WorldWideScience

Sample records for 20th century

  1. Linguistics in the 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷

    2017-01-01

    In the 20th century, linguistics flourished in western countries. Many schools and linguists came into 0being so that theories of modern linguistics were put forward at that age. Some schools and their thoughts exerted an influence on the development of modern linguistics. What is even more important is that Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, who made a discipline which was caled modern linguistics. And he is described the father of modern linguistics. A lot of schools added color to the modern linguistics. Therefore, modern linguistics started to take center stage.

  2. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  3. 20th-Century Gold Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Joseph G.

    1992-01-01

    Presents Nevada's gold rush activities spurred by technological advancements in search methods. Describes the events that led to the twentieth-century gold rush, the techniques for finding deposits and the geological formation process of disseminated gold deposits. Vignettes present the gold extraction process, cross-section, and profile of a…

  4. Marl Prairie Vegetation Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted geochronologic and pollen analyses from sediment cores collected in solution holes within marl prairies of Big Cypress National Preserve to reconstruct vegetation patterns of the last few centuries and evaluate the stability and longevity of marl prairies within the greater Everglades ecosystem. Based on radiocarbon dating and pollen biostratigraphy, these cores contain sediments deposited during the last ~300 years and provide evidence for plant community composition before and after 20th century water management practices altered flow patterns throughout the Everglades. Pollen evidence indicates that pre-20th century vegetation at the sites consisted of sawgrass marshes in a peat-accumulating environment; these assemblages indicate moderate hydroperiods and water depths, comparable to those in modern sawgrass marshes of Everglades National Park. During the 20th century, vegetation changed to grass-dominated marl prairies, and calcitic sediments were deposited, indicating shortening of hydroperiods and occurrence of extended dry periods at the site. These data suggest that the presence of marl prairies at these sites is a 20th century phenomenon, resulting from hydrologic changes associated with water management practices.

  5. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRV2)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the entire...

  6. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in…

  7. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2c)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2c (20CRV2c)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  8. Educational Expansion and Social Mobility in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Sociologists consider inequality in educational attainment to be a major cause of inequality between people in their chances of occupying a more advantageous class position. However, there is dispute as to whether educational inequality according to social class background declined during the 20th century. What is not in doubt is the expansion of…

  9. Early 20th century conceptualization of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Wendy

    2016-05-06

    This historical analysis of the term 'health promotion' during the early 20th century in North American journal articles revealed concepts that strongly resonate with those of the 21st century. However, the lineage between these two time periods is not clear, and indeed, this paper supports contentions health promotion has a disrupted history. This paper traces the conceptualizations of health promotion during the 1920s, attempts to operationalize health promotion in the 1930s resulting in a narrowing of the concept to one of health education, and the disappearance of the term from the 1940s. In doing so, it argues a number of factors influenced the changing conceptualization and utilization of health promotion during the first half of the 20th century, many of which continue to present times, including issues around what health promotion is and what it means, ongoing tensions between individual and collective actions, tensions between specific and general causes of health and ill health, and between expert and societal contributions. The paper concludes the lack of clarity around these issues contributed to health promotion disappearing in the mid-20th century and thus resolution of these would be worthwhile for the continuation and development of health promotion as a discipline into the 21st century.

  10. The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand both continuities and changes in the reference to the Risorgimento in 20th century political discourse. The narrative proceeds by analyzing historical “snapshots,” from the Liberal period to post-Cold War Italy, that allows us to spell out what has changed...... and what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where...... the nexus between the Risorgimento past and the political present came to the fore with particular emphasis. In the contextual discussion of these memorization events, we discuss intellectual elaborations of Risorgimento memorization and indicate how such elaborations spread to wider layers of the populace...

  11. A Special Forum on "20th Century British Women Writers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS211- 1-005),supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences

  12. The epidemic of the 20(th) century: coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S; Goldberg, Robert J; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2014-09-01

    Heart disease was an uncommon cause of death in the US at the beginning of the 20th century. By mid-century it had become the commonest cause. After peaking in the mid-1960s, the number of heart disease deaths began a marked decline that has persisted to the present. The increase in heart disease deaths from the early 20th century until the 1960s was due to an increase in the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis with resultant coronary heart disease, as documented by autopsy studies. This increase was associated with an increase in smoking and dietary changes leading to an increase in serum cholesterol levels. In addition, the ability to diagnose acute myocardial infarction with the aid of the electrocardiogram increased the recognition of coronary heart disease before death. The substantial decrease in coronary heart disease deaths after the mid-1960s is best explained by the decreased incidence, and case fatality rate, of acute myocardial infarction and a decrease in out-of-hospital sudden coronary heart disease deaths. These decreases are very likely explained by a decrease in coronary atherosclerosis due to primary prevention, and a decrease in the progression of nonobstructive coronary atherosclerosis to obstructive coronary heart disease due to efforts of primary and secondary prevention. In addition, more effective treatment of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction has led to a substantial decrease in deaths due to acute myocardial infarction. It is very likely that the 20th century was the only century in which heart disease was the most common cause of death in America.

  13. US Environmental Legislation and Biodiversity over the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Endangered Species Act is held up both as an example of strict legislation working to guard biodiversity preservation (Yaffee, 1982) and an uneconomical law that creates perverse incentives that may actually reduce such preservation (Brown and Shogren, 1998; Lueck & Michael, 2003; List et...... back throughout the development of the United States over the 20th century and continues into the present. We trace this evolution of federal political action to ask how the evolution of U.S. wildlife legislation reflects the tradeoffs between environment and development in spatial and temporal...

  14. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2001-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  15. The expression of emotions in 20th century books.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Acerbi

    Full Text Available We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more "emotional" than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  16. The expression of emotions in 20th century books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more "emotional" than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

  17. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of educational mobility in the United States report widespread persistence in the association between parental and offspring schooling over most of the 20th century. Despite this apparent persistency, many other studies report substantial improvements in the educational...... in the overall schooling distribution both over time and among population groups defined by race and gender.METHODS & DATA: To analyze educational rank mobility, I use quantile transition matrices known from studies on intergenerational income mobility. However, because schooling distributions are quite lumpy...... for individuals born 1903 through 1980.RESULTS: My analyses yield two key results. First, I find widespread equalization among groups in upward mobility: Among those born before Second World War, Whites are significantly more likely than are Blacks to be upwardly mobile out of the lower quartile of the schooling...

  18. 20th Century Russia’s History through Settlement Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Mazur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of settlement names as a primary source reflecting the history of the Russian 20th century society. Wide-scale cases of re-nomination testify to the deepness of social and mental transformations in society as a result of the revolution, Stalin’s cult of personality, collectivization and industrialization. Besides political and ideological factors, changes in names of rural communities and villages were entailed to a greater extent by a new perception of the countryside, which was formed under the influence of urbanization process. The article suggests a periodization of oikonymy transformation processes and considers the main reasons and general results of re-nomination.

  19. DIMMING OF THE MID-20TH CENTURY SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foukal, Peter, E-mail: pvfoukal@comcast.net [192 Willow Rd., Nahant, MA 01908 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Area changes of photospheric faculae associated with magnetic active regions are responsible for the bright contribution to variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). Yet, the 102-year white light (WL) facular record measured by the Royal Greenwich Observatory between 1874 and 1976 has been largely overlooked in past TSI reconstructions. We show that it may offer a better measure of the brightening than presently used chromospheric proxies or the sunspot number. These are, to varying degrees, based on magnetic structures that are dark at the photosphere even near the limb. The increased contribution of the dark component to these proxies at high activity leads to an overestimate of solar brightening around peaks of the large spot cycles 18 and 19. The WL facular areas measure only the bright contribution. Our reconstruction based on these facular areas indicates that TSI decreased by about 0.1% during these two cycles to a 20th century minimum, rather than brightening to some of the highest TSI levels in four centuries, as reported in previous reconstructions. This TSI decrease may have contributed more to climate cooling between the 1940s and 1960s than present modeling indicates. Our finding adds to previous evidence that such suppression of solar brightening by an increased area of dark flux tubes might explain why the Sun is anomalously quiet photometrically compared to other late-type stars. Our findings do not change the evidence against solar driving of climate warming since the 1970s.

  20. Essential shift: Scientific revolution in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismay, David K.

    1993-05-01

    With the publishing of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica in 1687, a scientific paradigm was established that clearly dominated society for two and half centuries. Many historians of science have identified the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory, formulated c.1927, as having completed a scientific revolution that ended the reign of classical Newtonian science. A rival claim to contemporary scientific revolution, however, has been put forward by Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels school of thermodynamics based on Prigogine's work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Using the historical consensus model of scientific revolution first articulated by Thomas S. Kuhn in 1962, this analysis examines the extent to which the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory and the work of IIya Prigogine complete the conceptual, scientific paradigm-shift necessary for a scientific revolution. The resulting historical evidence shows that the Copenhagen interpretation did not complete a paradigm-shift; instead, it was a self-revelation by the scientific community which revealed the essence and fundamental limitations of Newtonian science. Evidence further indicates that the valid claim to scientific revolution in the 20th century lies with the contemporary work of Prigogine and the Brussels school. By abandoning the deterministic, mechanical world-view of the Newtonian paradigm and accepting a new reality of process and irreversible time, Prigogine and his associates have established the foundations for a revolutionary new scientific paradigm.

  1. Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes

  2. Causes of change in 20th century global river discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerten, Dieter; Rost, Stefanie; von Bloh, Werner; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2008-10-01

    A global vegetation and hydrology model (LPJmL) was applied to quantify the contributions of changing precipitation, temperature, atmospheric CO2 content, land use and irrigation to worldwide trends in 20th century river discharge (Q). Consistently with observations, Q decreased in parts of Africa, central/southern Asia and south-eastern Europe, and increased especially in parts of North America and western Asia. Based on the CRU TS2.1 climatology, total global Q rose over 1901-2002 (trend, 30.8 km3 a-2, equaling 7.7%), due primarily to increasing precipitation (individual effect, +24.7 km3 a-2). Global warming (-3.1), rising CO2 (+4.4), land cover changes (+5.9) and irrigation (-1.1) also had discernible effects. However, sign and magnitude of trends exhibited pronounced decadal variability and differed among precipitation forcing datasets. Since recent trends in these and other drivers of Q are mainly anthropogenic, we conclude that humans exert an increasing influence on the global water cycle.

  3. The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes, D. W.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

  4. Health Paradigm Shifts in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel DeAngulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of systems theory and the study of complexity to medicine and human health allows for a more comprehensive understanding and a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Such application overcomes the limitations of the traditional, fragmented understanding of phenomena and problems based on the mechanistic or Newtonian worldview. It recognizes that phenomena are interrelated, and that individual parts cannot be understood by only focusing on the analysis of their individual qualities. Rather, the individual parts can only be understood in relation to the whole and by being analyzed in the context of their interaction with the whole. The door is opened to previously unimagined models of thinking.In the 20th Century there have been shifts in the paradigms that have governed medicine and human health in the modern western world. There has been a shift from the focus on specific biological analysis and pathological diagnostics to complex human interactions with the environment and with sociopolitical and economic processes. There are complex models of systems in immunology, in neuroscience, and in genetics, as well as complex ways of understanding interactions as in epidemic modeling, in social media technologies, socioeconomic factors, and artificial intelligence.In this paper we describe three paradigms of the health-disease process that in some degree correspond to the historical development of modern medicine and healthcare over the previous century. The oldest paradigm focused on specific disease mechanisms and treatment. This gave way to paradigms that historically were broader and more inclusive, such as “international health”. The international health paradigm focused primarily on the control of epidemics across national borders and considered government as the only health actor. However, this perspective has come to be seen as excessively reductionist and excluded many critical components essential to a robust

  5. 20th Century Northern hemisphere jet stream variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmecheri, S.; Babst, F.; Trouet, V.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The latitudinal position of the Northern hemisphere Jet stream (NHJ) modulates both long term climate trends and the occurrence and frequency of extreme weather events. Precipitation anomalies in particular are associated with NHJ variability and the resulting floods/droughts can have considerable societal and economic impacts. Therefore a better understanding of NHJs role in regional climate is essential in assessing the natural and socio-economic impacts of projected future change in NHJ features. We developed a new climatology of the 300 hPa NHJ based on its seasonally explicit latitudinal position. We used the 20th Century Reanalysis V2 (20CR) data at monthly resolution from 1930-2012 to define the latitudinal position of NHJ as the latitude with the greatest 300 hPa scalar wind speed (m s-1). From these data, we identified four seasons with coherent NHJ patterns (January-February, April-May, July-August, and October-November) and detected longitudinal sectors (total of 15 sectors for all the seasons) where the seasonal jet shows strong spatial coherence. We examined the influence of seasonal NHJ position on the geographical distribution of precipitation and temperature patterns for all sectors. Furthermore, we compared NHJ positions to atmospheric circulation indices at inter-annual and multi-decadal time scales. We found a significant relationship between the NHJ position and the North Atlantic and Arctic oscillations for all seasons and across the majority of longitudinal sectors. In addition to this, our NHJ data set supports a connection with ocean-atmosphere interactions over the northern Pacific Ocean on various time scales: we found significant correlations between the North Pacific Jet and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation for all seasons and with El Niño Southern Oscillation for the winter season. Our results emphasize the importance of the seasonal and spatial characteristics of NHJ, as well as climate teleconnections, when considering regional

  6. Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (capita/yr or ratio >0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (capita/yr) has risen considerably, from 2% (29 million people) in 1900, up to 19% (1.2 billion people) in 2005. Geographically these concern mainly northern African regions, the Middle East, Pakistan and parts of India and Northern China. The region of sub

  7. Training African-American residents in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith

    2004-03-01

    needed not only to serve minority populations but also to serve as mentors and role models for prospective and current students. The first African-American resident to graduate from the Bellevue Residency Program did indeed treat the underserved, as Dr. Vincent founded the Vincent Sanatorium, dedicated to treating African-American patients, and training African-American nurses and doctors. Over the course of the 20th century, Bellevue Hospital has trained increasing numbers of African-American physicians. It is hoped that, like their predecessor, Dr. Vincent, they will provide care to underserved communities and to the community as a whole, as well as serve as role models for generations to come.

  8. The International "Trial of the 20th Century": Nuremberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    Considers the Nuremberg trials to be the "Trial of the Century." Highlights the series of 13 trials in which Nazi leaders, officials, judges, and others were tried, and most convicted, for war crimes. Relates that these trials had far-reaching effects in that they showed that moral obligations transcend national boundaries. (CMK)

  9. Dimming of the Mid-20th Century Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Foukal, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Advances in understanding of the white light faculae measured at the Royal Greenwich Observatory from 1874 to 1976 suggest that they offer a more direct measure of solar brightening by small diameter photospheric magnetic flux tubes than do chromospheric proxies. Proxies such as the area of Ca K plages, the Mg index or the microwave flux include many dark photospheric structures as well as pores and sunspots. Our reconstruction of variation in total solar irradiance,TSI,based on the faculae indicates that the sun dimmed by almost 0.1 percent in the mid- twentieth century rather than brightening as represented in previous reconstructions. This dimmimg at the sun's highest activity level since the seventeenth century is consistent with the photometric behavior observed in somewhat younger sun like stars. The prolonged TSI decrease may have contributed more to the cooling of climate between about 1940 and 1970 than present models indicate.

  10. The impact of new media on 20th century astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.

    2002-07-01

    This paper offers a few comments on the impact and changing sociology of astronomy information handling over the past century (especially its last third), drifting from individual measurements or records to catalogues and data centres, and moving recently from information hubs to distributed digital research facilities including the current projects of so-called `virtual observatories'. After an introductory part and some notes on personal experience, the paper discusses data centres, methodologies, electronic publishing, as well problems and challenges inherited from the new media: fragility, security and ethics, not to forget the most important one, quality.

  11. Conceptual Developments of 20th Century Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian Yu

    1998-06-01

    This volume provides a broad synthesis of conceptual developments of twentieth century field theories, from the general theory of relativity to quantum field theory and gauge theory. The book traces the foundations and evolution of these theories within a historio-critical context. Theoretical physicists and students of theoretical physics will find this a valuable account of the foundational problems of their discipline that will help them understand the internal logic and dynamics of theoretical physics. It will also provide professional historians and philosophers of science, particularly philosophers of physics, with a conceptual basis for further historical, cultural and sociological analysis of the theories discussed. Finally, the scientifically qualified general reader will find in this book a deeper analysis of contemporary conceptions of the physical world than can be found in popular accounts of the subject.

  12. Is classical mechanics a prerequisite for learning physics of the 20th century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwema, Godfrey B.; French, Debbie A.; Verley, Jim D.; Burrows, Andrea C.

    2016-11-01

    Physics of the 20th century has contributed significantly to modern technology, and yet many physics students are never availed the opportunity to study it as part of the curriculum. One of the possible reasons why it is not taught in high school and introductory physics courses could be because curriculum designers believe that students need a solid background in classical mechanics and calculus in order to study physics of the 20th century such as the photoelectric effect, special and general relativity, the uncertainty principle, etc. This presumption may not be justifiable or valid. The authors of this paper contend that teaching physics of the 20th century aids students in relating physics to modern technology and the real world, making studying physics exciting. In this study, the authors correlated scores for matched questions in the Mechanics Baseline Test and a physics of the 20th century test in order to examine the trend of the scores. The participants included undergraduate students attending an introductory algebra-based physics course with no intention of taking physics at a higher level. The analysis of the scores showed no significant correlation for any of the matched pairs of questions. The purpose of this article is to recommend that even without a solid background in classical mechanics, teachers can introduce physics of the 20th century to their students for increased interest.

  13. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  14. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  15. Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century. In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini while in Hani (Crete immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.

  16. The process of Danish nurses’ professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought...

  17. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  18. Coastal sea level changes, observed and projected during the 20th and 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, M.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.; A. Slangen, A. B.; Katsman, C. A.; W. van de Wal, R. S.; Church, J.; White, N.

    2015-01-01

    Timeseries of observed and projected sea level changes for the 20th and 21st century are analyzed at various coastal locations around the world that are vulnerable to climate change. Observed time series are from tide gauges and altimetry, as well as from reconstructions over the last 50 years. CMIP

  19. The major changes in medical practice in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Fenech, Frederick F.

    2000-01-01

    One could truly say that there were more advances in medicine in the last 60 years than there had been in the previous 500 years. Indeed the medical breakthroughs of the last 50 years have probably saved more lives than those of any epoch since medicine began. In this article the author examine the major changes in medical practice in the 20th century.

  20. Climate Change: Sources of Warming in the Late 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2009-01-01

    The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, volcanic and other aerosols, as well as the extraordinary solar activity of the late 20th century are discussed in the context of the warming since the mid-1970s. Much of that warming is found to be due to natural causes.

  1. Impact of reservoirs on river discharge and irrigation water supply during the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, H.; Haddeland, I.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.; Hutjes, R.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative estimation of the impact of reservoirs on discharge and irrigation water supply during the 20th century at global, continental, and river basin scale. Compared to a natural situation the combined effect of reservoir operation and irrigation extractions decreased me

  2. From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Mindy J.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

  3. Reconstruction of Open Solar Magnetic Flux and Interplanetary Magnetic Field in the 20Th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. G.; Miletsky, E. V.

    2004-10-01

    We reconstruct mean magnitudes of the open solar magnetic field since 1915 using α magnetic synoptic charts of the Sun. The obtained series allows estimation of the interplanetary magnetic field. They also confirm the known conclusion about the secular increase of the solar open magnetic flux in the first half of the 20th century.

  4. Sexism in Advertising Industry Through the Study of Auto Magazine Advertisements in Late 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination against female in advertising industry appears to be ubiquitous especially in late 20th century. I intend to demonstrate that auto ads are under the influence of common gender stereotype which discriminates women as an inferior role in the society.

  5. Serbian societies in Dubrovnik at the beginning of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Nedeljković Saša

    2007-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. Dubrovnik was the center of the coastline Serbs, both Catholic and Orthodox. National activities of the Serbs developed through cultural and economic societies. The educational-economic society Srpska Zora (Serbian Dawn) was founded in 1901 in Knin. It encouraged the establishment of agricultural co-operatives in villages and savings banks in towns. After the initiative of Srpska Zora, The Alliance of Serbian Eco...

  6. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  7. Solar cycle length and 20th Century northern hemisphere warming: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Paul E.; Peristykh, Alexei N.

    It has been suggested that the length of the solar cycle (SCL) is related to solar forcing of global climate change [Friis-Christensen and Lassen, 1991]. Although no physical mechanism had been proposed, the relation seemed to be supported by interesting correlations with several paleoclimate records and, separately, with the 20th century Northern Hemisphere instrumental record. Actually, what has been correlated is the quasi-sinusoidal Gleissberg cycle which is slightly greater in the 18th century than in the 20th century. Using the pre-industrial record as a boundary condition, the SCL-temperature correlation corresponds to an estimated 25% of global warming to 1980 and 15% to 1997.

  8. Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mahowald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be −0.14 ± 0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980–1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955–1964 time periods (−0.57 ± 0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and

  9. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Kloster, Silvia [Cornell University; Engelstaedter, S. [Cornell University; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Harvard University; McConnell, J. R. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV; Albani, S. [Cornell University; Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Bhattacharya, A. [Harvard University; Curran, M. A. J. [Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre; Flanner, Mark G. [University of Michigan; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Lawrence, David M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mayewski, P. A. [University of Maine; Neff, Jason [University of Colorado, Boulder; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Thomas, E. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Zender, Charlie S. [University of California, Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  10. Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mahowald

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were in the net increasing or decreasing desert dust. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be −0.14±0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to aerosols is especially strong between the dusty 1980–1989 and the less dusty 1955–1964 time periods (−0.57±0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from the desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 Pg C reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 Pg C of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding of these

  11. Responses of Multi-Aged Music Students to Mid-20th-Century Art Music: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation replicates previous research into K-12 students' responses to mid-20th-century art music. The study extends that research to include undergraduates and graduates as well as an additional group of graduate students who had taken a 20th-century music class. Children's responses showed remarkable consistency and indicated that…

  12. Marxism's 'Communicative Crisis'? Mapping Debates over Leninist Print-Media Practices in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert F. Pimlott

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the scholarly neglect of Marxism’s ‘communicative crisis’, it was a topic of concern that was addressed, debated and negotiated over by party leaders, intellectuals and activists on a continuous basis throughout the 20th century. These concerns revolved around three areas: first, the primary means of print communication, the party paper; second, the specialization of production, particularly around the role of writers and journalists; and third, the search for a popular rhetoric and writing style, which would appeal to the general public. This paper maps out the ‘communicative crisis’ of Marxism in the 20th century through an examination of key intersections of disputes over the correct approach to its practices of print communication, as a starting point for an historical analysis of the failures and successes of Marxist political praxis.

  13. The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnsson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    they had all recently surged in 1998 as was presumably the case when the outermost moraines were formed. The major contributor to the area decrease is therefore climate changes in the 20th century even though the glacier retreat has been interrupted by short-lived surges. Moraines associated with most...... of the surges in W-Vatnajokull in the 20th century are observed in the SAR data including the most recent surges in the 1990s. Interestingly no push moraines were observed in front of the surge advance, but the moraines appear when the glaciers start retreating. We estimate that the collective decrease...... of the outlets of western Vatnajokull since maximum Neoglacial extent of each outlet, is log km(2) (6.7%) corresponding to an average retreat of 850 in over a 130 km long margin. In the same period the outlet Slettjokull, in N-Myrdalsjokull, has decreased by 33 km(2) (20%) corresponding to an average retreat...

  14. Remarks regarding the Romanian writers and literary world at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranţa Sofia MILANCOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the cultural configuration at the beginning of the 20th century leads to theconclusion that the dominant tendency is that of changing. The two forces in dispute are thetraditionalism and the modernism.The Romanian literary world is characterised by impurity. The reason is the fact that manyartistic forms that were already anachronistic in Occident, in Romania didn’t express all theirpotential and, on the other hand, we can detect, at the very beginning of the 20th century, a newwave of confusion between the concepts of aesthetic, ethic and ethnic.This contradictory landscape is completed by the avant-garde movements, characterised byextreme denial of tradition, cancellation of all patterns and revolt accompanied by repulsionagainst human and cultural condition.

  15. Optical Character Recognition Applied to Romanian Printed Texts of the 18th–20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cojocaru

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Optical Character Recognition (OCR of historical texts of the 18th–20th century in the Romanian language using the Cyrillic script. We differ three epochs (approximately, the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, with different usage of the Cyrillic alphabet in Romanian and, correspondingly, different approach to OCR. We developed historical alphabets and sets of glyphs recognition templates specific for each epoch. The dictionaries in proper alphabets and orthographies were also created. In addition, virtual keyboards, fonts, transliteration utilities, etc. were developed. The resulting technology and toolset permit successful recognition of historical Romanian texts in the Cyrillic script. After transliteration to the modern Latin script we obtain no-barrier access to historical documents.

  16. Infant feeding and professional advice in the first half of the 20th century in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechlivani, Fani; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Bakoula, Chryssa

    2008-11-01

    This study aims to assess the role that health professional and State policies played in shaping breastfeeding practices and attitudes in Greece during the first half of the 20th century. Original texts were used; including those concerned with breastfeeding traditions, health professionals' attitudes to breastfeeding, infant feeding patterns, partial breastfeeding, artificial feeding and State policies for the promotion of breastfeeding. Content analysis was used and breastfeeding rates were considered. In the first two decades of the 20th century, most Greek women breastfed their children, as advised by other experienced women. In the succeeding decades, health professionals and policy makers wrote books and articles praising breastfeeding albeit stressing the nursing mothers' ignorance of sanitary measures. Many health professionals were influenced by trends in developed countries and advocated novel infant feeding practices. Consequently, full breastfeeding was not promoted.

  17. Hallmarks in the history of enteral and parenteral nutrition: from antiquity to the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilyadi, Frank; Panteliadou, Alkistis-Kira; Panteliadis, Christos

    2013-04-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) have a very long history, emerging in the ancient world and developing throughout the common epoch. This history dates back as far as 3500 bc to the ancient Egyptians, Indians, and Chinese. Their medical practices were the first reports of enteral feeding therapy, provided via rectum with enemas of wine, milk, whey, wheat, and barley. Hippocrates and Plato, in ancient Greece, were the first personalities to emphasize the importance of diet on health. In the following centuries, Erasistratus and Herophilus described the first notion of the circulatory system, and Oribasius and Celsus described the role of nutrition and disease. There is a great historical gap between the times of Galen (2nd century), who elaborated on the circulatory system; Ibn Zuhr (12th century), who constructed the first model of PN; and Capivacceus (16th century), who placed the first tube for EN. The 17th-19th centuries showed major developments in modern nutrition elements. Steps toward artificial nutrition began in 1628 with the detailed description of blood circulation by William Harvey; however, most of the advances in enteral and parenteral feeding techniques, solutions, and formulas took place in the 20th century. Over the last decade of the 20th century, research focused on metabolic control, multitude formulas, timing and the combination of EN and PN for intensive care patients.

  18. History of the Women's Health Movement in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, F H

    2000-01-01

    The Women's Health Movement (WHM) emerged during the 1960s and the 1970s with the primary goal to improve health care for all women. Despite setbacks in the area of reproductive rights during the 1980s, the WHM made significant gains in women's health at the federal policy level during the 1980s and 1990s. The WHM became a powerful political force. The achievements of the movement in improving women's health during the 20th century were numerous and significant.

  19. Changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beusen, Arthur; van Beek, Rens; Bouwman, Lex; Mogollón, José; Middelburg, Jack

    2016-04-01

    Dramatic world-wide changes occurred during the 20th century in both nutrient delivery and in-stream retention. In this paper, we use a combined nutrient-input, hydrology, in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Global nutrient delivery almost doubled due to expanding agriculture and increasing wastewater discharge. Nutrient retention also increased by a factor of two as a result of the rapidly growing number of dams and reservoirs. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers. River export to coastal seas increased during the 20th century from 19 to 37 Tg yr-1 of N and 2 to 4 Tg yr-1 of P. There are important differences in riverine N:P export ratios in various parts of the world resulting from the interplay of multiple processes and economic activities in different river basins. Increasing nutrient loading of freshwater systems is a threat to water quality. Furthermore, the global river export increase in the molar N:P ratio during recent decades may affect the ecology within both the river basins and the coastal system. This ratio change may be driven by the recent stagnation of P fertilizer use in most industrialized countries, in comparison to the ever increasing N fertilizer use.

  20. The process of Danish nurses' professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we address how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present 'nursing' to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discussion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published between 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses' knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to emerge was driven by a professional interest in describing nursing as an independent profession.

  1. Indians and indigenistic art i0n latin-america in the early 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The subjects of Indians and the indigenous, two similarbut different approaches, were dealt-with during thesecond half of the 19th century by some Mexican andPeruvian painters, sculptors, and architects. Theyfounded an attitude which prolonged itself as an artisticrenewal into the 20th century thanks to the work ofmany artists. The first was José Guadalupe Posada, whotreated a variety of subjects from the point of view ofthe indigenous and was followed by a member of thenext generation: José ...

  2. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2016-10-01

    Construction of Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. As distinct from the contemporaneous development with private funding of major observatories in the western United States, DAO was (and remains) funded by the federal government. Canada's initial foray into `big science', creation of DAO during the First World War was driven by Canada's desire to contribute significantly to the international rise of observational astrophysics enabled by photographic spectroscopy. In 2009 the Observatory was designated a National Historic Site. DAO's varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue in the 21st century, with particularly strong ties to Maunakea.

  3. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances.

  4. A history of spine biomechanics. Focus on 20th century progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxland, T R

    2015-12-01

    The application of mechanical principles to problems of the spine dates to antiquity. Significant developments related to spinal anatomy and biomechanical behaviour made by Renaissance and post-Renaissance scholars through the end of the 19th century laid a strong foundation for the developments since that time. The objective of this article is to provide a historical overview of spine biomechanics with a focus on the developments in the 20th century. The topics of spine loading, spinal posture and stability, spinal kinematics, spinal injury, and surgical strategies were reviewed.

  5. Sexism in Advertising Industry Through the Study of Auto Magazine Advertisements in Late 20th Century Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination against female in advertising industry appears to be ubiquitous especially in late 20th century.I intend to demonstrate that auto ads are under the influence of common gender stereotype which discriminates women as an inferior role in the society.

  6. Impacts of external forcing on the 20th century global warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of external forcing, including natural and anthropogenic, on the 20th century global warming were assessed with the use of the Grid Atmospheric Model of IAP/LASG Version 1.1.0, following the standard coordinated experiment design of the Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) International Climate of the Twentieth Century Project (C20C), Phase II. The results indicate that external forcing plays an important role in the evolution of the land surface air temperature on interannual, decadal, and interdecadal time scales, and contributes greatly to the global warming in the following two periods: the early twentieth century between the 1910s and the 1940s and the late twentieth century after the 1970s. External forcing also has strong impact on the regional temperature change during the two warming periods except for parts of the Eurasia and the North America continents. In the cooling period, however, the impact of internal variability is dominant.

  7. Coupled model simulations of climate changes in the 20th century and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhi, Hai; Wang, Bin; Wan, Hui; Li, Chao; Liu, Hailong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Weipeng; Zhou, Tianjun

    2008-07-01

    Several scenario experiments of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) are performed by version g1.0 of a Flexible coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (FGOALS) developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS), including the “Climate of the 20th century experiment”, “CO2 1% increase per year to doubling experiment” and two separate IPCC greenhouse gases emission scenarios A1B and B1 experiments. To distinguish between the different impacts of natural variations and human activities on the climate change, three-member ensemble runs are performed for each scenario experiment. The coupled model simulations show: (1) from 1900 to 2000, the global mean temperature increases about 0.5°C and the major increase occurs during the later half of the 20th century, which is in consistent with the observations that highlights the coupled model’s ability to reproduce the climate changes since the industrial revolution; (2) the global mean surface air temperature increases about 1.6°C in the CO2 doubling experiment and 1.5°C and 2.4°C in the A1B and B1 scenarios, respectively. The global warming is indicated by not only the changes of the surface temperature and precipitation but also the temperature increase in the deep ocean. The thermal expansion of the sea water would induce the rise of the global mean sea level. Both the control run and the 20th century climate change run are carried out again with version g1.1 of FGOALS, in which the cold biases in the high latitudes were removed. They are then compared with those from version g1.0 of FGOALS in order to distinguish the effect of the model biases on the simulation of global warming.

  8. Coupled Model Simulations of Climate Changes in the 20th Century and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jiaqiang; ZHI Hai; WANG Bin; WAN Hui; LI Chai; LIU Hailong; LI Wei; ZHENG Weipeng; ZHOU Tianjun

    2008-01-01

    Several scenario experiments of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) are performed by version g1.0 of a Flexible coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (FGOALS) developed at the Institute of At- mospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS), including the "Climate of the 20th century experiment", "CO2 1% increase per year to doubling experiment" and two separate IPCC greenhouse gases emission scenarios AIB and B1 experiments. To distinguish between the different impacts of natural vari- ations and human activities on the climate change, three-member ensemble runs are performed for each scenario experiment. The coupled model simulations show: (1) from 1900 to 2000, the global mean temper- ature increases about 0.5℃ and the major increase occurs during the later half of the 20th century, which is in consistent with the observations that highlights the coupled model's ability to reproduce the climate changes since the industrial revolution; (2) the global mean surface air temperature increases about 1.6℃ in the CO2 doubling experiment and 1.5℃ and 2.4℃ in the AlB and Bl scenarios, respectively. The global warming is indicated by not only the changes of the surface temperature and precipitation but also the temperature increase in the deep ocean. The thermal expansion of the sea water would induce the rise of the global mean sea level. Both the control run and the 20th century climate change run are carried out again with version g1.1 of FGOALS, in which the cold biases in the high latitudes were removed. They are then compared with those from version g1.0 of FGOALS in order to distinguish the effect of the model biases on the simulation of global warming.

  9. Natural interdecadal weak-ening of East Asian summer monsoon in the late 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Dabang; WANG Huijun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the reanalysis data throughout 1948―2002 as derived from the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research, it is revealed that East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity weakens on an interdecadal timescale since the mid-1960s, and twice interdecadal jumps are recorded in the EASM intensity index series in the late 20th century, respectively occurring in the mid-1960s and mid- to late 1970s. Six globally coupled atmosphere-ocean models' outputs under the SRES A2 greenhouse gas and aerosol emission scenario, provided by the IPCC Data Distribution Center and the Hadley Center for Climate Prediction and Research, are then systematically examined. It follows that the above EASM weakening is not closely related to synchronizing anthropogenic global warming, and, therefore, it should be qualitatively natural change process. Over the 21st century, the EASM intensity is likely increased slightly by continually intensified greenhouse effect relative to the late 20th century.

  10. Causes of mortality and development: Evidence from large health shocks in 20th century America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm Hansen, Casper

    Exploiting pre-intervention variation in flu/pneumonia, tuberculosis and maternal mortality, together with time variation arising from medical breakthroughs starting in the late 1930s, this paper studies the aggregate impact of large health shocks across US states. The analysis demonstrates...... that the shocks influenced income per capita in different ways. While the shock to flu/pneumonia mortality has been conductive for development, the large reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis deaths has been a negative force in the development of US states over the second-half of 20th century. In addition...

  11. Invited Editor’s Note A Special Forum on "20th Century American Women Writers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled"A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS 211-1-005),supported by"211 Project"of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies(Guangzhou,P.R.China). As early as 1931,Virginia Woolf expressed a dual barrier that she faced with as a female writer:the mainstream ideology about a woman as well as the sociocultural taboo of expressing female desires("Professions for Women").In order for a

  12. Advances in stability theory at the end of the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Martynyuk, AA

    2003-01-01

    This volume presents surveys and research papers on various aspects of modern stability theory, including discussions on modern applications of the theory, all contributed by experts in the field. The volume consists of four sections that explore the following directions in the development of stability theory: progress in stability theory by first approximation; contemporary developments in Lyapunov''s idea of the direct method; the stability of solutions to periodic differential systems; and selected applications. Advances in Stability Theory at the End of the 20th Century will interest postgraduates and researchers in engineering fields as well as those in mathematics.

  13. [TCM societies in Shanghai during the first half of the 20(th) century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Lin; Lu, Ming; Chen, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Jing-Ying; Yang, Zhi-Qing

    2012-03-01

    In the first half of the 20(th) century, with the introduction of western academic thought and the assemblage of TCM doctors of different factions, the variety of cultures provided an ideological and academic background for TCM societies in Shanghai in modern times. Under the pressure of banning and exclusion, protective measures taken by the TCM circles promoted the establishment of TCM societies. The establishment and development of TCM societies in Shanghai in modern times included four stages - the embryonic stage (1903 - 1911), the development stage (1912 - 1926), the struggling stage (1927 - 1937) and the recovery stage (1938 - 1949). Aiming at academic studies, TCM societies in the early time could be divided into a national society and local societies and both were composed of scholars with the same academic viewpoints. Societies in the later stages aimed at maintaining status and fighting for rights. Activities held by these societies included starting publications, compiling textbooks, publishing, establishing hospitals and schools, prevention and control of infectious disease and innovation of TCM dosage forms. In the first half of the 20(th) century, the influence of TCM societies helped Shanghai become the TCM center in modern times.

  14. Atmospheric response to orbital forcing and 20th century sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsis, Damianos F.

    This study investigates modes of atmospheric variability in response to changes in Earth's orbit and changes in 20th century sea surface temperatures (SST). The orbital forcing is manifested by a change in obliquity and precession, and changes the distribution of the top-of-atmosphere insolation. A smaller obliquity reduces the annual insolation that the poles receive and increases the annual insolation in the tropics. As the meridional insolation gradient increases, the zonal mean atmospheric-ocean circulation increases. The resulting climate also has a reduced global mean temperature due to the effect of climate feedbacks. This cooling can be attributed to a reduced lapse rate, increased cloud fraction, reduced water vapor in the atmosphere, and an increase in the surface albedo. A change in the precession, as the perihelion shifts from the winter to the summer solstice, causes a strengthening as well as an expansion of the N. Pacific summer subtropical anticyclone. This anticyclonic anomaly can be attributed to the weakening of the baroclinic activity, but also represents the circulation response to remote and local diabatic heating. The remote diabatic heating is associated with monsoonal activity in the SE Asia and North Africa. Regarding the 20th century SST forcing, it is represented by a multidecadal variability in the inter-hemispheric SST difference. This change in the SST causes a latitudinal shift in the ascending branch of the Hadley cell and precipitation in the tropics, as well as an increase in the atmospheric meridional heat transport from the warmer to the colder hemisphere.

  15. Banknote Typography with a Particular Reference to Croatia through the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilko Žiljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the research of transformation of formatting information on banknotes during the 20th century, which is the period of some of the greatest graphical innovations after Gutenberg’s invention of movable type printing. Computer graphics had taken over in the field of typography in the exact moment of hand engraving’s highest level of art in the creation of the font cut. About forty years ago, the era of etching used in copper etching and steel engraving in hand - made drawings had begun, along with the use of phototypesetting as the representative of digital technology. Quality of the written lines has introduced microtypography as a special method of rasterization in the background of banknotes. In Croatia, the above mentioned modifications are present through the works of our typographers, even though the multiplication of banknotes was done in foreign printing houses that had appropriately protected printing technology. The paper contributes to the scientific analysis of the technical aspect of banknote making on Croatia’s soil during the course of the 20th century, and this, with the methods of analysis and synthesis incorporated, gives a clear picture and transparency into the method of banknote making, both from a technological and development cycle - making aspect. Given the fact that not only the Croatian banknotes are examined, analysis contributes to comparative procedures of local scopes in the field of technological manufacture of other banknotes that belong to the same time period.

  16. „One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bocancea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

  17. A brief history of tuberculosis in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem

    2011-05-01

    The history of tuberculosis as a worldwide fatal illness traces back to antiquity, a well-known disease in ancient civilizations. However, its causative agent remained unidentified until the last decades of the 19th century, when discovered by Robert Koch. In due course, preparation of the BCG vaccine, application of the Mantoux intradermal diagnostic tuberculosis test and administration of proper antituberculosis medications eventually controlled tuberculosis. However, despite these significant advancements tuberculosis remained uneradicated, particularly in developing countries after the emergence of both multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. Presented here, is a brief review of the history of tuberculosis in the world as well as its historical background in Iran, mainly during the 19th and 20th centuries.

  18. Historiography of mathematics in the 19th and 20th centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Martina; Sørensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the historiography of mathematics as it was practiced during the 19th and 20th centuries by paying special attention to the cultural contexts in which the history of mathematics was written. In the 19th century, the history of mathematics was recorded by a diverse range of people trained in various fields and driven by different motivations and aims. These backgrounds often shaped not only their writing on the history of mathematics, but, in some instances, were also influential in their subsequent reception. During the period from roughly 1880-1940, mathematics modernized in important ways, with regard to its content, its conditions for cultivation, and its identity; and the writing of the history of mathematics played into the last part in particular. Parallel to the modernization of mathematics, the history of mathematics gradually evolved into a field of research with its own journals, societies and academic positions. Reflecting both a new professional identity and changes in its prim...

  19. The history of blood transfusion prior to the 20th century--part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learoyd, P

    2012-12-01

    Although there are a number of descriptions of 'blood infusion' in antiquity, it was the publication of the discovery of the circulation of blood in 1628 by William Harvey and the work of Christopher Wren and Robert Boyle in 1663 on the infusion of different materials into dogs that paved the way to the possible practical attempts at actual blood transfusion. Although these early experiments, principally by Richard Lower in England and Jean Denis in France provided valuable information regarding inter-species incompatibility and the problems of blood coagulation, it was not until the work of James Blundell in the early part of the 19th century that blood transfusion was used as a means of blood replacement. However, blood transfusion was not to become an accepted therapeutic possibility until the discovery of practical anticoagulation and the ABO blood groups at the start of the 20th century.

  20. Changes in world ocean nitrate availability through the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamykowski, Daniel; Zentara, Sara-Joan

    2005-09-01

    Conceptual models linking climate change with fluctuations in fish population abundances are based on how cyclic patterns in air-sea interactions influence pelagic food web dynamics. The effect of changing mixed layer dynamics on phytoplankton light and nutrient exposure is a prominent focal point in the overall mechanism. The Extended Reconstruction (ER) of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) version one (ERSSTv1) and version two (ERSSTv2) monthly time series from 1854 to 2003, interpreted with the aid of a historically based global Nitrate Depletion Temperature (NDT) climatology, provide a qualitative tool for examining relative temporal and spatial patterns in nitrate availability in normal salinity areas of the world ocean. After an analysis of local NDT variability at four time series stations demonstrated temporal stability compared to SST, [SST-NDT] as a Nitrate Availability Index (NAI) was calculated for April (boreal spring or austral fall) and October (boreal fall and austral spring) for the whole ERSSTv1 data set and for selected years of the ERSSTv2 data set using the global NDT climatology. The more negative the NAI difference, the greater the expected surface nitrate. The more positive the NAI difference, the greater the intensity of temperature stratification between the surface and the nitracline and thus the less likely that nitrate mixed to the surface. The records from April and October both showed that decreased nitrate availability, defined by both smaller negative NAI differences and larger positive NAI differences, generally though not universally occurred throughout the 20th century in association with global warming. The greatest decreases in nitrate availability occurred in two warming events in the time periods 1909-1937 and 1977-present in the Northern Hemisphere and 1926-1937 and 1950-1990 in the Southern Hemisphere. Different areas of the world ocean were affected in each warming event. Prominent exceptions in the ERSSTv1 analysis where 20th

  1. Effects of Irrigation on Global Climate During the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, M. J.; Cook, B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have documented the effects of modern ]day irrigation on regional and global climate, but none, to date, have considered the time ]varying impact of steadily increasing irrigation rates on climate during the 20th century. We investigate the impacts of observed irrigation changes over this century with two ensemble simulations using an atmosphere general circulation model. Both ensembles are forced with transient climate forcings and observed sea surface temperatures from 1902 to 2000; one ensemble includes irrigation specified by a time ]varying data set of irrigation water withdrawals. Early in the century, irrigation is primarily localized over southern and eastern Asia, leading to significant cooling in boreal summer (June.August) over these regions. This cooling spreads and intensifies by century fs end, following the rapid expansion of irrigation over North America, Europe, and Asia. Irrigation also leads to boreal winter (December.February) warming over parts of North America and Asia in the latter part of the century, due to enhanced downward longwave fluxes from increased near ]surface humidity. Precipitation increases occur primarily downwind of the major irrigation areas, although precipitation in parts of India decreases due to a weaker summer monsoon. Irrigation begins to significantly reduce temperatures and temperature trends during boreal summer over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropics beginning around 1950; significant increases in precipitation occur in these same latitude bands. These trends reveal the varying importance of irrigation ]climate interactions and suggest that future climate studies should account for irrigation, especially in regions with unsustainable irrigation resources.

  2. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total

  3. Determination and characterization of 20th century global sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Yen

    In this study, we provide a determination of the 20th Century (1900--2002) global sea level rise, the associated error budgets, and the quantifications of the various geophysical sources of the observed sea level rise, using data and geophysical models. We analyzed significant geographical variations of the global sea level including those caused by the steric component (heat and salinity) in the ocean, and the self-gravitational signal as a result of ice sheets melting, including the effects of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) since the Pleistocene. In particular, relative sea level data from long-term (longest is 150 year records) and over 600 tide gauge sites globally from PSMSL and other sources, and geocentric sea level data from multiple satellite altimetry (1985--2005) have been used to determine and characterize 20th century global sea level rise. Altimeter and selected tide gauge sea level data have been used for the 20th century sea level determination, accounting for relative biases between the altimeters, effects of sea level corresponding to oceanic thermal expansion, vertical motions affecting tide gauge measurements, self gravitations, and barotropic ocean response. This study is also characterized by the roles of the polar ocean in the global sea level study and addressing the question whether there is a detectable sea level rise acceleration during the last decade. Vertical motions have been estimated by combining geocentric sea level measurements from satellite altimetry (TOPEX/POSEIDON) and long-term relative (crust-fixed) sea level records from global tide gauges using the Gauss-Markov (GM) model with stochastic constraints. The study provided a demonstration of improved vertical motion solutions in semi-enclosed seas and lakes, including Fennoscandia and the Great Lakes region, showing excellent agreement with independent GPS observed radial velocities, or with predictions from GIA models. In general, the estimated uncertainty of the observed

  4. [The end of an illusion, Sigmund Freud and his 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, K R

    1995-12-01

    At the end of the 20th century Eissler looks back to its beginnings and the outside figure of Sigmund Freud. What good have Freud's discoveries done? What progress have they promised and which of those promises have actually been redeemed? What kind of track record does psychoanalysis have to show for itself? The author undertakes a careful assessment of Freud's stature, his limitations and his scientific achievements, and comes to the skeptical conclusion that in the last resort it was in fact the founder of psychoanalysis who destroyed the illusion he himself had long subscribed to, i.e. that there is an indissoluble link between the increase of scientific knowledge and the salvation of homo sapiens. For Eissler's Freud the survival of humanity and the scientific civilization created by mankind are irreconcilable.

  5. Population evolution in 20th-century Easter Island: endogamy and admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; García-Moro, C; Moral, P; González-Martín, A

    2000-04-01

    We studied the 20th-century evolution of the Rapanui population of Easter Island, the most geographically isolated in the world, to analyze the current process of admixture. Using parochial birth records, we determined origin of the birth parents based on their surnames. The origin of parents reveals two stages of population evolution: endogamy, due to the isolation of the island, but with a strong rejection of isonymous marriages; and admixture, beginning in 1965 with the opening of the island to the rest of the world. We used Lasker's coefficient (Lasker's Ri) and the Shannon-Weaver coefficient of diversity (H) to characterize both stages. The gene flow evaluated from admixture has increased significantly since 1965. Births from exogamous unions represented 3.5% of total births from 1937 to 1965. increased to 43.2% between 1966 and 1980, and constituted 50.8% of all births between 1981 and 1996.

  6. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  7. Cognitive study and upgrading of the 20th century architectonic heritage: experiences and methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ascione

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One component of the heritage of publicly funded property developments put up since the Second World War is residential districts designed by leading architects in which upgrading has to take into account considerations of safeguarding. The raising of the threshold from 50 to 70 years before safeguarding norms come into effect means that local authorities and management companies have sole responsibility for the modification and safeguarding of this heritage. This paper looks at some examples of 20th century housing estates designated for upgrading in order to highlight the specific strategies adopted, selected from a range of actions based on the need for accurate knowledge and collective agreement by all the parties involved right from the design phase.

  8. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  9. Brief Communication: Global glacier mass loss reconstructions during the 20th century are consistent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century that were published in recent years are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass loss obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the years 2003–2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist in estimates on regional scales.

  10. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ~450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ~70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3oC, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system.

  11. WILLIAM GURNEE SINNIGEN - 20TH CENTURY CLASSICIST AND ROMAN HISTORIAN: BIOGRAPHY & BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gray Marsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available William Gurnee Sinnigen was a Classicist and Roman historian, active in the mid-to-late 20th century. Trained at the University of Michigan by noted Roman administrative historian Arthur E. R. Boak, Sinnigen continued his mentor’s work in administrative history, producing several articles on different aspects of Roman and Byzantine administrative topics.  Sinnigen was also responsible for the revision and update of Boak’s acclaimed textbook on Roman history, as well as Charles Alexander Robinson’s textbook on Ancient history.  This article will provide a brief biography of Professor Sinnigen, along with a bibliography of his published works and reviews by other scholars of his work.

  12. Did 20th century physics have the means to reveal the nature of inertia and gravitation?

    CERN Document Server

    Petkov, V B

    2000-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the classical electron theory (or, perhaps more appropriately, the classical electromagnetic mass theory) - the first physical theory that dared ask the question of what inertia and mass were - was gaining momentum and there were hopes that physics would be finally able to explain their origin. It is argued in this paper that if that promising research path had not been inexplicably abandoned after the advent of relativity and quantum mechanics, the contemporary physics would have revealed not only the nature of inertia, mass, and gravitation, but most importantly would have outlined the ways of their manipulation. Another goal of the paper is to try to stimulate the search for the mechanism responsible for inertia and gravitation by outlining a research direction, which demonstrates that the classical electromagnetic mass theory in conjunction with the principle of equivalence offers such a mechanism.

  13. Interpreting mathematics in physics: Charting the applications of SU(2) in 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ronald [Department of Philosophy, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States)], E-mail: ronald.anderson@bc.edu; Joshi, G.C. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: joshi@physics.unimelb.edu.au

    2008-04-15

    The role mathematics plays within physics has been of sustained interest for physicists as well as for philosophers and historians of science. We explore this topic by tracing the role the mathematical structure associated with SU(2) has played in three key episodes in 20th century physics - intrinsic spin, isospin, and gauge theory and electroweak unification. We also briefly consider its role in loop quantum gravity. Each episode has led to profound and new physical notions of a space other than the traditional ones of space and spacetime, and each has had associated with it a complex and in places, contested history. The episodes also reveal ways mathematical structures provide resources for new physical theorizing and we propose our study as a contribution to a need Roger Penrose has identified to develop a 'profoundly sensitive aesthetic' sense for locating physically relevant mathematics.

  14. Simulation of Sea Ice in FGOALS-g2: Climatology and Late 20th Century Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiming; SONG Mirong; LIU Jiping; WANG Bin; LI Lijuan; HUANG Wenyu; LIU Li

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is an important component in the Earth's climate system.Coupled climate system models are indispensable tools for the study of sea ice,its internal processes,interaction with other components,and projection of future changes.This paper evaluates the simulation of sea ice by the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model Grid-point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2),in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5),with a focus on historical experiments and late 20th century simulation.Through analysis,we find that FGOALS-g2 produces reasonable Arctic and Antarctic sea ice climatology and variability.Sea ice spatial distribution and seasonal change characteristics are well captured.The decrease of Arctic sea ice extent in the late 20th century is reproduced in simulations,although the decrease trend is lower compared with observations.Simulated Antarctic sea ice shows a reasonable distribution and seasonal cycle with high accordance to the amplitude of winter summer changes.Large improvement is achieved as compared with FGOALS-g1.0 in CMIP3.Diagnosis of atmospheric and oceanic forcing on sea ice reveals several shortcomings and major aspects to improve upon in the future:(1) ocean model improvements to remove the artificial island at the North Pole;(2) higher resolution of the atmosphere model for better simulation of important features such as,among others,the Icelandic Low and westerly wind over the Southern Ocean; and (3) ocean model improvements to accurately receive freshwater input from land,and higher resolution for resolving major water channels in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

  15. Global reconstructed daily surge levels from the 20th Century Reanalysis (1871-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Alba; Camus, Paula; Castanedo, Sonia; Méndez, Fernando J.; Medina, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Studying the effect of global patterns of wind and pressure gradients on the sea level variation (storm surge) is a key issue in understanding the recent climate change effect on the dynamical state of the ocean. The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of storm surges from observations is a difficult task to accomplish since observations are not homogeneous in time, scarce in space, and moreover, their temporal coverage is limited. A recent global surge database developed by AVISO (DAC, Dynamic Atmospheric Correction) fulfilled the lack of data in terms of spatial coverage, but not regarding time extent, since it only includes the last two decades (1992-2014). In this work, we use the 20th Century Reanalysis V2 (20CR), which spans the years 1871 to 2010, to statistically reconstruct daily maximum surge levels at a global scale. A multivariate linear regression model is fitted between daily mean ERA-interim sea level pressure fields and daily maximum surge levels from DAC. Following, the statistical model is used to reconstruct daily surges using mean sea level pressure fields from 20CR. The verification of the statistical model shows good agreements between DAC levels and the reconstructed surge levels from the 20CR. The validation of the reconstructed surge with tide gauges, distributed throughout the domain, shows good accuracy both in terms of high correlations and small errors. A time series comparison is also depicted at specific tide gauges for the beginning of the 20th century, showing a high concordance. Therefore, this work provides to the scientific community, a daily database of maximum surge levels; which correspond to an extension of the DAC database, from 1871 to 2010. This database can be used to improve the knowledge on historical storm surge conditions, allowing the study of their temporal and spatial variability.

  16. Outsets for studying interrelations between heritage institutions in the 20th century: initial theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjica Faletar Tanacković

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage institutions, archives, libraries and museums, which share the common goal of safeguarding and enabling wide accessibility to and use of cultural heritage, have developed in different but not diametrically opposing directions. Many scientists and practitioners from archival science, librarianship, museology and the wider area of information science have therefore studied, over many years, fundamental principles and characteristics of their activity and similarities and differences between these institutions and professions with the ultimate aim of discovering and describing potential models and guidelines for their coordinated action. First papers on this topic in the 20th century appeared in 1930s. Authors of these papers were most often librarians and archivists whose writing was initiated by their immediate working and professional environment. Based on the analysis and overview of accessible literature this paper presents and comments the thoughts of the author who was writing on this subject for over five decades, from 1930s to 1980s. These authors came, in most cases, from the United States of America and they dealt with similarities and differences between archives and libraries. Museum professionals joined this discussion only in 1960s by introducing specific characteristics and aspects of museums and museum work. In order to contribute to the understanding of interrelationships and evident convergence of these three cultural heritage institutions, which resulted in their mutual respect and in some cases with practical and active collaboration in particular in the modern networked society, the authors will try to present the development of theoretical and methodological thought on this phenomenon. The paper will provide a critical review of the most important authors who wrote on this topic from the first works that appeared through the last decade of the 20th century.

  17. On the transformation of antique stories and images in German literature of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharypina T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of Russian and foreign scholars, the work is aimed at studying the specificity of the transformation of antique stories and images, which is the desired model in the art of the 20th century thanks to its fluidity and unlimited variability. Actualization of antique stories and images in the works of German-language writers account for life-changing moments of social life, the periods of losing of constant moral landmarks and the periods of looking for new moral and aesthetic ideals. The analysis of the reception and transformation of mythological stories and images in the contemporary literature proves the conception of its polysemy. The built-in contradiction of myths is realized through the transformation of mythological stories and images in the literary works of contemporary writers and is explained by the individuality of writers and theirs aesthetic aims. On the one side, the absence de facto in German drama of the 20th century of interpretations of the story about Achilles and of the image of Achilles, and numerous variations on the topic of moral strivings of fearless and peccant Ulysses, on the other side, are proving the statements of classic aesthetic that the tragedy is based on the conflict, which is close to lofty and linked with the idea of dignity of the man, which is ready and capable of promoting the views of his own by the real acts that are often lead to suffer and death. According to Aristotle, the sympathy for the character leads to catharsis - the basis of education of real civic-mindedness and humanness.

  18. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Calbó, J.; Wild, M.

    2012-07-01

    Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC) and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain) since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866-2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant) increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous studies, especially

  19. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies are focused on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review the previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second third of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. This estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the major part of the previous trends observed at many areas of the

  20. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous

  1. Feeding better food habits in mid-20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Sarah E; Wells, Miriam E

    2005-01-01

    Public health nursing work has always involved education about nutrition and food habits. Nurses serve as interpreters of scientific and medical knowledge and as agents of behavioral change among the individuals and groups for whom they provide care. For public health nurses in mid-20th-century America, this meant direct involvement in many aspects of family life at home. Meal preparation and the eating patterns of family members were two areas into which most public health nurses had access. This brief history provides an introduction to some of the issues confronting American public health nurses at mid-century. Examining the content of articles related to nutrition in families around mid-century yields evidence about the role of the nurse, the state of the art in nutritional knowledge, and opinions and prejudices related to eating habits prevalent at the time. These glimpses into concerns expressed in the original Public Health Nursing journal may enhance understanding of the role of public health nurses in preventing diet-related disorders and form the basis for additional historical research.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Global Temperature Change during the 20th Century with the IAP/LASG GOALS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓燕; 郭裕福; 石广玉; 俞永强

    2004-01-01

    The IAP/LASG GOALS coupled model is used to simulate the climate change during the 20th century using historical greenhouse gases concentrations, the mass mixing ratio of sulfate aerosols simulated by a CTM model, and reconstruction of solar variability spanning the period 1900 to 1997. Four simulations,including a control simulation and three forcing simulations, are conducted. Comparison with the observational record for the period indicates that the three forcing experiments simulate reasonable temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature change. The global warming during the 20th century is caused mainly by increasing greenhouse gas concentration especially since the late 1980s; sulfate aerosols offset a portion of the global warming and the reduction of global temperature is up to about 0.11°C over the century; additionally, the effect of solar variability is not negligible in the simulation of climate change over the 20th century.

  3. Global drought in the 20th and 21st centuries : analysis of retrospective simulations and future projections of soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheffield, J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the analysis of global and regional drought over the second half of the 20th century from a retrospective model simulation of the terrestrial water cycle, and projected 21st century changes using multi-scenario data from multiple climate models. A global meteorological forcing dataset is

  4. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago.

  5. THE ISSUE OF PELOTAS' SLUMS BETWEEN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Nörnberg Maciel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper talks about the formation, urban expansion and the emergence of 19th and early 20th century slums at Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul state. Since the rise of this kind of residential building, during the second half of the 19th century up to, at least, the 1920s – the last decade covered by this research – government and local elites had been putting a great effort in order to move away these residences towards the outskirts of the city. All of this ideas were paved around hygienist ideals. Lots and edifications in downtown Pelotas had an increase in economic value because of the expansion of that area. That being said, it was important to force a migration of these slums, away from central areas, based upon aesthetic reasons and in order to increase even more the value of the area.

  6. Anthropogenic lead inputs to the western Pacific during the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Mayuri [Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-15-1 Minamidai Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan)], E-mail: mayuri-inoue@ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tanimizu, Masaharu [Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Monobe-B 200, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502 (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Unlike in the North Atlantic, no continuous record of anthropogenic lead (Pb) has been available in the western Pacific. We reconstructed historical changes in anthropogenic Pb on the basis of Pb isotope ratios recorded in annually-banded coral retrieved from Ogasawara Island, Japan. Whereas the predominant natural source of Pb to the surface of the western Pacific apparently is Chinese loess, anthropogenic Pb has affected the western Pacific at least since the late 19th century. From the late 19th to the early 20th century, Australian Pb used in Japan was an important source of anthropogenic Pb. During 1920-1940, Pb emitted from parts of the world other than Japan contributed somewhat to the western Pacific, and the amount of Pb imported from Australia declined. Alkyl Pb used in Japan became the main source from 1950 until the mid-1970s, when leaded gasoline began to be regulated in Japan. Since the mid-1980s, aerosols from China have been the predominant source of Pb in the western Pacific. During the 1990s, around 60% of Pb in the surface of the western Pacific was from Chinese aerosols. We also investigated the present spatial distribution and likely sources of Pb in the western Pacific by using coral samples. Enrichment in {sup 208}Pb, which is a characteristic of Pb from China, was found in all coral samples except that from Pohnpei, Micronesia, suggesting that at present anthropogenic Pb is transported to the western Pacific mainly from China via westerly winds.

  7. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petôvári, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well.

  8. Mathematics in the 20th Century%20世纪之数学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迈克·阿蒂亚

    2004-01-01

    20世纪数学的重点从局部转移到整体,从低维转移到高维,从交换转移到非交换,以及从线性转移到非线性.几何学和代数学的对立统一依然存在,从哲学上反映了空间与时间之对立统一.与同调论、K-理论和李群有关的技巧和概念被广泛运用.在最近的20年间,量子场论和弦理论为数学注入新观念.理论物理学对数学的影响还将在21世纪延续下去.%In the 20th century, the emphasis in mathematics has shifted from local to global considerations, from lower dimensions to higher dimensions, from commutativity to non-commutativity,and from linearity to non-linearity. The dichotomy between geometry and algebra, which is philosophically that between space and time, still persists. Techniques and concepts related to homology theory,K-theory, and Lie groups have been widely used. In the last twenty years, quantum field theory and string theory have incurred new ideas from physics into mathematics. The impact of theoretical physics on mathematics will last into the 21 st century.

  9. International dimensions of higher education in nursing in Canada: tapping the wisdom of the 20th century while embracing possibilities for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Linda D; Paul, Pauline; Burgess-Pinto, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    New focus on the internationalization of universities occurred in the late 20th century and higher education in nursing has been quick to embrace the opportunities. In this manuscript, writers provide a brief overview of the nursing and more general literature from the late 20th century relating to key dimensions of internationalization, as well as present data from a survey conducted in 1995-96 of the international activities and dimensions at Canadian faculties/schools of nursing. While it is clear that nurses in Canadian universities were engaged in significant international endeavours in the 20th century, the literature and our experience suggest that the extent of such activity has increased substantially in recent years. Discussion centres on examination of how knowledge generated in the 20th century can inform current internationalization initiatives and on identification of key questions that merit consideration as we move forward in the 21st century.

  10. Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901–2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of the Mann-Kendall test that accounts for serial auto-correlation. The results show a clear trend towards drier conditions during the 20th century in most western and central Mediterranean regions, with the exceptions of northwestern Iberia and most of Turkey that reveal an increase of moisture availability. A Generalized Extreme Values (GEV analysis was applied to the maximum and minimum regional values of scPDSI, with results pointing towards a significant decline of absolute extreme values in central areas (Italy and Balkans and a less clear picture emerging in western (Iberia and eastern (Turkey realms.

    The inter-annual variability of the scPDSI index series is shown to be more realistic than the corresponding PDSI version, fitting better the drought episodes sequence and magnitude described in the literature for each sub-region. We assess the decadal and inter-annual variability of the scPDSI for each sub-domain and evaluate the role played by the major teleconnection patterns, and by several sea surface temperature (SST anomalies. The main driver of scPDSI in western and central Mediterranean areas is the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO pattern that is also relevant during the following spring and summer seasons with anti-correlation values below −0.60. The second most important mode corresponds to the Scandinavian Pattern that is significantly associated to the scPDSI between winter and summer over central Mediterranean (correlation

  11. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic

  12. THE POPULATION’S NOMINAL AND REAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor AXENCIUC

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of Romania’s population incomes for a period of a century has not only an incontestable historical importance, but also a social one, as it may give answer to the question what was gained from the viewpoint of the living standard of the population in the 20th century. The issue is approached under two aspects of the economic and social polarisation process, and of the real incomes, and also with respect to the capacity of comparing the main population categories. The differing purposes of the social and ideological systems underwent during this century, and the periods of war and destruction have both triggered a sinuous incomes’ curve with considerable raises and falls of incomes. The final conclusion is that the level of average incomes from 1914 is re-established in the aftermath of the First World War only about 1929, and the year 1938 is situated beneath the pre-crises threshold. World War II and the crisis following it have diminished average incomes to 20 - 25% from the level of the year 1938 and only after 1970 the pre-war threshold is reached again, which is followed in the eighties and nineties by significant growth to be brutally annulled by the transition processes up to 2000, when the average real income is again at the level of the year 1970. It results that the development efforts of six decades, 1939-2000, from the viewpoint of incomes’ level were lost for the majority of the country’s population in favour of a minority that was made rich by the transition.

  13. Introduction: contexts and concepts of adaptability and plasticity in 20th-century plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Marci; Peirson, B R Erick

    2015-04-01

    Nowhere is the problem of understanding the complex linkages between organisms and their environments more apparent than in the science of plants. Today, efforts by scientists to predict and manage the biological consequences of shifting global and regional climates depend on understanding how organisms respond morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally to changes in their environments. Investigating organismal "adaptability" (or "plasticity") is rarely straightforward, prompting controversy and discourse among and between ecologists and agricultural scientists. Concepts like agro-climatic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and genotype-environment interaction (GxE) are key to those debates, and their complex histories have imbued them with assumptions and meanings that are consequential but often opaque. This special section explores the diverse ways in which organismal adaptability has been conceptualized and investigated in the second half of the 20th century, and the multifarious political, economic, environmental, and intellectual contexts in which those conceptions have emerged and evolved. The papers in this section bring together perspectives from the histories of agriculture, population ecology, evolutionary theory, and plant physiology, cutting across Asian, North American, and British contexts. As a whole, this section highlights not only the diversity of meanings of "adaptability" and "plasticity," but also the complex linkages between those meanings, the scientific practices and technologies in which they are embedded, and the ends toward which those practices and technologies are employed.

  14. Einstein and early 20th Century avant-garde art: points of contact?

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, José X

    2007-01-01

    Art history linked some early 20th Century avant-garde visual art movements to contemporary systems of ideas in mathematics and theoretical physics. One of the proposed connections is the one that might have existed between Cubism and Relativity, or more precisely, between Picasso and Einstein. The suggested links are similarity (in a weak version) or identity (in a strong version) in matters of space, time and simultaneity. It is possible, however, that these supposed links of Einstein and avant-garde art movements were more the product of the imagination of historians and critics, than the result of connections between painters and scientists. On the one hand, the visual arts (in contrast to music, as far as we now) were of no interest to Einstein, who, moreover, did not seem inclined or knowledgeable enough to appreciate advanced forms. On the other hand, Einstein's theories fell outside the artists' ken, let alone their understanding, although there are firm clues pointing to the fact that repercussions o...

  15. Observed Abrupt Changes in Minimum and Maximum Temperatures in Jordan in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M.  samdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines changes in annual and seasonal mean (minimum and maximum temperatures variations in Jordan during the 20th century. The analyses focus on the time series records at the Amman Airport Meteorological (AAM station. The occurrence of abrupt changes and trends were examined using cumulative sum charts (CUSUM and bootstrapping and the Mann-Kendall rank test. Statistically significant abrupt changes and trends have been detected. Major change points in the mean minimum (night-time and mean maximum (day-time temperatures occurred in 1957 and 1967, respectively. A minor change point in the annual mean maximum temperature also occurred in 1954, which is essential agreement with the detected change in minimum temperature. The analysis showed a significant warming trend after the years 1957 and 1967 for the minimum and maximum temperatures, respectively. The analysis of maximum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1967 for the summer season with a rate of temperature increase of 0.038°C/year. The analysis of minimum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1957 for all seasons. Temperature and rainfall data from other stations in the country have been considered and showed similar changes.

  16. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  17. Coralline algal barium as indicator for 20th century northwestern North Atlantic surface ocean freshwater variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzinger, S; Halfar, J; Zack, T; Mecking, J V; Kunz, B E; Jacob, D E; Adey, W H

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades climate and freshwater dynamics in the northwestern North Atlantic have undergone major changes. Large-scale freshening episodes, related to polar freshwater pulses, have had a strong influence on ocean variability in this climatically important region. However, little is known about variability before 1950, mainly due to the lack of long-term high-resolution marine proxy archives. Here we present the first multidecadal-length records of annually resolved Ba/Ca variations from Northwest Atlantic coralline algae. We observe positive relationships between algal Ba/Ca ratios from two Newfoundland sites and salinity observations back to 1950. Both records capture episodical multi-year freshening events during the 20th century. Variability in algal Ba/Ca is sensitive to freshwater-induced changes in upper ocean stratification, which affect the transport of cold, Ba-enriched deep waters onto the shelf (highly stratified equals less Ba/Ca). Algal Ba/Ca ratios therefore may serve as a new resource for reconstructing past surface ocean freshwater changes.

  18. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  19. Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Narayan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. It was also noted that the trends in meridional wind stress obtained from different datasets differ substantially from each other. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

  20. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th) century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C M; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

  1. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Faye

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/ reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

  2. Pedagogy in Slovenia at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vidmar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogy in Slovenia gradually won its recognition as an academic science, and therefore obtained improved possibilities for its conceptualization, when the university in Ljubljana was established in 1919. The time between the two world wars was marked with three principal pedagogical concepts: Herbartianism, geisteswissenschaftliche pedagogy, and reform pedagogy. The first of these to be theoretically conceptualized in Slovenia was the geisteswissenschaftliche, or cultural pedagogy. Ideas of reform pedagogy, especially its social-critical movement, interpreted, represented, and defended primarily left-oriented pedagogues and teachers, who were convinced that actual school reform would be possible only after (revolutionary changes of social conditions. In the first decades of the 20th century, numerous conflicts and disagreements occurred in the process of establishing individual pedagogical currents and orientations in Slovenia. The strongest and most productive polemics were held between geisteswissenschaftliche, or cultural pedagogy, and some currents, or just individual representatives, of reform pedagogy (e.g., theory vs. praxis, old vs. new school. Unfortunately, the postwar Marxist pedagogical concept was highly unfavorable to the prewar orientations and prevented their further development.

  3. Intercomparison of an improved 20th Century reanalysis version 2c dataset spanning 1850 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compo, G. P.; Whitaker, J. S.; Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Giese, B. S.; Brohan, P.

    2014-12-01

    The historical reanalysis dataset generated by NOAA ESRL and the University of Colorado CIRES, the Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRv2), is a comprehensive global atmospheric circulation dataset spanning 1871-2012, assimilating only surface pressure and using monthly Hadley Centre SST and sea ice distributions (HadISST1.1) as boundary conditions. It has been made possible through collaboration with GCOS, WCRP, and the ACRE initiative. It is chiefly motivated by a need to provide an observational validation dataset, with quantified uncertainties, for assessments of climate model simulations of the 20th century, with emphasis on the statistics of daily weather. It uses, together with an NCEP global numerical weather prediction (NWP) land/atmosphere model to provide background "first guess" fields, an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation method. This yields a global analysis every 6 hours as the most likely state of the atmosphere, and also yields the uncertainty of that analysis. Improvements in the new version ("2c") include an extension back to 1850 and the specification of new boundary conditions. These come from new fields of monthly COBE-SST2 sea ice concentrations and an ensemble of daily Simple Ocean Data Assimilation with Sparse Input (SODAsi.2c) sea surface temperatures. SODAsi.2c itself was forced with 20CR, allowing these boundary conditions to be more consistent with the atmospheric reanalysis. Millions of additional pressure observations contained in the new International Surface Pressure Databank version 3 are also included. These improvements result in 20CR version "2c" having comparable or better analyses, as suggested by improved 24 hour forecast skill, more realistic uncertainty in near-surface air temperature, and a reduction in spurious centennial trends in the tropical and polar regions. An intercomparison with ERA-Interim, MERRA, and JRA-55 reanalyses that assimilate all available upper-air and satellite observations will

  4. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  5. Mediators and agents of change. Youth and centre/periphery relations in coastal Iceland in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Gestur

    2002-01-01

    The article offers a perspective on the 20th century youth in coastal Iceland as agents actively shaping their society. It explores four periods of such agency, starting with young people at the forefront of the release from the old agricultural society. It explores the changes of emphasis between...

  6. Gender, Identity, Missions, and Empire: Letters from Christian Teachers in China in the Early 20th and 21st Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mary Shepard

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a historically-informed comparative study that juxtaposes the lives of three missionary educators in China in the early 20th century with three Christian educators in China today. Data sources included hundreds of letters from the women written in China to their families and friends over several decades and…

  7. Representations of Technology in the "Technical Stories" for Children of Otto Witt, Early 20th Century Swedish Technology Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge…

  8. Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Banić-Grubišić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book by Radmila Radić. Narodna verovanja, religija i spiritizam u srpskom društvu 19. i u prvoj polovini 20. veka. [Folk Beliefs, Religion and Spiritualism in Serbian Society in the 19th and first half of the 20th Century]. 2009. Beograd: Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije, pp. 295

  9. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  10. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    Switzerland has experienced a number of severe precipitation events during the last few decades, such as during the 14-16 November of 2002 or during the 21-22 August of 2005. Both events, and subsequent extreme floods, caused fatalities and severe financial losses, and have been well studied both in terms of atmospheric conditions leading to extreme precipitation, and their consequences [e.g. Hohenegger et al., 2008, Stucki et al., 2012]. These examples highlight the need to better characterise the frequency and severity of flooding in the Alpine area. In a larger framework we will ultimately produce a high-resolution data set covering the entire 20th century to be used for detailed hydrological studies including all atmospheric parameters relevant for flooding events. In a first step, we downscale the aforementioned two events of 2002 and 2005 to assess the model performance regarding precipitation extremes. The complexity of the topography in the Alpine area demands high resolution datasets. To achieve a sufficient detail in resolution we employ the Weather Research and Forecasting regional climate model (WRF). A set of 4 nested domains is used with a 2-km resolution horizontal resolution over Switzerland. The NCAR 20th century reanalysis (20CR) with a horizontal resolution of 2.5° serves as boundary condition [Compo et al., 2011]. First results of the downscaling the 2002 and 2005 extreme precipitation events show that, compared to station observations provided by the Swiss Meteorological Office MeteoSwiss, the model strongly underestimates the strength of these events. This is mainly due to the coarse resolution of the 20CR data, which underestimates the moisture fluxes during these events. We tested driving WRF with the higher-resolved NCEP reanalysis and found a significant improvement in the amount of precipitation of the 2005 event. In a next step we will downscale the precipitation and wind fields during a 6-year period 2002-2007 to investigate and

  11. Landscape pattern dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city in the 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOXinxiang; DINGShengyan

    2005-01-01

    Landscape spatial pattern mainly refers to the distribution of patches, which are different in size and shape in space owing to the interaction of various ecological activities. In landscape ecology study, landscape pattern has been one of the key study areas. Water body landscape plays an important role in the development history of a city, but at present city water body landscape in many cities has been destroyed, hence protecting water body in the city is becoming more and more important. In order to protect city water body landscape reasonably, the precondition is to probe the dynamics of water body landscape. Based on historical data and remote sensing data, six indexes including patch number, patch area, landscape dominance index, fractal dimension, patch density and connectivity index etc. were used to analyze landscape pattern dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city since the end of the Qing Dynasty (in the 20th century). The results showed: (1) Since the end of the Qing Dynasty, landscape area of water body in Kaifeng city increased first and then decreased from 1898 to 2002AD; the landscape dominant degree had the same changing tendency with the area. (2) Patch number of water body landscape in Kaifeng city had an increase from 1898 to 2002, but maximum area of patch, minimum area of patch and average area of patch decreased, which resulted in an increase in landscape fragment degree. (3) Connectivity index decreased and fractal dimension increased from 1898 to 2002. The reasons for these changes were the repeated overflows and flooding of the Yellow River and the influence of human activities.

  12. Ethnic Migrations in Vojvodina in the Second Half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Raduški

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Population migrations are a significant social phenomen which undoubtedly left a mark on the last decade of the 20th century. Political changes in the 90’s made migrations even more relevant from a demographic, economic and legal aspect, taking into consideration not only their scope, but also the new specific forms of migration movements that arose (voluntary and forced migrations, ethnocentric migrations, refugees, displaced persons, etc. along with their reasons and consequences. The violent disintegration of Yugoslavia and the subsequent creation of new ethnonational states and bouts of ethnic cleansing had as a consequence enormous population movements, as well as the creation of considerable number of refugees gravitating towards their mother countries. The large refugee wave which took refuge in Vojvodina exceeds, by its number, even the large colonization of this province after World War II. Apart from refugees, internally displaced persons of non-Albanian nationality, who immigrated from Kosovo and Metohija due to political reasons, are found in Vojvodina. Placed together, all this represents a significant problem, especially given the grave economic situation which the country is experiencing. Ethnocentric migrations (both voluntary and forced were the driving force behind the change of the country’s ethnic structure in terms of creating more nationally homogeneous regions, not only with regard to the national structure of the refugee-population, but also taking into account the emigration of other nationalities as well (Hungarians and Croats who migrated to their mother countries for political and economic reasons. Bearing in mind that Vojvodina is a multiethnic and multiconfessional region, the question of minorities and interethnic relations are unquestionably of great significance for the stability and demographic development of this region.

  13. Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century

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    Antonio Viñao, España.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a imagem e idéias de e sobre Rousseau transmitidas na Espanha ao magistério primário durante o século 20, através dos manuais de História da Educação e outras fontes similares. Após analisar as fontes utilizadas e seus destinatários, se expõe a imagem e a idéia de Rousseau como pai da pedagogia moderna, predominante nos escritos pedagógicos da época para, em seguida, e a modo de contraste, examinar o lugar e o tratamento dado à Rousseau nos mencionados manuais. Esse exame se divide em duas épocas: a anterior à guerra civil e a posterior, com o fim de mostrar o predomínio, sobre tudo durante o franquismo, de uma visão católica, conservadora, moralizante e crítica do genebriano. Palavras-chave: Rousseau, manuais escolares, educação primária, formação do magistério primário, Espanha (século 20.   Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century Abstract This article deals with Rousseau’s images and ideas present in the school books of History of Education, and other similar sources, used in the training of primary school teachers in Spain during the 20th century. After analyzing the sources used and their addresses, the predominance of Rousseau’s ideas and image as the father of modern pedagogy in the pedagogical literature of this period is explained. Immediately after, by way of contrast, Rousseau’s place and the way of considering him in the above mentioned school books are examined. The above analysis is divided into two periods, before and after the civil war, in order to show the predominance of the catholic-conservative moralizing and critical approach, particularly during francoism. Key-words: Rousseau, school books, primary education, teacher’s training, Spain (20th century.   La recepción de Rousseau en la formación inicial del magisterio primario (España, siglo 20 Resumen Este artículo versa sobre la imagen e ideas de y sobre Rousseau

  14. PLOT REELED INTO AN EKPHRASIS IN BELLES LETTRES OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

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    Elena Vasil’evna Astaschenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plots reeled into the ekphrasis have always existed. In belles lettres of the beginning of the 20th century, the fight between the pagan and the Christian manifests in the opposition of scenic space and it creates a powerful «magnetic» field. This is a special type of mythologism in which the Christian imagery is on the positive side of the binary opposition with its respective system of ethical coordinates. In «polytheistic systems, the presentations of evil is static as of the essential and eternal beginning of the world», but in the orthodox Christianity, the devil is a ghost, lure, disembodied temptation and «with every day it approaches nonexistence» (from the «Moralia» of the 6th century by Gregory the Great. However, Gregory the Great also notes that the power of Satan is from God as all other powers, he just distorted his power with his God-given free will. Even at the level of worldly wisdom aphorisms there is a conventional belief that our shortcomings are the continuation of our merits, and therefore it is necessary to adhere to the golden mean. Accroding to A. Gracheva in the book «Dialogues of Janus: Belles lettres and classics in the Russian literature of the early twentieth century», at the beginning of the 19th century, the mythologism of the spontaneous and not experimental type (often encyclopaedic and «algebraic» like in the works of Joyce and Bely, is especially pronounced in the works of writers, who are close to mass literature with their democracy or «boudoir» and especially in the works of female writers. This is due both to existing archetypes of the collective unconscious (some of which are even atavistic and «migratory plots» which are characteristic of both folklore and popular culture. Despite the compelling erotic subject matter, belles lettres is not always frivolous and, on the contrary, it is edifying and full of moral questions, which are sometimes rhetorical: «What is a sin and what does the

  15. Global reconstructed daily storm surge levels from the 20th century reanalysis (1871-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Alba; Camus, Paula; Castanedo, Sonia; Mendez, Fernando; Medina, Raul

    2015-04-01

    The study of global patterns of wind and pressure gradients, and more specifically, their effect on the sea level variation (storm surge), is a key issue in the understanding of recent climate changes. The local effect of storm surges on coastal areas (zones particularly vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level), is also of great interest in, for instance, flooding risk assessment. Studying the spatial and temporal variability of storm surges from observations is a difficult task to accomplish since observations are not homogeneous in time and scarce in space, and moreover, their temporal coverage is limited. The development of a global storm surge database (DAC, Dynamic Atmospheric Correction by Aviso, Carrère and Lyard, 2003) fulfils the lack of data in terms of spatial coverage, but not regarding time extent since it only includes last couple of decades (1992-2014). In this work, we propose the use of the 20CR ensemble (Compo et al., 2011) which spans from 1871 to 2010 to statistically reconstruct storm surge at a global scale and for a long period of time. Therefore, the temporal and spatial variability of storm surges can be fully studied and with much less effort than performing a dynamical downscaling. The statistical method chosen to carry out the reconstruction is based on multiple linear regression between an atmospheric predictor and the storm surge level at daily scale (Camus et al., 2014). The linear regression model is calibrated and validated using daily mean sea level pressure fields (and gradients) from the ERA-interim reanalysis and daily maxima surges from DAC. The obtained daily database of maximum daily surges has allowed us to estimate global trends at a centennial scale and analyse the effect of the changing climate on storm surges during the 20th century. Hence, this work improves the knowledge on historical storm-surge conditions and provides helpful information to the community concern on marine climate evolution and

  16. Ecosystem evolution of seal colony and the influencing factors in the 20th century on Fildes Peninsula, West Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Liguang Sun; Xinming Wang; Yuhong Wang; Tao Huang

    2011-01-01

    As the topmost predator in Antarctica,the seal is a unique indicator of Antarctic environment and climate changes.In this study,we collected a sediment core from the Fildes Peninsula of West Antarctica,and used cholesterol,cholestanol,epicoprostanol,coprostanol,and seal hair numbers as the proxy indicators of seal population size and phytol as of general vegetation,and we reconstructed the 20th century history of variation of the seal population and vegetation abundance on this island.The sealing industry in the early 20th century caused the dramatic decline of seal population,and the ban of seal hunting since the 1960s led to its recovery of seal population.The seal population during the past century was primarily controlled by human activities and krill density.The reconstructed relation between seal population and vegetation abundance may offer new insights into Antarctic environment and ecology.

  17. The reversal of the relation between economic growth and health progress: Sweden in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A; Ionides, Edward L

    2008-05-01

    Health progress, as measured by the decline in mortality rates and the increase in life expectancy, is usually conceived as related to economic growth, especially in the long run. In this investigation it is shown that economic growth is positively associated with health progress in Sweden throughout the 19th century. However, the relation becomes weaker as time passes and is completely reversed in the second half of the 20th century, when economic growth negatively affects health progress. The effect of the economy on health occurs mostly at lag 0 in the 19th century and is lagged up to 2 years in the 20th century. No evidence is found for economic effects on mortality at greater lags. These findings are shown to be robustly consistent across a variety of statistical procedures, including linear regression, spectral analysis, cross-correlation, and lag regression models. Models using inflation and unemployment as economic indicators reveal similar results. Evidence for reverse effects of health progress on economic growth is weak, and unobservable in the second half of the 20th century.

  18. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, John C. H. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehner, Michael F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical

  19. Sound or Expression: Dilemmas in the Phenomenological Aesthetics of 20th Century Music (Sound or Expression: Dilemmas in the Phenomenological Aesthetics of 20th Century Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stratilková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenology, as a philosophy of the twentieth century, is often confronted with music of the same period, which in contrast with the classical-romantic repertoire recedes from previously codified means for the organisation of musical structure (namely tonality and holds up the actual matter of the music – sound – for admiration. So musical experience dwells more at the sound and its direct appearance rather than rushing to the musical meanings intended through sensuous moments. From this aspect music in the first decades of the twentieth century complemented the other arts undergoing a similar development. Romantic art was replaced by artistic creativity relying on the objectivity of the musical material and not on the emotional quality. The paper considers circumstances under which some of the phenomenological approaches adopt a positive approach to the music of the twentieth century (those which stress the immediacy of the perceptive presence and some of which tend to reject it (those which apply the requirement of expressive intentionality.

  20. Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

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    J. H. Jungclaus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean–atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

  1. The little death: Rigoni-Stern and the problem of sex and cancer in 20th-century biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles, Natalie B

    2015-06-01

    Approaches to the organization and conduct of cancer research changed dramatically throughout the 20th century. Despite marked differences between the epidemiological approaches of the first half of the century and molecular techniques that gained dominance in the 1980s, prominent 20th-century researchers investigating the link between sexual activity and anogenital cancers continuously invoked the same 1842 treatise by Italian surgeon Domenico Rigoni-Stern, who is said to originate the problem of establishing a causal link between sex and cancer. In this article, I investigate 20th-century references to Rigoni-Stern as a case of a broader phenomenon: scientists situating their work through narratives of venerated ancestors, or originators. By explaining shifting versions of originator narratives in light of their authors' cultural context and research practices, we can reimagine as meaningful cultural symbols the references that previous scholars have treated as specious rhetorical maneuvers. In this case, references to Rigoni-Stern provide an interpretive anchor for American scientists to construct continuity between their work and a diverse historical legacy of cancer research.

  2. Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In

  3. MINING ENTREPRENEURS IN CROATIA FROM THE MID-19TH TO THE MID-20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The masters, or owners, of mining rights for the exploration of ores were prospectors and free or independent prospectors. Concession books and registers were kept about the proprietors of ore fields or mines. In them was entered, among other things, which ore was planned to be exploited. The possessor of a licence, permits for exploration and exploitation of ores, paid a certain fee every year. He could also sell his mining righis. in the shape of permits, partially or, more frequently, totally, as was recorded in the books. If he did not pay taxes, he could lose all his rights, which were then deleted, or crossed out of the mining books. Those who possessed mining permits had to solve the questions of compensation to the owners of the lands where they intended to do detailed explorations, and to exploit the ore, even to the extent of leasing or buying the land. The mining activity in Croatia between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries is richly documented in the (Imperial and Royal mining captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar and Split. The basic mining law was the General Austrian Mining Law of 1854, with its amendments of 1911 (Legal Article VI about mineral oil substances and natural gases. In Croatia, mining enterpreneurs were individuals or companies (including the slate with the proviso that at the beginning there were more foreigners. However, Croatian traders, industrialists, magnates, officials, bankers, various companies, engineers, artists, retired persons, peasants, officers and others soon became involved in mining. Among the entrepreneurs there were various noblemen. It has been ascertained in this research that in individual periods between 1855 and 1945 there was a dominance of individuals (mainly 81%-85% while today (1990-1995 it is quite the opposite (86% are companies, because this is the end of the long term control of the socially owned companies. Thes same situation obtains today with respect to exploitation licenses, where

  4. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ershova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological

  5. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World War,…

  6. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World…

  7. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  8. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-10-26

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

  9. Fashion and art : the influence of art on fashion and the coexisting relationship in the 20th century western culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gursoy, Beylem Cansu

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Design and Marketing de Moda This work aims to present the relationship between art and fashion in the 20th century western culture focusing particularly on art movements and how fashion and art inspired each other throughout the years. The specific art movements which are investigated are Surrealism, Cubism, Pop art and the inspiration in contemporary designers such as Alexander McQueen and John Galliano. Notions of fashion and art have been inves...

  10. The dawning of the theory of equilibrium figures: a brief historical account from the 17th through the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Iurato, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A brief but complete historical survey of the theory of equilibrium figures from its early origins, dating back to 17th-century, until the late 20th-century developments, with a view towards its applications, is carried out.

  11. Properties and changes in empirical orthogonal components of temperature fields in Northern Eurasia in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsenko, N. M.; Ivashchenko, N. N.; Sonechkin, D. M.

    2011-02-01

    Using data from 55 meteorological stations in the Northern Hemisphere for the 20th century as a whole and separately for 1901-1950 and 1951-2000, the norms and empirical orthogonal components (EOCs) of the fields of the annual mean surface air temperature were calculated. These fields were found to have two components: smooth and nonsmooth. The field of differences between the temperature norms of the first and second halves of the 20th century was found to be projected almost completely on the very first component of fixed sign; i.e., the current climate trend of the Northern Hemisphere is spatially homogeneous. No substantial changes were found in the transition from the first half to the second half of the 20th century, either in the form of components or in the spectrum of eigenvalues, with the only exception being a small growth (in magnitude) in part of the eigenvalues corresponding to the nonsmooth component. This can be explained by the progressing urbanization of northern Eurasia. All coefficients of the temperature-field expansion by natural components are distributed normally, and their temporal correlation functions for smooth components of fields have a form characteristic of processes with long-term memory. The latter manifests itself particularly in the motions of the two main waves of the smooth component and reflects two stages of the current climate warming.

  12. Evaluation of CMIP5 20th century simulations for North American climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, J.; Maloney, E. D.; Mariotti, A.; Kinter, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) provides an unprecedented set of model results for improved understanding of climate processes and feedbacks, anthropogenic impacts and potential future changes. In particular, evaluations of the model historical simulations are crucial for assessing model fidelity and are a necessary prerequisite for instilling confidence in their future projections. This study synthesizes results from the NOAA CMIP5 Task Force on 20th century model evaluations for the climate of North America and related climate processes. We evaluate the models for a range of features at spatial scales from continental to regional and for a variety of time scales from intra-seasonal to multi-decadal variability and teleconnections with North American climate. In general the models capture the main features of North American climate including seasonal precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature. The hydrological cycle is also reasonably well simulated for the main characteristics of atmospheric moisture convergence and seasonality of the surface water budget but the latter is subject to the biases in precipitation. The spatial distribution of growing season length and number of frost days are generally well simulated, with biases highest in western regions. The frequency of hydroclimate extreme events is not well represented by the models. The skill of the models in representing climatologies of regional processes, such as the Great Plains low-level jet, the North American monsoon and cool season North Atlantic extra-tropical cyclones, is variable and can often be attributed to model resolution. In terms of climate variability, the multi-model ensemble does reasonably well at reproducing observed variability in several aspects, but does less well at capturing observed teleconnections. For intra-seasonal variability, almost half of the models examined can reproduce observed variability in the eastern Pacific and most models

  13. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For t....... Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females....

  14. Enforced linguistic conversion: translation of the Macedonian toponyms in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katica Kulavkova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Enforced linguistic conversion: translation of the Macedonian toponyms in the 20th century The article deals with the issue of forced conversion of Macedonian toponyms, considered as a form of linguistic and cultural dislocation or luxation (the Latin luxatio originating from luxus – dislocated. The toponyms are not just eminently linguistic but also a part of civilization’s memory of nations and of humankind, and that is why they are protected by international regulations. The act of translating toponyms from one language to another, within the frames of culturally and ethnically marked space, is undeniable violence against the cultural heritage. A change of a toponym, its forced translation into another language is, according to these legal acts, a crime against culture. For a toponym is a true reflection of historical facts and historical memories. Toponyms can be transcribed onto a different alphabet, letter‑by‑letter (transliteration, but should not be translated, especially not on the territory which is their civilization’s cradle, where they are practiced and inherited. Violent conversion of toponyms is an introduction to conversion of historical narratives and modern ethno‑cultural identities. History shows that there are violent forms of linguistic, cultural, religious and ethnic dislocations. The example of radical dislocation of Macedonian toponyms is probably one of the few in modern history. It has been taking place over an almost entire century – from the 1920s to the 21st century’s first decade. Macedonian toponyms, for centuries present on the territory of ethnic Macedonia (for which there is indisputable evidence, are being dislocated from their original linguistic/cultural context within several national entities: the Greek, Albanian and – paradoxically – Macedonian states. Such violent translation of toponyms is not devoid of geopolitical consequences. The conversions of Macedonian toponyms are just a step

  15. A Statistical Investigation on a Seismic Transient Occurred in Italy Between the 17th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, P. L.

    2016-11-01

    According to the historical earthquake catalog of Italy, the country experienced a pulse of seismicity between the 17th century, when the rate of destructive events increased by more than 100%, and the 20th century, characterized by a symmetric decrease. In the present work, I performed a statistical analysis to verify the reliability of such transient, considering different sources of bias and uncertainty, such as completeness and declustering of the catalog, as well as errors on magnitude estimation. I also searched for a confirmation externally to the catalog, analyzing the correlation with the volcanic activity. The similarity is high for the eruptive history of Vesuvius, which agrees on both the main rate changes of the 17th and 20th centuries and on minor variations in the intermediate period. Of general interest, beyond the specific case of Italy, the observed rate changes suggest the existence of large-scale crustal processes taking place within decades and lasting for centuries, responsible for the synchronous activation/deactivation of remote, loosely connected faults in different tectonic domains. Although their origin is still unexplained (I discuss a possible link with the climate changes and the consequent variations of the sea level), their existence and long lasting is critical for seismic hazard computation. In fact, they introduce a hardly predictable time variability that undermines any hypothesis of regularity of the earthquake cycle on individual faults and systems of interconnected faults.

  16. A Statistical Investigation on a Seismic Transient Occurred in Italy Between the 17th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragato, P. L.

    2017-03-01

    According to the historical earthquake catalog of Italy, the country experienced a pulse of seismicity between the 17th century, when the rate of destructive events increased by more than 100%, and the 20th century, characterized by a symmetric decrease. In the present work, I performed a statistical analysis to verify the reliability of such transient, considering different sources of bias and uncertainty, such as completeness and declustering of the catalog, as well as errors on magnitude estimation. I also searched for a confirmation externally to the catalog, analyzing the correlation with the volcanic activity. The similarity is high for the eruptive history of Vesuvius, which agrees on both the main rate changes of the 17th and 20th centuries and on minor variations in the intermediate period. Of general interest, beyond the specific case of Italy, the observed rate changes suggest the existence of large-scale crustal processes taking place within decades and lasting for centuries, responsible for the synchronous activation/deactivation of remote, loosely connected faults in different tectonic domains. Although their origin is still unexplained (I discuss a possible link with the climate changes and the consequent variations of the sea level), their existence and long lasting is critical for seismic hazard computation. In fact, they introduce a hardly predictable time variability that undermines any hypothesis of regularity of the earthquake cycle on individual faults and systems of interconnected faults.

  17. Consistent QBO-dependent effect of geomagnetic activity on the Northern Annular Mode during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliniemi, Ville; Asikainen, Timo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2016-04-01

    Several earlier studies have shown that geomagnetic activity (GA), as a proxy for energetic particle precipitation into the atmosphere, affects the winter-time Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which is the dominant circulation pattern in the northern hemisphere during winter. It has also been found that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) modulates the relationship between GA and NAM. However, some of the earlier studies on this QBO modulation have been mutually conflicting, with some studies suggesting a stronger positive relation in the easterly phase of the QBO, while other studies suggest a stronger positive relation in the westerly phase of the QBO. Here we study the QBO-GA-NAM relationship using a QBO reconstruction covering the whole 20th century. We find that the QBO modulation of the GA-NAM relation is temporally variable, which explains the earlier, seemingly differing results. Positive GA-NAM relation is found to be valid in the easterly QBO phase at 30 hPa during the whole 20th century. We also find that the QBO at 30 hPa represents the Holton-Tan relation for the surface circulation better than QBO at 50 hPa, and that the Holton-Tan relation is only observed during early/mid winter, while an anti-Holton-Tan relation is found in the late winter for strong geomagnetic activity. These results emphasize the variable but systematic response of NAM to energetic particle precipitation during the entire 20th century, and underline the importance of considering the preconditioning of the atmosphere when studying the solar-related effects upon climate.

  18. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Mariama

    2015-07-01

    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society.

  19. A time-series analysis of the 20th century climate simulations produced for the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Estrada

    Full Text Available In this paper evidence of anthropogenic influence over the warming of the 20th century is presented and the debate regarding the time-series properties of global temperatures is addressed in depth. The 20th century global temperature simulations produced for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report and a set of the radiative forcing series used to drive them are analyzed using modern econometric techniques. Results show that both temperatures and radiative forcing series share similar time-series properties and a common nonlinear secular movement. This long-term co-movement is characterized by the existence of time-ordered breaks in the slope of their trend functions. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that while natural forcing factors may help explain the warming of the first part of the century, anthropogenic forcing has been its main driver since the 1970's. In terms of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, significant anthropogenic interference with the climate system has already occurred and the current climate models are capable of accurately simulating the response of the climate system, even if it consists in a rapid or abrupt change, to changes in external forcing factors. This paper presents a new methodological approach for conducting time-series based attribution studies.

  20. Divergent hydrological responses to 20th century climate change in shallow tundra ponds, western Hudson Bay Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brent B.; Light, Erin M.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Hall, Roland I.; Eichel, Kaleigh; Jasechko, Scott; White, Jerry; Fishback, LeeAnn; Edwards, Thomas W. D.

    2011-12-01

    The hydrological fate of shallow tundra lakes and ponds under conditions of continued warming remains uncertain, but has important implications for wildlife habitat and biogeochemical cycling. Observations of unprecedented pond desiccation, in particular, signify catastrophic loss of aquatic habitat in some Arctic locations. Shallow tundra ponds are a ubiquitous feature in the western Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), a region that has undergone intense warming over the past ˜50 years. But it remains unknown how hydrological processes in these ponds have responded. Here, we use cellulose-inferred pond water oxygen isotope records from sediment cores, informed by monitoring of modern pond water isotope compositions during the 2009 and 2010 ice-free seasons, to reconstruct hydrological conditions of four shallow tundra ponds in the western HBL over the past three centuries. Following an interval of relative hydrological stability during the early part of the records, results reveal widely differing hydrological responses to 20th century climate change among the study sites, which is largely dependent on hydrological connectivity of the basins within their respective surrounding peatlands. These findings suggest the 20th century has been characterized by an increasingly dynamic landscape that has variably influenced surface water balance - a factor that is likely to play a key role in determining the future water balance of ponds in this region.

  1. Jeewanu, or the 'particles of life'. The approach of Krishna Bahadur in 20th century origin of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Mathias

    2011-09-01

    Starting in the 1960s, the Indian chemist Krishna Bahadur, from the University of Allahabad, published on organic and inorganic particles that he had synthesized and baptized 'Jeewanu', or 'particle of life'. Bahadur conceived of the Jeewanu as a simple form of the living. These studies are presented in a historical perspective and positioned within mid-20th century research on the origin of life, notably the so-called 'coacervate theory' of the Soviet biochemist Aleksandr I Oparin. The concepts of life proposed by Bahadur, Oparin and others are discussed from a historical standpoint.

  2. Jeewanu, or the `particles of life’ The approach of Krishna Bahadur in 20th century origin of life research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mathias Grote

    2011-09-01

    Starting in the 1960s, the Indian chemist Krishna Bahadur, from the University of Allahabad, published on organic and inorganic particles that he had synthesized and baptized `Jeewanu’, or `particle of life’. Bahadur conceived of the Jeewanu as a simple form of the living. These studies are presented in a historical perspective and positioned within mid-20th century research on the origin of life, notably the so-called `coacervate theory’ of the Soviet biochemist Aleksandr I Oparin. The concepts of life proposed by Bahadur, Oparin and others are discussed from a historical standpoint.

  3. Women's Position in Lithuanian Labour Market in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Jureniene

    2008-09-01

    los compromisos familiares.The paper draws attention to women's position in the changing labour market of the 1920s-1930s and after the reestablishment of independence in 1990 in the Republic of Lithuania. The author carries out a historical analysis of the impact of the laws issued at that period to solve the issue of unemployment and explores their implications to women's position in the labour market. Among the most significant laws dealing with rising unemployment in Lithuania at the beginning of the 20th century was the one demanding from an employer to dismiss an employee whose spouse had a job. Since the society of that time was predominantly patriarchal, married women were the first to be dismissed. The law raised a stormy reaction from women who sought support from international organizations such as the Federation of International Diplomaed Women and the Union of the Nations. However, the issue was not solved till 1940 and burst out after the reestablishment of the state in 1990 and persisted till 1998 when the law of Equal Opportunities was issued.

  4. 20世纪汉语"史诗问题"探论%"Epic in Chinese": A Tentative Insight into the Problem under Discussion in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林岗

    2007-01-01

    @@ Along with the eastward expansion of Western culture in the early 20th century, China began to get acquainted with West-era-style concepts of the history of literature, and the composition of literary history became popular.

  5. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  6. The controversial early brightening in the first half of 20th century: a contribution from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain)

    CERN Document Server

    Antón, M; Aparicio, A J P

    2014-01-01

    A long-term decrease in downward surface solar radiation from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming") followed by a multi-decadal increase up to the present ("brightening") have been detected in many regions worldwide. In addition, some researchers have suggested the existence of an "early brightening" period in the first half of 20th century. However, this latter phenomenon is an open issue due to the opposite results found in literature and the scarcity of solar radiation data during this period. This paper contributes to this relevant discussion analyzing, for the first time in Southern Europe, the atmospheric column transparency derived from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain) for the period 1911-1928. This time series is one of the three longest dataset during the first quarter of the 20th century in Europe. The results showed the great effects of the Katmai eruption (June 1912, Alaska) on transparency values during 1912-1913 with maximum relative anomalies around 8%. Outside the period affect...

  7. Changes in the African American female profile as depicted in fashion magazines during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehezkel, Shaul; Turley, Patrick K

    2004-04-01

    This study evaluated changes in the profiles of African American women presented in fashion magazines during the 20th century. Twenty-six variables were measured on a total of 119 profile photographs collected from various fashion magazines published in the 1940s through the 1990s. The photographs were divided into 6 groups corresponding to the decade in which they were published. A 1-way analysis of variance was performed, and between-group differences were examined with a Tukey multiple comparison procedure. Significant between-group differences (P <.01) were found for anteroposterior lip position, nasolabial angle, and interlabial angle, with increased fullness and more anteriorly positioned lips in the more recent decades. No significant differences were found for the frontonasal angle, the nasal tip angle, and the relationship of the chin to the upper face (total facial angle). Esthetic standards for the African-American female profile changed during the 20th century and, similar to the standards for the white profile, show a trend toward fuller and more anteriorly positioned lips.

  8. Collective Memory and Collective Identity of Hlučín Region Inhabitants in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kubátová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hlučín Region is a small border area in the Moravia-Silesia Region. Its history is specific. Over 25 years in the 20th century, its border shifted three times and its inhabitants’ nationality also changed three times. The region was annexed by the German Reich in 1938 and its inhabitants gained the rights of citizens of the Reich, with the obligation to enlist in the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Germany. These historical turning points and their consequences after the Second World War are part of the cultural and communicative memory of most of the local people. The purpose of the article is to show the communicative memory of Hlučín Region inhabitants and the common knowledge of 20th century historical events to be one of the important integral parts of regional identity, which is a source of regional consciousness. Hlučín Region inhabitants identify themselves strongly with their region and society. This identification results from specific culture finding its expression in shared values, faith and traditions, and from the awareness of their own specificity. As a consequence of the predominant regional endogamy, this culture is handed down from one generation to another. Strong regional consciousness based on this identification, has a positive influence on the rich communal life and possibilities of stabilization and further development of the region.

  9. A multidisciplinary approach of the status of women in Europe in the 20th-21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was marked by the feminine revolution and the change of status of women throughout the world. The following article wishes to approach from a multidisciplinary perspective the contrasting differences of the woman’s condition in two different “worlds” (Occidental and the Balkans given the access of women towards education, social attitude and the afferent politics for women. These indexes influence the rate of participation of women in the working field, thus, they play a crucial role in the personal development of them. The comparative analysis of the specialized literature points out the main characteristics of women from France and Germany (as defining parts of the Occidental Europe and Turkey and Bosnia (representative countries for the Balkans and the Islamic part of the continent throughout the 20th and the 21st century. Although there is a common set of features, it is the differences that draw attention regarding the unequal participation of women in the social, economical and political life.

  10. Response of the everglades ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Willard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The ridge and slough landscape of the Florida Everglades consists of a mosaic of linear sawgrass ridges separated by deeper-water sloughs with tree islands interspersed throughout the landscape. We used pollen assemblages from transects of sediment cores spanning sawgrass ridges, sloughs, and ridge-slough transition zones to determine the timing of ridge and slough formation and to evaluate the response of components of the ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management. These pollen data indicate that sawgrass ridges and sloughs have been vegetationally distinct from one another since initiation of the Everglades wetland in mid-Holocene time. Although the position and community composition of sloughs have remained relatively stable throughout their history, modern sawgrass ridges formed on sites that originally were occupied by marshes. Ridge formation and maturation were initiated during intervals of drier climate (the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age) when the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted southward. During these drier intervals, marsh taxa were more common in sloughs, but they quickly receded when precipitation increased. Comparison with regional climate records suggests that slough vegetation is strongly influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation variability, even under 20th-century water management practices. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. [The conceptual revolutions about nature as imposed by 20th century physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Posada, D Francisco

    2002-01-01

    A catalogue is offered of the thirteen conceptual--and observational--revolutions which took place in twentieth century Physics, those which should be considered the most revelant for their significance in the scientific and philosophical thought about Nature as established along that century. The are organized in the three areas where they were originated: Relativity, Quantum Physics and Cosmology. Several of these conceptual revolutions appeared in Physics explicitly, while the rest only happened to arise in a latent way. The ones and the others are remarked in this contribution with philosophical expressions and through the world horizon, a perspective which opens in a general manner each revolution to the whole of the scientific and philosophical of the past century.

  12. The Rise in Life Expectancy and Economic Growth in the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; lønstrup, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This research exploits conditional exogenous variation in mortality from the diffusion of modern medicine to study the effect of growth in life expectancy on the growth in GDP per capita. The empirical analysis establishes that countries that obtained higher growth rates of life expectancy due...... to this shock to mortality in the mid-twentieth century experienced lower growth rates of GDP per capita in the second half of the twentieth century. In addition, a negative relationship between initial level of life expectancy and the subsequent growth rate of GDP per capita is found....

  13. High resolution sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts reflects decadal variability and 20th century warming in the Santa Barbara Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringué, Manuel; Pospelova, Vera; Field, David B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a continuous record of dinoflagellate cysts from a core of laminated sediments collected in the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), off Southern California. The core spans the last ∼260 years and is analysed at biennial (two-year) resolution. Variations in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are compared with 20th century historical changes, and are used to examine changes in primary productivity and species composition, which are bound to the variability in upwelling and sea-surface temperature (SST) in the region. Cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates dominate the assemblages. In particular, Brigantedinium spp. (on average 64.2% of the assemblages) are commonly associated with high levels of primary productivity, typically observed under active upwelling conditions, when nutrient supply is higher. Other heterotrophic taxa such as cysts of Protoperidinium americanum, Protoperidinium fukuyoi, Protoperidinium minutum and Archaeperidinium saanichi, all Echinidinium species, Quinquecuspis concreta and Selenopemphix undulata are more abundant in the early part of the record (∼1750s-1870s). These taxa are generally associated with high primary productivity and are observed predominantly during intervals marked by relatively variable conditions of SST, stratification and nutrient loading. The 20th century is marked by an increase in several species of autotrophic affinity, primarily Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Spiniferites ramosus. In recent surface sediments from the region, these species are more abundant in the Southern California Bight, and they are associated with conditions of relaxed upwelling in the SBB (typically observed during summer and fall), when SST is higher and nutrient supply is moderate. Their increasing concentrations since the early 20th century reflect warmer SST and possibly stronger stratification during the warmest season. Taken together, the changes in cyst assemblages provide further evidence that persistently warmer conditions

  14. Careers of men and women in the 19th and 20th centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the process of status attainment during the careers of men and women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the influence of modernization processes on that process of status attainment. During the decades following World War II, the Western world saw an increasing c

  15. Flipping Their Fins for a Place to Stand: 19th- and 20th-Century Mermaids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Wilson, Gloria Lodato

    1993-01-01

    Juxtaposition of Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Sea Maid" (1837) and Disney's home video "The Little Mermaid" (1989) illustrates how the adolescent princesses have evolved with changing views of women's roles. The mermaid of the twentieth century, part of the world of men, is still in a subservient role. (SLD)

  16. Modeling Arctic Ocean heat transport and warming episodes in the 20th century caused by the intruding Atlantic Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia; JIN Mei-bing; Jun Takahashi; Tatsuo Suzuki; Igor V Polyakov; Kohei Mizobata; Moto Ikeda; Fancois J.Saucier; Markus Meier

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the Arctic Ocean warming episodes in the 20th century using both a high-resolution coupled global climate model and historical observations. The model, with no flux adjustment, reproduces well the Atlantic Water core temperature (AWCT) in the Arctic Ocean and shows that four largest decadalscale warming episodes occurred in the 1930's, 70s, 80s, and 90s, in agreement with the hydrographic observational data. The difference is that there was no pre-warming prior to the 1930s episode, while there were two pre-warming episodes in the 1970s and 80s prior to the 1990s, leading the 1990s into the largest and prolonged warming in the 20th century. Over the last century, the simulated heat transport via Fram Strait and the Barents Sea was estimated to be, on average, 31.32 TW and 14.82TW, respectively, while the Bering Strait also provides 15.94 TW heat into the western Arctic Ocean. Heat transport into the Arctic Ocean by the Atlantic Water via Fram Strait and the Barents Sea correlates significantly with AWCT ( C =0.75 ) at Olag. The modeled North Atlantic Oscillation ( NAO ) index has a significant correlation with the heat transport ( C = 0.37 ). The observed AWCT has a significant correlation with both the modeled AWCT (C =0.49) and the heat transport (C =0.41 ).However, the modeled NAO index does not significantly correlate with either the observed AWCT (C =0.03 ) or modeled AWCT (C = 0. 16) at a zero-lag, indicating that the Arctic climate system is far more complex than expected.

  17. Economic Development of Sarepta District of the Tsaritsyn County at the Turn of the 19th-20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfenov Aleksandr E.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the process of the industrial development of Sarepta district (now the southern part of Volgograd at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. By the end of the 19th century the Sarepta district comprised 17 production entities. The majority of them were small workshops that manufactured various household goods and had from 5 to 10 workers. Besides, Sarepta had a larger industrial enterprise – the Mustard Factory of the Glitsch – which was known throughout Russia for the high quality of its produce. Agriculture played a minor role in Sarepta district. The population of Sarepta district amounted to about 1800 people in 1894. It comprised landowners, small industrialists, and their hired workers. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a rapid industrial development of the area. The first stage of the process was the building of the Tsaritsyn- Tikhoretskaya railway line. It connected the Kuban wheat-growing region with central areas of Russia. A 13-kilometres long section of the railway line passed through Sarepta district. Near Sarepta a station, a locomotive depot, and repair workshops were built in 1895-98. In 1901 the railway line and station were supplemented with a large cargo port on the Volga near Sarepta. The creation of the large transport hub sharply raised the economic significance of Sarepta district. Social and demographic characteristics of the area also changed dramatically. Due to the inflow of workers to the station and port, the district population nearly doubled and the ratio of proletariat raised sharply.

  18. The teaching of vectors in mathematics and physics in France during the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Ba, Cissé; Dorier, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this text is part of a doctorial dissertation in mathematics education (Ba 2006) about the teaching and learning of vectors, translations, forces, velocity and movement of translation in mathematics and physics. Here, we present the evolution of the teaching of vectors and vector quantities in mathematics and physics from the end of the 19th century up to now. We analyse this evolution in the light of the ecology of knowledge, as developed by Yves Chevallard (1994). This...

  19. Hans Bethe and Physics in/of the 20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweber, Silvan [Brandeis University

    2012-12-12

    I will present some facets of Hans Bethe’s life to illustrate how I have used biography to narrate certain aspects of the history of twentieth century physics. I will focus on post World War II quantum field theory, on the relation between solid state/condensed matter physics and high energy physics, and make some observations regarding certain “top down” views in solid state physics in postmodernity.

  20. Naturalism, novel and society in 19-20th century transition Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ortíz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The second half of the nineteenth century in Spain was a period characterized by a strong presence of social science, which even came to permeate the masses. Evolutionary theories and some figures such as Charles Darwin himself were present in areas far from the scientific activity proper. The use of concepts and laws of biological origin for the diagnosis and political practice against certain problematic social realities, such as crime or poverty, gave rise to theories and intellectual scho...

  1. The Neoclassical Advent: American Economics at the Dawn of the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Persky

    2000-01-01

    For the U.S. economy, the last quarter of the 19th century brought the closing of the Western frontier, agricultural hardship in the South, the rise of large corporations and trusts, and the emergence of a serious labor movement. The fledgling American economics profession struggled to document and prescribe for the confounding mix of industrialization, urbanization, and rural crisis. In 1900, the relatively small community of serious economic researchers focused on applied issues in public p...

  2. Universal coverage in the United States: lessons from experience of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K

    2001-03-01

    Both the rising numbers of uninsured Americans and the recent presidential election have put the issue of universal health insurance coverage back on the national agenda. Lack of health insurance is a major barrier to care for 44 million Americans, and lack of high-quality, comprehensive insurance is a barrier to millions more. Universal coverage is one of the best ways to ensure that all Americans have equitable access to quality care, and it also contributes to the financial stability of health care providers, especially those in the urban safety net. A wide variety of ideas to expand health care coverage were proposed, and in some cases enacted, during the last century. At the beginning of the 21st century, the American health care system is made up of varied elements, ranging from employer-sponsored health insurance for the majority of working-age adults to the public Medicare program for the elderly. While this patchwork system leaves many Americans without health insurance, it also creates many different ways to expand coverage, including various options in both the private and public sectors. By understanding how the current health care system developed, how the various proposals for universal health coverage gained and lost political and public support, and the pros and cons of the various alternatives available to expand coverage, we create a solid base from which to solve the problem of the uninsured in the 21st century.

  3. Reproduction in cold water: paradigm changes in the 20th century and a role for cidaroid sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, John S.; Lockhart, Susanne J.

    2004-07-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, powerful ideas about the biology of marine animals in cold waters (polar and deep sea) were in early stages of development. (1) General similarities between some Arctic and Antarctic species suggested a past or present continuity between the poles, possibly through tropical submergence. (2) The discovery of subantarctic species brooding their offspring suggested that supposedly harsh polar conditions select against species with pelagic, dispersive larvae. (3) The linkage between seasonal temperature changes and seasonal reproduction suggested that where temperatures were constant, as in polar and deep seas, reproduction would be aseasonal or continuous throughout the year. (4) Recognition of the phenomenon of metabolic temperature adaptation suggested that animals living in cold water should exhibit rates of physiological processes similar to rates in warmer environments. Observations and experiments throughout the first half of the 20th century generally supported and reinforced these ideas. During the second half of the 20th century, however, the generality of these paradigms broke down. Detailed analyses of fuller data indicated that Arctic, Antarctic, and deep-sea faunas are not the same and probably have different phylogenies reflecting different vicariant histories. Moreover, many species in these habitats have pelagic larvae, they generally spawn seasonally, and their physiological processes (respiration, gametogenesis, development, feeding, growth) are slow, showing little evidence of the expected temperature adaptation. Nevertheless, entering the 21st century, we are challenged by important exceptions that do support many of the earlier ideas. Bipolarity in some groups does indicate relict distributions, and other groups show equatorial submergence. Moreover, major species-rich clades in the Antarctic (unlike the Arctic) do brood their young. Most species with pelagic larvae produce non-feeding (lecithotrophic) larvae

  4. Evolution of forest cover in Portugal:A review of the 12th-20th centu-ries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fernando Reboredo; João Pais

    2014-01-01

    Portugal’s forests in the 12th century were dominated by the Fagaceae represented by Quercus and Castanea, and several pine species. From the 12th century onwards, forests underwent changes in their man-agement starting with protection and ultimately leading to intense ex-ploitation. The massive naval construction during the maritime expansion (mainly in the 15th-16th centuries) involved felling of approximately 5 million trees mainly Quercus suber, Pinus pinea and other Quercus species. Cumulative fuel-wood consumption of 959 Mm3 during 1300-1854 was attributed to demographic expansion while the deforesta-tion rate during 1636-1854 accounted for a minimum of 72.6% and a maximum of 96% of total forest cover. The volume of timber used in railway sleepers from 1856 onwards might have reached 0.5 Mm3. The last quarter of the 20th century increased the forest cover of Portugal through the World Bank program of Eucalyptus globulus reforestation.

  5. Lope de Vega and History on the Stages of the 20th and 21st Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificació Mascarell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine, on the one hand, the presence of Lope’s historical dramas on contemporary stage to confirm their continuity; and, on the other, to reflect on the distinctive features of the staging of these dramas from a specific corpus of performances dating from the last decades. The goal is to observe the current relevance of these dramas and performances, to study under what ethical and aesthetic assumptions characters are now represented and the historical episodes that Lope used in the creation of his fictions, as well as to analyze the possible connections between History, Lope and the audience of the 21st century.

  6. [Private clinics in Nuremberg in the 19th and 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasold, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the industrialization German cities grew very rapidly during the 19th century. Nuremberg reached the number of 100 000 in 1881. Although that city had a large Municipality Hospital (since 1845), a number of specialized private hospitals was founded. Julius Cnopf, a doctor from Nuremberg, founded a children's hospital, one of the first children's hospitals in Germany. The Nuremberg Muncipality Hospital had more than 1000 beds before 1914 and many more than 2000 after 1945, for this reason the number of private owned hospitals remained rather small. Nonetheless were these small and highly specialized hospitals quite important for the city population of Nuremberg.

  7. Muslim Women in Women’s Travel Literature of the 19th and 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Dokl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the position of women in Islam, from the beginning of the 19th century till the end of the Second World War, through the eyes of female travel writers. The first women travellers who set out for the Middle East were the first outsiders to be accepted into women’s societies in the Islamic world, and thus they entered the life behind the veil. Comparing writers’ encounters with Muslim women and the Muslim world in general, I describe Muslim women throughout various stages of life.

  8. Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance during 20th and 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4. These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

  9. LAND USE CHANGES IN THE TRANS-BOUNDARY AMUR RIVER BASIN IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ermoshin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All distinctions in the economic and nature protection policy of the neighboring states are well reflected and shown within trans-boundary river basins. The parts of trans-boundary geosystem of one country can experience an essential negative influence from rash decisions in the field of nature use and nature protection policy of the neighboring state. The Amur River Basin covers the territories of Russia, the Peoples Republic of China, Mongolia and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and occupies more than 2 million km2. The most intensive development of the basin territory has started since the middle of the 19th century. We compiled two maps of land use in the Amur River basin in the 1930–1940s and in the early 21st century. Results showed that, negative dynamics is marked for forest lands, meadows, wetlands and mountain tundra. The basic features in the change of land use within national parts of the basin in Russia, China and Mongolia are analyzed. The comparative analysis of land use peculiarities of the countries for the last 70 years has been done.

  10. 2014 Beller Lectureship: Chinese Physicists Educated in the Great Britain during the First Half of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    More than 30 Chinese students went to Great Britain to study physics during the first half of the 20th century. They were concentrated in London University (13), Cambridge University (9), Edinburgh University (5) and Manchester University (3) and so on. All these students returned to China after finishing their study and most of them later became excellent physicists. They contributed to the development of physics in China. Based on newly discovered primary materials concerning these Chinese physicists, I examine their study in UK and subsequent accomplishments after their return to China. I will then analyze these British-trained Chinese physicists and compare them with those studying in Japan and America. I would argue that Chinese physicists educated in Britain have high degree of specialization as a whole and formed unique style. They made certain unique contributions to Chinese physics development.

  11. Sante De Sanctis (1862-1935), a forerunner of the 20th century research on sleep and dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Renato; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Morgese, Giorgia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to reconstruct the elements of continuity and/or discontinuity in Sante De Sanctis' (1862-1935) contributions in the scientific understanding of sleep and dreaming as compared to the scientific research of his time. An Italian psychologist and psychiatrist, De Sanctis, in his work conducted between the 19th and 20th centuries, has framed the study of dreams using multi-methodology. In addition, De Sanctis experimentally established the correspondence between the deep and desynchronization phases of sleep with respect to dreaming. In this context, De Sanctis' subjects described the periodicity of sleep and consciousness, influencing the explanations of the themes that modern sleep research has, after decades, systematically studied. We demonstrate that De Sanctis' work has been underestimated, and in our opinion, deserves to be reconsidered as a source of the psychophysiological explanation of dreams and sleep. Finally, we present a graphical representation of De Sanctis' psycho- and neurophysiological model of dreaming.

  12. Increase of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere wave baroclinicity during the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Castanheira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A strengthening of the equatorward temperature gradient in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS, at subtropics and midlatitudes, is consistently reproduced in several modelling studies of the atmospheric response to the increase of greenhouse gas radiative forcing. Some of those studies suggest an increase of the baroclinicity in the UTLS region because of the enhanced meridional temperature gradient.

    This study presents observational evidence of an increase of UTLS wave baroclinicity, during the second half of the 20th century. The evidence is given by significant positive trends in the energy of baroclinic normal modes of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and significant positive trends in the eddy available potential energy of the ERA-40 reanalysis as well as in the eddy available potential energy of the JRA-25 reanalysis. Significant positive trends in the frequency of double tropopause events in radiosonde data are also interpreted as a manifestation of an increase of the UTLS wave baroclinicity.

  13. [Cycles of German yellow fever research in the first half of the 20th century: protagonists and interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz-Wessels, Annette

    2008-01-01

    This article examines for the case of yellow fever research in Germany in the first half of the 20th century how political and military conditions affected the interests of scientific research. As a tropical disease, yellow fever was unknown in Germany and very rare in the German colonies and thus of little scientific or political interest. But this changed once the National Socialists began pursuing their wars of conquest. In preparation for a new colonial empire and a military mission in Africa, yellow fever research became increasingly important. The chief beneficiary of this development was the Robert Koch-Institute in Berlin, where Eugen Haagen worked after his time as a researcher in the Yellow Fever Laboratory in New York. In collaboration with the army and the industry, he used human experiments in his efforts to develop a vaccine for mass production. Ultimately, the vaccine's application was prevented by the German surrender in North Africa.

  14. The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20th Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermalin, Albert I.; Lowry, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908–1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20th century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument. PMID:22904585

  15. Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

    2005-11-01

    At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

  16. Borders, laborers, and racialized medicalization Mexican immigration and US public health practices in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Natalia

    2011-06-01

    Throughout the 20th century, US public health and immigration policies intersected with and informed one another in the country's response to Mexican immigration. Three historical episodes illustrate how perceived racial differences influenced disease diagnosis: a 1916 typhus outbreak, the midcentury Bracero Program, and medical deportations that are taking place today. Disease, or just the threat of it, marked Mexicans as foreign, just as much as phenotype, native language, accent, or clothing. A focus on race rendered other factors and structures, such as poor working conditions or structural inequalities in health care, invisible. This attitude had long-term effects on immigration policy, as well as on how Mexicans were received in the United States.

  17. Methodological disputes about interpretation of neum notation in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the end of the twentieth century in Byzantine musicological science there were two diametrically opposite approaches to the interpretation of the Byzantine neum notation systems and post-Byzantine music heritage after the Fall of Constantinople. Western European scholars, ignoring the post-Byzantine Chant tradition and the last semeography reform from the early nineteenth century, looked at the problems of the musical past only from the perspective of the Middle Ages. Greek researchers have shared the belief that the condition of an adequate understanding of the mid-Byzantine notation, or the so-called old method, is the knowledge of analytical neum system and theory, the basics of which were set up by musicians from the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth century, and were finally shaped by Chrisantos, Gregory and Chourmouzios and officially accepted in the Greek church in 1814. The path to overcoming the issues relating to the development of neum notation, and finding an adequate manner of decoding it, led through the understanding of the phenomenon of "interpretation" and other tendencies that marked the post-Byzantine music practice. Two scientists -the Danish Jørgen Raasted, a follower of the Western European musicological methods established by founders of Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, and Greek theologist and musicologist Gregory Stathes - are specifically responsible for the reconciliation of the different methodological approaches. After numerous and often heated debates, the Danish scientist eventually largely accepted the views of his Greek counterpart. Moreover, he himself insisted, at the musicological conferences organized during the 1980s, on reviewing the controversial issues: the existence of chromatic intervals in the psalmody of the Middle-Ages, the problem of syllabic and melismatic interpretations of stenographic neum records, and so on. Concerning the above mentioned issues, the contemporary trends in

  18. Ice core evidence for a 20th century increase in surface mass balance in coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Morgane; Tison, Jean-Louis; Fjøsne, Karen; Hubbard, Bryn; Kjær, Helle A.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Drews, Reinhard; Sheldon, Simon G.; De Bondt, Kevin; Claeys, Philippe; Pattyn, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Ice cores provide temporal records of surface mass balance (SMB). Coastal areas of Antarctica have relatively high and variable SMB, but are under-represented in records spanning more than 100 years. Here we present SMB reconstruction from a 120 m-long ice core drilled in 2012 on the Derwael Ice Rise, coastal Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Water stable isotope (δ18O and δD) stratigraphy is supplemented by discontinuous major ion profiles and continuous electrical conductivity measurements. The base of the ice core is dated to AD 1759 ± 16, providing a climate proxy for the past ˜ 250 years. The core's annual layer thickness history is combined with its gravimetric density profile to reconstruct the site's SMB history, corrected for the influence of ice deformation. The mean SMB for the core's entire history is 0.47 ± 0.02 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1. The time series of reconstructed annual SMB shows high variability, but a general increase beginning in the 20th century. This increase is particularly marked during the last 50 years (1962-2011), which yields mean SMB of 0.61 ± 0.01 m w.e. a-1. This trend is compared with other reported SMB data in Antarctica, generally showing a high spatial variability. Output of the fully coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM) suggests that, although atmospheric circulation is the main factor influencing SMB, variability in sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover in the precipitation source region also explain part of the variability in SMB. Local snow redistribution can also influence interannual variability but is unlikely to influence long-term trends significantly. This is the first record from a coastal ice core in East Antarctica to show an increase in SMB beginning in the early 20th century and particularly marked during the last 50 years.

  19. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opuni Marjorie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of λ against the null that λ = 0 (logarithmic model and against the null that λ = 1 (linear model. We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log

  20. The 20th Century evolution of energy budgets and meridional transports in two AMIP-like experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Valerio; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The 20th century evolution and spatial patterns of the Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA), atmospheric, and surface energy budgets (EB) are investigated in this work. These are computed as the balance between the radiative and heat fluxes at the TOA and at the surface. Total, atmospheric and oceanic meridional energy transports are computed from the EBs. Two AMIP-like ensemble simulations are considered: Integrated Forecast System (IFS) simulations of the ERA-20CM experiment, and ECHAM5-HAM model simulations. With the latter, additional sensitivity experiments are carried out by constraining either Sea-Surface Temperatures (SST) and Sea-Ice Cover (SIC) or aerosol concentrations to climatological values. The recent decades estimates of the EB are in reasonable agreement in the two models, while they are not for what concerns the global scale evolution. Particularly, in the 1970s ERA-20CM shows a fast transition from negative to positive EBs at Top of Atmosphere (TOA) that is not found in ECHAM5-HAM. The impact of aerosols, as evidenced by the sensitivity experiments with ECHAM5-HAM, is seen to set up an inter-hemispheric gradient in the TOA and surface budget after 1960. This is also reflected by an increased total poleward transport in the Northern Hemisphere and decreased in the Southern Hemisphere. This feature is not found in ERA-20CM. SST variations do not seem to induce long-term variations in the patterns of TOA budget and related total meridional transport. Nevertheless most of the surface and atmospheric budget and transport inter-annual variability is attributable to the evolution of SST, and much more agreement is observed among the two models in this respect. Reference: Lembo V, Doris F, Martin W, and Lionello P (2015) Energy budgets and transports: global evolution and spatial patterns during the 20th Century as estimated in two AMIP-like experiments, Clim. Dyn., subm.

  1. Customs of Galati Port at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Tănase

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Common practices, whether recognized or not as a source of law, represented an area of great importance in economic practice and judicial bodies, especially in maritime and river transport, but also rail and air transport. The Civil Code of 1864 made some references to local custom, while the new Civil Code provisions establish that practices are sources of law. In this way was settled a particularly sensitive area, namely, the existence and applicability of common practices in special matters such as those on business, commercial transactions, financial and otherwise, being directly related to maritime and river transport. This study attempts to identify specific features of the common practices application in Galaţi port in the early twentieth century.

  2. Emotions and Social Sciences in 20th century: The Prequel of Affective Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giazú Enciso Domínguez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Affective Turn is an innovative movement that is transforming the production of knowledge based on the study of affect and emotion. To understand the current role of emotions, we proposed a 'prequel. Telling what happened with emotions within the social sciences before the Affective Turn, and before the twentieth century. In this work we explain the present from the past, we tell the story before The History, we pay a debt to a previous work: The Affective Turn. We articulate the prequel through seven approaches: Socialconstructionism, Discursive Social Psychology, Cultural Studies of Emotions, Emocionologies, Interpretative Sociology, Sociolinguistic of Emotions and Feminist Studies of emotions. We review the interests of each approach, their schools, their past, and give hints about not only the present but the future(s of the Affective Turn, in social science and academy as well.

  3. Dead Men Do Tell Tales: The Apotheosis of Celebrities in 20th Century America

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    Timothy J. Bertoni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological-evolutionary theory (EET argues, and anecdotal evidence suggests, that with the advancement of industrial technology, there is a decline in the scope and influence of theistic ideologies and a corresponding increase in that of secular ideologies, especially hedonism (Nolan and Lenski 2009: Chapter 11. Using a measure we develop, we explore the quantitative dimensions of this cultural shift by examining a sample of more than a century of obituaries published in the New York Times. As suspected, we find a substantial decline in the proportion of obituaries of religious figures and an increase in those of individuals associated with entertainment and sports. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical import and implications of this trend, and compare it with trends in employment in religious and entertainment and sports occupations over this period.

  4. Advances in Structural Geology and Tectonics in the Late 20th Century: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on analyses of the share of documents of structural geology and tectonics in the GeoRef system over 100 years in the last century, and the historical change of international (31 years) and domestic (16 years) document counts of various topics in structural geology and tectonics, the position of structural geology and tectonics in the geosciences is evaluated and the major advaces in fields of plate tectonics, continental dynamics and global dynamics are reviewed. Our attention mainly focuses on the advances in studies of structural analysis, deformation mechanisms and rheology of rocks,contractional tectonics and late- and post-orogenic extensional collapse in orogens, large-scale strikeslip faults and indentation-extrusion tectonics, active tectonics and natural hazards. The relationships of structural geology and tectonics with petrology and geochronology are also discussed in terms of intersection of scientific disciplines. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for the further development of structural geology and tectonics in China.

  5. [Gerontology and endocrinology at the beginning of the 20th century: Dr. Voronoff (1866-1951)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouch, A; Segal, A

    2001-01-01

    Rejuvenation by monkey testicle transplanting was terribly fashionable in Paris, between years 1925-1930. The manual miracles done by a group of very well-known surgeons, in Paris, (especially Serge Voronoff and Dartigues) rooted in the head of a too credulous public the idea according to it was possible to be made scientifically younger by genital graftings. The "Etude sur la vieillesse et la rajeunissement par la greffe" (1926), written by Voronoff, provided the clinical, histological and iconographical proofs of a such rejuvenation. The paper analyses that was put forward as "proofs", situated in the scientific and cultural context of the time. A possible link between youth, sexual vigour and animality sends back to a mythic history of gerontology and endocrinology, two medical fields which however became scientific specialties in the beginning of the twentieth century.

  6. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on the Asian monsoon precipitation during the 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The increase in the global average temperature during the last century is considered an integrated result of anthropogenic and natural forcing, but different views remain about the anthropogenic impacts on the Asian monsoon precipitation. Based on the ~2000-year records of stalagmite δ18O from the Dongge Cave (Guizhou Province) and Wanxiang Cave (Gansu Province), we address the possible anthropogenic impacts on the southwest and southeast Asian monsoon from 1900-2000 AD, using the method of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA). The results show that the monsoon precipitation trends in the last 100 years at both sites can be obtained through SSA prediction using the data prior to 1900 AD. These suggest that human activity has not significantly affected the trends of monsoon precipitation despite of its impact on the global temperature.

  7. Heritage of convenience: protection of the 20th century in Pescara - myth and reality

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    Claudio Varagnoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pescara was born from the merger of two small existing towns, in 1926. The new town thus feels like a place with no past, no history; something that is far from the truth. This notion has endorsed the ongoing demolition and replacement, even in recent times. An initial survey of the architectural heritage carried out by L. Bartolini Salimbeni, in 1994, highlighted considerable architectural heritage, that should have been defended by a variant of the urban master plan approved in 2007. However, recent demolitions of buildings of a certain importance (the Porta Nuova Station, the former Centrale del Latte, a textile mill from the early twentieth century proceed amid protests from citizens and associations. The Town Hall tried to remedy the situation, entrusting revision of the current urban master plan to a group of experts, who extended the work of Bartolini Salimbeni. However, the Administrative Court rejected these and other attempts of protection, disputing the application of restrictive rules on the part of the Town Hall: only the Superintendence, the local office of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, in fact, may apply such restrictions. The essay highlights the need to improve alternative means of protection instead of traditional ways. However, it also points out that, in Italy, the economic and financial aspects of “heritage” still prevail. New dangers threaten other important buildings, such as the Adriatic Stadium, designed by Luigi Piccinato (1952-56. The issue not only concerns the preservation of monuments, but also the quality of life of the inhabitants. The risk is that our towns will be reduced to mere merchandise. Keywords: Pescara, Conservation, Nineteenth century, Demolitions, Heritage

  8. [Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978). The tradition of idealistic morphology in the German botanical sciences of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Kay

    2005-01-01

    During the first half of the 19th century, idealistic morphology developed into an influential research program in the German biosciences. This program was based on the concept of an ideal connection existing between various living beings. The growth of Darwinian thought and its new paradigm of historical explanation supplanted the idealistic morphology. Yet in the first half of the 20th century the principles of idealistic morphology experienced a powerful revival. Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978) was one of the most significant figures in this renaissance. Guided by the ideas of J.W. von Goethe, Troll established a research program rejecting causal, functional, and phylogenetic explanations as well as the idea of evolutionary adaptation. Instead, he attempted to create a 'pure' morphology based on the descriptions of various plant species. Governed by some explicitly metaphysical presumptions, Troll based his theory on the description of the organismal Gestalt. In consequence, his theory was actually a return to the proper idealistic morphology as it was known in the early 19th century. It lead German botanical morphology to a period of methodological and epistemological return.

  9. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  10. Indian Ocean zonal mode activity in 20th century observations and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendelbeck, Anja; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Indian Ocean zonal mode (IOZM) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere system with anomalous cooling in the east, warming in the west and easterly wind anomalies, resulting in a complete reversal of the climatological zonal sea surface temperature (SST) gradient. The IOZM has a strong influence on East African climate by causing anomalously strong October - December (OND) precipitation. Using observational data and historical CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) model output, the September - November (SON) dipole mode index (DMI), OND East African precipitation and SON zonal wind index (ZWI) are calculated. We pay particular attention to detrending SSTs for calculating the DMI, which seems to have been neglected in some published research. The ZWI is defined as the area-averaged zonal wind component at 850 hPa over the central Indian Ocean. Regression analysis is used to evaluate the models' capability to represent the IOZM and its impact on east African climate between 1948 and 2005. Simple correlations are calculated between SST, zonal wind and precipitation to show their interdependence. High correlation in models implies a good representation of the influence of IOZM on East African climate variability and our goal is to detect the models with the highest correlation coefficients. In future research, these model data might be used to investigate the impact of IOZM on the East African climate variability in the late 20's century with regard to anthropogenic causes and internal variability.

  11. Social valuation of institutional office furniture during the first of the 20th century

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    Aguiló-Alonso, María Paz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of cabinetwork in Madrid at the turn-of-the-century has allowed for the study of the social conditions implied in the development of institutional office furniture in public buildings. It can been seen as representative of the different levels existing especially on the ministerial plane, the evolution of which will establish the guidelines for systems of modern furnishings. This study has been carried out using the documentary and graphic materials preserved in the Spanish Treasury Department (Ministerio de Hacienda, on three coordinated actions in the local offices of this Department, thereby allowing for the registration of a full list of commercial firms and workshops active between 1900 and 1936.

    Documentar la labor de ebanistería en el Madrid finisecular ha permitido estudiar las condiciones sociales que en los edificios públicos implicaron el desarrollo del despacho, como elemento representativo de los distintos estadios existentes, sobre todo a nivel ministerial y cuya evolución marcará la pauta de los sistemas de amueblamiento modernos. Este estudio se realiza sobre la base documental y gráfica conservada en el Ministerio de Hacienda, sobre tres acciones coordinadas en todas las Delegaciones de Hacienda, permitiendo registrar una amplia lista de casas comerciales y talleres activos entre 1900 y 1936.

  12. Happiness is Not Fun: Godard, the 20th Century, and Badiou

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    Michael Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "Godard is the most contemporary of directors, one who has never set a film in the past. Yet since the 1990s he has produced a whole cycle of works whose tones are retrospective, memorial, elegaic. These include JLG/JLG:Auto-portrait du Décembre (1995, the much-discussed Histoire(s du Cinèma (begun in 1988, completed in 1998 2 x 50 Years of French Cinema (commissioned by the BFI for the centennial of cinema in 1995, The Old Place (commissioned by the Museum of Modern Art in 1999, On the Origin of the Twenty-First Century (commissioned by the Cannes Film Festival for the year 2000, Dans Le Noir du Temps (a contribution to the 2002 compilation film Ten Minutes Older, and the 2006 Centre Pompidou exhibition “Travels in Utopia.” This last was a retrospective in the conventional sense (screenings of four decades worth of film and video by Godard, Godard/Gorin, Godard/Mièville, etc, but was also retrospective as an installation, divided into three spaces identified as hier, l’avant-hier, and aujourd’hui (yesterday, the day before yesterday, and today, with tomorrow notable for its absence..."

  13. Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art

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    Kimberly A. Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005: 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

  14. The Making of Archiving in Novonikolayevsk (Novosibirsk in the 1930s in the 20th Century

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    Natalia N. Nikitenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issues of historiography and source materials analysis on the origin and development of archiving in Novonikolaevsk (since February 1926 – Novosibirsk in the 1930s of XX century. October 1, 1925 Novonikolayevsk County Archive office was established as a division of the Novosibirsk District Executive Committee, which was responsible for accounting organization and archival documents preservation, pre-revolutionary institutions lists compilation, and after the revolution – for the unchecked archives identification and search, departmental archives revision and instructing of local archivists. By the Resolution of the Siberian Regional Archival Bureau dated July 27 1930 Novosibirsk District Archive Bureau was abolished and for the further institutions and enterprises maintenance the local archives office was organized in Novosibirsk City Executive Committee. Research on different types of historical documents reflecting the characteristics of work organization in Novosibirsk archive Bureau's Department of archives and district executive committees archives, conditions of archival funds formation, classification and use, archivists staff appointments, their accounting and qualifications, allowed to accumulate the historiography and source studies experience on the organization of archives in Novonikolaevsk through the example of the Archival Bureau in the first five years of its existence. Archival materials stored in MPI «Novosibirsk City Archives» and GKU NSO «State Archives of the Novosibirsk region» were used as the documentary basis of the article.

  15. Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjaer, K.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Larsen, N. K.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st Century the photographs now serve as a snapshot of the state of the glaciers, and possess unique scientific value as they stand as the first testimony of hundreds of Greenlandic glaciers. In the summer of 2013, we flew in the paths of the early flights and captured the changes that occurred during the last 80 years. To revisit all the historic glaciers would be a near impossible, not to mention extremely expensive task, so we targeted the most important glaciers in terms of present mass loss as well as the most aesthetically appealing historical images. The result is a then-and-now comparison that vividly captures both the raw beauty of the land and the ongoing often dramatic glacial changes. As the historic flights covered nearly half the Greenlandic coast line, we capture both areas of massive retreat and areas of still stand and even advance. The Heinkel Seaplane is being prepared for a photo flight in southeast Greenland in 1933. Flying an open plane in 14.000 ft and -40 °C called for a special breed of pilots.

  16. Sex determination from the calcaneus in a 20th century Greek population using discriminant function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Orr, Kayla; Meek, Susan; Manolis, Sotiris K

    2015-12-01

    The skull and post-cranium have been used for the determination of sex for unknown human remains. However, in forensic cases where skeletal remains often exhibit postmortem damage and taphonomic changes the calcaneus may be used for the determination of sex as it is a preservationally favored bone. The goal of the present research was to derive discriminant function equations from the calcaneus for estimation of sex from a contemporary Greek population. Nine parameters were measured on 198 individuals (103 males and 95 females), ranging in age from 20 to 99 years old, from the University of Athens Human Skeletal Reference Collection. The statistical analyses showed that all variables were sexually dimorphic. Discriminant function score equations were generated for use in sex determination. The average accuracy of sex classification ranged from 70% to 90% for the univariate analysis, 82.9% to 87.5% for the direct method, and 86.2% for the stepwise method. Comparisons to other populations were made. Overall, the cross-validated accuracies ranged from 48.6% to 56.1% with males most often identified correctly and females most often misidentified. The calcaneus was shown to be useful for sex determination in the twentieth century Greek population.

  17. THE SYSTEM OF NAVAL EDUCATION IN KAISER GERMANY IN LATE 19th - EARLY 20th CENTURIES

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    Stanislav Nikolaevich Sinegubov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief description of the system of naval education in Imperial Germany, which was formed in the late 19th century, highlights its advantages enhancing the high level of training specialists for the new fleet which was constructed in the country. The emphasis is on the process of staffing the non-commissioned officers’ corps on the basis of the sea cadets’ school. There was a great need for this educational institution to develop the Navy of the II Reich. The authorities encouraged a big annual enrollment of sea cadets introducing a wide range of social benefits, such as: free-of-charge education, full governmental support during the period of studies, good professional training that would guarantee not only job on a warship, but also career growth in future. Another important attractive aspect was that students were constantly under the control of officers who raised their wards in traditional moral values. All this attracted to naval schools young people, particularly from socially vulnerable strata of German society. The article considers special features of training and educating future officers at the Naval College and the Naval Academy in Kiel, which already had the elite character.

  18. The humanising power of medical history: responses to biomedicine in the 20th century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, John Harley

    2011-12-01

    Most American historians of medicine today would be very hesitant about any claim that medical history humanises doctors, medical students or the larger health care enterprise. Yet, the idea that history can and ought to serve modern medicine as a humanising force has been a persistent refrain in American medicine. This essay explores the emergence of this idea from the end of the 19th century, precisely the moment when modern biomedicine became ascendant. At the same institutions where the new version of scientific medicine was most energetically embraced, some professional leaders warned that the allegiance to science driving the profession's technical and cultural success was endangering humanistic values fundamental to professionalism and the art of medicine. They saw in history a means for rehumanising modern medicine and countering the risk of cultural crisis. While some iteration of this vision of history was remarkably durable, the meanings attached to 'humanism' were both multiple and changing, and the role envisioned for history in a humanistic intervention was transformed. Starting in the 1960s as part of a larger cultural critique of the putative 'dehumanisation' of the medical establishment, some advocates promoted medical history as a tool to help fashion a new kind of humanist physician and to confront social inequities in the health care system. What has persisted across time is the way that the idea of history as a humanising force has almost always functioned as a discourse of deficiency-a response to perceived shortcomings of biomedicine, medical institutions and medical professionalism.

  19. Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries

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    Albinas Mocevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

  20. Health care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, Evgenii Mikhailovich

    2014-01-01

    Belarus became a Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR in 1921. Belarus is now an independent country between Poland and Lithuania and Russia. The pharmacy sector of Belarus improved in fits and starts from 1921 to the present but serious quantitative and qualitative problems were evident until the 21st century. A number of factors caused this situation. The Soviet Republic of Belarus started with handicaps. The area, comprised of several provinces of western Russia, had no pharmaceutical factories during the imperial period and, while pharmacies were of high quality in the cities all over the Russian Empire--including Minsk, which became the capital of Belarus--pharmacies were sparse and primitive in rural areas and Belarus was basically rural. Belarus was devastated by wars--World War I, the Russian-Polish war of 1920-21, and of course, by World War II. The Bolshevik policy of nationalizing private pharmacies adversely affected dispensing between 1918 and 1921. Dispensing improved during the New Economic Policy of 1921 to 1927 with re-introduction of private enterprise and the establishment of BelMedTorg and the Mogilev Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants. The number of pharmacies and medical facilities increased during the 1930s and again after World War II. However, utopian plans to provide free or low-cost medicines to all citizens never came to fruition. Inadequate amounts of state-of the-art and even basic medicines persisted through the 1990s. The number of pharmacists also was inadequate and their education and training was on a low level. Because of shortages, citizens of Belarus often self-medicated with medicinal plants. The transition to a market economy in the 1990s made medicines expensive for citizens but opened the door to greater interaction with Western pharmaceutical practices and physical improvements in pharmacies and pharmaceutical production.

  1. Placenta accreta: pathogenesis of a 20th century iatrogenic uterine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, E; Jurkovic, D

    2012-04-01

    Placenta accreta refers to different grades of abnormal placental attachment to the uterine wall, which are characterised by invasion of trophoblast into the myometrium. Placenta accreta has only been described and studied by pathologists for less than a century. The fact that the first detailed description of a placenta accreta happened within a couple of decades of major changes in the caesarean surgical techniques is highly suggestive of a direct relationship between prior uterine surgery and abnormal placenta adherence. Several concepts have been proposed to explain the abnormal placentation in placenta accreta including a primary defect of the trophoblast function, a secondary basalis defect due to a failure of normal decidualization and more recently an abnormal vascularisation and tissue oxygenation of the scar area. The vast majority of placenta accreta are found in women presenting with a previous history of caesarean section and a placenta praevia. Recent epidemiological studies have also found that the strongest risk factor for placenta praevia is a prior caesarean section suggesting that a failure of decidualization in the area of a previous uterine scar can have an impact on both implantation and placentation. Ultrasound studies of uterine caesarean section scar have shown that large and deep myometrial defects are often associated with absence of re-epithelialisation of the scar area. These findings support the concept of a primary deciduo-myometrium defect in placenta accreta, exposing the myometrium and its vasculature below the junctional zone to the migrating trophoblast. The loss of this normal plane of cleavage and the excessive vascular remodelling of the radial and arcuate arteries can explain the in-vivo findings and the clinical consequence of placenta accreta. Overall these data support the concept that abnormal decidualization and trophoblastic changes of the placental bed in placenta accreta are secondary to the uterine scar and thus

  2. The deadliest storm of the 20th century striking Portugal: Flood impacts and atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo M.; Ramos, Catarina; Pereira, Susana S.; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Zêzere, José L.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2016-10-01

    The deadliest storm affecting Portugal since, at least, the early 19th century, took place on the 25 and 26 November 1967 causing more than 500 fatalities. This work aims to assess the most relevant aspects of this episode. This includes describing the associated meteorological conditions and key hydrological characterisation such as the level of exceptionality of the observed precipitation at different temporal scales, or the estimation of peak discharge values in 20 small river catchments affected. Additionally, from a human impact perspective we provide a full account of all the main socio-economic impacts, particularly the numbers and location of victims (dead, injured, homeless and evacuated). Based on the sub-daily time series of a representative station, and its Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves, we have found that the exceptionality of this rainfall event is particularly linked to rainfall intensities ranging in duration from 4 to 9 h compatible with return periods of 100-years or more. This range of time scale which are similar to the estimated concentration time values of the hydrographic basins affected by the flash flood event. From a meteorological perspective, this episode was characterised by strong convection at the regional scale, fuelled by high availability of moisture over the Lisbon region associated with a low pressure system centered near Lisbon that favoured the convective instability. Most victims were sleeping or were caught by surprise at home in the small river catchments around the main Lisbon metropolitan area. The majority of people who died or who were severely affected by the flood lived in degraded housing conditions often raised in a clandestine way, occupying flood plains near the stream beds. This level of destruction observed at the time is in stark contrast to what was observed in subsequent episodes of similar amplitude. In particular, since 1967 the Lisbon area, was struck by two comparable intense precipitation events in

  3. Representations of epilepsy on the stage: From the Greeks to the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Michael; Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy is a disorder that has been used by dramatists in various ways over the ages and therefore highlights the views of the disorder as people saw it at the time the plays were written and performed. In the 6th century BC, links between tragedy and epilepsy were developed by Greek playwrights, especially Euripides, in Iphigenia among the Taureans and Heracles where epilepsy and madness associated with extreme violence occur together. Both Heracles and Orestes have episodes after a long period of physical exhaustion and nutritional deprivation. During the Renaissance, Shakespeare wrote plays featuring different neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Epilepsy plays a crucial part in the stories of Julius Caesar and Othello. Julius Caesar is a play about politics, and Caesar's epilepsy is used to illustrate his weakness and vulnerability which stigmatizes him and leads to his assassination. Othello is a play about jealousy, and Othello, an outsider, is stigmatized by his color, his weakness, and his 'seizures' as a form of demonic possession. In modern times, Night Mother portrays the hard life of Jessie, who lives with her mother. Jessie has no friends, her father has abandoned the family, and she has no privacy and is ashamed. Stigma and social pressures lead her to commit suicide. Henry James' novella, The Turn of the Screw, portrays a governess with dream-like states, déjà vu, and loss of temporal awareness who has been sent to the country to look after two small children and ends up killing one. This novella was turned into an opera by Benjamin Britten. Most recently, performance art has been portraying epilepsy as the reality of a personally provoked seizure. Both Allan Sutherland and Rita Marcalo have purposely provoked themselves to have a seizure in front of an audience. They do this to show that seizures are just one disability. Whether this provokes stigma in audiences is unknown. Whether the performance artists understand the potential for

  4. Naturalism, novel and society in 19-20th century transition Spain

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    Ortíz, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the nineteenth century in Spain was a period characterized by a strong presence of social science, which even came to permeate the masses. Evolutionary theories and some figures such as Charles Darwin himself were present in areas far from the scientific activity proper. The use of concepts and laws of biological origin for the diagnosis and political practice against certain problematic social realities, such as crime or poverty, gave rise to theories and intellectual schools that asserted the value of evolutionary principles for the analysis of complex realities of socio-cultural inequality. The attraction for difference and the scientific method, with the possibility of observation of poverty and social inequality that industrial development and modernity put forward to the writers, added to the naturalist and biological interest a literary curiosity for the degeneration, both physical and cultural, of that unfortunate part of humanity.

    La segunda mitad del siglo XIX es un periodo caracterizado por una muy importante presencia social de la ciencia, que incluso llega a permear las clases populares. Las teorías evolucionistas y algunas figuras como la del propio Darwin aparecen así en ámbitos en principio alejados de los de la creación científica. La utilización de conceptos y leyes de origen biológico para el diagnóstico y la práctica política frente a determinadas realidades sociales problemáticas, como la delincuencia o la pobreza, dio lugar al surgimiento de teorías y escuelas intelectuales que hicieron valer los principios evolucionistas de aplicación biológica al análisis de complejas realidades de desigualdad sociocultural. La atracción por la diferencia y por el método científico, junto a la posibilidad de observación de situaciones de pobreza y desigualdad social que el desarrollo industrial y la modernidad ponían delante de los escritores, provocaron un interés literario por la degeneraci

  5. Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zagorodnov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.74 m and 447.65 m (bedrock were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.. Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is −14.78 °C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15. A minimum temperature of −15.8 °C is measured at 173 m depth and basal temperature is estimated to be −10.2 °C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9 × 103 kg m−2 a−1 and basal heat flux (q of 88 mW m−2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15 over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique. From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=−16.2 °C prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to −14.2 °C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15 ≥ −15 °C. To facilitate

  6. Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zagorodnov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.18 m and 447.73 m (bedrock were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.. Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is −14.78°C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15. A minimum temperature of −15.8°C is measured at 173 m depth, and basal temperature is estimated to be −10.2°C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9×103 kg m−2 a−1 and basal heat flux (q of 88 mW m−2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15 over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique (Tikhonov and Samarskii, 1990. From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=−16.2°C prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to −14.2°C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15≥−15

  7. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    , immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, molecular pathology) gain place, the increasing tendency to select investigators, including basic scientists, as teaching department chairs and the financial constraints requiring increasing use of nonphysician workers all speak to the relegation of the Otani-Kaneko era to history. Is this a loss to Pathology? It is certainly a style of practice that has been lost. However, there is no reason to bemoan the state of Pathology in the beginning years of the 21st century. Pathology practice is outstanding at many medical centers throughout the world, including at Mount Sinai under the very able and creative leadership of Alan Schiller, who has presided over great enhancements of the department in both anatomic and clinical pathology, including significant advances in the study of diseases by molecular methods. Surgical Pathology at Mount Sinai has been led by James Strauchen, a renowned hematopathologist recruited by Schiller's predecessor, Jerome Kleinerman, and is currently directed by Ira Bleiweiss, a student of Kaneko. Other techniques and technologies have, to a degree, compensated for some of the changes since the Otani-Kaneko years and it is almost certain that advances in molecular pathology will allow for increasing sophistication in establishing diagnoses, and likely even grading and staging, probably even on blood, rather than tissue, samples. The science of Pathology will advance, as the art declines. Those who learned at Mount Sinai during the Otani-Kaneko years will, however, very likely tell you that they were privileged to have learned Pathology there and, especially, to have learned a distinct philosophy of Pathology under the guidance of caring, thoughtful, and especially gifted pathologists.

  8. A Novel Remote Sensing Approach for Determining 20th Century Multi-Decadal Glacial Change Across the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P. E.; Mills, J. P.; Fox, A. J.; Clarke, L. E.; King, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) is a mountain glacier system comprised of over 400 glaciers, and is an important contributor to historical and future sea level rise. Assessment and monitoring of AP glaciers is crucial for understanding sensitivity to climate change. However, whilst retreat of glacier fronts and the behaviour of individual glaciers has been extensively documented, wide-area assessment of AP glacier mass change is lacking. This research addresses this by unlocking a unique historical archive of aerial imagery through a remote sensing approach. This is enabling quantitative, wide-area assessment of glacier change across the AP. Understanding AP change over the 20th Century is vital for modelling future changes. However, satellite measurements span only a few decades, and to-date there has been no means of quantifying change over longer periods. However, this research presents a novel methodology to extract 3D measurements from an archive of > 30,000 aerial images dating back to the 1940s. This overcomes the requirement for ground control by employing an automated registration technique. Control is derived from digital elevations models (DEMs) generated from present-day ASTER satellite imagery. Through least squares surface matching, DEMs extracted from archival imagery are registered to scale-stable ASTER DEMs to determine relative change. This minimises offsets between the two DEMs, allowing robust determination of elevation changes. The spatial pattern of 20thC change is being assessed at 50 benchmark glaciers distributed across the AP, for periods of up to 65 years. In complement, a temporally refined assessment is being undertaken at 10 glaciers with multiple epochs of aerial imagery. Results to-date indicate a general trend of surface lowering, most notably over frontal regions. Spatial and temporal patterns of change will be used to investigate the drivers of AP change and establish a suite of benchmark glaciers for future monitoring.

  9. Systematic recover of long high-resolution rainfall time series recorded by pluviographs during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.; Deidda, Roberto; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Piga, Enrico; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    During most of the 20th century, precipitation has been continuously measured by means of the so-called "pluviographs", i.e. rain gauges including a mechanical apparatus for continuously recording the depth of water from precipitation on specific strip charts, usually on a weekly basis. The signal recorded on such strips was visually examined by trained personnel on a regular basis, in order to extract the daily precipitation totals and the maximum precipitation intensities over short periods (from a few minutes to hours). The rest of the high-resolution information contained in the signal was usually not extracted, except for specific cases. A systematic recovering of the entire information at high temporal resolution contained in these precipitation signals would provide a fundamental database to improve the characterization of historical rainfall climatology during the previous century. The Department of Land Engineering of the University of Cagliari has recently developed and tested an automatic software, based on image analysis techniques, which is able to acquire the scanned images of the pluviograph strip charts, to automatically digitise the signal and to produce a digital database of continuous precipitation records at the highest possible temporal resolution, i.e. 5 to 10 minutes. Along with that, a significant amount of daily precipitation totals from the late 19th and the 20th century, either elaborated from pluviograph strip charts or simply derived from bucket rain gauges, still exists in paper form, but it has never been digitalized. Within a project partly-funded by the Operational Programme of the European Union "Italia-Francia Marittimo", the Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia and the University of Cagliari will recover both the high-resolution rainfall signals and the older time series of daily totals recorded by a large number of pluviographs belonging to the historical monitoring networks of the island of Sardinia. Such data

  10. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is

  11. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  12. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wisser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations. The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. The sensitivity of the results to variations in input data was tested by using three global gridded datasets of precipitation.

    Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction of reservoirs has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans annually, however, are governed primarily by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing a minor role. Globally, we do not find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century.

    The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes such as ability to decompose organic matter or the cycling of nutrients in the river system.

  13. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, D.; Fekete, B. M.; Vörösmarty, C. J.; Schumann, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities) and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations). The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. The sensitivity of the results to variations in input data was tested by using three global gridded datasets of precipitation. Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction of reservoirs has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans annually, however, are governed primarily by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing a minor role. Globally, we do not find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century. The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes such as ability to decompose organic matter or the cycling of nutrients in the river system.

  14. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wisser

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th Century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations. The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans, however, are governed by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing secondary role. Globally, we do find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century.

    The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes.

  15. The problems of national history in the school literature of the 18th - beginning of the 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramkin O. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of historical literature allows to consider profoundly the development of national culture and science of the 18th-first half of the 20th centuries and the formation and change of different historical concepts. With the analysis of historical periods that are highlighted in the research, general trends in the changing of paradigms about Russian historical development were concluded, which were translated to mass historical consciousness from the beginning of the 18th century up to 1917. The periods were closely connected with the specific political, historical and economic changes in Russian Empire and with the dominance of certain textbooks during this time. The books were selected because of a number of factors: their inclusion to the school curriculum, the number of publications (10 and more, the equal number of textbooks devoted to different historical periods. For the analysis were used 19 textbooks, schoolbooks for different courses of secondary schools and primary schools. All the sources of educational literature were grouped into two concepts - officially-state (patriotic and the liberal. Each publication was highlighted the dominant concept as a base for the whole textbook. There is also a characteristic of the concepts that are presented chronologically. The analysis represents school history books as an important source for the formation of state policy in the representing of Russian history, and, that is more important, for creation of the concept of the state of Russian history.

  16. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  17. Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century

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    Đorđević-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will analyze economic and political migration in the Gora region at the end of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st century. It is my intent to consider and explain their cause and their intensity and scope. In short, I view the socioeconomic and political dimension of these migrations from an ethnological and anthropological point of view. The economic and political migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century represent the continuation of earlier migrations, albeit more intensive and larger in scope (whole families are migrating. There migrations can be viewed as the effects of political changes in Kosovo, as well as the socioeconomic crisis of the 1990’s. There are no fixed boundaries between these types of migrations, and the only truly stand out examples are the cases in which people migrated for safety reasons. A certain type of migration can be identified based on the terminology used by the interlocutors. I have encountered the terms “banishment” and “displacement” in the narrative discourse of my interlocutors. These terms are used to describe the migrations from Gora during the 1999 war, as well as immediately after. The differences between economic and political migrants can be gouged from other factors such as going to Gora during vacations and holidays as well as investing money into real-estate in the region. Individuals who emigrated from Gora because they feared for their and the loves of their families go to Gora rarely (to attend funerals for example and are not currently thinking of investing unlike those who had left Gora as economic migrants. There are no differences when it comes to where people migrate to for different reasons. Places of migration can, however, be indicative of the form of migration in the sense of whether people migrated to a foreign country or not. One can turn into the other due to the changing of state borders. Thus

  18. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  19. Heinz Werner: His Life, Ideas, and Contributions to Developmental Psychology in the First Half of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The author provides an overview of Heinz Werner's life and contributions to the field of developmental psychology during the first half of the 20th century. She focuses on his early work in Vienna and Munich as well as his tenure at the Psychological Institute in Hamburg, up through the time when he became a named Professor in Psychology at Clark University. Recognized as one of the founders of developmental psychology, Heinz Werner worked in the areas of perceptual development, comparative psychology, and symbol formation. Versatile in rigorous experimental methodologies, and in observational and phenomenological methodologies, Werner's approach to development stood in contrast to other approaches of development, both past and current. For Werner, development was a heuristic, a way of looking at processes in a variety of domains, including ontogeny, phylogeny, microgenesis, biology, developmental psychopathology, neuropsychology, and comparative psychology. Werner viewed development as proceeding from a state of relative globality and lack of differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation, articulation, and hierarchical integration, but he also stressed that individuals can function at different developmental levels under different times and conditions. Werner's holistic, organismic, comparative, and contextual approach to development transcended interdisciplinary boundaries, allowing him to study the interrelatedness between thought, language, feeling, perception, and culture.

  20. Increase of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere wave baroclinicity during the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gimeno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A strengthening of the equatorward temperature gradient in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS, at subtropics and midlatitudes, is consistently reproduced in several modelling studies of the atmospheric response to the increase of greenhouse gas radiative forcing. Some of those studies suggest an increase of the baroclinicity in the UTLS region because of the enhanced meridional temperature gradient.

    This study presents observational evidence of an increase of the baroclinic wave components of UTLS circulation (UTLS wave baroclinicity, during the second half of the 20th century. The evidence is given by significant positive trends in the energy of baroclinic normal modes of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and significant positive trends in the UTLS eddy available potential energy of the NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40, NCEP-2 and JRA-25 reanalyses. Significant positive trends in the frequency of double tropopause events in radiosonde data are also interpreted as a manifestation of an increase of the UTLS wave baroclinicity.

  1. Yakutia and International Scientific Cooperation on Arctic Studies. The End of 20th – Beginning of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleymanov Aleksandr Albertovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of participation of Yakutia in the international scientific cooperation in the Arctic during the last decade of the 20th and the first years of the 21st century. The author describes the history of realization of the international initiatives for studying social and cultural transformations and challenges of life of Arctic Indigenous Peoples, studying natural phenomena and processes, as well as environmental protection in the Yakutia’s Arctic and their main results on the basis of a set of archival documents, English- and Frenchlanguage materials. The author called the most important factors that determine the extent of joint research of Russian scientists and their foreign colleagues, identified the key participants (scientists from Great Britain, Germany, Canada, Russia, Finland, France and Japan, forms (collection of field data, its processing and laboratory analysis; provision of academic institutions of Yakutia, their research base, provision of special equipment for foreign partners; coordination of research and the exchange of the data obtained; organization of conferences and workshops; organization of protected areas; publication of research results, and mechanisms (organization of special structures to intensify and coordinate research; association of research through a unified methodology; elaboration of international programs and projects, taking into account the potential of the involved parties – financing, tools and staff of international scientific cooperation development.

  2. Time with or without death: Researching death in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Topics of ethnological research, as well as scientific discourse in general often represent the mirror of social reality. This paper researches the ways in which dealing with death and current ethnological approaches in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century, reflect the Zeitgeist. The intensity and the quality of interests for this important anthropological theme varied during the researched period, wherefore it is possible to differentiate two types of works and authors: those who write about funeral rituals, and those who 'read' them. From 1980s until nowadays there are three subgroups of contributions to this theme that reflect critical moments of the contemporary Serbian history. The issues raised in this paper are the following: The way in which state/society regards death the way in which it structures death, the way in which it gives meaning to death, as well as the usage of death for political purpose and the constant effort of civilization to repress it into oblivion.

  3. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; Guillaume, J H A; de Moel, H; Eisner, S; Flörke, M; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Veldkamp, T I E; Ward, P J

    2016-12-09

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20(th) century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  4. Long-term changes in nitrate conditions over the 20th century in two Midwestern Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie J.; Stets, Edward G.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term changes in nitrate concentration and flux between the middle of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century were estimated for the Des Moines River and the Middle Illinois River, two Midwestern Corn Belt streams, using a novel weighted regression approach that is able to detect subtle changes in solute transport behavior over time. The results show that the largest changes in flow-normalized concentration and flux occurred between 1960 and 1980 in both streams, with smaller or negligible changes between 1980 and 2004. Contrasting patterns were observed between (1) nitrate export linked to non-point sources, explicitly runoff of synthetic fertilizer or other surface sources and (2) nitrate export presumably associated with point sources such as urban wastewater or confined livestock feeding facilities, with each of these modes of transport important under different domains of streamflow. Surface runoff was estimated to be consistently most important under high-flow conditions during the spring in both rivers. Nitrate export may also have been considerable in the Des Moines River even under some conditions during the winter when flows are generally lower, suggesting the influence of point sources during this time. Similar results were shown for the Middle Illinois River, which is subject to significant influence of wastewater from the Chicago area, where elevated nitrate concentrations were associated with at the lowest flows during the winter and fall. By modeling concentration directly, this study highlights the complex relationship between concentration and streamflow that has evolved in these two basins over the last 50 years. This approach provides insights about changing conditions that only become observable when stationarity in the relationship between concentration and streamflow is not assumed.

  5. 20th Century trends and budget implications of trihalomethanes and dihalomethanes inferred from North GRIP firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the three firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~40% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~19% at the beginning of the 21st Century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the northern hemisphere have increased over the 20th Century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  6. 20th century trends and budget implications of chloroform and related tri-and dihalomethanes inferred from firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~50% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~29% at the beginning of the 21st century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the Northern Hemisphere have increased over the 20th century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  7. TRADITIONAL UKRAINIAN FARMSTEAD AT THE END OF THE 19th – AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERETOKIN A. G.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the article. The types of rural dwelling that were spread at the end of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century become the heritage of history. Studying of the traditional Ukrainian farmstead, folk architectural and building, decorative and artistic traditions is not only of the theoretical, but also of the practical importance. The usage of the best progressive folk experience will help architects create new villages which will meet the needs of people and correspond to the best national traditions and aesthetic criteria of the Ukrainian people. Analysis of the sources. We find data on traditional Ukrainian dwelling, homestead and farmstead in the researches of modern ethnographers, historians, specialists of local lore. Well-known scholars A. P. Danyluk., T. Kosmina, M. S. Dnistriansky, V. P. Samoilovich, G. Yu. Stelmakh, G. S. Lozko studied the traditional architecture of the Ukrainian regions, peculiarities of the settlements and the types of farmstead. The purpose of the article is to analyze the peculiarities of traditional Ukrainian dwelling, homestead and farmstead, to assert national consciousness, to keep national traditions, bring up young people to be patriots, to spread the knowledge about cultural heritage of Ukraine. Conclusion. The Ukrainian folk dwelling was created for centuries by constant improving devices and forms according to the conditions, way of life and aesthetic criteria of people. The traditional nature of the folk architecture was caused by the fact that rural dwelling was built not according to the project but was based on the best typical samples characteristic of this or that region of Ukraine.

  8. 20th century human pressures drive reductions in deepwater oxygen leading to losses of benthic methane-based food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Simon; Millet, Laurent; Verneaux, Valérie; Lami, Andrea; David, Etienne; Murgia, Laurie; Parent, Claire; Musazzi, Simona; Gauthier, Emilie; Bichet, Vincent; Magny, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater lakes play a key role in the global carbon cycle as sinks (organic carbon sequestration) and sources (greenhouse gas emissions). Understanding the carbon cycle response to environmental changes is becoming a crucial challenge in the context of global warming and the preponderance of human pressures. We reconstructed the long-term (1500 years) evolution of trophic functioning of the benthic food web, based on methanotrophic ancient DNA and chironomid isotope analyses). In addition, human land use is also reconstructed in three different lakes (eastern France, Jura Mountains). Our findings confirm that the benthic food web can be highly dependent on methane-derived carbon (up to 50% of the chironomid biomass) and reveal that the activation of this process can correspond to a natural functioning or be a consequence of anthropic perturbation. The studied lakes also showed a similar temporal evolution over the last century with the disappearance of the profundal aquatic insects (Chironomidae, Diptera), considered as keystone for the whole lake food web (e.g., coupling benthic-pelagic), inducing a potential collapse in the transfer of methane to top consumers. This functional state, also called the dead zone expansion, was caused by the change in human land-use occurring at the beginning of the 20th century. The strong modification of agro-pastoral practices (e.g., fertilization practices, intensive grazing, and sewage effluent) modified the influx of nutrients (by diffuse and/or point-source inputs) and induced a significant increase in the trophic status and organic matter sedimentation to reach unprecedented values. Further studies should be planned to assess dead zone expansion and, according to the regime shift theory, to provide environmental tipping points for sustainable resource management.

  9. History of mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Part 3: the 19th to mid-20th centuries and "rediscovery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubuhovich, Ronald V

    2007-06-01

    The start of the 19th century saw the enthusiasm of the previous one for mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MMV) dissipated. To inflate the lungs of the asphyxiated, the Royal Humane Society in the United Kingdom had recommended bellows since 1782. Principal determinants for change were aesthetic distaste for mouth-to-mouth contact and the perceived danger of using expired air, although MMV survived in the practice of some midwives. Following the 1826-9 investigations of Jean-Jacques Leroy d'Etiolles then François Magendie, all positive pressure ventilation methods were generally abandoned, after 1829 in France, and 1832 in the UK; but not chest compressions. During the next quarter century, rescuers lost understanding of the primary need for "artificial respiration", apart from researchers such as John Snow and John Erichsen, until Marshall Hall's "Ready Method" heralded the second half-century's various methods of negative pressure ventilation. Some of those methods continued in use until the 1940s. Sporadic anecdotal cases of MMV rescues were documented throughout. In the 20th century, inadequate mechanical inhalators were also tried from 1908, while obstetricians devised indirect methods of expired air ventilation (EAV). Anaesthetists in the 1940s, such as Ralph Waters, Robert Dripps, and the pair, Robert Macintosh and William Mushin, described the usefulness of MMV, and James Elam was "re-discovering" it. Following World War II, "Cold War" concerns stimulated research at the Edgewood Medical Laboratories in Maryland in the United States into the possibilities of MMV, and Elam et al confirmed and expanded on brief experiments at Oxford (United Kingdom) on the efficacy of mouth-to-tube EAV. Studies, 1957-9, by Archer Gordon, Elam and especially Peter Safar resulted in the resolution of previous airway problems, established the primacy of MMV, and incorporated it into an integrated system for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ready adoption of MMV in the US was

  10. Effect of vaccination programmes on mortality burden among children and young adults in the Netherlands during the 20th century : a historical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijhe, Maarten; McDonald, Scott A; de Melker, Hester E; Postma, Maarten J; Wallinga, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 20th century, childhood mortality decreased rapidly, and vaccination programmes are frequently suggested as a contributing factor. However, quantification of this contribution is subject to debate or absent. We present historical data from the Netherlands that allow us to quantify

  11. Educating about Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography. Research in Curriculum and Instruction. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Educating About Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography, is comprised of critical essays accompanied by annotated bibliographies on a host of programs, models, strategies and concerns vis-a-vis teaching and learning about social issues facing society. The primary goal of the book is to provide undergraduate…

  12. Affordances and Constraints in Social Studies Curriculum-Making: The Case of "Jewish Social Studies" in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This document-based historical study explores the nature of the Jewish social studies curriculum in American Jewish schools in the early 20th century (c.1910-1940), a period of significant growth and reform in the modern American Jewish education enterprise. "Jewish social studies" refers to school programs in which Jewish history, Jewish…

  13. Physiology of Penile Erection—A Brief History of the Scientific Understanding up till the Eighties of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mels F. van Driel, MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: As the Renaissance's innovative research defined neural and vascular physiologic phenomena responsible for penile erection. The concepts from animal experimentations in Europe in the 19th century significantly contributed to the current understanding of penile erection. van Driel MF. Physiology of penile erection—a brief history of the scientific understanding up till the eighties of the 20th century. Sex Med 2015;3:343–351.

  14. Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, I. M.; Nadyozhina, E. D.; Pavlova, T. V.; Molkentin, E. K.; Semioshina, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    An approach to ground thermodynamics description using a coupled system of atmospheric regional climate and ground heat transfer models is improved by accounting for the time varying snow density. The simulations are compared to available observational analyses, and the sensitivity of the ground thermal regime to variable snow density is analysed. Projected changes of the ground thermal regime in the 21st century relative to the late 20th century are shown and compared to earlier estimates.

  15. The 20th century transitions in basic and extreme monsoon rainfall indices in India: Comparison of the ETCCDI indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Dileep K.; Panigrahi, P.; Mohanty, S.; Mohanty, R. K.; Sethi, R. R.

    2016-11-01

    The mean and extreme matrices of the monsoon rainfall in India not only play an important role in depicting the global monsoon climate, but also their spatiotemporal patterns influence the socio-economic profile of a major proportion of the country's huge population. Given the reported conflicting trends at the global and national scales, the present study investigates the 20th century (1901-2004) changes in monsoon rainfall of India, particularly focusing the indices developed by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) to facilitate a global comparison. Result of this comprehensive analysis, which includes the response of fifteen indices over two study periods (i.e., 1901-1940 and 1961-2004), indicates clear signals of change with respect to the period and region of study and the choice of the ETCCDI indices. While wet day frequency, low-to-moderate events and consecutive wet days (CWD) exhibit a prominent transition from a pre-1940 wetting to a post-1960 drying tendency over a large part of the central-north India (CNI), both the wet and dry extremes have occurred in a spatially less consistent manner during the recent decades. For consecutive dry days (CDD), the reported less clear global signals could be related to the timescale of analysis, as our sub-seasonal scale results display consistent changes compared to that of the seasonal and annual scales. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) provides clear indications of a post-1960 non-stationarity, showing changes in the mean as well as variance. Based on the partial Mann-Kendall test (PMK), some of the identified rainfall trends during 1961-2004 are found to be influenced more by the tropical Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures than the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. These results have important implications for formulating the water resource management strategy, particularly over the drying central and northern parts of the country.

  16. Global aridification in the second half of the 20th century and its relationship to large-scale climate background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ZhuGuo; FU CongBin

    2007-01-01

    The variation in surface wetness index (SWI), which was derived from global gridded monthly precipitation and monthly mean surface air temperature datasets of Climatic Research Unit (CRU), from 1951 -2002 over global land was analyzed in this paper. The characteristics of the SWI variation in global continents, such as North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia, were compared. In addition, the correlation between the SWI variation of each continent (or across the globe) and the large-scale background closely related to SST variations, which affects climate change, was analyzed.The results indicate that the SWl variation shows distinct regional characteristics in the second half of the 20th century under global warming. A drying trend in the last 52 years occurred in Africa, Eurasia,Australia and South America, most obviously in Africa and Eurasia. North America shows a wetting trend after 1976. A 30-year period of dry-wet oscillation is found in South America and Australia; the latest is in a drying period in two regions. The results also revealed that global warming has changed the dry-wet pattern of the global land. South America and Australia have a drying trend despite increases in precipitation. This indicates that increases in surface air temperature cannot be ignored in aridification studies. Global dry-wet variation is closely related to large-scale SST variations: the drying trend in Africa and Eurasia and the wetting trend in North America are correlated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO); the interdecadal oscillation of SWl in South America and Australia is consistent with the interdecadal variation in Southern Oscillation Index (SOI).

  17. MONARCHIC SENTIMENTS IN THE RUSSIAN SOCIETY IN EARLY 20th CENTURY: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDYING THE ARCHIVAL SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alexandrovna KAPTELINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains source analysis of the contents of letters, addressed to the Master Council of the Union of Russian People (URP and «Russian Banner» newspaper editorial office, which have been preserved in the State Archive of the Russian Federation. The author focuses on the issue of public sentiments in the Russian society after the revolutionary events of 1905-1907.The novelty of this study is related to the database de-velopment and search of the formal-quantitative methods of processing the content of Black Hundreds’ letters that increases their informative value.Letters addressed to the URP Master Council and the «Russian Banner» newspaper editorial office are mass-scaled and weakly structured sources. The information they contain is of «multi-layer» nature and is «intangible» within a particular document. The information becomes accessible on the level of the formal quantitative analysis of the whole bunch of letters.The article thoroughly describes the methodology of creating the database, its structure, informative value of archival materials selected that have provided basis for creating the database.This study has resulted in creation of the data base ena-bling to put together separate materials of the Archive Fund of the URP, to process the information of the whole block of historical sources and apply the formal quantita-tive analysis methods to the Black Hundreds’ letters for increasing their informative feedback. Thanks to the use of such database it became possible to reveal the peculi-arities of monarchists’ public sentiments that are record-ed in the sources and are not expressed in explicit forms.The database is a universal tool that can be applied for other blocks of sources, which allow to study public mood of citizens of the Russian Empire in the early 20th century.

  18. 20世纪俄语语义学研究%Research on Russian Semantics in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周民权

    2012-01-01

    20世纪俄语语义学研究成果斐然。莫斯科语义学派的标志性研究成果《意思〈==〉文本》理论深刻揭示了从思想到语言表达方式以及从语言表达方式到思想的转变过程和机制,语言逻辑分析学派对语言个性、语言共性、语言意识的研究独树一帜,其他俄罗斯学者提出的交际语义群、功能语义场等理论亦不乏真知灼见。它们各具特点,互为依托,形成合力,驱使俄语语义学理论步入世界语言学研究前沿。%Research on Russian semantics in the 20th century is enormously fruitful. The landmark achievement of Moscow Semantic School, i. e. , Meaning 〈==〉 Text Theory, reveals the processes and mechanisms of transforming from thoughts to linguistic expressions and of transforming from linguistic expressions to thoughts. The School of Language Logic Analysis is unique in its research on linguistic individuality, linguis- tic universalism, and linguistic consciousness. Theories such as Communicative Semantic Clusters and Functional Semantic Field put forward by other Russian scholars also contain no lack of profound insights. These theories, each with its own features, supporting each other while forming a concerted force, push Russian semantic theories to the frontiers of linguistic inquiry in the world.

  19. African Historiography's Renaissance in the 20th Century%20世纪非洲史学的复兴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠祥

    2012-01-01

    The global history as a new history idea come into being in the globalization time.Under this theory,historiography studies need a global vision.That is to say,world historiography studies not merely focus on western historiography and national history studies,research fields should also be extended to the third world,including the study of African history.In fact,African histo riography has a long history,but colonial invasion and rule destroyed African historiography tradition.After independence of African countries in the middle of 20th century,African historians' major task is to clean colonialism impact and established nationalism historiography schools,such as Ibadan school and Dar es Salaam school,which marked the Renaissance of African historiography.Although African historiography has made great progress,it still has great potential to development.%非洲史学有着悠久的历史和传统,殖民入侵和殖民统治给非洲传统史学造成严重的冲击。20世纪中叶非洲国家独立后,非洲涌现出一批本土史学家,他们要求清除史学研究领域的殖民主义影响,建立了民族主义历史学派,如伊巴丹学派和达累斯萨拉姆学派等,出版了一批有影响的历史著作,标志着非洲史学的复兴。

  20. Global aridification in the second half of the 20th century and its relationship to large-scale climate background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The variation in surface wetness index (SWI), which was derived from global gridded monthly precipi- tation and monthly mean surface air temperature datasets of Climatic Research Unit (CRU), from 1951― 2002 over global land was analyzed in this paper. The characteristics of the SWI variation in global continents, such as North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia, were compared. In addition, the correlation between the SWI variation of each continent (or across the globe) and the large-scale background closely related to SST variations, which affects climate change, was analyzed. The results indicate that the SWI variation shows distinct regional characteristics in the second half of the 20th century under global warming. A drying trend in the last 52 years occurred in Africa, Eurasia, Australia and South America, most obviously in Africa and Eurasia. North America shows a wetting trend after 1976. A 30-year period of dry-wet oscillation is found in South America and Australia; the latest is in a drying period in two regions. The results also revealed that global warming has changed the dry-wet pattern of the global land. South America and Australia have a drying trend despite in- creases in precipitation. This indicates that increases in surface air temperature cannot be ignored in aridification studies. Global dry-wet variation is closely related to large-scale SST variations: the drying trend in Africa and Eurasia and the wetting trend in North America are correlated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO); the interdecadal oscillation of SWI in South America and Australia is consistent with the interdecadal variation in Southern Oscillation Index (SOI).

  1. Human Genome : A Gift of 20th Century and Challenge for 21st Century(Review paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Pandit

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Completion of the human genome sequencing has stirred the whole scientific community in many ways. Apart from deciphering the biological meaning of sequence-language written in three billion letters, which may take a century, scientists are essentially confronted with many challenges. It will not only revolutionise the field of genetics in terms of knowing ourselves better but also help us tremendously in identifying genetic diseases and preventing them by predicting and finding cure for them. Integration of medicine and molecular biology is expected to lead to better health care systems by preventing people from becoming sick by following a suggested way of life based on individual genetic makeup. Recently developed technologies are helping scientists to analyse the genome at an unprecedented scale and understand the function of various genes, influence of environmental factors on them and their correlation with human behaviour. Availability of human genome sequence has raised several ethical and moral questions regarding the confidentiality of the sharing of genomic information as well as whether society is ready for this. Real challenge, after knowing functions of all the genes, would be to make use of this knowledge for the welfare of human beings with the aim to enhance the quality of human life.

  2. From 20th century metabolic wall charts to 21st century systems biology: database of mammalian metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Callan C; Grady, Cameron R; Pisitkun, Trairak; Parulekar, Jaya; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    The organization of the mammalian genome into gene subsets corresponding to specific functional classes has provided key tools for systems biology research. Here, we have created a web-accessible resource called the Mammalian Metabolic Enzyme Database (https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/MetabolicEnzymeDatabase.html) keyed to the biochemical reactions represented on iconic metabolic pathway wall charts created in the previous century. Overall, we have mapped 1,647 genes to these pathways, representing ~7 percent of the protein-coding genome. To illustrate the use of the database, we apply it to the area of kidney physiology. In so doing, we have created an additional database (Database of Metabolic Enzymes in Kidney Tubule Segments: https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/), mapping mRNA abundance measurements (mined from RNA-Seq studies) for all metabolic enzymes to each of 14 renal tubule segments. We carry out bioinformatics analysis of the enzyme expression pattern among renal tubule segments and mine various data sources to identify vasopressin-regulated metabolic enzymes in the renal collecting duct.

  3. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  4. European and Asian Countries through the Eyes of Foreigners (in 19th — beginning of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Ushakov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the study of a various publications and archive materials that were left in the 19th — beginning of 20th century by representatives of several generations of Russians going out of Russia for a long periods of time to Europe an and Asian contrives, or by Europeans who had been visiting and exploring the Russian Empire. Such materials come in sight of the article’s authors in the process of random selection. These materials varied in form, size and content; they were created in different conditions and for different purposes. They were written by people of different professional, social background, interests, character and life experience. Despite these factors the authors managed to study features of formation and development of the Russia’s image in social thinking of Western Europe on the basis of publications of authors from France and Netherland. Examples of Italian lands descriptions were used for consideration of Russian observers’ approaches to interpretation of the life of Europeans. And the perception of the Asian countries’ life (China and Japan and of their inhabitants that had formed by the beginning of the 19th century was described in the notes and memories of Russians — the participants of the Russian — Japan war. Such different sources served as well as some common and very inportant functions, and the authors of this article identified then. First of all, it was an informational-educational mission. Such functions as goal setting and recording were also important, when authors of the materials identified the most important events, processes and recorded them. The critical approach and function of criticism were also incidental to the authors of many sources. Again, the materials presented in the article showed other provisions of the problem “us vs. them” (“us vs. otters” that is currently being considered in the modern science, and which in general lead to generation of both the

  5. Between autonomy of music and the composer’s autonomy. Notes on modernisms and traditionalisms in Slovenian music of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanija Leon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the relations between the old and the new in the context of 20th-century Slovenian music. The question about the old and the new is seen not only as a question of different facets of an age-old opposition, but also as a complex issue of the epistemological contextualization of those different facets. Centered on the main historiographical entries – the avant-garde, modernity, traditionalism, and post-modernity –, the outline of the 20th-century Slovenian musical culture endeavors to point out what is a common problem of the Western musical heritage from the past century: the problem of defining constituents of the old and the new within different epistemological contexts.

  6. 20世纪中国气候变暖的归因分析%Progress in the Attribution of Climate Warming in China for the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天军; 赵宗慈

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the attribution of climate warming in China for the 20th century is summarized. Three sets of climate model experiments including both coupled and uncoupled runs have been used in the attribution analyses. Comparison of climate model results with the observations proves that in the 20th century, especially in the recent half century, climate warming in China is closely related to the increasing of the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, while sulfate aerosol should also have contributions. When both external forcing and natural forcing agents are prescribed, coupled climate models have better results in producing the observed variation of temperature in China. The role of oceanic forcing is also emphasized in the attribution analyses. The observed climate warming of China in the 1920s could not be reproduced in any set of climate model simulations.

  7. The Cooperation of Turkey and Azerbaijan in Military Sphere at the Turn of 20th-21st Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parubochaya Elena Fedorovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an urgent problem dealing with the cooperation of the Turkish Republic and Azerbaijan Republic in the military sphere at the end of 20th – the beginning of 21st century. For Azerbaijan’ s leaders Turkey has always been a special partner. This statement has an explanation. Ankara was the first state, which recognized the independence of Azerbaijan Republic. Moreover, Turkish government made great efforts to strengthen new state in different spheres. Military ties were one of the most important for both sides. The cooperation between two states in the military sphere can be subdivided into several periods. The article gives the detailed analysis of normative documents concluded by the Republics’ governments. The first period of military contacts (1990s was the time of Turkish educational support. Ankara provided training assistance to the military forces of Azerbaijan. Military staff was restrained by Turkish instructors. Special uniform, armament and other equipment to make transformation was given to Baku by Turkish partners. Step by step, Azerbaijan’ s military sphere was moving to Western standards. The year 1999 has become an important period for the military relations of Ankara and Baku. Since this year the military cooperation has extended and intensified, it is possible to name it as a new period of states’ military collaboration. Turkish government gave financial aid to Ministry of Defense of Republic of Azerbaijan, provided the material and technical support to Baku for improving long-term military cooperation. In 2010 the Turkey-Azerbaijan Strategic Partnership Agreement was signed. It should be noticed that Baku refused to sign the agreement of Azerbaijan’s participation in Collective security treaty organization, leaving the block of CSTO states headed by the Russian Federation. It’s possible to say about the strengthening of the Baku-Ankara alliance. This action may lead to complication of Baku

  8. Surface solar radiation and hydrological cycle in 20th century China: sensitivity studies with ECHAM5-HAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folini, D.; Wild, M.

    2012-04-01

    The world, and China in particular, has seen a tremendous population growth and industrialization in the 20th century. These changes were accompanied, among others, by a substantial increase in aerosol emission. To learn more about associated consequences for the climate system we have carried out a comparatively large set of transient sensitivity studies with the global atmosphere only climate model ECHAM5-HAM, using aerosol emission data from NIES (National Institute of Environmental Studies, Japan) and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the Hadley Center. The sensitivity studies cover the period from 1870 to 2005 and comprise ensembles of simulations (up to 13 members per ensemble), which allow to address the role of different aerosol species, greenhouse gases, and prescribed sea surface temperatures. Here we analyze these simulation data with particular focus on surface solar radiation, temperature, and the hydrological cycle in China. Physical mechanisms able to explain the results will be discussed. We generally find the strongest effects in the east of the country, where urbanization and industrialization is strongest and emissions increased most. The decrease of surface solar radiation (SSR) under clear sky conditions reaches up to around -8 W / m2 per decade from 1950 to 1990. Comparable values are found for all sky conditions. Dimming ceases in the second half of the 1990s, when we even see a renewed increase in SSR in some regions. Overall, these findings are in line with observation based estimates. Modeled surface temperatures reflect the decrease in SSR but carry also a substantial SST signature. After remaining roughly constant from 1870 to 1900, we find modeled surface temperatures to increase by about 1 degree Celsius till 1950, then decrease again by -0.2 to -1.2 degree Celsius till 1990, before a renewed increase sets in. Precipitation decreases in our model results from 1950 to 2000 by up to 10% or 150 mm per year

  9. 20th century global warming favoured enhanced intensity of extreme torrential events - a proglacial sediment record in NW French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Legaz, A.; Allignol, F.; Enters, D.; Revillon, S.

    2009-04-01

    During the past few yeas, considerable climate changes have been observed at high elevation areas of the European Alps. Additionally, one of the main results of high resolution climate modelling is a trend towards both dryer summer conditions and enhanced risk of extreme floods. This should have particularly dramatic consequences in alpine areas. Indeed, the development of tourism during the 20th century in the Alps and the rise of population density resulted in an increasing potential risk from natural hazards. Among them, torrential floods are some of the most common and widespread ones. They cause both loss of human life and high damage to property and infrastructure and are particularly destructive in mountain areas. For example, in August 2005, an unusual meteorological situation resulted in a series of catastrophic floods in most regions of the European Alps and particularly in the catchment of the Vorz river, downstream of proglacial Lac Blanc (2170 m a.s.l., Belledonne range, NW French Alps). We studied a series of sediment cores from Lac Blanc, spanning the last ca. 250 years. Through a coupled high resolution sedimentological and geochemical approach we documented about 100 flood deposits and measured their thickness. The age of each deposit has been assessed by radiochemical dating and the recognition of historically-known events - major earthquakes and historical atmospheric lead deposition. Furthermore, a detailed study of regional and local historical archives was conducted allowing us to relate the recognised flood deposits to the ones reported by local population. We hence obtained a flood calendar from 1740 to 2005 with the respective intensity of each event assessed by the thickness of the associated deposit. The flood frequency shows an important and punctual increase at the early end of the Little Ice Age (1830 - 1860) as a response to the beginning warming period, which was emphasized by the synchronous local glacier retreat. On the other hand

  10. ON ETREPRENUERSHIP AT MAIN CLAY PITS AND BRICKYARDS OF CENTRAL CROATIA AT THE END OF 19TH AND BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav šebečić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In central Croatia at the beginning of 20th century, clay pits were mostly managed by individual entrepreneurs, and less by joint stock companies and municipal or district local authorities. Majority of clay pit met the local and regional requirements i.e. demands, and quality products were exported. Exploitation of brickwork clay was carried out from open pits, while potter's, stove-maker's and porcelain clays were exploited from mining shafts and tunnels. From the clay raw material, annual production of minor brickyards amounted to 200-300,000 bricks, and that of major ones was 1-2,000,000 pieces of bricks or roofing-tiles. The number of workers in brickyards and cement works was growing in the first decade of 20th century, while that of potter's and stove-maker's crafts was decreasing. Pottery became a secondary trade in the majority of Croatian and Slavonian counties (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. 20世纪曹操形象诠释综述%A Review of Image Interpretations of Cao Cao in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素媛

    2012-01-01

      With historical changes of the 20th century, interpreters, starting from their respective historical stances, have made distinc-tive interpretations about the image of Cao Cao. Therefore, the image of Cao Cao develops with those rich and colorful interpretations. The interpretative history of the image of Cao Cao in the 20th century is also a historical reality.%  20世纪,随着历史的风云变幻,诠释者从各自的历史性出发对曹操形象做出了带有鲜明时代印记的诠释.曹操形象也在这些丰富多彩的诠释中得到了丰富、发展.20世纪曹操形象的诠释史就是它的存在史.

  12. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  13. Art Connotation Interpretation of 20th-century Modern Western Music%20世纪西方现代音乐的艺术内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雯雯

    2012-01-01

    The 20th-century modern Western music broke the shackles of traditional musical ideas and theories and created a new aesthetic styles with the attitude of pluralistic development and compatible confrontation. Although the understanding of the 20th-century modern Western music was mixed, the existence and development of things have objective reasons. Therefore, art connotation of the 20th-century modern Western music should be in-depth explanation and the appreciation, understanding and creation of identity to modern Western music should be established its artistic thinking and grasping and based on a profound understanding of the art developing background. It is clear that art connotation interpretation of the of 20th-century modern Western music is necessary.%20世纪西方现代音乐打破了传统音乐思想和理论的束缚,以多元发展、对立兼容的姿态开创着艺术审美的全新风格。尽管对于20世纪西方现代音乐人们褒贬不一,但事物的存在与发展定有其客观的理由,因此,要深入的对西方现代音乐艺术的内涵进行阐释,并要把对西方现代音乐的欣赏、理解和创作的认同建立在对其艺术表现的思考与把握,建立在对艺术发展时代背景的深刻理解的基础上。显而易见,对20世纪西方现代音乐艺术内涵的阐释十分必要。

  14. The speech choir in central European theatres and literary-musical works in the first third of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Kalkus Reinhart

    2015-01-01

    Speech choirs emerged as an offshoot of the choral gatherings of a wider youth musical and singing movement in the first half of the 20th century. The occasionally expressed opinion that choral speaking was cultivated primarily by the Hitler Youth and pressed into service on behalf of Nazi nationalist and racist propaganda is, historically, only partially accurate. The primary forces of choral speaking in Germany were, from 1919, the Social Democratic worke...

  15. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought

  16. The decline of winter monsoon velocity in the South China Sea through the 20th century: Evidence from the Sr/Ca records in corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Chen, T.; Wei, G.; Sun, W.; Sun, R.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Zartman, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    A modern massive Porites coral was collected from the Longwan Bay (19??20???N, 110??39???E) on the east coast of the Hainan Island, China. The coral was sectioned vertical to the growth axis into discs of double density-bands representing annual growth. The samples were analyzed for the Sr/Ca ratio by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The history of winter sea-surface temperature (SST) is reconstructed using the Sr/Ca ratio in winter bands of corals. The winter SST at Xisha in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) is weakly correlated with the instrument-measured winter monsoon velocity (WMV) with a correlation coefficient of 0.19. The winter SST data from corals at Longwan Bay, Hainan, in the northern SCS are moderately correlated with the WMV (r = 0.40). Interestingly we found that the difference of winter SSTs between the two sites (Xisha and Longwan Bay, Hainan) (the X-H index) is significantly negatively correlated with the WMV (r = - 0.73). This negative correlation may be related to the intrusion of the warm Kuroshio Current into the SCS through the Luzon Strait promoted by the strong northeastern monsoon winds in the winter. Using the relationship between our coralline data and observed WMV, the calculated winter monsoon velocity (WMVc) was obtained for 87??years. This data set in combination with the instrument-measured data between 1993 and 1998 generate a record of WMVc for a period of 93??years from 1906 to 1998. The WMVc in the 20th century shows significant interannual and decadal variability with a trend of persistent decline in the whole 20th century at the rate of decrease of - 0.02 (m/s)/a. The lowest wind velocity occurred during the last two decades of the 20th century. The WMVc has decreased significantly by about 30% from the early to the late of 20th century. The 20th century decline of winter monsoon velocity evidenced from the SCS coral records is consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models

  17. The Social-Economic Stratification of the Jewish Population of Ukrainian Governorates within the Russian Empire in the Late 19th-Early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor O. Dotsenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks into the history of the Jewish community in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire in the 19th century. The article examines the social-economic state of the Jewish community in Ukrainian governorates in the 19th century and analyzes preconditions for the creation of national Jewish public organizations in the Russian Empire in the early 20th century. At the turn of the century, there formed a specific social structure of the Jewish population in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire. Even a superficial analysis and comparison of the social structure of the Jewish and other ethnoses lets us draw a conclusion about the prevalence of representatives of the merchant, craftsman, and usurer social groups among the Jews of the region. The prevalence of Jews within the non-productive sphere led to interethnic conflicts with representatives of the Ukrainian and Polish ethnoses.

  18. Progress in China's climate change study in the 20th century%20世纪中国气候变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟盘茂; 巢清尘; 邹旭恺

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the 20th century climate change in China have revealed that under the background of global warming over the past century,climate in China has also experienced significant change with mean annual temperature increased by about 0.5 °C.More reliable results for the latter part of the 20th century indicate that the largest warming occurred in Northwest China,North China and Northeast China,and the warming in winter is most significant.Although no obvious increase or decrease trends were detected for mean precipitation over China in the past half century,regional differences are very distinct.In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,precipitation increased,while that in the Yellow River Basin markedly decreased.Studies suggest that climate change in China seems to be related not only with the internal factors such as ENSO,PDO,and the others,but also with the anthropogenic effects such as greenhouse gas emissions,and land use.The future climate change studies in China seem to be important in narrowing understanding the nature of China's climate change and its main causes,since it is significant for projection and for impact assessment of climate change in the future.

  19. The Ukrainian community of Western Siberia: specific features of formation and development in the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century

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    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian crisis in the European part of the Russian Empire in the middle of the 20th century seriously impeded agricultural progress. Agrarian overpopulation and peasants deprived of land in the course of the peasant reform of 1861 further aggravated the negative situation in the governorates of Central Russia, Belarus, and left-bank Ukraine. These factors provided fertile soil for migratory sentiments among peasants. It was resettlement in vacant lands in the Asiatic Russia and North Caucasus, which allowed most of them to preserve their homesteads. In the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century, Ukrainian peasants were actively engaged in the migration movement which was supported by the state. One of the main placement areas became Western Siberia where a large Ukrainian peasant community was formed. The history of research on the Ukrainian community in Western Siberia is fragmentary, as many aspects remain unstudied. Hence, the article focuses on the following questions: causes of the Ukrainian migration to the border lands of the Russian Empire; stages in the migration; main areas where Ukrainians resided in Siberia; population dynamics of the Ukrainian community; adaptation patterns specific for Ukrainian migrants in their new places of residence; their role in the economic life of Siberia in the early 20th century. This article utilizes primary data from the All-Russian Agricultural and Land Census of 1917, which have been introduced for scientific use for the first time. As the methodological basis, the study draws on the system approach combining regional, neo-imperial and comparative principles.

  20. French school of neurology in the 19 th and first half of the 20th century, and its influence in Brazil

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    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available French medicine was of the utmost importance for the birth of modern medicine and neurology in the 19 th century. Innovative approaches, such as examination at the bedside, the use of the stethoscope, techniques of auscultation, palpation, and close patient examination, besides emphasis on anatomical-clinical correlation and observation of the outcome of the disease, were put into practice. French medicine offered professional training and incentives for the beginnings of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry. Returning from France, many Brazilian physicians implemented what they had learned, mainly in Paris. The most important pupils of the French neurology schools in Brazil during the 19 th century and first half of the 20 th century include names like Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré, and Deolindo Couto, founders of the leading Brazilian neurological schools, directly influenced by Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski.

  1. Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.

  2. An evaluation of 20th century climate for the Southeastern United States as simulated by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Rupp,

    2016-05-05

    The 20th century climate for the Southeastern United States and surrounding areas as simulated by global climate models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) was evaluated. A suite of statistics that characterize various aspects of the regional climate was calculated from both model simulations and observation-based datasets. CMIP5 global climate models were ranked by their ability to reproduce the observed climate. Differences in the performance of the models between regions of the United States (the Southeastern and Northwestern United States) warrant a regional-scale assessment of CMIP5 models.

  3. In memory of Professor Leonor Michaelis in Nagoya: great contributions to biochemistry in Japan in the first half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, Toshiharu Toshi

    2013-09-02

    Leonor Michaelis spent the years of 1922-1926 as Professor of Biochemistry of the Aichi Medical College (now Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in Nagoya, Japan. Michaelis succeeded in gathering many bright young biochemists from all over Japan into his laboratory, and made tremendous contributions to the promotion of biochemistry in Japan. Michaelis was invited to many places in Japan to present lectures over those years. Kunio Yagi, who was Professor of Biochemistry at Nagoya University in the second half of the 20th century, succeeded in crystallizing the "Michaelis" enzyme-substrate complex. Historically, Michelis has had an enormous impact on biochemistry in Japan.

  4. The Devil is free: Some religious imaginary features of people from Pácora in the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Isaza Gil.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay shows the use of exempla in Pácora (Caldas around the Devil’s role during the first decades of the 20th century. The author takes into account the oral tradition and holds interviews for offering his own understanding about Devil’s apparitions and beliefs within a religious and secular community context. The interpretation helps to understand this phenomenon under the Catholic Church impact and influence, within an isolated and closed community context, and that is part of the inhabitants’ everyday life and imaginary.

  5. Conceptual resistance in the disciplines of the mind: the Leipzig-Buenos Aires connection at the beginning of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiana, Cecilia

    2005-11-01

    Personal correspondence written by Prof. Felix Krueger from Argentina in 1906-1907 to his teacher and mentor Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig is situated in the historical context of the theoretical debates taking place at the University of Buenos Aires at the beginning of the 20th century. A critical survey of the transatlantic migration of psychological theories and their reception in Argentina raises the broader issues of the nature of the cultural and social roots of local interpretations induced by the circulation of theories across national fields of scientific inquiry. It is argued that national intellectual fields and the historicity of their categories of interpretation mediate in the foreign trade of theories.

  6. A Perspective on Hydrology from the 20th Century to 21th Century%世纪之交的水文研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘苏峡

    2001-01-01

    基于第二十二届国际大地测量与地球物理大会的动态,分析出世纪之交水文学研究的三大基本特点。其一是强调人类活动对水循环的影响的研究,主要表现为研究土地利用变化对来自面源的氮负荷的影响、城市化进程加快对地表和地下水质的影响、河流对水文系统、泥沙输送及营养负荷的变化的生态响应和地下水和地表水在质与量上的相互作用。其二是十分重视区域尺度的水文的研究。包括区域及全球尺度资料库的建立和区域水分通量的计算。其三是集成应用示踪剂、遥感及先进的水文测验技术进行水文机理研究。%Based on the related sessions on the 22th Assembly ofInternational Union of Geodesy and Geophysics which was held in July 1999 in Birmingham, there are three basic characteristics of hydrological research from the 20th Century to 21th Century. Firstly, the effects of human activities on hydrological cycle both in water quantity and water quantity are stressed very much, which includes impact of land-use change on nutrient loads from diffuse sources;impacts of urban growth on surface and groundwater quality, riverine ecological response to changes in hydrological regime, sediment transport and nutrient loading, and interactions between surface water and goundwater in quality and quantity. Secondly, the hydrological research in regional scale is focused. The hot topics at present are to establish a global hydrological data bases, to explore new methods which are suitable for regional study over continental regions. The study on the interaction between atmosphere and land surface greatly promotes regional hydrological research also. Finally, linkage among tracer techniques, advanced hydrometric and remote sensing is very helpful for understanding hydrological processes in catchment.

  7. [Russland an der Ostsee - Russia on the Baltic. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) - Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns od Perception (16th - 20th Centuries)] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Wien [etc.] : Böhlau, 2012

  8. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius, Darius Staliūnas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CATHOLIC DOCTRINE OF PAPAL PRIMACY IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY AND ITS EVALUATION IN THE WORKS OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOX THEOLOGIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Suvorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the XIX century, the Roman Catholic Church began to look for ways to unite all Christian traditions under the universal power of the Bishop of Rome, while recognizing that the main subject of disagreement of the Roman Church with other churches - is the doctrine of the primacy of the Roman Pontiff. A serious attempt to reform the traditional Catholic doctrine of papal primacy in order to make it acceptable to Christians separated from communion with the See of Rome, was made by the Roman Catholic Church in the second half of the twentieth century. Vatican II (1962‒1965 has undertaken an unprecedented attempt to combine the traditional Catholic doctrine of papal primacy with elements of Orthodox ecclesiology ‒ such as the doctrine of collegiality of the episcopate, eucharistic ecclesiology and communion ecclesiology. The article considers the criticism of new Catholic doctrine in the works of Russian Orthodox theologians of different ecclesiastical jurisdictions. The author considers the development of the doctrine of papal primacy in the Catholic ecclesiology in the post-conciliar period of the 20th century, and notes that it contains new steps toward Orthodox ecclesiology, which, however, was replaced by «reverse» at the end of the century. The author notes the coincidence of the Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic theological thought on some issues, but concludes that in the 20th century, the Roman Catholic Church has failed to organically combine the doctrine of papal primacy to the principle of conciliarity and other elements of Orthodox ecclesiology. This is confirmed today, including some Roman Catholic writers. The point of view of a number of Russian theologians about the fundamental impossibility of such a synthesis had historically confirmed.

  10. Can't a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Lisa; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Popular depictions of 20th-century American motherhood have typically emphasized the joy and fulfillment that a new mother can expect to experience on her child's arrival. But starting in the 1950s, discussions of the "baby blues" began to appear in the popular press. How did articles about the baby blues, and then postpartum depression, challenge these rosy depictions? In this article, we examine portrayals of postpartum distress in popular magazines and advice books during the second half of the 20th century to examine how the unsettling pairing of distress and motherhood was culturally negotiated in these decades. We show that these portrayals revealed a persistent reluctance to situate motherhood itself as the cause of serious emotional distress and a consistent focus on changing mothers to adapt to their role rather than changing the parameters of the role itself. Regardless of whether these messages actually helped or hindered new mothers themselves, we suggest that they reflected the rarely challenged assumption that motherhood and distress should not mix.

  11. Bookseller’s Classification: Classification Examples and Criteria of Croatian Booksellers in Sales Catalogs and Book Lists from the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Topić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to conduct research on the topic of ways of bookstore (sales classification of Croatian bookstores from the beginning of the 20th century. By content analysis of the 17 sales lists/catalogs of books from Dubrovnik, Split, Zadar, Karlovac, Zagreb and Osijek, the classification structure has been reconstructed, and the criteria according to which the booksellers offerings have been classified in the early 20th century have been determined. Conducting of the analysis established the following criteria of the bookstore classification: topic/content, form/type of work, type of corpus, genre, language, purpose, publishing series, publisher, time of publication, (new edition, time of publication/purchase, customer's specific interests, number, letter and author. Order of enumeration within specific categories is mostly alphabetic, numeric or according to order of publication. Unlike the library classification and classification systems in general, the problematics of bookstore classification is not very present in the current existing sources. Research studies that focus on the history of bookselling, even if they reveal ways of classification of booksellers offers remain on a descriptive level without any deeper analysis of the criteria or possible reasons of such classification. Therefore, the contribution of the paper is a detailed analysis of a larger pattern of bookstore sales catalogs, and also an attempt of illuminating the criteria and reasons of creating a system of bookstore classification in the defined historical, spatial and time context.

  12. 20 世纪中国音乐美学现代部分研究%Study on Contemporary Chinese Aesthetics of Music in the 20 th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨和平

    2015-01-01

    With contemporary Chinese aesthetics of music in the 20 th century as the research object and based on a large number of literature and historical materials , the paper tries to make a dynamic grasp of the nature of music , the value of music , music form and content , aesthetics of music at home and abroad , process of music practice , aesthetic education practice , music criticism , music psychology and translated works of aes-thetics of music on a macro level , which aims to promote the development of Chinese aesthetics of music in the 20 th century .%本文以20世纪中国音乐美学现代部分为研究对象,在搜集整理阅读分析大量文献史料的基础上,力图对音乐存在的本质、音乐的价值功能、音乐形式与内容、中外音乐美学史、音乐实践的诸环节、美育实践、 音乐批评、音乐心理以及音乐美学的译文译著等,进行宏观有机动态的理论把握,旨在推进20世纪中国音乐美学学科的发展.

  13. The Clinical Features of Paranoia in the 20th Century and Their Representation in Diagnostic Criteria From DSM-III Through DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-12-21

    This review traces, through psychiatric textbooks, the history of the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia in the 20th century and then relates the common reported symptoms and signs to the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder in DSM-III through DSM-5. Clinical descriptions of paranoia appearing in 10 textbooks, published 1899 to 1970, revealed 11 prominent symptoms and signs reported by 5 or more authors. Three symptoms (systematized delusions, minimal hallucinations, and prominent ideas of reference) and 2 signs (chronic course and minimal affective deterioration) were reported by 8 or 9 of the authors. Four textbook authors rejected the Kraepelinian concept of paranoia. A weak relationship was seen between the frequency with which the clinical features were reported and the likelihood of their inclusion in modern DSM manuals. Indeed, the diagnostic criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder shifted substantially from DSM-III to DSM-5. The modern operationalized criteria for paranoia/delusional disorder do not well reflect the symptoms and signs frequently reported by historical experts. In contrast to results of similar reviews for depression, schizophrenia and mania, the clinical construct of paranoia/delusional disorder has been somewhat unstable in Western Psychiatry since the turn of the 20th century as reflected in both textbooks and the DSM editions.

  14. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Taupin

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l. was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g−1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent

  15. Recovering voices for the Spanish poetry of the 20th century: the writing on the margins of César Simón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pozo Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The poetry of César Simón is still maintaining the ungrateful marginal position. Although many eminent poets and critics recognize the Simón's opus as one of the most comprehensive and pervasive in the second half of the 20th century, it still has not entered into literary and critical studies. The persistent silence that hovers over Simón's work is a result of the difficulty of its clasification and of the peculiarities of its aesthetic principles in the context of Spanish poetry of the last century. This article attempts to bring closer Simón's work and thus contribute to the proliferation of views on this different poetics.

  16. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  17. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th) centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th) century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th) century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th) century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  18. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  19. Deflection in Flemish between the 13th and 20th Centuries: An Interplay between Analogical and Articulatory Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Marinel

    1992-01-01

    The linguistic embedding, transition, and actuation of the obliteration of the gerund ending "-e" in the West Flemish dialect of Bruges is examined. The study shows that deflection (loss of inflections) started in the fourteenth century and is almost complete today. (33 references) (Author/LB)

  20. Income distribution dynamics in the Netherlands in the 20th century: long-run developments and cyclical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Afman

    2005-01-01

    This paper contributes to the evidence on the distribution of income in the Netherlands by constructing decile and quintile income shares for gross- and for disposable income covering almost the entire twentieth century. It suggests some interpretations of the general trends, while the cyclical prop

  1. The Ambivalence of a Port-City. The Jews of Trieste from the 19th to the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullia Catalan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article stems from a key question: was Habsburg Trieste truly a cosmopolitan and tolerant city? Building upon the interpretative category of "port Jews", established by David Sorkin and Lois C. Dubin, this study examines the social, economic and political behaviour of the Triestine Jews in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries, and conducts a comparison with the other religious minorities present in the Adriatic port during this period: Greeks, Protestants, Serbians and Armenians. The picture which emerges allows for the proposition of a new interpretative model, that of the "port-merchant." The second part of the article focuses on the second half of the nineteenth-century, when the model of Trieste as a tolerant city was challenged by the nationalist fights between Italians and Slovenians, and by the political antisemitism. The city lost its capacity to include the 'Other', and was rapidly transformed into a genuine breeding-ground of Italian racism.

  2. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 5: the American Board of Orthodontics, Albert Ketcham, and early 20th-century appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Norman

    2005-10-01

    Early in the last century, 3 events put Colorado in the orthodontic spotlight: the discovery-by an orthodontist-of the caries-preventive powers of fluoridated water, the formation of dentistry's first specialty board, and the founding of a supply company by and for orthodontists. Meanwhile, inventive practitioners were giving the profession more choices of treatment modalities, and stainless steel was making its feeble debut.

  3. Floods of the Maros river in the early modern and modern period (16th-20th centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In the poster presentation a series of historical and recent floods of the Maros river, with special emphasis on the flood events occurred on the lower sections, are presented. Similar to the Hungarian flood databases of the Middle-Danube and Lower-Tisza, the main sources of investigations are the institutional (legal-administrative) documentary evidence (e.g. Szeged and Makó town council protocols and related administrative documentation, Csanád County meeting protocols) mainly from the late 17th-early 18th century onwards. However, in case of the Maros river there is an increased importance of narrative sources, with special emphasis on the early modern period (16th-17th century): in this case the (mainly Transylvanian) narratives (chronicles, diaries, memoires etc.) written by aristocrats, other noblemen and town citizens have particular importance. In the presentation the frequency of detected flood events, from the mid-16th century onwards (with an outlook on sporadic medieval evidence), is provided; moreover, a 3-scaled magnitude classification and a seasonality analysis are also presented. Floods of the Maros river, especially those of the lower river sections, often cannot be understood and discussed without the floods of the (Lower-)Tisza; thus, a comparison of the two flood series are also a subject of discussion. Unlike the Lower-Tisza, the Maros is prone to winter and early spring ice jam floods: since the floods that belonged to this type (similar to those of the Middle-Danube at Budapest) were the most destructive among the flood events of the river, this flood type, and the greatest flood events (e.g. 1751-1752, 1784) are also presented in more detail.

  4. War, Peace and Security in the 20th Century. A Contemporary Reading of the Just War Theory

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    Roxana Alexandra Costinescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available War, in its various forms, still represents even in the XXI century a common manner for states as well as for ethnic, political and religious groups to settle disputes. The geopolitical context, marked by the al Qaeda attacks on the USA, and the multiple world events they determined lead to major changes for the armed violence character and simultaneously for its moral implications. Therefore, the present analysis subjects the relevance of the just war theory for the new international realities, the degree to which the theory needs a revision of its classical categories ius ad bellum and ius in bello or, on the contrary, an abandonment.

  5. Under a Starry Vault. Warburg, Jung and the Renaissance of Ancient Paganisms at the Beginning of the 20th Century

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    Manuela Pallotto Strickland

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles the controversial question of the affinities between the work of Aby Warburg and Carl Gustav Jung. Instead of focussing her interest exclusively on the concepts of collective memory and primordial images, though, the author critically compares the different ways Warburg and Jung looked at the renaissance of ancient practices of Paganism at the beginning of the Twentieth century, and questions the extent to which the cultural crisis heralded by Modernity, and the challenges brought about by secularisation influenced their reading of the revivals.

  6. Long-term Trends in Interplanetary Magnetic Field Strength and Solar Wind Structure during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Lockwood et al have recently reported an approximately 40% increase in the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Earth between 1964 and 1996. We argue that this increase does not constitute a secular trend but is largely the consequence of lower than average fields during solar cycle 20 (1964-1976) in comparison with surrounding cycles. For times after 1976 the average IMF strength has actually decreased slightly. Examination of the cosmic ray intensity, an indirect measure of the IMF strength, over the last five solar cycles (19-23) also indicates that cycle averages of the IMF strength have been relatively constant since approximately 1954. We also consider the origin of the well-documented increase in the geomagnetic alphaalpha index that occurred primarily during the first half of the twentieth century. We surmise that the coronal mass ejection (CME) rate for recent solar cycles was approximately twice as high as that for solar cycles 100 years ago. However, this change in the CME rate and the accompanying increase in 27-day recurrent storm activity reported by others are unable to account completely for the increase in alphaalpha. Rather, the CMEs and recurrent high-speed streams at the beginning of the twentieth century must have been embedded in a background of slow solar wind that was less geoeffective (having, for example, lower IMF strength and/or flow speed) than its modern counterpart.

  7. Spring flowering herbaceous plant species of the deciduous forests of eastern Canada and 20th century climate warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houle, G. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2007-02-15

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions during the second half of the twentieth century has been associated with global climate warming. High latitude areas are particularly sensitive to such changes, with significant impacts on plant pheno logy. This article presented the results of a study that estimated changes in the flowering dates of 18 spring-flowering herbaceous plant species typical of the deciduous forests of eastern North America in three areas of eastern Canada, namely the Ottawa region, Montreal, and Quebec. Analyses were carried out for those species comprising more than 30 specimens covering a period of more than 50 years between 1900 to 2000. The purpose was to determine if spring-flowering herbaceous perennials showed signs for earlier flowering due to a rise in temperature. Only a few species from the 3 regions showed a significant flowering date/year regression, indicating that most species tended to flower earlier towards the end of the twentieth century. The data on indigenous plant species of natural habitats revealed noticeable shifts in phenology, particularly in the Montreal region. It was determined that the effects of climate warming on plant phenology may be exacerbated by local conditions associated with large urban areas. It was concluded that the species-specific response to climate change presented in this study may lead to important changes in ecosystem functions and community composition. 45 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. The Welfare Culture. Poetics of Comfort in Architecture of the 19th and 20th-centuries

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    Eduardo Prieto González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractArchitectural history of the last two centuries shows that welfare, far from being a purely technical issue – a balance between weather and the physiological human constants – is a culturally constructed idea concerning diverse factors, such as the relationship between space and human body or the ways of conceiving nature in architecture. However, the notion of comfort has not received the historiographical attention it deserves, hence the need for a new perspective, aesthetic and multidisciplinary in nature. Such a view is discussed in this article through a brief and partial history of comfort that addresses the different meanings assigned to the concept over the past two centuries, in accordance with a kind of 'poetics': the longstanding poetics of fire, linked the regenerative comfort; the poetics of hygiene and habitat, developed during modernity as a scientifistic dogma and as an aesthetic alibi, and, finally, the poetics of atmospheres, which accounts for contemporary concerns about perception, memory and sociability. From this historical review we can conclude that welfare is not an objectifiable concept, nor an idea synthesized in the technician or scientist test tubes, but a complex notion consisting of several intertwined layers: physiological, constructive, aesthetic, existential, social. The history of comfort is, thus, a sort of small version of the history of culture.Key wordscomfort, architecture, hygiene, habitat, atmosphere

  9. Preconditions and Reasons of Religions Educational and Missionary Activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Yelena D. Mikhailova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying the reasons and preconditions for religions, educational and missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Basing on the archive records, the author shows that most important preconditions for enhancing religions – educational activities were the following: the destruction of traditional patriarchal life of the masses, which was based on religions values, the need to overcome “religions ignorance” of a significant part of Orthodox population, the rapid religions dissent in the Russian Empire. Analysis of reasons for their wide spread shows that it wasn’t the cause of foreign influence or any kind of social protest. Studying contemporary opinions as well as specific facts of provincial parish life led to the conclusion that there existed a wide complex of preconditions that influenced the growth of “protest” forms of religion.

  10. Chinese Bibliography Research since the 20 th Century%20世纪以来的中国目录学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐天兴

    2014-01-01

    文章在回顾20世纪以来中国目录学发展历程的基础上,系统总结了目录学研究的成就,对网络环境下的研究趋势做了认真思考,并提出了在该环境下中国目录学的发展方向。%This paper reviewed the developmental courses of Chinese bibliographic research since the 20th century, summarized the a-chievements of Chinese bibliographic research , seriously pondered the developmental trends of Chinese bibliographic research under the network environment , and put forward the development direction of Chinese bibliography in the network era .

  11. Review and Consideration of Tibetan Archaeology in the 20th Century%20世纪西藏考古的回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甲央; 霍巍

    2001-01-01

    Tibetan archaeology has always drawn close attention from academic circles both athome and abroad. In the first half of the 20th century, archaeological work in this region was principallydone by Western scholars. They obtained some achievements, such as those in the surveys of Tubo royaltombs, though there appeared shortcomings. Since the 1950s, Chinese scholars have independently car-tied out a series of archaeological surveys and diggings on the Qamdo karub site and in the NaogxianLieshan cemetery. The 1990s was an remarkable decade, when Tibetan archaeology was going ahead byleaps and bounds. The general investigation of ancient monuments across Tibet laid the foundations offuture Tibetan archaeology. The excavation of the prehistoric site at Qugoog village, Lhasa, the explo-ration of the ancient Guge city in Ngari and other archaeological projects carried out in recent years ex-erted significant influence in Chinese and foreign academic circles.

  12. “20世纪中国文学”及其编写再论%"20th Century Chinese Literature" and Its Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2012-01-01

    "20世纪中国文学"是改变中国现当代文学史编写的著史理念,其以整体性的视角考察中国现代文学的发展,改变了以往研究视野狭隘的局限,可以更合理地认知各文学形态。孔范今主编的《二十世纪中国文学史》是国内较早以"20世纪"命名的文学史著作,与黄修己、唐金海、雷达、赵学勇、朱栋霖、丁帆以及台湾的皮述民、邱燮友、马森等人的编写共同繁荣了中国现当代文学史书写的园地。%"20th Century Chinese Literature" is an idea that transforms the historiography of modern Chinese literature. No longer limits itself in a narrow vision, it examines the development of modern Chinese literature from an integrated point of view, which allows it to perceive the modalities of literature properly. Together with Huang Xiuji, Tang jinhai, Lei Da, Zhao Xueyong, Zhu Donglin, Ding Fan, and Pi Shumin, Qiu Xieyou, Ma Sen from Taiwan, the chief editor of History of 20th Century Chinese Literature Kong Fanjin prospered the field in historiography of modern Chinese literature.

  13. Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ARIZTEGUI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (∼ 6,000 km2 and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. Sediments accumulated during positive hydrological balances (i.e., high lake level are mainly composed of allogenic mineral due to higher riverine inputs into the lake. This fluvial-dominated lake phases are recorded as sediments enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2 and in trace elements such as Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Hf, Ta, Th as well as rare earth elements (REE. Sediments accumulated during dry phases (i.e., low lake levels and high salinity are evaporite mineral-rich with elevated concentrations of CaO, MnO, MgO, and P2O5. High contents of As and U are probably due to a co-precitation during high evaporative phases. The calibration of the sediment chemical composition of Laguna Mar Chiquita to well-defined water-level fluctuations of the 20th century shows that elemental geochemistry can be a useful proxy to study former lake-water fluctuations. It may further provide a comparative model to evaluate past environmental conditions in other saline lacustrine basins.

  14. Interpretations of the Chinese Boxer Rebellion in the Slovenian Press at the Beginning of the 20th Century

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    Uroš LIPUŠČEK

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with the Slovene reaction to the military intervention of eight coalition forces in China during the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900. To Slovenes, China was then seen as a faraway land that had been visited by some Slovene missionaries, noblemen and travellers throughout the past centuries. Nevertheless, much interest was expressed by the Slovene public and press in the events surrounding the Boxer Rebellion. Despite the fact that the Austro-Hungarian military was part of the international coalition that intervened in Chinese internal affairs, the leading Slovene newspapers of the period supported the right of the Chinese people to defend their country against the big powers of the time, who tried to dismember China and enforce the regime of capitulation.

  15. Development of Fluid Mechanics Methods in the 20th Century and Their Application to Laminar and Turbulent Flow Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Franz

    1999-11-01

    A short review of the development of fluid mechanics is given and it is pointed out that all methods that permit us these days to study fluid flows in detail have been developed in the second half of this century. It applies to the experimental techniques like hot-wire and laser-Doppler anemometry and also particle image velocimetry. It also applies to the numerical techniques that are employed these days to effectively compute details of laminar and turbulent flows using high performance computer codes on parallel vector computers. All these methods are briefly outlined and applications are shown to bring out new flow information about turbulent flows. The second half of this century has also brought out new analytical approaches to turbulence, based on the invariance of the anisotropy of turbulence. The background of this analysis is indicated and a physically based turbulence model is put forward for axissymmetric turbulence, i.e. turbulence as it occurs in diffusers and confusers. Extension of this work is indicated utilizing new experimental and numerical information obtained in well selected turbulent flows. An extension of this work is indicated using new experimental and numerical information as well as information obtained in well selected flows. Although the work touches the general developments in the field of fluid mechanics, it mainly concentrates on the outcome of research efforts at the Institute of Fluid mechanics of the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (LSTM-Erlangen). This research work aims for basic information yielding new knowledge that can be used for advanced developments of fluid flow equipment. The transfer of these developments into industry is also indicated.

  16. From Subsistence to Commercial Hunting: Technical Shift in Cynegetic Practices Among Southern Cameroon Forest Dwellers During the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Dounias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforest dwellers, who are currently engaged in bushmeat trade, used to track game for their own subsistence. We investigate the technical evolution over the past century of bushmeat procurement by the Fang, a group of southern Cameroon forest dwellers who are renowned for their extensive cynegetic expertise. This investigation consists of a diachronic approach to assess Fang hunting and trapping technology by comparing firsthand data on bushmeat procurement collected in the early 1990s with detailed descriptions recorded in the early 1900s among the same populations by the German anthropologist Günter Tessmann. Other archive sources bequeathed by explorers in the twilight of the 19th century are also exploited. The comparison conveys a more dynamic view of hunting practices following the greater involvement of the Fang hunters in the bushmeat trade. Historical sources remind us that projectile weapons were initially destined for warfare and that trapping, mobilizing a vast panel of modalities, was the prominent means to catch game for domestic consumption. Net hunting and crossbow hunting, which used to be typical Fang activities, are now exclusively conducted by Pygmies; spear hunting with hounds has become anecdotal. If a large range of trap mechanisms is still functional, effort is now focused on snares, elicited by the banalization of twisted wire cable. The legacy of other remaining models is left to children who carry out a didactic form of garden trapping. The major detrimental change is the use of firearms, which were initially adopted as a warfare prestige attribute before becoming the backbone instrument of bushmeat depletion. Revisiting the past provides useful lessons for improving current hunting management, through the promotion of garden hunting and wildlife farming, and the revitalization of a collective and cultural art of hunting as an alternative to indiscriminate overhunting by neophyte and increasingly

  17. On a set of 20th century monumental events that shaped the modern discipline of ocean wind wave's research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.

    2012-04-01

    were the ones that sowed a rich fertile ground from which a whole sphere of wind wave's research over the last 7 decades was stemmed from and also most of today's practices in ocean wind wave's research were evolved, directly or indirectly, from those original works. As we are now well into the second decade of the 21st century, we can only hope that at some time, a new period of rejuvenation like those flowerishing 1950's can be reshaped to further expand our knowledge on the wind wave research to take further advantages of the many new technological advancements of the new century has to offer and lead us to the true understanding of the ubiquitous but still elusive ocean wind waves which we are all mesmerized to study them!

  18. The climate of Carpathian Region in the 20th century based on the original and modified Holdridge life zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Sümegi, Pál

    2014-09-01

    The Holdridge life zone system has already been used a number of times for analysing the effects of climate change on vegetation. But a criticism against the method was formulated that it cannot interpret the ecotones (e.g. forest steppe). Thus, in this paper transitional life zones were also determined in the model. Then, both the original and modified life zone systems were applied for the climatic fields of database CRU TS 1.2. Life zone maps were defined in the Carpathian Region (43.5-50.5° N, 15.5-28° E) for each of five 20-year periods between 1901 and 2000. We estimated correctness of the result maps with another vegetation map using Cohen's Kappa statistic. Finally, temporal changes in horizontal and vertical distribution of life zones were investigated. The coverage of boreal region decreased with 59.46% during the last century, while the warm temperate region became almost two and a half larger (257.36%). The mean centres of those life zones, which were not related to mountains, shifted northward during the investigation period. In case of the most abundant life zone types, the average distribution elevation increased. Using the modified model, the potential distribution of forest steppe could be also identified.

  19. Population trends in Vojvodina during the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century

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    Golubović Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic development belongs to the group of the primary social and developmental issues, and the demographic processes and tendencies in the population trends are included in the basic social processes which are expressed by the demographic (that is, synthetic social indicators. The process of the depopulation of Vojvodina is a result of the several-decades long decrease in birthrate, ageing of the population and mortality rate which is related to a series of historical, socioeconomic, cultural educational, specifically local, family, as well as psychological factors. Unfavourable demographic circumstances in Vojvodina started already in the 1920s, and became more pronounced after World War II, in 1989 resulting in the negative natural increase (-1%o, in the process of a more intensive decrease in the population which today, in the 21st century, acquires greater dimensions (-4,7%o in 2002, creating not only disturbances in the demographic, but also in the economic-social structures. Taking into account the far-developed process of demographic ageing of the population of Vojvodina and the accepted reproductive norms implying a low fertility (giving birth to a smaller number of children or only one child which does not ensure even the simple reproduction of the population, one cannot expect - in spite of the present immigrational processes (the inflow of refugees and the absolute increase in the population (between the previous two censuses - significantly more favourable population trends and a better prospective demographic picture of Vojvodina.

  20. Modelling the temperature evolution of permafrost and seasonal frost in southern Norway during the 20th and 21st century

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    T. Hipp

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A heat flow model was used to simulate both past and future ground temperatures of mountain permafrost in Southern Norway. A reconstructed air temperature series back to 1860 was used to evaluate the permafrost evolution since the end of the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of a changing climate on discontinuous mountain permafrost until 2100 is predicted by using downscaled temperatures from an ensemble of downscaled climate models for the A1B scenario. From 13 borehole locations two consecutive years of ground temperature, air temperature and snow cover data are available for model calibration and validation. The boreholes are located at different elevations and in substrates having different thermal properties. With an increase of air temperature of ~+1.5 °C over 1860–2010 and an additional warming of +2.8 °C towards 2100 in air temperature, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for the borehole locations. According to model results, the active-layer thickness has increased since 1860 by about 0.5–5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvass and Tron, respectively. The simulations also suggest that at an elevation of about 1900 m a.s.l. permafrost will degrade until the end of this century with a likelihood of 55–75% given the chosen A1B scenario.

  1. The teaching of evolution in Portugal in the early 20th century through the programs and textbooks of Zoology

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    Bento CAVADAS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of evolution in the Portuguese secondary schools is not yet fully understood. This research aimed to contribute to this clarification, in the framework of the history of the curriculum and the biology subject, by showing the expressions of the evolutionism teaching in the first three decades of the twentieth century. To this end we analyzed the programs of Zoology of 1905 and 1919, as well as two textbooks, entitled «Lições de Zoologia» and written by Bernardo Aires in accordance with these programs. This analysis showed that the study of evolution, eliminated from the program in 1905, was again recognized in the program in 1919. In textbooks, the exposure of evolution focused on the subject of evolution, in the grounds of competition and natural selection, adaptation, the biogenetic law and the essential differences between Lamarckism and Darwinism. The comparative study of these textbooks showed that the text which addresses the evolution is essentially Darwinian. However, neoLamarckians sections have been identified that show the influence of the «eclipse of Darwinism» on the teaching of evolutionism.

  2. The Formation of the Indian Entrepreneurial Community in Japan in the End of 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Firsova Varvara Sergeevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on Western, Japanese and field-work materials of the author who describes the main stages of formation of the Indian entrepreneurial diaspora in Japan in the period from the late 19th century until the beginning of the World War II. Indian entrepreneurs, being the representatives of trade and usury communities, Sindhis and Parsis in particular, started to arrive here in 1870s under British protection. Their main occupation was the export of Japanese textile which was the main export item of Japan in the mentioned period. Indians maintained the export of the textile goods, silk and cotton, in different countries all over the world through their strong entrepreneurial networks. The majority of Indian firms in Japan were Sindhis firms, and Sindhis network was especially prominent. Indian firms especially prospered in 1920-1930s, when their share of Japanese textile export constituted about 70 %. Thanks to strong ethnic loyalties, Indians in Japan could not only prosper but also successfully adapt to closed Japanese society. The article considers the pattern of settlement of Indians in Japan, and emphasizes two stages of Indian community formation in the pre-War period. The first one lasted from 1870s till 1923 year, when the community was formed basically in Yokohama. And the second stage after Great Kanto Earthquake lasted from 1923 till 1939, when it was constituted mainly in Kobe, which in present days remains the centre of Indian entrepreneurial community in Japan.

  3. Realism of Global Reanalyses over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean across the 20th and Early 21st Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, J. P.; Bromwich, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Thanks to their ability to synthesize a wide variety of meteorological data and "produce data where there are none", nowhere are global atmospheric reanalyses more needed than over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, where long-term records are few and far between. At the same time, because of the reduced observational constraint, nowhere else do reanalyses face more challenges, which can significantly reduce the reliability of their products. Most notably, the transition into the modern satellite era in 1979 greatly affected the skill of the NCEP-NCAR and ERA-40 reanalyses and explains why most reanalysis-based investigations of Antarctic climate change have since focused on the post-1979 period. The most recent generation of reanalyses has benefited from advances in numerical weather prediction, data rescue/quality-control and lessons learned from previous projects, all of which have improved their overall quality in the southern polar region. Alongside comprehensive reanalyses, recent data assimilation experiments using only surface or conventional observations have tried to overcome the 1979 "barrier", but other problems have become apparent, including the necessity to specify realistic ocean boundary conditions (sea ice, SST) around Antarctica prior to 1979. The presentation will provide an overview of the skill of recent global reanalyses in high southern latitudes from the 1900s onward. It will discuss how far back in time we can reasonably go and in what areas caution is needed. The datasets covered will include ERA-Interim, CFSR, MERRA, and JRA-55, as well as recent century-long efforts, 20CR and ERA-20C.

  4. Response of the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway to the 20th and 21st century climates

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    R. H. Giesen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers respond to mass balance changes by adjusting their surface elevation and area. These properties in their turn affect the local and area-averaged mass balance. To incorporate this interdependence in the response of glaciers to climate change, models should include an interactive scheme coupling mass balance and ice dynamics. In this study, a spatially distributed mass balance model, comprising surface energy balance calculations, was coupled to a vertically integrated ice-flow model based on the shallow ice approximation. The coupled model was applied to the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway. The available glacio-meteorological records, mass balance and glacier length change measurements were utilized for model calibration and validation. Forced with meteorological data from nearby synoptic weather stations, the coupled model realistically simulated the observed mass balance and glacier length changes during the 20th century. The mean climate for the period 1961–1990, computed from local meteorological data, was used as a basis to prescribe climate projections for the 21st century at Hardangerjøkulen. For a linear temperature increase of 3 °C from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100, the modelled net mass balance soon becomes negative at all altitudes and Hardangerjøkulen disappears around the year 2100. The projected changes in the other meteorological variables could at most partly compensate for the effect of the projected warming.

  5. Global riverine N and P transport to ocean increased during the 20th century despite increased retention along the aquatic continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Bouwman, Alexander F.; Van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Mogollón, José M.; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2016-04-01

    Various human activities - including agriculture, water consumption, river damming, and aquaculture - have intensified over the last century. This has had a major impact on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in global continental waters. In this study, we use a coupled nutrient-input-hydrology-in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Our results suggest that, during this period, the global nutrient delivery to streams increased from 34 to 64 Tg N yr-1 and from 5 to 9 Tg P yr-1. Furthermore, in-stream retention and removal grew from 14 to 27 Tg N yr-1 and 3 to 5 Tg P yr-1. One of the major causes of increased retention is the growing number of reservoirs, which now account for 24 and 22 % of global N and P retention/removal in freshwater systems, respectively. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers with the consequence that river nutrient transport to the ocean increased from 19 to 37 Tg N yr-1 and from 2 to 4 Tg P yr-1. Human activities have also led to a global increase in the molar N : P ratio in freshwater bodies.

  6. A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Horrleman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bianca Horrleman. 2015. A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai in Gerald Roche, Keith Dede, Fernanda Pirie, and Benedict Copps (eds Asian Highlands Perspectives 37 Centering the Local, A Festschrift for Dr. Charles Kevin Stuart on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 36-38. Starting from the late nineteenth century, northwest China, Eastern Turkestan (modern Xinjiang, and eastern Tibet became increasingly attractive destinations for foreign travelers and explorers. There was a veritable 'run' on the region, which was deemed one of the last blank spots on world maps. In addition, northwest China, Tibet, and Eastern Turkestan received special attention because of competition between the British and Russian empires as part of what is known as the Great Game in Central Asia. This caused other European countries such as France, Belgium, and Germany to fear that they would miss out on new geographic and scientific discoveries. Apart from geo-political, economic, and archeological incentives, Tibetan Buddhism also attracted considerable interest, although mostly on a 'touristic', rather than an academic, level.

  7. The early vs the late 20th century Arctic warming: The role of energy and aerosol fluxes in reanalysis driven datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Martin; Broennimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    During the last two decades, the Arctic was put into the scientific focus as one of the most impacted regions worldwide concerning anthropogenic global warming. However, the warming between 1920 and 1940 proofs the importance of internal variability on yearly and decadal scale. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the role of external and internal forcings on the Arctic climate attribute process and causes leading to changes in the Arctic climate regime (Serreze & Barry 2009). Although much research effort was spent to understand the links and influences of and on the Arctic climate, there is still a need for further insights concerning this topic. Especially the results and discussion about anthropogenic global warming and Arctic amplification put the Arctic into the public and academic focus (Serreze & Barry 2011). However, the early 20th century Arctic warming, although discovered immediately, was scientifically forgotten until recently (Delworth & Knutson 2000, Bengtsson et al 2004, Grant et al 2009, Bekryaev et al 2010). The comparison of this earlier Arctic warming and the recent warming period grants a chance to deepen knowledge about the drivers of Arctic climate and can be used to evaluate the anthropogenic impact. The authors use the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) dataset and a nudged, reanalysis-driven Aerosol Global Circulation Model (A-GCM) to investigate the impact of atmospheric energy and aerosol fluxes into the Arctic during the 20th century. The 20CR dataset covers the period of 1871 - 2010 with a temporal resolution of 6hr and a spatial resolution of 2° x 2°. For the first time, this dataset (and ist 56 ensemble member) is used to compute the atmospheric energy flux, consisting of sensble heat, latent heat, potential energy and kinetic energy. The values are integrated around 70° N and between 1000 - 100 hPa. Aerosol fluxes for the same domain but for the years 1957 - 2000 are calculated based on the A-GCM nudged to the ECMWF

  8. 20th Century variability of Atlantic Meridional overturning circulation: Planetary wave influences on world ocean surface phosphate utilization and synchrony of small pelagic fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamykowski, Daniel

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), part of the global Thermohaline Circulation (THC), is variable. In the present analysis, an Atlantic Dipole Phosphate Utilization (ADPU) index, related to the existing Atlantic Dipole Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (ADSA) index, is used to represent 20th century changes in AMOC strength that are applied to global ecosystem variability. ADPU index cycles set the timing for the calculation of six 2° latitude-longitude resolution world ocean maps depicting higher surface phosphate utilization (SPU) in some regions when AMOC is weaker and in other regions when AMOC is stronger. The average of these six maps yields a summary map with a pattern of alternating latitudinal SPU regions differentiated by AMOC strength that exhibits relationships with ocean bathymetry and wind-driven currents through a consideration of the THC deep and shallow limbs. The latitudinal pattern of SPU regions exhibits conceptual associations with sardine (S) and anchovy (A) population ranges off Japan (J), California (C), Peru (P) and South Africa (B). These sardine and anchovy populations have exhibited apparently synchronous fluctuations on decadal scales through at least part of the 20th century that is summarized in a Regime Indicator Series (RIS=(JS+CS+PS+BA)-(JA+CA+PA+BS)) index. In the present analysis based on Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) catch data, a revised Regime Indicator Series index formulation (RIS3=(JS+CA+PS+BA)-(JA+CS+PA+BS)), in which CS and CA catches reverse positions, is defined. AMOC variability represented in ADPU is significantly correlated with the RIS3 index (no lag but a significant range of 14 years) and four of eight small pelagic fisheries (JS, PS, BA, and JA). The post-1950 RIS3 index is significantly correlated with seven of eight small pelagic fisheries but not CS. When the regional small pelagic fisheries are considered as normalized species differences (S-A), ADPU has significant positive

  9. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  10. 《二十世纪中国百项考古大发现》读后思考%Book Review: One Hundred Major Archaeological Discoveries in China in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何驽

    2002-01-01

    The book is a monograph compiled by the Archaeology Publications based on the results of the Voting of "One Hundred Major Archaeological Discoverises in CHina in the 20th Century," The present paper introduces the book's structure,content and summarizes its authoritativeness in the choice of major discoveries,initiative in compilation form,theorization in summarization ,academic character in content and popularity in statement,Meanwhile,the paper analyzes the features of significant archaeological discoveries in CHina in the 20th century,and puts forward that they are characterized by the leding role of academic researches,close connection with social development and taking the Central Plains as the center.

  11. 中国20世纪干旱化趋势分析%Study on Aridity Trend in China in 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟猛; 宗美娟

    2012-01-01

    采用东安格利亚大学气候研究中心的时间序列2.0气象数据集,利用Holdridge可能蒸散率干燥度计算方法,分析20世纪我国干燥度的动态变化。用GIS软件对其结果进行插值计算,并做出干燥度分布的数字化地图。分析结果表明:20世纪我国的湿润气候区面积减少严重,半湿润气候区面积有较大增加,干旱气候区面积增加也较显著,干旱化趋势明显。温度升高和降水量的减少导致了地表水分收支减小,不利于陆地表面的水分累积,是产生和加剧干旱的一个重要因素。%In this paper,the values of aridity index in China were calculated using the time series 2.0 climatic datasets from Climatic Research Unit of University of East Anglia and the Holdridge potential evapotranspiration method.On which the dynamic change of values of aridity index in China in the 20th century was analyzed.Moreover,the results were interpolated in GIS software,and then they were formed as the digital maps of AI distribution in China.The results show that there was a notable reduction of humid climate area in China in the 20th century,semi-humid climate area was enlarged considerably,dry climate area was enlarged significantly,and the drought trend was significant.Temperature increase and precipitation decrease in China leaded to a reduction of surface moisture and a disadvantage for moisture accumulation over land surface.These are the important factors of producing and aggravating ariditification.

  12. Assessing how seasonal hydrological balance has changed during the warming 20th century in the montane forests of Southeast Asian monsoon region using a stable isotope dendroclimatology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Stott, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical montane forests act as water catchment and host of biodiversity in the Southeast Asian monsoon region, and understanding how their hydrological conditions change with global warming is vitally important. Global climate model simulations project enhanced moisture cycle in the tropics, which would cause stronger summer monsoon precipitations, but on the other hand the adiabatic lapse rate would be shifted towards a moister condition (amplification of warming at high elevation), inhibiting dry season orographic lifting cloud/fog formation (lifting cloud base hypothesis), enhancing evapo-transpiration, and leading to a net moisture loss during winter dry season. In this study, we have attempted to investigate how the seasonal moisture balance in Southeast Asia has evolved in response to these influences through the 20th century using the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of subannual tree cellulose samples extracted from the annual rings of pine trees that grow in Doi Chiang Dao, a limestone mountain in northern Thailand. At this location the δ18O of cellulose exhibits distinctive annual cycles of up to 12‰, which is primarily a reflection of both the so-called ‘isotope amount effect’ that is associated with the strong monsoon precipitation during summer wet season and the moisture availability from different sources during winter dry season. We have demonstrated that tree cellulose δ18O could be used as a proxy for regional monsoon strength by showing that the annual mean cellulose δ18O correlate significantly with All India Rainfall, Webster-Yang monsoon index, as well as with both local and regional monsoon precipitation. ENSO is the dominant influence on interannual rainfall variability and this is well expressed in the interannual cellulose δ18O record. Using a 21-year moving window correlation analysis we find a weakening of ENSO influence after 1980, coinciding with the most rapid atmospheric warming. We expect to analyze older trees to

  13. 20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型阐释%20th Century Chinese Literature Gun Yu Archetypical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙胜杰

    2014-01-01

    Gun Yu myth as a prototype in the literature as a hero mythology, it is perhaps the epitome of human to the hero worship, accumulate at the bottom of the pioneers of the original consciousness. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype is not simply repeat the Gun Yu myth, not just confined to a single, forever hero model, but with the development of history and the cultural background of the different age is rich, the constantly changing, constantly displacement deformation, from hero to ordinary mortals. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype become forces so as to express its own cultural codes, not only reflects the profound connotation of culture and history of the works, but also let us in the same original thinking mode of the experience of different cultures, and more direct, more profound understanding prototype this is both abstract and concrete, is both varied and genetic stability of human culture and literature.%鲧禹神话作为原型在文学中被塑造成英雄神话,它凝结了人类对英雄的崇拜,积淀在原始先民的意识底层。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型并不是对鲧禹神话的简单重复,也不仅局限在单一的、永远不变的英雄模式,而是随着历史发展和不同时代文化背景被不断丰富、变化,不断置换变形,从英雄走向普通凡人。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型成为各种力量借以表达自身的文化符码,既体现出了作品的深厚的文化底蕴和历史内涵,又能让我们在相同的原始思维的模式下体验不同的文化,也能更直接、更深刻地认识原型这一既抽象又具体,既多变又稳定的人类文化与文学基因。

  14. On the Theme of Women Thought in the Early 20 th Century%20世纪初年女权思潮探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文联; 张哲溶

    2015-01-01

    With the wide spread of the concept of innate rights of man and feminism theory, women ’ s rights had been paid unprecedented great attention to by advanced members in the early 20th century. They urged to return “human’s world and human’s relationship” back to women themselves, and discussed widely women’s various rights. They also combined closely regaining women’s right and rejuvenating civil rights, and emphasized that feminism should be realized by our own efforts instead of waiting and begging. We should be confidential and intent on fighting for freedom and regaining women’s rights. These characteristics fully demonstrated the unique vigor and vitality of the new intellectuals at that era. Even though the women thought in the early 20th century had some age limitations, it played an active role in promoting women’s liberation movement and even in purifying social atmosphere, which is undeniable.%伴随着“天赋人权”说和女权理论的广为传播,妇女人权受到了20世纪初年先进分子前所未有的重视。他们强烈要求“把人的世界和人的关系”还给女性自己,对妇女的各项权利进行了广泛讨论;他们将复女权与兴民权紧密结合在一起,强调女权应通过切身的努力而非坐等施舍去实现;对争自由、复女权,既抱定决心,也充满了无比信心。这些特点充分展现了当时新型知识分子所特有的朝气与活力。20世纪初年女权思想虽有某些时代局限性,但对启迪妇女觉醒,推动妇女解放运动,乃至促进社会风气进化所起到的积极作用,是不可抹杀的。

  15. Russia and Mexico in the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century: on the Crimean War’s Influence on Russia-Mexico Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prerequisites and establishment of the first Russia-Mexico contacts, which took place after the Crimean War (1853-1856. It was revealed that Mexico’s interest in the collaboration with Russia began to reveal in a higher degree after the Crimean War. The factors, which had led to the diplomatic rapprochement of the two states, include the Mexico’s search for allies in the contradiction to increased aggression of European states and the USA in the Central American region, and the increase of Russian intellectuals’ emigration, resettlement of religious groups of the Old Russian sectarians to the region. At the turn of 19th – 20th centuries many Russian travelers and writers, such as S.D. Protopopov and K.D. Balmont, visited Mexico for the purpose of studying the culture of ancients Indians, who lived in Central America during many centuries before the Spanish colonization. Besides of the impressions on ancient Indian culture, these travelers described the life of ordinary Mexican people of that time. They mentioned their poverty and hopelessness in the years of Porfirio Dias’s dictatorship. Nevertheless, political and cultural contacts had begun to established in the late 19th century between the Russian Empire and Mexico, because after the Crimean War the Mexico’s interest to Russians increased. In addition, Russia tried to strengthen its position in Central American region. In total, these factors had led to the strengthening of political, social and cultural contacts between Russia and Mexico.

  16. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Havrylenko Kateryna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th – early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this country and for the popularization of the scientific information among the general public. The impressive work of the Canadiana project on preservation of periodicals of the given period, launched by Canadian library collections has been emphasized. These periodical materials have been analyzed and an attempt of old agricultural publications classification has been made. The importance of comprehensive informational analysis of the existing periodicals roles for better understanding of the transformations and changes that have occurred in Canadian formal agricultural education has been outlined as well as the need of researching the role of universities in the scientific community of the past and of our time has been stressed. The importance of a detailed study of the saved periodicals for an objective analysis of contemporary formal agricultural education and its role in the society in order to improve the training of agricultural sector specialists in the country according to the best historical examples has been noted as well as the need in the retrospective analysis of higher education development in Canada for further implementation of the results into the national educational system has been indicated.

  17. Chinese Pop Literature Studies in the First Half of the 20th Century%20世纪上半叶的俗文学文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠元

    2012-01-01

    20世纪上半叶,众多学者对俗文学文献进行收藏、整理、校勘研究等工作。这些工作不仅仅为俗文学研究提供了丰富的史料,同时也在显现这些被长久遮蔽、遗忘的文学历史时解答了众多文学史的谜团,恢复了中国文学的全真面目。它在提高俗文学历史地位的同时,在推动俗文学学科建设的过程中起到了地基性作用。%In the first half of the 20th century, many scholars collected and studied literature of Chinese pop literature. Their work provided plenty of research materials and solved many mysteries long neglected in the literary history. By revealing the true face of Chinese literature, it has improve the statue of pop literature and laid a solid foundation for the establishment of pop literature as a discipline.

  18. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework.

  19. RUSSIAN LITERARY NEOTRADITIONALISM OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE CONTEXT OF PHILOSOPHICAL AND AESTHETIC-AXIOLOGICAL PROBLEM OF THE CREATIVE CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nikolaevich Sklyarov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of the series of the research on the phenomenon of neotraditionalism in philosophical-aesthetic thought and artistic literature of the 20th century. The crisis phenomena in the creative consciousness of the post-traditionalist period, a kind of "response" to which became the new traditionalism, which was formed in the non-classical conditions and combining in itself the sensitivity to the most valuable discoveries of European modernism and the aspiration to eternal landmarks of classical culture.Cultural, historical, mental preconditions of the neotraditionalism and its key features are considered in the article. The author gives priority to the ontology, and also axiological and poetological aspects of neotraditional thinking. By virtue of the fact that it appears as a special vector of the creative research, and alternative to the divergent strategies of avant-gardism and reglamentaric intentions of the so-called "Socialist Realism" art. The subject of the research interest are the predominant traits of neotraditional mentality such as life acceptance, logocentric, responsibility, a tendency to seek modern forms of actualization of the eternal universals, and solidarity (convergence of the creative aspirations.

  20. The geometry in the arithmetic edited for the lutheran parochial schools of the 20th century in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Malcus Cassiano Kuhn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the geometry in the arithmetic of the Order and Progress series and of the Concordia series, edited by the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Brazil for their parochial schools of the 20th century, in Rio Grande do Sul. The Missouri Synod, today Evangelical Lutheran Church of Brazil, began mission in the gaucho German colonies in 1900, founding religious congregations and parochial schools. These schools were inserted in a missionary and community project that sought to teach the mother tongue, mathematics, cultural, social, and mainly, religious values. Basing on cultural history, analyzed two arithmetic of the  Order and Progress series and four arithmetic of the Concordia series, edited by the Lutheran Church for their schools. It has been found that the geometric knowledges were related to geometric shapes, scale drawings, length measures, surface measures, volume measures and the old measures Brazilian. The authors of the arithmetic used the strategy of presenting teaching proposals of the geometry of practical form and associated with real situations so that students of the gaucho Lutheran parochial schools appropriating these mathematical knowledges, and in future, to make the correct administration of your family budget and the management of your rural property.

  1. Manuscripts and Broadsheets. Narrative Genres and the Communication Circuit among Working-Class Youth in early 20th-Century Finland

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    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the hazy boundary between folklore and literature, orality and literacy is explored in relation to the individual and the community. How do people who belong to the first generation of active writers in their family and community express their own experiences through fictional narratives and the literary tradition? This question is explored in relation to the working-class youth in the small industrial community of Karkkila (Högforsin southern Finland. The most important research materials are the editions of hand-written newspapers written by these young people from 1914 to 1925.My theoretical background is derived from both folklore studies and book history. Inspired by the research of Robert Darnton, I have outlined the communication circuit of the working-class youth during the early 20th century, discussing the position of the manuscript tradition (hand-written newspapers, ballad books, minutes in relation to the printed texts(books, newspapers, broadsheets and the oral tradition. In my article I focus on the narratives of love in the manuscripts written by the working-class youth. How do they work with the ideas and narrative genres and themes adopted from the printed media and the oral tradition? I outline fictionalization of personal experiences and localization of fictional, printed texts as two basic narrative strategies utilized in these processes.

  2. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.

  3. Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminants are ubiquitous in urban aquatic ecosystems, and the ability of some microbial strains to degrade certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well established. However, detrimental effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on nondegrader microbial populations and photosynthetic organisms have not often been considered. In the current study, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers in the sediment record were used to assess historical impacts of petroleum contamination on microbial and/or algal biomass in South San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Profiles of saturated, branched, and monounsaturated fatty acids had similar concentrations and patterns downcore. Total PAHs in a sediment core were on average greater than 20× higher above ∼200 cm than below, which corresponds roughly to the year 1900. Isomer ratios were consistent with a predominant petroleum combustion source for PAHs. Several individual PAHs exceeded sediment quality screening values. Negative correlations between petroleum contaminants and microbial and algal biomarkers – along with high trans/cis ratios of unsaturated FA, and principle component analysis of the PAH and fatty acid records – suggest a negative impacts of petroleum contamination, appearing early in the 20th century, on microbial and/or algal ecology at the site.

  4. The Concerns Underlying Sex Education for Young People in France During the First Half of the 20th Century: Morality, demography and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie De Luca Barrusse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the 20th century, the issue of sex education for young people was the topic of virulent debate. Increasing proposals for sex education in schools, along with lectures and information leaflets, were quickly opposed by Catholic circles, which did not reject sex education in principle but sought to control its form and content. Yet no matter which form or content was chosen, sex education remained underpinned by considerations about the future of the population and the state of public health, particularly the resurgence of syphilis, as well as moral principles. The concerns underlying sex education were morality, demography and public health, which set limits on what was desirable and undesirable in this area and guided the objectives it was to achieve. Sex education was therefore conceived as an instrument for the reproduction and preservation of the race but was not supposed to become an instrument of debauchery. This is confirmed by an analysis of the proposed systems, which differed according to the sexes.

  5. FIRST STEPS IN URBAN PLANNING OF BULGARIAN CITIES WITH PARTICIPATION OF CZECH ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AT THE TURN OF 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Brankov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on beginnings of the urban planning and first organized planning activities of Bulgarian cities at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries when many Czech engineers and architects participated in significantly. A common feature of all Bulgarian cities was irregular structure and build-up area. The main task of the Czech engineers was to cope with this situation and to design modern cities. In general, the original structure did not make planning easy and unambiguous. Planning of the cities destroyed in the Russian-Turkish war in 1877-78 was easier. A possibility to apply a new city structure freely existed in Stara Zagora and partially in Nova Zagora. A usual principle was straightening of the streets where the engineers used original street network and the new modern streets were built according to it, e.g. the centre of Kystendil and the old part of Nova Zagora. These principles were used also in some central parts of Sofia and Plovdiv. The city of Sofia itself is a distinctive example. Although the original structure was preserved during the war and in the first steps the principle of straightening of the streets in the centre was applied, the other parts of Sofia were designed with a new structure and the old city disappeared. Plovdiv is in contrary to Sofia and its original structure was preserved as an old city and the new one was joined to it in neighbourhoods.

  6. 20世纪上半叶中国的瑶族研究%Study on China Yao Nationality in the First Half of the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄禾雨

    2011-01-01

    In the first half of the 20th century many scholars overcame numerous difficulties to do the field research in the minority regions. One of their important works is the Yao nationality study. They wrote a lot of fieldwork reports and collected related cultural relics. These efforts inspired scholars and public at that time to expand and deepen the study, so “Yao study ”has got its place in world academic circle. Understanding and inheriting works of that time has great significance in Yao nationality study.%20世纪上半叶,一些学者克服重重困难进入少数民族地区进行田野调查,瑶族地区的调查和研究是其中重要的一环。他们撰写了一些实地调查报告并搜集相关文物。这些前驱者的努力和成果激励着学术同仁和普通民众,学术研究得以拓展和深化,国际学界由此有了“瑶学”的一席之地。研究这份宝贵的学术遗产,具有重要的学术意义。

  7. Loss of genetic diversity among ocelots in the United States during the 20th century linked to human induced population reductions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Janecka

    Full Text Available Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in the United States currently exhibit low levels of genetic diversity. One hypothesis for this observation is that habitat fragmentation, resulting from human induced changes in the landscape during the 20(th century, created island populations with highly reduced gene flow and increased genetic drift and inbreeding. In an effort to investigate this, we used a portion of the mitochondrial control region and 11 autosomal microsatellite loci to examine historical levels of genetic diversity and infer temporal changes in ocelot populations between 1853 and 2005. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in historical ocelot populations than in extant populations from Texas. The earliest documented loss of mitochondrial haplotype diversity occurred at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. The second extant population inhabiting private lands in Willacy County retained higher levels of genetic diversity through the 1990s, but subsequently lost diversity over the next decade. A similar pattern was observed for autosomal microsatellite loci. This supports the argument that low levels of genetic diversity in Texas are related to human induced population reductions and fragmentation, both of which threaten the remaining ocelots in the United States. At this time, the best means of mitigating the continued erosion of genetic variation are translocation of individuals either from larger populations in Mexico to Texas, or between the Texas populations.

  8. An Account of Stellar Spectroscopy and John S. Plaskett’s Leadership within Early 20th-Century Astrophysics in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihor Oakes, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    From the perspective of the science of astronomy, the interpretation of the light spectrum was a fundamental development in the chemical analysis of celestial starlight. The breakthrough discovery with the application of spectroscopy in 1859, inaugurated a new period in astronomy that evolved into astrophysics. It launched a continuing episode of new astronomy that was later embraced in early 20th-century Canada where it was spearheaded by Canadian physicist and scientist, John S. Plaskett (1865-1941). The research work of John Plaskett at the Dominion Observatory in Ottawa, Ontario, from 1903 and, later, the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, British Columbia, from 1918, brought international recognition to Canada’s early efforts in astrophysics. Plaskett’s determination and personal boldness led to the establishment of a small cadre of Canadian astronomers who worked on their astrophysical research programs under Plaskett as their supervisor. Despite its small population at the time and a relatively infinitesimal number of professional astronomers, Canada did become recognized for its early spectrographic work in astrophysics, which was due to developing a professional status equal to its international colleagues. Plaskett improved the techniques of celestial spectroscopy during his scientific work at the Dominion Observatory and, again later, at its newly-built sister facility, the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory. Historically, Plaskett found himself to be the right person, in the right place, at the right time, and with the right temperament during the review period spanning 1903 to 1935.

  9. Academic Research on Longmen Grottoes in the 20th Century%龙门石窟学术研究百年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃翥

    2001-01-01

    The 20th century saw a rapid development in the academic research on Longmen Grottoes. Great achievements were made in the collection and processing of the data of the Grottoes culture. Special studies covered various fields such as the history of the Sino-foreign relationship, the history of peoples, the history of art, the history of Buddhism, archeology, environmental culturology and protection technology. The future research on Longmen Grottoes should focus on the development of a scientific data system and the comprehensive research at multi-dimensions.%20世纪是龙门石窟学术研究迅速发展的百年。洞窟文化资料的搜集与整理成果丰硕。学术专题研究涉及中外关系史、民族史、艺术史、佛教史、考古学、环境文化学、技术研究等不同领域。对未来龙门石窟的研究,应建立科学化的资料系统,加强多层面的综合研究。

  10. The speech choir in central European theatres and literary-musical works in the first third of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Kalkus Reinhart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech choirs emerged as an offshoot of the choral gatherings of a wider youth musical and singing movement in the first half of the 20th century. The occasionally expressed opinion that choral speaking was cultivated primarily by the Hitler Youth and pressed into service on behalf of Nazi nationalist and racist propaganda is, historically, only partially accurate. The primary forces of choral speaking in Germany were, from 1919, the Social Democratic workers’ and cultural movement and the Catholic youth groups, in addition to elementary and secondary schools. The popularity of speech choirs around 1930 was also echoed in the music of the time. Compositions for musical speech choirs were produced by composers like Heinz Thiessen, Arnold Schönberg, Ernst Toch, Carl Orff, Vladimir Vogel, Luigi Nono, Helmut Lachenmann and Wolfgang Rihm. Moving forward from the Schönberg School, the post-1945 new music thereby opens up the spectrum of vocal expressions of sound beyond that of the singing voice. It does so not only for solo voices but for the choir as well.

  11. Between Egyptian "national purity" and "local flexibility": prostitution in al-Mahalla al-Kubra in the first half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Hanan

    2011-01-01

    This article traces prostitution in al-Mahalla in the first half of the 20th century as a regulated urban practice until the trade was outlawed in Egypt in 1949. Studying prostitution during this period of exceptionally rapid growth and transformation not only provides a window on a particular type of illicit sexuality and public morality in a colonial context, it also gives us a hint as to gender relations and inter-communal relations on the invisible marginalized part of a provincial local community, and how it was socially transformed. I argue that the regulation of prostitution in Egypt in 1882 and 1905 created a sphere for a power contest between the colonial state and the local community, between nationalist discourse and the local way of life, and between public morality and private space. While nationalist discourse constructed one virtuous nation, the local community accepted the licensed prostitution quarter, and resisted secret prostitution. The people of the town actively and continually shifted boundaries on what was public and what was private, what was the state's responsibility and what was communal liability.

  12. Detecting long-term metabolic shifts using isotopomers: CO2-driven suppression of photorespiration in C3 plants over the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Betson, Tatiana R; Nilsson, Mats B; Marshall, John D; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-12-22

    Terrestrial vegetation currently absorbs approximately a third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mitigating the rise of atmospheric CO2. However, terrestrial net primary production is highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 levels and associated climatic changes. In C3 plants, which dominate terrestrial vegetation, net photosynthesis depends on the ratio between photorespiration and gross photosynthesis. This metabolic flux ratio depends strongly on CO2 levels, but changes in this ratio over the past CO2 rise have not been analyzed experimentally. Combining CO2 manipulation experiments and deuterium NMR, we first establish that the intramolecular deuterium distribution (deuterium isotopomers) of photosynthetic C3 glucose contains a signal of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio. By tracing this isotopomer signal in herbarium samples of natural C3 vascular plant species, crops, and a Sphagnum moss species, we detect a consistent reduction in the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio in response to the ∼100-ppm CO2 increase between ∼1900 and 2013. No difference was detected in the isotopomer trends between beet sugar samples covering the 20th century and CO2 manipulation experiments, suggesting that photosynthetic metabolism in sugar beet has not acclimated to increasing CO2 over >100 y. This provides observational evidence that the reduction of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio was ca. 25%. The Sphagnum results are consistent with the observed positive correlations between peat accumulation rates and photosynthetic rates over the Northern Hemisphere. Our results establish that isotopomers of plant archives contain metabolic information covering centuries. Our data provide direct quantitative information on the "CO2 fertilization" effect over decades, thus addressing a major uncertainty in Earth system models.

  13. A Tree-Ring Based Reconstruction (1725-present) of the Position of the Summer North Atlantic Jet Shows a 20th Century Northward Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouet, V.; Babst, F.

    2014-12-01

    The position and strength of the Northern Hemisphere polar jet are important modulators of mid-latitude weather extremes and the societal, ecosystem, and economic damage related to them. The position of the North Atlantic jet (NAJ) controls the location of the Atlantic storm track and anomalies in the NAJ position have been related to temperature and precipitation extremes over Europe. In summer, a southern NAJ regime can result in floods in the British Isles (BRIT) and increasing odds of heat waves in the northeastern Mediterranean (NEMED). Variability in the amplitude and speed of the Northern Hemisphere jet stream is hotly debated as a potential mechanism linking recent mid-latitude weather extremes to anthropogenic warming. However, the hypothesis of jet stream variability as a possible mechanism linking Arctic amplification to mid-latitude weather extremes is largely based on data sets with limited temporal extent that do not warrant robust results from a statistical significance perspective. Here, we combined two summer temperature-sensitive tree-ring records from BRIT and NEMED to reconstruct interannual variability in the latitudinal position of the summer NAJ back to 1725. The two well-replicated temperature proxies counter-correlate significantly over the full period and thus illustrate the temperature dipole generated by anomalous NAJ positions. Positive extremes in the NAJ reconstruction correspond to heatwaves recorded in the historical Central England temperature record and negative extremes correspond to reconstructed fire years in Greece. The reconstruction shows a northward shift in the latitudinal NAJ position since the 1930s that is most pronounced in the northern NAJ extremes, suggesting a more frequent occurrence of BRIT hot summers in the 20th century compared to previous centuries.

  14. Kharlamova, N. F. Climate Changes over the 20th and 21st Centuries in the Upper Basin of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers (Altai Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovna, K. N., II

    2015-12-01

    The Russian climate is more sensitive to global warming than the climate in many other parts of the world. According to the Second Climate Change National Assessment, since the mid-1970s, the average temperature has been rising with rate of 0.43 ° C / 10 years, which is more than two times higher than the rate of global warming. In the Altai region, the rate of temperature change is higher than the average for Russia with an annual surface air temperature increase equal to 1.8°C the 20th century. The maximum value of this increase the past 50 years (1963-2013) was found in the intermountain basins of Altai (+ 2.6°C) mainly due to the winter and spring warming with changes in the summer season being considerably smaller. This warming is accompanied with negative tendencies in annual precipitation over the entire Altai Krai. The mountain ranges of Altai are called the "water tower" of Northern Eurasia. The northward flow of numerous rivers streaming down from these ranges in the Basin of the Ob and the Irtysh Rivers is formed by melting of Altai glaciers and snowfields. Since the middle of the 19th century the largest glaciers in the Altai have retreated by 1.5-2 km and the thickness of their tails decreased by 50-70 m. The reduction of mountain glaciers poses a threat of depletion of water flow to major agricultural regions downstream affecting human activity and even the drinking water availability. Permafrost in the Altai Mountains is actively degraded (thawing), which represents a danger for infrastructure (first of all for roads and pipelines) and increases risk of catastrophic events (landslides, mudflows). Continued warming could contribute to a significant reduction of water resources, biodiversity and other negative processes in the region.The reported study was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Baseline Research (project No. 15-45-04450).

  15. Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fischer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL. The forcings included sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitudinal total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal model variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among

  16. Two historians in front of the economic crisis of 2007-2008: Hobsbawm and Judt between Marxism and the legacies of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How did intellectuals react to the economic crisis of 2007-2008 and its long-term backlash? What did they learn from the main twentieth-century political and social experiences, in order to make a new sense of the traditional cultures of the Left? In order to answer these crucial issues, this proposal will analyze the paths of the well-known historians E. Hobsbawm and T. Judt and their apparently similar, but actually different reactions to the crisis. First, I will focus on their respective books: How to Change the World (2011 and Ill Fares the Land (2010. On the one hand, Hobsbawm’s critical approach to the post-1991 world, shaped by his lifelong fidelity to Marxism and his persistent sympathy for the Russian Revolution, was connected to his catastrophic vision of the end of the both conflicting and collaborative dynamics between capitalism and socialism. On the other hand, Judt’s re-thinking of the social-democratic tradition, compelled by the global transformations of the social question, was inspired by his connections with the East Central European dissidents’ anti-totalitarian liberalism and by his critical approach to the engagement of the French intellectuals. Second, I will investigate their different interpretations of the „Golden Age“ of post-1945 Europe (with special regard to the long-term impact of the crisis of 1929 and to the influence of Soviet communism and of the causes of its crisis. Third, I will show how, in spite of their common reference to Marx, late Hobsbawm’s and Judt’s historical visions - respectively combined with determinism and moralism - provide opposite ways of coping with the legacies of the 20th century and of criticizing the language of neoliberal economy within the Left.

  17. Physiology of Penile Erection—A Brief History of the Scientific Understanding up till the Eighties of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    erection. The concepts from animal experimentations in Europe in the 19th century significantly contributed to the current understanding of penile erection. van Driel MF. Physiology of penile erection—a brief history of the scientific understanding up till the eighties of the 20th century. Sex Med 2015;3:343–351. PMID:26797073

  18. [Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Mati, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

  19. Letter "To the Yakut Intelligentsia" by A. E. Kulakovsky: Setting and Features of the Problem of Survival of Indigenous Peoples of the North in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivtseva-Maksimova, Praskovia Vasilevna

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is determined by the increasing interest in the new interpretations of social issues of living in the early 20th century, and from this perspective, in the scientific heritage of A. E. Kulakovsky (1877-1926) as an original thinker, who worried about the fate of the indigenous people inhabiting a large territory of the…

  20. An Outline of A Complete History of the 20th-century Literature(Ⅱ)%20世纪文学全史论纲(中)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨义

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to embody in the writing of the 20 th-century literature “an awareness of a complete history”—a spread and implementation of the grand literature view. Efforts should be made to connect modern and contemporary literature from the longitudinal dimension, to integrate literature of various genres, various levels and various regions, to represent the multi-dimensional space of confrontation and interpenetration between new litera-ture and popular literature as well as between new poetry and drama and classical poetry and drama, to link up the literary fields on the Chinese mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau and to set up an archive for minority na-tionalities literature. Moreover, pains must be taken to give full consideration to “the Chinese face” and the Chi-nese blood in the survey of“modernity” so as to evade the polarization thinking of enlightenment and revolution. A study of the interaction between the century-old literature and the spiritual temperament of the Chinese people by virtue of the genealogy of spirituality can highlight the national character of the century-old literature and culture.%治20世纪文学史需要“全史意识”。“全史意识”是大文学观的一种展开和落实。从纵的维度打通近代、现代、当代,从横的维度通向文学的各种体式、各个层面、各个地域,呈现新文学与通俗文学、新旧体诗与戏对峙互渗的立体空间,沟通两岸四地的文学板块,给少数民族文学立卷。考究“现代性”充分顾及“中国面孔”和中国血脉,规避启蒙与革命的两极化思维。以精神谱系学研究百年文学与中国人精神气质的互动关系,彰显百年文学文化的民族品格。

  1. An Outline of A Complete History of the 20th-century Literature(Ⅲ)%20世纪文学全史论纲(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨义

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to embody in the writing of the 20 th-century literature “an awareness of a complete history”—a spread and implementation of the grand literature view. Efforts should be made to connect modern and contemporary literature from the longitudinal dimension, to integrate literature of various genres, levels and regions, to represent the multi-dimensional space of confrontation and interpenetration between new literature and popular lit-erature as well as between new poetry and drama and classical poetry and drama, to link up the literary fields on the Chinese mainland, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau and to set up an archive for minority nationalities literature. Moreover, pains must be taken to give full consideration to“the Chinese face” and the Chinese blood in the survey of “modernity” so as to evade the polarization thinking of enlightenment and revolution. A study of the interaction between the century-old literature and the spiritual temperament of the Chinese people by virtue of the genealogy of spirituality can highlight the national character of the century-old literature and culture.%治20世纪文学史需要“全史意识”。“全史意识”是大文学观的一种展开和落实。从纵的维度打通近代、现代、当代,从横的维度通向文学的各种体式、各个层面、各个地域,呈现新文学与通俗文学、新旧体诗与戏对峙互渗的立体空间,沟通两岸四地的文学板块,给少数民族文学立卷。考究“现代性”充分顾及“中国面孔”和中国血脉,规避启蒙与革命的两极化思维。以精神谱系学研究百年文学与中国人精神气质的互动关系,彰显百年文学文化的民族品格。

  2. Multi-Scale Influences of Climate, Spatial Pattern, and Positive Feedback on 20th Century Tree Establishment at Upper Treeline in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    The influences of 20th century climate, spatial pattern of tree establishment, and positive feedback were assessed to gain a more holistic understanding of how broad scale abiotic and local scale biotic components interact to govern upper treeline ecotonal dynamics along a latitudinal gradient (ca. 35°N-45°N) in the Rocky Mountains. Study sites (n = 22) were in the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, Front Range, and Sangre de Cristo mountain ranges. Dendroecological techniques were used for a broad scale analysis of climate at treeline. Five-year age-structure classes were compared with identical five-year bins of 20th century climate data using Spearman’s rank correlation and regime shift analysis. Local scale biotic interactions capable of ameliorating broad scale climate inputs through positive feedback were examined by using Ripley’s K to determine the spatial patterns of tree establishment above timberline. Significant correlations (p climate were confined to the Front Range, where a positive correlation exists with summer (June-Aug) and cool season (Nov-Apr) temperature range (Tmax-Tmin). Additionally, trees in the Front Range are almost exclusively situated in a random spatial pattern above timberline (4/5 sites). Random spatial patterns imply that positive feedback is of minimal importance and that trees are more closely aligned with broad scale changes in abiotic conditions. This tight coupling between climate and treeline vegetation in the Front Range helps explain synchronous ecological (tree establishment) and climate regime shifts (temperature) during the early 1950s. Similar to the Front Range, a majority of trees at upper treeline in the Bighorn Mountains are in a random spatial pattern, but their existence appears to be dependent on shelter availability in the lee of boulders. This contingency helps explain the lag time between a regime shift to more favorable temperatures and subsequent peaks in tree establishment. The Medicine Bow and Sangre de Cristo

  3. Motherland Image Evolution in Chinese Free Verse of the 20th Century%20世纪中国新诗中"祖国"意象的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永睿; 张向东

    2011-01-01

    In Chinese free werse of the 20th century, "the motherland" (or"China")is a common image, as a result of China's destiny ups and downs in 20th century, "mother land's" image connotation in free poetry also changes. By the end of Qing Dynasty, motherland was the mountains and rivers broken as well as Chinese territory overrun and occupied by the enemy; During May Forth Movement, motherlan is"the nirvana phoenix", "youth China", "motherland like flower's"; During 1920's and 1930's China is" the nightmare hanging from cliff","a ditch despairs stagnant water"; During Sino-Japanese War, motherland is"coldly blocking China", covers entirely by" the blood and the muds"; After the liberation, great motherland is grand"Tian'an men",the bright"Five-Starred Red Flag"and the great leader; Since the new time,motherland's connotation has been richly colorful, not only"riverside worn-out old waterwheel"but also"the crimson daybreak", prosperous" scaffold"and" railway line"" the language and the quarry stone throw build" the spiritual home;In overseas Chinese eyes, motherland is"specially anchors of Chinese local accent" "the Chinatown" ,several millennium bright cultures"sad kind nurses with hardship""the Baiyu balsam pear".%"祖国"(或"中国")是二十世纪中国诗歌中常见的一个意象,由于二十世纪中国命运的坎坷多变,诗歌中"祖国"意象的内涵也与时俱变.清末诗歌中的祖国是山河破碎、神州陆沉;五四的祖国是"涅槃的凤凰"、"少年中国"、"如花的祖国";二、三十年代的中国是"噩梦挂着悬崖"的"一沟绝望的死水";抗战期间的祖国是被"寒冷封锁着的中国"、布满"血和泥"的中国;解放后的伟大祖国,是雄伟的"天安门"、鲜艳的"五星红旗"和伟大领袖;新时期以来的祖国,其内涵丰富多彩,既是"河边破旧的老水车",也是"绯红的黎明",欣欣向荣的"脚手架"和"铁道线",又是"语言和乱石投筑"的精神家园;在海外华人眼中,祖国则

  4. The Importance of British Teaching Experience (Late 20th – Early 21st Century for Modern Training of Ukrainian Primary School Teachers in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berladyn Olha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with peculiarities of primary schools teachers’ professional training in the UK (late 20th – early 21st century in terms of European integration, analyses development priorities, substantiates the possibilities to use the ideas of the British experience in the training of local primary schools teachers in rural areas. The ideas which have been determined as leading are: development of unified system of standards and teachers training in the context of general integrated requirements for its competence; teachers’ skills to manage their teaching and training activities; modernizing the content of professional training; ensuring continuity of professional training for primary school teachers and their close cooperation with universities, schools and local education system, etc. The results of theoretical research confirm that the development of primary schools in Great Britain has always being and remains a leading factor in the modernization of teacher training. Teacher Education in UK has considerable experience in combining traditional and modern innovation in the time of reforms in that sector, updating the organizational and semantic principles taking into account the European dimension of education. The experience of Great Britain as an active member of formation processes in common European education space, with a rich history, cultural traditions and innovative achievements in terms of professional training of primary school teachers will provide an opportunity to identify and use positive ideas to upgrade the pedagogical education in Ukraine and present its achievements in the European education space. The UK has implemented its own national approach to the modernization of primary school teachers’ professional training on the basis of common European integration processes and changes.

  5. 20世纪开封水域景观变化%Landscape pattern dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city in the 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹新向; 丁圣彦

    2005-01-01

    Landscape spatial pattern mainly refers to the distribution of patches, which are different in size and shape in space owing to the interaction of various ecological activities. In landscape ecology study, landscape pattern has been one of the key study areas. Water body landscape plays an important role in the development history of a city, but at present city water body landscape in many cities has been destroyed, hence protecting water body in the city is becoming more and more important. In order to protect city water body landscape reasonably, the precondition is to probe the dynamics of water body landscape. Based on historical data and remote sensing data, six indexes including patch number, patch area, landscape dominance index, fractal dimension, patch density and connectivity index etc. were used to analyze landscape pattem dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city since the end of the Qing Dynasty (in the 20th century). The results showed: (1) Since the end of the Qing Dynasty, landscape area of water body in Kaifeng city increased first and then decreased from 1898 to 2002AD; the landscape dominant degree had the same changing tendency with the area. (2) Patch number of water body landscape in Kaifeng city had an increase from 1898 to 2002, but maximum area of patch, minimum area of patch and average area of patch decreased, which resulted in an increase in landscape fragment degree. (3) Connectivity index decreased and fractal dimension increased from 1898 to 2002. The reasons for these changes were the repeated overflows and flooding of the Yellow River and the influence of human activities.

  6. Source parameters of the major historical earthquakes in the Tien-Shan region from the late 19th to the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Galina; Krüger, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The Tien-Shan is one of the largest mountain belts in the world. Its deformation is dominated by intermontane basins bounded by active thrust and reverse faulting. The Tien-Shan mountain belt is characterized by a very high rate of seismicity along its margins as well as within the Tien-Shan interior. The study area of the here presented work, the western part of the Tien-Shan region, is currently seismically active with small and moderate sized earthquakes. However, at the end of 19th beginning of 20th century, this region was struck by a remarkable series of large magnitude (M>7) earthquakes, two of them reached magnitude 8. These large earthquakes occurred before the global digital seismic network was installed and therefore were recorded only by analog seismic instruments. The processing of the analog is complicated especially due to the digitization of the records - a very time-consuming and delicate part. Therefore a special set of techniques is developed and modern methods are adapted for the digitized instrumental data analysis. Here presented study evaluates the impact of large magnitude M>7.0 earthquakes, in the Tien-Shan region, on the overall regional tectonics. It also investigates the accuracy of previously estimated source parameters for those earthquakes, which were mainly based on macroseismic observations, and re-estimate them based on the instrumental data. Ten strongest and most interesting historical earthquakes in Tien-Shan region are analyzed with in presented work. With the developed techniques, the source parameters of these major earthquakes are determined and their impact on the regional tectonics was investigated. The large magnitudes of the earthquakes are confirmed by instrumental data. The focal mechanisms of these earthquakes were determined providing evidence for responsible faults or fault systems.

  7. Construction and Operation of Railway Bridges and Ferries in the Lower Volga Streamflow (End of 19th – First Half of 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPALEV M.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of operation of Russia’s first railway ferry and the process of bridge construction across the lower Volga streamflows at Ryazan-Ural (now Volga railway line in Saratov, Stalingrad (Volgograd and Astrakhan. River railway ferries “Saratovskaya pereprava” and “Saratovsky ledokol” were built in 1894 in England and water crafts “Vtoraya pereprava” (1909 and “Stalin” (1926 were floated out in Volga in Nizhny Novgorod, from the Sormov plant. As a rule, the organization of transportations by means of steam locomotives and waggons through Volga during the first half of the 20th century preceded the construction of capital metal railway bridges, such as Astrakhan (1909 and Saratov (1935, and also a combined railway-automobile bridge through the Volga (Stalingrad Hydro-Electric Power Station (1961. The article is devoted not only to the technical features of ferries, bridges, but their efficient use in peace time and war time. So, the carrying capacity of the Saratov railway ferry increased in more than three times from 1907 to 1916. The Ryazan-Ural railway ferries were actively used by new Bolshevist regime. After the railroad construction on the left bank of Volga in autumn and winter of 1941, railway ferries “Stalin” and “Saratovskaya pereprava” were used for the carriage of military trains and population evacuation from the western bank of Volga. The author describes one of the most heroic and tragic facts in the history of Stalingrad battle using the example of the special operation railway ferry flooding and its consequent reconstruction.

  8. Enlightenment of Germanic Rise and Fall in the 20th Century to China%20世纪德国的兴衰对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓锋

    2013-01-01

    20世纪德国的发展轨迹极为典型。自从1871年俾斯麦统一德国后,德国借着国家统一和两次工业革命的东风,迅速崛起,一跃成为当时的资本主义强国之一。随后德国相继经历了战争、战败、再复兴、再挑起战争、再战败。在二战后,德国终于跳出战争怪圈,与其欧洲邻国启动欧洲一体化进程,成就了今天德国的大国地位。德国的发展特别是二战后再度迅速崛起有许多值得中国借鉴的地方,尤其在崛起方式、统一问题、外交选择和文化实力等方面。%The developing track of German is a typical one in the 20th century. After Bismarck unified German in 1871, it became one of the strongest capitalist countries by means of its unification and the two industrial revolutions. Then German experienced the World War I, being defeated and its renaissance. And then it provoked the World War II and was defeated again. After World War II, German finally jumped out of the vicious circle of war and with its neighbor countries promoted the development of European Integration, and achieved its status of great power today. German’s development, especially which after World War II, its developing track has great reference value to China, especially in the way of rising, unification, diplomacy and cultural power.

  9. Analysis about the Theme of Death in the 20th Century American Literature%20世纪美国文学死亡主题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯朝阳

    2015-01-01

    20世纪美国作家或着力表现真实的死亡场景,或借死亡的偶然性凸显生命的荒诞,或对现代人哀悼死亡经验的丧失进行深刻的反思,其笔下人物的死亡意识又与民族、种族、性别等文化身份和自我认同感相互交织、矛盾、融合,从而使得文本中的死亡问题不止是表达作者切身体验的出口,同时也彰显着人类超越死亡和追求永恒价值的意义指向,谕示着关于生命深度和无限可能的启示。%Death is one of the most important themes in the 20th century American literature .Many writers devote themselves to describe the scene of death ,to express the absurdity of it or to reflect seriously about the loss of grieving o‐ver human’s death .Also ,the characters’ consciousness of death is interwoven with their status of nation ,race and gen‐der .Then concerns about the problem of death are not only an exit for writers to express their sole experiences ,but also a demonstration of direction pointing to transcend death and pursuit eternal values ,which shows the depth and infinite possibilities of life .

  10. 二十世纪以来李开先曲学研究述评%A Review on Li Kaixian's Opera Studies Since 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒

    2011-01-01

    李开先是明代中期重要的戏曲学家,其曲学成果涵盖曲作、曲论、曲选等各个方面,二十世纪以来,学界对其曲学研究呈现出步步发展之势,本文将百年来的研究分成三个阶段,从资料整理、曲作分析、曲论研究等方面对相关研究成果作出综述,总结出有代表性的研究成果,同时找出研究中存在的不足和尚待解决的问题,以期引起学界的关注,共同解决疑案。%Li Kaixian,an important scholar in the mid-Ming Dynasty,studied Chinese opera with academic achievements in aspects like opera composition,opera criticism,and opera collection.Studies on his opera-related contribution have developed quickly since the 20th Century.Dividing these studies in the hundred years into three stages,this paper makes a review on relative research achievements in terms of material collection,opera analysis,and his opera criticism,resulting in representative research fruit in this field,as well as problems yet to resolve to arrest the attention in the academic circle.

  11. A Review of Chinese Fu Study in the End of the 20th Century%20世纪末期中国赋学述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志啸

    2013-01-01

      20世纪80年代初至世纪末约20年左右的时间,是中国赋学史上赋学研究的高峰期和多产期。这一时期,因着改革开放的社会和时代因素,赋学研究呈现出了学者不断涌现、成果丰硕喜人的景象,赋在文学史研究领域也开始和其他文体一样,被置于相当的地位,予以尽可能客观的研究,且这种研究是在传统赋学基础上展开进行的,因而更趋于科学化和理性化。%From the early 1980s to the end of the 20th century, it is a productive peak period in the history of Chinese Fu study. At that time, thanks to the reform and opening-up policy and the advantageous social circumstances, Fu study underwent a pros-perous development, bringing about many scholars and fruitful achievements.Like other genres, Fu was properly positioned in the research field of literary history and its study received an objective treatment.Since the research was based on traditional Fu study, it was more scientific and rational.

  12. Adventurers, Flaneurs, and Agitators: Travel Stories as Means for Marking and Transgressing Boundaries in 19th and Early 20th Century Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on border crossings in travel stories, which were published in hand-written newspapers in 19th- and early 20th-century Finland. These papers were a popular tradition in student organizations and popular movements. Border crossings appear in travel stories in three different representations. Firstly, border crossings are repeated motifs in travel stories, both as challenging events and as small gestures and encounters. Travel stories demarcate boundaries, but they also provide a means for transgressing them. Secondly, hand-written newspapers as a literary practice highlight borders between oral and written communication. They were produced as one single manuscript copy, and published by being read out aloud in social events. Thirdly, the authors of hand-written newspapers were placed on the border of different positions in society such as class, gender and age. My analysis is based on the methodological discussion of small stories and personal experience narratives; travel stories can be defined as "local event narratives". I have outlined four basic models for travel stories which emerge from hand-written newspapers: the great mission story, the grand tour story, the flaneur story and the retreat story. The analysis of travel stories is presented through four different case studies with a time range from the 1850s to the 1920s: these materials have been produced in two provincial student fraternities (osakunta, in the temperance society "Star" in Helsinki in the 1890s, and in the Social Democratic Youth Club in the small industrial town of Karkkila in the 1910s and the 1920s. Many parallel features can be observed in travel stories, even though the social background and ideology of the authors are quite different. Time and space are important aspects in travel stories, and they often demarcate boundaries of class and gender.

  13. 20世纪中国文学中的 "风水" 叙事%The Feng Shui Narration in the 20 th Century Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旋波

    2015-01-01

    近代以来, 作为中国传统文化一脉的风水观因其缺乏 "真确的知识" 而受到摒弃和批判, 五四以来风水一直受到科学理性、 唯物主义主导的文学思潮的攻伐. 随后, 20世纪中国社会及文化思潮发生了巨大的变迁,风水在文学中的境遇也因时而易, 这不但反映了时代思潮的嬗变, 还纠结着20世纪纷繁复杂的政治、 哲学及美学取向. 尤其是随着90年代中国文化语境的变迁, 风水文化逐渐浮现出其反思现代性的 "复魅" 特质.%In modern times, Feng Shui, which has been inherent to traditional Chinese culture, has been denounced and defamed as lack of scientific and truthful knowledge, and has long been criticized by the rational and materialistic school of literature since the May Fourth Movement. In the 20th century, as the Chinese society and ideology is undergoing dramatic changes, Feng Shui varies from time to time in literature, which reflects not only the transformation of ideology but also the complication of politics, philosophy and aesthetics. Particularly in the 1990s, as the cultural environment in China has greatly changed, the culture of Feng Shui tends to be charged with the nature of "revitalizing the enchantment of the world", i. e. reflections upon modernism.

  14. Over the hills and further away from coast: global geospatial patterns of human and environment over the 20th-21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Salvucci, Gianluigi; Viviroli, Daniel; Ward, Philip J.; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    Proximity to the coast and elevation are important geographical considerations for human settlement. Little is known, however, about how spatial variation in these factors exactly relates to human settlements and activities, and how this has developed over time. Such knowledge is important for identifying vulnerable regions that are at risk from phenomena such as food shortages and water stress. Human activities are a key driving force in global change, and thus detailed information on population distribution is an important input to any research framework on global change. In this paper we assess the global geospatial patterns of the distribution of human population and related factors, with regard to the altitude above sea level and proximity to the coast. The investigated factors are physical conditions, urbanisation, agricultural practices, economy, and environmental stress. An important novel element in this study, is that we included the temporal evolution in various factors related to human settlements and agricultural practices over the 20th century, and used projections for some of these factors up to the year 2050. We found population pressure in the proximity of the coast to be somewhat greater than was found in other studies. Yet, the distribution of population, urbanisation and wealth are evolving to become more evenly spread across the globe than they were in the past. Therefore, the commonly believed tendency of accumulation of people and wealth along coasts is not supported by our results. At the same time, food production is becoming increasingly decoupled from the trends in population density. Croplands are spreading from highly populated coastal zones towards inland zones. Our results thus indicate that even though people and wealth continue to accumulate in proximity to the coast, population densities and economic productivity are becoming less diverse in relation to elevation and distance from the coast.

  15. Selected pioneering works on humus in soils and sediments during the 20th century: A retrospective look from the International Humic Substances Society view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Christian; Brossard, Michel; Chen, Yona; Landa, Edward R.; Trichet, Jean

    Organic matter in general, and humic substances (HS) in particular, are involved in many processes in soils, sediments, rocks and natural waters. These include rock weathering, plant nutrition, pH buffering, trace metal mobility and toxicity, bioavailability, degradation and transport of hydrophobic organic chemicals, formation of disinfection by-products during water treatment, heterotrophic production in blackwater ecosystems and, more generally, the global carbon cycle. Before the 1970s, natural organic matter of different ecosystem pools ( i.e., soils, sediments, and natural waters) was often studied in isolation, although many similarities exist between them. This is particularly so for HS. In this historical context, a need appeared at the international level for bringing together environmental chemists, soil scientists, hydrologists, and geologists who were interested in HS to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas, to standardize analytical procedures and agree on definitions of HS. The International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) was founded in Denver, Colorado (USA) in 1981 with several objectives among them “to bring together scientists in the coal, soil, and water sciences with interests in humic substances” (home page of the IHSS web site: http://ihss.gatech.edu/ihss2/index.html). This paper presents selected pioneering works on humus in soils and sediments during the 20th century with a special focus on the links between the studies of soil HS and the formation, during early diagenesis, of the precursors of kerogens. Temporal coverage includes key contributions preceding the founding of the IHSS, and a brief history of the organization is presented.

  16. The Outline of Chinese Western Literary Geography in the 20th Century%2O世纪中国西部文学地理学论纲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向东

    2011-01-01

    西部文学在20世纪中国文学版图占有重要的一席之地,从学术史来看,从文学地理学的角度来研究西部文学的理论和实践日趋成熟.在此基础上,运用文化地理学的视角和方法,对西部地理大发现与西部文学的崛起、西部作家的地理分布、西部地理景观对西部文学的影响、多民族人口地理与西部文学的多元性、语言地理学与西部文学的语言等问题进行深入而系统的研究,会进一步拓展西部文学研究的视野,具有重要的方法论意义.%Western Chinese literature occupies a very important place in Chinese literature map in the 20th century. From the viewpoint of academic history, the study of western literature theory and practice with literary geography as a starting point turns to be mature. On this basis, carrying out an in-depth and systematic study on the following problems with the perspective and method of literary geography will further expand the horizon of western literature study: the study on western geographic discovery and the rise of western literature; the geographic distribution of western writers; the influence of western geographical landscape on western literature;the diversity of multi-ethnic population geography and western literature;linguistic geography and the language of western literature, etc. It also proves to be of great methodological significance.

  17. Education on medical anthropology and intercultural health in Mexico: from the 20th century cultural indigenism to the 21st century interculturality

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto; Departamento de Historia y filosofía de la Medicina, facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Médico, especialista en medicina familiar. Maestría y doctorado en Antropología Social.

    2010-01-01

    The study of the health/disease/healthcare process from the socio-medical aspect is the field of the medical anthropology. In Mexico, this medical specialty had its origins at the end of the 19th century. Since then, many educational reforms occurred associated to the political processes and the recognition and better understanding of Mexican pluricultural society; allowing expansion, diversification and consolidation of medical anthropology as an specialty. This review presents the histo...

  18. BOOKSELLER AS A CULTURAL AGENT: BOOK TRADE IN ESTONIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantson, Signe

    2006-12-01

    . Altogether 263 bookshops were founded in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century and 283 persons became bookshop owners (at least for some years. These figures allow to conclude that book trade was a popular sphere of activity. The most intensive was foundation of bookshops during 1898–1904. Legally it was not difficult to get a permission to open a bookshop but only few shops (31% operated more than ten years; most often was that small shops operated up to five years. Trading with books did not guarantee sufficient income and the bookshop owners were often engaged in other spheres, mainly in book production and publishing. Majority of the Estonian origin bookshop owners derived from the peasant families and made up the first generation in book trade business. The newcomers had not enough education nor experience in the field. The most important achievement can be seen in the fact that bookshops were opened in all over Estonia that guaranteed dissemination of Estonian language books to all stratums of the society.

  19. Impacts of land use and land cover change on water resources and water scarcity in the 20th century: a multi-model multi-forcing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Socioeconomic developments increasingly put pressure on our global fresh water resources. Over the past century, increasing extents of land were converted into (irrigated) agricultural production areas whilst dams and reservoirs were built to get grip on the timing and availability of fresh water resources. Often targeted to be of use at local, regional, or national levels, such human interventions affect, however, terrestrial water fluxes on larger scales. Although many of these interventions have been studied intensively at global and regional scales, the impact of land use and land cover change has often been omitted, and an assessment on how land conversions impact water resources availability and water scarcity conditions was not executed before, despite its importance in the development of sound integrated river basin water management plans. To address this issue, we evaluate in this contribution how land use and land cover change impact water resources and water scarcity conditions in the 20th century, using a multi-model multi-forcing framework. A novelty of this research is that the impact models applied in this study use the dynamic HYDE 3.1 - MIRCA dataset to cover the historical (1971-2010) changes in land use and land cover. Preliminary results show that more than 60% of the global population, predominantly living in downstream areas, is adversely affected by the impacts of land use and land cover change on water resources and water scarcity conditions. Whilst incoming discharge generally (in 97% of the global land area) tends to decrease due to upstream land conversions, we found at the same time increases in local runoff levels for a significant share (27%) of the global land area. Which effect eventually dominates and whether it causes water scarcity conditions is determined by the dependency of a region to water resources originating in upstream areas, and by the increasing rates with which the (locally generated) stream flow is used to fulfil (non

  20. 20th century sediment budget trends on the Western Gulf of Lions shoreface (France): An application of an integrated method for the study of sediment coastal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, C.; Certain, R.; Sabatier, F.; Robin, N.; Barusseau, J. P.; Aleman, N.; Raynal, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a shoreface sediment budget established for the 20th century (1895-1984-2009) along the microtidal wave-dominated coast of the western Gulf of Lions (Languedoc-Roussillon, Mediterranean Sea, SE France). The implementation of a diachronic bathymetric approach, coupled with the definition of sand reservoirs (upper sand unit - USU) by very high-resolution seismic surveys and the results of LiDAR investigations, offers a new means of defining precisely the magnitude and change trends of the sediment budget. The aim of this study is to link the Large Scale Coastal Behaviour (LSCB) of the littoral prism (expressed in terms of shoreface sediment budget, shoreface sediment volume and spatial distribution pattern of cells) to climatic change, river sediment input to the coast, longshore sediment transport distribution, impact of hard coastal defence structures and artificial beach nourishment. The results show a significant reduction of the volume of the western Gulf of Lions littoral prism over 114 years (- 26.1 ± 4.6 × 106 m3). From 1895 to 1984, the overall budget is slightly positive, with a volume estimated at 4.1 ± 3.5 × 106 m3. For 1984-2009, however, the estimated sediment budgets clearly indicate that erosion is dominant over the last 25 years, with a volume loss of - 30.2 ± 4.2 × 106 m3. In relation to the long-term sediment budget and longshore drift pattern, the long-term trend of the USU volume distribution displays strong spatio-temporal contrasts linked to longshore sediment drift, spatial distribution of fluvial sediment inputs and hard engineering structures. Locally, the sedimentary reservoir is significantly eroded within a century (- 80% of USU), since the initial amount present was low and not sustainable. The emphasis is on the importance of considering the volume changes of available sediment reservoirs rather than their losses and gains. Erosion of the Languedoc-Roussillon shoreface is likely to continue in the future due to

  1. [Education on medical anthropology and intercultural health in Mexico: from the 20th century cultural indigenism to the 21st century interculturality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Navarro, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The study of the health/disease/healthcare process from the socio-medical aspect is the field of the medical anthropology. In Mexico, this medical specialty had its origins at the end of the 19th century. Since then, many educational reforms occurred associated to the political processes and the recognition and better understanding of Mexican pluricultural society; allowing expansion, diversification and consolidation of medical anthropology as an specialty. This review presents the historical evolution of the academic courses on this field, the educators that influenced its consolidation, and the current situation of the available academic programs on medical anthropology. The diversity of specialties from those health sciences that are associated to medical anthropology is emphasized.

  2. Migration in the Swiss Alps and Swiss Jura from the Middle Ages to the mid-20th century: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Head-König

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at retracing the important phases of migrations in the alpine regions and the Jura from the Middle Ages up to the middle of the 20th century. Migration has always functioned as a necessary complement to the resources of the inhabitants of the upland regions and it increases when the economic disparity with the lowlands becomes more marked. A striking characteristic of such migration is the great diversity that can be observed, since not only the destinations of the migrants varied from community to community, but also different forms of mobility coexisted within the same territory. Migration might be seasonal, pluriannual, lifelong or even definitive. It is also notable that the various types of migration can be observed to be part of a plurisecular tradition, apart from some significant exceptions, such as the emigration of the Walser, enforced migrations and the new types of migration as from the second half of the nineteenth century. The mobility of part of the population was also a consequence of modifications deriving from changes in the prevalent type of production (animal husbandry instead of the cultivation of cereals, as well as from demographic factors. In addition to these factors one can observe the role played by political institutions throughout the period under study: seigneurial power in the Middle Ages, the communal and cantonal instances until the second half of the nineteenth century, and afterwards the federal authorities.Cette contribution vise à montrer les grandes phases des mouvements migratoires du Moyen Age au milieu du XXe siècle dans les mondes alpin et jurassien suisses. La migration a toujours été une complémentarité nécessaire aux ressources de la montagne, et elle s'amplifie lorsque les disparités économiques avec le plat pays s'accroissent. Elle se caractérise par une forte diversité, puisque non seulement les destinations et les aires d'établissement des migrants peuvent varier

  3. A review of major influences on current public health policy in developed countries in the second half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrie; Wallace, Hilary; Crombie, Iain K

    2006-03-01

    Public health policy underwent substantial transformation during the latter half of the 20th century. The landmark statement was the 1948 World Health Organization (WHO) constitution, which identified good health as a fundamental right and gave the responsibility to governments to achieve it for all their people. However, following World War II, developed countries made substantial investment in health care with less attention paid to public health. The importance of public health was slowly recognised over the period from 1970 to 2000 with the publication of several reports from different organisations. The first authoritative policy statement that the important determinants of health lay outside health care was in the Lalonde Report from Canada. These ideas were subsequently expressed in the WHO Alma-Ata declaration and were emphasised a year later by the US Surgeon General. The idea of setting goals for health improvement also began in the 1970s. The Lalonde Report and the United Kingdom Black Report recommended that targets be used, but the first explicitly stated health targets were set by the US in 1979. WHO also identified the need for such targets at this time, but did not introduce them until 1984. Since then health targets have become a central feature of public health policy in developed countries. The Ottawa Conference on Health Promotion in 1986 championed the view that health promotion was central to achieving health goals internationally. It helped clarify the types of actions needed: that individuals need to be provided with the supportive environment and economic resources to be able to lead healthy lives. In a further development, the Healthy Cities Project was launched with the specific aim of involving political decision-makers in building a strong lobby for public health at the local level. The Healthy Cities Project illustrates how to provide means and opportunity for interventions to be implemented in communities. Concerns with inequalities

  4. 试论20世纪初中国学堂乐歌之特征%Characteristicsof Chinese School Music of the Early 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张戈

    2014-01-01

    学堂乐歌是20世纪初随着新式学堂的建立而兴起的音乐文化,其一般涵盖学堂开设的音乐课或为学堂歌唱而编创的歌曲。学堂乐歌在其发展过程中,形成一系列鲜明的特征,并成为中国近代音乐文化开启的标志。当时学堂乐歌的时代特征以救亡图存、提倡新精神、致力于国民素质之改善、鼓励学习新文化为主要内容,其创作的基本原则为“取彼国之善本,易我国之歌词。”表现出了中西合璧的音乐特色。另外,学堂乐歌集体而歌的形式,由校内走向社会,对其后大规模的群众歌咏运动产生了巨大的影响。%School music means a music culture which emerged with the establishment of the new school during the early 20th century .And it generally included the school music class or the specialized school singing songs .It has not only formed a series of distinct features but also become the beginning symbol of the China modern music culture during its development process .First of all ,it focused its main content on salvaging the country ,advocating the new spirit ,promoting national patriotism ,encouraging learning new culture .Secondly ,the basic principle of school music was “to absorb the foreign format to replace the lyr‐ics of our country” .This had showed the mixed music features that combined with China and Western .In Addition ,the school music synthesized its collective singing ways and eventually had a huge influence on the massive singing songs movement .

  5. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  6. Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberola, Armando; Barriendos, Mariano; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Pérez-Morales, Alfredo; Balasch, Carles; Castelltort, Xavier; Mazón, Jordi; Pino, David; Lluís Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Tuset, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Historical flood data series of Eastern Spanish Coast (14th-20th centuries). Improving identification of climatic patterns and human factors of flood events from primary documentary sources Armando Alberola, Barriendos, M., Gil-Guirado, S., Pérez Morales, A., Balasch, C., Castelltort, X., Mazón, J., Pino, D., Ruiz-Bellet, J.L., Tuset, J. Historical flood events in eastern spanish coast have been studied by different research groups and projects. Complexity of flood processes, involving atmospheric, surface and human factors, is not easily understandable when long time series are required. Present analysis from PREDIFLOOD Project Consortium defines a new step of flood event databases: Improved access to primary (documentary) and secondary (bibliographical) sources, data collection for all possible locations where floods are detected, and improved system of classification (Barriendos et al., 2014). A first analysis is applied to 8 selected flood series. Long chronologies from PREDIFLOOD Project for Catalonia region (Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Lleida, Tortosa). In addition, to cover all sector of spanish mediterranean coast, we introduce Valencia city in Turia River basin. South Eastern sector is cover with Murcia and Caravaca cities, Segura River basin. Extension of area under study required contributions of research teams experienced in work of documentary primary sources (Alberola, 2006; Gil-Guirado, 2013). Flood frequency analysis for long scale periods show natural climatic oscillations into so-called Little Ice Age. There are general patterns, affecting most of basins, but also some local anomalies or singularities. To explain these differences and analogies it is not enough to use purely climatic factors. In this way, we analyze human factors that have been able to influence the variability of floods along last 6 centuries (demography, hydraulic infrastructures, urban development...). This approach improves strongly understanding of mechanisms producing

  7. Contribution of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela to the development of the spanish scientific research in the first third of the 20th century (1900-1936)

    OpenAIRE

    Brasa Arias, Beatriz; Sanmartín Míguez, Santiago; Landín, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela was founded in 1857, but research activities did not start until the beginning of the 20th century. The new Spanish regulations promoting the experimentation at universities and the stages of professors and recently graduated students outside Spain contributed to generate a remarkable research group in a provincial university. The excessive university centralism at that time in Spain and the characteristics of the headquarters of the faculty —...

  8. A Study of the 20th Century New Zealand Maori Novelists: Acculturation and Reform%20世纪新西兰毛利小说家及其创作:文化植入与转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树森

    2011-01-01

    20世纪新西兰文学的重要特征之一,是出现了维提·依希马埃拉与帕特里夏·F·格雷斯等一批出类拔萃的毛利小说家并创作出一大批独具艺术价值和特色的作品。本文拟总结20世纪新西兰毛利小说家的创作,解读其创作思想与技巧,认为文化植入与转型构成了20世纪新西兰毛利小说家创作的基石。%The 20th century New Zealand literature is characterized by the rise of a group of outstanding Maori novelists such as Witi Ihimaera and Patricia Frances Grace, who prolifically write novels and short stories with original art values and typical features. This essay is intended to study the achievements of the 20th century Maori novelists, with a focus on the interpretation of their novel-writing theory and skills, and argue that acculturation and reform of creating novels are the comerstones for the 20th century Maori novelists.

  9. 20世纪上半叶中的扎赉特旗蒙古人%Mongolians of Jalaid Banner in the First Half of the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟根

    2011-01-01

    The article makes a study about the Mongolians of Jalaid Banner in the transition from nomadic to semi-agricultural and semi-nomadic economy in the first half of the 20th century by researching the non-open areas and by utilizing documents like The On-the-spot Investigation Report of Jalaid Banner in the South of Xing'an(Xing'an Bureau,1939) and The Fifth Volume of Materials about Opening Mongolian Areas: Report of Opening West Horqin Rear Banner and Jalaid Banner(Xing'an Bureau,1940).It reveals that the economy of Mongolians of Jalaid Banner at that time was both nomadic and agricultural,and it was also diversified.Such a management style was due to the complicated relationships between Nutuke people and Mongolians from other areas,aboriginals and immigrants as well as the employers and employees.The inequality between Nutuke people and other Mongolians lasted until the end of 1940s.The Puppet Manchou government also carried out a series of strategies attempting to solve the above social problems,but failed in the end.%以扎赉特旗非开放地区为研究对象,利用《兴安南省扎赉特旗实地调查报告书》(兴安局,1939年)、《开放蒙地资料第五辑:西科后旗扎赉特旗开放蒙地调查报告书》(兴安局,1940年)等文献资料,对20世纪上半叶处于游牧经济向半农半牧经济演变之中的扎赉特旗蒙古人进行事态研究。研究表明,扎赉特旗蒙古人的经营方式有了农牧并存、多种经营的特点。这种经营方式是建立在努图克人和外来蒙古人、原住民和移民、雇佣和被雇佣的复杂关系上的。努图克人和外来蒙古人之间的不平等关系,从扎赉特旗蒙地开放开始一直延续到20世纪40年代末期。伪满洲国政府也实施一系列方案企图改善上述各种社会问题,但是最后以失败而告终。

  10. Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Ottone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales.Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

  11. A Brief Analysis of the Development Factors of Quantum Theory in Cambridge in Early 20th Century%20世纪初量子理论在剑桥的传入

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹沛; 尹晓冬

    2011-01-01

    This Thesis analyses the impact of development of early--stage quantum theory in Cam- bridge from background, thought transformation, Mathematical Tripos and communication, which may re- veal the development of science in Cambridge in 20th century when the revolution of modern physics hap- pened. I hope it has certain significance because of the comparability with the development of China in mod- ern times.%探讨了20世纪初量子理论在剑桥的传入和发展情况,以及相关因素.

  12. “永动机”在晚清和民国时期的传播%The Dissemination of the ‘Perpetual Motion Machine;in China During the First Half of the 20 th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯珊珊; 聂馥玲

    2014-01-01

    “永动机”在我国的传播始终与能量守恒定律的传播相结合,是研究能量守恒定律在中国传播的重要案例。梳理了晚清和民国时期“永动机”在我国的传播情况,介绍了相关文献的内容和相关作者对待“永动机”的态度。从整体上讲,这一时期的文献的主导思想是“永动机”是不可能的。%Perpetual motion machine was introduced into China in the very early of the 20 th century.It was used as an example for interpretation of the law of conservation of energy.Some Chinese people had interested in the machine in the first half of the 20 th century.This paper deals with Chinese literatures on the perpetual motion machine,and studies how it was disseminated.It comes to the conclusion that the almost all published articles argued,that it is impossible to make a perpetual motion machine,based on the law of conservation of energy.

  13. Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Hennoste

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, which were also important to the Young Estonians: nationalist-naturalistic (close-to-life; socialist/ class-based, and 20th century modernist. The Young Estonians began as nationalists and/or socialists. During the formation of Young Estonia’s discourse at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of the 20th century, 20th century modernism began, which the Young Estonians regarded first and foremost with irony. The Young Estonians’ literary discourse is a mixture of aestheticism, decadence, symbolism, romanticism, and classicism. The point of departure for the Young Estonian approach to literature was eurocentrism. They took a superior and negative view of existing Estonian literature, which they regarded as having fallen drastically behind Europe. Since it was unable to build on its own foundation, it had to borrow from Europe. The discourse’s understandings of cultural values – theory, reading, knowledge, ready-made culture, derive from the centrality of the dynamic of borrowing. New culture could be created freely, without the support of previous local tradition; it was to be an elite culture, while the writer remained an individualist. Literature was to follow the principle of art for art’s sake; aesthetics and the form of the work of art were basic criteria. The formal ideals of the work of art were classicist: unity, integrity (wholeness, harmony, order, logic, etc. Thirdly, I outline the

  14. A görög-albán kapcsolatok története a 20. században - Greek-Albanian Relations in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALOGH, Ádám

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Greek and the Albanian nations have been living close to each other approximately in the same territory for almost three thousand years. An ethnically mixed population had lived in the contact zone of the two nations (Epirus, or Chameria in Albanian without any territorial disputes. Neither religious, nor language differences caused any serious conflicts between the Greeks and the Albanians until the 19th century when nationalism changed the political situation completely. However, Pan-Slavism and the decline of the Ottoman Empire prompted the cooperation of the two nations which was based on the Pelasg ideology, namely the common origin of the Greeks and the Albanians. Epirus was divided as a consequence of the Balkan Wars, and from that point, the status of minorities has poisoned the relationship between Albania and Greece. The author of the present article gives an overview of the historical antecedents and discusses the Greek-Albanian relations in the 20th century.

  15. Russian Industrial Monopoly Capital and State at the End of 19th Century and Early 20th Century%19世纪末20世纪初俄国工业垄断资本与国家

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Tsar Government is an indispensable force in the formation and development process of Russian industrial monopoly. At the end of 19th century, Tsar Government strengthens and inter⁃venes industry, which leads to the combination of state political power and industrial monopoly capi⁃tal; at early 20th century to the eve of the First World War, the“support”and“restrain”economic policy propels the development of“human resource connection”of Tsar Government and monopoly magnates; before the First World War, Tsar Government establishes war time state economic organiza⁃tion to fully intervene industrial production and distribution with the help of monopoly organization and bourgeoisie organization to realize a complete combination of state political power and industrial monopoly capital.%沙皇政府在俄国工业垄断形成和发展的过程中一直作为不可或缺的重要力量。19世纪末,沙皇政府在不断加强干预工业的趋势中出现了国家政权同工业垄断资本相结合的个别现象;20世纪初到一战前夕,沙皇政府对工业垄断资本所出台的“支持”和“抑制”并存的经济政策推动了沙皇政府与垄断大亨“人事联合”的发展;第一次世界大战时期,沙皇政府为实现对工业生产和分配的全面干预创建了战时国家经济组织,它们借助垄断组织和大资产阶级组织发挥作用实现了国家政权与俄国工业垄断资本的完全结合。

  16. Deviation of Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea level from the global mean during the 20th century: analysis of the main factors involved and a high-end projection to the end of 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to investigate which are the main factors determining interannual sea level variability of Baltic, Adriatic and Black seas, and to which extent the sea level of these three basins can deviate from the global mean. The three basins selected are semi-enclosed marginal seas connected with the adjacent seas by narrow straits. 13 sea level timeseries in Baltic Sea, 7 in Adriatic Sea and 5 in Black Sea provided by PSMSL, allowed us to compute a single seamless sea level timeseries representative for each basin from 1900 and for the entire 20th century, using statistical tools (PCA and Least Square method). Comparison with satellite data in the period 1993-2009, confirms that timeseries so computed are good representations of the observed sea level, with correlation values of 0.97, 0.87 and 0.72 for Baltic, Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. At basin scale the sea level has been decomposed in various contributions that have been separately analyzed: local effect of pressure, steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation, boundary forcing, wind effect and river discharge. The annual cycles and their variability, show that the largest contribution is due to the wind for the Adriatic Sea and for the Baltic Sea. In these two basins the inverse Barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric factor is almost negligible. The wind seems to play a negligible role on Black Sea, where the Danube river discharge plays an important role. A linear regression model, built considering large scale sea level pressure distribution as predictor, is capable to explain a further percentage of sea level variability variability (about 20%) left after subtracting all the factors considered above. Sea level of the Baltic and Black Sea show a significant positive correlation (0.3 about) revealing the likely influence of an external common forcing. Past sea level variability shows no strong evidences of large deviation from the global mean sea level

  17. Girls' Secondary Education in the Western World: From the 18th to the 20th Century. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albisetti, James C.; Goodman, Joyce; Rogers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited synthesis approaches the past three centuries with an eye to highlighting the importance of significant schools, as well as important women educators in the emergence of secondary education for girls. At the same time, each contributor pays careful attention to the specific political, cultural, and socio-economic factors that…

  18. Negotiating Islamisation and resistance : a study of religions, politics and social change in West Java from the early 20th Century to the present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamualim, Chaider S.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how Islamisation took place and how it was contested and negotiated in West Java. It focuses on three important religious variants: Islam, Aliran Kebatinan and Christianity and covers the early twentieth century to the present, with the emphasis on the period after 1965. Conflicts b

  19. A Coupled Ocean-Iceberg Model Over The 20th Century: Iceberg Flux At 48°N As A Proxy For Greenland Iceberg Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, G. R.; Wilton, D.; Hanna, E.

    2013-12-01

    Grant R. Bigg1 , David J. Wilton1 and Edward Hanna1 1Department of Geography, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN We have used a coupled ocean-iceberg model, the Fine Resolution Greenland and Labrador ocean model [1], to study the variation in, and trajectory of, icebergs over the twentieth century, focusing particularly on Greenland and surrounding areas. The model is forced with daily heat, freshwater and wind fluxes derived from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project [2]. We use the observed iceberg flux at 48°N off Newfoundland (I48N) from 1900 to 2008 [3] to assess the iceberg component of the model. Model I48N is calculated with both a variable and constant annual calving rate. The results show that ocean and atmosphere changes alone do not account for the variation in observed I48N and suggests that this series can be used as a proxy for iceberg discharge from west Greenland tidewater glaciers. The implication of this proxy is that there is significant interannual variability in Greenland iceberg discharge over the whole twentieth century. Our model results suggest that in the early decades of the twentieth century I48N was dominated by icebergs originating from south Greenland (below latitude 65°N) with west Greenland becoming the main source of I48N from the late 1930s onwards. Modeled icebergs from the east of Greenland very rarely reach 48°N. We also present results from the ocean model showing the variation of ocean transport fluxes over the course of the twentieth and early twenty first century. References 1. M. R. Wadley, and G. R. Bigg, (2002), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 2187-2203 2. G. P. Compo, et al. (2011), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28 3. D. L. Murphy (2011) http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/?pageName=IIPIcebergCounts

  20. 自然与人工——20世纪以来法国风景园林概述%The Wild and the Artificial: An Introduction to Landscape Architecture since the 20th Century in France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春彦

    2011-01-01

    There had been two attitudes towards man and nature in the history of Europe: combination versus division.The latter is supported by Descartes.This paper oriented on the two attitudes, focusing on natural and artificial tendencies towards arts and philosophy.This paper elaborates different expressions and manufactures of gardens in France, which range from impressionism in the 19th Century to "vertical garden" in the 20th Century, and then to contemporary "culture landscape", depicting a scenario of design and thought of French landscape architecture from 20th Century till now.%历史上在欧洲同时存在着2种不同对待自然的态度,2种自然观.第一种是模糊的人与自然一体,第二种是以笛卡尔为代表的两分法.从这2种自然观出发,以自然和人工2种哲学艺术倾向为主线,从19世纪末的印象画派园林到20世纪后期的"竖直园林",直至今天的"文化景观",阐述了法国不同风格园林对自然的不同处理、表达方式,论述了20世纪至今法国风景园林的设计及其思潮等.

  1. Important theories of the 20th century. Relativity, cosmology, quantum mechanics and chaos theory. 3. corr. ed.; Bedeutende Theorien des 20. Jahrhunderts. Relativitaetstheorie, Kosmologie, Quantenmechanik und Chaostheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnebrock, Werner [Fachhochschule Rheinland-Pfalz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The past century changed the classical, scientific way of view enormously. The quantum theory broke with the imagination of continuity of all dynamical processes and gave space to completely new, nearly revolutionary approaches of thinking. Einstein's relativity theory put the absoluteness of time and space as well as the general validity of the Euclidean geometry in question. The absolute calculability, as it was formulated by Laplace, was by the influence of chaos theory proven as illusion. Computers made by the Mandelbrot set the presentation of new esthetic and never seen structures. Hilbert's century program of a complete formalization of mathematics failed because of the famous law of Goedel. It is the demand of this book to present all these theories and conclusions easily understandably and entertainingly.

  2. [The crusade for health: sanitary campaigns of the first third of the 20th century in the construction of the culture of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ocaña, E; Molero, J

    1993-01-01

    From the clarification of the origin and historical development of two of the most impressive health campaigns of the first third of the twentieth century, those against tuberculosis and to prevent infant mortality, an evaluation is sought from a long range view. Their contribution to the modern configuration of health as well as to the genesis of several regular traits of today's community and family medicine are pointed out.

  3. Understanding the object of design through project drawin: an archive of drawings by Portuguese designers from the 20th and 21st centuries

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the usefulness of creating an archive of the design project drawings. It will be the creation of a digital archive of drawings made by Portuguese designers in the XX and XXI century. The project drawings are normally intended to be lost, by their ephemeral and transitory nature, even if they participate clearly in the projectual understanding, namely both of the process and of the proposed answer/solution. In this case, the digital images’ recording of the designe...

  4. [Physical anthropology and human "zoos": the exhibition of natives as a scientific popularization practice on the threshold of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Juanma Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    All along the nineteenth century different anthropological exhibitions were held in many countries, in which people from a number of indigenous communities, especially transported from their homeland for the occasion, were exhibited publicly, both for citizenship's instruction and for specialists's "in vivo" studies on human biology. This paper presents a brief description of some of these scientific shows, and tries to relate them to contemporary human biology theories.

  5. The space, the solitude and the simulacrum: the metaphysicals trajectories in the Italian’s narrative in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Santurbano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses, through the analysis of works of authors which Gadda, Savinio, Bontempelli, Buzzati and Morselli, an anti-realistic tendency, though multiform in its stylistic and thematic success, which can be identified in the Italian literature of the twentieth century. In a comparative perspective, in dialogue with the avant-garde art, and more specifically, with the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico, seeks to reflect on some aspects of these narratives as spatial and symbolic elements, to the threshold of the genus (or mode fantastic metaforize and constitute a condition of existential concern.

  6. Sleeping with the Political Enemy: Woman’s Place in Discourses of Race and Class Struggle in 20th Century Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Bolgár

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I shall argue that the convergence of ideologies operating through the creation of enemies like racism and Bolshevism with discourses regulating gender relations in the Central Europe of the twentieth century had the grave consequence of questioning women’s position in the political community. In short, I shall argue that in the context of racist and Bolshevik discourses, the very fact of being female was in itself a political threat to women. To demonstrate my point, I shall discuss two recent publications. First, I shall analyze the context of the convergence of racist and misogynist discourses in turn-of-the-century Vienna through discussing András Gerő’s book, Neither Woman Nor Jew. Second, I shall explore how the discourse of class struggle affected the political status of Hungarian women in the Stalinist era through discussing Eszter Zsófia Tóth’s book, Kádár’s Daughters.

  7. Chinese Scholars' Studies on Discipline Construction of Educational Philosophy in the Second Half of the 20th Century%20世纪下半叶教育哲学学科建设的本土探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯怀银; 田小丽

    2012-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century,educational philosophy in China underwent three stages,which are disruption stage,reconstruction stage and development stage.During this period,Chinese scholars conducted a lot of studies on the discipline,such as its objects,natures,systems and methods.By reviewing the disciplinary construction of educational philosophy in the second half of the 20th century,we can find four urgent problems to be solved:how to integrate the theory and practice in the educational philosophy,how to improve the academic status of educational philosophy,how to broaden the international perspective for the scholars of educational philosophy and how to form the Chinese schools of educational philosophy.%20世纪下半叶中国教育哲学的发展经历了中断、重建和发展三个阶段。这一时期,中国大陆研究者对教育哲学的研究对象、学科性质、学科体系以及研究方法等进行了探索。回顾20世纪下半叶中国教育哲学的学科建设,可以发现当前中国教育哲学发展亟待解决的四个问题:教育哲学与教育实践的关系,教育哲学学术品位的提升,教育哲学工作者国际视野的开阔以及中国教育哲学学派的形成。

  8. “二十世纪中国文学”理念研讨的回顾与反思%Review and Reflection on Discussions of the Eidos of "20th Century Chinese Literature"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜

    2011-01-01

    Being a hot topic when first proposed,"20th Century Chinese Literature" has improved the writing and research structure of the history of modern Chinese literature.It is not only an integration of both modern and contemporary method of historiography,but also a new idea of it.Its idea of viewing the development of the 20th century Chinese literature as a whole is still of enlightenment significance for the historiography of modern Chinese literature.However,it ignores the existing value of certain literary forms,and fails to represent the overall development of modern Chinese literature.%"二十世纪中国文学"从提出之时起就是学界关注的热点话题,对中国现代文学史编写研究格局的推陈出新起到了极大的推进作用。"二十世纪中国文学"不仅是打通近代、现代和当代的著史方法,更是一种新的著史理念,其将20世纪中国文学的发展看作一个整体的构想对今天中国现代文学史的编写仍有较大的启示意义。但是,"二十世纪中国文学"理念忽略了现代中国时期一些文学形态的存在价值,没能完整反映出现代中国时期文学的发展面貌。

  9. Literature Review on Chinaˊs Research on Moso Walking Marriage since the 20 th Century%20世纪以来我国有关摩梭走婚文化研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹琼茜

    2014-01-01

    Research on the walking marriage culture of Moso can be earliest traced back to the early 20th century, when some scholars described this customs in their books;while more in-depth study started in the research re-ports and monographs of some ethnologists who made several surveys of Moso culture from 1950s to 1980s. After the distortions and stagnation of researches during the"Cultural Revolution",it was gradually diversified and sub-divided. Since the 20th century,the academiaˊs research on walking marriages culture and the results obtained can be displayed from the aspects of marriage form,origin,form and nature,the rationality of the system,chan-ges and causes.%对摩梭走婚文化的研究,最早可追溯到20世纪初一些学者在有关著作中对该风俗进行的描述;而比较深入地进行研究,则是始于20世纪50-80年代民族学家们的数次调查及形成的调查报告和若干专著。在经历了“文革”的扭曲和停滞之后,对其研究才逐渐走向多元化和细分的阶段。20世纪以来学者们关于走婚文化的研究及其成果,可从婚恋形态、起源、形式、性质、制度的合理性、变迁及原因等方面展示。

  10. Choice and Breakthrough--- A Review on Gu Bin’s History of the 20th Century Chinese Literature%选择与突破*--评顾彬《二十世纪中国文学史》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丽英

    2015-01-01

    顾彬的《二十世纪中国文学史》在一定层面上打破了以往文学史的书写模式,采用文学史博物馆的经典化书写方式,在历史性前提下偏重文学性,具有浓厚的主观色彩。它弱化了文学史流派分支书写体例,淡化了作家流派意识,更着重于作家作品的内在精神联系,并将20世纪知识分子忧郁的精神质素落到现代性层面来阐释。意在表明解除学术霸权,解放文学史家才能使文学史编写符合文学史本身,从而走向“轻松化”和“多元化”。%To some extent, Gu Bin’ s History of the 20th Century Chinese Literature has gone beyond the tradi-tional writing mode by adopting the classic one of museum of literary history, i.e.highlighting the subjective views by choosing to be more literary while staying faithful to history.This mode shifts attention from schools of differen writing styles and writer groups to the inner connection across schools.Moreover, it attempts to analyze the melancholy quality of the 20th century intellectuals under modern context, contending that only be getting rid of academic hegemony to liberate literary historians can return compilation of literary histories to history itself to make it an enjoyable, diversified job.

  11. Rockefeller and the internationalization of mathematics between the two world wars document and studies for the social history of mathematics in the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Siegmund-Schultze, Reinhard

    2001-01-01

    Philanthropies funded by the Rockefeller family have been prominent in the social history of the twentieth century for their involvement in medicine and applied science. This book provides the first detailed study of their relatively brief but nonetheless influential foray into the field of mathematics. The careers of a generation of pathbreakers in modern mathematics, such as S.Banach, B.L.van der Waerden and André Weil, were decisively affected by their becoming fellows of the Rockefeller-funded International Education Board in the 1920s. To help promote cooperation between physics and mathematics Rockefeller funds supported the erection of the new Mathematical Institute in Göttingen between 1926 and 1929, while the rise of probability and mathematical statistics owes much to the creation of the Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris by American philanthropy at about the same time. This account draws upon the documented evaluation processes behind these personal and institutional involvements of philanthropies...

  12. Extinction of the northern oceanic deep convection in an ensemble of climate model simulations of the 20th and 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeau, Laurent; Koenigk, Torben

    2016-05-01

    We study the variability and the evolution of oceanic deep convection in the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas from 1850 to 2100 using an ensemble of 12 climate model simulations with EC-Earth. During the historical period, the model shows a realistic localization of the main sites of deep convection, with the Labrador Sea accounting for most of the deep convective mixing in the northern hemisphere. Labrador convection is partly driven by the NAO (correlation of 0.6) and controls part of the variability of the AMOC at the decadal time scale (correlation of 0.6 when convection leads by 3-4 years). Deep convective activity in the Labrador Sea starts to decline and to become shallower in the beginning of the twentieth century. The decline is primarily caused by a decrease of the sensible heat loss to the atmosphere in winter resulting from increasingly warm atmospheric conditions. It occurs stepwise and is mainly the consequence of two severe drops in deep convective activity during the 1920s and the 1990s. These two events can both be linked to the low-frequency variability of the NAO. A warming of the sub-surface, resulting from reduced convective mixing, combines with an increasing influx of freshwater from the Nordic Seas to rapidly strengthen the surface stratification and prevent any possible resurgence of deep convection in the Labrador Sea after the 2020s. Deep convection in the Greenland Sea starts to decline in the 2020s, until complete extinction in 2100. As a response to the extinction of deep convection in the Labrador and Greenland Seas, the AMOC undergoes a linear decline at a rate of about -0.3 Sv per decade during the twenty-first century.

  13. The Pronunciation of Hebrew in the Western Sephardic Settlements (16th-20th Centuries. Second Part: The Pronunciation of the Consonant ‘Ayin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Leone Leoni, Aron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain when the Italian Jewish communities and the Western Portuguese “Nations” adopted the nasal-guttural pronunciation of the ‘ayin, variously represented as gn, ng, ngh, hg. In 16th century Ferrara and Venice, the phonetic value of this consonant was zero or close to zero. Only at the very end of the 16th century, some authors in Italy graphically represented it as ng. In the same period, an Amsterdam author introduced new graphemes and expressed the ‘ayin as gh or hg, while a Hamburg scholar published a grammar-book where he gave the name of this consonant as Hgain. The new graphemes were not adopted by the majority of authors, who continued to represent it by a simple h, or left it without notation. Both in Italy and in Northern Europe, the h > gn shift was rather discontinuous.Estudio de la adopción de la pronunciación naso-gutural de la consonante ‘ayin y de su variada representación gráfica entre los judíos de Italia y de las «Naciones» judías hispano-portuguesas. Durante el siglo XVI, el valor fonético de esa consonante era o tendía a cero. A fines de ese siglo y a comienzos del XVII, algunos autores en Italia la representan como ng. Un autor coetáneo en Amsterdam introduce nuevos grafemas, tales como gh o hg, mientras que otro autor de Hamburgo publicaba una gramática en la que denomina Hgain esta consonante. Los nuevos grafemas no fueron adoptados por la mayoría de autores que continuaron representando dicha consonante por una h. Tanto en Italia como en el norte de Europa el cambio h > gn fue discontinuo.

  14. Long-term Behaviors of Two Versions of FGOALS2 in Preindustrial Control Simulations with Implications for 20th Century Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Pengfei; LIU Hailong; YU Yongqiang; ZHOU Tianjun

    2013-01-01

    Climate drift in preindustrial control (PICTL) simulations can lead to spurious climate trends and large uncertainties in historical and future climate simulations in coupled models.This study examined the longterm behaviors and stabilities of the PICTL simulations in the two versions of FGOALS2 (the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model Version 2),which have been submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5).As verified by examining time series of thermal fields and their linear trends,the PICTL simulations showed stable long-term integration behaviors and no obvious climate drift [the magnitudes of linear trends of SST were both less than 0.04℃ (100 yr)-1] over multiple centuries.The changed SSTs in a century (that corresponded to the linear trends) were less than the standard deviations of annual mean values,which implied the internal variability was not affected.These trend values were less than 10% of those of global averaged SST from observations and historical runs during the periods of slow and rapid warming.Such stable long-term integration behaviors reduced the uncertainty of the estimation of global warming rates in the historical and future climate projections in the two versions of FGOALS2.Compared with the trends in the Northern Hemisphere,larger trends existed in the SST and sea ice extents at the middle to high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH).To estimate the historical and future climate trends in the SH or at some specific regions in FGOALS2,corrections needed to be carried out.The similar long-term behaviors in the two versions of FGOALS2 may be attributed to proper physical processes in the ocean model.

  15. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  16. The Impact of New Media on 20th-Century Astronomy: From Individual Records to Catalogs, Data Centers, Information Hubs and so-called `Virtual Observatories'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, André

    Astronomy is largely a virtual science. Most of our knowledge of the universe is derived from photons reaching us from the outer space. And because of the finite speed of light, we do not observe the objects the way they are, but the way they were when the photons we are collecting actually left them. What we have thus in our data files is nothing other than a huge and complex virtuality of prior stages, differenciated as a function of the distance in space and time of the various sources. Thus the job of astronomers is to work on that space-time mosaicked virtual universe in order to figure out what is exactly the real universe and to understand the place and rôle of man in it. As a result of the huge amount of data accumulated, but also by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have been pioneering the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This talk will offer a few comments on the impact and changing sociology of astronomy information handling over the past century, drifting from individual measurements or records to catalogs and data centers, and moving now from information hubs to those advanced digital research facilities called `virtual observatories'.

  17. Religious and political leadership in Brazil at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries – the case of Father Cícero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Agnieszka Siuda-Ambroziak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a very interesting place for academic research regarding religious and political leadership. It does not happen only due to the continuous supply of religious leaders, but also owing to their social and political influence. One of good examples of such leaders at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries is certainly Father Cicero, who, in spite of the problems connected with the disapproval of his activity on the part of the Vatican, is still regarded as a perfect example of both an outstanding politician and a non-canonized popular saint with the place of his earthly religious and political activity turned long ago into destination of pilgrimages and important popular religiosity shrines. Using the biographical method and coming out of the Weberian concepts of charismatic leadership, the author tries to explain the reasons behind his tremendous popularity and a conflict with the Catholic hierarchy, as well as to comment on the background of his cult in the context of social, economic and political changes taking place in Brazil during his lifetime.

  18. ENERGY SECURITY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND REGIONAL POLICY OF ITALY IN THE END OF THE 20-TH – BEGINNING OF THE 21-ST CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. ONISHCHENKO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions for the security system in the Mediterranean at the period 20 ‒ beginning of the 21-st centuries it was an ensuring the economic stability for all of states in the region. There was a significant imbalance in the development of the countries of sub-region. Because of this reason the main instrument, which ensured the achievement of this condition, there were multilateral cooperation in the field of trade and the building of energy-dialogue. Traditionally energy shortages in the EU-countries and, on the contrary, the availability of energy resources on the territory of nonEuropean countries of the Mediterranean basin determined the nature and forms of relationships between participants of political processes in the region. Modern development processes addressing energy security in the region and the necessity to build a model of the global energy balance is largely determined by the factors and parameters that were incorporated as a part of the studied historical period. The desire of some states to a monopoly in economic and political components of the regional policy was due primarily to the requirement for internal control in the sphere of production and distribution of energy resources. Thus, the resource component, namely the energy aspect, directly determined the parameters of the model of regional security system, in general. 

  19. The co-evolution of residential segregation and the built environment at the turn of the 20(th) century: a Schelling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Seth E; Harrison, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    To what degree does the built environment of cities shape the social environment? In this paper we use a Schelling-like agent based model to consider how changes to the built environment of cities relate to changes in residential segregation by income and ethnicity. To develop this model we exploit insights from a high resolution historical GIS which maps 100% of the population of Newark, NJ in 1880. Newark in 1880 had a complex social landscape characterized by areas of significant social and economic segregation and areas of relative integration. We develop a Schelling model capable of reproducing these residential patterns. We use this model to explore the decentralization of housing, a specific phenomenon associated with the demise of the walking city in the late 19th century. Holding agent preferences constant, but allowing the landscape of the Schelling model to evolve in ways that reflect historical changes to the built environment produces changes to the social landscape that are also consistent with history. Our work suggests that changes in residential segregation do not necessarily imply changes to individual attitudes and preferences. Changes in residential segregation can be generated by changes to the built environment, specifically the geographic distribution of housing.

  20. [From the creation of the Veterinary Schools to the evolution of the notion of contagion in the 19th and 20th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilet, Charles

    2012-05-01

    The creation of the Veterinary Schools in the 18th century would reveal a plethora of scientists, some of whom would be the precursors of Pasteur, some rivals, others followers collaborators or friends of the Master. Among the precursors let us name Chabbert, Huzard, Girard, Delafond, Renault, Toussaint, Galtier ; among the rivals: Chauveau, Arloing, Cornevin and Thomas; among the followers, collaborators or friends of Pasteur: Bouley, at first a resolute spontaneist, then the most fervent in defense of Pasteur (President of the Academy of Medicine and of the Academy of Sciences) and Nocard, Director of the School in Alfort, an important collaborator of Pasteur. Later, there was Leclainche, who created the International Office of Epizootics, and who was President of the Academy of Sciences; Guérin, who with Calmette developed the BCG vaccination; Ramon, the father of anatoxins (vaccines against diphtheria, and tetanus, combined vaccines, adjuvants to immunity). Thus, the creation of the Veterinary Schools contributed not only to the evolution of the notion of contagion, to the amelioration of animal health and the economics of agricultural production, but also to serious advances in human care, and to the protection of public health.

  1. Trends in 20th Century Global Rainfall Interception as Simulated by a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model: Implications for Global Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Steve; Prentice, Colin

    2010-05-01

    In order to monitor and forecast regions of potential freshwater stress and surplus, a comprehensive understanding and quantification of the global hydrological cycle and its components is needed. Such work should lead to better constrained estimates of freshwater fluxes and facilitate the identification of regions requiring enhanced water management. The research described here aims to quantify the contribution of climate- and CO2-induced changes in the physical properties of the land surface, mediated by biological processes. Global climate change is expected to bring about substantial latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in vegetation cover. Shifts in species distribution, the potential of increased leaf area index (LAI) but also reduced stomatal conductance in response to rising concentrations of CO2, and variability in precipitation, can all influence rates and spatial variability of the interception-throughfall balance. These effects will have implications for runoff generation and the partitioning between 'green' and 'white' water fluxes. The Land Processes eXchange Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPX-DGVM, a development of the LPJ model) was evaluated in terms of its interception component and used to simulate trends in global relative throughfall from 1901-2006, as this is directly relevant for runoff. We estimate that mean global annual runoff was reduced by 164 ±18 km3/year during the twentieth century as a result of biophysical changes controlling relative throughfall generation. Widespread decreases in relative throughfall of typically between 0 and -1% are evident between 1901-1953 and 1954-2006. Changes of up to

  2. Angelic iconographies of the 19th and 20th centuries in the Cimitero Acattolico of Rome: psychopomps, triumphants, mourners and seducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Álvarez Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally it has been considered that the dual nature of angels, halfway between divinity and humanity, made them the most appropriate iconographic representations within the funerary context. Heirs of the marble sculptures that adorned the graves from the Renaissance, in the 19th century these effigies experienced a series of changes in their physical appearance that were closer and closer to the image that today we associate with contemporary cemeteries. This new iconography had a wide range of possibilities: psychopomps angels, triumphants angels, mourners angels... In this study we intend to draw an overview of the iconography present in the Cimitero Acattolico of Rome, one of the most unique places in the Eternal City due to the coexistence that was in it between the traditions of the various Protestant societies and the Catholic substrate in which they were immersed. The angels that adorn those graves also accuse this double influence, and serve as a perfect example of syncretism not only between religions but also between mentalities.

  3. Three 20th-century multiauthored handbooks serving as vital catalyzers of an emerging specialization: a case study from the history of neurology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahnisch, Frank W; Koehler, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    Originating in the late 19th century, psychiatry and neurology emerged during a period of several decades as two distinct fields of medical inquiry, separate from the study and practice of internal medicine. Around 1900, the German-speaking countries in Europe played an important role in this development. In this article, the publication of three influential multivolume and multiauthor handbooks are studied. All available volumes of Max Lewandowsky's Handbuch der Neurologie (1910-1914) and the Handbuch der Neurologie (1935-1937) of Oswald Bumke and Otfrid Foerster are analyzed. The handbooks are compared with Pierre Vinken and George Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (1968-2002). This article is particularly timely in that it helps to reveal some of the origins of the disciplinary split-even at a moment when "brain psychiatry" (Wilhelm Griesinger), "neuropsychiatry" (Kurt Goldstein), and the German notion of Nervenheilkunde all acknowledged the interdisciplinary nature of both psychiatry and neurology. Particular emphasis is placed on the preeminent role that Jewish clinical neurologists assumed in the editing of the respective handbooks, leading to the extraordinary breadth and wealth of these publications. A great number of doyens in the fields of neurology and psychiatry-among them numerous Nobel Prize laureates-were involved in the dissemination of contemporary knowledge, including diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which testifies to the fundamental status that these handbooks held for training purposes for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. Finally, the volumes analyzed in this article (between 1911 and 2002) are representative of a shift in the dominant scientific language, from German to English, since the 1930s and the 1940s, as well as the change in geographical distribution of the leading scientific authors, from Central Europe (Germany, Austria, Holland, France, Italy, and Scandinavia) to North America (the United States).

  4. Scientific psychology in Brazil in the 20th century: the dialogue with European researchers, a look at Brazilian culture and a successful process of professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Regina Helena de Freitas

    2006-01-01

    The first laboratories of psychology established in Brazil were organized in the early twentieth century by professionals trained in medical schools or in education. These laboratories, linked to mental health hospitals or to normal schools, followed guidelines suggested by Edouard Claparède, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Geneva, and by Alfred Binet, from the Laboratory of Psychology of the University of Paris (Sorbonne). Besides replicating experimental studies done in Europe, their purpose was to study the psychological characteristics of the population attended by the mental health or educational systems. The themes explored by the researchers were the comparison of psychological processes in normal and mentally troubled individuals, or the study of the mental development of school-age children. The meaning of the word "laboratory" became associated with applied psychology, and with the adaptation to the Brazilian population of mental tests elaborated in other countries (mainly in France). Around the 1940s and 1950s, with the establishment of the teaching of psychology in higher learning institutions, research in the area expanded. Two authors are mainly responsible for this expansion: Lourenço Filho (1897-1970), and Helena Antipoff (1892-1974). Their work, still inspired by Claparède and Binet, contributed to the development of important lines of research in psychology in Brazil, with a lasting influence on subsequent generations of psychologists. From the 1960s onwards, with the regulation of the profession of psychologist, formal university programs increased strongly, and, in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive system of graduate programs in psychology was established, contributing to the professionalization of research in the field.

  5. Research of the Images of Women in Family Novels of 20th Century%20世纪家族小说中的女性形象研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑蕾

    2014-01-01

    The images of women in modern family novels are a special group in twentieth Century China's literature. Among them,there are familial and cultural supporter and practitionersplaying the role of wife and mother in strict accord-ance with the feudal culture standards and familial culture spoilers and the persons who left homes. To a certain extent, they have the strength of the collapse of the family,gradually leading to the decline of the family. In addition,there are victims,enduring bullying torment feudal ethics,and ethics slaughtered to destruction under the male supremacy regime. Their tragedy shows women's survival dilemma imprisoned by the traditional culture,criticizes the old evils of family and culture,indicating declining historical fate of feudal family.%现代家族小说中的女性形象是20世纪中国文学的一组特殊群体:有家族文化的支撑者和践行者,严格按照封建文化标准扮演贤妻良母的角色;有家族文化的破坏者和出走者,在一定程度上都具有瓦解家族的力量,促成家族逐渐走向衰亡;还有忍受封建礼教折磨欺凌,在男权至上的伦理制度宰割下走向毁灭的牺牲者形象。她们的悲剧展示了传统文化禁锢下女性的生存困境,批判旧家族文化的罪恶,预示着封建家族走向没落的历史命运。

  6. [Carlos Younger de la Peña (1920-1996). "Urology in Madrid during the second half of the 20th century"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virseda Rodríguez, Julio Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Carlos Younger de la Peña (1920-1996) was one of the representative urologists of his time, both in urology as a whole and particularly in urology in Madrid, during the 40 years between 1945 to 1985. His professional training was linked to the department of urology in the "La Princesa" Hospital chaired by Dr. Pedro Cifuentes Díaz first and Luis Cifuentes Delatte posteriorly. The important influence of French urology led Carlos Younger to complete his studies in the departments of urology chaired by professors J. Cibert (Lyon), Truc (Montpellier) and Couvelaire (Paris). When he returned from France he completed his doctoral thesis with the title "Experimental study on the ureterosigmoidostomy type Coffey I" directed by Prof. J. Garcia Orcoyen in 1957. His first publications started in 1946 and he ended with almost 100, including communications to various speciality congresses and meetings. Established in his private clinic in the Ferraz Street in Madrid he alternated his professional practice between Social Security patients and the Red Cross Central Hospital. At the end of his life he had collected near to 10.000 patients' clinical records. He was member of various scientific societies (among them the International Society Of Nephrology) and received various awards such as the one from the Pediatric Surgeons Association for his work on "bladder exstrophy "and the one from the Medical Academy of Valladolid for his study "Vascular renal hypertension". In 1961 he performed the second renal transplant in Spain. His professional interest was preferentially focused on uro-oncology, pediatric urology, gynecologic urology, and endoscopic surgery. He left many disciples with the same interests. The professional life of Carlos Younger de la Peña, in the period of time under analysis, is much significant as a reflex of the evolution of urology and urologists over half a century.

  7. Female Prose Tends toward Depth and Heroism during the Last Decade of the 20th Century%走向深沉与大气的世纪末女性散文

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶昌馨

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th century, female prose has made a breakthrough in the consciousness lag state of the female, female individual life consciousness is awaking. Female prose, between the apex nip of the duality opposite state and the change of the literary style, has found a variety of themes involving society and female themselves, gone deeply into history and itself, understood science and human, courageously absorbed in the late modern narrating skills, excavated the prose themes trending 21 century and been on the way to depth and heroism.%20世纪末,中国女性散文与男性权威话语散文并驾齐驱,将笔触伸向中华民族的历史深处,解读人类、自然和科学,大胆吸纳小说技巧进入散文,为新时期散文发展做出了贡献,表现出前所未有的深沉与大气。

  8. HSV-1/HSV-2 Infection-Related Cancers in Bantu Populations Driving HIV-1 Prevalence in Africa: Tracking the Origin of AIDS at the Onset of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Le Goaster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At the onset of the 20th century, ancient clinical observations of cancer epidemics in Bantu populations of Sub-Saharan Africa were discovered. They were reported from 1914 to 1960, but remained unexplained. In 1983, in San Francisco, Calif., USA, cancer epidemics were related to infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 known as AIDS disease. Yet since 1996, it is known that HIV-1 strains are not the only ones involved. In Sub-Saharan Africa, recurrent orobuccal herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and genital recurrent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 appeared many times prior to infection by HIV-1. Case Reports: Data on these ancient medical observations regarding African cancer epidemics can today be referred to as the relationship between the unfortunate immune deficiency of herpes in Bantu populations and HIV-1 viral strains. For centuries, the Bantu populations dispersed in forests were living in close proximity to chimpanzees infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV and were exposed to SIV contamination which became HIV-1 in human beings. Presently, these unexplained Bantu cancer epidemics can be linked to the viral partnership of HSV-1/HSV-2 to HIV-1 strains. Conclusion: The key issue is now to prevent HSV-1/HSV-2 diseases related to HIV-1. An anti-herpes treatment administered early during childhood to Bantu populations will offer a mean of preventing herpes diseases related to HIV-1 infection and hence avoid cancer epidemics.

  9. 百年诺贝尔物理学奖与现代物理学的发展%Nobel prize of physics in the 20th century and the development of modern physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李画眉

    2001-01-01

    According to the prize awarded to Nobel Laureates, modern physics is divided into eight subfields. Molecular and Atomic Physies, Theoretical Physics, Nuclear Physics, Elementary Partical Physics.Condensed Matter Physics, Optics, As trophysics, Radio Physics. According to the time order of the awarded tems and the internal relationship between the achievements awarded, the author introduced the greatest achievements and advances of subfields of Physics in the 20th Century and proposed the trend of physics in 21st century, especially, in the future 20 to 30 years.%根据诺贝尔物理学奖颁奖项目的成就,把现代物理学划分为原子分子物理学、理论物理学、原子核物理学、粒子物理学、凝聚态物理学、光学、天体物理学、无线电学这八大分支学科.以获奖项目研究的时间或获奖成果间的内在联系为主线,介绍这些分支学科在20世纪所取得的重大成就及其发展轨迹,进一步展望物理学在21世纪特别是未来二、三十年的发展趋势.

  10. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  11. Notas para una historia de la desnutrición en la Iberoamérica del siglo XX Notes for a history of the malnutrition in the Latin America of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bernabeu-Mestre

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza los principales determinantes y las características de la desnutrición en América Latina durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En primer lugar, se explican las bases del problema moderno del hambre y la desnutrición, tanto en su dimensión fisiológica como social, al destacarse su condición de calamidad social y de expresión biológica del subdesarrollo y de las desigualdades sociales. En segundo lugar, a partir de testimonios contemporáneos, se exponen las principales características de la desnutrición que ha afectado a la población iberoamericana, y las causas que la explican. Por último, a modo de conclusión, se subrayan las consecuencias negativas de no haber aprovechado la oportunidad que conllevaba el reto de superar los factores condicionantes de la malnutrición por defecto, y haber finalizado el siglo XX con un panorama epidemiológico nutricional donde los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición conviven con fenómenos como los de la obesidad de la pobreza.The work analyzes the principal determinants and the characteristics of the malnutrition in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century. First, are explained the bases of the modern problem of the hunger and the malnutrition (undernourishment, so much in his physiological as social dimension, on having been outlined his condition of social calamity and of biological expression of the underdevelopment and of the social inequalities. Secondly, from contemporary testimonies, there are exposed the principal characteristics of the malnutrition that has affected the Latin-American population, and the causes that explain it. Finally, like conclusion, are underlined the negative consequences of not having taken advantage of the opportunity that was carrying the challenge of overcoming the determining factors of the malnutrition (undernourishment, and to have finished the 20th century with an epidemiological nutritional panorama where the problems

  12. 20世纪上半叶美国优生运动的历史轨迹%A Historical Exploration of Eugenics Movement in the United States during the First Half of the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯波

    2014-01-01

    The American Eugenics Movement is a social movement launched and led by eugenicists from the early of the 20th century to 1940s in the name of eugenics .This movement focused on the propaganda to spread the knowledge of eugenics as well as on the making of eugenics laws and putting them into implementation .To be sure ,it was an active response of American eugenicists and their supporters to the social and demographic changes at the turning of the 20th century . However ,its philosophy and specific measures tended to be closely interwoven with racism ,nativism and other social prejudices ,which made the movement gradually become the tools of racial discrimination and social oppression .In the final analysis ,Eugenics Movement has not only made a lasting impact on American society ,but also provided a profound lesson in the history of science .%20世纪初至40年代的美国优生运动是一场在优生学名义下,由优生学家发起和领导的国内运动,其主要内容为宣扬优生知识、制定并实施优生立法。尽管这场运动是美国优生学家及其支持者们对19世纪末20世纪初美国社会及人口格局变化做出的积极回应,但它所宣扬的观念及其具体实践都融入了当时社会上所盛行的种族主义、排外主义以及其他偏见,使得这场运动逐渐沦为种族歧视和社会压迫的工具。时至今日,优生运动仍给美国社会带来了深远的影响,同时在科学发展史上留下了深刻的教训。

  13. 20世纪世界广告理论研究的三个维度%Three Dimensions of the Study of the Advertising Theory in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘悦坦

    2015-01-01

    The advertising theory in the 20th century is a complete concept .It gave us necessary conditions and possibility to study this project .The main factors of advertising theory are people , strategy and object .The advertising theory in the 20th century had different dimensions if we look this project with different point of view ,such as we can distinguish it into different stages .The new study of this project gave new conclusions and theories to this field .%20世纪世界广告理论是一个相对独立的整体概念,这为广告史“断代”研究提供了必要条件和充分可能。广告理论中最基本的三个要素是人、术、物。从人的维度讲,20世纪世界广告理论的发展经历了“生产者”、“创意者”、“消费者”和“相关者”四个阶段;从术的维度讲,20世纪世界广告理论的发展经历了“推销术”、“形象术”、“眼球术”的三个阶段;从物的维度讲,20世纪世界广告理论可以分为“推销产品”和“塑造品牌”两个阶段。“四分法”、“三分法”和“二分法”的动态断代模式突破了以往广告史研究中单维度断代的模式,有助于对20世纪世界广告理论的发展进程进行多维度、多层面的立体探查,并对21世纪广告理论的转型做出展望。

  14. Contribution of Chinese students studying physics in Japan to from the late 19th to early 20th century modern physics in China%清末民初留日物理学生及其科学贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    咏梅; 冯立昇

    2011-01-01

    Aim Introduce the general situation of Chinese students who studied physics in Japan in the late 19th and early 20th century to provide new clue for the study of the history of physics. Methods Literature research and statistical analysis. Results Analyze statistically their school distribution in Japan, and introduce briefly 109 students'materials such as their native places, their major subjects, their schools in Japan, as well as their work;and study their work and activities in the physics fields when they came back to China. We describe their contribution to the spread and education of physics science, to the determination of technical terms, as well as to the academic study in the field of physics. Conclusion The Chinese students studying physics in Japan had played an important role to the development of Physics in China in the early 20th century after returning to China.%目的 清理清末民初留日物理学生的总体脉络,为研究中国近代物理学史提供新线索.方法 文献调研和统计分析.结果 统计分析中国留日学生就读学校的分布情况;收集109名晚清留日物理学生的资料,介绍其籍贯、在日就读学校、专业及事迹,考查清末民初留日学生归国后的有关物理学方面的活动.阐述了这批留学生对于民国时期的物理学普及、物理学教育、物理术语创制、物理研究等方面的贡献.结论 认为清末的留日物理学生为中国物理学的体制化发挥了重要作用.

  15. The Gifts of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    This article describes critical events that have shaped gifted education, including: intelligence testing, the concept of intelligence, the construct of creativity, greater understanding of brain functions, the work of John Dewey, Jerome Bruner, and Leta Hollingworth, school reform, world change, and the shift from identification to meeting…

  16. Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia including some of its important sea ports, which are vital for the country’s economy. Although Ethiopian and Somali military forces attempted to rout the group in a two week war between December 2006 and January 2007, Al Shabaab, with its 14,500 militants, still continues to maintain control over strategic locations, not only in Somalia, but also throughout the horn of Africa. The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

  17. 20世纪下半叶美国教师教育课程改革探析%Exploring Curriculum Reform of American Teacher Education in the Latter Half of the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坤

    2015-01-01

    二战后,美国关乎教育的人士在教师教育的问题上,一直在讨论"教什么"、"怎么教"和"为什么教"三个问题,对三个问题回答所体现认知逻辑过程的不同形成了"学科-知识理性"、"专业-实践理性"、"社会-价值理性"三种思想流派,正是在三种思想流派的斗争和融合过程中,20世纪下半叶的美国教师教育课程改革才得以向纵深发展.%Since the second world war, people concerned for teacher education have focused on the answer to the three base questions of teachers: what to teach, how to teach and why to teach. The different processes of Epistemic Logics lead to three schools of thought while answering the three questions. With the struggle and fusion among the three schools of thought, the curriculum reform of teacher education has developed deeply in the latter half of the 20th century.

  18. A Study on Men’s Suits Pattern Design in the Early 20th Century%20世纪初男西服的结构造型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范春红

    2014-01-01

    This paper probes into the styles and structures of representative European men’s suits in the early 20th century and both subjective and objective factors that influence the styles and structures, including social and cultural environment, science and technology, etc. It summarizes systematically the evolution, characteristics and origin of European men’s suits structures and their inspiration to modern fashion design.%本文深入分析了20世纪初期具有代表性的男西服款式、结构以及对男西服结构有直接和间接影响的社会、人文环境、科学技术等主客观因素,得出此时期欧洲男西服纸样结构的特点以及对当今男西服款式、结构等设计方面的影响与启示。

  19. The Russian Government’s Policy on Control over the Religious Life of Moslem Communities within Western Siberia between the Second Half of the 19th and Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr K. Dashkovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of the Russian government in the set-up of the spiritual life of Moslem communities. Between the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Russian government saw its major objective in control over communities practicing faiths other than Orthodox Christianity – most importantly, the activity of Moslem communities. Such policy, in large part, was about control over the construction of cult buildings, as well as the set-up of confessional schools. Based on archive materials, the author provides an insight into the issue of the set-up of the spiritual life of the Moslem community of Western Siberia during the period under examination, as well as the major aspects of record management in the area. Special attention is devoted to the complexity of getting permits for the erection of Moslem facilities, which sometimes led to unauthorized construction. There was a similar trend in respect of opening academic institutions, since the government mostly supported the creation of new-type schools with Russian-based classes and their major objective was teaching Russian and familiarizing Moslems with Russian culture.

  20. High-Altitude Aggressions and Physiological Degeneration? The Biography of “Climate” as an Object of Scientific Inquiry in Colombia During the 19th and the Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pohl-Valero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show the role played by experimental physiology in the way of understanding the effects of high-altitude climates on the functioning of the human body and the possibilities of progress of the Colombian nation throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Content: the transformation of the concept of climate as an object of scientific inquiry is explored over the studied period. This is done by analyzing investigations on respiratory capacity, nutrition and metabolism, blood chemistry and heart function in people of the eastern range of the Colombian Andes. Conclusions: beyond an institutional or disciplinary history of physiology, this article shows that some practices of experimental physiology played a role in the process of represent­ing the Colombian nation, territory, and population. The inhabitants of the Andean highlands were understood not only in terms of race and innate abilities, but also in terms of social classes and organic transformations. The idea that there was a supposed process of “physiological de­generation”, decreasing the efficiency of high-altitude workers, was tried to compensate through a “rational diet”.

  1. 20世纪日本对自杀问题的相关研究述评%Review on Suicide -related Studies in Japan in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军

    2012-01-01

    Research on " suicidology" is quite advanced in Japan. In the 20th century, suiciderelated studies were carried out very early by a large number of researchers in Japan and have produced abundant research results. After the Second World War, the academic research on suicide has reached its summit with the arrival of three "suicide peaks" in Japan. The research findings achieved by Kenshiro Ohara, Hiroshi Inamura, Yoshimoto Takahashi, and Hiroshi Kawato are representative in this field. The research methods and results in Japan are of certain referential value to the corresponding research in China.%日本的"自杀学"研究较为发达。在20世纪日本的相关研究起步早、研究人员多、成果丰硕。战后,伴随着日本发生的三次"自杀高峰",学界的研究也进入了高潮。大原健士郎、稲村博、高桥祥友、川人博等人的研究成果具有代表性。日本的研究方法和成果对我国的相关研究具有一定的参考价值。

  2. Scientometric study on social sciences research productivity in China on the first half of the 20th century%20世纪上半叶走向世界的中国社会科学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华薇娜; 羌丽

    2011-01-01

    This paper presented the group of core journal articles gathered from Social Sciences Citation Index in the database of Thomson - Reuters' Web of Science in the period from 1900 to 1949.Then a large scale of bibliometric study was made from many aspects as amount, authors, organizations, subjects, core journals and citations, in order to reflect and evaluate the scientific research productivity in the field of social sciences in China on the first half of the 20th century.%运用文献计量方法,通过美国汤森路透公司的核心期刊论文数据库WoS中的社会科学专题数据子库,检索了中国大陆在世界核心刊物上自1900年至1949年间发表的几乎全部的论文.并从文献量、著者、机构、学科主题、核心期刊、引文等角度进行了归类统计和分析,用定量数据从一个侧面反映了20世纪上半叶中国社会科学研究的历史实况、研究水平、科研布局等具体信息.

  3. The Immigration of People from Slovenian Regions to the Parishes in the Central Region and the Kupa Valley Based on the Notes from Ecclesiastical Status Animarum Books from the Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Riman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Different migration processes caused the present heterogeneous composition of the population of the Gorski kotar region. The Central Region and the Kupa Valley were not an exception, and the immigration of people from various parts of the Habsburg Monarchy have been recorded throughout history. The reasons for immigration and for its intensity can be seen in the notes written down in the church books named Status Animarum (cro. Stanje duša, slo. Družinske knjige in which the motives for immigration or emigration of individuals as well as of whole families have been noted. On the basis of these data we can draw generalized conclusions for the precise geographical area, and the precise political and historical period. The paper analyzes data on immigration in the Kupa Valley, with a focus on population migration from today’s Slovene regions from the mid-19th to mid-20th century. The data obtained from the Status Animarum books written in the parishes of the Central Region and the Kupa Valley, show the immigration of people, which proves migration from Slovenian regions to the Croatian ones, but also vice versa. The conclusions of the paper are illustrated and backed with data from the elementary schools registers in the settlements Brod Moravice, Brod na Kupi, Crni Lug, Delnice, Divjake, Fužine, Lokve, Skrad, Razloge and Vrbovsko.

  4. 杜尚的创作与20世纪艺术发展轨迹的转变%Works of Marcel Duchamp and Art Development in 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰

    2011-01-01

    Marcel Duchamp,the most famous figure of avant-garde artists,has changed the direction of art development in 20th century and broken the principles of modern systems of art.His works have become the examples and illustrations when aestheticians rethought what art was.So Duchamp and his works are worthy and important.Importantly,the process that Duchamp deserved his right situation in art history and the process that the nature of avant-garde art has transformed were the same one.%作为早期先锋派的代表人物,杜尚的创作打破了传统艺术观念的诸种规定,启发美学家们对艺术的本质与定义问题进行重新思考,因而具有重要的艺术史价值。然而,杜尚艺术史地位确立的过程,同时也是先锋艺术自身性质蜕变的过程,先锋派在巨大的成功中走向了自己的对立面。

  5. Book Review: Russia-Germany. Milestones of the Joint History in the Collective Memory. 20th Century / ed. by H. Muller, A. O. Chubaryan ; by the Decision of the Joint Commission on Studying the Modern History of the Russian-German Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vashkau Nina Emilyevna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of a Russian-German textbook that describes the events of the 20th century. The book has been created by the Common Board for Research on the History of the Russian-German Relationships and can be used as learning material in schools and universities of both countries.

  6. Contribution of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela to the development of the spanish scientific research in the first third of the 20th century (1900-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasa Arias, Beatriz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela was founded in 1857, but research activities did not start until the beginning of the 20th century. The new Spanish regulations promoting the experimentation at universities and the stages of professors and recently graduated students outside Spain contributed to generate a remarkable research group in a provincial university. The excessive university centralism at that time in Spain and the characteristics of the headquarters of the faculty —a 16th century Renaissance palace— hindered, in general, the research development. However, the scientific spirit of professors and students, and their work were imposed and they achieved an estimable status in pharmacy research in Galicia. The facilities were the staff's highest priority and it raised more than a protest. A remarkable investment in apparatuses and laboratory materials was carried out and researchers started to publish original research papers in local journals, such as the «Revista de farmacia», published by their own University. In the previous years to the Spanish Civil War (1936 the research status in drug development and the background of the staff and students were important, allowing them to join the military laboratory that Franco’s army created at the faculty of pharmacy. The research work continued in a small scale and was specially focused on the production of «copy drugs» copying European specific drugs which were scarce at that time. The first third of the 20th century was the germ of the great research prestige that the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela enjoys at present.

    La Facultad de Farmacia de Santiago de Compostela se fundó en 1857, pero no fue hasta comienzos del siglo XX cuando comenzó a desarrollar una labor de investigación en medicamentos. Las nuevas reglamentaciones que fomentaban la experimentación en los laboratorios universitarios y la formación de profesores y reci

  7. 20世纪中国文学市场化中的“文化审美过滤”∗%“The Evolution of Cultural Aesthetics” in the Marketization of 20 th Century Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万莲姣; 黄宗喜

    2016-01-01

    “20世纪中国文学”是一个相对稳定的研究对象,是在20世纪中国人被动或主动打开国门、使中国融入现代世界或让现代世界融入中国这样一个特殊的时间过渡带上生产出来的文学,有明显的前现代、现代、后现代相杂糅的复合元素。这些复合元素主要是由文学市场化趋势中的“文化审美过滤”中介:1)现代汉语白话新文学运动,2)人类中的另一半———女性开始以主体身份审美化,3)文学生产因编辑出版复制批量化,4)翻译行为现代价值取向化,等等,一一呈现出来的,以至于回观“20世纪中国文学”,我们与其论断它的属性是前现代的、现代的或后现代的,不如说它是现代过渡带的,它已不同于古代中国传统文化,不再气质促狭和辗转反侧在皇室庙堂与民间江湖间、不再品格摇摆在非此即彼的传统二元文化夹缝中,而是显示了创生出“另一个世界,另一个自我”的多元审美的可能,具备了一些有别于古代中国传统文化的“现代中国”思想、情感与美学品质。%“20th Century Chinese Literature”is a considerably fixed subject for research, which has brought with itself obvious blend-ing of the elements relevant to premodernism, modernism and postmodernism, because the time of its production coincides with a spe-cial transitional period in the last century when Chinese opened the door to the world either passively or actively, making it possible for China to be an inseparable part in the modern world or for the modern world to present itself in the Chinese context. These pluralistic elements have been brought forth by the media through which“the evolution of cultural aesthetics” has taken place in the marketization of the literary world—1)the New Literary Movement of Modern Chinese Baihua;2)the presence of subjectivity of women—another half of the human,being in the aesthetic realm;3) the mechanical reproduction of

  8. 20世纪以来《文心雕龙·辨骚》研究综述%Research on The Literary Mind and Carving of Dragons·Discriminate Li Sao Since the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶汝骏

    2016-01-01

    20世纪以来,龙学研究成果可谓灿若星河。在《文心雕龙》单篇研究中,《辨骚》篇争议最多、“硝烟味”最足,学术界曾发生多次论争,许多问题讼谳至今未有定论。诸次论争中又以《辨骚》篇的属性之争、主旨之争、刘勰的楚辞观之争、“博徒”一词的词性涵义之争最为精彩。除此之外,对于“四同四异”等其他重要概念的研究、《辨骚》篇的外围研究等亦是研究的重要方面。%There is a great achievement of the research on The Literary Mind and Carving of Dragons since the 20th century. Discriminate Li Sao is the most disputed singe work among the research on the book, many issues debated again and again but still unresolved. The problem of attribution, the motif, the Liu Xie's view of Discriminate Li Sao and the part of speech of “ botu”are the four wonderful parts among the debates on the Discriminate Li Sao. Moreover, the research on the four differences and four sames, the peripheral studies on the Discriminate Li Sao are also the important aspects of the research.

  9. Single Parent Families in Second Half of 20th Century Britain:Characteristics,Problems and Countermeas-ures%20世纪下半叶的英国单亲家庭:态势、问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅新球; 李超

    2014-01-01

    20世纪下半叶,英国社会发生了巨大变化,作为社会细胞的家庭相应地呈现出新的态势,单亲家庭的迅猛发展就是一个突出的表现,其中单亲母亲家庭的增长更为迅速,离婚和未婚单亲家庭成为单亲家庭的主体。与双亲家庭相比,单亲家庭面临着收入低、住房紧缺、就业困难、精神压力大等问题。为此,英国政府不断完善社会政策予以应对。%Since the second half of the 20th century,British society has undergone tremendous changes.The family as a social cell accordingly presents new situation.The rapid development of single parent families is an outstanding performance,in which single mother families grow more quickly.Moreover,the divorced and unmarried single parent families increasingly become the mainstream.Compared with the two parent families,the single parent families face more severe problems such as low income,housing shortage,em-ployment difficulties and mental stress.Thus,the British government has constantly improved social poli-cies to deal with them.

  10. 20世纪以来白族佛教密宗阿吒力教派研究综述%Research Review of Bai Esoteric Buddhism Azhali Religion Since 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    During Nanzhao Kingdom period, esoteric Buddhism was introduced into Dali area of Yunnan. Struggling with and adapting to the local indigenous religious, absorbing different cultural nutrients from Confucianism, Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism, and Chinese Buddhism etc., Azhali Religion was formed. Nowadays, being a unique esoteric sect, Azhali Religion has a history of over 1000 years. It had a greater impact on the provincial politics, economy, culture and other aspects. Since 20th century, domestic and foreign scholars were widely attracted by Azhali Religion, and many research results appeared. The paper gives an overview of the research progress of Azhali Religion.%  南诏时期佛教密宗传入云南大理地区,与当地的土著宗教从斗争到适应,并吸收融合了儒学、道教、藏传佛教、汉传佛教等多种文化养分,形成了密宗新教派——阿吒力教。阿吒力教作为一个独具特色的密宗教派,至今已有一千多年的历史,它对云南政治、经济、文化等方面产生了较大影响。20世纪以来引起了国内外学者的广泛关注,研究成果颇多。对阿吒力教研究动态进行综述,以便大家更全面地认识阿吒力教研究现状,并开创性地搞好今后的研究工作。

  11. A bicicleta, o ciclismo e as mulheres na transição dos séculos XIX e XX Bicycle, cycling and women in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andrade de Melo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir as relações entre a nova configuração da presença social das mulheres (e nesse cenário as posições de líderes dos movimentos por direitos civis femininos, a nova dinâmica social marcada pela valorização das atividades públicas de lazer (da qual o ciclismo é um exemplo privilegiado e um novo invento (a bicicleta na transição dos séculos XIX e XX. Inicialmente abordaremos os casos específicos da Europa (com destaque para a França e dos Estados Unidos, buscando recuperar as pioneiras discussões e ocorrências acerca do envolvimento de mulheres com o ciclismo. Posteriormente, discutiremos o caso específico do Rio de Janeiro, a maior cidade e a capital do país à época, cujos dirigentes tinham aspirações de constituí-la na metrópole moderna brasileira.This article aims to discuss the relationships between the new configuration of the women social presence (and, in this scenario, the positions of leaders of feminine civil rights' movements, the new social dynamics marked by the valorization of public leisure activities (of which cycling is a remarkable example and a new invention (the bicycle in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition. Initially, we discuss specific cases of Europe (mainly those of France and United States, searching to recover the pioneer discussions and occurrences concerning the involvement of women with cycling. Later, we discuss the specific case of Rio de Janeiro, the biggest city and capital of the country at that time, whose leaders had aspirations to constitute in the Brazilian modern metropolis.

  12. Interannual variability of sea surface temperature in the tropical oceans in the 20th century%20世纪热带海洋海表面温度年际变化的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆佳; 林鹏飞; 唐晓晖

    2015-01-01

    Using observations of sea surface temperature (SST) from HadISST and ERSST and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) database in the 20th century, we analyzed the spatial variations in the long-term variation of SST over the tropical oceans in the twentieth century. The results displayed that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and long term linear trend were the most significant signals, and this signal also displayed a long term linear trend. Observed Equatorial Indo-Pacific Sector SST exhibited a zonally asymmetric evolution:while the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific showed only a weak warming, or even cooling in one SST dataset, the west-ern part and the Equatorial Indian Ocean exhibited a rather strong warming. The zonally asymmetric correlated the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific significantly. These results may be important in the context of global warming, as regional climate changes in the Equatorial Sector may critically depend on inter-basin interactions.%利用 Hadley 中心海冰和海表面温度资料集 HadISST 和美国国家海洋大气管理局的扩展重建海温(ERSST)海表面温度(sea surface temperature, SST)观测数据,结合政府间气候变化专门委员会(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC)中CMIP3(Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3)的24个耦合模式的模拟结果,通过经验正交函数(EOF)分解等方法,对20世纪热带海洋在的SST年际变化进行了分析。结果表明,20世纪热带海洋年际变化的主要规律是ENSO信号,且有持续增强的趋势;热带海盆间存在显著的SST梯度,其长期变化与热带东太平洋显著相关。本文结论有利于理解在全球变暖背景下,海盆间的相互作用对赤道海域气候改变的影响。

  13. T he Issues and T rends of the Historical Research on Chinese Aesthetics in the 20th Century%20世纪中国美学史研究的问题和动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹华

    2015-01-01

    将20世纪中国美学作为具有普遍联系的整体进行全程贯通的历史研究,这个工作始于上世纪90年代初。20多年来,研究工作取得了重要的进展,同时也存在一些亟须解决的问题。进一步的研究应客观完整地展现百年美学的历史图景和理论格局,深入探索和揭示中国美学从古代转向现代的发展规律,纠正当前普遍存在的将现代性等同于纯审美的理论偏差,为理解当代美学和艺术的现状及未来走向提供全面真实的历史参照,为中国美学和艺术的发展繁荣提供来自历史主脉和生活深处的强劲动力。%It was in the early 1990s that the academia first started to view Chinese aesthetics of the 20th century as a universally related integrity and initiated a thoroughly historical research . Over the past 20 years , there has been great progress as well as problems that need to be solved urgently . In order to provide a thorough and authentic historical reference for the understanding of the present situation and future direction of contemporary aesthetics and arts , the further study should demonstrate objectively the historical landscape and theoretic pattern of aesthetics over the past century , explore and reveal in depth the patterns of how the ancient Chinese aesthetics developed into the modern one , and redress a common theoretic deviation that equates modernity with pure aesthetics .

  14. Review of the Study of Ming Dynasty By the Domestic Scholars in the 20th Century%20世纪国内学者关于明代社会史研究回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵毅; 栾凡

    2001-01-01

    In the early 20th century, the domestic scholars already began the study of Ming's society history, but the field was so narrow and achievements were so poor. From 50s to 60s, owing to some objective cause, the study by domestic scholar was not regular. After 80s, the study of Ming's society history was carried out step by step. A lot of new fields were opened up, and great successes were scored. Going into 90s, the study of Ming's society history grows vigorously. And some researches have filled in the gaps. While the new century is corning, it will certainly promote the study of Ming's society history to review and think deeply of the study of Ming's society history.%20世纪初期,国内学者即已涉猎明代社会史的研究,但所研究的领域十分狭窄,成果贫乏。50-60年代,由于某些客观原因,国内学者的研究没有正常开展。80年代以后,明代社会史的研究逐步展开,开拓了许多新的领域,取得了较为丰硕的研究成果。进入90年代,明代社会史的研究蓬勃发展,研究领域十分广阔。其中,明代人口问题、里甲制度问题、乡绅与缙绅问题、社会结构问题、社会生活问题、宗族与家族问题、徽州社会问题等领域的研究成果令人瞩目,有的还填补了空白。对20世纪明代社会史研究成果进行回顾和反思,必将促进其研究向纵深发展。

  15. Población, actividad y paro en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en Extremadura / Population, activity and unemployment in the second half of the 20th century in Extremadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Hernández Carretero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX se han producido las más profundas transformaciones de la historia regional, impulsadas tanto por factores exógenos como endógenos de toda índole. Se ha pasado de una economía agraria de subsistencia a una economía competitiva de los servicios y del conocimiento, lo que ha supuesto enormes excedentes de mano de obra agraria hasta el final de siglo. Excedentes que fueron engrosando la intensa sangría emigratoria de los sesenta y setenta, que arrastró al 40% de la población regional. Sin embargo, desde comienzos de los ochenta, la población ha tendido a estabilizarse. Pero la emigración ya había provocado un estrangulamiento irreparable en las edades activas y de procreación, un fuerte descenso de la natalidad acentuado por la caída de la fecundidad posteriormente y un profundo envejecimiento. Por otra parte, la retención de los efectivos jóvenes y adultos en sus lugares de origen, junto a otros factores, incrementaron el paro hasta niveles desconocidos, si bien es un fenómeno que se ha conseguido paliar en buena medida en los últimos años del siglo. El futuro se presenta incierto, pues aunque no existe ningún núcleo abandonado, el envejecimiento, la baja natalidad y el paro están hipotecando el desarrollo endógeno de los núcleos rurales de la región.Summary: Along the second half of the 20th century the deepest transformations of the regional history have been produced so much by factors exogenous as endogenous of every kind. It has passed of an agrarian economy of subsistence to a competitive economy of the services and of the knowledge, what has supposed enormous excesses of agrarian unemployment to the end of century. Surplus that enlarged the great volume of emigrant population of the sixties and seventy that supposed the 40% of the regional population. Nevertheless, from beginnings of the eighty, the population is being stabilized. But the emigration already had

  16. Review on the Controversy on the Genuineness of the Later Memorial on Dispatching the Army since the 20th Century%20世纪以来《后出师表》真伪论争述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉莉

    2012-01-01

    The Later Memorial on Dispatching the Army, which has aroused a lot of controversy since the Qing Dynasty, is the most important material to study Zhuge Liang. The academic world holds different views on this issue. Some scholars think it is not Zhuge Liang's work, while the others approve its genuineness, and both sides provide much evidence for their argument. In this paper, the author collects, reviews and analyzes carefully the evidences from both the supporters and the opponents since the 20th century and finally comes to the conclusion that Zhuge Liang is indeed the author of the Later Memorial on Dispatching the Army based on the study of its origin, emotional tone, language use and historical figures concerned.%《后出师表》是研究诸葛亮的重要材料。自清代开始,《后出师表》的真伪成了学者们争论不休的话题。针对这一问题分别有正反两种观点。综合20世纪以来前人的研究成果,搜集关于证明《后出师表》真伪的各种依据。针对同一个论争点,学界分别有支持和反对两种观点。分别列出不同论争点的正反两种观点,总结陈述并细致分析这些观点。最后根据不同的论争点如《后出师表》的出处问题、感情基调与用语问题、涉及的历史人物等提出自己的观点,即《后出师表》确实出自诸葛亮之手。

  17. Local Film Research in Hong Kong Over the First Half of the 20 th Century%20世纪上半叶香港本土电影研究的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈洁

    2014-01-01

    Due to its geographic location and also for historical reasons,film making and film theory in Hong Kong remains separate from the framework of Mainland China.However,the film studies in Hong Kong is closely connected to that of Mainland China and constitutes an integral part of China’s film studies.It claims a unique position in China’s film studies with its rich content,distinctive local features and close relationship with film making.It also distinguishes itself for its broad research scope and a harmonious blending of the east-ern and the western cultural elements.This article looks back on the beginning of Hong Kong cinema when films first appeared in newspapers and magazines and seeks to examine the representative film publications, film studies,theoretical schools,and salient characteristics of different stages,with a view to describing the e-volution of local film studies in Hong Kong over the first half of the 20 th century.%由于香港独特的地理位置和历史原因,对于香港地区的电影创作及理论研究,通常都独立于中国内地电影理论创作研究框架之外。然而事实上,香港本土的电影学术研究不仅与大陆的电影研究联系紧密,是中国电影学术发展史上的重要组成部分。同时,因其内容丰富,具有鲜明的地域特色,且贴近电影创作,东西文化杂陈,研究视野开阔,又成为中国电影研究体系中最具个性的一环。从电影初到香港并出现相关报刊伊始,历数具有代表性的电影出版物、电影研究、理论派别、阶段性特征等,以期描绘出20世纪上半期香港本土电影研究发展的面貌与特征。

  18. O discurso médico-higienista no Brasil do início do século XX The discourse of the hygienist physician in the early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerthe de Moraes Abreu Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é contribuir para a compreensão da relação entre higienismo e educação nas primeiras décadas do século XX no Brasil. Para isso, analisou-se o discurso médico-higienista presente nas teses da I Conferência Nacional de Educação, realizada pela Associação Brasileira de Educação em Curitiba, Paraná, em 1927, utilizando-se, principalmente, os livros Os anormais (2002 e A ordem do discurso (2009, ambos do filósofo francês Michel Foucault. O exame das teses, bem como a revisão de literatura em história da educação, possibilitou perceber que o objetivo dos médicos, intelectuais e políticos brasileiros da década de 1920 era formar uma consciência higiênica nacional voltada para o progresso do país, instaurando a preocupação com a saúde física, mental e social da população.The purpose of this article is to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between hygienism and education in the early decades of the 20th century in Brazil. For this, an analysis was made of the discourse of the hygienist physician show-cased in the theses of the 1st National Conference on Education, organized by the Brazilian Association of Education in Curitiba, Paraná, in 1927, mostly using the books titled "Os anormais" (The freaks (2002 and "A ordem do discurso" (The order of discourse (2009, both authored by French philosopher Michel Foucault. The examination of theses, as well as the review of the literature in the history of education, led to the realization that, in the 1920s, physicians, intellectuals, and politicians intended to form national awareness on hygiene focused on the progress of the country, establishing concern with the population's physical, mental, and social health.

  19. 20世纪初文学进化观念的回顾与反思%A Review to the Concept of Literary Evolution in the Early 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20世纪初中国学人对于文学进化有着多种不同的理解。梁启超将文学进化理解为线性的、不可逆的、永恒发展进步的过程。黄人、刘师培及王国维一方面接受进化的观念,将文学的历史看作一个发展变化的序列,一方面又不将其简单化、模式化,不试图以一个单一化、总体化的图式来说明文学史的整个变迁。胡适对于文学进化的理解又回归简单化、模式化,在他看来,文学进化主要是语言进化,语言进化即白话代替文言。相比较之下,黄人、刘师培、王国维的文学进化观念也许更富有方法论的启示意义。%Chinese scholars in the early 20th century had a different understanding about the evolution of literature. Liang Qichao understood literary evolution as a linear and irreversible, eternal process of progress. Huangren, Wang Guowei and Liu Shipei on the one hand accepted the idea of evolution,understanding the literary history as a sequence of development and changes, on the other hand, not tried to use a simple and overall scheme to illustrate the change of literature history. Hushi understood literary evolution in a simple and model way again, in his view, the literary evolution was mainly language evolution, language evolution was simplified as vernacular movement. By comparison, Huangren,Liu Shipei and Wang Guowei's literary evolution concept may be more instructive and illuminating.

  20. A Summary of the Research onSeven Sages of the Bamboo Grove since the 20th Century%二十世纪以来竹林七贤研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀荣; 石飞飞

    2013-01-01

    Since the 20th Century, the research on Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove has roughly experienced four periods:the start, slow development, multiple propulsion and rapid development. Research achievements in the first two periods were mainly focused on Ruan Ji and Ji Kang,and the topics were relatively unitary. The next two periods witnessed various approaches and remarkable expansion of perspectives and fields in the research. Not only did the quantity increase distinctly, the quality also improved remarkably, with the research on relative subjects being further deepened. Many masterpieces with distinctly innovative characteristics came out in the form of books and papers. Nevertheless, evident defects existed as well. Therefore, it is of great academic significance to straighten out the history of this study and to summarize the gains and losses in setting directions and making breakthroughs in research.%  二十世纪以来,竹林七贤的研究大致经历了起步、缓慢发展、多元推进、快速发展四个时期;研究成果主要集中在文献研究、文学研究、其它专题研究和比较研究四个方面。总体来看,前两个时期的研究成果多围绕阮籍、嵇康展开,论题相对单一;到了后两个时期,研究方法日渐多样,研究视野和领域大为拓展。不仅成果数量明显增加,相关专题研究得到了进一步的深化,而且研究质量也有显著的提高。虽然还有明显的不足,但无论著作还是论文,都出现了不少具有鲜明创新特征的力作。梳理这一百多年来的竹林七贤研究史,可总结得失,明辨方向,为下一步的研究寻找新的突破口,具有重要的学术意义。

  1. Characteristics and Development of Paradigms in Chinese Geography since the Early Years of the 20th Century%20世纪初叶以来中国地理学研究范式特征与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高庆彦; 潘玉君; 朱海燕; 杜莹; 郭映泽; 杜青; 韩兴粉; 肖翔

    2013-01-01

    “范式”一词于20世纪70年代由库恩基于科学哲学提出,并逐渐为科学界接受。同时,各学科学者借用库恩的“范式”概念和“研究程序”思想而构建出本学科的研究范式。因此,使得各学科间的研究范式既具有相对独立性又存在联系性。地理学也因此形成自己的研究范式。中国近现代地理学作为世界地理学的重要组成部分,深受其思想与方法的影响。因此,系统地认识20世纪初叶以来我国地理学研究范式的发展历程十分必要。采用“历史”与“逻辑”统一的原则对地理学研究范式的含义与意义及我国地理学研究范式历史的认识进行研究得出:中国地理学经历了区域因果关系范式到空间范式的继承与转变;我国近现代地理学范式的发展始终是“显范式”(冠予“范式”一词的研究方法)与“潜范式”(未冠予“范式”一词的研究方法)并存发展的;我国人文地理学研究范式与应用多以“显范式”为主,自然地理学多以“潜范式”为主;所有地理学研究范式都遵循地理学空间思想指导;未来地理学研究范式将朝向定量化、技术化、空间化、社会性和文化性方向及格局、过程、机制及模拟发展,朝向科学第四范式迈进。%The word Paradigm, which was raised by Kuhn in the 1970s based on the philosophy of science,is accepted gradually by academic cicles. According to Kuhn’s ideas and study programs the scholars of different disciplines have developed different paradigms for their own disciplines. Those paradigms were independent but also relative. Geography has it’s own paradigm specially. The modern geography in China is affected by the ideas and methods of that in the world. Therefore, it is necessary to understand systematically the history of the paradigm of Chinese geography in the 20th century. In this article, the history and logic are

  2. [Richard Freiherr v. Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freud--discourse on the "normality" and "perversion" of human sexuality at the close of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality has been defined a central feature of personal identity since the epoch of enlightenment and has gradually become a decisive issue also in societal and political terms. A major transfer from religion and religious institutions to medicine and medical experts and later on to neuropsychiatrists has to be underlined in the primary position to assess "normal" and "deviant" manifestations of sexuality. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freund play an eminent role in this "discourse on sexuality" (M. Foucault) during the nineteenth and beginning twentieth century on the way to modern sexology. Within this overarching context Krafft-Ebing's and Freud's theoretical conceptualizations of sexuality and perversion will be sketched and basic clinical and societal implications there out will be discussed.

  3. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  4. A Study on the Monopolies within Russian Petroleum Industry during Late 19th to Early 20th Century%论19世纪末20世纪初俄国的石油工业垄断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广翔; 白胜洁

    2014-01-01

    During late 19th to early 20th century, the monopolies within Russian petroleum industry form and achieve a rapid development. The factors such as establishment and popularization of joint-stock company, intense free contention among enterprises, penetration of foreign capital, and integra-tion of bank capital with industrial capital have jointly promoted an unprecedented centralization of production and capital within Russian petroleum industry, therefore provide necessary conditions for the formation of monopolies. During this period, petroleum monopoly of three types including Cartel, Syndicate and Trust is set up one after another and carries out activities of a wide range. They grab high monopoly profits by establishing monopoly price of petroleum and its products, strongly oppose state regulation of petroleum price, and actively participate in the competition of world petroleum mar-ket. These activities bring a dual effect that is both positive and negative to the development of Rus-sian petroleum industry; therefore, the two trends of outgrowth and stagnation coexist or alternate with each other within the production of petroleum industry.%19世纪末20世纪初,俄国石油工业垄断形成并获得快速发展。这主要是股份制公司的建立和推广、各企业之间激烈的自由竞争、外国资本的渗入及银行资本与工业资本的融合等因素,共同促进了俄国石油工业中生产和资本的空前集中,为垄断的形成提供了必要条件。在这一时期,卡特尔、辛迪加和托拉斯三种类型石油垄断组织先后建立并开展了广泛的活动,即通过建立石油及其产品的垄断价格攫取高额垄断利润;极力反对国家调控石油价格;积极参与争夺世界石油市场。这些活动给俄国石油工业的发展带来了双重影响,既有正面的促进作用,也有负面的抑制作用,从而使石油工业生产呈现出发展与停滞两种趋势同时并存、相互交替的局面。

  5. Ilukirjanduse tõlked 20. sajandi esimese poole Eesti ja Soome raamatutoodangus (1900–1940 / Translations of Belles-Lettres in the Book Production of Estonia and Finland during the First Half of the 20th Century (1900–1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aile Möldre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents statistical data on the publications of belles-lettres in Estonia in 1900–1940 – a period when the country developed into a modern European society and gained independence. The topic is treated in the context of book history, which uses publishing statistics to provide a broader context for individual case studies. The research on the quantity and share of translated literature in book production comes close to the statisticalsociological approach in translation history, characterised by Peeter Torop as one of the aspects of the study of translation culture. The statistical indicators have been elaborated on the basis of retrospective bibliographies and on the data, obtained from National Library of Estonia. The analysis includes the share of belles-lettres in book production, the balance of original works and translations, the changes in the quantity of translations during different decades and the share of source literatures. The Estonian statistics have been presented in comparison with corresponding data from Finland, which has been published in the collective monograph on Finnish translation history, issued in 2007. As the Finnish data is organized by decades, the same principle is used for statistics on Estonia. This approach corresponds generally to the political history of the two countries – both belonged to the Russian Empire during the first two decades of the 20th century and existed as independent states during the following two decades. Both nations had passed through the first stage in the development of literary culture, characterised by extensive publication of adaptations and free translations by the beginning of the century. Thus the share of original works started to increase and slightly exceeded the share  of  translations  in  E stonia  as  well  as  in  Finland.  The  selection  of  translated  works  in both countries was varied and their level was unstable. Despite the

  6. Nooreestlased arvustuses ja arvustajatena: lugejakontseptsioonist 20. sajandi alguse kriitikas. The Young Estonians as Critics and in the Eyes of Critics: On the Concept of the Reader in Early 20th Century Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marju Mikkel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the treatment of Estonian literature from the beginning of the 20th century has been influenced by the literary and cultural activities and programmatic articles of the Young Estonia movement. Current research on Young Estonia has addressed their more everyday realm of activity, which has heretofore received less attention: the Young Estonians as readers of the new works of their literary contemporaries and their practical criticism in reviews, particularly in daily newspapers. This article uses a receptionhistorical approach to analyze a large body of source material: the Young Estonians voluminous critical oeuvre in the period 1905–1915. The Young Estonians to be examined are all members of the core group of the movement: Gustav Suits, Bernhard Linde, Aino Kallas, Johannes Aavik, Villem Grünthal-Ridala, Jaan Oks, August Alle, and Johannes Semper. Within the larger framework of collective horizons of expectation, the focus of the study is the critics` concept of the reader. In addition, I will briefly discuss the dynamics of how such conceptions change. Research results indicate that in critical reviews from the time of Young Estonia, the topic of the reader was addressed from different standpoints depending on the addressee. Texts directed rhetorically toward a broad readership are characterized by the pursuit of objectivity and generalizations. When the concept of the reader is critic-centered, the text emphasizes subjective judgments, experience, and emotion. When focusing on the author and the text, the reviewer describes the influence on the reader, the cause of which is either the literary work directly or the author’s genius. In the case of polemic on the subject of reading, found mainly in responses written to reviews, the writer interprets another reader (or other readers` reading, opposing it to his or her own. When we follow the way the readers of Young Estonia and the Young Estonians themselves handle the

  7. 19世纪末至20世纪初华商在俄国远东地区的形成和发展%The Emergence and Development of Chinese Merchants in Russia’s Far East between the late 19th Century and the early 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗海; 张临北

    2015-01-01

    Between the late 19th Century and the early 20th Century, Chinese merchants emerged and developed in Russia’s Far East. A growing number of Russian migrants and the expansion of Russia’s local business, the local authorities of Tsarist Russia started to discuss and formulate restrictive measures on Chinese merchants. Prior to the First World War, Chinese merchants’ business activities in Russia’s Far East were monitored by the local authorities, making it difficult for the merchants to sustain their business, let alone achieving great success.%19世纪末至20世纪初,华商在俄国远东地区形成并发展起来。伴随着俄罗斯移民的不断增长和俄罗斯本地商业的发展、壮大,俄国远东地方当局开始讨论、制定对华商的限制措施。到第一次世界大战前,华商在俄国远东地区的经营活动已经处在地方当局的监控之下,在俄华商立足困难,并鲜有大成就者。

  8. Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção.This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

  9. Transplantation and Variation:Research on Eastern-Western Art Exchange from Late 19 th Century to Early 20 th Century via Beardsley%移植与变异--由比亚兹莱看19世纪末至20世纪初的东西方艺术交流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玛丽; 张睿峰

    2016-01-01

    It is an important period of world art reform from the end of 19th century to the beginning of 20th century, when the transient Art Nouveau plays an important role in the development of modern art. When looking into the eastern-western art exchange, Beardsley is a figure that cannot be ignored, because eastern-western cultural transplantation and variation is fully embodied in him. His works draw the oriental elements, integrate with the western characteristics, and then feed back into the oriental art. He is a well-deserved“ambassador” for the eastern-western art exchange.%19世纪末至20世纪初是世界艺术变革的重大时期,短暂的“新艺术”运动对于近现代艺术的发展起着重要作用。探索其间东西方艺术交流,比亚兹莱是一个不可忽视的人物,东西方文化的移植与变异在他身上得到了充分的体现。他的创作汲取了东方元素,融合了西方特色,而后又反哺了东方艺术,他是当之无愧的东西方艺术交流的使者。

  10. On the social background of the most prominent astronomers of the 20th century - a sociological analysis of the Source Book of Astronomy and Astrophysics. (German Title: Über die soziale Herkunft der bedeutenden Astronomen des 20. Jahrhunderts - Eine soziologische Analyse des Source Book of Astronomy and Astrophysics )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Dieter B.

    2011-08-01

    The study investigates the social background of the most successful astronomers, astrophysicists and physicists of the 20th century. The basis for the assessment of their importance was made on grounds of their work in the "Source book of Astronomy and Astrophysics 1900-1975". The data collected presents the social situation of 202 protagonists at the time of the beginning of their career. It was gathered from relevant biographic dictionaries as well as from personal interviews. The social classification follows the "three-layers model" by Engel, Blackwell and Kellat. As a result it becomes apparent that most of the extraordinary astronomers have their roots in the upper middle class.

  11. 论文学想象中的20世纪土司书写--以《尘埃落定》、《水乳大地》为例%The 20th Century Tusi Writing in Literary Imagination---Case Study of “The Falling Dust”and “Water and Milk Land”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕江伟

    2016-01-01

    始于元代的土司制度,经历七百余年的跌宕起伏后,在20世纪中叶退出历史舞台。《尘埃落定》和《水乳大地》两部作品,通过对西南地区土司的文学想象,从土司的生存环境、历史演变、形象塑造三个方面,书写20世纪最后几十年的土司演变,从而还原了一段神秘莫测却又离奇鲜活的土司历史。%Tusi System began in the Yuan Dynasty, had developed over 700 years ,and disappeared after the mid-20th century.Two literary works “The Falling Dust”and “Water and Milk Land” describe the development of Tusi in the last several decades of the 20th century with the literary imagination of Southwest China’s Tusi,from three aspects, namely the living environment, historical evolution and literature characters design,and thereby reconstruct a mysterious and fantastic living history of Tusi.

  12. Law and Inspiration--The laws of S&T Innovations of Originality as Reflected by Noble Prize Laureates in Natural Sciences and Major Scientific Accomplishments in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yongxiang

    2002-01-01

    @@ Today in the 21st century, Science and technology (S&T)develops by leaps and bounds. Such progress has fundamentally changed the development pace of history, becoming the principal driving force for the progress of human civilization.

  13. Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

  14. Theoretical and Methodological Basis of Inclusive Education in the Researches of Russian Scientists in the First Quarter of 20th Century (P. P. Blonsky, L. S. Vygotsky, v. P. Kaschenko, S. T. Shatsky)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetova, Daniya Z.; Chelnokova, Tatyana A.; Morozova, Ilona G.

    2017-01-01

    Article is devoted to the scientific heritage of educators and psychologists of Russia in the first quarter of the twentieth century. The aim of the research is the identification of the most significant ideas of P. P. Blonsky, L. S. Vygotsky, V. P. Kacshenko, S. T Shatsky which based the theoretical and methodological basis of inclusive…

  15. Demtchenko, I.N. (comp.. Uninvented Stories Prompted by Human Memory: 30, 40, 50s of the 20th Century in the Recollections of Children Having Grown Up Long Ago. Yekaterinburg: Autograph, 2013. 200 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Gramatchikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of memoirs and documentary materials collected by inhabitants of Uralmash and about the Uralmash itself. Most attention is paid to the Second World War and post-war years, although there are a number of interesting documents dating back to the beginning of construction of the factory (1928 and the first five-year period. This book also includes a section written by the honoured teacher of Russia, G.P. Staduhina, about more than a century of School №160 history in the village of Pishma (now located in Ordzhonikidzevsky District of Yekaterinburg. This collection of materials is interesting and worth reading due to the oral history of the Uralmash and the Great Patriotic War in the Urals, and because it gives a ―snap shot‖ of the development of Russian provincial journalism in the early 21st century.

  16. A Pioneering Work in Study of History of Coal Cities in China---Review of"Study of Development History of China's Coal Cities in the 20th Century"%中国煤矿城市史研究的开山之作--评《20世纪中国煤矿城市发展史研究》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖爱华

    2015-01-01

    诞生于20世纪的63座煤矿城市,占我国城市总数的1/10。煤矿城市在中国城市研究中占有重要的地位。近期出版的《20世纪中国煤矿城市发展史研究》首开中国煤矿城市史研究的先河,从概念界定,煤矿城市分类,煤矿城市转型,六大区域煤矿城市的区位、发展过程及特点等四个方面论述了20世纪煤矿城市的发展演进。该书在概念厘定、煤矿城市发展历程、工业化与城市化关系等五个方面提出了新颖见解,是一部系统、全面的专题史著作,具有较高的学术价值。%Born in the 20th century,the 63 coal cities account for ten percent of the total number of cities in China.Coal cities occupy an important place in the study of cities in China.The recently published book "Study of Development History of China's Coal Cities in the 20th Century"has pioneered the study of its kind.It discusses the evolution of China's coal cities in the 20th century from the aspects of the concept definition,the classification and the transition of the coal cities,their geographical locations in the six regions,their development processes and characteristics.What is most praiseworthy is that the book boasts new insights into the concept definition,the development history,and the relationship between industrialization and urbanization.As a systematic and comprehensive historical work of special subject,it is highly academic.

  17. Egidio Calzini (1857-1928 e gli studi di storia dell'arte in Romagna e nelle Marche tra XIX e XX secolo / Egidio Calzini (1857-1928 and the studies of art history in Romagna and Marche regions between the 19th and the 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Carolis

    2016-06-01

    The paper aims to discover the career and the critical profile of Egidio Calzini, an art historian who actively contributed to the study of the artistic heritage in Romagna and Marches between 19th and 20th century. Following a diachronic order of his studies, the research underlines both his relationship with the rest of scholars of that time, examining unpublished sources, and his best discoveries, analyzing his publications. From the monography on Marco Palmezzano (1894 to direction of the specialized journal titled «Rassegna bibliografica dell’arte italiana» (1898-1916, the article defines his personality, who contributes to the period of the art history in which started the current features of the discipline, both about conservation and  research studies.

  18. 古今中西之間--陳垣與20世紀中國史學%Between the Ancient and the Present and between China and the West:Prof. Chen Yuan and Chinese Historiography in the 20 th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陳智超

    2010-01-01

    Every historian should answer two questions related to each other, i. e. what is the relationship between history and reality and what is that between historiography and reality. Moreover, Chinese historians should answer other two questions also re-lated to each other, namely what is the relationship between China and the West and what is that between Chinese culture and Western culture. Based on their own outlook on the ancient and the present as well as on China and the West, every conscious Chinese historian of the 20 th century was bound to cherish a definite sense of responsi-bility and determined what role they played and what way they chose when taking on this responsibility. The present paper expounds Prof. Chen Yuan’ s answers to the above questions andhis practice concerned with them in the four stages of his lifetime.

  19. Massacre,Politics and Gender:A Concise Review of Critics of Macbeth in the Middle and Late 20th Century%大屠杀·政治·性别--西方20世纪中后期《麦克白》批评研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷振文

    2014-01-01

    莎士比亚戏剧经典批评俨然是20世纪众多理论流派的“展示舞台”。作为莎士比亚的悲剧经典《麦克白》也不断被再诠释和重新理解,并激发出新的哲学意义和思想论争。20世纪中后期的《麦克白》批评研究围绕“大屠杀”、“政治”和“性别”三大主题,简要呈现经典意义重构和再诠释的多重路径,并阐明当代的哲学批评、政治批评、性别批评对当代世界和人类命运的人文关切和现实批判。%In the 20th century, Shakespeare's works still remain the stage for different schools of literary theory and criticism. Shakespeare's Macbeth was so repeatedly re-interpreted by the critics that new philosophical meaning and academic discussions have been generated. A concise review on Macbeth in the middle and late 20th century focuses on three key subjects:massacre, politics, and gender. This review will present multiple methods of literature canons' construction and interpretation. Meanwhile, it will show the humanistic care and realistic criticism of contemporary philosophical, political and gender criticism.

  20. 庄学本田野考察工作对20世纪中国边地民族研究的影响和意义初探%Zhuang Xueben and His Field Research: Significance to 20th-Century Ethnological Studies in China's Border Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李公明

    2012-01-01

    本文对庄学本田野考察工作在20世纪中国边地民族研究中的影响和意义进行了初步探讨,指出他对土族神箭崇拜与神鹏信仰习俗、凉山安宁河流域大石墓、嘉绒藏族民间文化、边地民族法律、彝族传说、边地农具、地震史等问题的首次发现、记录和研究在边地民族研究史上具有不可忽略的意义与学术价值。本文同时认为,庄学本田野考察工作在一定程度上也折射出20世纪上半期中国人类学发展的学术思潮,值得深入研究。%This paper comments on the field research done by Zhuang Xueben and its significance to 20th-century ethnological studies in China' s border regions. Zhuang has discovered, recorded and studied local aboriginals' worship of sacred arrow and eagle, stone graves in the Anning river basin in Liangshan, Sichuan province, local culture of Tibetans living in the Gyarong region, folklores of the Yi people, and ethnic laws, farming tools and earthquakes in the border regions. Zhuang' s field research also reflects the academic ideas of Chinese anthropology in the first half of the 20th century.

  1. Josep Goday e o mobiliário escolar espanhol na primeira metade do século 20 - Josep Goday and spanish school furniture during the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauri dos Santos Sá, Brasil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo estão sistematizadas reflexões sobre a história do mobiliário escolar espanhol, com foco nas propostas do arquiteto Josep Goday i Casals. Inserido no campo de estudo do patrimônio educativo, busca-se enxergar o mobiliário escolar como autêntica fonte de investigação da cultura material escolar. A base metodológica da análise situa-se no campo da pesquisa exploratória e o procedimento assume a forma de pesquisa bibliográfica. A coleta de dados realizou-se no acervo do Centro de Educação Infantil e Primária Ramon Llull e na obra Josep Goday Casals: arquitectura escolar a Barcelona dela Mancomunitata la república (2008. Nas conclusões, enfatiza-se o papel desempenhado pelo arquiteto como protagonista na configuração de um mobiliário que procura dignificar a sala aula para além dos aspectos arquitetônicos e estéticos.Palavras-chave: cultura material escolar, arquitetura escolar, mobiliário escolar.JOSEP GODAY AND SPANISH SCHOOL FURNITURE DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY AbstractThe present paper presents some systematic reflections on the history of Spanish school furniture, focusing on the proposals idealized by architect Josep Goday i Casals. Inserted in the field of study of educational patrimony, it seeks to see school furniture as an authentic source to investigate the material culture of the school. The methodological basis of the analysis is situated in the field of exploratory research, and is done in the form of research on literature. Data is obtained from the collection of the Ramon Llull Center of Infant and Elementary Education (Centro de Educação Infantil e Primária Ramon Llull and in the work Josep Goday Casals: arquitectura escolar a Barcelona dela Mancomunitata la república (2008. In the conclusions the role played by architect Goday is emphasized, as a protagonist in the configuration of furniture that tries to dignify the classroom, besides the architectural and esthetic aspects

  2. Ideological and Cultural Background Analysis of Modern Chinese Art History in the First Half of the 20th Century%20世纪上半叶中国美术史学思想文化背景探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹贵

    2014-01-01

    20世纪上半叶,是中国社会向现代化转型的关键时期。在风起云涌的变革大潮中,中国的哲学、历史、文学等都步入了现代化的征程。与此相伴,中国的美术史学研究也在此种背景下实现了由传统形态向现代形态的转型。探讨20世纪上半叶中国现代美术史学产生和发展的思想文化背景,主要包括三个方面的内容:一是西学东渐与中国近代史学的牵引,二是新式美术教育与出版机构的推进,三是近代美术考古学的促进。%The ifrst half of the twentieth century is the critical period of China's social modernization. During the surging tide of change, Chinese philosophy, history, literature, etc. are embarked on a journey of modernization. Meanwhile, art history studies in China have also achieved the transition from traditional forms to modern forms in this context. Analysis of the generation and development of Chinese modern art history’s ideological and cultural background in the ifrst half of the twentieth century mainly consists of three parts:driven by eastward spread of western culture and the modern history of China;advanced by new art education and publishing company;promoted by recent art archaeology.

  3. L’Homme, un itinéraire vietnamien. Humanisme et sujet humain au xxe siècle Man, a Vietnamese Itinerary. Humanism and the Human Subject in the 20th Century

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    Daniel Hémery

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude interroge la confrontation qui s’est instaurée au Vietnam depuis le milieu du xixe siècle – et sans doute bien avant – entre la conception de l’homme-individu importée par les Occidentaux en Asie orientale et les philosophies du sujet qui s’y étaient développées depuis l’antiquité chinoise. Cette confrontation a-t-elle abouti dans la culture vietnamienne à une réévaluation socialement acceptée du statut du sujet et sur une nouvelle figure de l’humanisme ? Quel bilan provisoire dresser