dendritic growth. Single-cell calcium imaging showed that the γ-8 CT domain increases amplitude but not frequency of calcium transients, suggesting a regulatory mechanism involving the γ-8 CT domain in the postsynaptic compartment. Indeed, the effect of γ-8 overexpression was reversed by APV, indicating a contribution of NMDA receptors. Our results suggest that selected type I TARPs influence activity-dependent dendritogenesis of immature pyramidal neurons.

  14. Survival of two introduced plant growth promoting micro-organisms in green roof soil in southern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Long

    2014-01-01

    Glomus intraradices and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens are two commercially used plant growth promoting micro-organisms. They associate with plant roots to facilitate host plants to absorb nutrients, induce resistance against pathogens and pests, and regulate growth through phytohormones. Growth conditions for plants on green roofs are often unfavorable. In order to test whether growth and development of green roof plants could be enhanced via improving the microbial interface, G. intraradices an...

  15. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b, RGMb) is a novel gene that promotes colorectal cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Chen, Guo-Bin; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Li, Ye-Sen; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Li, Shao; Xia, Yin; Ren, Jian-Lin; Guleng, Bayasi

    2015-08-21

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a major cause of cancer death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC initiation, growth and metastasis are poorly understood. Dragon (RGMb), a member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, has been recently identified as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, but the role of Dragon in CRC development is undefined. Here, we show that Dragon expression was increased in colon cancer tissues compared to control tissues in CAC mouse model and in human patients. Dragon promoted proliferation of CT26.WT and CMT93 colon cancer cells and accelerated tumor growth in the xenograft mouse model. Dragon's action on colon cancer development was mediated via the BMP4-Smad1/5/8 and Erk1/2 pathways. Therefore, our results have revealed that Dragon is a novel gene that promotes CRC growth through the BMP pathway. Dragon may be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for CRC treatment.

  16. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mapelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  17. Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boo Hyeong; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice (100 μL per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

  18. Hair growth promoting potential of phospholipids purified from porcine lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-Il; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-03-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice. The numbers of hair follicles in the anagen phase of BP201-treated mice were also higher than those of control mice. In combination with MNX, BP201 further increased the total number of hair follicles, but did not alter the percentage of hair follicles in the anagenic phase. BP201 also increased the proliferation of human hair follicle dermal papilla cells. Collectively, BP201 possesses hair growth promoting potential, which would suggest its use singly or in combination for hair growth products.

  19. Diversity, Biocontrol, and Plant Growth Promoting Abilities of Xylem Residing Bacteria from Solanaceous Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri A. Achari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is one of the solanaceous crops of economic and cultural importance and is widely cultivated in the state of Goa, India. Eggplant cultivation is severely affected by bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum that colonizes the xylem tissue. In this study, 167 bacteria were isolated from the xylem of healthy eggplant, chilli, and Solanum torvum Sw. by vacuum infiltration and maceration. Amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA grouped these xylem residing bacteria (XRB into 38 haplotypes. Twenty-eight strains inhibited growth of R. solanacearum and produced volatile and diffusible antagonistic compounds and plant growth promoting substances in vitro. Antagonistic strains XB86, XB169, XB177, and XB200 recorded a biocontrol efficacy greater than 85% against BW and exhibited 12%–22 % increase in shoot length in eggplant in the greenhouse screening. 16S rRNA based identification revealed the presence of 23 different bacterial genera. XRB with high biocontrol and plant growth promoting activities were identified as strains of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Streptomyces sp., Enterobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp. This study is the first report on identity of bacteria from the xylem of solanaceous crops having traits useful in cultivation of eggplant.

  20. SIRT6 Depletion Suppresses Tumor Growth by Promoting Cellular Senescence Induced by DNA Damage in HCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Namgyu; Ryu, Hye Guk; Kwon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Dae-Kyum; Kim, Sae Rom; Wang, Hee Jung; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Choi, Kwan Yong

    2016-01-01

    The role of Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in liver cancer remains controversial. Thus, we identified the specific role of SIRT6 in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SIRT6 expression was significantly higher in HCC cell lines and HCC tissues from 138 patients than in an immortalized hepatocyte cell line, THLE-2 and non-tumor tissues, respectively. SIRT6 knockdown by shRNA suppressed the growth of HCC cells and inhibited HCC tumor growth in vivo. In addition, SIRT6 silencing significantly prevented the growth of HCC cell lines by inducing cellular senescence in the p16/Rb- and p53/p21-pathway independent manners. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of genes involved in nucleosome assembly was apparently altered in SIRT6-depleted Hep3B cells. SIRT6 knockdown promoted G2/M phase arrest and downregulation of genes encoding histone variants associated with nucleosome assembly, which could be attributed to DNA damage. Taken together, our findings suggest that SIRT6 acts as a tumor promoter by preventing DNA damage and cellular senescence, indicating that SIRT6 represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC. PMID:27824900

  1. Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  2. Native rhizobia from Zn mining soil promote the growth of Leucaena leucocephala on contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Wesley M; Thijs, Sofie; Janssen, Jolien; Oliveira Longatti, Silvia M; Bonaldi, Daiane S; Ribeiro, Paula R A; Jambon, Inge; Eevers, Nele; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2017-02-01

    Plants on contaminated mining soils often show a reduced growth due to nutrient depletion as well as trace elements (TEs) toxicity. Since those conditions threat plant's survival, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), such as rhizobia, might be of crucial importance for plant colonization on TE-contaminated soils. Native rhizobia from mining soils are promising candidates for bioaugmented phytoremediation of those soils as they are adapted to the specific conditions. In this work, rhizobia from Zn- and Cd-contaminated mining soils were in vitro screened for their PGP features [organic acids, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and siderophore (SID) production; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity; and Ca3(PO4)2 solubilization] and Zn and Cd tolerance. In addition, some type and reference rhizobia strains were included in the study as well. The in vitro screening indicated that rhizobia and other native genera have great potential for phytoremediation purposes, by exerting, besides biological N2 fixation, other plant growth-promoting traits. Leucaena leucocephala-Mesorhizobium sp. (UFLA 01-765) showed multielement tolerance and an efficient symbiosis on contaminated soil, decreasing the activities of antioxidative enzymes in shoots. This symbiosis is a promising combination for phytostabilization.

  3. Gibberellins-producing rhizobacteria increase endogenous gibberellins content and promote growth of red peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Gil-Jae; Kim, Young-Mog; Kim, Jung-Tae; Rhee, In-Koo; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2005-12-01

    The growth of red pepper plants was enhanced by treatment with the rhizobacterium, Bacillus cereus MJ-1. Red pepper shoots showed a 1.38-fold increase in fresh weight (fw) and roots showed a 1.28-fold fw gain. This plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) has been reported to produce gibberellins (GAs). Other GAs-producing rhizobacteria, Bacillus macroides CJ-29 and Bacillus pumilus CJ-69, also enhanced the fw of the plants. They were less effective than B. cereus MJ-1, though. The endogenous GAs content of pepper shoots inoculated with MJ-1 was also higher than in shoots inoculated with CJ-29 or CJ-69. When inoculated with MJ-1, bacterial colonization rate of the roots was higher than that of roots inoculated with CJ-29 or CJ-69. These results support the idea that the plant growth-promoting effect of the bacteria also positively related with the efficiency of root colonization by the bacteria. In addition, we identified the major endogenous GAs of the red pepper as originating from both the early C-13 hydroxylation and the early non C-13 hydroxylation pathways, with the latter being the predominant pathway of GA biosynthesis in red pepper shoots.

  4. Endophytic fungi produce gibberellins and indoleacetic acid and promotes host-plant growth during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Kamran, Muhammad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-09-07

    We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. The endophytic fungi Phoma glomerata LWL2 and Penicillium sp. LWL3 significantly promoted the shoot and allied growth attributes of GAs-deficient dwarf mutant Waito-C and Dongjin-beyo rice. Analysis of the pure cultures of these endophytic fungi showed biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7) in various quantities. The cultures of P. glomerata and Penicillium sp. also contained IAA. The culture application and endophytic-association with host-cucumber plants significantly increased the plant biomass and related growth parameters under sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol induced salinity and drought stress as compared to control plants. The endophytic symbiosis resulted in significantly higher assimilation of essential nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to control plants during salinity stress. Endophytic-association reduced the sodium toxicity and promoted the host-benefit ratio in cucumber plants as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The symbiotic-association mitigated stress by compromising the activities of reduced glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Under stress conditions, the endophyte-infection significantly modulated stress through down-regulated abscisic acid, altered jasmonic acid, and elevated salicylic acid contents as compared to control. In conclusion, the two endophytes significantly reprogrammed the growth of host plants during stress conditions.

  5. Endophytic Fungi Produce Gibberellins and Indoleacetic Acid and Promotes Host-Plant Growth during Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jung Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and examined two endophytic fungi for their potential to secrete phytohormones viz. gibberellins (GAs and indoleacetic acid (IAA and mitigate abiotic stresses like salinity and drought. The endophytic fungi Phoma glomerata LWL2 and Penicillium sp. LWL3 significantly promoted the shoot and allied growth attributes of GAs-deficient dwarf mutant Waito-C and Dongjin-beyo rice. Analysis of the pure cultures of these endophytic fungi showed biologically active GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 in various quantities. The cultures of P. glomerata and Penicillium sp. also contained IAA. The culture application and endophytic-association with host-cucumber plants significantly increased the plant biomass and related growth parameters under sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol induced salinity and drought stress as compared to control plants. The endophytic symbiosis resulted in significantly higher assimilation of essential nutrients like potassium, calcium and magnesium as compared to control plants during salinity stress. Endophytic-association reduced the sodium toxicity and promoted the host-benefit ratio in cucumber plants as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The symbiotic-association mitigated stress by compromising the activities of reduced glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Under stress conditions, the endophyte-infection significantly modulated stress through down-regulated abscisic acid, altered jasmonic acid, and elevated salicylic acid contents as compared to control. In conclusion, the two endophytes significantly reprogrammed the growth of host plants during stress conditions.

  6. Thalamus-derived molecules promote survival and dendritic growth of developing cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Haruka; Fukutani, Yuma; Yamamoto, Yuji; Tatara, Eiichi; Takemoto, Makoto; Shimamura, Kenji; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko

    2012-10-31

    The mammalian neocortex is composed of various types of neurons that reflect its laminar and area structures. It has been suggested that not only intrinsic but also afferent-derived extrinsic factors are involved in neuronal differentiation during development. However, the role and molecular mechanism of such extrinsic factors are almost unknown. Here, we attempted to identify molecules that are expressed in the thalamus and affect cortical cell development. First, thalamus-specific molecules were sought by comparing gene expression profiles of the developing rat thalamus and cortex using microarrays, and by constructing a thalamus-enriched subtraction cDNA library. A systematic screening by in situ hybridization showed that several genes encoding extracellular molecules were strongly expressed in sensory thalamic nuclei. Exogenous and endogenous protein localization further demonstrated that two extracellular molecules, Neuritin-1 (NRN1) and VGF, were transported to thalamic axon terminals. Application of NRN1 and VGF to dissociated cell culture promoted the dendritic growth. An organotypic slice culture experiment further showed that the number of primary dendrites in multipolar stellate neurons increased in response to NRN1 and VGF, whereas dendritic growth of pyramidal neurons was not promoted. These molecules also increased neuronal survival of multipolar neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that the thalamus-specific molecules NRN1 and VGF play an important role in the dendritic growth and survival of cortical neurons in a cell type-specific manner.

  7. Isolation and characterization of soybean-associated bacteria and their potential for plant growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinsky-Sobral, Júlia; Araújo, Welington Luiz; Mendes, Rodrigo; Geraldi, Isaias Olívio; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2004-12-01

    Endophytic and epiphytic bacteria were isolated from two soybean cultivars (Foscarin and Cristalina). Significant differences were observed in bacterial population densities in relation to season of isolation, soybean growth phase and the tissues from which the isolates were obtained. The isolates were identified by partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the Pseudomonaceae, Burkholderiacea and Enterobacteriaceae groups. The potential of the isolates for plant growth promotion was evaluated by screening for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production and mineral phosphate solubilization; 34% of endophytic bacteria produced IAA and 49% were able to solubilize mineral phosphate whereas only 21% of epiphytic bacteria produced IAA although 52% were able to solubilize mineral phosphate. A high frequency of IAA producing isolates occurred in the early ripening Foscarin cultivar whereas a high percentage of phosphate solubilizing isolates were obtained from plants in the initial development stage (V6). We also found that 60% of endophytic and 69% of epiphytic isolates that produced IAA and solubilized mineral phosphate were also able to fix nitrogen in vitro. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Enterobacter, Pantoea and Acinetobacter.

  8. SOYBEAN SEEDLING ROOT GROWTH PROMOTION BY 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE DEAMINASE-PRODUCING PSEUDOMONADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Husen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonad producing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase (E.C.4.1.99.4 has been known to promote plant growth by lowering ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants, which can be induced by indole-3-acetic acid (IAA production. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of IAAproducing Pseudomonas isolated from local soil environment (rhizosphere of soybean grown in Plumbon's agricultural areain Cirebon, West Java, Indonesia to promote soybean root growth in relation to their ACC deaminase activities. The experiments were conducted in growth room and Laboratory of Soil Biology Research, Indonesian Soil Research Institute, Bogor, from January to August 2008. Soybean seeds were inoculated by immersing the seeds for 1 hour in bacterial cell suspension containing approximately 108-109 cells ml-1. The seeds were then germinatedfor 2 days before planting in growth pouches containing sterilized distilled water. All treated and untreated seeds were grown for 7 days in growth room at 24°C with 1300 lux of light intensity for 12-hour followed by a 12-hour dark period at 22°C. ACC deaminase activity of the isolates was assayed based on their ability to grow in Dworkin-Foster’s salt minimal medium containing ammonium sulfate or ACC as a source of nitrogen. Thirteen out of 81 isolates tested significantly increased soybean root length and weight, up to 50% from untreated plants. Of 13 isolates, 11 demonstrated ACC deaminase activities. Two isolates that did not show ACC deaminase activities had lower capacity to produce IAA. The results suggest that the effectiveness of IAA producing Pseudomonas in promoting the growth of the soybean seedlings is associated with their ACC deaminase activities or they produce IAA at low levels.

  9. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Darrion L. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); DiMario, Joseph X., E-mail: joseph.dimario@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  10. Achyranthes bidentata Blume extract promotes neuronal growth in cultured embryonic rat hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Tang; Yiren Chen; Xiaosong Gu; Fei Ding

    2009-01-01

    We have prepared an aqueous extract of Achyranthes bidentata Blume,a commonly prescribed Chinese medicinal herb,and reported,in previous studies,that A.bidentata extract benefits nerve growth and prevents neuron apoptosis.In this study,we investigated the actions of ,4.bidentata extract on survival and growth of primarily cultured rat hippocampal neurons.The morphological observation revealed that neurite growth from hippocampal neurons was significantly enhanced by A.bidentata extract with similar effects to those induced by nerve growth factor (NGF),and the greatest neurite growth appeared on treatment with A.bidentata extract at 1 ttg/ml for 24 h.DNA microarray analysis indicated that there were 25 upregulated genes and 47 downregulated genes exhibiting significantly differential expression in hippocampal neurons treated with A.bidentata extract at 1 μg/ml for 6 h when compared to those in untreated hippocampal neurons.Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of growth-associated protein-43 in hippocampal neurons was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels after treatment with A.bidentata extract,and the optimal dosage of the extract was also 1 μg/ml.These data confirm that A.bidentata extract could promote in vitro hippocampal neuronal growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner.(C) 2009 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  11. Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic (to control infectious diseases) and prophylactic (to prevent against infections) purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting the animal’s metabolism. Most of these substances are orally active and can be administered either in the feed or in the drinking water. Other active hormones are applied in the form of small implants into the subcutaneous tissue of the ears. These are slow release (several weeks or months) devices and the ears are discarded at the slaughter. Growth promoters allow a better efficiency in the feed conversion rate. The net effect is an increased protein deposition, partly due to muscle proteases inhibition (Fiems, Buts, Boucque, Demeyer, & Cottyn, 1990), usually linked to fat utilization (Brockman & Laarveld, 1986). The result is a leaner meat (Lone, 1997) with some toughness derived from the production of connective tissue and collagen crosslinking (Miller, Judge, Diekman, Hudgens, & Aberle, 1989; Miller, Judge, & Schanbacher, 1990). Some recent fraudulent practices, consisting of the use of a kind of “cocktails” or mixtures of several substances like β-agonists and corticosteroids at very low amounts (Monsón et al., 2007), are difficult to detect with modern analytical instrumentation. They try to obtain a synergistic effect for a similar growth promotion with lower probability of detection by official control laboratories (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

  12. Growth-promoting activity of Hominis Placenta extract on regenerating sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-beom SEO; Dong-hee KIM; Seung-kiel PARK; Deok-chun YANG; Uk NAMGUNG; In-sun HAN; Jin-hwan YOON; In-chan SEOL; Yun-sik KIM; Hyun-kyung JO; Joung-jo AN; Kwon-eui HONG; Young-bae SEO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Extract of Hominis Placenta (HP) has been used in oriental medicine as an agent for improving physiological function. The present study was conducted to investigate whether HP treatment in an experimental sciatic nerve injury animal model produces growth-promoting effects on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers after injury. Methods: After HP was injected into a sciatic nerve injury site, changes in protein levels were analyzed in the regenerating nerve area by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining analyses. For quantitative assessment of axonal regeneration, a retrograde tracing technique was used to identify the neuronal cell bodies corresponding to regenerating axons, and the extent of neurite outgrowth in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons prepared from animals that had experienced a sciatic nerve crush injury 7 d before neuron collection was analyzed. Results: Induction levels of axonal growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in the injured sciatic nerves were elevated by HP treatment. HP treatment also upregulated cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) protein levels in the distal stump of the injured sciatic nerve. Induced Cdc2 protein was detected in Schwann cells, suggesting that Cdc2 kinase activity may be involved in the growth-promoting activity of regenerating axons via Schwann cell proliferation. Cell body measurement by retrograde tracing indicated that HP treatment produced significant increases in regenerating motor axons. Finally, HP treatment of cultured DRG sensory neurons significantly increased neurite arborization and elongation.Conclusion: HP promotes the regeneration of injured sciatic axons by upregulating the synthesis of regeneration-related protein factors such as GAP-43 and Cdc2.

  13. An In vitro Study of Bio-Control and Plant Growth Promotion Potential of Salicaceae Endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Shyam L.; Firrincieli, Andrea; Joubert, Pierre M.; Okubara, Patricia A.; Leston, Natalie D.; McGeorge, Kendra M.; Mugnozza, Giuseppe S.; Harfouche, Antoine; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Doty, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities in the endosphere of Salicaceae plants, poplar (Populus trichocarpa) and willow (Salix sitchensis), have been demonstrated to be important for plant growth promotion, protection from biotic and abiotic stresses, and degradation of toxic compounds. Our study aimed to investigate bio-control activities of Salicaceae endophytes against various soil borne plant pathogens including Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, Fusarium culmorum, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, and Pythium ultimum. Additionally, different plant growth promoting traits such as biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production were assessed in all bio-control positive strains. Burkholderia, Rahnella, Pseudomonas, and Curtobacterium were major endophyte genera that showed bio-control activities in the in-vitro assays. The bio-control activities of Burkholderia strains were stronger across all tested plant pathogens as compared to other stains. Genomes of sequenced Burkholderia strains WP40 and WP42 were surveyed to identify the putative genes involved in the bio-control activities. The ocf and hcnABC gene clusters responsible for biosynthesis of the anti-fungal metabolites, occidiofungin and hydrogen cyanide, are present in the genomes of WP40 and WP42. Nearly all endophyte strains showing the bio-control activities produced IAA, solubilized tricalcium phosphate, and synthesized siderophores in the culture medium. Moreover, some strains reduced acetylene into ethylene in the acetylene reduction assay, a common assay used for BNF. Salicaceae endophytes could be useful for bio-control of various plant pathogens, and plant growth promotion possibly through the mechanisms of BNF, IAA production, and nutrient acquisition.

  14. Growth promoting effects of prebiotic yeast cell wall products in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...

  15. Hair Growth Promoting Potential of Phospholipids Purified from Porcine Lung Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seong-Hyun; Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-suk; Jeon, Yeon-Jeong; Yoon, Byung-IL; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    BP201, porcine lung tissue-derived phospholipids, consists of phosphatidylcholine as a major phospholipid species. BP201 promoted hair growth after application onto the shaved backs of BALB/c and C3H mice. Its effect was enhanced when applied together with minoxidil (MNX) in C3H mice. When the tissue specimens prepared from the shaved skins of BP201-treated and control mice were microscopically examined, the total numbers of hair follicles in both anagen and telogen phases of BP201-treated mi...

  16. H2O2-Promoted Size Growth of Sulfated TiO2 Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN You-Jun; QIU Xiao-Qing; WANG Hui; LI Li-Ping; LI Guang-She

    2008-01-01

    Anatase nanoparticles modified by sulfate groups were synthesized using hydrother- mal method. The particles were controlled to large sizes by simply adjusting the amount of H2O2, in which HOO- ions replaced the surface sulfate groups and reduced the steric effect to promote the grain growth. The size-induced microstructural changes of the as-prepared nanoparticles were characterized using powder XRD, FT-IR, TG, and UV-vis analyses. The sulfate groups existed on anatase surface in unidentate and bidentate coordination forms. With the particle size reduction, bandgap energies of the as-prepared anatase nanoparticles decreased, and the desorption temperature of sulfate groups shifted towards lower temperatures.

  17. Strain-promoted growth of Mn silicide nanowires on Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kazushi; Liu, Hongjun; Owen, James H. G.; Renner, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    We have discovered a method to promote the growth of Mn silicide nanowires on the Si(001) at 450° C. Deposition of sub-monolayer quantities of Mn onto a Si(001) surface with a high density of Bi nanolines results in the formation of nanowires, 5-10 nm wide, and up to 600 nm long. These nanowires are never formed if the same growth procedure is followed in the absence of the Bi nanolines. The Haiku core of the Bi nanoline is known to induce short-range stress in the surrounding silicon surface, straining neighbouring dimers, and repelling step edges. We discuss the possible mechanisms for this effect, including the effect of the Bi nanolines on the surface stress tensor and alteration of the available diffusion channels on the surface. This research was partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation.

  18. Anatomical, morphological, and phytochemical effects of inoculation with plant growth- promoting rhizobacteria on peppermint (Mentha piperita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosario Cappellari, Lorena; Santoro, Maricel Valeria; Reinoso, Herminda; Travaglia, Claudia; Giordano, Walter; Banchio, Erika

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) generally exert their effects through enhancement of plant nutrient status and/or phytohormone production. The effects of PGPR on aromatic plant species are poorly known. We measured plant growth parameters, chlorophyll content, trichome density, stomatal density, and levels of secondary metabolites in peppermint (Mentha piperita) seedlings inoculated with PGPR strains Bacillus subtilis GB03, Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r, P. putida SJ04, or a combination of WCS417r + SJ04. The treated plants, in comparison with controls, showed increases in shoot biomass, root biomass, leaf area, node number, trichome density, and stomatal density, and marked qualitative and quantitative changes in monoterpene content. Improved knowledge of the factors that control or affect biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and monoterpene accumulation will lead to strategies for improved cultivation and productivity of aromatic plants and other agricultural crops without the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  19. Tumor-Derived CXCL1 Promotes Lung Cancer Growth via Recruitment of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils have a traditional role in inflammatory process and act as the first line of defense against infections. Although their contribution to tumorigenesis and progression is still controversial, accumulating evidence recently has demonstrated that tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs play a key role in multiple aspects of cancer biology. Here, we detected that chemokine CXCL1 was dramatically elevated in serum from 3LL tumor-bearing mice. In vitro, 3LL cells constitutively expressed and secreted higher level of CXCL1. Furthermore, knocking down CXCL1 expression in 3LL cells significantly hindered tumor growth by inhibiting recruitment of neutrophils from peripheral blood into tumor tissues. Additionally, tumor-infiltrated neutrophils expressed higher levels of MPO and Fas/FasL, which may be involved in TAN-mediated inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results demonstrate that tumor-derived CXCL1 contributes to TANs infiltration in lung cancer which promotes tumor growth.

  20. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Moon Park; Dong Woo Kim; Seung Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence w...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Drought-Tolerant Bacillus sp. Strain CMAA 1363 Isolated from the Brazilian Caatinga Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Suikinai Nobre; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro Figueiredo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The strain of Bacillus sp. CMAA 1363 was isolated from the Brazilian Caatinga biome and showed plant growth-promoting traits and ability to promote maize growth under drought stress. Sequencing revealed genes involved in stress response and plant growth promotion. These genomic features might aid in the protection of plants against the negative effects imposed by drought. PMID:28153893

  2. Amelioration of drought tolerance in wheat by the interaction of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontia-Mishra, I; Sapre, S; Sharma, A; Tiwari, S

    2016-11-01

    Drought stress adversely affects the growth and yield of wheat. The present study was planned to investigate the effect of inoculation of plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains IG 3 (Klebsiella sp.), IG 10 (Enterobacter ludwigii) and IG 15 (Flavobacterium sp.) in improving drought tolerance in wheat. These PGPR strains were screened for drought tolerance in nutrient broth supplemented with different concentrations (0-25%) of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Effect of PGPR inoculation on various physiological, biochemical parameters and gene expression of stress responsive genes were studied under drought stress. Root colonization at the surface and interiors of roots was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tetrazolium staining, respectively. Drought stress significantly affected various growth parameters, water status, membrane integrity, osmolyte accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions, which were positively altered by PGPR-inoculation in wheat. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR analysis revealed the up regulation of some stress-related genes (DREB2A and CAT1) in un-inoculated wheat plants exposed to drought stress. PGPR-inoculated plants showed attenuated transcript levels suggesting improved drought tolerance due to interaction of PGPRs. The PGPR strain IG 3 was found to be the best in terms of influencing biochemical and physiological status of the seedlings under drought stress. Our report demonstrates the role of PGPRs Enterobacter ludwigii and Flavobacterium sp. in plant growth promotion of wheat plants under drought stress. The study reports the potential of PGPR in alleviating drought stress in wheat which could be used as potent biofertilizers.

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein-5 (BMP-5 promotes dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Dennis

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BMP-5 is expressed in the nervous system throughout development and into adulthood. However its effects on neural tissues are not well defined. BMP-5 is a member of the 60A subgroup of BMPs, other members of which have been shown to stimulate dendritic growth in central and peripheral neurons. We therefore examined the possibility that BMP-5 similarly enhances dendritic growth in cultured sympathetic neurons. Results Sympathetic neurons cultured in the absence of serum or glial cells do not form dendrites; however, addition of BMP-5 causes these neurons to extend multiple dendritic processes, which is preceded by an increase in phosphorylation of the Smad-1 transcription factor. The dendrite-promoting activity of BMP-5 is significantly inhibited by the BMP antagonists noggin and follistatin and by a BMPR-IA-Fc chimeric protein. RT-PCR and immunocytochemical analyses indicate that BMP-5 mRNA and protein are expressed in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG during times of initial growth and rapid expansion of the dendritic arbor. Conclusions These data suggest a role for BMP-5 in regulating dendritic growth in sympathetic neurons. The signaling pathway that mediates the dendrite-promoting activity of BMP-5 may involve binding to BMPR-IA and activation of Smad-1, and relative levels of BMP antagonists such as noggin and follistatin may modulate BMP-5 signaling. Since BMP-5 is expressed at relatively high levels not only in the developing but also the adult nervous system, these findings suggest the possibility that BMP-5 regulates dendritic morphology not only in the developing, but also the adult nervous system.

  4. Tumor associated osteoclast-like giant cells promote tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Yu [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cardivascular Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Nakahama, Ken-ichi, E-mail: nakacell@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Isobe, Mitsuaki [Department of Cardivascular Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Morita, Ikuo [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan)

    2014-03-28

    findings revealed that OGCs in the tumor environment promoted tumor growth and lymphangiogenesis, at least in part, by secreting VEGF-C.

  5. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida for Promoting Growth of Jatropha curcas Seedling Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sumarsih

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. putida are Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR that can produce growth hormone. The objective of this study is to know the effects of those two combined species of PGPR on seedling root growth of Jatropha curcas. The condition of the seedling root determines the success of dry land cultivation. The root which has wider coverage, is larger in number, and is bigger in diameter makes seedling more resistant to stress in dry land environment. In the experiment, two kinds of plant materials are used for seedling, the Jatropha seed and stem material, which are treated in a mixed culture of PGPR. For the Jatropha seed, this mixed culture of PGPR is given at the same time of cultivating the sprout on the seedling medium. For the stem cutting, the PGPR is poured in together during the first watering of the seedling cultivation medium. In the fourthweek, the observed growth parameters are root length, root diameter, primary and secondary lateral root numbers, Root Length Density (RLD, Frequency of Lateral Root (FLR, and Specific Root Length (SRL. These data are analyzed using analysis of variant with DMRT test at 0.05 level of significance. The result of this study shows that PGPR tend to reduce FLR values on the seedling root made from seeds. On the seedling root made from stem cutting, PGPR increase the root length, primary and secondary lateral root numbers, root diameter, FLR and SRL values as well.

  6. Solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires promoted by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Congxiang [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, Wen-wen; Wang, Xingli [Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Xiaocheng [Laboratory of clean energy chemistry and materials, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 18 Tianshui Middle Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Tan, Chong Wei [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tay, Beng Kang, E-mail: ebktay@ntu.edu.sg [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Novitas, Nanoelectronics Centre of Excellence, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Coquet, Philippe [CINTRA CNRS/NTU/THALES, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • An array of well aligned and uniform CNTs is successfully fabricated by PECVD. • SiONW growth utilizes Si substrate as the source, ruling out the usage of silane. • With CNT array on the substrate, SiONW growth is improved significantly. • CNTs help dispersion of the catalysts and diffusion of the Si atoms. - Abstract: We report a method to promote solid source growth of Si oxide nanowires (SiONWs) by using an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It starts with the fabrication of CNT array by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on Si wafers, followed by growth of SiONWs. Herein, CNTs serve as a scaffold, which helps the dispersion of catalysts for SiONWs and also provides space for hydrogen which boosts the diffusion of Si atoms and hence formation of SiONWs. As the result, a three dimensional (3D) hybrid network of densely packed SiONWs and CNTs can be produced rapidly.

  7. Adiponectin deficiency promotes tumor growth in mice by reducing macrophage infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutong; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-08-05

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has been implicated in regulating angiogenesis, but the role of adiponectin in regulating this process is still controversial. In this study, in order to determine whether adiponectin affects tumor growth and tumor induced vascularization, we implanted B16F10 melanoma and Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into adiponectin knockout and wild-type control mice, and found that adiponectin deficiency markedly promoted the growth of both tumors. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that adiponectin deficiency reduced macrophage recruitment to the tumor, but did not affect cancer cell mitosis, apoptosis, or tumor-associated angiogenesis. In addition, treatment with recombinant adiponectin did not affect the proliferation of cultured B16F10 tumor cells. Importantly, the restoration of microphage infiltration at an early stage of tumorigenesis by means of co-injection of B16F10 cells and macrophages reversed the increased tumor growth in adiponectin knockout mice. Thus, we conclude that the enhanced tumor growth observed in adiponectin deficient mice is likely due to the reduction of macrophage infiltration rather than enhanced angiogenesis.

  8. Adiponectin deficiency promotes tumor growth in mice by reducing macrophage infiltration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutong Sun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has been implicated in regulating angiogenesis, but the role of adiponectin in regulating this process is still controversial. In this study, in order to determine whether adiponectin affects tumor growth and tumor induced vascularization, we implanted B16F10 melanoma and Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into adiponectin knockout and wild-type control mice, and found that adiponectin deficiency markedly promoted the growth of both tumors. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that adiponectin deficiency reduced macrophage recruitment to the tumor, but did not affect cancer cell mitosis, apoptosis, or tumor-associated angiogenesis. In addition, treatment with recombinant adiponectin did not affect the proliferation of cultured B16F10 tumor cells. Importantly, the restoration of microphage infiltration at an early stage of tumorigenesis by means of co-injection of B16F10 cells and macrophages reversed the increased tumor growth in adiponectin knockout mice. Thus, we conclude that the enhanced tumor growth observed in adiponectin deficient mice is likely due to the reduction of macrophage infiltration rather than enhanced angiogenesis.

  9. Relative efficacy of organic acids and antibiotics as growth promoters in broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Laxman Bagal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids as replacer to antibiotics in their various combinations on feed consumption, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR in broiler chicks during different phases of growth. Materials and Methods: Antibiotics and organic acids were incorporated into boiler feed in different combinations to form 10 maize based test diets (T1 to T10. Each test diet was offered to four replicates of 10 birds each constituting a total of 400 birds kept for 45 days. Results: Significantly better effect in terms of body weight gain from supplementation of 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic was observed throughout the entire study, whereas the effect of tartaric acid supplementation was similar to control group. Citric acid (1% along with antibiotic supplementation showed highest feed intake during the experimental period. Significantly better FCR was observed in groups supplemented with 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic followed by antibiotic along with organic acids supplemented group. Conclusion: Growth performance of birds in terms of body weight, body weight gain, and FCR improved significantly in 1% citric acid which was significantly higher than antibiotic supplemented group. 1% citric acid can effectively replace antibiotic growth promoter (chlortetracycline without affecting growth performance of birds.

  10. Eliminating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil for rice cultivation using plant growth promoting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Radziah, Othman; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Razi, Ismail Mohd

    2015-02-20

    Aluminum toxicity is widely considered as the most important limiting factor for plants growing in acid sulfate soils. A study was conducted in laboratory and in field to ameliorate Al toxicity using plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), ground magnesium limestone (GML) and ground basalt. Five-day-old rice seedlings were inoculated by Bacillus sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia seminalis and grown for 21 days in Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) at various Al concentrations (0, 50 and 100 μM). Toxicity symptoms in root and leaf were studied using scanning electron microscope. In the field, biofertilizer (PGPB), GML and basalt were applied (4 t·ha-1 each). Results showed that Al severely affected the growth of rice. At high concentrations, the root surface was ruptured, leading to cell collapse; however, no damages were observed in the PGPB inoculated seedlings. After 21 days of inoculation, solution pH increased to >6.0, while the control treatment remained same. Field study showed that the highest rice growth and yield were obtained in the bio-fertilizer and GML treatments. This study showed that Al toxicity was reduced by PGPB via production of organic acids that were able to chelate the Al and the production of polysaccharides that increased solution pH. The release of phytohormones further enhanced rice growth that resulted in yield increase.

  11. VAMP-associated protein B (VAPB) promotes breast tumor growth by modulation of Akt activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meghana; Song, Wenqiang; Jiang, Aixiang; Shyr, Yu; Lev, Sima; Greenstein, David; Brantley-Sieders, Dana; Chen, Jin

    2012-01-01

    VAPB (VAMP- associated protein B) is an ER protein that regulates multiple biological functions. Although aberrant expression of VAPB is associated with breast cancer, its function in tumor cells is poorly understood. In this report, we provide evidence that VAPB regulates breast tumor cell proliferation and AKT activation. VAPB protein expression is elevated in primary and metastatic tumor specimens, and VAPB mRNA expression levels correlated negatively with patient survival in two large breast tumor datasets. Overexpression of VAPB in mammary epithelial cells increased cell growth, whereas VAPB knockdown in tumor cells inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in orthotopic mammary gland allografts. The growth regulation of mammary tumor cells controlled by VAPB appears to be mediated, at least in part, by modulation of AKT activity. Overexpression of VAPB in MCF10A-HER2 cells enhances phosphorylation of AKT. In contrast, knockdown of VAPB in MMTV-Neu tumor cells inhibited pAKT levels. Pharmacological inhibition of AKT significantly reduced three-dimensional spheroid growth induced by VAPB. Collectively, the genetic, functional and mechanistic analyses suggest a role of VAPB in tumor promotion in human breast cancer.

  12. VAMP-associated protein B (VAPB promotes breast tumor growth by modulation of Akt activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghana Rao

    Full Text Available VAPB (VAMP- associated protein B is an ER protein that regulates multiple biological functions. Although aberrant expression of VAPB is associated with breast cancer, its function in tumor cells is poorly understood. In this report, we provide evidence that VAPB regulates breast tumor cell proliferation and AKT activation. VAPB protein expression is elevated in primary and metastatic tumor specimens, and VAPB mRNA expression levels correlated negatively with patient survival in two large breast tumor datasets. Overexpression of VAPB in mammary epithelial cells increased cell growth, whereas VAPB knockdown in tumor cells inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in orthotopic mammary gland allografts. The growth regulation of mammary tumor cells controlled by VAPB appears to be mediated, at least in part, by modulation of AKT activity. Overexpression of VAPB in MCF10A-HER2 cells enhances phosphorylation of AKT. In contrast, knockdown of VAPB in MMTV-Neu tumor cells inhibited pAKT levels. Pharmacological inhibition of AKT significantly reduced three-dimensional spheroid growth induced by VAPB. Collectively, the genetic, functional and mechanistic analyses suggest a role of VAPB in tumor promotion in human breast cancer.

  13. Selenium promotes sulfur accumulation and plant growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Paulo F; de Figueiredo, Marislaine A; Yang, Yong; Luo, Hongmei; Giri, Shree; Hart, Jonathan J; Faquin, Valdemar; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Thannhauser, Theorodore W; Li, Li

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans and a target for biofortification in crops. Sulfur (S) is a crucial nutrient for plant growth. To gain better understanding of Se and S nutrition and interaction in plants, the effects of Se dosages and forms on plant growth as well as on S level in seven wheat lines were examined. Low dosages of both selenate and selenite supplements were found to enhance wheat shoot biomass and show no inhibitory effect on grain production. The stimulation on plant growth was correlated with increased APX antioxidant enzyme activity. Se forms were found to exert different effects on S metabolism in wheat plants. Selenate treatment promoted S accumulation, which was not observed with selenite supplement. An over threefold increase of S levels following selenate treatment at low dosages was observed in shoots of all wheat lines. Analysis of the sulfate transporter gene expression revealed an increased transcription of SULTR1;1, SULTR1;3 and SULTR4;1 in roots following 10 μM Na2 SeO4 treatment. Mass spectrometry-based targeted protein quantification confirmed the gene expression results and showed enhanced protein levels. The results suggest that Se treatment mimics S deficiency to activate specific sulfate transporter expression to stimulate S uptake, resulting in the selenate-induced S accumulation. This study supports that plant growth and nutrition benefit from low dosages of Se fertilization and provides information on the basis underlying Se-induced S accumulation in plants.

  14. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote vascular growth in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Roura

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapies are promising strategies to regenerate human injured tissues, including ischemic myocardium. Here, we examined the acquisition of properties associated with vascular growth by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs, and whether they promoted vascular growth in vivo. UCBMSCs were induced in endothelial cell-specific growth medium (EGM-2 acquiring new cell markers, increased Ac-LDL uptake, and migratory capacity as assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence, and invasion assays. Angiogenic and vasculogenic potentials could be anticipated by in vitro experiments showing self organization into Matrigel-mediated cell networks, and activation of circulating angiogenic-supportive myeloid cells. In mice, following subcutaneous co-injection with Matrigel, UCBMSCs modified to co-express bioluminescent (luciferases and fluorescent proteins were demonstrated to participate in the formation of new microvasculature connected with the host circulatory system. Response of UCBMSCs to ischemia was explored in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction (MI. UCBMSCs transplanted using a fibrin patch survived 4 weeks post-implantation and organized into CD31(+network structures above the infarcted myocardium. MI-treated animals showed a reduced infarct scar and a larger vessel-occupied area in comparison with MI-control animals. Taken together, the presented results show that UCBMSCs can be induced in vitro to acquire angiogenic and vasculogenic properties and contribute to vascular growth in vivo.

  15. Bacterial endophyte Sphingomonas sp. LK11 produces gibberellins and IAA and promotes tomato plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Ullah, Ihsan; Ali, Liaqat; Jung, Hee-Young; Lee, In-Jung

    2014-08-01

    Plant growth promoting endophytic bacteria have been identified as potential growth regulators of crops. Endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. LK11, was isolated from the leaves of Tephrosia apollinea. The pure culture of Sphingomonas sp. LK11 was subjected to advance chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to extract and isolate gibberellins (GAs). Deuterated standards of [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA4, [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA9 and [17, 17-(2)H2]-GA20 were used to quantify the bacterial GAs. The analysis of the culture broth of Sphingomonas sp. LK11 revealed the existence of physiologically active gibberellins (GA4: 2.97 ± 0.11 ng/ml) and inactive GA9 (0.98 ± 0.15 ng/ml) and GA20 (2.41 ± 0.23). The endophyte also produced indole acetic acid (11.23 ± 0.93 μM/ml). Tomato plants inoculated with endophytic Sphingomonas sp. LK11 showed significantly increased growth attributes (shoot length, chlorophyll contents, shoot, and root dry weights) compared to the control. This indicated that such phyto-hormones-producing strains could help in increasing crop growth.

  16. Adaptive growth factor delivery from a polyelectrolyte coating promotes synergistic bone tissue repair and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nisarg J; Hyder, Md Nasim; Quadir, Mohiuddin A; Dorval Courchesne, Noémie-Manuelle; Seeherman, Howard J; Nevins, Myron; Spector, Myron; Hammond, Paula T

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic wounds and congenital defects that require large-scale bone tissue repair have few successful clinical therapies, particularly for craniomaxillofacial defects. Although bioactive materials have demonstrated alternative approaches to tissue repair, an optimized materials system for reproducible, safe, and targeted repair remains elusive. We hypothesized that controlled, rapid bone formation in large, critical-size defects could be induced by simultaneously delivering multiple biological growth factors to the site of the wound. Here, we report an approach for bone repair using a polyelectrolye multilayer coating carrying as little as 200 ng of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and platelet-derived growth factor-BB that were eluted over readily adapted time scales to induce rapid bone repair. Based on electrostatic interactions between the polymer multilayers and growth factors alone, we sustained mitogenic and osteogenic signals with these growth factors in an easily tunable and controlled manner to direct endogenous cell function. To prove the role of this adaptive release system, we applied the polyelectrolyte coating on a well-studied biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) support membrane. The released growth factors directed cellular processes to induce bone repair in a critical-size rat calvaria model. The released growth factors promoted local bone formation that bridged a critical-size defect in the calvaria as early as 2 wk after implantation. Mature, mechanically competent bone regenerated the native calvaria form. Such an approach could be clinically useful and has significant benefits as a synthetic, off-the-shelf, cell-free option for bone tissue repair and restoration.

  17. PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING MICROBIAL INOCULANT FOR Schizolobium parahyba pv. parahyba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Jane Romano de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSchizolobium parahyba pv. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby (paricá occurs naturally in the Amazon and is significant commercial importance due to its rapid growth and excellent performance on cropping systems. The aim of this paper was to evaluate a microbial inoculants such as arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF and Rhizobium sp. that promote plant growth. The inocula was 10 g of root colonized and spores of Glomus clarum and/or 1 mL of cell suspension (107 CFU/mL of Rhizobium sp. and/or 100 g of chemical fertilizer NPK 20-05-20 per planting hole. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with five replications and eight treatments (n = 800. Plant height, stem diameter and plant survival were measured. The results were tested for normality and homogeneity of variances and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. Rhizobium sp and AM fungi showed no effect on plant growth. Environmental factors probably influenced the effectiveness of symbiosis of both microorganisms and plant growth. The chemical fertilizer increased S. parahyba growth. During the first 120 days plants suffered with drought and frost, and at 180 days plants inoculated with microorganism plus chemical fertilizer showed higher survival when compared with control. The results showed that the microbial inoculants used showed an important role on plant survival after high stress conditions, but not in plant growth. Also was concluded that the planting time should be between November to December to avoid the presence of young plants during winter time that is dry and cold.

  18. Promotion of growth by Coenzyme Q10 is linked to gene expression in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexandra; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2014-10-03

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ, ubiquinone) is an essential component of the respiratory chain, a cofactor of pyrimidine biosynthesis and acts as an antioxidant in extra mitochondrial membranes. More recently CoQ has been identified as a modulator of apoptosis, inflammation and gene expression. CoQ deficient Caenorhabditis elegans clk-1 mutants show several phenotypes including a delayed postembryonic growth. Using wild type and two clk-1 mutants, here we established an experimental set-up to study the consequences of endogenous CoQ deficiency or exogenous CoQ supply on gene expression and growth. We found that a deficiency of endogenous CoQ synthesis down-regulates a cluster of genes that are important for growth (i.e., RNA polymerase II, eukaryotic initiation factor) and up-regulates oxidation reactions (i.e., cytochrome P450, superoxide dismutase) and protein interactions (i.e., F-Box proteins). Exogenous CoQ supply partially restores the expression of these genes as well as the growth retardation of CoQ deficient clk-1 mutants. On the other hand exogenous CoQ supply does not alter the expression of a further sub-set of genes. These genes are involved in metabolism (i.e., succinate dehydrogenase complex), cell signalling or synthesis of lectins. Thus, our work provides a comprehensive overview of genes which can be modulated in their expression by endogenous or exogenous CoQ. As growth retardation in CoQ deficiency is linked to the gene expression profile we suggest that CoQ promotes growth via gene expression.

  19. PATTERN OF ROOTING AND GROWTH OF CUTTINGS OF SOME SPECIES OF INSECTICIDAL AND MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE AS AFFECTED BY GROWTH PROMOTING SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi, E.A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of promoting substances on bud retention, rooting and plantlets survival of rooted cuttings on selected tree species using growth promoting substances. Stem cuttings were treated with rooting-promoting substances, planted in plastic pots filled with top soil and arranged using a completely randomized design (CRD in a screen house. Stem cuttings of pepper fruit, guava, bush mango and cashew were obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. The experiments were conducted in 2010. The effects of growth promoting substances namely indole-3-butyric acid (IBA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA applied 50 µM concentration and coconut water (50% dilution were evaluated on adventitious root formation, shoot growth (bud retention and survival of plantlets of hard- to semi-hardwood cuttings of tested tree species. The effects of growth promoting substances were significant on emergence of plantlets (rooting, growth and survival of plantlets. Number of sprouts (plantlets produced were highest in guava and pepper fruit followed by bush mango and cashew. The cuttings from guava and pepper fruit treated with coconut water and NAA promoted the survival of plantlets. Coconut water and NAA were found better than IBA and IAA in terms of bud retention and rooting, leaf development and survival of plantlets. In most of the tested species, wilting of leaves commenced 6 weeks after planting (WAP and attained 100% mortality thereafter except for pepper fruit cuttings dipped in coconut water. The treatments modified the rooting response among species by promoting percentages of rooting, reduction in bud abscission and plantlet survival. The results affirmed the possibility of propagating plantlets from stem cuttings of the tested species using growth promoting substances.

  20. Effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from copper tailings on plants in sterilized and non-sterilized tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqiu; Yang, Chao; Shi, Si; Shu, Wensheng

    2014-02-01

    Ten strains of Cu-tolerant bacteria with potential plant growth-promoting ability were isolated by selecting strains with the ability to use 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as a sole nitrogen source (designated ACC-B) or fix nitrogen (designated FLN-B) originating from the rhizosphere of plants growing on copper tailings. All 10 strains proved to have intrinsic ability to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores, and most of them could mobilize insoluble phosphate. In addition, a greenhouse study showed that ACC-B, FLN-B and a mixture of both had similar, potent ability to stimulate growth of Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa and Oenothera erythrosepala plants grown on sterilized tailings. For instance, above-ground biomass of P. purpureum was 278-357% greater after 60d growth on sterilized tailings in their presence. They could also significantly promote the growth of the plants grown on non-sterilized tailings, though the growth-promoting effects were much weaker. So, strategies for using of the plant growth-promoting bacteria in the practice of phytoremediation deserve further studies to get higher growth-promoting efficiency.

  1. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A THERMOTOLERANT PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA PRODUCING TREHALOSE SYNTHASE

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    Ali Sk.Z.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermotolerant plant growth promoting Pseudomonas isolate growing at 40oC producing trehalose synthase (TreS was isolated from rhizosphere soil under semi arid conditions of India. Trehalose synthase was extracted; purified and enzymatic activity was examined at various temperatures and pH. The optimum temperature and pH was 38oC and pH 7.5 and the activity declined at above or below the optimum pH and temperature. The enzyme was active on maltose and trehalose among saccharides tested. The enzyme had a higher catalytic activity for maltose with a trehalose yield of 72% than for trehalose where 30% yield of maltose was achieved, indicating maltose as preferred substrate. The isolate showed multiple plant growth promoting traits (indole acetic acid (IAA, phosphate solubilization, siderophore and ammonia both at ambient (28oC and high temperature (40oC. Based on phenotypic and 16SrRNA analysis the isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida (Accession No. GU396283.

  2. Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere

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    Anwar, Mohmmad Shahbaz; Siddique, Mohammad Tahir; Verma, Amit; Rao, Yalaga Rama; Nailwal, Tapan; Ansari, Mohammad; Pande, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, a beneficial microbe colonizing plant roots, enhanced crop productivity and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements. The keratinous waste which comprises feathers, hairs, nails, skin and wool creates problem of solid waste management due to presence of highly recalcitrant keratin. The multi traits rhizobacteria effective to remove both keratine from the environment by producing keratinase enzyme and to eradicate the chemical fertilizer by providing different PGP activity is novel achievement. In the present study, the effective PM2 strain of PGPR was isolated from rhizospheric soil of mustard (Brassica juncea) field, Pantnagar and they were identified on the basis of different biochemical tests as belonging to Bacillus genera. Different plant growth promoting activity, feather degradation and keratinolytic activity was performed and found very effective toward all the parameters. Furthermore, the efficient strain PM2 was identified on the basis of 16s rRNA sequencing and confirmed as Bacillus cereus. The strain PM2 might be used efficiently for keratinous waste management and PGP activity. Therefore, the present study suggests that Bacillus cereus have multi traits activity which extremely useful for different PGP activity and biotechnological process involving keratin hydrolysis, feather biodegradation or in the leather industry. PMID:24778758

  3. Survey of Plant Growth-Promoting Mechanisms in Native Portuguese Chickpea Mesorhizobium Isolates.

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    Brígido, Clarisse; Glick, Bernard R; Oliveira, Solange

    2017-05-01

    Rhizobia may possess other plant growth-promoting mechanisms besides nitrogen fixation. These mechanisms and the tolerance to different environmental factors, such as metals, may contribute to the use of rhizobia inocula to establish a successful legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Our goal was to characterize a collection of native Portuguese chickpea Mesorhizobium isolates in terms of plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and tolerance to different metals as well as to investigate whether these characteristics are related to the biogeography of the isolates. The occurrence of six PGP mechanisms and tolerance to five metals were evaluated in 61 chickpea Mesorhizobium isolates previously obtained from distinct provinces in Portugal and assigned to different species clusters. Chickpea microsymbionts show high diversity in terms of PGP traits as well as in their ability to tolerate different metals. All isolates synthesized indoleacetic acid, 50 isolates produced siderophores, 19 isolates solubilized phosphate, 12 isolates displayed acid phosphatase activity, and 22 exhibited cytokinin activity. Most isolates tolerated Zn or Pb but not Ni, Co, or Cu. Several associations between specific PGP mechanisms and the province of origin and species clusters of the isolates were found. Our data suggests that the isolate's tolerance to metals and ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate and to produce IAA may be responsible for the persistence and distribution of the native Portuguese chickpea Mesorhizobium species. Furthermore, this study revealed several chickpea microsymbionts with potential as PGP rhizobacteria as well as for utilization in phytoremediation strategies.

  4. Garlic extract as an alternative to the growth promoters in broiler chickens

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    Wilber Hernando Botía Carreño

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of garlic extract (GE and to determine its effect on the absorption surface of the duodenum as a potential alternative to growth promoters in broiler chickens. We used 300 chickens, male and female, which were one day old, commercial stock CobbAvian, and they were distributed at random into three experimental units of 100 chickens each one. The diet of the broiler chickens was supplemented with doses 0 %, 0.5 % and 1 % GE. The variables valuated were: production indicators, intestinal morphometry, heart rate and internal parasites presence. It was observed that the inclusion of 1 % of GE in the diet improved the broiler chickens’ body weight gain (P <0.05 and the feed conversion rate was favorable for the inclusion of 0.5 % GE (P <0.05 however there were no significant differences in feed intake, mortality, heart rate, and presence of internal parasites. For the histological analysis it was determined that the inclusion of 1% GE was statistically larger (P <0.05 on parameters such as the intestinal villus height and width, crypt depth and apparent area of the villus, and no differences were found to the relation between villus/crypt. It can be concluded that the inclusion of GE has an effect on intestinal health, which can be related to an improvement in production indicators, serving as an alternative to growth promoters.

  5. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

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    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature.

  6. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

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    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  7. ROCK signaling promotes collagen remodeling to facilitate invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor cell growth.

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    Rath, Nicola; Morton, Jennifer P; Julian, Linda; Helbig, Lena; Kadir, Shereen; McGhee, Ewan J; Anderson, Kurt I; Kalna, Gabriela; Mullin, Margaret; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Samuel, Michael S; Olson, Michael F

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major cause of cancer death; identifying PDAC enablers may reveal potential therapeutic targets. Expression of the actomyosin regulatory ROCK1 and ROCK2 kinases increased with tumor progression in human and mouse pancreatic tumors, while elevated ROCK1/ROCK2 expression in human patients, or conditional ROCK2 activation in a Kras(G12D)/p53(R172H) mouse PDAC model, was associated with reduced survival. Conditional ROCK1 or ROCK2 activation promoted invasive growth of mouse PDAC cells into three-dimensional collagen matrices by increasing matrix remodeling activities. RNA sequencing revealed a coordinated program of ROCK-induced genes that facilitate extracellular matrix remodeling, with greatest fold-changes for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) Mmp10 and Mmp13 MMP inhibition not only decreased collagen degradation and invasion, but also reduced proliferation in three-dimensional contexts. Treatment of Kras(G12D)/p53(R172H) PDAC mice with a ROCK inhibitor prolonged survival, which was associated with increased tumor-associated collagen. These findings reveal an ancillary role for increased ROCK signaling in pancreatic cancer progression to promote extracellular matrix remodeling that facilitates proliferation and invasive tumor growth.

  8. Rhamnolipids production by multi-metal-resistant and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

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    Singh, Anil Kumar; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2013-07-01

    The biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa A11, with plant-growth-promoting (PGP) and multi-metal-resistant (MMR) features was isolated from the rhizosphere of a wild plant Parthenium hysterophorus. The strain A11 was able to utilize glycerol as a carbon source and produce 4,436.9 mg/L of biosurfactant after 120 h of incubation. The biosurfactants was characterized as rhamnolipids (RLs) by thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Eight different RLs congeners were detected with RhaRhaC₁₀C₁₀ being most abundant. The purified rhamnolipid, dirhamnolipid, and monorhamnolipid reduced the surface tension of water to 29, 36, and 42 mN/m with critical micelle concentration of 83, 125, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The strain A11 demonstrated resistance against all the metals detected in rhizosphere except Hg and Ni. The strain A11 also possessed plant-growth-promoting features like siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, catalase, ammonia production, and phosphate solubilization. The dirhamnolipids formed crystals upon incubation at 4 °C, thus making separation of dirhamnolipids easy. Biosurfactant-producing ability along with MMR and PGP traits of the strain A11 makes it a potential candidate for application in the bacterial assisted enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites.

  9. Antimicrobial growth promoters modulate host responses in mice with a defined intestinal microbiota

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    Brown, Kirsty; Zaytsoff, Sarah J. M.; Uwiera, Richard R. E.; Inglis, G. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics can promote growth in livestock (antimicrobial growth promoters, AGPs), however lack of knowledge regarding mechanisms has hampered the development of effective non-antibiotic alternatives. Antibiotics affect eukaryotic cells at therapeutic concentrations, yet effects of AGPs on host physiology are relatively understudied, partially due to the complexity of host-microorganism interactions within the gastrointestinal tract. To determine the direct effects of AGPs on the host, we generated Altered Schaedler Flora (ASF) mice, and administered chlortetracycline (CTC) and tylosin phosphate (TYL) in feed. Mice were challenged with Citrobacter rodentium to determine how AGPs alter host responses to physiological stress. Although CTC and TYL had inconsistent effects on the ASF taxa, AGPs protected mice from weight loss following C. rodentium inoculation. Mice treated with either CTC or TYL had lower expression of βd1 and Il17a in the intestine and had a robust induction of Il17a and Il10. Furthermore, AGP administration resulted in a lower hepatic expression of acute phase proteins (Saa1, Hp, and Cp) in liver tissue, and ameliorated C. rodentium-induced reductions in the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (Hmgcl and Fabp1). Collectively, this indicates that AGPs directly affect host physiology, and highlights important considerations in the development of non-antibiotic alternatives. PMID:27929072

  10. Down-Regulation of miR-3928 Promoted Osteosarcoma Growth

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    Haidong Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy in children and young adults. Most failures of osteosarcoma treatment were due to resistance to chemotherapy. Development of new therapy required elucidation underlying molecular mechanism. Many miRNAs have been proved to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. Methods: MiR-3928 expression level was assayed by qRT-PCR. MiRNA mimics or ASO were transfected for up-regulation or down-regulation of miR-3928 expression. Cell proliferation was assayed by formazan test. Apoptosis and cell cycle were assayed by FACS. MiR-3928 targeted genes were predicated by bioinformatics algorithm (TargetScanHuman. The correlation between targeted gene and miR-3928 was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis. Results: MiR-3928 was down-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues. Over-expression of miR-3928 inhibited tumor growth, induced cell apoptosis, increased the percent of cells in G1 phrase and decreased the percent of cells in S phrase. Down-regulation of miR-3928 promoted cell proliferation. ERBB3, IL-6R and CDK6 may be the targeted genes of miR-3928. Conclusions: Down-expression of miR-3928 in osteosarcoma promoted tumor growth by targeting ERBB3, IL-6R and CDK6. MiR-3928 may be a potential therapy target worth further investigation.

  11. Chitosan-Coated Collagen Membranes Promote Chondrocyte Adhesion, Growth, and Interleukin-6 Secretion

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    Nabila Mighri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Designing scaffolds made from natural polymers may be highly attractive for tissue engineering strategies. We sought to produce and characterize chitosan-coated collagen membranes and to assess their efficacy in promoting chondrocyte adhesion, growth, and cytokine secretion. Porous collagen membranes were placed in chitosan solutions then crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapor. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analyses showed elevated absorption at 1655 cm-1 of the carbon–nitrogen (N=C bonds formed by the reaction between the (NH2 of the chitosan and the (C=O of the glutaraldehyde. A significant peak in the amide II region revealed a significant deacetylation of the chitosan. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of the chitosan-coated membranes exhibited surface variations, with pore size ranging from 20 to 50 µm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS revealed a decreased C–C groups and an increased C–N/C–O groups due to the reaction between the carbon from the collagen and the NH2 from the chitosan. Increased rigidity of these membranes was also observed when comparing the chitosan-coated and uncoated membranes at dried conditions. However, under wet conditions, the chitosan coated collagen membranes showed lower rigidity as compared to dried conditions. Of great interest, the glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan-coated collagen membranes promoted chondrocyte adhesion, growth, and interleukin (IL-6 secretion. Overall results confirm the feasibility of using designed chitosan-coated collagen membranes in future applications, such as cartilage repair.

  12. Comparison of prominent Azospirillum strains in Azospirillum-Pseudomonas-Glomus consortia for promotion of maize growth.

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    Couillerot, Olivier; Ramírez-Trujillo, Augusto; Walker, Vincent; von Felten, Andreas; Jansa, Jan; Maurhofer, Monika; Défago, Geneviève; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Comte, Gilles; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2013-05-01

    Azospirillum are prominent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) extensively used as phytostimulatory crop inoculants, but only few studies are dealing with Azospirillum-containing mixed inocula involving more than two microorganisms. We compared here three prominent Azospirillum strains as part of three-component consortia including also the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 and a mycorrhizal inoculant mix composed of three Glomus strains. Inoculant colonization of maize was assessed by quantitative PCR, transcription of auxin synthesis gene ipdC (involved in phytostimulation) in Azospirillum by RT-PCR, and effects on maize by secondary metabolic profiling and shoot biomass measurements. Results showed that phytostimulation by all the three-component consortia was comparable, despite contrasted survival of the Azospirillum strains and different secondary metabolic responses of maize to inoculation. Unexpectedly, the presence of Azospirillum in the inoculum resulted in lower phytostimulation in comparison with the Pseudomonas-Glomus two-component consortium, but this effect was transient. Azospirillum's ipdC gene was transcribed in all treatments, especially with three-component consortia, but not with all plants and samplings. Inoculation had no negative impact on the prevalence of mycorrhizal taxa in roots. In conclusion, this study brought new insights in the functioning of microbial consortia and showed that Azospirillum-Pseudomonas-Glomus three-component inoculants may be useful in environmental biotechnology for maize growth promotion.

  13. NMR analysis of fractionated irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan oligomers as plant growth promoter

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    Abad, L.V., E-mail: lvabad@pnri.dost.gov.ph [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Saiki, S.; Nagasawa, N. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kudo, H.; Katsumura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); De La Rosa, A.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2011-09-15

    The optimum plant growth promoting effect in irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan is known to be of Mw<10,000. This is obtained by irradiating {kappa}-carrageenan at a dose of 100 kGy in solid and at 2 kGy in 1% aqueous solution. Kappa carrageenan irradiated at these doses was fractionated at different Mw ranges. The isolated fraction with a Mw of 3-10 kDa was analyzed by NMR. The chemical shifts of {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H spectra indicated that the basic functional structure of {kappa}-carrageenan (alternating D-galactose-4-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose dimer) remains intact at a Mw of 3-10 kDa. No radiolytic products were detected at this range. - Highlights: > Irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan fractions with Mw<3 kDa contained higher carbonyl bonds. > {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C spectra of irradiated {kappa}-carrageenan were similar to references. > {kappa}-Carrageenan oligomers with Mw of 3-10 kDa may be suitable as plant growth promoter.

  14. Biocontrol of seed pathogens and growth promotion of common bean seedlings by Trichoderma harzianum

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    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate isolates of Trichoderma harzianum regarding biocontrol of common bean seed-borne pathogens, plant growth promotion, and rhizosphere competence. Five isolates of T. harzianum were evaluated and compared with commercial isolate (Ecotrich, Carboxin+Thiram, and an absolute control. Bean seeds of the cultivar Jalo Precoce, contaminated with Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were microbiolized with antagonists, and seed health tests were carried out. Isolates were evaluated on autoclaved substrate and in field conditions. Ten days after sowing (DAS, plant length was measured. To test rhizosphere competence, isolates were applied in boxes containing autoclaved washed sand, and root colonization was evaluated at 10 DAS, using five plants per box. The most effective isolates in the seed health tests were: CEN287 and CEN289 to control Aspergillus; the commercial isolate to control Cladosporium; and CEN287 and CEN316 to control S. sclerotiorum. Isolates CEN289 and CEN290 promoted bean growth in greenhouse and field. Seed treatment with T. harzianum reduces the incidence of Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and S. sclerotiorum in 'Jalo Precoce' common bean seeds.

  15. Transgenic Studies with a Keratin Promoter-Driven Growth Hormone Transgene: Prospects for Gene Therapy

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    Wang, Xiaoming; Zinkel, Sandra; Polonsky, Kenneth; Fuchs, Elaine

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocytes are potentially appealing vehicles for the delivery of secreted gene products because they can be transferred to human skin by the relatively simple procedure of grafting. Adult human keratinocytes can be efficiently propagated in culture with sufficient proliferative capacity to produce enough epidermis to cover the body surface of an average adult. However, the feasibility of delivering secreted proteins through skin grafting rests upon (i) the strength of the promoter in keratinocytes and (ii) the efficiency of protein transport through the basement membrane of the stratified epithelium and into the bloodstream. In this paper, we use transgenic technology to demonstrate that the activity of the human keratin 14 promoter remains high in adult skin and that keratinocyte-derived human growth hormone (hGH) can be produced, secreted, and transported to the bloodstream of mice with efficiency that is sufficient to exceed by an order of magnitude the circulating hGH concentration in growing children. Transgenic skin grafts from these adults continue to produce and secrete hGH stably, at ≈ 1/10 physiological levels in the bloodstream of nontransgenic recipient mice. These studies underscore the utility of the keratin 14 promoter for expressing foreign transgenes in keratinocytes and demonstrate that keratinocytes can be used as effective vehicles for transporting factors to the bloodstream and for eliciting metabolic changes. These findings have important implications for considering the keratinocyte as a possible vehicle for gene therapy.

  16. Regulatory T cells-derived IL-35 promotes the growth of adult acute myeloid leukemia blasts.

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    Tao, Qianshan; Pan, Ying; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huiping; Xiong, Shudao; Li, Qing; Wang, Jia; Tao, Lili; Wang, Zhitao; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Rui; Zhai, Zhimin

    2015-11-15

    Tumor immune escape mechanism mediated by CD4+CD25+regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a key factor in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). IL-35, as a novel inhibitory cytokine, is produced by Tregs specially and regulates functions of Tregs in murine. However, IL-35 expression of Tregs in human is still disputed, and its role in AML is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that IL-35 was expressed highly in peripheral blood plasma of adult patients with AML and significantly correlated with the clinical stages of malignancy. Tregs-derived from adult AML patients produced IL-35 in a stimulation-dependent manner. IL-35 promoted AML blasts immune escape by expanding Tregs and inhibiting CD4+CD25-effector T cells (Teffs). Furthermore, IL-35 directly promoted the proliferation of AML blasts and reduced the apoptosis of AML blasts. Together, our study demonstrates that IL-35-derived from Tregs promotes the growth of adult AML blasts, suggesting that IL-35 has an important role in the pathogenesis of AML.

  17. RFPL3 and CBP synergistically upregulate hTERT activity and promote lung cancer growth.

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    Qin, Yu; Chen, Wangbing; Xiao, Yao; Yu, Wendan; Cai, Xin; Dai, Meng; Xu, Tingting; Huang, Wenlin; Guo, Wei; Deng, Wuguo; Wu, Taihua

    2015-09-29

    hTERT is the key component of telomerase and its overactivation contributes to maintaining telomere length and cell immortalization. Previously, we identified RFPL3 as a new transcription activator of hTERT in lung cancers. However, the exact mechanism of RFPL3 in mediating hTERT activation and its associated signal regulatory network remain unclear. In this study, we found that RFPL3 colocalized and interacted directly with CBP in the nucleus of lung cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays of lung cancers revealed the simultaneous overexpression of both RFPL3 and CBP predicted relatively poor prognosis. Furthermore, we confirmed their synergistic stimulation on hTERT expression and tumor cell growth. The binding of RFPL3 to hTERT promoter was reduced markedly when CBP was knocked down by its specific siRNA or suppressed by its inhibitor in lung cancer cells with stable overexpression of RFPL3. When one of the two proteins RFPL3 and CBP was upregulated or downregulated, whereas the another remains unchanged, hTERT expression and telomerase activity were activated or repressed accordingly. In the meantime, the growth of lung cancer cells was also promoted or attenuated accordingly. Furthermore, we also found that RFPL3 coordinated with CBP to upregulate hTERT through the CBP-induced acetylation of RFPL3 protein and their co-anchoring at hTERT promoter region. Collectively, our results reveal a new mechanism of hTERT regulation in lung cancer cells and suggest the RFPL3/CBP/hTERT signaling pathway may be a new targets for lung cancer treatment.

  18. Co-inoculation Effect of Rhizobia and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Common Bean Growth in a Low Phosphorus Soil.

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    Korir, Hezekiah; Mungai, Nancy W; Thuita, Moses; Hamba, Yosef; Masso, Cargele

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation through legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is important for enhancing agricultural productivity and is therefore of great economic interest. Growing evidence indicates that other soil beneficial bacteria can positively affect symbiotic performance of rhizobia. Nodule endophytic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were isolated from common bean nodules from Nakuru County in Kenya and characterized 16S rDNA partial gene sequencing. The effect of co-inoculation of rhizobium and PGPR, on nodulation and growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was also investigated using a low phosphorous soil under greenhouse conditions. Gram-positive nodule endophytic PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus were successfully isolated and characterized. Two PGPR strains (Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus megaterium), two rhizobia strains (IITA-PAU 987 and IITA-PAU 983) and one reference rhizobia strain (CIAT 899) were used in the co-inoculation study. Two common bean varieties were inoculated with Rhizobium strains singly or in a combination with PGPR to evaluate the effect on nodulation and growth parameters. Co-inoculation of IITA-PAU 987 + B. megaterium recorded the highest nodule weight (405.2 mg) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (324.8 mg), while CIAT 899 + B. megaterium (401.2 mg) compared to CIAT 899 alone (337.2 mg). CIAT 899 + B. megaterium recorded a significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.23 g) compared to CIAT 899 alone (5.80 g). However, there was no significant difference between CIAT 899 + P. polymyxa and CIAT 899 alone. Combination of IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (6.84 g) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (5.32 g) but no significant difference was observed when co-inoculated with P. polymyxa. IITA-PAU 983 in combination with P. polymyxa led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.15 g) compared to IITA-PAU 983 alone (5.14 g). Plants inoculated with IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium received 24.0 % of

  19. Co-inoculation Effect of Rhizobia and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Common Bean Growth in a Low Phosphorus Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Hezekiah; Mungai, Nancy W.; Thuita, Moses; Hamba, Yosef; Masso, Cargele

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation through legume-Rhizobium symbiosis is important for enhancing agricultural productivity and is therefore of great economic interest. Growing evidence indicates that other soil beneficial bacteria can positively affect symbiotic performance of rhizobia. Nodule endophytic plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were isolated from common bean nodules from Nakuru County in Kenya and characterized 16S rDNA partial gene sequencing. The effect of co-inoculation of rhizobium and PGPR, on nodulation and growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was also investigated using a low phosphorous soil under greenhouse conditions. Gram-positive nodule endophytic PGPR belonging to the genus Bacillus were successfully isolated and characterized. Two PGPR strains (Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus megaterium), two rhizobia strains (IITA-PAU 987 and IITA-PAU 983) and one reference rhizobia strain (CIAT 899) were used in the co-inoculation study. Two common bean varieties were inoculated with Rhizobium strains singly or in a combination with PGPR to evaluate the effect on nodulation and growth parameters. Co-inoculation of IITA-PAU 987 + B. megaterium recorded the highest nodule weight (405.2 mg) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (324.8 mg), while CIAT 899 + B. megaterium (401.2 mg) compared to CIAT 899 alone (337.2 mg). CIAT 899 + B. megaterium recorded a significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.23 g) compared to CIAT 899 alone (5.80 g). However, there was no significant difference between CIAT 899 + P. polymyxa and CIAT 899 alone. Combination of IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (6.84 g) compared to IITA-PAU 987 alone (5.32 g) but no significant difference was observed when co-inoculated with P. polymyxa. IITA-PAU 983 in combination with P. polymyxa led to significantly higher shoot dry weight (7.15 g) compared to IITA-PAU 983 alone (5.14 g). Plants inoculated with IITA-PAU 987 and B. megaterium received 24.0 % of

  20. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RHIZOBIA AND PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA AND THEIR EFFECTS ON GROWTH OF RICE SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is a relatively safer, environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach as an alternative to reduce chemical fertilizer usage. The selection of bacterial strains with multiple beneficial characteristics are important to maximize the effectiveness on the host plant. Due to aforementioned interest, several Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterial (PGPR and rhizobial strains were isolated from rice and legume roots, respectively, at four locations in Malaysia namely Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM, Serdang, Selangor; Besut, Terengganu; Tunjung, Kelantan and Sik, Kedah. Bacterial isolations were undertaken to select the best isolates which exhibit multiple beneficial effects to the rice plant and a total of 205 bacterial strains were isolated and categorized as follows; 94 rhizospheric and 107 endophytic bacteria from rice roots, one rhizobial strain from soybean and three from Mimosa pudica. These isolates were screened for their abilities to fix N2 and solubilize phosphate; 52 were positive for both tests. The selected isolates were then tested for IAA production and other biochemical tests such as potassium solubilization, hydrolyzing enzymes (cellulase and pectinase and iron siderophore productions. Four isolates, namely UPMB19 (rhizospheric PGPR from Tunjung, Kelantan, UPMB20 (endophytic PGPR from Besut, Terengganu, UPMR30 (rhizobia from soybean and UPMR31 (rhizobia from Mimosa were selected for subsequent plant inoculation tests with UPMB10, a PGPR isolated from oil palm root, as the reference strain. Based on 16S rDNA gene sequencing, these bacterial strains were identified under several genera: Lysinibacillus, Alcaligenes, Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium and Bacillus, respectively. Results of plant inoculation test indicated that UPMB19 significantly enhanced the seedling height at the early growth stage (7 days after transplanting, DAT which could be attributed to the higher N2

  1. Effect of ultrafiltration of yeast extracts on their ability to promote lactic acid bacteria growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreau, H; Champagne, C P; Conway, J; Degré, R

    1999-11-01

    Five yeast extracts (YE) were fractionated by ultrafiltration (UF) with 1, 3, and 10 kDa molecular weight cutoff membranes, concentrated by freeze-drying, and the resulting powders of yeast extract filtrates (YEF) were evaluated for their growth-promoting properties on nine cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). There was an increase in alpha-amino nitrogen content of the YEF powders as the pore size of the UF membranes used to filter the YE solutions decreased. The source of YE had a much greater effect than UF on the growth of LAB. This was also the case for the YEF contents in total and alpha-amino nitrogen. Growth curves of the LAB showed that maximum growth rate (mumax) data were on average 30% higher with bakers' YE than with brewers' YE, while maximum optical density (ODmax) values were on average 16% higher with bakers' YE. This could be related to the higher nitrogen content of the bakers' YE used in this study. Modification by UF of the YE had no significant influence on the growth of 4 of the 9 LAB strains. The three strains of Lactobacillus casei were negatively influenced by UF, as they did not grow as well in the media containing the YEF obtained after filtering with 1 and 3 kDa membranes. On a total solids basis, the 2.5 x retentates from the 10 kDa membrane gave, on average, 4% lower mumax and 5% lower ODmax values as compared to cultures where the corresponding YEF was used as medium supplement. This could also be partially related to the different nitrogen contents of the filtrates and retentates.

  2. Differential regulation of growth-promoting signalling pathways by E-cadherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos T Georgopoulos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the well-documented association between loss of E-cadherin and carcinogenesis, as well as the link between restoration of its expression and suppression of proliferation in carcinoma cells, the ability of E-cadherin to modulate growth-promoting cell signalling in normal epithelial cells is less well understood and frequently contradictory. The potential for E-cadherin to co-ordinate different proliferation-associated signalling pathways has yet to be fully explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a normal human urothelial (NHU cell culture system and following a calcium-switch approach, we demonstrate that the stability of NHU cell-cell contacts differentially regulates the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3-K/AKT pathways. We show that stable cell contacts down-modulate the EGFR/ERK pathway, whilst inducing PI3-K/AKT activity, which transiently enhances cell growth at low density. Functional inactivation of E-cadherin interferes with the capacity of NHU cells to form stable calcium-mediated contacts, attenuates E-cadherin-mediated PI3-K/AKT induction and enhances NHU cell proliferation by allowing de-repression of the EGFR/ERK pathway and constitutive activation of β-catenin-TCF signalling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide evidence that E-cadherin can differentially and concurrently regulate specific growth-related signalling pathways in a context-specific fashion, with direct, functional consequences for cell proliferation and population growth. Our observations not only reveal a novel, complex role for E-cadherin in normal epithelial cell homeostasis and tissue regeneration, but also provide the basis for a more complete understanding of the consequences of E-cadherin loss on malignant transformation.

  3. Beta-nerve growth factor promotes neurogenesis and angiogenesis during the repair of bone defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-hui Chen; Chuan-qing Mao; Li-li Zhuo; Joo L Ong

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that the repair of bone defects is regulated by neural and vascular signals. In the present study, we examined the effect of topically appliedβ-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) on neurogenesis and angiogenesis in critical-sized bone defects iflled with collagen bone substi-tute. We created two symmetrical defects, 2.5 mm in diameter, on either side of the parietal bone of the skull, and filled them with bone substitute. Subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps were used to infuse 10 μgβ-NGF in PBS (β-NGF + PBS) into the right-hand side defect, and PBS into the left (control) defect, over the 7 days following surgery. Immunohistochemical staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining were carried out at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days postoperatively. On day 7, expression of β III-tubulin was lower on theβ-NGF + PBS side than on the control side, and that of neuroiflament 160 was greater. On day 14,β III-tubulin and protein gene product 9.5 were greater on theβ-NGF + PBS side than on the control side. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was greater on the experimental side than the control side at 7 days, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression was elevated on days 14 and 21, but lower than control levels on day 28. However, no difference in the number of blood vessels was observed between sides. Our results indicate that topical application ofβ-NGF promoted neu-rogenesis, and may modulate angiogenesis by promoting nerve regeneration in collagen bone substitute-iflled defects.

  4. Growth of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is promoted by exogenous hydroxamate and catechol siderophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, M S; Dolence, J A; Dolence, E K; Darwish, I; Miller, M J; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1996-03-01

    Siderophores bind ferric ions and are involved in receptor-specific iron transport into bacteria. Six types of siderophores were tested against strains representing the 12 different serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Ferrichrome and bis-catechol-based siderophores showed strong growth-promoting activities for A. pleuropneumoniae in a disk diffusion assay. Most strains of A. pleuropneumoniae tested were able to use ferrichrome (21 of 22 or 95%), ferrichrome A (20 of 22 or 90%), and lysine-based bis-catechol (20 of 22 or 90%), while growth of 36% (8 of 22) was promoted by a synthetic hydroxamate, N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine tripeptide. A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 (strain FMV 87-682) and serotype 5 (strain 2245) exhibited a distinct yellow halo around colonies on Chrome Azurol S agar plates, suggesting that both strains can produce an iron chelator (siderophore) in response to iron stress. The siderophore was found to be neither a phenolate nor a hydroxamate by the chemical tests of Arnow and Csaky, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating the production of an iron chelator and the use of exogenous siderophores by A. pleuropneumoniae. A spermidine-based bis-catechol siderophore conjugated to a carbacephalosporin was shown to inhibit growth of A. pleuropneumoniae. A siderophore-antibiotic-resistant strain was isolated and shown to have lost the ability to use ferrichrome, synthetic hydroxamate, or catechol-based siderophores when grown under conditions of iron restriction. This observation indicated that a common iron uptake pathway, or a common intermediate, for hydroxamate- and catechol-based siderophores may exist in A. pleuropneumoniae.

  5. Overexpression of Populus trichocarpa CYP85A3 promotes growth and biomass production in transgenic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan-Li; Tang, Ren-Jie; Wang, Hai-Hai; Jiang, Chun-Mei; Bao, Yan; Yang, Yang; Liang, Mei-Xia; Kong, Fanjing; Li, Bei; Zhang, Hong-Xia

    2017-03-04

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential hormones that play crucial roles in plant growth, reproduction and response to abiotic and biotic stress. In Arabidopsis, AtCYP85A2 works as a bifunctional cytochrome P450 monooxygenase to catalyze the conversion of castasterone (CS) to brassinolide (BL), a final rate-limiting step in the BR biosynthetic pathway. Here, we report the functional characterizations of PtCYP85A3, one of the three AtCYP85A2 homologous genes from Populus trichocarpa. PtCYP85A3 shares the highest similarity with AtCYP85A2 and can rescue the retarded-growth phenotype of the Arabidopsis cyp85a2-2 and tomato d(x) mutants. Constitutive expression of PtCYP85A3, driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, increased the endogenous BR levels and significantly promoted the growth and biomass production in both transgenic tomato and poplar. Compared to the wild type (WT), plant height, shoot fresh weight and fruit yield increased 50%, 56% and 43%, respectively, in transgenic tomato plants. Similarly, plant height and stem diameter increased 15% and 25%, respectively, in transgenic poplar plants. Further study revealed that overexpression of PtCYP85A3 enhanced xylem formation without affecting the composition of cellulose and lignin, as well as the cell wall thickness in transgenic poplar. Our finding suggest that PtCYP85A3 could be used as a potential candidate gene for engineering fast growing trees with improved wood production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioinformatics based structural characterization of glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) gene and growth promoting activity of Leclercia sp. QAU-66.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad

    2014-01-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.1. 5.2) is the member of quinoproteins group that use the redox cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinoine, calcium ions and glucose as substrate for its activity. In present study, Leclercia sp. QAU-66, isolated from rhizosphere of Vigna mungo, was characterized for phosphate solubilization and the role of GDH in plant growth promotion of Phaseolus vulgaris. The strain QAU-66 had ability to solubilize phosphorus and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) promoted the shoot and root lengths of Phaseolus vulgaris. The structural determination of GDH protein was carried out using bioinformatics tools like Pfam, InterProScan, I-TASSER and COFACTOR. These tools predicted the structural based functional homology of pyrroloquinoline quinone domains in GDH. GDH of Leclercia sp. QAU-66 is one of the main factor that involved in plant growth promotion and provides a solid background for further research in plant growth promoting activities.

  7. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting P-solubilizing Bacillus circulans CB7 for enhancement of tomato growth under net house conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Preeti; Walia, Abhishek; Kulshrestha, Saurabh; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, Chand Karan

    2015-01-01

    P-solubilizing bacterial isolate CB7 isolated from apple rhizosphere soil of Himachal Pradesh, India was identified as Bacillus circulans on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolate exhibited plant growth-promoting traits of P-solubilization, auxin, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity, siderophore, nitrogenase activity, and antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix. In vitro studies revealed that P-solubilization and other plant growth-promoting traits were dependent on the presence of glucose in PVK medium and removal of yeast extract had no significant effect on plant growth-promoting traits. Plant growth-promoting traits of isolate CB7 were repressed in the presence of KH2 PO4 . P-solubilization activity was associated with the release of organic acids and a drop in the pH of the Pikovskaya's medium. HPLC analysis detected gluconic and citric acid as major organic acids in the course of P-solubilization. Remarkable increase was observed in seed germination (22.32%), shoot length (15.91%), root length (25.10%), shoot dry weight (52.92%) and root dry weight (31.4%), nitrogen (18.75%), potassium (57.69%), and phosphorus (22.22%) content of shoot biomass over control. These results demonstrate that isolate CB7 has the promising PGPR attributes to be developed as a biofertilizer to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  8. The FGFR4-G388R Polymorphism Promotes Mitochondrial STAT3 Serine Phosphorylation to Facilitate Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Tateno; Asa, Sylvia L.; Lei Zheng; Thomas Mayr; Axel Ullrich; Shereen Ezzat

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common intracranial neoplasms, yet few germline abnormalities have been implicated in their pathogenesis. Here we show that a single nucleotide germline polymorphism (SNP) substituting an arginine (R) for glycine (G) in the FGFR4 transmembrane domain can alter pituitary cell growth and hormone production. Compared with FGFR4-G388 mammosomatotroph cells that support prolactin (PRL) production, FGFR4-R388 cells express predominantly growth hormone (GH). Growth promoting eff...

  9. Chemokines and chemokine receptors as promoters of prostate cancer growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Nicole; Castellan, Miguel; Shirodkar, Samir S; Lokeshwar, Bal L

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is estimated to be first in incidence among cancers, with more than 240,000 new cases in 2012 in the United States. Chemokines and their receptors provide survival, proliferation, and invasion characteristics to CaP cells in both primary sites of cancer and metastatic locations. The emerging data demonstrate that many chemokines and their receptors are involved in the multistep process of CaP, leading to metastasis, and, further, that these factors act cooperatively to enhance other mechanisms of tumor cell survival, growth, and metastasis. Changes of chemokine receptor cohorts may be necessary to activate tumor-promoting signals. Chemokine receptors can activate downstream effectors, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, by complex mechanisms of ligand-dependent activation of cryptic growth factors; guanosine triphosphate-binding, protein-coupled activation of survival kinases; or transactivation of other receptors such as ErbB family members. We describe vanguard research in which more than the classic view of chemokine receptor biology was clarified. Control of chemokines and inhibition of their receptor activation may add critical tools to reduce tumor growth, especially in chemo-hormonal refractory CaP that is both currently incurable and the most aggressive form of the disease, accounting for most of the more than 28,000 annual deaths.

  10. The major Nod factor of Bradyrhizobium japonicum promotes early growth of soybean and corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleimanov, A; Prithiviraj, B; Smith, D L

    2002-09-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Nod factor Nod Bj-V (C18:1, MeFuc) of Badyrhizobium japonicum on the growth of soybean and corn. Three-day-old seedlings of soybean and corn were grown in hydroponic solutions containing four concentrations (0, 10(-7), 10(-9) or 10(-11) M) of Nod factor. After 7 d of treatment, Nod factor enhanced soybean and corn biomass. Nod factor elicited profound effects on root growth resulting in 34-44% longer roots in soybean. More detailed analyses of the roots, using a scanner based image analysis system, revealed that Nod factor increased the total length, projected area and surface area of the roots and decreased the diameter of soybean roots, while it increased the total length of corn roots. Stem injection of soybean plants with 10(-7) M Nod factor resulted in increased dry matter accumulation. These results suggest that Nod factor, besides mediating early stages of nodulation, has more general plant growth-promoting effects.

  11. Platelets promote tumor growth and metastasis via direct interaction between Aggrus/podoplanin and CLEC-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takagi

    Full Text Available The platelet aggregation-inducing factor Aggrus, also known as podoplanin, is frequently upregulated in several types of tumors and enhances hematogenous metastasis by interacting with and activating the platelet receptor CLEC-2. Thus, Aggrus-CLEC-2 binding could be a therapeutic molecular mechanism for cancer therapy. We generated a new anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody, MS-1, that suppressed Aggrus-CLEC-2 binding, Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation, and Aggrus-mediated tumor metastasis. Interestingly, the MS-1 monoclonal antibody attenuated the growth of Aggrus-positive tumors in vivo. Moreover, the humanized chimeric MS-1 antibody, ChMS-1, also exhibited strong antitumor activity against Aggrus-positive lung squamous cell carcinoma xenografted into NOD-SCID mice compromising antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic and complement-dependent cytotoxic activities. Because Aggrus knockdown suppressed platelet-induced proliferation in vitro and tumor growth of the lung squamous cell carcinoma in vivo, Aggrus may be involved in not only tumor metastasis but also tumor growth by promoting platelet-tumor interaction, platelet activation, and secretion of platelet-derived factors in vivo. Our results indicate that molecular target drugs inhibiting specific platelet-tumor interactions can be developed as antitumor drugs that suppress both metastasis and proliferation of tumors such as lung squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Effects of the Antibiotics Growth Promoter Tylosin on Swine Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungman; Guevarra, Robin Becina; Nguyen, Son Giang; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Jeong, Dong Kee; Unno, Tatsuya

    2016-05-28

    Tylosin has been used as a livestock feed additive and antibiotic growth promoter for many years. However, the mode of action by which tylosin enhances animal growth is unclear. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to investigate the effects of tylosin as a feed additive on swine gut microbiota. No significant difference in the rate of weight increase was observed between control and tylosin-treated pigs during a 10-week feeding trial. However, tylosin-treated pigs showed rapid increases in the relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes. Increases in Firmicutes species are associated with (so-called) obese-type gut microbiota. The abundance of species of four families of the phylum Firmicutes (Streptococcaceae, Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae) correlated positively with host weight gain. The abundance of Streptococcaceae family bacteria was least affected by tylosin treatment. Distribution analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed that both control and tylosin-treated pigs exhibited similar OTU alterations during growth. However, the tylosin-treated group showed distinctive alterations in gut microbiota when the host weighed approximately 60 kg, whereas similar alterations occurred at around 80 kg in the control group. Our results suggest that use of tylosin accelerates maturation of swine gut microbiota rather than altering its composition.

  13. Fe-chlorophyllin promotes the growth of wheat roots associated with nitric oxide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Min; Zhang, Liefeng; Wang, Yifan; Jiang, Hui; Ren, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. At the relatively lower Fe-chlorophyllin concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the activity of IAA oxidase displayed a remarkable decrease, being 40.1% lower than the control. Meanwhile, Fe-chlorophyllin treatment could increase the activities of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), as determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that Fe-chlorophyllin contributes to the growth of wheat root associated with nitric oxide generation.

  14. Fe-Chlorophyllin Promotes the Growth of Wheat Roots Associated with Nitric Oxide Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available : Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. At the relatively lower Fe-chlorophyllin concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the activity of IAA oxidase displayed a remarkable decrease, being 40.1% lower than the control. Meanwhile, Fe-chlorophyllin treatment could increase the activities of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, as determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that Fe-chlorophyllin contributes to the growth of wheat root associated with nitric oxide generation.

  15. N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions.

  16. Disruption of lysosome function promotes tumor growth and metastasis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Congwu; Zhu, Huanhu; Han, Min; Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaohui; Xu, Tian

    2010-07-09

    Lysosome function is essential to many physiological processes. It has been suggested that deregulation of lysosome function could contribute to cancer. Through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we have discovered that mutations disrupting lysosomal degradation pathway components contribute to tumor development and progression. Loss-of-function mutations in the Class C vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) gene, deep orange (dor), dramatically promote tumor overgrowth and invasion of the Ras(V12) cells. Knocking down either of the two other components of the Class C VPS complex, carnation (car) and vps16A, also renders Ras(V12) cells capable for uncontrolled growth and metastatic behavior. Finally, chemical disruption of the lysosomal function by feeding animals with antimalarial drugs, chloroquine or monensin, leads to malignant tumor growth of the Ras(V12) cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence for a causative role of lysosome dysfunction in tumor growth and invasion and indicate that members of the Class C VPS complex behave as tumor suppressors.

  17. Tumor fibroblast-derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R; Threadgill, David W; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F

    2013-04-01

    Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms.

  18. Tumor fibroblast–derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J.; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R.; Threadgill, David W.; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

  19. TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression through Smad and ERK1/2 pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Su-zhi [Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou 317000, Zhejiang (China); Lin, Yan; Cao, Xiao-pan [Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang (China); Liu, Jia-ming, E-mail: wzljm@126.com [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035, Zhejiang (China)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression in glioma cells. •TGF-β promoted Nodal expression via activating Smad and ERK1/2 pathways. •TGF-β promotes glioma cell growth via activating Nodal expression. -- Abstract: While there were certain studies focusing on the mechanism of TGF-β promoting the growth of glioma cells, the present work revealed another novel mechanism that TGF-β may promote glioma cell growth via enhancing Nodal expression. Our results showed that Nodal expression was significantly upregulated in glioma cells when TGF-β was added, whereas the TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was evidently inhibited by transfection Smad2 or Smad3 siRNAs, and the suppression was especially significant when the Smad3 was downregulated. Another, the attenuation of TGF-β-induced Nodal expression was observed with blockade of the ERK1/2 pathway also. Further detection of the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of glioma cells indicated that Nodal overexpression promoted the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells and inhibited their apoptosis, resembling the effect of TGF-β addition. Downregulation of Nodal expression via transfection Nodal-specific siRNA in the presence of TGF-β weakened the promoting effect of the latter on glioma cells growth, and transfecting Nodal siRNA alone in the absence of exogenous TGF-β more profoundly inhibited the growth of glioma cells. These results demonstrated that while both TGF-β and Nodal promoted glioma cells growth, the former might exert such effect by enhancing Nodal expression, which may form a new target for glioma therapy.

  20. In vivo hair growth-promoting effect of rice bran extract prepared by supercritical carbon dioxide fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Woi-Sook; Moon, Jin-Nam; Cheon, Eun Jin; Kim, Joo-Wan; Jung, Sung Kyu; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Mi-Ryung

    2014-01-01

    The potential hair growth-promoting activity of rice bran supercritical CO2 extract (RB-SCE) and major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid, policosanol, γ-oryzanol, and γ-tocotrienol, were evaluated with the histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in C57BL/6 mice. RB-SCE showed hair growth-promoting potential to a similar extent as 3% minoxidil, showing that the hair follicles were induced to be in the anagen stage. The numbers of the hair follicles were significantly increased. In addition, mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) were also significantly increased and that of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) decreased in RB-SCE-treated groups. Among the major components of RB-SCE, linoleic acid and γ-oryzanol induced the formation of hair follicles according to examination of histological morphology and mRNA expression levels of cell growth factors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that RB-SCE, particularly linoleic acid and γ-oryzanol, promotes hair growth and suggests RB-SCE can be applied as hair loss treatment.

  1. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Moon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Interestingly, we found that extraction with n-butanol is most efficient in producing the hair promoting activity. In addition, the soluble fraction of the n-butanol extract was further separated by silica gel chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC resulting in isolating four single fractions which have hair growth regeneration potential. Furthermore, administration of ATRES extracts to dorsal skin area increased the number of hair follicles compared with control mouse group. Interestingly, administration of ATRES extract stimulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 but not of keratin growth factor (KGF or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Taken together, these results suggest that ATRES possesses strong hair growth promoting potential which controls the expression of IGF-1.

  2. A Maternal High-Energy Diet Promotes Intestinal Development and Intrauterine Growth of Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peilin; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Feng, Bin; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Li, Jian; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in an offspring’s intestinal development. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of maternal energy on the growth and small intestine development of offspring. After mating, twenty gilts (Large White (LW) breeding, body weight (BW) at 135.54 ± 0.66 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a control diet (CON) group and a high-energy diet (HED) group, respectively. The nutrient levels of the CON were referred to meet the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), while the HED was designed by adding an amount of soybean oil that was 4.6% of the total diet weight to the CON. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. At day 90 of gestation, day 1 post-birth, and day 28 post-birth, the weights of fetuses and piglets, intestinal morphology, enzyme activities, and gene and protein expressions of intestinal growth factors were determined. The results indicated that the maternal HED markedly increased the BW, small intestinal weight, and villus height of fetuses and piglets. Moreover, the activities of lactase in fetal intestine, sucrase in piglet intestine were markedly increased by the maternal HED. In addition, the maternal HED tended to increase the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in fetal intestine, associated with significantly increased the gene expression of IGF-1R. In conclusion, increasing energy intake could promote fetal growth and birth weight, with greater intestinal morphology and enzyme activities. PMID:27164130

  3. Growth and Nutrition of Eucalypt Rooted Cuttings Promoted by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Commercial Nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Mara Martins Gandini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF may improve the adaptation of eucalypts saplings to field conditions and allow more efficient fertilizer use. The effectiveness of EMF inoculum application in promoting fungal colonization, plant growth, nutrient uptake, and the quality of rooted cuttings was evaluated forEucalyptus urophylla under commercial nursery conditions. For inoculated treatments, fertilization of the sapling substrate was reduced by 50 %. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, wherein the factors were inoculum application rates of 0 (control, 5, 10, and 15 gel beads of calcium alginate containing the vegetative mycelium of Amanita muscaria, Elaphomyces antracinus, Pisolithus microcarpus, andScleroderma areolatum, plus a non-inoculated treatment without fertilization reduction in the substrate (commercial. Ectomycorrhizal fungi increased plant growth and fungal colonization as well as N and K uptake evenly. The best plant growth and fungal colonization were observed for the highest application rate. The greatest growth and fungal colonization and contents of P, N, and K were observed at the 10-bead rate. Plant inoculation with Amanita muscaria, Elaphomyces anthracinus, and Scleroderma areolatum increased P concentrations and contents in a differential manner. The Dickson Quality Index was not affected by the type of fungi or by inoculum application rates. Eucalypt rooted cuttings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi and under half the amount of commercial fertilization had P, N, and K concentrations and contents greater than or equal to those of commercial plants and have high enough quality to be transplanted after 90 days.

  4. Notch pathway promotes ovarian cancer growth and migration via CXCR4/SDF1α chemokine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, R; Colombo, M; Bulfamante, G; Falleni, M; Tosi, D; Garavelli, S; De Simone, D; Vigolo, E; Todoerti, K; Neri, A; Platonova, N

    2015-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological malignancy. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is critical to provide new targeted therapeutic strategies. Recent evidence supports a role for Notch in ovarian cancer progression and associates its dysregulation to poor overall survival. Similarly, CXCR4/SDF1α signalling correlates with ovarian cancer progression and metastasis. Recent findings indicate that Notch promotes CXCR4/SDF1α signalling and its effect on cell growth and migration; nonetheless, up to now, the association between Notch and CXCR4/SDFα in ovarian cancer has not been reported. Thereby, the aim of this study was to investigate if Notch and CXCR4/SDF1α cooperate in determining ovarian cancer growth, survival and migration. To address this issue, Notch signalling was inhibited by using γ-secretase inhibitors, or upregulated by forcing of Notch1 expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. Our results indicated that Notch activity influenced tumour cell growth and survival and positively regulated CXCR4 and SDF1α expression. CXCR4/SDF1α signalling mediated the effect of Notch pathway on ovarian cancer cell growth and SDF1α-driven migration. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that Notch signalling activation can be detected in ovarian cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry analysis of the Notch transcriptional target, HES6 and is positively correlated with high expression levels of CXCR4 and SDF1α. Our results demonstrate that Notch affects ovarian cancer cell biology through the modulation of CXCR4/SDF1α signalling and suggest that Notch inhibition may be a rationale therapeutic approach to hamper ovarian cancer progression mediated by the CXCR4/SDF1α axis.

  5. A Maternal High-Energy Diet Promotes Intestinal Development and Intrauterine Growth of Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilin Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in an offspring’s intestinal development. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of maternal energy on the growth and small intestine development of offspring. After mating, twenty gilts (Large White (LW breeding, body weight (BW at 135.54 ± 0.66 kg were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments: a control diet (CON group and a high-energy diet (HED group, respectively. The nutrient levels of the CON were referred to meet the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012, while the HED was designed by adding an amount of soybean oil that was 4.6% of the total diet weight to the CON. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. At day 90 of gestation, day 1 post-birth, and day 28 post-birth, the weights of fetuses and piglets, intestinal morphology, enzyme activities, and gene and protein expressions of intestinal growth factors were determined. The results indicated that the maternal HED markedly increased the BW, small intestinal weight, and villus height of fetuses and piglets. Moreover, the activities of lactase in fetal intestine, sucrase in piglet intestine were markedly increased by the maternal HED. In addition, the maternal HED tended to increase the protein expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R in fetal intestine, associated with significantly increased the gene expression of IGF-1R. In conclusion, increasing energy intake could promote fetal growth and birth weight, with greater intestinal morphology and enzyme activities.

  6. Promoting Eco-innovations to Leverage Sustainable Development of Eco-industry and Green Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.Sarkar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world, ecologyand the economy are on cross roads. With the increasingpace of globalization and economic liberalization, giving birth to the rapid growth ofconsumerism by the modern civilization,there is growing consciousness to movegradually towards green growth with sustainability. This is now becoming possible byenhancing eco-consciousness both among theproducers as well as the consumers. Thechosen path is obviously to go in for more and more eco-innovations to providecomplementarily to industrialproduction without sacrificing much on the production aswell as economic front. Renewable alternate technologies – widely known as eco-technologies, are now being developed withmassive investment on R&D activities byseveral research organizations across the world to achieve this mission. To leverage thegains from eco-innovations and achievedthrough proactive and carefully plannedorganizational and R&D support, there seems to be a surge in the growth of Eco-industries; which in turn, are getting increasingly organized asa chain of eco-industry, byconstantly evolving replicableas well as sustainable eco-industrial models in the emergingsectors of economy, prominently in the EU countries.The paper takes a holistic and strategic review on how the Eco-innovations and their eco-specific promotional and developmental efforts are stimulating the sustainabledevelopment of Eco-industriesand enhancing Green growth bysetting up of demonstrableEco-industrial models in multi-sectoral areas in Europe and the other parts of the world.The paper also provides a brief account of various corporate and entrepreneur initiativestaken in developing sustainable Eco-industrial business models and the methodologies tomeasure the impact of eco-innovation projects.

  7. Low humic acids promote in vitro lily bulblet enlargement by enhancing roots growth and carbohydrate metabolism * #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Xia, Yi-ping; Zhang, Jia-ping; Du, Fang; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Yi-di; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Bulblet development is a problem in global lily bulb production and carbohydrate metabolism is a crucial factor. Micropropagation acts as an efficient substitute for faster propagation and can provide a controllable condition to explore bulb growth. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of humic acid (HA) on bulblet swelling and the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in Lilium Oriental Hybrids ‘Sorbonne’ under in vitro conditions. HA greatly promoted bulblet growth at 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 mg/L, and pronounced increases in bulblet sucrose, total soluble sugar, and starch content were observed for higher HA concentrations (≥2.0 mg/L) within 45 d after transplanting (DAT). The activities of three major starch synthetic enzymes (including adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, granule-bound starch synthase, and soluble starch synthase) were enhanced dramatically after HA application especially low concentration HA (LHA), indicating a quick response of starch metabolism. However, higher doses of HA also caused excessive aboveground biomass accumulation and inhibited root growth. Accordingly, an earlier carbon starvation emerged by observing evident starch degradation. Relative bulblet weight gradually decreased with increased HA doses and thereby broke the balance between the source and sink. A low HA concentration at 0.2 mg/L performed best in both root and bulblet growth. The number of roots and root length peaked at 14.5 and 5.75 cm, respectively. The fresh bulblet weight and diameter reached 468 mg (2.9 times that under the control treatment) and 11.68 mm, respectively. Further, sucrose/starch utilization and conversion were accelerated and carbon famine was delayed as a result with an average relative bulblet weight of 80.09%. To our knowledge, this is the first HA application and mechanism research into starch metabolism in both in vitro and in vivo condition in bulbous crops. PMID:27819136

  8. Amelogenin as a promoter of nucleation and crystal growth of apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskoković, Vuk; Li, Wu; Habelitz, Stefan

    2011-02-01

    Human dental enamel forms over a period of 2-4 years by substituting the enamel matrix, a protein gel mostly composed of a single protein, amelogenin with fibrous apatite nanocrystals. Self-assembly of amelogenin and the products of its selective proteolytic digestion are presumed to direct the growth of apatite fibers and their organization into bundles that eventually comprise the mature enamel, the hardest tissue in the mammalian body. This work aimed to establish the physicochemical and biochemical conditions for the growth of apatite crystals under the control of a recombinant amelogenin matrix (rH174) in combination with a programmable titration system. The growth of apatite substrates was initiated in the presence of self-assembling amelogenin particles. A series of constant titration rate experiments was performed that allowed for a gradual increase of the calcium and/or phosphate concentrations in the protein suspensions. We observed a significant amount of apatite crystals formed on the substrates following the titration of rH174 sols that comprised the initial supersaturation ratio equal to zero. The protein layers adsorbed onto the substrate apatite crystals were shown to act as promoters of nucleation and growth of calcium phosphates subsequently formed on the substrate surface. Nucleation lag time experiments have showed that rH174 tends to accelerate precipitation from metastable calcium phosphate solutions in proportion to its concentration. Despite their mainly hydrophobic nature, amelogenin nanospheres, the size and surface charge properties of which were analyzed using dynamic light scattering, acted as a nucleating agent for the crystallization of apatite. The biomimetic experimental setting applied in this study proves as convenient for gaining insight into the fundamental nature of the process of amelogenesis.

  9. Effect of metal tolerant plant growth promoting bacteria on growth and metal accumulation in Zea mays plants grown in fly ash amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kalpna V; Patra, D D

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of the application of fly ash (FA) into Garden soil (GS), with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), on the growth and metal uptake by Zea mays plants. Three FA tolerant PGPB strains, Pseudomonas sp. PS5, PS14, and Bacillus sp. BC29 were isolated from FA contaminated soils and assessed for their plant growth promoting features on the Z. mays plants. All three strains were also examined for their ability to solubilize phosphate and to produce Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), siderophores, and hydrogencynide acid (HCN) production. Although inoculation of all strains significantly enhanced the growth of plants at both the concentration of FA but maximum growth was observed in plants inoculated with BC29 and PS14 at low level (25%) of FA concentration. The experimental results explored the plant growth promoting features of selected strains which not only enhanced growth and biomass of plants but also protected them from toxicity of FA.

  10. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NOVEL PYRAZOLES AND THEIR GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITY ON SOME FLOWERING PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hushare VJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of chlorosubstituted 4-aroylpyrazoles have been synthesized by refluxing of chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavones and 3-alkoylchromone with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride in dioxane medium with 0.5 ml of piperidine. Chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavones and chlorosubstituted-3-alkoylchromone were prepared by refluxing them separately with iodine crystal in ethanol. Initially chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavanones and 3-alkoylchromanone have been prepared separately by the interaction of different aldehydes with 1(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione. Constitutions of synthesized compounds have been confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, UV-Visible, I.R. and 1H-NMR spectral data. The titled compounds were evaluated for their growth promoting activity on some flowering plants viz. Papaver rhoeas, Dianthus chinensis, Candy tuft, Calendula officinalise, Gladiola tristis, Gaillardia.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Streptomycetes with-Plant Growth Promoting Potential from Mangrove Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Malviya, Nityanand; Arora, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    A total of 66 actinomycetes isolates were isolated from mangroves of Andhra Pradesh, India, using various enrichment techniques and pretreatments. The samples were collected from Coringa mangrove ecosystem and pre-treated by enrichment with CaCO3, sodium dodecyl sulphate and phenol, plated on the media supplemented with cycloheximide (50 mg/ml), nystatin (25 mg/ml) and nalidixic acid (50 mg/ml). The population count of actinomycetes fluctuated from 1.9 x 10(5) to 8.0 x 10(5)/g soil. Out of the isolated 66 actinomycetes, 8 isolates possessing plant growth promoting potential were further studied and characterized by physiological and biochemical traits and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as different species of Streptomycetes genera.

  12. Immunomodulator CD200 promotes neurotrophic activity by interacting with and activating the fibroblast growth factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratova, Stanislava; Bjornsdottir, Halla; Christensen, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    in the suppression of microglia activation. We for the first time demonstrated that CD200 can interact with and transduce signaling through activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), thereby inducing neuritogenesis and promoting neuronal survival in primary neurons. CD200-induced FGFR...... phosphorylation was abrogated by CD200R, whereas FGF2-induced FGFR activation was inhibited by CD200. We also identified a sequence motif located in the first Ig-like module of CD200, likely representing the minimal CD200 binding site for FGFR. The FGFR binding motif overlaps with the CD200R binding site......, suggesting that they can compete for CD200 binding in cells that express both receptors. We propose that CD200 in neurons functions as a ligand of FGFR....

  13. Growth promotion of maize by phosphate-solubilizing bacteria isolated from composts and macrofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameeda, B; Harini, G; Rupela, O P; Wani, S P; Reddy, Gopal

    2008-01-01

    Five bacterial strains with phosphate-solubilizing ability and other plant growth promoting traits increased the plant biomass (20-40%) by paper towel method. Glasshouse and field experiments were conducted using two efficient strains Serratia marcescens EB 67 and Pseudomonas sp. CDB 35. Increase in plant biomass (dry weight) was 99% with EB 67 and 94% with CDB 35 under glasshouse conditions. Increase in plant biomass at 48 and 96 days after sowing was 66% and 50% with EB 67 and 51% and 18% with CDB 35 under field conditions. Seed treatment with EB 67 and CDB 35 increased the grain yield of field-grown maize by 85% and 64% compared to the uninoculated control. Population of EB 67 and CDB 35 were traced back from the rhizosphere of maize on buffered rock phosphate (RP) medium and both the strains survived up to 96 days after sowing.

  14. CD73-Generated Adenosine: Orchestrating the Tumor-Stroma Interplay to Promote Cancer Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Allard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the coming of age of cancer immunotherapy, clinical benefits are still modest. An important barrier to successful cancer immunotherapy is that tumors employ a number of mechanisms to facilitate immune escape, including the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, the recruitment of regulatory immune subsets, and the production of immunosuppressive metabolites. Significant therapeutic opportunity exists in targeting these immunosuppressive pathways. One such immunosuppressive pathway is the production of extracellular adenosine by CD73, an ectonucleotidase overexpressed in various types of cancer. We hereafter review the biology of CD73 and its role in cancer progression and metastasis. We describe the role of extracellular adenosine in promoting tumor growth through paracrine and autocrine action on tumor cells, endothelial cells, and immune cells.

  15. Solubilization of zinc compounds by the diazotrophic, plant growth promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, V S; Madhaiyan, M; Thangaraju, M

    2007-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus an endophytic diazotroph also encountered as rhizosphere bacterium is reported to possess different plant growth promoting characteristics. In this study, we assessed the zinc solubilizing potential of G. diazotrophicus under in vitro conditions with different Zn compounds using glucose or sucrose as carbon sources. G. diazotrophicus showed variations in their solubilization potential with the strains used and the Zn compounds tested. G. diazotrophicus PAl5 efficiently solubilized the Zn compounds tested and ZnO was effectively solubilized than ZnCO(3) or Zn(3)(PO(4))(2). The soluble Zn concentration was determined in the culture supernatant through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Gas chromatography coupled Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed 5-ketogluconic acid, a derivative of gluconic acid as the major organic acid produced by G. diazotrophicus PAl5 cultured with glucose as carbon source. This organic anion may be an important agent that helped in the solubilization of insoluble Zn compounds.

  16. Induction of a growth-phase-dependent promoter triggers transcription of bolA, an Escherichia coli morphogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, M; Garrido, T; Hernández-Chico, C; Vicente, M; Kushner, S R

    1989-12-01

    The bolA gene, which is involved in the morphogenetic pathways of Escherichia coli, was sequenced and two potential promoters were identified. Expression from promoter P1, proximal to the bolA structural gene is specifically induced during the transition to the stationary phase of growth. This promoter contains an unusual--10 region (CGGCTAGTA), which defines a new class of E. coli promoters necessary for the dramatic increase in the rate of synthesis of a large set of proteins during the cessation of logarithmic growth. This conclusion was confirmed by identifying two additional E. coli promoters and one plasmid promoter, which also were induced during the transition to the stationary phase of growth. Analysis of proteins produced during the exponential and stationary phases of growth in a bolA null mutant suggest a possible role for the BolA protein in the induction of the expression of penicillin-binding protein 6 (PBP6) in the transition to the stationary phase. Supporting this hypothesis is the presence of a putative DNA-binding domain within the bolA coding sequence.

  17. A PKC-dependent recruitment of MMP-2 controls semaphorin-3A growth-promoting effect in cortical dendrites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Gonthier

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence for a crucial role of proteases and metalloproteinases during axon growth and guidance. In this context, we recently described a functional link between the chemoattractive Sema3C and Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3. Here, we provide data demonstrating the involvement of MMP-2 to trigger the growth-promoting effect of Sema3A in cortical dendrites. The in situ analysis of MMP-2 expression and activity is consistent with a functional growth assay demonstrating in vitro that the pharmacological inhibition of MMP-2 reduces the growth of cortical dendrites in response to Sema3A. Hence, our results suggest that the selective recruitment and activation of MMP-2 in response to Sema3A requires a PKC alpha dependent mechanism. Altogether, we provide a second set of data supporting MMPs as effectors of the growth-promoting effects of semaphorins, and we identify the potential signalling pathway involved.

  18. SDF-1α mediates wound-promoted tumor growth in a syngeneic orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina H Stuelten

    Full Text Available Increased growth of residual tumors in the proximity of acute surgical wounds has been reported; however, the mechanisms of wound-promoted tumor growth remain unknown. Here, we used a syngeneic, orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer to study mechanisms of wound-promoted tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that exposure of metastatic mouse breast cancer cells (4T1 to SDF-1α, which is increased in wound fluid, results in increased tumor growth. Both, wounding and exposure of 4T1 cells to SDF-1α not only increased tumor growth, but also tumor cell proliferation rate and stromal collagen deposition. Conversely, systemic inhibition of SDF-1α signaling with the small molecule AMD 3100 abolished the effect of wounding, and decreased cell proliferation, collagen deposition, and neoangiogenesis to the levels observed in control animals. Furthermore, using different mouse strains we could demonstrate that the effect of wounding on tumor growth and SDF-1α levels is host dependent and varies between mouse strains. Our results show that wound-promoted tumor growth is mediated by elevated SDF-1α levels and indicate that the effect of acute wounds on tumor growth depends on the predetermined wound response of the host background and its predetermined wound response.

  19. Fungal diversity and plant growth promotion of endophytic fungi from six halophytes in Suncheon Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Young-Hyun; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Sang-Mo; Shin, Jae-Ho; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Lee, In-Jung; Lee, Jin-Man; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2012-11-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from roots of six halophytes in Suncheon Bay. The endophytic fungi of 35 species isolated from halophytes were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) containing the ITS1, 5.8s, and ITS2 regions. All fungal strains were analyzed to diversity at the genus level. Fungal culture filtrates (FCF) of endophytic fungi were treated to Waito-c rice (WR) seedling for plant growth-promoting verification. It was confirmed that fungal strain Sj-2-2 provided plant growth promotion (PGP) to WR seedling. Then, PGP of Suaeda japonica was confirmed by treating culture filtrate of Sj-2-2. As a result, it was verified that culture filtrate of Sj-2-2 had more advanced PGP than positive control when treated to S. japonica. The secondary metabolites involved in culture filtrate of Sj-2-2 were identified by HPLC and GC-MS SIM analysis. The presence of physiologically bioactive gibberellins (GAs) and other inactive GAs in culture filtrate of Sj-2-2 was detected. The molecular analysis of sequences of Sj-2-2 showed the similarity to Penicillium sp. of 99% homology. The PGP of Sj-2-2 as well as symbiosis between endophytic fungi and halophytes growing naturally in salt marsh was confirmed. Sj-2-2 was identified as a new fungal strain producing GAs by molecular analysis of sequences. Consequently, the Sj-2-2 fungal strain was named as Penicillium sp. Sj-2-2. In this study, the diversity of endophytic fungi isolated from roots of halophytes in salt marsh and the PGP of a new gibberellin-producing fungal strain were confirmed.

  20. Subcutaneous adipocytes promote melanoma cell growth by activating the Akt signaling pathway: role of palmitic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Fu, Xiuqiong; Liu, Bin; Chao, Xiaojuan; Chan, Chi Leung; Cao, Huihui; Su, Tao; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-10-31

    Tumorigenesis involves constant communication between tumor cells and neighboring normal cells such as adipocytes. The canonical function of adipocytes is to store triglyceride and release fatty acids for other tissues. This study was aimed to find out if adipocytes promoted melanoma cell growth and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Here we isolated adipocytes from inguinal adipose tissue in mice and co-cultured with melanoma cells. We found that the co-cultured melanoma had higher lipid accumulation compared with mono-cultured melanoma. In addition, fluorescently labeled fatty acid BODIPY® FLC16 signal was detected in melanoma co-cultured with the adipocytes that had been loaded with the fluorescent dye, suggesting that the adipocytes provide fatty acids to melanoma cells. Compared with mono-cultured melanoma, co-cultured melanoma cells had a higher proliferation and phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) expression. Overexpression of Akt mutants in melanoma cells reduced the co-culture-enhanced proliferation. A lipidomic study showed that the co-cultured melanoma had an elevated palmitic acid level. Interestingly, we found that palmitic acid stimulated melanoma cell proliferation, changed the cell cycle distribution, and increased phospho-Akt (Ser-473 and Thr-450) and PI3K but not phospho-PTEN (phosphophosphatase and tensin homolog) expressions. More importantly, the palmitic acid-stimulated proliferation was further enhanced in the Akt-overexpressed melanoma cells and was reduced by LY294002 or knockdown of endogenous Akt or overexpression of Akt mutants. We also found that palmitic acid-pretreated B16F10 cells were grown to a significantly larger tumor in mice compared with control cells. Taken together, we suggest that adipocytes may serve as an exogenous source of palmitic acid that promotes melanoma cell growth by activating Akt.

  1. Azospirillum spp. from native forage grasses in Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: biodiversity and plant growth promotion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mayara S T; de Baura, Valter A; Santos, Sandra A; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo Ivan; Reis Junior, Fábio B; Marques, Maria Rita; Paggi, Gecele Matos; da Silva Brasil, Marivaine

    2017-04-01

    A sustainable alternative to improve yield and the nutritive value of forage is the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that release nutrients, synthesize plant hormones and protect against phytopathogens (among other mechanisms). Azospirillum genus is considered an important PGPB, due to the beneficial effects observed when inoculated in several plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of new Azospirillum isolates and select bacteria according to the plant growth promotion ability in three forage species from the Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: Axonopus purpusii, Hymenachne amplexicaulis and Mesosetum chaseae. The identification of bacterial isolates was performed using specific primers for Azospirillum in PCR reactions and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. The isolates were evaluated in vitro considering biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Based on the results of BNF and IAA, selected isolates and two reference strains were tested by inoculation. At 31 days after planting the plant height, shoot dry matter, shoot protein content and root volume were evaluated. All isolates were able to fix nitrogen and produce IAA, with values ranging from 25.86 to 51.26 mg N mL(-1) and 107-1038 µmol L(-1), respectively. The inoculation of H. amplexicaulis and A. purpusii increased root volume and shoot dry matter. There were positive effects of Azospirillum inoculation on Mesosetum chaseae regarding plant height, shoot dry matter and root volume. Isolates MAY1, MAY3 and MAY12 were considered promising for subsequent inoculation studies in field conditions.

  2. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  3. Plant Growth Promotion and Suppression of Bacterial Leaf Blight in Rice by Inoculated Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Sumera; Zaka, Abha; Imran, Asma; Zahid, Muhammad Awais; Yousaf, Sumaira; Rasul, Ghulam; Arif, Muhammad; Mirza, Muhammad Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of rice rhizosphere associated antagonistic bacteria for growth promotion and disease suppression of bacterial leaf blight (BLB). A total of 811 rhizospheric bacteria were isolated and screened against 3 prevalent strains of BLB pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) of which five antagonistic bacteria, i.e., Pseudomonas spp. E227, E233, Rh323, Serratia sp. Rh269 and Bacillus sp. Rh219 showed antagonistic potential (zone of inhibition 1-19 mm). Production of siderophores was found to be the common biocontrol determinant and all the strains solubilized inorganic phosphate (82-116 μg mL-1) and produced indole acetic acid (0.48-1.85 mg L-1) in vitro. All antagonistic bacteria were non-pathogenic to rice, and their co-inoculation significantly improved plant health in terms of reduced diseased leaf area (80%), improved shoot length (31%), root length (41%) and plant dry weight (60%) as compared to infected control plants. Furthermore, under pathogen pressure, bacterial inoculation resulted in increased activity of defense related enzymes including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol oxidase, along with 86% increase in peroxidase and 53% increase in catalase enzyme activities in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 as well as co-inoculated plants. Bacterial strains showed good colonization potential in the rice rhizosphere up to 21 days after seed inoculation. Application of bacterial consortia in the field resulted in an increase of 31% in grain yield and 10% in straw yield over non-inoculated plots. Although, yield increase was statistically non-significant but was accomplished with overall saving of 20% chemical fertilizers. The study showed that Pseudomonas sp. Rh323 can be used to develop dual-purpose inoculum which can serve not only to suppress BLB but also to promote plant growth in rice.

  4. Tumor-derived IL-35 promotes tumor growth by enhancing myeloid cell accumulation and angiogenesis.

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    Wang, Zhihui; Liu, Jin-Qing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Shen, Rulong; Zhang, Guoqiang; Xu, Jianping; Basu, Sujit; Feng, Youmei; Bai, Xue-Feng

    2013-03-01

    IL-35 is a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines that is comprised of an IL-12 p35 subunit and an IL-12 p40-related protein subunit, EBV-induced gene 3 (EBI3). IL-35 functions through IL-35R and has a potent immune-suppressive activity. Although IL-35 was demonstrated to be produced by regulatory T cells, gene-expression analysis revealed that it is likely to have a wider distribution, including expression in cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-35 is produced in human cancer tissues, such as large B cell lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and melanoma. To determine the roles of tumor-derived IL-35 in tumorigenesis and tumor immunity, we generated IL-35-producing plasmacytoma J558 and B16 melanoma cells and observed that the expression of IL-35 in cancer cells does not affect their growth and survival in vitro, but it stimulates tumorigenesis in both immune-competent and Rag1/2-deficient mice. Tumor-derived IL-35 increases CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cell accumulation in the tumor microenvironment and, thereby, promotes tumor angiogenesis. In immune-competent mice, spontaneous CTL responses to tumors are diminished. IL-35 does not directly inhibit tumor Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell activation, differentiation, and effector functions. However, IL-35-treated cancer cells had increased expression of gp130 and reduced sensitivity to CTL destruction. Thus, our study indicates novel functions for IL-35 in promoting tumor growth via the enhancement of myeloid cell accumulation, tumor angiogenesis, and suppression of tumor immunity.

  5. Getting the ecology into interactions between plants and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

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    W. H. Gera eHol

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are increasingly appreciated for their contributions to primary productivity through promotion of growth and triggering of induced systemic resistance in plants. Here we focus on the beneficial effects of one particular species of PGPR (Pseudomonas fluorescens on plants through induced plant defence. This model organism has provided much understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of PGPR-induced plant defence. However, this knowledge can only be appreciated at full value once we know to what extent these mechanisms also occur under more realistic, species-diverse conditions as are occurring in the plant rhizosphere. To provide the necessary ecological context, we review the literature to compare the effect of P. fluorescens on induced plant defence when it is present as a single species or in combination with other soil dwelling species. Specifically, we discuss combinations with other plant mutualists (bacterial or fungal, plant pathogens (bacterial or fungal, bacterivores (nematode or protozoa and decomposers. Synergistic interactions between P. fluorescens and other plant mutualists are much more commonly reported than antagonistic interactions. Recent developments have enabled screenings of P. fluorescens genomes for defence traits and this could help with selection of strains with likely positive interactions on biocontrol. However, studies that examine the effects of multiple herbivores, pathogens, or herbivores and pathogens together on the effectiveness of PGPR to induce plant defences are underrepresented and we are not aware of any study that has examined interactions between P. fluorescens and bacterivores or decomposers. As co-occurring soil organisms can enhance but also reduce the effectiveness of PGPR, a better understanding of the biotic factors modulating P. fluorescens -plant interactions will improve the effectiveness of introducing P. fluorescens to enhance plant production

  6. Maize response to inoculation with strains of plant growth-promoting bactéria

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    Janaína Dartora

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of maize to inoculation with strains of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB in two cultivation years. The experiment was set in a randomized block design with four replicates in two cultivation years (2012/13 and 2013/14. The treatments consisted of PGPB inoculation: control (without N and without inoculation; 30 kg of N ha-1 at sowing (N1; 160 kg of N ha-1 (N1 + 130 kg of N ha-1 as top-dressing; N1 + A. brasilense, Ab-V5; N1 + A. brasilense, HM053; N1 + Azospirillum sp. L26; N1 + Azospirillum sp. L27; N1 + Enhydrobacter sp. 4331; N1 + Rhizobium sp. 8121. Basal stem diameter, plant height, leaf area, shoot dry matter and yield were evaluated. The strain of Rhizobium sp. 8121and the isolate Azospirillum sp. L26 associated with 30 kg of N ha-1 at sowing promoted yields equivalent to that of the N fertilization of 160 kg ha-1, demonstrating the potential to be used in the inoculation of maize seeds.

  7. Connective tissue growth factor promoter activity in normal and wounded skin

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    Kapoor Mohit

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In skin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2 is induced during tissue repair. However, what the exact cell types are that express CTGF in normal and wounded skin remain controversial. In this report, we use transgenic knock-in mice in which the Pacific jellyfish Aequorea victoria enhanced green fluorescent protein (E-GFP gene has been inserted between the endogenous CTGF promoter and gene. Unwounded (day 0 and wounded (days 3 and 7 skin was examined for GFP to detect cells in which the CTGF promoter was active, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA to detect myofibroblasts, and NG2 expression to detect pericytes. In unwounded mice, CTGF expression was absent in epidermis and was present in a few cells in the dermis. Upon wounding, CTGF expression was induced in the dermis. Double immunolabeling revealed that CTGF-expressing cells also expressed α-SMA, indicating the CTGF was expressed in myofibroblasts. A subset (~30% of myofibroblasts were also NG2 positive, indicating that pericytes significantly contributed to the number of myofibroblasts in the wound. Pericytes also expressed CTGF. Collectively, these results indicate that CTGF expression in skin correlates with myofibroblast induction, and that CTGF-expressing pericytes are significant contributors to myofibroblast activity during cutaneous tissue repair.

  8. Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor Promotes Endothelial Progenitor Cells Function via Akt/FOXO3a Pathway.

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    Liya Huang

    Full Text Available Acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF1 has been suggested to enhance the functional activities of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. The Forkhead homeobox type O transcription factors (FOXOs, a key substrate of the survival kinase Akt, play important roles in regulation of various cellular processes. We previously have shown that FOXO3a is the main subtype of FOXOs expressed in EPCs. Here, we aim to determine whether FGF1 promotes EPC function through Akt/FOXO3a pathway. Human peripheral blood derived EPCs were transduced with adenoviral vectors either expressing a non-phosphorylable, constitutively active triple mutant of FOXO3a (Ad-TM-FOXO3a or a GFP control (Ad-GFP. FGF1 treatment improved functional activities of Ad-GFP transduced EPCs, including cell viability, proliferation, antiapoptosis, migration and tube formation, whereas these beneficial effects disappeared by Akt inhibitor pretreatment. Moreover, EPC function was declined by Ad-TM-FOXO3a transduction and failed to be attenuated even with FGF1 treatment. FGF1 upregulated phosphorylation levels of Akt and FOXO3a in Ad-GFP transduced EPCs, which were repressed by Akt inhibitor pretreatment. However, FGF1 failed to recover Ad-TM-FOXO3a transduced EPCs from dysfunction. These data indicate that FGF1 promoting EPC function is at least in part mediated through Akt/FOXO3a pathway. Our study may provide novel ideas for enhancing EPC angiogenic ability and optimizing EPC transplantation therapy in the future.

  9. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hongyi; Kantekure, Kanchan; Paterson, Jennifer C; Liu, Xiaobin; Schaffer, Andras; Paulos, Chrystal; Milone, Michael C; Odum, Niels; Turner, Suzanne; Marafioti, Teresa; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2011-09-15

    Here we report that T-cell lymphoma cells carrying the NPM-ALK fusion protein (ALK(+) TCL) frequently express the cell-stimulatory receptor ICOS. ICOS expression in ALK(+) TCL is moderate and strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK induces ICOS expression via STAT3, which triggers the transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene promoter. In addition, STAT3 suppresses the expression of miR-219 that, in turn, selectively inhibits ICOS expression. ALK(+) TCL cell lines display extensive DNA methylation of the CpG island located within intron 1, the putative enhancer region, of the ICOS gene, whereas cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines, which strongly express ICOS, show no methylation of the island. Treatment of the ALK(+) TCL cell lines with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor reversed the CpG island methylation and augmented the expression of ICOS mRNA and protein. Stimulation of the ICOS receptor with anti-ICOS antibody or ICOS ligand-expressing B cells markedly enhanced proliferation of the ALK(+) TCL cells. These results demonstrate that NPM-ALK, acting through STAT3 as the gene transcriptional activator, induces the expression of ICOS, a cell growth promoting receptor. These data also show that the DNA methylation status of the intronic CpG island affects transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene and, consequently, modulates the concentration of the expressed ICOS protein.

  10. MicroRNA-181b promotes ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting LATS2

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    Xia, Ying; Gao, Yan, E-mail: gaoyanhdhos@126.com

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • miR-181b is upregulated in human ovarian cancer tissues. • miR-181b promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation and invasion. • LATS2 is a direct target of miR-181b. • LATS2 is involved in miR-181b-induced ovarian cancer cell growth and invasion. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are strongly implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this study, we showed significant upregulation of miR-181b in ovarian cancer tissues, compared with the normal ovarian counterparts. Forced expression of miR-181b led to remarkably enhanced proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells while its knockdown induced significant suppression of these cellular events. The tumor suppressor gene, LATS2 (large tumor suppressor 2), was further identified as a novel direct target of miR-181b. Specifically, miR-181b bound directly to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of LATS2 and suppressed its expression. Restoration of LATS2 expression partially reversed the oncogenic effects of miR-181b. Our results indicate that miR-181b promotes proliferation and invasion by targeting LATS2 in ovarian cancer cells. These findings support the utility of miR-181b as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

  11. Human hepatocyte growth factor promotes functional recovery in primates after spinal cord injury.

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    Kazuya Kitamura

    Full Text Available Many therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI using neurotrophic factors have focused on reducing the area damaged by secondary, post-injury degeneration, to promote functional recovery. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, which is a potent mitogen for mature hepatocytes and a mediator of the inflammatory responses to tissue injury, was recently highlighted as a potent neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system. We previously reported that introducing exogenous HGF into the injured rodent spinal cord using a herpes simplex virus-1 vector significantly reduces the area of damaged tissue and promotes functional recovery. However, that study did not examine the therapeutic effects of administering HGF after injury, which is the most critical issue for clinical application. To translate this strategy to human treatment, we induced a contusive cervical SCI in the common marmoset, a primate, and then administered recombinant human HGF (rhHGF intrathecally. Motor function was assessed using an original open field scoring system focusing on manual function, including reach-and-grasp performance and hand placement in walking. The intrathecal rhHGF preserved the corticospinal fibers and myelinated areas, thereby promoting functional recovery. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging showed significant preservation of the intact spinal cord parenchyma. rhHGF-treatment did not give rise to an abnormal outgrowth of calcitonin gene related peptide positive fibers compared to the control group, indicating that this treatment did not induce or exacerbate allodynia. This is the first study to report the efficacy of rhHGF for treating SCI in non-human primates. In addition, this is the first presentation of a novel scale for assessing neurological motor performance in non-human primates after contusive cervical SCI.

  12. IL-35 promotes pancreas cancer growth through enhancement of proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis: evidence for a role as an autocrine growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Michael B; Ledgewood, Chelsea L; Chen, Xuhui; Bai, Qian; Qin, Chenglu; Cook, Kathryn M; Herrick, Elizabeth J; Diaz-Arias, Alberto; Moore, Bradley J; Fang, Yujiang

    2014-12-01

    Interleukin-35 (IL-35), an IL-12 cytokine family member, mediates the immune inhibitory function of regulatory T cells (Treg). We assayed the presence of IL-35 in paraffin-embedded human pancreas cancer (PCAN) and unexpectedly found IL-35 was expressed mainly by epithelial derived PCAN cells, but not by Treg. We further examined the expression and effect of exogenous IL-35 in human PCAN cell lines and found IL-35 promoted growth and inhibited apoptosis in PCAN cell lines. IL-35 induced proliferation correlated with an increase in cyclin B, cyclin D, cdk2, and cdk4 and a decrease in p27 expression, while inhibition of apoptosis was associated with an increase in Bcl-2 and a decrease in TRAILR1. We conclude IL-35 is produced by PCAN in vivo and promotes PCAN cell line growth in vitro. These results might indicate an important new role for IL-35 as an autocrine growth factor in PCAN growth.

  13. Radiation-induced degradation of sodium alginate and its plant growth promotion effect

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    H.L. Abd El-Mohdy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Alginate was irradiated as a solid with 60Co gamma rays in the dose range of 20–100 kGy to investigate the effect of radiation on alginates. One of the principle factors for reducing the cost is achieving the degradation at low irradiation doses which occurs with addition of chemical initiator to NaAlg during irradiation process that leads to a synergistic effect, which remarkably increases the degradation efficiency of alginate. The factors affecting the degradation process such as irradiation dose and potassium per-sulfate (KPS addition were studied. The average molecular weight of the irradiated alginate was investigated in detail by using several complementary techniques such as chromatography and viscometry. The lowest molecular weight of alginate resulted at 100 kGy and added KPS, whereas the highest one at 20 kGy in absence of KPS. Characterization of the oligoalginates obtained by radiation degradation was performed by FT-IR and UV–vis spectroscopy, XRD and TGA. The effect of water-soluble radiation-induced alginate fractions on the growth promotion of Faba bean plant was studied. The highest plant growth and seed yield compared with control occurred for plants sprayed with low molecular weight NaAlg fractions (treated with 100 kGy and added KPS.

  14. Antibody-mediated inhibition of Nogo-A signaling promotes neurite growth in PC-12 cells

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    Iman K Yazdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of a monoclonal antibody to block the neurite outgrowth inhibitor Nogo-A has been of great interest for promoting axonal recovery as a treatment for spinal cord injury. While several cellular and non-cellular assays have been developed to quantify the bioactive effects of Nogo-A signaling, demand still exists for the development of a reliable approach to characterize the effectiveness of the anti-Nogo-A antibody. In this study, we developed and validated a novel cell-based approach to facilitate the biological quantification of a Nogo-A antibody using PC-12 cells as an in vitro neuronal cell model. Changes in the mRNA levels of the neuronal differentiation markers, growth-associated protein 43 and neurofilament light-polypeptide, suggest that activation of the Nogo-A pathway suppresses axonal growth and dendrite formation in the tested cell line. We found that application of anti-Nogo-A monoclonal antibody can significantly enhance the neuronal maturity of PC-12 cells by blocking the Nogo-A inhibitory effects, providing enhanced effects on neural maturity at the molecular level. No adverse effects were observed on cell viability.

  15. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

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    A. P. Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05 in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens.

  16. Physiological and biochemical characterization of Azospirillum brasilense strains commonly used as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Luciana P; Silva, Esdras; Teixeira, Kátia R S; Cote, Rosalba Esquivel; Pereyra, M Alejandra; García de Salamone, Inés E

    2014-12-01

    Azospirillum is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) genus vastly studied and utilized as agriculture inoculants. Isolation of new strains under different environmental conditions allows the access to the genetic diversity and improves the success of inoculation procedures. Historically, the isolation of this genus has been performed by the use of some traditional culture media. In this work we characterized the physiology and biochemistry of five different A. brasilense strains, commonly used as cereal inoculants. The aim of this work is to contribute to pose into revision some concepts concerning the most used protocols to isolate and characterize this bacterium. We characterized their growth in different traditional and non-traditional culture media, evaluated some PGPR mechanisms and characterized their profiles of fatty acid methyl esters and carbon-source utilization. This work shows, for the first time, differences in both profiles, and ACC deaminase activity of A. brasilense strains. Also, we show unexpected results obtained in some of the evaluated culture media. Results obtained here and an exhaustive knowledge revision revealed that it is not appropriate to conclude about bacterial species without analyzing several strains. Also, it is necessary to continue developing studies and laboratory techniques to improve the isolation and characterization protocols.

  17. PERK promotes cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth by limiting oxidative DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Grigoriadou, Christina; Pytel, Dariusz; Zhang, Fang; Ye, Jiangbin; Koumenis, Constantinos; Cavener, Douglas; Diehl, J. Alan

    2010-01-01

    In order to proliferate and expand in an environment with limited nutrients, cancer cells co-opt cellular regulatory pathways that facilitate adaptation and thereby maintain tumor growth and survival potential. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is uniquely positioned to sense nutrient deprivation stress and subsequently engage signaling pathways that promote adaptive strategies. As such, components of the ER stress-signaling pathway represent potential anti-neoplastic targets. However, recent investigations into the role of the ER resident protein kinase PERK have paradoxically suggested both pro- and anti-tumorigenic properties. We have utilized animal models of mammary carcinoma to interrogate PERK contribution in the neoplastic process. The ablation of PERK in tumor cells resulted in impaired regeneration of intracellular antioxidants and accumulation of reactive oxygen species triggering oxidative DNA damage. Ultimately, PERK deficiency impeded progression through the cell cycle due to the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint. Our data reveal that PERK-dependent signaling is utilized during both tumor initiation and expansion to maintain redox homeostasis and thereby facilitates tumor growth. PMID:20453876

  18. PERK promotes cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth by limiting oxidative DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovnikova-Marjon, E; Grigoriadou, C; Pytel, D; Zhang, F; Ye, J; Koumenis, C; Cavener, D; Diehl, J A

    2010-07-01

    To proliferate and expand in an environment with limited nutrients, cancer cells co-opt cellular regulatory pathways that facilitate adaptation and thereby maintain tumor growth and survival potential. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is uniquely positioned to sense nutrient deprivation stress and subsequently engage signaling pathways that promote adaptive strategies. As such, components of the ER stress-signaling pathway represent potential antineoplastic targets. However, recent investigations into the role of the ER resident protein kinase, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) have paradoxically suggested both pro- and anti-tumorigenic properties. We have used animal models of mammary carcinoma to interrogate the contribution of PERK in the neoplastic process. The ablation of PERK in tumor cells resulted in impaired regeneration of intracellular antioxidants and accumulation of reactive oxygen species triggering oxidative DNA damage. Ultimately, PERK deficiency impeded progression through the cell cycle because of the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint. Our data reveal that PERK-dependent signaling is used during both tumor initiation and expansion to maintain redox homeostasis, thereby facilitating tumor growth.

  19. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C.; la Mora-Amutio, Marcela De; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A.; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R.; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J.; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. ‘Azul’ is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost. PMID:25763038

  20. A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems.

  1. Biomimetic apatite-coated porous PVA scaffolds promote the growth of breast cancer cells

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    Ye, Mao; Mohanty, Pravansu; Ghosh, Gargi, E-mail: gargi@umich.edu

    2014-11-01

    Recapitulating the native environment of bone tissue is essential to develop in vitro models of breast cancer bone metastasis. The bone is a composite material consisting of organic matrix and inorganic mineral phase, primarily hydroxyapatite. In this study, we report the mineralization of porous poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds upon incubation in modified Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) for 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the deposited minerals have composition similar to hydroxyapatite. The study demonstrated that the rate of nucleation and growth of minerals was faster on surfaces of less porous scaffolds. However, upon prolonged incubation, formation of mineral layer was observed on the surface of all the scaffolds. In addition, the study also demonstrated that 3D mineralization only occurred for scaffolds with highly interconnected porous networks. The mineralization of the scaffolds promoted the adsorption of serum proteins and consequently, the adhesion and proliferation of breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Porous PVA scaffolds fabricated via mechanical agitation followed by freeze-drying. • Mineralization of the scaffold was carried out by utilizing biomimetic approach. • Mineralization resulted in increased protein adsorption on the scaffold. • Increased breast cancer cell growth was observed on mineralized scaffolds.

  2. Arginine Methylation of SREBP1a via PRMT5 Promotes De Novo Lipogenesis and Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Zhao, Xiaoping; Zhao, Li; Li, Jiajin; Yang, Hao; Zhu, Zongping; Liu, Jianjun; Huang, Gang

    2016-03-01

    Dysregulation of the sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factors sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and SREBF activates de novo lipogenesis to high levels in cancer cells, a critical event in driving malignant growth. In this study, we identified an important posttranslational mechanism by which SREBP1a is regulated during metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. Mass spectrometry revealed protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) as a binding partner of SREBP1a that symmetrically dimethylated it on R321, thereby promoting transcriptional activity. Furthermore, PRMT5-induced methylation prevented phosphorylation of SREBP1a on S430 by GSK3β, leading to its disassociation from Fbw7 (FBXW7) and its evasion from degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Consequently, methylation-stabilized SREBP1a increased de novo lipogenesis and accelerated the growth of cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. Clinically, R321 symmetric dimethylation status was associated with malignant progression of human hepatocellular carcinoma, where it served as an independent risk factor of poor prognosis. By showing how PRMT5-induced methylation of SREBP1a triggers hyperactivation of lipid biosynthesis, a key event in tumorigenesis, our findings suggest a new generalized strategy to selectively attack tumor metabolism.

  3. [Screening and identification of endophytic fungi with growth promoting effect on Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-qiang; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs.

  4. Nitrogenous nutrients promote the growth and toxicity of Dinophysis acuminata during estuarine bloom events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Marcoval, Maria A; Mittlesdorf, Heidi; Goleski, Jennifer A; Wang, Zhihong; Haynes, Bennie; Morton, Steve L; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) is a globally significant human health syndrome most commonly caused by dinoflagellates within the genus Dinophysis. While blooms of harmful algae have frequently been linked to excessive nutrient loading, Dinophysis is a mixotrophic alga whose growth is typically associated with prey availability. Consequently, field studies of Dinophysis and nutrients have been rare. Here, the temporal dynamics of Dinophysis acuminata blooms, DSP toxins, and nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, organic compounds) were examined over four years within two New York estuaries (Meetinghouse Creek and Northport Bay). Further, changes in the abundance and toxicity of D. acuminata were assessed during a series of nutrient amendment experiments performed over a three year period. During the study, Dinophysis acuminata blooms exceeding one million cells L-1 were observed in both estuaries. Highly significant (pnutrients significantly enhanced D. acuminata densities in nearly all (13 of 14) experiments performed. Ammonium significantly increased cell densities in 10 of 11 experiments, while glutamine significantly enhanced cellular DSP content in 4 of 5 experiments examining this compound. Nutrients may have directly or indirectly enhanced D. acuminata abundances as densities of this mixotroph during experiments were significantly correlated with multiple members of the planktonic community (phytoflagellates and Mesodinium). Collectively, this study demonstrates that nutrient loading and more specifically N-loading promotes the growth and toxicity of D. acuminata populations in coastal zones.

  5. DC-HIL-expressing myelomonocytic cells are critical promoters of melanoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Sung; Tamura, Kyoichi; Cruz, Ponciano D; Ariizumi, Kiyoshi

    2014-11-01

    A major barrier to successful cancer immunotherapy is the tumor's ability to induce T-cell tolerance by exploiting host regulatory mechanisms. Having discovered the DC-HIL receptor, which inhibits T-cell responses by binding to syndecan-4 on effector T cells, we posited the DC-HIL/syndecan-4 pathway to have an important role in cancer promotion. Among DC-HIL(+) myelomonocytic cells, during growth of implanted mouse melanoma, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells were the most expanded population and the most potent at suppressing T-cell activation. Deletion of the DC-HIL gene or infusion of anti-DC-HIL mAb abrogated these cells' suppressor function and expansion, and markedly diminished melanoma growth and metastasis. IL-1β and IFN-γ were elevated in mice bearing melanoma, and concurrent exposure to both cytokines optimally induced DC-HIL expression by tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. Ligation of DC-HIL transduced phosphorylation of its intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, which in turn induced intracellular expression of IFN-γ and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), known to mediate T-cell suppression by CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. Thus, DC-HIL is the critical mediator of these cells' suppressor function in melanoma-bearing mice and a potential target for improving melanoma immunotherapy.

  6. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Julia del C; De la Mora-Amutio, Marcela; Plascencia-Correa, Luis A; Audelo-Regalado, Esmeralda; Guardado, Francisco R; Hernández-Sánchez, Elías; Peña-Ramírez, Yuri J; Escalante, Adelfo; Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI). Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  7. Cultivable endophytic bacteria from leaf bases of Agave tequilana and their role as plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia del C. Martínez-Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agave tequilana Weber var. 'Azul' is grown for the production of tequila, inulin and syrup. Diverse bacteria inhabit plant tissues and play a crucial role for plant health and growth. In this study culturable endophytic bacteria were extracted from leaf bases of 100 healthy Agave tequilana plants. In plant tissue bacteria occurred at mean population densities of 3 million CFU/g of fresh plant tissue. Three hundred endophytic strains were isolated and 16s rDNA sequences grouped the bacteria into eight different taxa that shared high homology with other known sequences. Bacterial endophytes were identified as Acinectobacter sp., A. baumanii, A. bereziniae, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter hormaechei, Bacillus sp. Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas sp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Gluconobacter oxydans. Isolates were confirmed to be plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB by their capacities for nitrogen fixation, auxin production, phosphate solubilization, or antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum AC132. E. casseliflavus JM47 and K. oxytoca JM26 secreted the highest concentrations of IAA. The endophyte Acinectobacter sp. JM58 exhibited the maximum values for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization index (PSI. Inhibition of fungi was found in Pseudomonas sp. JM9p and K. oxytoca JM26. Bacterial endophytes show promise for use as bio-inoculants for agave cultivation. Use of endophytes to enhance cultivation of agave may be particularly important for plants produced by micropropagation techniques, where native endophytes may have been lost.

  8. Growth in liverworts of the Marchantiales is promoted by epiphytic methylobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U.; Koopmann, V.

    2005-07-01

    Liverworts, the most basal lineage of extant land plants, have been used as model systems in the reconstruction of adaptations to life on land. In this study, we used gemmae (specialized propagules) that were isolated from mature gemma cups of two distantly related species of liverworts, Marchantia polymorpha L. and Lunularia cruciata L. (order Marchantiales). We show that methylobacteria (genus Methylobacterium), microbes that inhabit the surfaces of land plants where they secrete phytohormones (cytokinines), promote the growth of isolated gemmae cultivated on agar plates. As a control, two species of higher plants, maize (Zea mays L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were raised aseptically from sterile seeds (i.e., caryopses, achenes). Inoculation of these propagules with methylobacteria was without effect on growth in the above-ground phytosphere (expansion of stems and leaves). We conclude that normal development in Marchantia and Lunularia is dependent on (and possibly regulated by) epiphytic methylobacteria, whereas representative higher plants grow at optimal rates in the absence of these prokaryotic epiphytes.

  9. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria with multiple plant growth-promoting activities enhance growth of tomato and red pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rashedul; Sultana, Tahera; Joe, M Melvin; Yim, Woojong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Sa, Tongmin

    2013-12-01

    As a suitable alternative to chemical fertilizers, the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria has been increasing in recent years due to their potential to be used as biofertilizers. In the present work, 13 nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains belonging to 11 different genera were tested for their PGP attributes. All of the strains were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid, and ammonia production while negative for cellulase, pectinase, and hydrocyanic acid production. The strains Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 and Serratia sp. RFNB14 were the most effective in solubilizing both tri-calcium phosphate and zinc oxide. In addition, all strains except Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 were able to oxidize sulfur, and six strains were positive for siderophore synthesis. Each strain tested in this study possesses at least four PGP properties in addition to nitrogen fixation. Nine strains were selected based on their multiple PGP potential, particularly ACCD and IAA production, and evaluated for their effects on early growth of tomato and red pepper under gnotobiotic conditions. Bacterial inoculation considerably influenced root and shoot length, seedling vigor, and dry biomass of the two crop plants. Three strains that demonstrated substantial effects on plant performance were further selected for greenhouse trials with red pepper, and among them Pseudomonas sp. RFNB3 resulted in significantly higher plant height (26%) and dry biomass (28%) compared to control. The highest rate of nitrogen fixation, as determined by acetylene reduction assay, occurred in Novosphingobium sp. RFNB21 inoculated red pepper root (49.6 nM of ethylene/h/g of dry root) and rhizosphere soil (41.3 nM of ethylene/h/g of dry soil). Inoculation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria significantly increased chlorophyll content, and the uptake of different macro- and micro-nutrient contents enhancing also in red pepper shoots, in comparison with

  10. Growth promoting technologies reduce greenhouse gas, alcohol, and ammonia emissions from feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Calvo, M S; Place, S E; Armitage, T L; Pan, Y; Zhao, Y; Mitloehner, F M

    2013-11-01

    Increased animal productivity has the potential to reduce the environmental impact per unit of consumable product and is believed to be the most promising and sustainable mitigation technique to meet increasing demand for high quality protein. The feedlot industry uses ionophores, antibiotics, growth implants, and β2-adrenergic agonists to improve health and growth performance of cattle. These technologies not only increase productivity but also alter microbes in the rumen and increase nitrogen retention in the animal, which may lead to changes in greenhouse gas (GHG), volatile organic compound (VOC), and ammonia (NH3) emissions from feedlot cattle. The present study investigated GHG, VOC, and NH3 emissions from 160 Angus crossbred steers. Steers were blocked by weight in a randomized block design and assigned to 16 pens of 10 animals each. Treatments applied were 1) control (CON; no technology application), 2) monensin and tylosin phosphate (MON), 3) monensin, tylosin phosphate, and growth implant (IMP), and 4) monensin, tylosin phosphate, growth implant, and zilpaterol hydrochloride (fed during the last 20 d of the feeding period; BAA). Cattle were on feed for an average of 107 d. Performance variables (DMI, BW, ADG, and G:F) and carcass traits (HCW, dressing percent, KPH, LM area, fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, and quality grade) were measured. Gaseous emissions were measured during the last 10 d of the feeding period when animals were housed in 4 totally enclosed identical cattle pen enclosures. To quantify gaseous emissions a 4×4 Latin square design (n=4) was used. Gaseous emissions were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS and reported in grams per kilogram HCW per day and grams per kilogram per animal per hour. Treatment with IMP and BAA increased (PMethane emissions were similar for CON and IMP treated cattle. Nitrous oxide emissions were similar across CON, MON, and IMP treated cattle and were higher in BAA treated cattle (Papplication of growth

  11. Isolation of Endophytic Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Associated with the Halophyte Salicornia europaea and Evaluation of their Promoting Activity Under Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Zhou, Na; Zhao, Zheng-Yong; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Guo-Hua; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Several reports have highlighted that many plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPE) can assist their host plants in coping with various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information about the PGPE colonizing in the halophytes is still scarce. This study was designed to isolate and characterize PGPE from salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea grown under extreme salinity and to evaluate in vitro the bacterial mechanisms related to plant growth promotion. A total of 105 isolates were obtained from the surface-sterilized roots, stems, and assimilation twigs of S. europaea. Thirty-two isolates were initially selected for their ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase as well as other properties such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and phosphate-solubilizing activities. The 16S rRNA gene-sequencing analysis revealed that these isolates belong to 13 different genera and 19 bacterial species. For these 32 strains, seed germination and seedling growth in axenically grown S. europaea seedlings at different NaCl concentrations (50-500 mM) were quantified. Five isolates possessing significant stimulation of the host plant growth were obtained. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus endophyticus, Bacillus tequilensis, Planococcus rifietoensis, Variovorax paradoxus, and Arthrobacter agilis. All the five strains could colonize and can be reisolated from the host plant interior tissues. These results demonstrate that habitat-adapted PGPE isolated from halophyte could enhance plant growth under saline stress conditions.

  12. Bio-effectors from waste materials as growth promoters, an agronomic and metabolomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwanney, Deaa; Chami, Ziad Al; Angelica De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, improving plant performance by providing growth promoters is a main concern of the organic agriculture. As a consequence of increased food demands, more efficient and alternatives of the current plant nutrition strategies are becoming urgent. Recently, a novel concept "bio-effectors" raised on to describe a group of products that are able to improve plant performance and do not belong to fertilizers or pesticides. Agro-Food processing residues are promising materials as bio-effector. Three plant-derived materials: brewers' spent grain (BSG), fennel processing residues (FPR) and lemon processing residues (LPR) were chosen as bio-effector candidates. Plant-derived materials were characterized in term of total macro and micronutrients content. Green extraction methodology and solvent choice (aqueous; ethanol; and aqueous: ethanol mixture 1:1) was based on the extraction yield as main factor. Optimum extracts, to be used on the tomato test plant, were determined using phytotoxicity test (seed germination test) as main constraint. Thereafter, selected extracts were characterized and secondary metabolites profiling were detected by NMR technique. Selected extracts were applied on tomato in a growth chamber at different doses in comparison to humic-like substances as positive control (Ctrl+) and to a Hoagland solution as negative control (Ctrl-). At the end of the experiment, agronomical parameters were determined and NMR-metabolomic profiling were conducted on tomato seedlings. Results are summarized as follow: (i) raw showed an interesting content, either at nutritional or biological level; (ii) aqueous extraction resulted higher yield than other used solvent; (iii) at high extraction ratio (1:25 for BSG; 1:100 for FPR; and 1:200 for LPR) aqueous extracts were not phytotoxic on the tomato test plant; (iv) all aqueous extract are differently rich in nutrients, aminoacids, sugars and low molecular weight molecules; (v) all extract exhibited a growth promotion at

  13. Biocontrol agents promote growth of potato pathogens, depending on environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Jonathan A; Connor, Mairéad C; Stevenson, Andrew; Houghton, Jonathan D R; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Cooke, Louise R; Hallsworth, John E

    2016-05-01

    There is a pressing need to understand and optimize biological control so as to avoid over-reliance on the synthetic chemical pesticides that can damage environmental and human health. This study focused on interactions between a novel biocontrol-strain, Bacillus sp. JC12GB43, and potato-pathogenic Phytophthora and Fusarium species. In assays carried out in vitro and on the potato tuber, the bacterium was capable of near-complete inhibition of pathogens. This Bacillus was sufficiently xerotolerant (water activity limit for growth = 0.928) to out-perform Phytophthora infestans (~0.960) and challenge Fusarium coeruleum (~0.847) and Fusarium sambucinum (~0.860) towards the lower limits of their growth windows. Under some conditions, however, strain JC12GB43 stimulated proliferation of the pathogens: for instance, Fusarium coeruleum growth-rate was increased under chaotropic conditions in vitro (132 mM urea) by >100% and on tubers (2-M glycerol) by up to 570%. Culture-based assays involving macromolecule-stabilizing (kosmotropic) compatible solutes provided proof-of-principle that the Bacillus may provide kosmotropic metabolites to the plant pathogen under conditions that destabilize macromolecular systems of the fungal cell. Whilst unprecedented, this finding is consistent with earlier reports that fungi can utilize metabolites derived from bacterial cells. Unless the antimicrobial activities of candidate biocontrol strains are assayed over a full range of field-relevant parameters, biocontrol agents may promote plant pathogen infections and thereby reduce crop yields. These findings indicate that biocontrol activity, therefore, ought to be regarded as a mode-of-behaviour (dependent on prevailing conditions) rather than an inherent property of a bacterial strain.

  14. Genetic and phenotypic diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sugarcane plants growing in pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnaz, Samina; Baig, Deeba Noreen; Lazarovits, George

    2010-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from roots of sugarcane varieties grown in the fields of Punjab. They were identified by using API20E/NE bacterial identification kits and from sequences of 16S rRNA and amplicons of the cpn60 gene. The majority of bacteria were found to belong to the genera of Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella, but members of genera Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Rahnella, Delftia, Caulobacter, Pannonibacter, Xanthomonas, and Stenotrophomonas were also found. The community, however, was dominated by members of the Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, as representatives of these genera were found in samples from every variety and location examined. All isolates were tested for the presence of five enzymes and seven factors known to be associated with plant growth promotion. Ten isolates showed lipase activity and eight were positive for protease activity. Cellulase, chitinase, and pectinase were not detected in any strain. Nine strains showed nitrogen fixing ability (acetylene reduction assay) and 26 were capable of solubilizing phosphate. In the presence of 100 mg/l tryptophan, all strains except one produced indole acetic acid in the growth medium. All isolates were positive for ACC deaminase activity. Six strains produced homoserine lactones and three produced HCN and hexamate type siderophores. One isolate was capable of inhibiting the growth of 24 pathogenic fungal strains of Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia spp. In tests of their abilities to grow under a range of temperature, pH, and NaCl concentrations, all isolates grew well on plates with 3% NaCl and most of them grew well at 4 to 41degrees C and at pH 11.

  15. The role of mycorrhizae and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in improving crop productivity under stressful environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Javaid, Arshad; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Both biotic and abiotic stresses are major constrains to agricultural production. Under stress conditions, plant growth is affected by a number of factors such as hormonal and nutritional imbalance, ion toxicity, physiological disorders, susceptibility to diseases, etc. Plant growth under stress conditions may be enhanced by the application of microbial inoculation including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mycorrhizal fungi. These microbes can promote plant growth by regulating nutritional and hormonal balance, producing plant growth regulators, solubilizing nutrients and inducing resistance against plant pathogens. In addition to their interactions with plants, these microbes also show synergistic as well as antagonistic interactions with other microbes in the soil environment. These interactions may be vital for sustainable agriculture because they mainly depend on biological processes rather than on agrochemicals to maintain plant growth and development as well as proper soil health under stress conditions. A number of research articles can be deciphered from the literature, which shows the role of rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae alone and/or in combination in enhancing plant growth under stress conditions. However, in contrast, a few review papers are available which discuss the synergistic interactions between rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae for enhancing plant growth under normal (non-stress) or stressful environments. Biological interactions between PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi are believed to cause a cumulative effect on all rhizosphere components, and these interactions are also affected by environmental factors such as soil type, nutrition, moisture and temperature. The present review comprehensively discusses recent developments on the effectiveness of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi for enhancing plant growth under stressful environments. The key mechanisms involved in plant stress tolerance and the effectiveness of microbial inoculation for

  16. Isolation and identification of indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from Himalayan region of Kashmir and their effect on improving growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Mahwish; Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hameed, Sohail; Rahim, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity, and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L.) from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A total of 100 isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8) were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA) including phosphorus solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Z. mays L.) under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 μg mL(-1). The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9-5.39 μg mL(-1) and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies.

  17. Isolation and Identification of Indigenous Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria from Himalayan Region of Kashmir and their Effect on Improving Growth and Nutrient Contents of Maize (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahwish eZahid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available IIntroduction and exploitation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in agro-ecosystems enhance plant-microbes interactions that may affect ecosystems sustainability, agricultural productivity and environmental quality. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify PGPRs associated with maize (Zea mays L. from twenty sites of Himalayan region of Hajira-Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK, Pakistan. A total of one hundred isolates were isolated from these sites, out of which eight (HJR1, HJR2, HJR3, HJR4, HJR5, MR6, HJR7, HJR8 were selected in vitro for their plant growth promoting ability (PGPA including phosphorus solubilization, indole acetic acid (IAA production and N2 fixation. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing technique was used for molecular identity and authentication. Isolates were then further tested for their effects on growth and nutrient contents of maize (Zea mays L. under pouch and pot conditions. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified these isolates belong to Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera. The isolates promoted plant growth by solubilizing soil P which ranged between 19.2 and 35.6 µgmL−1. The isolates HJR1, HJR2, HJR3 and HJR5 showed positive activity in acetylene reduction assay showing their N2-fixation potential. All eight isolates showed the potential to produce IAA in the range of 0.9−5.39 µgmL−1 and promote plant growth. Results from a subsequent pot experiment indicated PGPRs distinctly increased maize shoot and root length, shoot and root dry weight, root surface area, leaf surface area, shoot and root N and P contents. Among the eight isolates, HR3 showed a marked P-solubilizing activity, plant growth-promoting attributes, and the potential to be developed as a biofertilizers for integrated nutrient management strategies

  18. Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiruvengadam Raguchander

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through protein profiling. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis strategy was adopted to identify the PGPR responsive proteins and the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Results Priming of P. fluorescens, 23 different proteins found to be differentially expressed in rice leaf sheaths and MS analysis revealed the differential expression of some important proteins namely putative p23 co-chaperone, Thioredoxin h- rice, Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain precursor, Nucleotide diPhosphate kinase, Proteosome sub unit protein and putative glutathione S-transferase protein. Conclusion Functional analyses of the differential proteins were reported to be directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion in plants. Thus, this study confirms the primary role of PGPR strain KH-1 in rice plant growth promotion.

  19. Comment on: withdrawal of growth-promoting antibiotics in Europe and its effects in relation to human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Heuer, Ole Eske; Lester, Camilla H.;

    2007-01-01

    In response to a review titled 'Withdrawal of growth-promoting antibiotics in Europe and its effects in relation to human health', published in this Journal by Ian Phillips, we hereby comment on the review. Phillips makes use of data from the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring...... and Research Programme (DANMAP) reports and studies on Campylobacter and enterococci. Unfortunately, we find these data frequently misinterpreted by Phillips, leading to false conclusions such as inferences that the ban of antibiotic growth promoters should cause an increased prevalence of resistant...

  20. The Extracellular and Cytoplasmic Domains of Syndecan Cooperate Postsynaptically to Promote Synapse Growth at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret U Nguyen

    Full Text Available The heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG Syndecan (Sdc is a crucial regulator of synapse development and growth in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In Drosophila, Sdc binds via its extracellular heparan sulfate (HS sidechains to the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR to promote the morphological growth of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. To date, however, little else is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Sdc functions to promote synapse growth. Here we show that all detectable Sdc found at the NMJ is provided by the muscle, strongly suggesting a post-synaptic role for Sdc. We also show that both the cytoplasmic and extracellular domains of Sdc are required to promote synapse growth or to rescue Sdc loss of function. We report the results of a yeast two-hybrid screen using the cytoplasmic domains of Sdc as bait, and identify several novel candidate binding partners for the cytoplasmic domains of Sdc. Together, these studies provide new insight into the mechanism of Sdc function at the NMJ, and provide enticing future directions for further exploring how Sdc promotes synapse growth.

  1. A model to explain plant growth promotion traits: a multivariate analysis of 2,211 bacterial isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Beschoren da Costa

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling.

  2. A model to explain plant growth promotion traits: a multivariate analysis of 2,211 bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Pedro Beschoren; Granada, Camille E; Ambrosini, Adriana; Moreira, Fernanda; de Souza, Rocheli; dos Passos, João Frederico M; Arruda, Letícia; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria can greatly assist sustainable farming by improving plant health and biomass while reducing fertilizer use. The plant-microorganism-environment interaction is an open and complex system, and despite the active research in the area, patterns in root ecology are elusive. Here, we simultaneously analyzed the plant growth-promoting bacteria datasets from seven independent studies that shared a methodology for bioprospection and phenotype screening. The soil richness of the isolate's origin was classified by a Principal Component Analysis. A Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to classify the soil richness according to isolate's indolic compound production, siderophores production and phosphate solubilization abilities, and bacterial genera composition. Multiple patterns and relationships were found and verified with nonparametric hypothesis testing. Including niche colonization in the analysis, we proposed a model to explain the expression of bacterial plant growth-promoting traits according to the soil nutritional status. Our model shows that plants favor interaction with growth hormone producers under rich nutrient conditions but favor nutrient solubilizers under poor conditions. We also performed several comparisons among the different genera, highlighting interesting ecological interactions and limitations. Our model could be used to direct plant growth-promoting bacteria bioprospection and metagenomic sampling.

  3. How Does Land Development Promote China’s Urban Economic Growth? The Mediating Effect of Public Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Xianwei Fan; Dan Zheng; Minjun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial studies emphasized the close relationship among land development, public infrastructure, and urban economic growth, the mediating effect of public infrastructure remains unexplored. Using panel data of 253 prefecture-level Chinese cities from 1999 to 2012, we empirically conduct a mediating effect analysis to examine how land development promotes urban economic growth. It is found that land development has a positive impact on public infrastructure, whereas the constructi...

  4. Plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with nitrogen fertilization at topdressing in popcorn agronomic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Teodoski Spolaor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria is a promising alternative with low environmental impact to increase the efficiency of use of chemical fertilizers, ensuring high yield with better cost-effective ratio. In maize crops, several studies have demonstrated an increased yield when Azospirillum-based inoculants are used. In the case of popcorn, there are no available studies related to use of inoculation and its response on yield parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the field performance of popcorn when inoculated with the commercial product Masterfix L (A. brasilense Ab-V5 and A. brasilense Ab-V6 and the non-commercial inoculant UEL (A. brasilense Ab-V5 + Rhizobium sp. 53GRM1 associated with nitrogen fertilization. The trials were conducted in Londrina and Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil, in a randomized block design with four replications, in a split plot design with the inoculation treatments located in the plots (uninoculated, Masterfix L, and UEL and the different N rates located in the subplots where ammonium sulphate was applied in the topdressing at the V6 stage (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg∙ha–1. The variance analysis showed significant effects (p < 0.05 of inoculation (Londrina environment and N rates (both environments only for grain yield. There was no inoculation effect in the grain yield when inoculants were applied together with N-fertilization at topdressing. In the absence of N-fertilization at topdressing, the inoculants Masterfix L. and UEL promoted higher grain yield as compared to the uninoculated plants, with resulting increases of 13.21 and 26.61% in yield, respectively.

  5. LncRNA SNHG12 promotes cell growth and inhibits cell apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.Z.; Xu, C.L.; Wu, H.; Shen, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Several long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) might be correlated with the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. However, the exact expression pattern of small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12) in colorectal cancer and its clinical significance remains unclear. The level of SNHG12 was detected by qRT-PCR in CRC tissues and CRC cells. MTT assay and colony formation assay were performed to examine the cell proliferation of CRC cells transfected with pcDNA-SNHG12 or si-SNHG12. Flow cytometry technology was used to detect cell cycle and cell apoptosis of CRC cells transfected with pcDNA-SNHG12 or si-SNHG12. The protein level of cell cycle progression-related molecules, including cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4, CDK6), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and cell apoptosis-related molecule caspase 3 was detected by western blot. The effect of SNHG12 knockdown was examined in vivo. Increased levels of SNHG12 were observed in CRC tissues and in CRC cells. SNHG12 promoted the cell proliferation of CRC cells. In addition, SNHG12 overexpression boosted the cell cycle progression of SW480 cells transfected with pcDNA-SNHG12 and SNHG12 knockdown inhibited the cell cycle progression of HT29 cells transfected with si-SNHG12. SNHG12 also inhibited the cell apoptosis of CRC cells. We also found that SNHG12 increased the expression of cell cycle-related proteins and suppressed the expression of caspase 3. Our results suggest that SNHG12 promoted cell growth and inhibited cell apoptosis in CRC cells, indicating that SNHG12 might be a useful biomarker for colorectal cancer. PMID:28225893

  6. Interactions with Astroglia Influence the Shape of the Developing Dendritic Arbor and Restrict Dendrite Growth Independent of Promoting Synaptic Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Jennifer R.; Sterritt, Jeffrey R.; Crane, Andrés B.; Wallace, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Astroglia play key roles in the development of neurons, ranging from regulating neuron survival to promoting synapse formation, yet basic questions remain about whether astrocytes might be involved in forming the dendritic arbor. Here, we used cultured hippocampal neurons as a simple in vitro model that allowed dendritic growth and geometry to be analyzed quantitatively under conditions where the extent of interactions between neurons and astrocytes varied. When astroglia were proximal to neurons, dendrites and dendritic filopodia oriented toward them, but the general presence of astroglia significantly reduced overall dendrite growth. Further, dendritic arbors in partial physical contact with astroglia developed a pronounced pattern of asymmetrical growth, because the dendrites in direct contact were significantly smaller than the portion of the arbor not in contact. Notably, thrombospondin, the astroglial factor shown previously to promote synapse formation, did not inhibit dendritic growth. Thus, while astroglia promoted the formation of presynaptic contacts onto dendrites, dendritic growth was constrained locally within a developing arbor at sites where dendrites contacted astroglia. Taken together, these observations reveal influences on spatial orientation of growth as well as influences on morphogenesis of the dendritic arbor that have not been previously identified. PMID:28081563

  7. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Crespo, Juan M.; García, Sabrina S.; Zapiola, José M.; Luna, María F.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  8. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana A. Cavello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum’s supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p>0.05. These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876.

  9. Plant growth promotion, metabolite production and metal tolerance of dark septate endophytes isolated from metal-polluted poplar phytomanagement sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Charlotte; Leyval, Corinne; Foulon, Julie; Chalot, Michel; Blaudez, Damien

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies address the distribution and the diversity of dark septate endophytes (DSEs) in the literature, but little is known about their ecological role and their effect on host plants, especially in metal-polluted soils. Seven DSE strains belonging to Cadophora, Leptodontidium, Phialophora and Phialocephala were isolated from roots of poplar trees from metal-polluted sites. All strains developed on a wide range of carbohydrates, including cell-wall-related compounds. The strains evenly colonized birch, eucalyptus and ryegrass roots in re-synthesis experiments. Root and shoot growth promotion was observed and was both plant and strain dependent. Two Phialophora and Leptodontidium strains particularly improved plant growth. However, there was no correlation between the level of root colonization by DSEs and the intensity of growth promotion. All strains produced auxin and six also stimulated plant growth through the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). SPME-GC/MS analyses revealed four major VOCs emitted by Cadophora and Leptodontidium The strains exhibited growth at high concentrations of several metals. The ability of metal-resistant DSE strains to produce both soluble and volatile compounds for plant growth promotion indicates interesting microbial resources with high potential to support sustainable production of bioenergy crops within the context of the phytomanagement of metal-contaminated sites.

  10. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 11113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be

  11. A scabies mite serpin interferes with complement-mediated neutrophil functions and promotes staphylococcal growth.

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    Pearl M Swe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The disease is highly prevalent worldwide and known to predispose to secondary bacterial infections, in particular by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Reports of scabies patients co-infected with methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA pose a major concern for serious down-stream complications. We previously reported that a range of complement inhibitors secreted by the mites promoted the growth of S. pyogenes. Here, we show that a recently characterized mite serine protease inhibitor (SMSB4 inhibits the complement-mediated blood killing of S. aureus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood killing of S. aureus was measured in whole blood bactericidal assays, counting viable bacteria recovered after treatment in fresh blood containing active complement and phagocytes, treated with recombinant SMSB4. SMSB4 inhibited the blood killing of various strains of S. aureus including methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive isolates. Staphylococcal growth was promoted in a dose-dependent manner. We investigated the effect of SMSB4 on the complement-mediated neutrophil functions, namely phagocytosis, opsonization and anaphylatoxin release, by flow cytometry and in enzyme linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISA. SMSB4 reduced phagocytosis of S. aureus by neutrophils. It inhibited the deposition of C3b, C4b and properdin on the bacteria surface, but did not affect the depositions of C1q and MBL. SMSB4 also inhibited C5 cleavage as indicated by a reduced C5b-9 deposition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We postulate that SMSB4 interferes with the activation of all three complement pathways by reducing the amount of C3 convertase formed. We conclude that SMSB4 interferes with the complement-dependent killing function of neutrophils, thereby reducing opsonization, phagocytosis and further recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. As a

  12. Growth promotion and colonization of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum cv. Alamo by bacterial endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN

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    Kim Seonhwa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Switchgrass is one of the most promising bioenergy crop candidates for the US. It gives relatively high biomass yield and can grow on marginal lands. However, its yields vary from year to year and from location to location. Thus it is imperative to develop a low input and sustainable switchgrass feedstock production system. One of the most feasible ways to increase biomass yields is to harness benefits of microbial endophytes. Results We demonstrate that one of the most studied plant growth promoting bacterial endophytes, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN, is able to colonize and significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under in vitro, growth chamber, and greenhouse conditions. In several in vitro experiments, the average fresh weight of PsJN-inoculated plants was approximately 50% higher than non-inoculated plants. When one-month-old seedlings were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days, the PsJN-inoculated Alamo plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass compared to controls. Biomass yield (dry weight averaged from five experiments was 54.1% higher in the inoculated treatment compared to non-inoculated control. Similar results were obtained in greenhouse experiments with transplants grown in 4-gallon pots for two months. The inoculated plants exhibited more early tillers and persistent growth vigor with 48.6% higher biomass than controls. We also found that PsJN could significantly promote growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub-optimal conditions. However, PsJN-mediated growth promotion in switchgrass is genotype specific. Conclusions Our results show B. phytofirmans strain PsJN significantly promotes growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under different conditions, especially in the early growth stages leading to enhanced production of tillers. This phenomenon may benefit switchgrass establishment in the first year. Moreover, PsJN significantly stimulated growth of switchgrass cv. Alamo under sub

  13. Soil inoculation with symbiotic microorganisms promotes plant growth and nutrient transporter genes expression in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Sergio; Rappa, Vito; Ruisi, Paolo; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Sunseri, Francesco; Giambalvo, Dario; Frenda, Alfonso S; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In a field experiment conducted in a Mediterranean area of inner Sicily, durum wheat was inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), or with both to evaluate their effects on nutrient uptake, plant growth, and the expression of key transporter genes involved in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake. These biotic associations were studied under either low N availability (unfertilized plots) and supplying the soil with an easily mineralizable organic fertilizer. Regardless of N fertilization, at the tillering stage, inoculation with AMF alone or in combination with PGPR increased the aboveground biomass yield compared to the uninoculated control. Inoculation with PGPR enhanced the aboveground biomass yield compared to the control, but only when N fertilizer was added. At the heading stage, inoculation with all microorganisms increased the aboveground biomass and N. Inoculation with PGPR and AMF+PGPR resulted in significantly higher aboveground P compared to the control and inoculation with AMF only when organic N was applied. The role of microbe inoculation in N uptake was elucidated by the expression of nitrate transporter genes. NRT1.1, NRT2, and NAR2.2 were significantly upregulated by inoculation with AMF and AMF+PGPR in the absence of organic N. A significant down-regulation of the same genes was observed when organic N was added. The ammonium (NH4 (+)) transporter genes AMT1.2 showed an expression pattern similar to that of the NO3 (-) transporters. Finally, in the absence of organic N, the transcript abundance of P transporters Pht1 and PT2-1 was increased by inoculation with AMF+PGPR, and inoculation with AMF upregulated Pht2 compared to the uninoculated control. These results indicate the soil inoculation with AMF and PGPR (alone or in combination) as a valuable option for farmers to improve yield, nutrient uptake, and the sustainability of the agro-ecosystem.

  14. Nitrogenous nutrients promote the growth and toxicity of Dinophysis acuminata during estuarine bloom events.

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    Theresa K Hattenrath-Lehmann

    Full Text Available Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP is a globally significant human health syndrome most commonly caused by dinoflagellates within the genus Dinophysis. While blooms of harmful algae have frequently been linked to excessive nutrient loading, Dinophysis is a mixotrophic alga whose growth is typically associated with prey availability. Consequently, field studies of Dinophysis and nutrients have been rare. Here, the temporal dynamics of Dinophysis acuminata blooms, DSP toxins, and nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, organic compounds were examined over four years within two New York estuaries (Meetinghouse Creek and Northport Bay. Further, changes in the abundance and toxicity of D. acuminata were assessed during a series of nutrient amendment experiments performed over a three year period. During the study, Dinophysis acuminata blooms exceeding one million cells L-1 were observed in both estuaries. Highly significant (p<0.001 forward stepwise multivariate regression models of ecosystem observations demonstrated that D. acuminata abundances were positively dependent on multiple environmental parameters including ammonium (p = 0.007 while cellular toxin content was positively dependent on ammonium (p = 0.002 but negatively dependent on nitrate (p<0.001. Nitrogen- (N and phosphorus- (P containing inorganic and organic nutrients significantly enhanced D. acuminata densities in nearly all (13 of 14 experiments performed. Ammonium significantly increased cell densities in 10 of 11 experiments, while glutamine significantly enhanced cellular DSP content in 4 of 5 experiments examining this compound. Nutrients may have directly or indirectly enhanced D. acuminata abundances as densities of this mixotroph during experiments were significantly correlated with multiple members of the planktonic community (phytoflagellates and Mesodinium. Collectively, this study demonstrates that nutrient loading and more specifically N-loading promotes the

  15. Molecular Identification Of Trichoderma Strains Collected To Develop Plant Growth-Promoting And Biocontrol Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskiera Michał

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma strains that are beneficial to both the growth and health of plants can be used as plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF or biological control agents (BCA in agricultural and horticultural practices. In order to select PGPF or BCA strains, their biological properties and taxonomy must be carefully studied. In this study, 104 strains of Trichoderma collected at geographically different locations in Poland for selection as PGPF or BCA were identified by DNA barcoding, based on the sequences of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS1 and 2 of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and on the sequences of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1, chitinase 18-5 (chi18-5, and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2 gene fragments. Most of the strains were classified as: T. atroviride (38%, T. harzianum (21%, T. lentiforme (9%, T. virens (9%, and T. simmonsii (6%. Single strains belonging to T. atrobrunneum, T. citrinoviride, T. crassum, T. gamsii, T. hamatum, T. spirale, T. tomentosum, and T. viridescens were identified. Three strains that are potentially pathogenic to cultivated mushrooms belonging to T. pleuroticola and T. aggressivum f. europaeum were also identified. Four strains: TRS4, TRS29, TRS33, and TRS73 were classified to Trichoderma spp. and molecular identification was inconclusive at the species level. Phylogeny analysis showed that three of these strains TRS4, TRS29, and TRS33 belong to Trichoderma species that is not yet taxonomically established and strain TRS73 belongs to the T. harzianum complex, however, the species could not be identified with certainty.

  16. Osteocalcin induces growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 system by promoting testosterone synthesis in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Li, K

    2014-10-01

    Osteocalcin has been shown to enhance testosterone production in men. In the present study, we investigated the effects of osteocalcin on testosterone and on induction of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Osteocalcin injection stimulated growth, which could be inhibited by castration. In addition, osteocalcin induced testosterone secretion in testes both in vivo and in vitro. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, we showed that growth hormone expression was significantly increased in the pituitary after osteocalcin injection (pGrowth hormone expression in CLU401 mouse pituitary cells was also significantly stimulated (pgrowth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (pgrowth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 expression in NCTC1469 cells. These results suggest that the growth-stimulating activities of osteocalcin are mediated by testicular testosterone secretion, and thus provide valuable information regarding the regulatory effects of osteocalcin expression on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis via reproductive activities.

  17. Phytohormone profiles induced by trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-07-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the phytohormonal network of their host plant, thus leading to an improvement of plant growth and stress tolerance. In this study, we tested whether alterations in the phytohormone signature induced by different Trichoderma isolates correspond with their ability for biocontrol and growth promotion. Four Trichoderma isolates were collected from agricultural soils and were identified as the species Trichoderma harzianum (two isolates), Trichoderma ghanense, and Trichoderma hamatum. Their antagonistic activity against the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis was tested in vitro, and their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol activity against Fusarium wilt on melon plants was examined in vivo, and compared to that of the commercial strain T. harzianum T-22. Several growth- and defense-related phytohormones were analyzed in the shoots of plants that were root-colonized by the different Trichoderma isolates. An increase in auxin and a decrease in cytokinins and abscisic acid content were induced by the isolates that promoted the plant growth. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the relationship between the plant phenotypic and hormonal variables. PCA pointed to a strong association of auxin induction with plant growth stimulation by Trichoderma. Furthermore, the disease-protectant ability of the Trichoderma strains against F. oxysporum infection seems to be more related to their induced alterations in the content of the hormones abscisic acid, ethylene, and the cytokinin trans-zeatin riboside than to the in vitro antagonism activity against F. oxysporum.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activities against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9 Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  19. Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention i

  20. Iron-regulated metabolites of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374 : Their role in induced systemic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djavaheri, M.

    2007-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r effectively suppresses fusarium wilt in radish by induced systemic resistance (ISR). In radish, WCS374r-mediated ISR depends partly on iron-regulated metabolites. Under iron-limiting conditions, P. fluorescens WCS374r produces

  1. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile ba

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas elongata Strain K4, an Endophytic Growth-Promoting Bacterium Enhancing Salinity Tolerance In Planta

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2016-11-04

    Halomonas elongata strain K4 is an endophytic bacterial strain that was isolated from roots of Cyperus conglomeratus collected at the Red Sea coast in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting a number of pathways involved in plant growth promotion under salt stress.

  3. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile ba

  4. Genome Sequence of Rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens Strain 90-166, Which Triggers Induced Systemic Resistance and Plant Growth Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-06-18

    The rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens strain 90-166 elicits induced systemic resistance against plant pathogens and herbivores and promotes plant growth under greenhouse and field conditions. Strain 90-166 secretes volatile compounds, siderophores, salicylic acid, and quorum-sensing autoinducers as bacterial determinants toward plant health. Herein, we present its draft genome sequence.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas elongata Strain K4, an Endophytic Growth-Promoting Bacterium Enhancing Salinity Tolerance In Planta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafi, Feras F.; Ramirez-Prado, Juan S.; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas elongata strain K4 is an endophytic bacterial strain that was isolated from roots of Cyperus conglomeratus collected at the Red Sea coast in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting a number of pathways involved in plant growth promotion under salt stress. PMID:27811099

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis Strain GB2, a Hydrocarbon-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Soil Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Bottos, Eric; Thijs, Sofie; Balseiro-Romero, Maria; Monterroso, Carmela; Kidd, Petra Suzan; Rineau, Francois; Weyens, Nele; Sillen, Wouter; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-06-23

    We report the 4.39 Mb draft genome of Bacillus licheniformis GB2, a hydrocarbonoclastic Gram-positive bacterium of the family Bacillaceae, isolated from diesel-contaminated soil at the Ford Motor Company site in Genk, Belgium. Strain GB2 is an effective plant-growth promoter useful for diesel fuel remediation applications based on plant-bacterium associations.

  7. Sector- and economy-wide effects of terminating the use of anti-microbial growth promoters in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Lawson, Lartey

    2006-01-01

    In Denmark the poultry industry and the National Committee for Pig Production, together with the feedstuff industry, decided to voluntarily abolish the use of all Anti-microbial Growth Promoters (AGP). The poultry industry abolished the use of AGP 15th of February 1998 and the pig industry followed...

  8. Phytohormone profiles induced by Trichoderma isolates correspond with their biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity on melon plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Del Mar Alguacil, Maria; Pascual, Jose A.; van Wees, Saskia C M

    2014-01-01

    The application of Trichoderma strains with biocontrol and plant growth-promoting capacities to plant substrates can help reduce the input of chemical pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture. Some Trichoderma isolates can directly affect plant pathogens, but they also are known to influence the ph

  9. Plant growth-promoting bacteria facilitate the growth of barley and oats in salt-impacted soil: implications for phytoremediation of saline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pearl; Gerhardt, Karen E; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Yu, Xiao-Ming; Glick, Bernard R; Gerwing, Perry D; Greenberg, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) strains that contain the enzyme 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase can lower stress ethylene levels and improve plant growth. In this study, ACC deaminase-producing bacteria were isolated from a ) salt-impacted ( 50 dS/m) farm field, and their ability to promote plant growth of barley 1): and oats in saline soil was investigated in pouch assays (1% NaCI), greenhouse trials (9.4 dS/m), and field trials (6-24 dS/m). A mix of previously isolated PGPB strains UW3 (Pseudomonas sp.) and UW4 (P. sp.) was also tested for comparison. Rhizobacterial isolate CMH3 (P. corrugata) and UW3+UW4 partially alleviated plant salt stress in growth pouch assays. In greenhouse trials, CMH3 enhanced root biomass of barley and oats by 200% and 50%, respectively. UW3+UW4, CMH3 and isolate CMH2 also enhanced barley and oat shoot growth by 100%-150%. In field tests, shoot biomass of oats tripled when treated with UW3+UW4 and doubled with CHM3 compared with that of untreated plants. PGPB treatment did not affect salt uptake on a per mass basis; higher plant biomass led to greater salt uptake, resulting in decreased soil salinity. This study demonstrates a method for improving plant growth in marginal saline soils. Associated implications for salt

  10. Native bacterial endophytes promote host growth in a species-specific manner; phytohormone manipulations do not result in common growth responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Hoa Long

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All plants in nature harbor a diverse community of endophytic bacteria which can positively affect host plant growth. Changes in plant growth frequently reflect alterations in phytohormone homoeostasis by plant-growth-promoting (PGP rhizobacteria which can decrease ethylene (ET levels enzymatically by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase or produce indole acetic acid (IAA. Whether these common PGP mechanisms work similarly for different plant species has not been rigorously tested. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated bacterial endophytes from field-grown Solanum nigrum; characterized PGP traits (ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, phosphate solubilization and seedling colonization; and determined their effects on their host, S. nigrum, as well as on another Solanaceous native plant, Nicotiana attenuata. In S. nigrum, a majority of isolates that promoted root growth were associated with ACC deaminase activity and IAA production. However, in N. attenuata, IAA but not ACC deaminase activity was associated with root growth. Inoculating N. attenuata and S. nigrum with known PGP bacteria from a culture collection (DSMZ reinforced the conclusion that the PGP effects are not highly conserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that natural endophytic bacteria with PGP traits do not have general and predictable effects on the growth and fitness of all host plants, although the underlying mechanisms are conserved.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth ( Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollah, M. Z. I.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Khan, Ruhul A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by γ-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10 4 to 10 3 orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  12. Yes-associated protein 1 is widely expressed in human brain tumors and promotes glioblastoma growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Brent A; Bai, Haibo; Odia, Yazmin; Jain, Deepali; Anders, Robert A; Eberhart, Charles G

    2011-07-01

    The hippo pathway and its downstream mediator yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) regulate mammalian organ size in part through modulating progenitor cell numbers. YAP1 has also been implicated as an oncogene in multiple human cancers. Currently, little is known about the expression of YAP1 either in normal human brain tissue or in central nervous system neoplasms. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate nuclear YAP1 expression in the fetal and normal adult human brains and in 264 brain tumors. YAP1 was expressed in fetal and adult brain regions known to harbor neural progenitor cells, but there was little YAP1 immunoreactivity in the adult cerebral cortex. YAP1 protein was also readily detected in the nuclei of human brain tumors. In medulloblastoma, the expression varied between histologic subtypes and was most prominent in nodular/desmoplastic tumors. In gliomas, it was frequently expressed in infiltrating astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas but rarely in pilocytic astrocytomas. Using a loss-of-function approach, we show that YAP1 promoted growth of glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. High levels of YAP1 messenger RNA expression were associated with aggressive molecular subsets of glioblastoma and with a nonsignificant trend toward reduced mean survival in human astrocytoma patients. These findings suggest that YAP1 may play an important role in normal human brain development and that it could represent a new target in human brain tumors.

  13. Utilization of rocks and ectomycorrhizal fungi to promote growth of eucalypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of rocks as fertilizers is limited by their low solubility. However, solubilization may be achieved by some micro-organisms, such as ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMf. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of seven isolates of ECMf to solubilize two rocks, alkaline breccia and granite, and to liberate potassium and phosphorus for Eucalyptus dunnii seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Fungal inoculants were produced in a peat-vermiculite-liquid medium mixture and added to the planting substrate at 10 %. Rocks were ground up and added at 0.500 mg and 16.0 mg per plant, as a source of phosphorus and potassium, respectively. Other nutrients were added and E. dunnii seeds were sown. Control plants, non-inoculated, were fertilized with the same amount of phosphorus and potassium using soluble forms. After 90 days, the plant height, shoot dry weight, root length, phosphorus and potassium contents, and mycorrhizal colonization were evaluated. Alkaline breccia was more efficient than granite as a source of phosphorus and potassium for the plants, and may be an alternative to conventional fertilizers. Isolates UFSC-Pt22 (Pisolithus sp. and UFSC-Pt186 (Pisolithus microcarpus were the most efficient in promoting plant growth, mainly when combined with alkaline breccia to replace potassium and phosphorus fertilizers, respectively.

  14. Plant growth promoting potential and phylogenetic characteristics of a lichenized nitrogen fixing bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Chidanandamurthy Thippeswamy; Gayathri, Devaraja; Devaraja, Thimmalapura Neelakantaiah; Bandekar, Mandar; D'Souza, Stecy Elvira; Meena, Ram Murti; Ramaiah, Nagappa

    2016-12-01

    Lichens are complex symbiotic association of mycobionts, photobionts, and bacteriobionts, including chemolithotropic bacteria. In the present study, 46 lichenized bacteria were isolated by conventional and enrichment culture methods on nitrogen-free bromothymol blue (NFb) medium. Only 11 of the 46 isolates fixed nitrogen on NFb and had reduced acetylene. All these 11 isolates had also produced siderophore and 10 of them the IAA. Further, ammonia production was recorded from nine of these nitrogen fixers (NF). On molecular characterization, 16 S rRNA sequencing recorded that, nine NF belonged to Proteobacteria, within Gammaproteobacteria, and were closely related to Enterobacter sp. with a maximum similarity to Enterobacter cloacae. Each one of our NF isolates was aligned closely to Enterobacter pulveris strain E443, Cronobacter sakazakii strain PNP8 and Providencia rettgeri strain ALK058. Notably, a few strains we examined found to possess plant growth promoting properties. This is the first report of Enterobacter sp. from lichens which may be inhabit lichen thalli extrinsically or intrinsically.

  15. Carcinogenic Parasite Secretes Growth Factor That Accelerates Wound Healing and Potentially Promotes Neoplasia.

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    Michael J Smout

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA. Injury from feeding activities of this parasite within the human biliary tree causes extensive lesions, wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing, and re-injury over years of chronic infection. We show that O. viverrini secreted proteins accelerated wound resolution in human cholangiocytes, an outcome that was compromised following silencing of expression of the fluke-derived gene encoding the granulin-like growth factor, Ov-GRN-1. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 induced angiogenesis and accelerated mouse wound healing. Ov-GRN-1 was internalized by human cholangiocytes and induced gene and protein expression changes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways. Given the notable but seemingly paradoxical properties of liver fluke granulin in promoting not only wound healing but also a carcinogenic microenvironment, Ov-GRN-1 likely holds marked potential as a therapeutic wound-healing agent and as a vaccine against an infection-induced cancer of major public health significance in the developing world.

  16. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  17. Thyroid hormone promotes transient nerve growth factor synthesis in rat cerebellar neuroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrasse, S; Jehan, F; Confort, C; Brachet, P; Clos, J

    1992-01-01

    Primary cultures of cerebellum from 5-day-old rats indicated that proliferating neuroblasts synthesize and release nerve growth factor (NGF). Since NGF promotes DNA synthesis in these cells, our findings demonstrate that the early developing cerebellum is a suitable physiological model for studying the autocrine mitogenic action of NGF. Thyroid deficiency led to a greater reduction in the NGF content of the cerebellum than of the olfactory bulbs or hippocampus. Cerebellar NGF mRNA was also very sensitive to hormone deprivation. Physiological amounts of thyroid hormone stimulated both the mitotic activity and NGF production of cultured cerebellar neuroblasts. A lack of thyroid hormone is known to markedly alter cell formation in the cerebellum where postnatal neurogenesis is highly significant, in contrast to the olfactory bulbs and hippocampus. Taken together, these results suggest that the hormonal control of cell formation in the cerebellum is, at least partly, mediated by the autocrine mitogenic action of NGF. The thyroid hormone could temporally regulate the transient NGF synthesis by cerebellar neuroblasts directly and/or through its ontogenetic action, and hence all the NGF-dependent trophic effects.

  18. Poly-ADP ribosylation of PTEN by tankyrases promotes PTEN degradation and tumor growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zhang, Yajie; Han, Xin; Liang, Ke; Wang, Jiadong; Feng, Lin; Wang, Wenqi; Songyang, Zhou; Lin, Chunru; Yang, Liuqing; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-01-01

    PTEN [phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10], a phosphatase and critical tumor suppressor, is regulated by numerous post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, and SUMOylation, which affect PTEN localization and protein stability. Here we report ADP-ribosylation as a new post-translational modification of PTEN. We identified PTEN as a novel substrate of tankyrases, which are members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). We showed that tankyrases interact with and ribosylate PTEN, which promotes the recognition of PTEN by a PAR-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase, RNF146, leading to PTEN ubiquitination and degradation. Double knockdown of tankyrase1/2 stabilized PTEN, resulting in the subsequent down-regulation of AKT phosphorylation and thus suppressed cell proliferation and glycolysis in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, tankyrases were up-regulated and negatively correlated with PTEN expression in human colon carcinomas. Together, our study revealed a new regulation of PTEN and highlighted a role for tankyrases in the PTEN–AKT pathway that can be explored further for cancer treatment. PMID:25547115

  19. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, M.Z.I. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Khan, Mubarak A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: makhan.inst@gmail.com; Khan, Ruhul A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2009-01-15

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by {gamma}-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 3} orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  20. Methylglyoxal-Mediated Stress Correlates with High Metabolic Activity and Promotes Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarina, Barbara; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Bellier, Justine; Durieux, Florence; Bletard, Noëlla; Sherer, Félicie; Lovinfosse, Pierre; Peulen, Olivier; Verset, Laurine; Dehon, Romain; Demetter, Pieter; Turtoi, Andrei; Uchida, Koji; Goldman, Serge; Hustinx, Roland; Delvenne, Philippe; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells generally rely on aerobic glycolysis as a major source of energy. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound that is produced as a side product during glycolysis, is highly reactive and induces the formation of advanced glycation end-products that are implicated in several pathologies including cancer. All mammalian cells have an enzymatic defense against MG composed by glyoxalases GLO1 and GLO2 that converts MG to d-lactate. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers with high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the level of MG protein adducts, in a series of 102 CRC human tumors divided into four clinical stages. We consistently detected a high level of MG adducts and low GLO1 activity in high stage tumors compared to low stage ones suggesting a pro-tumor role for dicarbonyl stress. Accordingly, GLO1 depletion in CRC cells promoted tumor growth in vivo that was efficiently reversed using carnosine, a potent MG scavenger. Our study represents the first demonstration that MG adducts accumulation is a consistent feature of high stage CRC tumors. Our data point to MG production and detoxification levels as an important molecular link between exacerbated glycolytic activity and CRC progression. PMID:28117708

  1. Tailoring the nanostructured surfaces of hydroxyapatite bioceramics to promote protein adsorption, osteoblast growth, and osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaili; Xia, Lunguo; Gan, Jingbo; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Hong; Jiang, Xinquan; Chang, Jiang

    2013-08-28

    To promote and understand the biological responses of the implant via nanostructured surface design is essential for the development of bioactive bone implants. However, the control of the surface topography of the bioceramics in nanoscale is a big challenge because of their brittle property. Herein, the hydroxyapatite (HAp) bioceramics with distinct nanostructured topographies were fabricated via hydrothermal treatment using α-tricalcium phosphate ceramic as hard-template under different reaction conditions. HAp bioceramics with nanosheet, nanorod and micro-nanohybrid structured surface in macroscopical size were obtained by controlling the composition of the reaction media. Comparing with the traditional sample with flat and dense surface, the fabricated HAp bioceramics with hierarchical 3D micro-nanotextured surfaces possessed higher specific surface area, which selectively enhanced adsorption of specific proteins including Fn and Vn in plasma, and stimulated osteoblast adhesion, growth, and osoteogenic differentiation. In particular, the biomimetic features of the hierarchical micro-nanohybrid surface resulted in the best ability for simultaneous enhancement of protein adsorption, osteoblast proliferation, and differentiation. The results suggest that the hierarchical micro-nanohybrid topography might be one of the critical factors to be considered in the design of functional bone grafts.

  2. [Promotion of healthy life style and growth in primary school children (OKkio alla SALUTE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Cattaneo, C; Fontana, G; Lamberti, A

    2008-01-01

    In October 2007, the Italian Ministry of Health, the Centre for Disease Control and the Regions entrusted the National Institute of Health with the coordination of the initiative "Okkio alla Salute"--Promotion of healthy lifestyle and growth in primary school children. This programme is linked to the European programme "Gaining health" and the National Plan for Prevention. The objective of the project was to develop and maintain a monitoring system for both the health services and the schools that could also be used to better target public health interventions. The first national survey to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and to collect information on diet and physical activity has been conducted in close collaboration with the individual regions. In the first nine months of the project, 1025 health workers and approximately 1500 school teachers have received training, and, using standardised methods, they have collected data and weighed and measured nearly 45000 third grade students (median age 8.8 years) in 2000 schools throughout the country. Participation rates have exceeded 95%. The results obtained to date indicate that the methodology is sustainable using existing health and educational resources and can be adopted as a national surveillance system.

  3. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaraj Illakkiam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified.

  4. Apoptosis-linked gene 2 promotes breast cancer growth and metastasis by regulating the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juan; Li, Dengwen; Zhou, Yunqiang; Xie, Songbo; Du, Xin; Hao, Ziwei; Liu, Ruming; Liu, Xinqi; Liu, Min; Zhou, Jun

    2017-01-10

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women. Although it begins as local disease, breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the lymph nodes and distant organs. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets are needed for the management of this disease. Apoptosis-linked gene 2 (ALG-2) is a calcium-binding protein crucial for diverse physiological processes and has recently been implicated in cancer development. However, it remains unclear whether this protein is involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of ALG-2 is significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues and is correlated with clinicopathological characteristics indicative of tumor malignancy. Our data further show that ALG-2 stimulates breast cancer growth and metastasis in mice. ALG-2 also promotes breast cancer cell proliferation, survival, and motility in vitro. Mechanistic data reveal that ALG-2 disrupts the localization of centrosome proteins, resulting in spindle multipolarity and chromosome missegregation. In addition, ALG-2 drives the polarization and migration of breast cancer cells by facilitating the rearrangement of microtubules and microfilaments. These findings reveal a critical role for ALG-2 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and have important implications for its diagnosis and therapy.

  5. The Effect of Growth Promoter Feed Additives on Performance of Broilers Challenged With Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Valipouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 528 day-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effect of antibiotic, probiotic, prebiotic and organic acid on performance, cecal Coliform load and internal organs’ weight. The chickens were placed into 6 groups with 4 replicates and 22 chickens per pen. Six dietary treatments included: 1 negative control as basal diet without any antibiotic growth promoter and coccidiostat (Control, 2 Diet 1+ 0.9 g/kg Primalac® (Primalac, 3 Diet 1+0.1 g/kg Bactocell® (Bactocell, 4 Diet 1+15ppm virginiamycin (Virginiamycin, 5 Diet 1+2 g/kg Fermacto® (Fermacto, and 6 Diet 1+2 g/kg Formycin Gold® (Formycin. At day 7 all chickens were orally gavaged with a 0.5 mL of 107 cfu/mL of mixed culture of pathogenic E. coli (O2K12 and O78K80 verified for presence of genes including stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA. Eight chickens from each group were euthanized for detection of the challenged bacteria in liver, spleen and cecum content at days 14, 28 and 42. Overall weight gain (P

  6. Evaluation of plant growth promoting and colonization ability of endophytic diazotrophs from deep water rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S C; Ladha, J K; Tripathi, A K

    2001-10-04

    A study of the diversity of endophytic bacteria present in seeds of a deepwater rice variety revealed the presence of seven types of BOX-PCR fingerprints. In order to evaluate the plant growth promoting potential the presence of nitrogenase, indole acetic acid production and mineral phosphate solubilization were estimated in the representative BOX-PCR types. The seven representatives of BOX-PCR types produced indole acetic acid, reduced acetylene and showed specific immunological cross-reaction with anti-dinitrogenase reductase antibody. Only four types showed mineral phosphate solubilizing ability. Comparison of cellulase and pectinase activities showed differences among different BOX-PCR types. PCR fingerprinting data showed that one strain isolated from the surface sterilized seeds as well as the aerial parts of the seedlings of rice variety showed low cellulase and pectinase but relatively high ARA. On the basis of 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence and BIOLOG system of bacterial identification, this strain was identified as Pantoea agglomerans. For studying the endophytic colonization this strain was genetically tagged with the reporter gene, gusA. Histochemical analysis of the seedling grown in hydroponics showed that the tagged strain colonized the root surface, root hairs, root cap, points of lateral root emergence, root cortex and the stelar region. Treatment of the roots with 2,4-D produced short thickened lateral roots which showed better colonization by P. agglomerans.

  7. Arsenic transformation and plant growth promotion characteristics of As-resistant endophytic bacteria from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia-Yi; Han, Yong-He; Chen, Yanshan; Zhu, Ling-Jia; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-01

    The ability of As-resistant endophytic bacteria in As transformation and plant growth promotion was determined. The endophytes were isolated from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) after growing for 60 d in a soil containing 200 mg kg(-1) arsenate (AsV). They were isolated in presence of 10 mM AsV from PV roots, stems, and leaflets, representing 4 phyla and 17 genera. All endophytes showed at least one plant growth promoting characteristics including IAA synthesis, siderophore production and P solubilization. The root endophytes had higher P solubilization ability than the leaflet (60.0 vs. 18.3 mg L(-1)). In presence of 10 mM AsV, 6 endophytes had greater growth than the control, suggesting As-stimulated growth. Furthermore, root endophytes were more resistant to AsV while the leaflet endophytes were more tolerant to arsenite (AsIII), which corresponded to the dominant As species in PV tissues. Bacterial As resistance was positively correlated to their ability in AsV reduction but not AsIII oxidation. The roles of those endophytes in promoting plant growth and As resistance in P. vittata warrant further investigation.

  8. Identification of Volatiles Produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1, a Fungal Biocontrol Agent That Promotes Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diby Paul

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Certain microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs have been reported to enhance the growth and development of plants. The biocontrol fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1 significantly improved the growth of tobacco seedlings in vitro when they were co-cultivated without physical contact. SPME Quadrupole GC/MS/MS revealed that CL-1 emited the volatiles α-pinene, (−-trans-caryophyllene, tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, dehydroaromadendrene, and (+-sativene. Potential roles of these volatiles in plant growth and development are discussed. Even though there were several fungal VOCs reported in the past that could influence plant growth, their exact mechanisms of action are not fully known. Fungal VOC-mediated plant growth promotion requires in-depth study in order for this technology to be used in large scale for crops, especially those grown under greenhouse conditions.

  9. Identification of volatiles produced by Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1, a fungal biocontrol agent that promotes plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Diby; Park, Kyung Seok

    2013-10-16

    Certain microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) have been reported to enhance the growth and development of plants. The biocontrol fungi, Cladosporium cladosporioides CL-1 significantly improved the growth of tobacco seedlings in vitro when they were co-cultivated without physical contact. SPME Quadrupole GC/MS/MS revealed that CL-1 emited the volatiles α-pinene, (-)-trans-caryophyllene, tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, dehydroaromadendrene, and (+)-sativene. Potential roles of these volatiles in plant growth and development are discussed. Even though there were several fungal VOCs reported in the past that could influence plant growth, their exact mechanisms of action are not fully known. Fungal VOC-mediated plant growth promotion requires in-depth study in order for this technology to be used in large scale for crops, especially those grown under greenhouse conditions.

  10. Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in modulating the efficiency of poultry litter composting with rock phosphate and its effect on growth and yield of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billah, Motsim; Bano, Asghari

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in P solubilisation from rock phosphate through composting with poultry litter, and further to study the effects of prepared enriched composts on growth, yield, and phosphorus uptake of wheat crop. Various phosphorus-enriched composts were prepared from rock phosphate and poultry litter (1:10) with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacterias (Pseudomonas sp. and Proteus sp.). Results showed that the rock-phosphate-added poultry litter had higher total phosphorus, available (Mehlic-3 extracted) phosphorus, microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus), and lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratio over poultry litter alone. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. with rock phosphate-added poultry litter showed maximum increase in available phosphorus (41% of total phosphorus) followed by Proteus sp. inoculation (30% of total phosphorus) over uninoculated treatment (23% of total phosphorus) on the 120th day of composting. Microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus) increased up to Day 45 and tended to decrease till the 120th day of composting, irrespective of the treatments. However, in pot experiments, wheat seeds receiving inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacterias, subsequently treated with rock phosphate-enriched compost proved highly stimulatory to plant height, phosphorus uptake, grain yield, and seed phosphorus content over uninoculated untreated control. The plant growth promoting rhizobacterias inoculation can be a sustainable source releasing phosphorus from low grade rock phosphate through composting and application of rock phosphate-enriched compost can be an alternative to chemical fertilisers for better crop production.

  11. Microbial shifts in the swine distal gut in response to the treatment with antimicrobial growth promoter, tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeun Bum; Borewicz, Klaudyna; White, Bryan A; Singer, Randall S; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Tu, Zheng Jin; Isaacson, Richard E

    2012-09-18

    Antimicrobials have been used extensively as growth promoters (AGPs) in agricultural animal production. However, the specific mechanism of action for AGPs has not yet been determined. The work presented here was to determine and characterize the microbiome of pigs receiving one AGP, tylosin, compared with untreated pigs. We hypothesized that AGPs exerted their growth promoting effect by altering gut microbial population composition. We determined the fecal microbiome of pigs receiving tylosin compared with untreated pigs using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries. The data showed microbial population shifts representing both microbial succession and changes in response to the use of tylosin. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of sequences showed that tylosin caused microbial population shifts in both abundant and less abundant species. Our results established a baseline upon which mechanisms of AGPs in regulation of health and growth of animals can be investigated. Furthermore, the data will aid in the identification of alternative strategies to improve animal health and consequently production.

  12. Plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of Drosera spatulata Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shih-Feng; Sun, Pei-Feng; Lu, Hsueh-Yu; Wei, Jyuan-Yu; Xiao, Hong-Su; Fang, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Bai-You; Chou, Jui-Yu

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms can promote plant growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. Compared with the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, the use of yeasts as plant growth-promoting (PGP) agents has not been extensively investigated. In this study, yeast isolates from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of the medicinally important plant Drosera spatulata Lab. were assessed for their PGP traits. All isolates were tested for indole-3-acetic acid-, ammonia-, and polyamine-producing abilities, calcium phosphate and zinc oxide solubilizing ability, and catalase activity. Furthermore, the activities of siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes were assessed. The antagonistic action of yeasts against pathogenic Glomerella cingulata was evaluated. The cocultivation of Nicotiana benthamiana with yeast isolates enhanced plant growth, indicating a potential yeast-plant interaction. Our study results highlight the potential use of yeasts as plant biofertilizers under controlled and field conditions.

  13. Effect of transforming growth factor-beta on activity of connective tissue growth factor gene promoter in mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing ZHAO; Nan CHEN; Wei-ming WANG; Jian LU; Bing-bing DAI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the regulatory mechanism of transforming growth factor-beta on activity of connective tissue growth factor promoter in mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. METHODS: The regulation fragment of the 5' flanking region of the human CTGF gene was linked to pGL3-Basic vector, a firefly luciferase reporter construct without promoter. The recombinant plasmid pCTGF-luc was transiently transfected to NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. The activity of CTGF promoter after treatment of TGF-β1 and MAPK pathway inhibitors were assayed with luciferase reporter gene assay system. RESULTS: TGF-β1-induced increase of CTGF promoter activity was concentration-dependent,with a plateau at 5 μg/L by 2.67-fold vs control (P<0.05). The TGF-β1 stimulation of CTGF promoter activity was time-dependent, too. After exposure to TGF-β1 (5 μg/L), the maximal level of luciferase activity was reached at 12 h and maintained to 24 h by 2.76- and 2.20-fold vs control, respectively (P<0.05). Blockade of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway with PD98059 (10 μmnol/L), the MAP kinase kinase 1 inhibitor, and SB203580 (10μmol/L), the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, decreased basal and TGF-β1-induced activation of CTGF promoter. However,inhibition of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase by SP600125 (20 μmol/L) was without effect.CONCLUSION: TGF-β1 stimulated the transcriptional activity of CTGF gene promoter in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MAPK pathway may play a role in the regulation of TGF-β1-induced CTGF expression.

  14. Can population promote income per-capita growth? A balanced perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Tournemaine

    2007-01-01

    We develop a model in which technical progress, human capital and population interact endogenously to examine the impact of population growth on economic development. We find that population growth can be positively or negatively correlated with the growth rate of income per-capita. The outcome depends on the relative contribution of population and human capital to the determination of output growth.

  15. Extracellular expression of alkaline phytase in Pichia pastoris: Influence of signal peptides, promoters and growth medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline phytase isolated from pollen grains of Lilium longiflorum (LlALP possesses unique catalytic and thermal stability properties that suggest it has the potential to be used as a feed supplement. However, substantial amounts of active enzymes are needed for animal feed studies and endogenous levels of LlALP in lily pollen are too low to provide the required amounts. Active rLlALP2 (coded by LlAlp2, one of two isoforms of alkaline phytase cDNA identified in lily pollen has been successfully expressed in intracellular compartments of Pichia pastoris, however enzyme yields have been modest (25–30 mg/L and purification of the enzyme has been challenging. Expression of foreign proteins to the extracellular medium of P. pastoris greatly simplifies protein purification because low levels of endogenous proteins are secreted by the yeast. In this paper, we first describe the generation of P. pastoris strains that will secrete rLlALP2 to the extracellular medium. Data presented here indicates that deletion of native signal peptides at the N- and C-termini of rLlALP2 enhanced α-mating factor (α-MF-driven secretion by four-fold; chicken egg white lysozyme signal peptide was ineffective in the extracellular secretion of rLlALP2. Second, we describe our efforts to increase expression levels by employing a constitutive promoter from the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (PGAP in place of the strong, tightly controlled promoter of alcohol oxidase 1 gene (PAOX1. PGAP enhanced the extracellular expression levels of rLlALP2 compared to PAOX1. Finally, we report on the optimization of the culture medium to enhance yields of rLlALP2. The strength of PGAP varies depending on the carbon source available for cell growth; secreted expression of rLlALP2 was highest when glycerol was the carbon source. The addition of histidine and Triton X-100 also enhanced extracellular expression. Taken together, the employment of PGAP under optimized culture

  16. The influence of oxalate-promoted growth of saponite and talc crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Dirk; Hartman, Hyman; Eberl, Dennis D.; Sears, S. Kelly; Hesse, Reinhard; Vali, Hojatollah

    2013-01-01

    The intercalating growth of new silicate layers or metal hydroxide layers in the interlayer space of other clay minerals is known from various mixed-layer clay minerals such as illite-smectite (I-S), chlorite-vermiculite, and mica-vermiculite. In a recent study, the present authors proposed that smectite-group minerals can be synthesized from solution as new 2:1 silicate layers within the low-charge interlayers of rectorite. That study showed how oxalate catalyzes the crystallization of saponite from a silicate gel at low temperatures (60ºC) and ambient pressure. As an extension of this work the aim of the present study was to test the claim that new 2:1 silicate layers can be synthesized as new intercalating layers in the low-charge interlayers of rectorite and whether oxalate could promote such an intercalation synthesis. Two experiments were conducted at 60ºC and atmospheric pressure. First, disodium oxalate solution was added to a suspension of rectorite in order to investigate the effects that oxalate anions have on the structure of rectorite. In a second experiment, silicate gel of saponitic composition (calculated interlayer charge −0.33 eq/O10(OH)2) was mixed with a suspension of rectorite and incubated in disodium oxalate solution. The synthesis products were extracted after 3 months and analyzed by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The treatment of ultrathin sections with octadecylammonium (nC = 18) cations revealed the presence of 2:1 layer silicates with different interlayer charges that grew from the silicate gel. The oxalate-promoted nucleation of saponite and talc crystallites on the rectorite led to the alteration and ultimately to the destruction of the rectorite structure. The change was documented in HRTEM lattice-fringe images. The crystallization of new 2:1 layer silicates also occurred within the expandable interlayers of rectorite but not as new 2:1 silicate layers parallel to the previous 2

  17. Inoculation of Schizolobium parahyba with Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Increases Wood Yield under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely, Martha V. T.; Siviero, Marco A.; Emiliano, Janaina; Spago, Flávia R.; Freitas, Vanessa F.; Barazetti, André R.; Goya, Erika T.; Lamberti, Gustavo de Souza; dos Santos, Igor M. O.; De Oliveira, Admilton G.; Andrade, Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth of S. parahyba var. amazonicum under field conditions. We used two native species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Claroideoglomus etunicatum (Ce), and Acaulospora sp. (Ac); two native strains of Rhizobium sp. (Rh1 and Rh2); and a non-native strain of Burkholderia sp. Different combinations of microorganisms were supplemented with chemical fertilizers (doses D1 and D2) in two planting methods, seed sowing and seedling planting. In seed sowing, the results showed that treatments with Ce/Rh1/Fertilizer D2 and Ac/No PGPR/Fertilizer D2 increased wood yield. In seedling planting, two combinations (Ac/Rh2/Fertilizer D1 and Ac/Rh1/Fertilizer D1) were more effective in increasing seedling growth. In these experiments, inoculation with AMF and PGPR increased wood yield by about 20% compared to the application of fertilizer alone. PMID:27920781

  18. Maize development and grain quality are differentially affected by mycorrhizal fungi and a growth-promoting pseudomonad in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Graziella; Copetta, Andrea; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Cesaro, Patrizia; Scarafoni, Alessio; D'Agostino, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can increase the growth and yield of major crops, and improve the quality of fruits and leaves. However, little is known about their impact on seed composition. Plants were inoculated with AM fungi and/or the bacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf4 and harvested after 7 months of growth in open-field conditions. Plant growth parameters were measured (biomass, length and circumference of spikes, number of grains per cob, grain yield, and grain size) and protein, lipid, and starch content in grains were determined. Plant growth and yield were increased by inoculation with the microorganisms. Moreover, spikes and grains of inoculated plants were bigger than those produced by uninoculated plants. Regarding grain composition, the bacterial strain increased grain starch content, especially the digestible components, whereas AM fungi-enhanced protein, especially zein, content. Plant inoculation with the fluorescent pseudomonad and mycorrhizal fungi resulted in additive effects on grain composition. Overall, results showed that the bacterial strain and the AM fungi promoted maize growth cultivated in field conditions and differentially affected the grain nutritional content. Consequently, targeted plant inoculation with beneficial microorganisms can lead to commodities fulfilling consumer and industrial requirements.

  19. Inoculation of Schizolobium parahyba with mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria increases wood yield under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Viviana Torres Cely

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on growth of S. parahyba var. amazonicum under field conditions. We used two native species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Claroideoglomus etunicatum (Ce and Acaulospora sp. (Ac; two native strains of Rhizobium sp. (Rh1 and Rh2; and a non-native strain of Burkholderia sp. Different combinations of microorganisms were supplemented with chemical fertilizers (doses D1 and D2 in two planting methods, seed sowing and seedling planting. In seed sowing, the results showed that treatments with Ce/Rh1/Fertilizer D2 and Ac/No PGPR/Fertilizer D2 increased wood yield. In seedling planting, two combinations (Ac/Rh2/Fertilizer D1 and Ac/Rh1/Fertilizer D1 were more effective in increasing seedling growth. In these experiments, inoculation with AMF and PGPR increased wood yield by about 20% compared to the application of fertilizer alone.

  20. Bioaccumulation of nickel by E. sativa and role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) under nickel stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Muhammad Aqeel; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bibi, Sadia; Xu, Ren-kou; Amna; Monis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Bokhari, Habib; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-04-01

    Phytoremediation potential of plants can be enhanced in association with microbes. Further, many plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria can improve growth under stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) on nickel (Ni) uptake and on growth of Eruca sativa (E. sativa). Three different levels of Ni (low; 150 ug/g, medium; 250 ug/g and high; 500 ug/g) were applied to the soil containing E. sativa seedlings, with or without P. putida. Ni-toxicity was measured by metamorphic parameters including shoot length, root length, biomass, chlorophyll and proline and Ni contents. Inoculation with P. putida increased 34% and 41% in root and shoot length and 38% and 24% in fresh, dry weight respectively, as compared to non-inoculated plants. Similarly, Ni uptake increased by up to 46% following P. putida inoculation as compared to non-inoculated plants. Indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) activity in the growing media enhanced growth and Ni uptake in E. sativa. The present results offer insight on Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), such as P. putida, for the potential to enhance the plant growth by inhibiting the adverse effects of Ni in E. sativa.

  1. Phytogenic feed additives as alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathi Raj Murugesan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432, day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen. The chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal based control (CON, CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g, or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom® Poultry until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, the PFA fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05. Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05. The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05. These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA fed birds. Overall both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05. Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy of PFA as a substitute to AGP in

  2. Slit2 promotes tumor growth and invasion in chemically induced skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cuiling; Lan, Haimei; Ye, Jie; Li, Weidong; Wei, Ping; Yang, Yang; Guo, Simei; Lan, Tian; Li, Jiangchao; Zhang, Qianqian; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2014-07-01

    Slit, a neuronal guidance cue, binds to Roundabout (Robo) receptors to modulate neuronal, leukocytic, and endothelial migration. Slit has been reported to have an important effect on tumor growth and metastasis. In the current study, we evaluated the role of Slit2 in skin tumor growth and invasion in mice using a two-step chemical carcinogenesis protocol. We found that Slit2 expression correlated with the loss of basement membrane in the samples of human skin squamous cell carcinoma at different stages of disease progression. Slit2-Tg mice developed significantly more skin tumors than wild-type mice. Furthermore, the skin tumors that occurred in Slit2-Tg mice were significantly larger than those in the wild-type mice 10 weeks after 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene initiation until the end of the experiment. We also found that pathological development of the wild-type mice was delayed compared with that of Slit2-Tg mice. To further investigate the mechanism of increasing tumors in Slit2-Tg mice, we analyzed the expression of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in mouse skin lesions and found that the number of BrdU-positive cells and microvessel density in skin lesions were significantly higher in Slit2-Tg mice than in wild-type mice. Histological staining of PAS and type IV collagen and the colocalization of Slit2 and type IV collagen demonstrated varying degrees of loss of the basement membrane in the skin lesions from Slit2-Tg mice that were at the stage of carcinoma in situ. However, the basement membrane was well defined in the wild-type mice. In addition, MMP2, but not MMP9, was upregulated in the skin tissue of Slit2-Tg mice. Interruption of Slit2-Robo1 signaling by the antibody R5 significantly repressed the invasive capability of the squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431. Taken together, our findings reveal that Slit2 promotes DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis by increasing cell proliferation, microvessel density, and invasive behavior of cutaneous squamous

  3. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yuan; Shu, Yimin; Cheng, Yuan; Qiao, Jie; Behr, Barry; Pera, Renee A Reijo; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2012-01-01

    Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin) in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for infertility

  4. Promotion of human early embryonic development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro using autocrine/paracrine growth factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kawamura

    Full Text Available Studies using animal models demonstrated the importance of autocrine/paracrine factors secreted by preimplantation embryos and reproductive tracts for embryonic development and implantation. Although in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET is an established procedure, there is no evidence that present culture conditions are optimal for human early embryonic development. In this study, key polypeptide ligands known to be important for early embryonic development in animal models were tested for their ability to improve human early embryo development and blastocyst outgrowth in vitro. We confirmed the expression of key ligand/receptor pairs in cleavage embryos derived from discarded human tri-pronuclear zygotes and in human endometrium. Combined treatment with key embryonic growth factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, colony-stimulating factor, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, and artemin in serum-free media promoted >2.5-fold the development of tri-pronuclear zygotes to blastocysts. For normally fertilized embryos, day 3 surplus embryos cultured individually with the key growth factors showed >3-fold increases in the development of 6-8 cell stage embryos to blastocysts and >7-fold increase in the proportion of high quality blastocysts based on Gardner's criteria. Growth factor treatment also led to a 2-fold promotion of blastocyst outgrowth in vitro when day 7 surplus hatching blastocysts were used. When failed-to-be-fertilized oocytes were used to perform somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT using fibroblasts as donor karyoplasts, inclusion of growth factors increased the progression of reconstructed SCNT embryos to >4-cell stage embryos. Growth factor supplementation of serum-free cultures could promote optimal early embryonic development and implantation in IVF-ET and SCNT procedures. This approach is valuable for

  5. Agro-food industry growth and obesity in China: what role for regulating food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C

    2008-03-01

    Taking a food supply chain approach, this paper examines the regulation of food marketing and nutrition labelling as strategies to help combat obesity in China in an era of rapid agro-food industry growth. China is the largest food producer and consumer in the world. Since the early 1980s, the agro-food industry has undergone phenomenal expansion throughout the food supply chain, from agricultural production to trade, agro-food processing to food retailing, and from food service to advertising and promotion. This industry growth, alongside related socioeconomic changes and government policies, has encouraged a 'nutrition transition'. China's population, especially in urban areas, is now consuming significantly more energy from dietary fat, which is leading to higher rates of obesity. Regulation of food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling has the potential to help prevent the further growth of obesity in China and encourage the agro-food industry to supplier healthier foods. Government legislation and guidance, as well as self-regulation and voluntary initiatives, are needed to reduce children's exposure to food advertising and promotion, and increase the effectiveness of nutrition labelling. Policies on food marketing and nutrition labelling should be adapted to the China context, and accompanied by further action throughout the food supply chain. Given China's unique characteristics and position in the world today, there is an opportunity for the government and the agro-food industry to lead the world by creating a balanced, health promoting model of complementary legislation and industry action.

  6. Specific epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation sites promote mouse colon epithelial cell chemotaxis and restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Toshimitsu; Frey, Mark R; Dise, Rebecca S; Bernard, Jessica K; Polk, D Brent

    2011-08-01

    Upon ligand binding, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (R) autophosphorylates on COOH-terminal tyrosines, generating docking sites for signaling partners that stimulate proliferation, restitution, and chemotaxis. Specificity for individual EGFR tyrosines in cellular responses has been hypothesized but not well documented. Here we tested the requirement for particular tyrosines, and associated downstream pathways, in mouse colon epithelial cell chemotactic migration. We compared these requirements to those for the phenotypically distinct restitution (wound healing) migration. Wild-type, Y992/1173F, Y1045F, Y1068F, and Y1086F EGFR constructs were expressed in EGFR(-/-) cells; EGF-induced chemotaxis or restitution were determined by Boyden chamber or modified scratch wound assay, respectively. Pharmacological inhibitors of p38, phospholipase C (PLC), Src, MEK, JNK/SAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and protein kinase C (PKC) were used to block EGF-stimulated signaling. Pathway activation was determined by immunoblot analysis. Unlike wild-type EGFR, Y992/1173F and Y1086F EGFR did not stimulate colon epithelial cell chemotaxis toward EGF; Y1045F and Y1068F EGFR partially stimulated chemotaxis. Only wild-type EGFR promoted colonocyte restitution. Inhibition of p38, PLC, and Src, or Grb2 knockdown, blocked chemotaxis; JNK, PI 3-kinase, and PKC inhibitors or c-Cbl knockdown blocked restitution but not chemotaxis. All four EGFR mutants stimulated downstream signaling in response to EGF, but Y992/1173F EGFR was partially defective in PLCγ activation whereas both Y1068F and Y1086F EGFR failed to activate Src. We conclude that specific EGFR tyrosines play key roles in determining cellular responses to ligand. Chemotaxis and restitution, which have different migration phenotypes and physiological consequences, have overlapping but not identical EGFR signaling requirements.

  7. Transgenic expression of the human growth hormone minigene promotes pancreatic β-cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, Mieke; Kibbe, Carly R; Bushkofsky, Justin R; Harris, Ted W; Sherman, Dawn S; Davis, Dawn Belt

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic mouse models are designed to study the role of specific proteins. To increase transgene expression the human growth hormone (hGH) minigene, including introns, has been included in many transgenic constructs. Until recently, it was thought that the hGH gene was not spliced, transcribed, and translated to produce functional hGH protein. We generated a transgenic mouse with the transcription factor Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) followed by the hGH minigene, under control of the mouse insulin promoter (MIP) to target expression specifically in the pancreatic β-cell. Expression of FoxM1 in isolated pancreatic islets in vitro stimulates β-cell proliferation. We aimed to investigate the effect of FoxM1 on β-cell mass in a mouse model for diabetes mellitus. However, we found inadvertent coexpression of hGH protein from a spliced, bicistronic mRNA. MIP-FoxM1-hGH mice had lower blood glucose and higher pancreatic insulin content, due to increased β-cell proliferation. hGH signals through the murine prolactin receptor, and expression of its downstream targets tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph1), tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), and cytokine-inducible SH2 containing protein (Cish) was increased. Conversely, transcriptional targets of FoxM1 were not upregulated. Our data suggest that the phenotype of MIP-FoxM1-hGH mice is due primarily to hGH activity and that the FoxM1 protein remains largely inactive. Over the past decades, multiple transgenic mouse strains were generated that make use of the hGH minigene to increase transgene expression. Our work suggests that each will need to be carefully screened for inadvertent hGH production and critically evaluated for the use of proper controls.

  8. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yun-Fei [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Department of Pathology, Shandong University (China); Lu, Xiao-Fei [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jinan Central Hospital (China); Guo, Sen; Liu, Yi; Iqbal, Mohammad; Ning, Shang-Lei; Yang, Hui [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China); Suo, Ning [Department of Anatomy, Shandong University (China); Chen, Yu-Xin, E-mail: yxu8@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

  9. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessegatto, Jose A.; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Weese, J. Scott; Filho, João A. B.; Oba, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96) was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05). Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all Pchicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken. PMID:28222110

  10. Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Changes the Liver Microbiome and Promotes Helicobacter Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthitaetrakool, Upsornsawan; Pinlaor, Porntip; Pinlaor, Somchai; Chomvarin, Chariya; Dangtakot, Rungtiwa; Chaidee, Apisit; Wilailuckana, Chotechana; Sangka, Arunnee; Lulitanond, Aroonlug; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2016-01-01

    Adults of Opisthorchis viverrini reside in the biliary system, inducing inflammation of bile ducts and cholangitis, leading to hepatobiliary disease (HBD) including cholangiocarcinoma. O. viverrini infection also has major implications for the bacterial community in bile ducts and liver. To investigate this in chronic O. viverrini infection (≥ 8 months p.i.), bacterial genomic DNA from livers of hamsters and from worms was investigated using culture techniques, PCR for Helicobacter spp. and high-throughput next-generation sequencing targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. Of a total of 855,046 DNA sequence reads, 417,953 were useable after filtering. Metagenomic analyses assigned these to 93 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) consisting of 80 OTUs of bacteria, including 6 phyla and 42 genera. In the chronic O. viverrini-infected group, bacterial community composition and diversity were significantly increased compared to controls. Sequences of Fusobacterium spp. were the most common (13.81%), followed by Streptococcus luteciae (10.76%), Escherichia coli (10.18%), and Bifidobacterium spp. (0.58%). In addition, Helicobacter pylori (0.17% of sequences) was also identified in the liver of chronic O. viverrini infections, but not in normal liver. The presence of H. pylori was confirmed by PCR and by use of an antibody against bacterial antigen, supporting the metagenomics data. The identities of bacteria cultured for enrichment suggested that chronic O. viverrini infection changes the liver microbiome and promotes Helicobacter spp. growth. There may be synergy between O. viverrini and the liver microbiome in enhancing immune response-mediated hepatobiliary diseases. PMID:27806126

  11. Use of impact fees to incentivize low-impact development and promote compact growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongming; Noonan, Douglas; Crittenden, John; Jeong, Hyunju; Wang, Dali

    2013-10-01

    Low-impact development (LID) is an innovative stormwater management strategy that restores the predevelopment hydrology to prevent increased stormwater runoff from land development. Integrating LID into residential subdivisions and increasing population density by building more compact living spaces (e.g., apartment homes) can result in a more sustainable city by reducing stormwater runoff, saving infrastructural cost, increasing the number of affordable homes, and supporting public transportation. We develop an agent-based model (ABM) that describes the interactions between several decision-makers (i.e., local government, a developer, and homebuyers) and fiscal drivers (e.g., property taxes, impact fees). The model simulates the development of nine square miles of greenfield land. A more sustainable development (MSD) scenario introduces an impact fee that developers must pay if they choose not to use LID to build houses or apartment homes. Model simulations show homeowners selecting apartment homes 60% or 35% of the time after 30 years of development in MSD or business as usual (BAU) scenarios, respectively. The increased adoption of apartment homes results from the lower cost of using LID and improved quality of life for apartment homes relative to single-family homes. The MSD scenario generates more tax revenue and water savings than does BAU. A time-dependent global sensitivity analysis quantifies the importance of socioeconomic variables on the adoption rate of apartment homes. The top influential factors are the annual pay rates (or capital recovery factor) for single-family houses and apartment homes. The ABM can be used by city managers and policymakers for scenario exploration in accordance with local conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of impact fees and other policies in promoting LID and compact growth.

  12. Perspectives in the use of tannins as alternative to antimicrobial growth promoter factors in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Leandro M; Chacana, Pablo A; Dominguez, Johana E; Fernandez Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics have been included in the formulation of feed for livestock production for more than 40 years as a strategy to improve feed conversion rates and to reduce costs. The use of antimicrobials as growth-promoting factors (AGP) in sub-therapeutic doses for long periods is particularly favorable for the selection of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. In the last years, global concern about development of antimicrobial resistance and transference of resistance genes from animal to human strains has been rising. Removal of AGP from animal diets involves tremendous pressure on the livestock and poultry farmers, one of the main consequences being a substantial increase in the incidence of infectious diseases with the associated increase in the use of antibiotics for therapy, and concomitantly, economic cost. Therefore, alternatives to AGP are urgently needed. The challenge is to implement new alternatives without affecting the production performances of livestock and avoiding the increase of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Plant extracts and purified derived substances are showing promising results for animal nutrition, either from their efficacy as well as from an economical point of view. Tannins are plant derived compounds that are being successfully used as additives in poultry feed to control diseases and to improve animal performance. Successful use of any of these extracts as feed additives must ensure a product of consistent quality in enough quantity to fulfill the actual requirements of the poultry industry. Chestnut (hydrolysable) and Quebracho (condensed) tannins are probably the most readily available commercial products that are covering those needs. The present report intends to analyze the available data supporting their use.

  13. Evaluation of insect associated and plant growth promoting fungi in the control of cabbage root flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-08-01

    Delia radicum L. or cabbage maggot is an important pest for Brassicaceous crops. There are currently no registered chemical control agents for its control in Slovenia. Fungal control agents for cabbage maggot were therefore sought among nine rhizosphere-compatible and plant growth-promoting, soil-adapted, and entomopathogenic species to cabbage maggots and were assayed in in vitro and soil laboratory bioassays. In the in vitro tests, the conidial suspensions were applied directly to cabbage maggot eggs. The soil tests mimicked pathways of natural exposure of various insect life stages to the fungal strains. Conidial concentrations used in soil tests were comparable to economic rates for in-furrow application. The following fungi were tested: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst. (2 isolates), Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans (1), Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin. (3), Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo) Petch (1), Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (2), Metarhizium robertsii J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber (1), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (4), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (2), and Clonostachys solani f. nigrovirens (J.F.H. Beyma) Schroers (2). Abbott's corrected mortality in the in vitro tests ranged from 0.0 +/- 18.9 to 47.6 +/- 9.0% and in the soil test from 2.4 +/- 13.0 to 68.2 +/- 21.5%. Seven isolates (B. bassiana [isolate 1174], C. solani [1828], M. anisopliae [1154 and 1868], T. atroviride [1872], T. koningiopsis [1874], and T. gamsii [1876]) caused significant cabbage maggot mortality in either in vitro or soil tests. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion during the screening of potential biological control agents is discussed.

  14. Isolation and Screening of Rhizosphere Bacteria from Grasses in East Kavango Region of Namibia for Plant Growth Promoting Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyambo, D H; Chimwamurombe, P M; Reinhold-Hurek, B

    2015-11-01

    A diverse group of soil bacteria known as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is able to inhabit the area close to plant roots and exert beneficial effects on plant growth. Beneficial interactions between rhizospheric bacteria and plants provide prospects for isolating culturable PGPR that can be used as bio-fertilizers for sustainable crop production in communities that cannot easily afford chemical fertilizers. This study was conducted with the aim of isolating rhizospheric bacteria from grasses along the Kavango River and screening the bacterial isolates for plant growth promoting characteristics. The bacteria were isolated from rhizospheres of Phragmites australis, Sporobolus sp., Vetiveria nigritana, Pennisetum glaucum and Sorghum bicolor. The isolates were screened for inorganic phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The nitrogen-fixing capability of the bacteria was determined by screening for the presence of the nifH gene. Up to 21 isolates were obtained from P. australis, Sporobolus sp., S. bicolor, P. glaucum and V. nigritana. The genera Bacillus, Enterobacter, Kocuria, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas, identified via 16S rDNA were represented in the 13 PGPR strains isolated. The isolates exhibited more than one plant growth promoting trait and they were profiled as follows: three phosphate solubilizers, four siderophore producers, eight IAA producing isolates and five nitrogen-fixers. These bacteria can be used to develop bio-fertilizer inoculants for improved soil fertility management and sustainable production of local cereals.

  15. In vitro Antimicrobial Assay of Actinomycetes in Rice AgainstXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as Potential Plant Growth Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erneeza Mohd Hata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to invitro assay the antimicrobial activity of actinomycetes in rice against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and as potential plant growth promoter. A total of 92 actinomycete strains were isolated from different rice plant components and field locations. Of these, only 21.74% showed antagonistic activity against the Xoc pathogen. Molecular identification via 16s rRNA amplification revealed that 60% of the active antagonistic strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Isolates that demonstrated the highest antagonistic activity were also able to produce hydrolytic enzymes and plant growth-promoting hormones. Combination of preliminary screening based on in vitro antagonistic, hydrolytic enzyme and plant growth hormone activity facilitated the best selection of actinomycete candidates as evidenced by strains classification using cluster analysis (Ward's Method. Results from the preliminary screening showed that actinomycetes, especially Streptomycetes, could offer a promising source for both biocontrol and plant growth-promotion agents against BLS disease in rice.

  16. Isolation of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro screening of plant growth-promoting (PGP traits was carried out using eight Pseudomonas spp., PPR1 to PPR8, isolated from the rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris growing on the Uttarakhand Himalayan range in India. All the isolates were fast growers, positive for catalase, oxidase and urease activities, and utilized lactose and some amino acids. All the isolates were indole acetic acid (IAA positive, however PPR8 solubilized potassium and zinc along with various other types of inorganic (tricalcium, dicalcium and zinc phosphate and organic (calcium phytate phosphates, as well as producing siderophore and ACC deaminase. PPR8 also produced cyanogens, extracellular chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase and oxalate oxidase. Based on the PGP traits of all isolates, PPR8 was found to be the most potent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Further, PPR8 was identified as Pseudomonas sp. PPR8, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Moreover, the PGP activities of PPR8 confirmed it to be a potent biocontrol agent, inhibiting the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi. This study reveals the potential of Pseudomonas sp. PPR8 to be used as a good bioinoculant for growth promotion of common bean and for the protection of important legume crops from various deleterious phytopathogens.

  17. Biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline by plant-growth promoting Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 and toxicological analysis of its biodegradation metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, Sivagnanam; Vangnai, Alisa S

    2016-01-25

    4-nitroaniline (4-NA) is one of the major priority pollutants generated from industrial productions and pesticide transformation; however very limited biodegradation details have been reported. This work is the first to report 4-NA biodegradation kinetics and toxicity reduction using a newly isolated plant-growth promoting bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2. The 4-NA-dependent growth kinetics parameters: μmax, Ks and Ki, were determined to be 0.039 h(-1), 6.623 mg L(-1) and 25.57 mg L(-1), respectively using Haldane inhibition model, while the maximum biodegradation rate (Vmax) of 4-NA was at 0.541 mg L(-1) h(-1) and 0.551 mg L(-1) h(-1), following Michaelis-Menten and Hanes-Woolf models, respectively. Biodegradation pathway of 4-NA by Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 was proposed, and successfully led to the reduction of 4-NA toxicity according to the following toxicity assessments: microbial toxicity using Escherichia coli DH5α, phytotoxicity with Vigna radiata and Crotalaria juncea, and cytogenotoxicity with Allium cepa root-tip cells. In addition, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 possess important plant-growth promoting traits, both in the presence and absence of 4-NA. This study has provided a new insight into 4-NA biodegradation ability and concurrent plant-growth promoting activities of Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2, which may indicate its potential role for rhizoremediation, while sustaining crop production even under 4-NA stressed environment.

  18. Growth promotion and an increase in cell wall extensibility by silicon in rice and some other Poaceae seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Talim; Mori, Ryuji; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Fujii, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-02-01

    The effect of silicon on organ growth and its mechanisms of action were studied in rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari), oat ( Avena sativa L. cv. Victory), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Daichino-Minori) seedlings grown in the dark. Applying silicon in the form of silicic acid to these seedlings via culture solution resulted in growth promotion of third (rice) or second (oat and wheat) leaves. The optimal concentration of silicon was 5-10 mM. No growth promotion was observed in early organs, such as coleoptiles or first leaves. In silicon-treated rice third leaves, the epidermal cell length increased, especially in the basal regions, without any effect on the number of cells, showing that silicon promoted cell elongation but not cell division. Silicon also increased the cell wall extensibility significantly in the basal regions of rice third leaves. These results indicate that silicon stimulates growth of rice and some other Poaceae leaves by increasing cell wall extensibility.

  19. Growth hormone promotes skeletal muscle cell fusion independent of insulin-like growth factor 1 up-regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Ohanna, Mickaël; Kedzia, Cécile; Menon, Ram K.; Kopchick, John J.; Kelly, Paul A; Pende, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) participates in the postnatal regulation of skeletal muscle growth, although the mechanism of action is unclear. Here we show that the mass of skeletal muscles lacking GH receptors is reduced because of a decrease in myofiber size with normal myofiber number. GH signaling controls the size of the differentiated myotubes in a cell-autonomous manner while having no effect on size, proliferation, and differentiation of the myoblast precursor cells. The GH hypertrophic action ...

  20. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2013-07-01

    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments.

  1. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Halophytic Weed (Psoralea corylifolia L) on Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat Under Saline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorty, Ajay M; Meena, Kamlesh K; Choudhary, Khushboo; Bitla, Utkarsh M; Minhas, P S; Krishnani, K K

    2016-11-01

    Halotolerant bacteria associated with Psoralea corylifolia L., a luxuriantly growing annual weed in salinity-affected semi-arid regions of western Maharashtra, India were evaluated for their plant growth-promoting activity in wheat. A total of 79 bacteria associated with different parts viz., root, shoot and nodule endophytes, rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and leaf epiphytes, were isolated and grouped based on their habitat. Twelve bacteria isolated for their potential in plant growth promotion were further selected for in vitro studies. Molecular identification showed the presence of the genera Bacillus, Pantoea, Marinobacterium, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Sinorhizobium (LC027447-53; LC027455; LC027457, LC027459, and LC128410). The phylogenetic studies along with carbon source utilization profiles using the Biolog® indicated the presence of novel species and the in planta studies revealed promising results under salinity stress. Whereas the nodule endophytes had minute plant growth-promoting (PGP) activity, the cell free culture filtrates of these strains enhanced seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The maximum vigor index was monitored in isolate Y7 (Enterobacter sp strain NIASMVII). Indole acetic acid (IAA) production by the isolates ranged between 0.22 and 25.58 μg mL(-1). This signifies the need of exploration of their individual metabolites for developing next-generation bio-inoculants through co-inoculation with other compatible microbes. This study has potential in utilization of the weed-associated microbiome in terms of alleviation of salinity stress in crop plants.

  2. Amelioration of high salinity stress damage by plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes that contain ACC deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shimaila; Charles, Trevor C; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-07-01

    Plant growth and productivity is negatively affected by soil salinity. However, it is predicted that plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) endophytes that contain 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (E.C. 4.1.99.4) can facilitate plant growth and development in the presence of a number of different stresses. In present study, the ability of ACC deaminase containing PGPB endophytes Pseudomonas fluorescens YsS6, Pseudomonas migulae 8R6, and their ACC deaminase deficient mutants to promote tomato plant growth in the absence of salt and under two different levels of salt stress (165 mM and 185 mM) was assessed. It was evidence that wild-type bacterial endophytes (P. fluorescens YsS6 and P. migulae 8R6) promoted tomato plant growth significantly even in the absence of stress (salinity). Plants pretreated with wild-type ACC deaminase containing endophytic strains were healthier and grew to a much larger size under high salinity stress compared to plants pretreated with the ACC deaminase deficient mutants or no bacterial treatment (control). The plants pretreated with ACC deaminase containing bacterial endophytes exhibit higher fresh and dry biomass, higher chlorophyll contents, and a greater number of flowers and buds than the other treatments. Since the only difference between wild-type and mutant bacterial endophytes was ACC deaminase activity, it is concluded that this enzyme is directly responsible for the different behavior of tomato plants in response to salt stress. The use of PGPB endophytes with ACC deaminase activity has the potential to facilitate plant growth on land that is not normally suitable for the majority of crops due to their high salt contents.

  3. Plant growth-promoting effects of native Pseudomonas strains on Mentha piperita (peppermint): an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M V; Cappellari, L R; Giordano, W; Banchio, E

    2015-11-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) affect growth of host plants through various direct and indirect mechanisms. Three native PGPR (Pseudomonas putida) strains isolated from rhizospheric soil of a Mentha piperita (peppermint) crop field near Córdoba, Argentina, were characterised and screened in vitro for plant growth-promoting characteristics, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilisation and siderophore production, effects of direct inoculation on plant growth parameters (shoot fresh weight, root dry weight, leaf number, node number) and accumulation and composition of essential oils. Each of the three native strains was capable of phosphate solubilisation and IAA production. Only strain SJ04 produced siderophores. Plants directly inoculated with the native PGPR strains showed increased shoot fresh weight, glandular trichome number, ramification number and root dry weight in comparison with controls. The inoculated plants had increased essential oil yield (without alteration of essential oil composition) and biosynthesis of major essential oil components. Native strains of P. putida and other PGPR have clear potential as bio-inoculants for improving productivity of aromatic crop plants. There have been no comparative studies on the role of inoculation with native strains on plant growth and secondary metabolite production (specially monoterpenes). Native bacterial isolates are generally preferable for inoculation of crop plants because they are already adapted to the environment and have a competitive advantage over non-native strains.

  4. Plant-microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. Direct plant growth promotion by microbes is based on improved nutrient acquisition and hormonal stimulation. Diverse mechanisms are involved in the suppression of plant pathogens, which is often indirectly connected with plant growth. Whereas members of the bacterial genera Azospirillum and Rhizobium are well-studied examples for plant growth promotion, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Streptomyces and the fungal genera Ampelomyces, Coniothyrium, and Trichoderma are model organisms to demonstrate influence on plant health. Based on these beneficial plant-microbe interactions, it is possible to develop microbial inoculants for use in agricultural biotechnology. Dependent on their mode of action and effects, these products can be used as biofertilizers, plant strengtheners, phytostimulators, and biopesticides. There is a strong growing market for microbial inoculants worldwide with an annual growth rate of approximately 10%. The use of genomic technologies leads to products with more predictable and consistent effects. The future success of the biological control industry will benefit from interdisciplinary research, e.g., on mass production, formulation, interactions, and signaling with the environment, as well as on innovative business management, product marketing, and education. Altogether, the use of microorganisms and the exploitation of beneficial plant-microbe interactions offer promising and environmentally friendly strategies for conventional and organic agriculture worldwide.

  5. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters: nuricell- aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer, Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition: β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil, using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus as cultured species. Methods: Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g, specific growth rate, survivability (% test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day, which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer. Conclusions: These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  6. Sirolimus inhibits growth of human hepatoma cells alone or combined with tacrolimus, while tacrolimus promotes cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guido Schumacher; Marijke Oidtmann; Anne Rueggeberg; Dietmar Jacob; Sven Jonas; Jan M. Langrehr; Ruth Neuhaus; Marcus Bahra; Peter Neuhaus

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Standard immunosuppression after organ transplantation stimulates tumor growth. Sirolimus has a strong antiproliferative and a tumor inhibiting effect. The purpose is to assess the effect on tumor growth of the immunosuppressive compounds sirolimus and tacrolimus alone and in combination on cells of human hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: We used the human cell lines SK-Hep 1 and Hep 3B derived from hepatocellular carcinoma. Proliferation analyses after treatment with sirolimus, tacrolimus, or the combination of both were performed. FACS analyses were done to reveal cell cycle changes and apoptotic cell death. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was estimated by Western blots.RESULTS: Sirolimus alone or combined with tacrolimus inhibited the growth of both cell lines after 5 d by up to 35% in SK-Hep 1 cells, and by up to 68% in Hep 3B cells at 25 ng/mL. Tacrolimus alone stimulated the growth by 12% after 5 ng/mL and by 25% after 25 ng/mL in Hep 3B cells. We found an increase of apoptotic Hep 3B cells from 6 to 16%, and a G1-arrest in SK-Hep 1 cells with an increase of cells from 61 to 82%, when sirolimus and tacrolimus were combined. Bcl-2 was down-regulated in Hep 3B, but not in SK-Hep 1 cells after combined treatment.CONCLUSION: Sirolimus appears to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells alone and in combination with tacrolimus. Sirolimus seems to inhibit the growth stimulation of tacrolimus.

  7. Short Communication Synergistic effect of rhizobia and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on the growth and nodulation of lentil seedlings under axenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR containing ACC-deaminase in combination with rhizobia can improve the growth and nodulation in plants by suppressing the endogenous level of ethylene. In the present study, ten strains, each of PGPR and rhizobia from the previously screened cultures were tested for their effect as co-inoculants on growth and nodulation of lentil in growth pouches under axenic conditions. Results showed that most of the combinations improved the lentil growth as compared to the un-inoculated control. Maximum increase in shoot length (1.87 fold, root length (1.97 fold and total biomass (1.98 fold over the un-inoculated control was observed in the treatment where the lentil seedlings were inoculated with the combination Z24P10. Co-inoculation also improved the nodulation in lentil and the maximum number of nodules plant-1 (24 nodules were observed in the combination Z22P10. However, there was no nodulation in few combinations. It is concluded that the co-inoculation with rhizobia and PGPR containing ACC-deaminase has improved the growth and nodulation in lentil under axenic conditions and the selected combinations may be evaluated in pot and field trials

  8. Perlecan and vascular endothelial growth factor-encoding DNA-loaded chitosan scaffolds promote angiogenesis and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Megan S; Ellis, April L; Farrugia, Brooke L; Whitelock, John M; Grenett, Hernan; Li, Chuanyu; O'Grady, Robert L; DeCarlo, Arthur A

    2017-03-28

    The repair of dermal wounds, particularly in the diabetic population, poses a significant healthcare burden. The impaired wound healing of diabetic wounds is attributed to low levels of endogenous growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), that normally stimulate multiple phases of wound healing. In this study, chitosan scaffolds were prepared via freeze drying and loaded with plasmid DNA encoding perlecan domain I and VEGF189 and analyzed in vivo for their ability to promote dermal wound healing. The plasmid DNA encoding perlecan domain I and VEGF189 loaded scaffolds promoted dermal wound healing in normal and diabetic rats. This treatment resulted in an increase in the number of blood vessels and sub-epithelial connective tissue matrix components within the wound beds compared to wounds treated with chitosan scaffolds containing control DNA or wounded controls. These results suggest that chitosan scaffolds containing plasmid DNA encoding VEGF189 and perlecan domain I have the potential to induce angiogenesis and wound healing.

  9. Assessment of culturable tea rhizobacteria isolated from tea estates of Assam, India for growth promotion in commercial tea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintu eDutta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP screening for indole acetic acid (IAA production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. 50 isolates showed all the PGP traits and 5 isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Psedumonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19 and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3 fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1 fold, root length by 2.2 fold and shoot length by 1.6 fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (p<0.05 in growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Saikia, Ratul; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM) and chitinase (chiC) were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34) and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24) were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from within these

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Plant Growth Promoting Activities and DNA Fingerprinting of Antagonistic Endophytic Actinomycetes Associates with Medicinal Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Passari

    Full Text Available Endophytic actinomycetes have shown unique plant growth promoting as well as antagonistic activity against fungal phytopathogens. In the present study forty-two endophytic actinomycetes recovered from medicinal plants were evaluated for their antagonistic potential and plant growth-promoting abilities. Twenty-two isolates which showed the inhibitory activity against at least one pathogen were subsequently tested for their plant-growth promoting activities and were compared genotypically using DNA based fingerprinting, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC and BOX repetitive elements. Genetic relatedness based on both ERIC and BOX-PCR generates specific patterns corresponding to particular genotypes. Exponentially grown antagonistic isolates were used to evaluate phosphate solubilization, siderophores, HCN, ammonia, chitinase, indole-3-acetic acid production, as well as antifungal activities. Out of 22 isolates, the amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA ranging between 10-32 μg/ml was produced by 20 isolates and all isolates were positive for ammonia production ranging between 5.2 to 54 mg/ml. Among 22 isolates tested, the amount of hydroxamate-type siderophores were produced by 16 isolates ranging between 5.2 to 36.4 μg/ml, while catechols-type siderophores produced by 5 isolates ranging from 3.2 to 5.4 μg/ml. Fourteen isolates showed the solubilisation of inorganic phosphorous ranging from 3.2 to 32.6 mg/100ml. Chitinase and HCN production was shown by 19 and 15 different isolates, respectively. In addition, genes of indole acetic acid (iaaM and chitinase (chiC were successively amplified from 20 and 19 isolates respectively. The two potential strains Streptomyces sp. (BPSAC34 and Leifsonia xyli (BPSAC24 were tested in vivo and improved a range of growth parameters in chilli (Capsicum annuum L. under greenhouse conditions. This study is the first published report that actinomycetes can be isolated as endophytes from

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterobacter aerogenes, a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Cucurbita pepo

    OpenAIRE

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, J.D.; Bottos, E.M.; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Enterobacter aerogenes, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue. This bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacity. An analysis of its 4.5-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils.

  13. Preparation of Graphene Oxide and Its Mechanism in Promoting Tomato Roots Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jingzhi; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Xuekun; Xie, Lingli; Li, Zhiyang; Yuan, Chengfei; Xu, Benbo; Zhang, Liming

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide is a new kind of nanomaterial. The graphene oxide was prepared and its quality detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), for better understanding of effects of the nanomaterial on plants. Wild type. (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) germplasm 'New Yorker' and corresponding transgenic plants (Prd29A::LeNCED1) were treated with prepared graphene oxide. 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is a key gene for ABA biosynthesis and overexpression of the NCED resulted in ABA accumulation and higher drought tolerance. Seminal root length in the WT tomato was longer than that in the control samples when the seedlings were treated with 20 mg/L graphene oxide for 15 days. In contrast, the same treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length in the transgenic plants compared with control samples. The graphene oxide treatments led to lower Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Catalase (CAT) activity and Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the WT and transgenic plants. 20 mg/L graphene oxide treatment also affected the transcript levels of IAA7, IAA4 and IAA10 but the effect on the wild type and corresponding transgenic plants was different. IAA4 transcription level decreased both in the WT and Prd29A::LeNCED1 transgenic plants while the IAA7 transcription level decreased in the transgenic plants and increased in the WT tomato. The IAA10 transcription level decreased in the WT tomato and increased in the Prd29A::LeNCED1 transgenic plants. Graphene oxide treatments resulted in higher transcription level of ABCG25 and ABCG40 in the WT plants but had no significant effect on transgenic plants. The transcription level of NCED in the WT and Prd29A::LeNCED1 transgenic plants treated with graphene oxide increased significantly, however, it was higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT tomato after 15 d treatment, indicating that the graphene oxide activated the rd29A promoter as does drought and salt. The HD

  14. IL-6 promotes growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CD133+ cells of non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Ok; Yang, Xiaodong; Duan, Shanzhou; Tsai, Ying; Strojny, Laura R; Keng, Peter; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2016-02-09

    We examined IL-6 effects on growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and metastatic ability of CD133+ and CD133- cell subpopulations isolated from three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines: A549, H157, and H1299. We developed IL-6 knocked-down and scramble (sc) control cells of A549 and H157 cell lines by lentiviral infection system, isolated CD133+ and CD133- sub-populations, and investigated the IL-6 role in self-renewal/growth of these cells. IL-6 showed either an inhibitory or lack of effect in modulating growth of CD133- cells depending on intracellular IL-6 levels, but there was higher self-renewal ability of IL-6 expressing CD133+ cells than IL-6 knocked down cells, confirming the promoter role of IL-6 in CD133+ cells growth. We then examined tumor growth of xenografts developed from CD133+ cells of A549IL-6si vs. A549sc cell lines. Consistently, there was retarded growth of tumors developed from A549IL-6si, CD133+ cells compared to tumors originating from A549sc, CD133+ cells. The effect of IL-6 in promoting CD133+ self-renewal was due to hedgehog (Hhg) and Erk signaling pathway activation and higher Bcl-2/Bcl-xL expression. We also investigated whether IL-6 regulates the EMT process of CD133- and CD133+ cells differently. Expression of the EMT/metastasis-associated molecules in IL-6 expressing cells was higher than in IL-6 knocked down cells. Together, we demonstrated dual roles of IL-6 in regulating growth of CD133- and CD133+ subpopulations of lung cancer cells and significant regulation of IL-6 on EMT/metastasis increase in CD133+ cells, not in CD133- cells.

  15. Effects of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefina Poupin

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR induce positive effects in plants, such as increased growth or reduced stress susceptibility. The mechanisms behind PGPR/plant interaction are poorly understood, as most studies have described short-term responses on plants and only a few studies have analyzed plant molecular responses under PGPR colonization. Here, we studied the effects of the PGPR bacterial model Burkholderiaphytofirmans PsJN on the whole life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We reported that at different plant developmental points, strain PsJN can be found in the rhizosphere and also colonizing their internal tissues. In early ontogeny, strain PsJN increased several growth parameters and accelerated growth rate of the plants. Also, an Arabidopsis transcriptome analysis revealed that 408 genes showed differential expression in PsJN-inoculated plants; some of these genes are involved in stress response and hormone pathways. Specifically, genes implicated in auxin and gibberellin pathways were induced. Quantitative transcriptional analyses of selected genes in different developmental stages revealed that the beginning of these changes could be evidenced early in development, especially among the down-regulated genes. The inoculation with heat-killed bacteria provoked a more severe transcriptional response in plants, but was not able to induce plant growth-promotion. Later in ontogeny, the growth rates of inoculated plants decreased with respect to the non-inoculated group and, interestingly, the inoculation accelerated the flowering time and the appearance of senescence signs in plants; these modifications correlate with the early up-regulation of flowering control genes. Then, we show that a single inoculation with a PGPR could affect the whole life cycle of a plant, accelerating its growth rate and shortening its vegetative period, both effects relevant for most crops. Thus, these findings provide novel and interesting aspects

  16. SIRT 1 Overexpression is Associated with Metastasis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and Promotes Migration and Growth of PDAC Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siqin; Hong, Hua; Lv, Huicheng; Wu, Guozhu; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-05-12

    BACKGROUND SIRT 1, as a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC), is implicated in the initiation and progression of malignancies. However, the association of SIRT 1 with tumorigenesis or progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is not clear. MATERIAL AND METHODS In our study we investigated SIRT 1 expression in PDAC samples and evaluated the association of SIRT 1 level with the clinical and pathological characteristics of PDAC patients. We investigated the role of SIRT 1 in the migration and growth of PDAC PANC-1 or BxPC-3 cells using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approach. RESULTS We demonstrated that SIRT 1 mRNA level was significantly promoted in intra-tumor tissues compared to peri-tumor tissues of PDAC; and SIRT 1 overexpression was markedly associated with distant or lymph node (LN) metastasis of these PDAC tissues. Moreover, the in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that SIRT 1 overexpression with lentivirus vector markedly promoted the migration of PANC-1 or BxPC-3 cells, whereas SIRT 1 knockdown using SIRT 1 specific siRNA transfection significantly inhibited the migration of PDAC cells. The colony forming assay confirmed SIRT 1 promotion of the growth of PANC-1 or BxPC-3 cells. CONCLUSIONS In summary, SIRT 1 overexpression is significantly associated with metastasis of PDAC, and overexpressed SIRT 1 plays an important role in pancreatic cancer cell migration and growth. Our data warrants further studies on SIRT 1 as a novel chemotherapeutic target in PDAC.

  17. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  18. Inoculation of plant growth promoting bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain Ax10 for the improvement of copper phytoextraction by Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Freitas, Helena

    2009-02-01

    In this study, a copper-resistant plant growth promoting bacterial (PGPB) strain Ax10 was isolated from a Cu mine soil to assess its plant growth promotion and copper uptake in Brassica juncea. The strain Ax10 tolerated concentrations up to 600 mg CuL(-1) on a Luria-Bertani (LB) agar medium and utilized 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) as a sole N source in DF salts minimal medium. The strain Ax10 was characterized as Achromobacter xylosoxidans based on its 16S rDNA sequence homology (99%). The bacterium A. xylosoxidans Ax10 has also exhibited the capability of producing indole acetic acid (IAA) (6.4 microg mL(-1)), and solubilizing inorganic phosphate (89.6 microg mL(-1)) in specific culture media. In pot experiments, inoculation of A. xylosoxidans Ax10 significantly increased the root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of B. juncea plants compared to the control. This effect can be attributed to the utilization of ACC, production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate. Furthermore, A. xylosoxidans Ax10 inoculation significantly improved Cu uptake by B. juncea. Owing to its wide action spectrum, the Cu-resistant A. xylosoxidans Ax10 could serve as an effective metal sequestering and growth promoting bioinoculant for plants in Cu-stressed soil. The present study has provided a new insight into the phytoremediation of Cu-contaminated soil.

  19. The effect of gamma irradiation on chitosan and its application as a plant growth promoter in Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isa, Mohd Hafez Mohd, E-mail: m.hafez@usim.edu.my; Hasan, Abu Bakar; Fadilah, Nur Izzah Md; Hassan, Abdul Rahman [Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This research project was conducted to study the effects of irradiation on chitosan and its potential application as a plant growth promoter. Chitosan in the form of flakes was irradiated with gamma rays at irradiation dosage of 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 200 kGy and 400 kGy. The effect of irradiation on chitosan in terms of intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight was measured using Ubbelohde capillary viscometry technique and the results obtained showed irradiation at doses of up to 50 kGy had caused an extremely significant reduction of both parameters and this trend continued at higher irradiation doses, although the decrease were not significant. The effect of various concentrations of chitosan and irradiated chitosan on growth promotion of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra) was hydroponically grown and cultivated for 50 days. Statistical analysis showed addition of 10 ppm of irradiated chitosan of 200 kGy and 400 kGy, respectively, resulted in an extremely significant increase in the percentage weight gain of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra). Results obtained in this study showed the potential use of irradiated chitosan as a plant growth promoter for plants grown hydroponically.

  20. Characterization of efficient plant-growth-promoting bacteria isolated from Sulla coronaria resistant to cadmium and to other heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Abdelkrim, Souhir; Abid, Ghassen; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2016-01-01

    The inoculation of plants with plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria has become a priority in the phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. A total of 82 bacteria were isolated from Sulla coronaria root nodules cultivated on four soil samples differently contaminated by heavy metals. The phenotypic characterization of these isolates demonstrated an increased tolerance to cadmium reaching 4.1mM, and to other metals, including Zn, Cu and Ni. Polymerase Chain Reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) analysis showed a large diversity represented by genera related to Agrobacterium sp., R. leguminosarum, Sinorhizobium sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Rhizobium sp. Their symbiotic effectiveness was evaluated by nodulation tests. Taking into consideration efficiency and cadmium tolerance, four isolates were chosen; their 16SrRNA gene sequence showed that they belonged to Pseudomonas sp. and the Rhizobium sullae. The selected consortium of soil bacteria had the ability to produce plant-growth-promoting substances such as indole acetic acid and siderophore. The intracellular Cd accumulation was enhanced by increasing the time of incubation of the four soil bacteria cultivated in a medium supplemented with 0.1mM Cd. The existence of a cadmium-resistant gene was confirmed by PCR. These results suggested that Sulla coronaria in symbiosis with the consortium of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) could be useful in the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils.

  1. The hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive proteins semaphorin 4D and vascular endothelial growth factor promote tumor growth and angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Binmadi, Nada O. [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Oral Basic and Clinical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Proia, Patrizia [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Sports Science (DISMOT), University of Palermo, Via Eleonora Duse 2 90146, Palermo (Italy); Basile, John R., E-mail: jbasile@umaryland.edu [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, 650W. Baltimore Street, 7-North, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Greenebaum Cancer Center, 22S. Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Growth and metastasis of solid tumors requires induction of angiogenesis to ensure the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to rapidly dividing transformed cells. Through either mutations, hypoxia generated by cytoreductive therapies, or when a malignancy outgrows its blood supply,