WorldWideScience

Sample records for 20th aspen cancer

  1. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  2. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

  3. The 20th L H Gray Conference - Radiation Cancer Analysis and Low Dose Risk Assessment: New Developments and Perspectives (Ede, the Netherlands, February 2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few international venues where scientists in vastly different fields working on a common problem, or on a number of closely related problems, can get together in an intimate setting to present the results of their research and to discuss their approaches and views in a collegial atmosphere, and without the trappings of a huge convention with its conflicting parallel sessions and distracting events. Over the years, the L H Gray Conferences have provided an ideal setting for such intimate gatherings. This year the 20th L H Gray Conference, held in Ede, the Netherlands, was no exception. Convened for the first time outside the United Kingdom and hosted by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). Paramount in all the participants' minds was the emerging information from molecular radiation biology on the recently recognised 'new' processes such as genomic instability, bystander effects, hypersensitivity, and the adaptive response. A novel aspect this year was the introduction of the opportunity, both at the beginning and at the end of the meeting, to participate in a 'vote' on controversial subjects by answering electronically such questions as: 'does radiation hormesis occur at low doses?' and 'should an age-dependence of radiological risk be incorporated into recommendations for radiation protectionThere appears to be no evidence for radiation-induced genomic instability, at least in this tumour. If this model holds for other tumour types, it would suggest that there is no 'radiation fingerprint' and that no special mechanism lies behind radiation-induced cancer. The major social event of the meeting was an afternoon devoted to a delightful excursion to the renowned Kroeller-Mueller Museum in the nearby national park (De Hoge Veluwe). Our Dutch hosts were even able to order up some sunshine for the day. After an afternoon of strolling through the museum and surrounding park, we were bussed to a hotel on the precipitous

  4. Aspen Delineation - Aspen Delineation Project [ds362

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands, where aspen assessment data was gathered. Aspen assessment information corresponding to this polygon layer can...

  5. Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

  6. The 20th HTF Gained Hard Wins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 20th China Harbin International Economic and Trade Farir,opened on June 15 with 3,001 booths,one quarter more than last year,also drew a perfect ending on June 19,making forein deals of US$7.59,3 percent up than last year.

  7. Aspen Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade art activity that offers a new approach to creating pictures of Aspen trees. Explains that the students learned about art concepts, such as line and balance, in this lesson. Discusses the process in detail for creating the pictures. (CMK)

  8. Aspen Characteristics - Aspen Delineation Project [ds361

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit (Placer and...

  9. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRV2)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  10. External forcing of the early 20th century Arctic warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Suo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The observed Arctic warming during the early 20th century was comparable to present-day warming in terms of magnitude. The causes and mechanisms for the early 20th century Arctic warming are less clear and need to be better understood when considering projections of future climate change in the Arctic. The simulations using the Bergen Climate Model (BCM can reproduce the surface air temperature (SAT fluctuations in the Arctic during the 20th century reasonably well. The results presented here, based on the model simulations and observations, indicate that intensified solar radiation and a lull in volcanic activity during the 1920s–1950s can explain much of the early 20th century Arctic warming. The anthropogenic forcing could play a role in getting the timing of the peak warming correct. According to the model the local solar irradiation changes play a crucial role in driving the Arctic early 20th century warming. The SAT co-varied closely with local solar irradiation changes when natural external forcings are included in the model either alone or in combination with anthropogenic external forcings. The increased Barents Sea warm inflow and the anomalous atmosphere circulation patterns in the northern Europe and north Atlantic can also contribute to the warming. In summary, the early 20th century warming was largely externally forced.

  11. Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Narkiewicz, Wladyslaw

    2012-01-01

    The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat's problem. "Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT" offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between

  12. NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis (V2c)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 20th Century Reanalysis version 2c (20CRV2c)is an effort led by PSD and the CIRES at the University of Colorado to produce a reanalysis dataset spanning the...

  13. 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This edited volume presents the proceedings of the 20th CIRP LCE Conference, which cover various areas in life cycle engineering such as life cycle design, end-of-life management, manufacturing processes, manufacturing systems, methods and tools for sustainability, social sustainability, supply chain management, remanufacturing, etc.

  14. Marl Prairie Vegetation Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted geochronologic and pollen analyses from sediment cores collected in solution holes within marl prairies of Big Cypress National Preserve to reconstruct vegetation patterns of the last few centuries and evaluate the stability and longevity of marl prairies within the greater Everglades ecosystem. Based on radiocarbon dating and pollen biostratigraphy, these cores contain sediments deposited during the last ~300 years and provide evidence for plant community composition before and after 20th century water management practices altered flow patterns throughout the Everglades. Pollen evidence indicates that pre-20th century vegetation at the sites consisted of sawgrass marshes in a peat-accumulating environment; these assemblages indicate moderate hydroperiods and water depths, comparable to those in modern sawgrass marshes of Everglades National Park. During the 20th century, vegetation changed to grass-dominated marl prairies, and calcitic sediments were deposited, indicating shortening of hydroperiods and occurrence of extended dry periods at the site. These data suggest that the presence of marl prairies at these sites is a 20th century phenomenon, resulting from hydrologic changes associated with water management practices.

  15. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in…

  16. Educational Expansion and Social Mobility in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Sociologists consider inequality in educational attainment to be a major cause of inequality between people in their chances of occupying a more advantageous class position. However, there is dispute as to whether educational inequality according to social class background declined during the 20th century. What is not in doubt is the expansion of…

  17. The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand both continuities and changes in the reference to the Risorgimento in 20th century political discourse. The narrative proceeds by analyzing historical “snapshots,” from the Liberal period to post-Cold War Italy, that allows us to spell out what has changed...... and what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where...... the nexus between the Risorgimento past and the political present came to the fore with particular emphasis. In the contextual discussion of these memorization events, we discuss intellectual elaborations of Risorgimento memorization and indicate how such elaborations spread to wider layers of the populace...

  18. A Special Forum on "20th Century British Women Writers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This group of essays is written as part of a research project entitled "A Feminist Study of the 20th century British and American Women Writers"(GDUFS211- 1-005),supported by "211 Project" of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies. Feminist literary criticism gained irreversible momentum in 1960s with the rising of the second-wave feminist movement worldwide.The "gynocritics" advocated by Elaine Showalter draws researchers’ attention to the women’s experiences

  19. Weyl geometry in late 20th century physics

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Weyl's original scale geometry of 1918 ("purely infinitesimal geometry") was withdrawn from physical theory in the early 1920s. It had a comeback in the last third of the 20th century in different contexts: scalar tensor theories of gravity, foundations of physics (gravity, quantum mechanics), elementary particle physics, and cosmology. Here we survey the last two segments. It seems that Weyl geometry continues to have an open research potential for the foundations of physics after the turn o...

  20. Weyl geometry in late 20th century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Weyl's original scale geometry of 1918 ("purely infinitesimal geometry") was withdrawn from physical theory in the early 1920s. It had a comeback in the last third of the 20th century in different contexts: scalar tensor theories of gravity, foundations of physics (gravity, quantum mechanics), elementary particle physics, and cosmology. Here we survey the last two segments. It seems that Weyl geometry continues to have an open research potential for the foundations of physics after the turn of the century.

  1. The epidemic of the 20(th) century: coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S; Goldberg, Robert J; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2014-09-01

    Heart disease was an uncommon cause of death in the US at the beginning of the 20th century. By mid-century it had become the commonest cause. After peaking in the mid-1960s, the number of heart disease deaths began a marked decline that has persisted to the present. The increase in heart disease deaths from the early 20th century until the 1960s was due to an increase in the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis with resultant coronary heart disease, as documented by autopsy studies. This increase was associated with an increase in smoking and dietary changes leading to an increase in serum cholesterol levels. In addition, the ability to diagnose acute myocardial infarction with the aid of the electrocardiogram increased the recognition of coronary heart disease before death. The substantial decrease in coronary heart disease deaths after the mid-1960s is best explained by the decreased incidence, and case fatality rate, of acute myocardial infarction and a decrease in out-of-hospital sudden coronary heart disease deaths. These decreases are very likely explained by a decrease in coronary atherosclerosis due to primary prevention, and a decrease in the progression of nonobstructive coronary atherosclerosis to obstructive coronary heart disease due to efforts of primary and secondary prevention. In addition, more effective treatment of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction has led to a substantial decrease in deaths due to acute myocardial infarction. It is very likely that the 20th century was the only century in which heart disease was the most common cause of death in America.

  2. Immigration and Crime in Early 20th Century America

    OpenAIRE

    MOEHLING, CAROLYN; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    Research on crime in the late 20th century has consistently shown that immigrants have lower rates of involvement in criminal activity than natives. We find that a century ago immigrants may have been slightly more likely than natives to be involved in crime. In 1904 prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19 when the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely t...

  3. The 20th Hadron Collider Physics Symposium in Evian

    CERN Multimedia

    Ludwik Dobrzynski and Emmanuel Tsesmelis

    The 20th Hadron Collider Physics Symposium took place in Evian from 16 to 20 November 2009. The Hadron Collider Physics Symposium series has been a major forum for presentations of physics at the Tevatron over the past two decades. The merger of the former Topical Conference on Hadron Collider Physics with the LHC Symposium in 2005 brought together the Tevatron and LHC communities in a single forum. The 20th Hadron Collider Physics Symposium took place in Evian, on the shores of Lake Geneva, from 16-20 November 2009, some 17 years after the historic ECFA-CERN Evian meeting in March 1992 when Expressions of Interest for LHC detectors were presented for the first time. The 2009 event was organized jointly by CERN and the French high-energy physics community (CNRS-IN2P3 and CEA-IRFU). More than 170 people registered for this symposium. This year’s symposium was held at an important time for both the Tevatron and the LHC. It stimulated the completion of analyses for a significant Tevatron data sam...

  4. Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2001-05-01

    In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

  5. From the Aspen File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute Quarterly, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents nine recommendations developed at the 1992 Policy Issue Forum of the Aspen Institute's Program on Policy Issues in Energy and Resources. The underlying theme is that the world is entering a new era of environmental policy formation. Issues a call for a national strategy for environmental management. (SLD)

  6. CREAM Observation of January 20th Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Y.; Ahn, H. S.; Allison, P.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Beatty, J. J.; Bigongiari, G.; Boyle, P.; Childers, J. T.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Hyun, H. J.; Jeon, J. A.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, J. K.; Lee, M. H.; Lutz, L.; Maestro, P.; Malinine, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Minnick, S.; Mognet, S. I.; Nam, S. W.; Nutter, S.; Park, H.; Park, I. H.; Park, N. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sina, R.; Swordy, S.; Wakely, S.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Zei, R.; Zinn, S. Y.

    2005-12-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) balloon instrument, designed to detect and measure the composition and spectra of high energy galactic cosmic ray particles, had its maiden flight on December 16 2004 and was afloat and taking data during the January 20th solar flare. The CREAM instrument consists of a finely segmented silicon charge detector, a timing charge detector, and several layers of scintillating fiber hodoscopes, as well as a calorimeter and transition radiation detectors to measure cosmic-ray energies above several hundred GeV. While the latter were not designed to be triggered by solar particles, signals were seen in the silicon charge detector and several layers of hodoscopes at the onset of the giant solar flare, indicating that solar flare particles were passing through the instrument. We will review our measurements and analysis of the data recorded during the solar flare.

  7. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of educational mobility in the United States report widespread persistence in the association between parental and offspring schooling over most of the 20th century. Despite this apparent persistency, many other studies report substantial improvements in the educational...... in the overall schooling distribution both over time and among population groups defined by race and gender.METHODS & DATA: To analyze educational rank mobility, I use quantile transition matrices known from studies on intergenerational income mobility. However, because schooling distributions are quite lumpy...... for individuals born 1903 through 1980.RESULTS: My analyses yield two key results. First, I find widespread equalization among groups in upward mobility: Among those born before Second World War, Whites are significantly more likely than are Blacks to be upwardly mobile out of the lower quartile of the schooling...

  8. 20th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yiming; Došlý, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications cover the areas of difference equations, discrete dynamical systems, fractal geometry, difference equations and biomedical models, and discrete models in the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering. The conference was held at the Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Hubei, China), under the auspices of the International Society of Difference Equations (ISDE) in July 2014. Its purpose was to bring together renowned researchers working actively in the respective fields, to discuss the latest developments, and to promote international cooperation on the theory and applications of difference equations. This book will appeal to researchers and scientists working in the fields of difference equations, discrete dynamical systems and their applications.

  9. 20th International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Beate; Meyer, Gereon

    2016-01-01

    This book contains the papers presented at the 20th anniversary edition of the AMAA conference held in Brussels, Belgium in 2016. The theme of the conference was "Smart Systems for the Automobile of the Future". The automobile is currently being reshaped at unprecedented pace. Automation and electrification are the two dominant megatrends which dramatically change the choice and design of components, systems, vehicular architectures and ultimately the way we use cars in the coming decades. Novel E/E architectures, vehicular connectivity and cloud services will be key to extending the perception and decision-making horizons of automated vehicles, to enable cooperative functions and a seamless digital user experience. The AMAA's ongoing mission to detect novel trends in automotive ICT, electronics and smart systems and to discuss the technological implications is once again reflected in this volume. The book will be a valuable read for research experts and professionals in the automotive and smart systems indus...

  10. Reproducing an Early-20th-Century Wave Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2016-09-01

    Physics students often have problems understanding waves. Over the years numerous mechanical devices have been devised to show the propagation of both transverse and longitudinal waves (Ref. 1). In this article an updated version of an early-20th-century transverse wave machine is discussed. The original, Fig. 1, is at Creighton University in Omaha, NE. The new version, by the authors, is shown in Fig. 2. It was designed in such a way that it can be built relatively easily. Sliders that rest on a rotating helical rail move up and down in approximate simple harmonic motion. When the helix is at rest, the tops of the sliders form a good approximation to a sine wave. In the original, the sliders are double-ended knitting needles, and the handle was taken from an earlier piece of apparatus.

  11. Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

    2002-05-01

    Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes

  12. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest [ds370

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents polygons of aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The Klamath National Forest Region 5 Vegetation aspen...

  13. Aspen Delineation - Inyo National Forest [ds366

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Inyo National Forest, Inyo County, California. The Inyo...

  14. The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes, D. W.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

  15. Essential shift: Scientific revolution in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismay, David K.

    1993-05-01

    With the publishing of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica in 1687, a scientific paradigm was established that clearly dominated society for two and half centuries. Many historians of science have identified the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory, formulated c.1927, as having completed a scientific revolution that ended the reign of classical Newtonian science. A rival claim to contemporary scientific revolution, however, has been put forward by Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels school of thermodynamics based on Prigogine's work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Using the historical consensus model of scientific revolution first articulated by Thomas S. Kuhn in 1962, this analysis examines the extent to which the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory and the work of IIya Prigogine complete the conceptual, scientific paradigm-shift necessary for a scientific revolution. The resulting historical evidence shows that the Copenhagen interpretation did not complete a paradigm-shift; instead, it was a self-revelation by the scientific community which revealed the essence and fundamental limitations of Newtonian science. Evidence further indicates that the valid claim to scientific revolution in the 20th century lies with the contemporary work of Prigogine and the Brussels school. By abandoning the deterministic, mechanical world-view of the Newtonian paradigm and accepting a new reality of process and irreversible time, Prigogine and his associates have established the foundations for a revolutionary new scientific paradigm.

  16. EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF THE 20TH CENTURY PHILOSOPHICAL ADVENTURE FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Kozmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the potential impact of studying the 20th century philosophical adventure fiction on educational process. In spite of the well-recognized idea of M. M. Bakhtin about the equality of classical and grotesque-fantastic aesthetic traditions, the former still predominates in the secondary and higher school curricula. The research aims to demonstrate the educational opportunities of the philosophical adventure fantasy; the content of the given concept being defined along with its specific features: unconditional world description, experimental plot type, discrepancy between the fantastic world created by the author and the real laws of nature, the hero’s experience in the alien world, related moral and philosophical problems.The author substantiates the idea of incorporating  the number of philosophical adventure novels into the Literature course in secondary schools, and the Theory and History of Literature course in  the higher schools of the humanities profile to facilitate the detailed and in-depth comprehension of theoretical topics concerning literary genres, types of literary heroes, grotesque adventure traditions, fantasy types, etc. 

  17. Dimming of the Mid-20th Century Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukal, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Area changes of photospheric faculae associated with magnetic active regions are responsible for the bright contribution to variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). Yet, the 102-year white light (WL) facular record measured by the Royal Greenwich Observatory between 1874 and 1976 has been largely overlooked in past TSI reconstructions. We show that it may offer a better measure of the brightening than presently used chromospheric proxies or the sunspot number. These are, to varying degrees, based on magnetic structures that are dark at the photosphere even near the limb. The increased contribution of the dark component to these proxies at high activity leads to an overestimate of solar brightening around peaks of the large spot cycles 18 and 19. The WL facular areas measure only the bright contribution. Our reconstruction based on these facular areas indicates that TSI decreased by about 0.1% during these two cycles to a 20th century minimum, rather than brightening to some of the highest TSI levels in four centuries, as reported in previous reconstructions. This TSI decrease may have contributed more to climate cooling between the 1940s and 1960s than present modeling indicates. Our finding adds to previous evidence that such suppression of solar brightening by an increased area of dark flux tubes might explain why the Sun is anomalously quiet photometrically compared to other late-type stars. Our findings do not change the evidence against solar driving of climate warming since the 1970s.

  18. 20th IAEA fusion energy conference 2004. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 20th International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fusion Energy Conference (FEC) was held in Vilamoura, Portugal, from 1 to 6 November 2004. The Instituto Superior Tecnico through the Centro de Fusao Nuclear on behalf of the Portuguese Government and the Association EURATOM/IST hosted the conference. The IAEA wishes to express its gratitude to the host. More than 600 delegates representing 33 countries and three international organizations attended the Fusion Energy Conference 2004. The Programme Committee accepted a total of some 437 papers for presentation at the conference. The scientific experimental and theoretical papers have been grouped with respect to the following themes: Overview on magnetic and inertial fusion; Advanced Scenarios and Steady State; Edge Localized Modes; Fusion Technology; Transport Theory; Beta Limits; Hybrid Scenarios; H-mode and Transport; ITER; Alfven Modes and Wave Heating; Operational Limits and Momentum Transport; Energetic Particles and Stability; Neoclassical Tearing Modes; Transport and Turbulence; Inertial Fusion; Configuration Effects and Transport; and Plasma-wall Interaction. The conference adjourned with the announcement of the next IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, which will be held for the first time in the People's Republic of China, in the city of Chengdu, October 16-22, 2006

  19. DIMMING OF THE MID-20TH CENTURY SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foukal, Peter, E-mail: pvfoukal@comcast.net [192 Willow Rd., Nahant, MA 01908 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Area changes of photospheric faculae associated with magnetic active regions are responsible for the bright contribution to variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). Yet, the 102-year white light (WL) facular record measured by the Royal Greenwich Observatory between 1874 and 1976 has been largely overlooked in past TSI reconstructions. We show that it may offer a better measure of the brightening than presently used chromospheric proxies or the sunspot number. These are, to varying degrees, based on magnetic structures that are dark at the photosphere even near the limb. The increased contribution of the dark component to these proxies at high activity leads to an overestimate of solar brightening around peaks of the large spot cycles 18 and 19. The WL facular areas measure only the bright contribution. Our reconstruction based on these facular areas indicates that TSI decreased by about 0.1% during these two cycles to a 20th century minimum, rather than brightening to some of the highest TSI levels in four centuries, as reported in previous reconstructions. This TSI decrease may have contributed more to climate cooling between the 1940s and 1960s than present modeling indicates. Our finding adds to previous evidence that such suppression of solar brightening by an increased area of dark flux tubes might explain why the Sun is anomalously quiet photometrically compared to other late-type stars. Our findings do not change the evidence against solar driving of climate warming since the 1970s.

  20. THE ASPEN CONTINUOUS PROGRESS PLAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MORNINGSTAR, NED

    THIS REPORT IS A DOCUMENTATION OF THE EFFORTS OF THE STAFF OF THE ASPEN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, ASPEN, COLORADO, TO INDIVIDUALIZE THE INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM IN GRADES K-6. INVOLVED IN THIS WERE APPROXIMATELY 450 STUDENTS AND A STAFF OF 13 TEACHERS. THE INDIVIDUALIZATION OF INSTRUCTION WAS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE MODIFICATION OF THE TEACHING-LEARNING…

  1. [The history of sleep research in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, J

    1995-12-12

    Not until the 19th century theories on sleep were based upon experimental findings in animal and humans. The so-called 'hypnotoxin theory' culminated, when Legendre and Piéron successfully induced sleep in a dog by transmission of cerebrospinal fluid from a dog deprived of sleep. The main discussion concerning the origin of sleep has been the question if sleep is a passive or an active state. Similarities with coma, the positive Babinski sign and pathoanatomical findings in patients who died after encephalitis lethargica were the arguments for the 'deafferentiation hypothesis'. Bremer's classical brainstem-transsections in cats confirmed this idea. Pavlov was the major representative of the idea that sleep was due to a general inhibition of the brain. Hess induced physiological sleep in cats by electrical stimulation of the diencephalon, proving the active nature of sleep. The introduction of the EEG in animals by Caton and in humans by Berger allowed for the first time the measurement of sleep depth without waking the sleeper. After discovery of the REM sleep periods by Aserinsky and Kleitman in 1953 and the demonstration of periodical sleep cycles by Dement and Kleitman, polysomnography with simultaneous whole night recording of EEG, EMG, electrooculogram and other physiological parameters was established as the major diagnostic tool in sleep disorders. One of the most important questions about the function of sleep is still unresolved. NREM sleep is believed to have a restorative function, whereas REM sleep might be involved in learning processes. According to the sleep interpretation of Sigmund Freud, the dream content represents endogenous wishes which cannot be expressed during wakefulness because of an internal 'sensor'. A more recent theory by Hobson explains the dreams by a very unspecific brainstem activity occurring during REM sleep which projects to the frontal brain and activates stored memory. The most important sleep disease of the 20th century is

  2. Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (Pakistan and parts of India and Northern China. The region of sub-Saharan Africa mainly suffers from water shortage. We used WaterGAP model to simulate the water use and available water resources. WaterGAP was forced with WATCH data. For the past population, we used HYDE dataset. The water

  3. Aspen Delineation - Sierra State Parks [ds380

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SIERRA_SP_PTS) collected in aspen stands on lands administered by the...

  4. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest [ds374

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest,...

  5. Aspen Delineation - Lassen National Forest [ds372

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (LASSEN_NF_EAGLELAKE_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the in the Eagle...

  6. Aspen Delineation - Sequoia National Forest [ds378

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (SEQUOIA_NF_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger...

  7. Writing by 20th-Century Women Reflects Era's Female-Male Conflict, Critics Argue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angus

    1986-01-01

    Two women's study of writing by women in the 20th century found unexpectedly bitter and persistent anxiety and female-male conflict and a common theme of confinement and suppression of emotions and thoughts. (MSE)

  8. Is classical mechanics a prerequisite for learning physics of the 20th century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwema, Godfrey B.; French, Debbie A.; Verley, Jim D.; Burrows, Andrea C.

    2016-11-01

    Physics of the 20th century has contributed significantly to modern technology, and yet many physics students are never availed the opportunity to study it as part of the curriculum. One of the possible reasons why it is not taught in high school and introductory physics courses could be because curriculum designers believe that students need a solid background in classical mechanics and calculus in order to study physics of the 20th century such as the photoelectric effect, special and general relativity, the uncertainty principle, etc. This presumption may not be justifiable or valid. The authors of this paper contend that teaching physics of the 20th century aids students in relating physics to modern technology and the real world, making studying physics exciting. In this study, the authors correlated scores for matched questions in the Mechanics Baseline Test and a physics of the 20th century test in order to examine the trend of the scores. The participants included undergraduate students attending an introductory algebra-based physics course with no intention of taking physics at a higher level. The analysis of the scores showed no significant correlation for any of the matched pairs of questions. The purpose of this article is to recommend that even without a solid background in classical mechanics, teachers can introduce physics of the 20th century to their students for increased interest.

  9. The process of Danish nurses’ professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought...... 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed...

  10. Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Sofia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationships between theatre and neuroscience around four trajectories: the physiology of action, the physiology of emotions, ethology, and studies on the spectator’s perception.

  11. 20th Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School on nuclear reactors 'physics, fuels and systems'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year, the 20th anniversary of the Frederic Joliot/Otto Hahn Summer School was celebrated in Aix-en-Provence, France from August 20th to 29th 2014. The topic was 'Nuclear reactors - bridging the gap between science and industry'. This summer school is organized by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) since twenty years. Experts from internationally recognized organizations (Universities, research centres, regulators, industry) from USA, Japan, Asia and Europe presented during the 10 days of sessions the newest trends and challenges on the related fields.

  12. Ministers on the Lecture Circuit: Education, Entertainment and Religion in Early 20th Century America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the early 20th century, some American ministers were eager participants in the Chautauqua and Lyceum lecture circuits that flourished across the Midwest and beyond. Ministers expressed their vocation in the public arena, and the Redpath Chautauqua collection shows how part of this public life was conducted. In their role as lecturers in multiple educational and civic venues, ministers functioned as experts on the Bible, as well as supporting American ideals that were loosely connected to Protestant Christianity. The essay explores how a substantial archival collection reveals a particular public role ministers played in a popular culture venue in early 20th century America.

  13. Aspen Characteristics - Klamath National Forest [ds369

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected with known aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County,...

  14. Aspen Characteristics - Sierra State Parks [ds379

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands on lands administrated by the Sierra District, California...

  15. Aspen Characteristics - Plumas National Forest [ds373

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest, Beckwourth Ranger District...

  16. Aspen Characteristics - Sequoia National Forest [ds377

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Cannell Meadows Ranger District, Sequoia National...

  17. Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century. In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini while in Hani (Crete immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.

  18. From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Mindy J.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

  19. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  20. Climate Change: Sources of Warming in the Late 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2009-01-01

    The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, volcanic and other aerosols, as well as the extraordinary solar activity of the late 20th century are discussed in the context of the warming since the mid-1970s. Much of that warming is found to be due to natural causes.

  1. Sexism in Advertising Industry Through the Study of Auto Magazine Advertisements in Late 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination against female in advertising industry appears to be ubiquitous especially in late 20th century. I intend to demonstrate that auto ads are under the influence of common gender stereotype which discriminates women as an inferior role in the society.

  2. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  3. The major changes in medical practice in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Fenech, Frederick F.

    2000-01-01

    One could truly say that there were more advances in medicine in the last 60 years than there had been in the previous 500 years. Indeed the medical breakthroughs of the last 50 years have probably saved more lives than those of any epoch since medicine began. In this article the author examine the major changes in medical practice in the 20th century.

  4. Coastal sea level changes, observed and projected during the 20th and 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, M.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.; A. Slangen, A. B.; Katsman, C. A.; W. van de Wal, R. S.; Church, J.; White, N.

    2015-01-01

    Timeseries of observed and projected sea level changes for the 20th and 21st century are analyzed at various coastal locations around the world that are vulnerable to climate change. Observed time series are from tide gauges and altimetry, as well as from reconstructions over the last 50 years. CMIP

  5. Temperature variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available According to data of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climatic Change, the global surface air temperature increased to 0,6 ± 0,2 °C in the 20th century. Weber G. R., (1995 quotes that there is a trend of cold in the last 60 years in the middle latitudes including Europe, too. Starting from already mentioned perplexities we have tried to perceive the problem of climate variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century, when it came to very important increasing of concentration of CO2. With that aim we observed the decade values of average annual temperatures in the network of 20 climatic stations. In the period 1951 - 1990 a decrease of temperature was registered in 13 stations while in other stations an increase was less than 0,1 °C. Explorers from Bulgaria (Alexandrov V., 2000 and Hungary (Domonkos P., Zoboki J., 2000 came to similar results, too. However, if we take in account the last decade 20th century the number of stations with positive changes is enlarged on 15. Stations that have small changes and those with decrease of temperature were localized in the south and south eastern part of the country, and they are mainly coincided with before separated climatic regions with maritime pluviometric regime (Radovanović M., 2001. Using Dzerdzevskis B. L., (1975 division on three main types of circulation in the north hemisphere, we found that the increase of temperatures in the last decade 20th century is above all caused by change of dominant type of circulation from the south meridian to zonal. An analysis of seasonal changes showed that in the last five decades 20th century it came to decrease of winter temperatures in almost half of the stations in contrast with results of paleoclimatics models of possible greenhouse effect.

  6. Aspen Delineation - El Dorado National Forest [ds364

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands, where aspen assessments were gathered in the Eldorado National Forest, Eldorado and Amador Counties,...

  7. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest, EUI [ds368

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of known aspen stands where aspen assessments were collected in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The...

  8. Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mahowald

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were in the net increasing or decreasing desert dust. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be −0.14±0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to aerosols is especially strong between the dusty 1980–1989 and the less dusty 1955–1964 time periods (−0.57±0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from the desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 Pg C reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 Pg C of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding of these

  9. Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mahowald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be −0.14 ± 0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980–1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955–1964 time periods (−0.57 ± 0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and

  10. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Kloster, Silvia [Cornell University; Engelstaedter, S. [Cornell University; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Harvard University; McConnell, J. R. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV; Albani, S. [Cornell University; Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Bhattacharya, A. [Harvard University; Curran, M. A. J. [Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre; Flanner, Mark G. [University of Michigan; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Lawrence, David M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mayewski, P. A. [University of Maine; Neff, Jason [University of Colorado, Boulder; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Thomas, E. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, UK; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Zender, Charlie S. [University of California, Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  11. Aspen Notebook: Cable and Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard; Baer, Walter S.

    This is the first of a planned series of Aspen Notebooks on cable television (CATV). Part I reports on research conducted by the Aspen Workshop on Uses of the Cable. It describes the status of continuing education and the history of educational television and explores the prospects created by cable's development for extending access to continuing…

  12. Solar cycle length and 20th Century northern hemisphere warming: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Paul E.; Peristykh, Alexei N.

    It has been suggested that the length of the solar cycle (SCL) is related to solar forcing of global climate change [Friis-Christensen and Lassen, 1991]. Although no physical mechanism had been proposed, the relation seemed to be supported by interesting correlations with several paleoclimate records and, separately, with the 20th century Northern Hemisphere instrumental record. Actually, what has been correlated is the quasi-sinusoidal Gleissberg cycle which is slightly greater in the 18th century than in the 20th century. Using the pre-industrial record as a boundary condition, the SCL-temperature correlation corresponds to an estimated 25% of global warming to 1980 and 15% to 1997.

  13. Modeling the temperature evolution of Svalbard permafrost during the 20th and 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    B. Etzelmüller; T. V. Schuler; K. Isaksen; H. H. Christiansen; H. Farbrot; R. Benestad

    2011-01-01

    Variations in ground thermal conditions in Svalbard were studied based on measurements and modelling. Ground temperature data from boreholes were used to calibrate a transient heat flow model describing depth and time variations in temperatures. The model was subsequently forced with historical surface air temperature records and possible future temperatures downscaled from multiple global climate models. We discuss ground temperature development since the early 20th century, and the thermal ...

  14. An Emotive Mechanism: Phonographic Wonders and Possibilities at the Turn of the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Garza, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the intellectual and cultural reception of the phonograph at the turn of the 20th century in Western Europe and the United States. My main goal in this project is to investigate the varied reception of the phonograph by different constituencies, such as scientists, cultural critics, ethnomusicologists, and musicians. From apprehension to enthusiasm, the phonograph generated a diverse set of reactions amongst its users and listeners. In order to better understand ...

  15. Peace-Making Ideas by M.M. Kovalevsky at the Beginning of 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    NIKOLAEV N.Yu.

    2014-01-01

    The article reveals the peace-making ideas of famous historian, sociologist and lawyer M.M. Kovalevsky at the beginning of 20th century and analyzes the sociological conception of solidarity which served as the basis for his views on war and peace. He considered social progress as broadening of solidarity sphere which was unavoidably promoted to the consciousness of political integration society. The scientist approximately compared the progress with concentric circles which embodied of unint...

  16. Vice President Xi Jinping Attends Reception Marking 20th Anniversary of China-ROK Diplomatic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Areception to mark the 20th anniversary of the establishment of China-ROK diplomatic relations,jointly organized by the CPAFFC and the Embassy of the ROK in China, was held in Beijing on the evening of August 31, 2012. Vice President Xi Jinping, attended the reception and unveiling ceremony of commemorative books and envelopes,cut a celebration cake and enjoyed an excellent performance with distinctive national features with the Chinese and Korean guests in a

  17. The Economic Impact of Climate Change in the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, Richard S. J.

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED The national version of FUND3.6 is used to infrapolate the impacts of climate change to the 20th century. Carbon dioxide fertilization of crops and reduced energy demand for heating are the main positive impacts. Climate change had a negative effect on water resources and, in most years, human health. Most countries benefitted from climate change until 1980, but after that the trend is negative for poor countries and positive for rich countries. The global average impact was posi...

  18. The Philosophy of education in Catalonia in the 20th century : dialectics, synthetics and vitalists

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier LAUDO CASTILLO; Conrad VILANOU TORRANO

    2013-01-01

    This text is a contribution to the history of philosophy of contemporary education, which presents three major currents in educational philosophy in Catalonia in the 20th century. In the beginning it deals with the line of thinkers represented by Eugenid’Ors and OctaviFullat, who understood education as a dialectic between two poles or opposites in constant conflict.Then it will analyze the synthetic view following Jaume Balmes and the constantly modernizing pedagogy from Cardenal Mercier in ...

  19. Event displays from Beam 2 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  20. Event displays from Beam 01 in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    atlas collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded on, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detector

  1. Event displays from Beam Halo in ATLAS, November 20th, 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    ATLAS event displays and related information from the LHC restart in 2009. We recorded today, Friday November 20th, the first so-called "Beam Splash" events. For these events the beam in one arm of the LHC was dumped onto closed collimators located 140 meters upstream and downstream of ATLAS. The collision leads to a large number of detectable secondary particles longitudinally traversing the detect

  2. Changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beusen, Arthur; van Beek, Rens; Bouwman, Lex; Mogollón, José; Middelburg, Jack

    2016-04-01

    Dramatic world-wide changes occurred during the 20th century in both nutrient delivery and in-stream retention. In this paper, we use a combined nutrient-input, hydrology, in-stream nutrient retention model to quantitatively track the changes in the global freshwater N and P cycles over the 20th century. Global nutrient delivery almost doubled due to expanding agriculture and increasing wastewater discharge. Nutrient retention also increased by a factor of two as a result of the rapidly growing number of dams and reservoirs. This increase in nutrient retention could not balance the increase in nutrient delivery to rivers. River export to coastal seas increased during the 20th century from 19 to 37 Tg yr-1 of N and 2 to 4 Tg yr-1 of P. There are important differences in riverine N:P export ratios in various parts of the world resulting from the interplay of multiple processes and economic activities in different river basins. Increasing nutrient loading of freshwater systems is a threat to water quality. Furthermore, the global river export increase in the molar N:P ratio during recent decades may affect the ecology within both the river basins and the coastal system. This ratio change may be driven by the recent stagnation of P fertilizer use in most industrialized countries, in comparison to the ever increasing N fertilizer use.

  3. Sea Level did not Accelerate in the Last Quarter of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL)collects quality-controlled sea levels from tide gages on all seas, and tabulates them at www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/psmsl(underline)individual(underline)stations.html. I examined annual average sea levels (Ra in column 6) for generally open-coast tide gages having data at the years defining quarter points in the 20th century: 1900, 1925, 1950, 1975, 2000. Gages lacking data for a given date, say 1975, were assumed to qualify if they had data for one year, plus or minus, of the missing data, i. e., for 1974 or 1976 in this example. This examination of data from gages on all seas identified 54 gages with data for the last three of the five dates, which included 26 gages with data for the last four of the five dates, which included 7 gages with data for all five dates. This means that sea-level change during the last quarter (Q4) of the 20th century could be compared at 54 sites with sea-level change in Q3, at 26 sites with sea- level change in Q2, and at 7 sites with sea-level change in Q1, providing 87 tests of the widely reported acceleration in rate of sea-level rise at the end of the 20th century. If sea level is rising at an accelerating rate, then sea-level rise during Q4 should almost always exceed sea-level rises in Q1, Q2, and Q3 of the 20th century. Of the 87 tests, 44 showed more sea-level rise in Q4, and 43 showed less sea-level rise in Q4, compared to the earlier quarters. Thus there is no evidence for an accelerating rise in sea level at the end of the 20th century from these quality-controlled data. The data do indicate that sea-level changes are synchronized over long reaches of shoreline (Sturges, 1990), and sites where gages are imbedded in deposits of clastic sediment have higher apparent sea-level rise attributable to sediment compaction. Beach erosion on the East Coast of the U.S. is widely attributed to the acceleration of sea-level rise, yet all 8 long-term gages at this coast show significantly LESS

  4. Coupled Model Simulations of Climate Changes in the 20th Century and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jiaqiang; ZHI Hai; WANG Bin; WAN Hui; LI Chai; LIU Hailong; LI Wei; ZHENG Weipeng; ZHOU Tianjun

    2008-01-01

    Several scenario experiments of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) are performed by version g1.0 of a Flexible coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (FGOALS) developed at the Institute of At- mospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS), including the "Climate of the 20th century experiment", "CO2 1% increase per year to doubling experiment" and two separate IPCC greenhouse gases emission scenarios AIB and B1 experiments. To distinguish between the different impacts of natural vari- ations and human activities on the climate change, three-member ensemble runs are performed for each scenario experiment. The coupled model simulations show: (1) from 1900 to 2000, the global mean temper- ature increases about 0.5℃ and the major increase occurs during the later half of the 20th century, which is in consistent with the observations that highlights the coupled model's ability to reproduce the climate changes since the industrial revolution; (2) the global mean surface air temperature increases about 1.6℃ in the CO2 doubling experiment and 1.5℃ and 2.4℃ in the AlB and Bl scenarios, respectively. The global warming is indicated by not only the changes of the surface temperature and precipitation but also the temperature increase in the deep ocean. The thermal expansion of the sea water would induce the rise of the global mean sea level. Both the control run and the 20th century climate change run are carried out again with version g1.1 of FGOALS, in which the cold biases in the high latitudes were removed. They are then compared with those from version g1.0 of FGOALS in order to distinguish the effect of the model biases on the simulation of global warming.

  5. Coupled model simulations of climate changes in the 20th century and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhi, Hai; Wang, Bin; Wan, Hui; Li, Chao; Liu, Hailong; Li, Wei; Zheng, Weipeng; Zhou, Tianjun

    2008-07-01

    Several scenario experiments of the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4) are performed by version g1.0 of a Flexible coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model (FGOALS) developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IAP/CAS), including the “Climate of the 20th century experiment”, “CO2 1% increase per year to doubling experiment” and two separate IPCC greenhouse gases emission scenarios A1B and B1 experiments. To distinguish between the different impacts of natural variations and human activities on the climate change, three-member ensemble runs are performed for each scenario experiment. The coupled model simulations show: (1) from 1900 to 2000, the global mean temperature increases about 0.5°C and the major increase occurs during the later half of the 20th century, which is in consistent with the observations that highlights the coupled model’s ability to reproduce the climate changes since the industrial revolution; (2) the global mean surface air temperature increases about 1.6°C in the CO2 doubling experiment and 1.5°C and 2.4°C in the A1B and B1 scenarios, respectively. The global warming is indicated by not only the changes of the surface temperature and precipitation but also the temperature increase in the deep ocean. The thermal expansion of the sea water would induce the rise of the global mean sea level. Both the control run and the 20th century climate change run are carried out again with version g1.1 of FGOALS, in which the cold biases in the high latitudes were removed. They are then compared with those from version g1.0 of FGOALS in order to distinguish the effect of the model biases on the simulation of global warming.

  6. CONCEPTUAL EVOLUTION OF ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAM THROUGH THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Özten

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the conceptual evolution of Architectural Program through the second half of the 20th century.  It discusses the evolution of the notion and its place in the architectural discourse in the works of various scholars, while giving and reviewing essential views, with a particular focus on two paradigmatic epistemological positions under which these views could be categorized: analysis-synthesis and conjecture-refutations. Aiming towards a reconsideration of the notion, it concludes with presenting our present understanding and conception of the notion, namely the present “state” of architectural program in the architectural agenda.

  7. Alfred Werner's role in the mid-20th century flourishing of American inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinger, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    The development of organic and physical chemistry as specialist fields, during the middle and end of the 19th century respectively, left inorganic behind as a decidedly less highly regarded subfield of chemistry. Despite Alfred Werner's groundbreaking studies of coordination chemistry in the early 20th century, that inferior status remained in place - particularly in the US - until the 1950s, when the beginnings of a resurgence that eventually restored its parity with the other subfields can be clearly observed. This paper explores the extent to which Werner's heritage - both direct, in the form of academic descendants, and indirect - contributed to those advances. PMID:24983802

  8. Shades of modernism. Lvov literary criticism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Sobieraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Lwowska krytyka literacka 1894-1914. Tendencje i problemy by Katarzyna Sadkowska, an attempted monograph of the most outstanding and most representative literary criticism phenomena observed in modernist Lvov at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. The book offers a dominant interpretation strategy typical of the cultural history of literature, presenting the analysed texts in the context of diverse relations. The monograph focuses on the achievements of Ostap Ortwin, Karol Irzykowski, Stanisław Womela and Tadeusz Sobolewski. The author has reconstructed many formerly unknown segments of modernist literary criticism in Lvov.

  9. 20th and 21st Joint Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Qi, Jiaxing; Roller, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general, and the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures specifically. The application contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research. Innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations are also discussed. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 20th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance in December 2014 at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany, and the subsequent Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance at Tohoku University in February 2015.  .

  10. 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Aref

    2000-08-27

    The 20th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ICTAM2000, was held in Chicago, IL, from August 27 - September 2, 2000. It was 32 years since the last of these congresses had been held in USA. A record number of researchers in the mechanical engineering sciences attended and presented their work. The Congress provided an opportunity for the US mechanics community to act as international hosts. Several universities, professional societies, private foundations and individuals, and Federal agencies provided financial support for the Congress.

  11. Promising blast resistance entries from 20th-23rd IRBN in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang; YUANXiaoping; ZHAOXinhua; SHENYing

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation for blast resistances of rice entries of 20th to 23rd International Rice Blast Nursery (IRBN) was conducted at CNRRI during 1990-1993. The resistance to seedling blast (SB)was evaluated in a greenhouse at 3-4 leaf stage with artificial inoculation while resistance to leaf blast (LB) and neck blast (NB) were evaluated in the natural field as instructed by the International Network of Genetic Evaluation for Rice (INGER). Materials with high level of blast resistante and good agronomic traits were selected andre-evaluated in suoceeding years.

  12. Advances in stability theory at the end of the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Martynyuk, AA

    2003-01-01

    This volume presents surveys and research papers on various aspects of modern stability theory, including discussions on modern applications of the theory, all contributed by experts in the field. The volume consists of four sections that explore the following directions in the development of stability theory: progress in stability theory by first approximation; contemporary developments in Lyapunov''s idea of the direct method; the stability of solutions to periodic differential systems; and selected applications. Advances in Stability Theory at the End of the 20th Century will interest postgraduates and researchers in engineering fields as well as those in mathematics.

  13. Survival advantage of siblings and spouses of centenarians in 20th-century Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bourbeau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity runs in families, either through genetic or environmental influences. Using Quebec civil registration and historical Canadiancensuses, we compared the longevity of siblings and spouses of 806 centenarians to a group of controls, all born in Quebec at the turnof the 20th century. Our results show that siblings of centenarians, who share half of their genes and a common childhood environment,lived 3–4 years longer than their birth cohort. However, husbands and wives of centenarians lived 4 and 2.5 years longer than theircounterparts of the same sex, respectively, suggesting that longevity is also modulated by shared environment in adulthood.

  14. René leriche and the development of 20th century surgery

    OpenAIRE

    IONCIOAIA, BOGDAN; BUD, IOAN TEODOR; MURESAN, MIRCEA

    2016-01-01

    René Leriche (1879–1955) was a 20th century French surgeon generally known in medicine for the syndrome that carries his name, namely the Leriche syndrome in the aorto-iliac occlusive disease. This paper is published to mark the commemoration of 60 year since Leriche’s death. Although Dr. Leriche’s legacy resides in the domain of vascular medicine, his research enclosed bone pathology and surgical management of pain. Having his surgical training done under professors Mathieu Jaboulay and Anto...

  15. Aspen Characteristics - Lassen National Forest [ds371

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected in aspen stands in the in the Eagle Lake Ranger District, Lassen National...

  16. Assortative mating and differential fertility by phenotype and genotype across the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Dalton; Laidley, Thomas; Belsky, Daniel W; Fletcher, Jason M; Boardman, Jason D; Domingue, Benjamin W

    2016-06-14

    This study asks two related questions about the shifting landscape of marriage and reproduction in US society over the course of the last century with respect to a range of health and behavioral phenotypes and their associated genetic architecture: (i) Has assortment on measured genetic factors influencing reproductive and social fitness traits changed over the course of the 20th century? (ii) Has the genetic covariance between fitness (as measured by total fertility) and other traits changed over time? The answers to these questions inform our understanding of how the genetic landscape of American society has changed over the past century and have implications for population trends. We show that husbands and wives carry similar loadings for genetic factors related to education and height. However, the magnitude of this similarity is modest and has been fairly consistent over the course of the 20th century. This consistency is particularly notable in the case of education, for which phenotypic similarity among spouses has increased in recent years. Likewise, changing patterns of the number of children ever born by phenotype are not matched by shifts in genotype-fertility relationships over time. Taken together, these trends provide no evidence that social sorting is becoming increasingly genetic in nature or that dysgenic dynamics have accelerated. PMID:27247411

  17. Natural interdecadal weak-ening of East Asian summer monsoon in the late 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Dabang; WANG Huijun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the reanalysis data throughout 1948―2002 as derived from the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research, it is revealed that East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity weakens on an interdecadal timescale since the mid-1960s, and twice interdecadal jumps are recorded in the EASM intensity index series in the late 20th century, respectively occurring in the mid-1960s and mid- to late 1970s. Six globally coupled atmosphere-ocean models' outputs under the SRES A2 greenhouse gas and aerosol emission scenario, provided by the IPCC Data Distribution Center and the Hadley Center for Climate Prediction and Research, are then systematically examined. It follows that the above EASM weakening is not closely related to synchronizing anthropogenic global warming, and, therefore, it should be qualitatively natural change process. Over the 21st century, the EASM intensity is likely increased slightly by continually intensified greenhouse effect relative to the late 20th century.

  18. Hallmarks in the history of enteral and parenteral nutrition: from antiquity to the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilyadi, Frank; Panteliadou, Alkistis-Kira; Panteliadis, Christos

    2013-04-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) have a very long history, emerging in the ancient world and developing throughout the common epoch. This history dates back as far as 3500 bc to the ancient Egyptians, Indians, and Chinese. Their medical practices were the first reports of enteral feeding therapy, provided via rectum with enemas of wine, milk, whey, wheat, and barley. Hippocrates and Plato, in ancient Greece, were the first personalities to emphasize the importance of diet on health. In the following centuries, Erasistratus and Herophilus described the first notion of the circulatory system, and Oribasius and Celsus described the role of nutrition and disease. There is a great historical gap between the times of Galen (2nd century), who elaborated on the circulatory system; Ibn Zuhr (12th century), who constructed the first model of PN; and Capivacceus (16th century), who placed the first tube for EN. The 17th-19th centuries showed major developments in modern nutrition elements. Steps toward artificial nutrition began in 1628 with the detailed description of blood circulation by William Harvey; however, most of the advances in enteral and parenteral feeding techniques, solutions, and formulas took place in the 20th century. Over the last decade of the 20th century, research focused on metabolic control, multitude formulas, timing and the combination of EN and PN for intensive care patients.

  19. Psychiatric assessment of patients with 20th-century disease (total allergy syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D.E.; Raskin, J.

    1985-11-15

    Twentieth-century disease, or total allergy syndrome, is a condition attributed to hypersensitivity to the environment that may sometimes be seen as so serious that the patient is incapable of living in the modern world. Although the popular media frequently carry stories about it, there is little scientific literature. It is diagnosed by clinical ecologists, who maintain, among other theories, that susceptible individuals experience an overload in assaults by artificial materials in the environment. The patients usually have multiple ill defined symptoms for which no organic cause can be found, but they vigorously resist psychiatric referral, as they attribute their symptoms to allergy. A group of 18 patients who were purportedly suffering from 20th-century disease were referred to a university psychiatric consultation liaison service. They virtually all had a long history of visits to physicians, and their symptoms were characteristic of several well known psychiatric disorders. The case histories and management of three of them are presented. Although this group of patients may have been atypical in that they had more severe psychologic symptoms, the experience indicates that a psychiatric diagnosis ought to be considered. The symptoms of 20th-century disease have much in common with other conditions known to physicians for centuries.

  20. Banknote Typography with a Particular Reference to Croatia through the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilko Žiljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the research of transformation of formatting information on banknotes during the 20th century, which is the period of some of the greatest graphical innovations after Gutenberg’s invention of movable type printing. Computer graphics had taken over in the field of typography in the exact moment of hand engraving’s highest level of art in the creation of the font cut. About forty years ago, the era of etching used in copper etching and steel engraving in hand - made drawings had begun, along with the use of phototypesetting as the representative of digital technology. Quality of the written lines has introduced microtypography as a special method of rasterization in the background of banknotes. In Croatia, the above mentioned modifications are present through the works of our typographers, even though the multiplication of banknotes was done in foreign printing houses that had appropriately protected printing technology. The paper contributes to the scientific analysis of the technical aspect of banknote making on Croatia’s soil during the course of the 20th century, and this, with the methods of analysis and synthesis incorporated, gives a clear picture and transparency into the method of banknote making, both from a technological and development cycle - making aspect. Given the fact that not only the Croatian banknotes are examined, analysis contributes to comparative procedures of local scopes in the field of technological manufacture of other banknotes that belong to the same time period.

  1. Determination and characterization of 20th century global sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Yen

    In this study, we provide a determination of the 20th Century (1900--2002) global sea level rise, the associated error budgets, and the quantifications of the various geophysical sources of the observed sea level rise, using data and geophysical models. We analyzed significant geographical variations of the global sea level including those caused by the steric component (heat and salinity) in the ocean, and the self-gravitational signal as a result of ice sheets melting, including the effects of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) since the Pleistocene. In particular, relative sea level data from long-term (longest is 150 year records) and over 600 tide gauge sites globally from PSMSL and other sources, and geocentric sea level data from multiple satellite altimetry (1985--2005) have been used to determine and characterize 20th century global sea level rise. Altimeter and selected tide gauge sea level data have been used for the 20th century sea level determination, accounting for relative biases between the altimeters, effects of sea level corresponding to oceanic thermal expansion, vertical motions affecting tide gauge measurements, self gravitations, and barotropic ocean response. This study is also characterized by the roles of the polar ocean in the global sea level study and addressing the question whether there is a detectable sea level rise acceleration during the last decade. Vertical motions have been estimated by combining geocentric sea level measurements from satellite altimetry (TOPEX/POSEIDON) and long-term relative (crust-fixed) sea level records from global tide gauges using the Gauss-Markov (GM) model with stochastic constraints. The study provided a demonstration of improved vertical motion solutions in semi-enclosed seas and lakes, including Fennoscandia and the Great Lakes region, showing excellent agreement with independent GPS observed radial velocities, or with predictions from GIA models. In general, the estimated uncertainty of the observed

  2. 20th ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHILDREN'S HEALTH AND EXERCISE CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF EXETER, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Sharp

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available 20th ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHILDREN'S HEALTH AND EXERCISE CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF EXETER, UK In recent years, partly because of the ever-younger exten-sion of high quality sport representation and partly, para-doxically, due to ever-increasing levels of obesity in the young, the discipline of paediatric physiology has moved from being an interesting curiosity to an extremely impor-tant area of practical knowledge. For example, children thermoregulate qualitatively and quantitatively differently from adults - before puberty their sweat rate per square metre of skin is less than half their adult level - and they may well have, proportionate to mass, 40% greater body surface area than an adult. On the musculo-skeletal side, they come late into 'kinetic-balance', into an appropriately economic mode of running or walking, so such effort is harder for them. In many other areas children, especially younger children, differ importantly from adults, and those involved in any aspects of their exercise, sport or medicine should be well aware of this. Hence the impor-tance of the discipline, and hence the reason for a very hearty celebration of the 20th anniversary of the Chil-dren's Health and Exercise Centre (CHERC, which, as is demonstrated here, has pioneered and expanded the entire discipline, as one of the world's leading paediatric labora-tories.To celebrate the 20th anniversary of the Children's Health and Exercise Centre (1987-2007 past and present mem-bers of the centre were invited to contribute a review article on paediatric exercise science. The collection of reviews, written by current and former PhD students, visiting research fellows and professors, visiting interns and current members of CHERC, discusses an array of topics, which have helped shaped the work of our centre. We would also like to take the opportunity to acknowl-edge all those associated with CHERC over the past 20 years, in particular the many children who have partici-pated in our

  3. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total

  4. Causes of mortality and development: Evidence from large health shocks in 20th century America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm Hansen, Casper

    Exploiting pre-intervention variation in flu/pneumonia, tuberculosis and maternal mortality, together with time variation arising from medical breakthroughs starting in the late 1930s, this paper studies the aggregate impact of large health shocks across US states. The analysis demonstrates......, the decline in maternal mortality has a fragile, but positive relationship with income per capita. Because these specific health shocks affected mortality across the life cycle differently, the evidence here underscores the general tenet of regarding health as multifaceted....... that the shocks influenced income per capita in different ways. While the shock to flu/pneumonia mortality has been conductive for development, the large reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis deaths has been a negative force in the development of US states over the second-half of 20th century. In addition...

  5. Cognitive study and upgrading of the 20th century architectonic heritage: experiences and methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ascione

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available One component of the heritage of publicly funded property developments put up since the Second World War is residential districts designed by leading architects in which upgrading has to take into account considerations of safeguarding. The raising of the threshold from 50 to 70 years before safeguarding norms come into effect means that local authorities and management companies have sole responsibility for the modification and safeguarding of this heritage. This paper looks at some examples of 20th century housing estates designated for upgrading in order to highlight the specific strategies adopted, selected from a range of actions based on the need for accurate knowledge and collective agreement by all the parties involved right from the design phase.

  6. Brief Communication: Global glacier mass loss reconstructions during the 20th century are consistent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century that were published in recent years are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass loss obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the years 2003–2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist in estimates on regional scales.

  7. The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

    2004-07-01

    In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

  8. Impacts of external forcing on the 20th century global warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of external forcing, including natural and anthropogenic, on the 20th century global warming were assessed with the use of the Grid Atmospheric Model of IAP/LASG Version 1.1.0, following the standard coordinated experiment design of the Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) International Climate of the Twentieth Century Project (C20C), Phase II. The results indicate that external forcing plays an important role in the evolution of the land surface air temperature on interannual, decadal, and interdecadal time scales, and contributes greatly to the global warming in the following two periods: the early twentieth century between the 1910s and the 1940s and the late twentieth century after the 1970s. External forcing also has strong impact on the regional temperature change during the two warming periods except for parts of the Eurasia and the North America continents. In the cooling period, however, the impact of internal variability is dominant.

  9. [The end of an illusion, Sigmund Freud and his 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, K R

    1995-12-01

    At the end of the 20th century Eissler looks back to its beginnings and the outside figure of Sigmund Freud. What good have Freud's discoveries done? What progress have they promised and which of those promises have actually been redeemed? What kind of track record does psychoanalysis have to show for itself? The author undertakes a careful assessment of Freud's stature, his limitations and his scientific achievements, and comes to the skeptical conclusion that in the last resort it was in fact the founder of psychoanalysis who destroyed the illusion he himself had long subscribed to, i.e. that there is an indissoluble link between the increase of scientific knowledge and the salvation of homo sapiens. For Eissler's Freud the survival of humanity and the scientific civilization created by mankind are irreconcilable.

  10. „One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bocancea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

  11. Melancholia before the 20th century: Fear and Sorrow or Partial Insanity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo eTelles-Correia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of Psychopathology, several meanings have been assigned to the term melancholia. The main ones were related to affective (fear and sadness and thought disorders (a type of mental disorder characterised mainly by the presence of abnormal believes. At the time of Hippocrates melancholia was regarded mainly in its affective component. Since that time, and until the 18th century, authors and opinions have been divided, with both aspects (affective and thought disorders, being valued. Finally, in the 18th-19th centuries, with Pinel at its peak, melancholia becomes exclusively a synonym of thought disorders (abnormal believes: delusions/overvalued ideas.At the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, the affective component returns as the main aspect characterising melancholia.

  12. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  13. Atom pictures. Iconography of the atom in science and public of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 20th century can be described as century of the atom. From the development of molecular models until nanotechnology, from Becquerel's discovery of the radioactivity until the reactor accident in Chernobyl was and remains the atom subject of the research as well as of the discussion in culture and politics. Thereby the concept and the imagination of the ''atom'' have been subjected to manifold changes, which were essentially generated by pictures. The volume summarizes famous as well as less famous pictures from laboratories, exhibitions, publications, and films. It gives both a contribution to the history of science and culture and a summarizing of different disciplinary approaches to the circulation of pictures between science and public

  14. A brief history of tuberculosis in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem

    2011-05-01

    The history of tuberculosis as a worldwide fatal illness traces back to antiquity, a well-known disease in ancient civilizations. However, its causative agent remained unidentified until the last decades of the 19th century, when discovered by Robert Koch. In due course, preparation of the BCG vaccine, application of the Mantoux intradermal diagnostic tuberculosis test and administration of proper antituberculosis medications eventually controlled tuberculosis. However, despite these significant advancements tuberculosis remained uneradicated, particularly in developing countries after the emergence of both multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. Presented here, is a brief review of the history of tuberculosis in the world as well as its historical background in Iran, mainly during the 19th and 20th centuries.

  15. One hundred years ago. Nursing education at the dawn of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondiller, S H

    1999-01-01

    The late 19th and early 20th centuries ushered in a number of significant events that helped advance the nursing profession in its early development. Nursing leaders began to show interest in the reform movements under way, such as woman's suffrage, settlement houses, and labor activities. They knew that nurses were not alone in their struggle to improve the health of the public. Philanthropic groups abounded, working for social betterment as well as for changes needed in overcrowded tenements, food inspection, and information to the nation about healthy living (1). In addition, serious concerns surfaced in the profession relating to the proliferation of training schools and reforms required in the educational system. PMID:10754856

  16. Long-term non-linear predictability of ENSO events over the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Astudillo, H F; Borotto, F A

    2015-01-01

    We show that the monthly recorded history (1878-2013) of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), a descriptor of the El Ni\\~no Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, can be well described as a dynamic system that supports an average nonlinear predictability well beyond the spring barrier. The predictability is strongly linked to a detailed knowledge of the topology of the attractor obtained by embedding the SOI index in a wavelets base state space. Using the state orbits on the attractor we show that the information contained in the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is sufficient to provide average nonlinear predictions for time periods of 2, 3 and 4 years in advance throughout the 20th century with an acceptable error. The simplicity of implementation and ease of use makes it suitable for studying non linear predictability in any area where observations are similar to those that describe the ENSO phenomenon.

  17. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  18. Spatial Database of Geological Survey Extent in 20th Century in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Quanming; Ye Tianzhu; Fang Yiping; Chen Jianguo; Li Shuyu; Zhang Daquan

    2003-01-01

    During the whole 20th century in China, especially the latest 50 years, we have gotten much geological information about geological mapping, geophysics, geochemistry, mineral exploration,remote sensing, environmental geology, hydrogeoiogy, engineering geology and oceanic geology etc. by our geologists and explorers. All the information has been accumulated and can be used as a decisionmaking foundation for the future plan of geological survey. The spatial database of geological survey extents has been established by using computer technology. The database contained all kinds of exploration sections and collected about 160 000 records in this database. This paper introduces the data construction, contents and applying system of this database, and trys to let people know what kinds of geological survey were finished, when the exploration were carried out, and how and where you can get this information.

  19. Anthropogenic aerosols may have increased upper tropospheric humidity in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bister

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent simulations of deep convection with a spectral microphysics cloud model show that an increase in aerosol concentration can have a significant effect on the nature of convection with more ice precipitation and less warm rain in polluted air. The cloud lifetime and the area covered by cloud anvils of deep convection are also larger for polluted air. Therefore, it is possible that the increase of anthropogenic aerosols in most of the 20th century has increased humidity and perhaps also cloudiness in the mid- to upper troposphere. Satellite data of upper tropospheric relative humidity in 1979–1997 and observed changes in cloudiness support this hypothesis. As changes in upper tropospheric humidity strongly affect longwave radiation, it is possible that anthropogenic aerosols have had a significant warming effect in addition to their other known effects on radiation.

  20. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Brief Communication: Global reconstructions of glacier mass change during the 20th century are consistent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, B.; Leclercq, P. W.; Cogley, J. G.; Jarosch, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass change obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the years 2003-2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist in estimates on regional scales.

  2. Interpreting mathematics in physics: Charting the applications of SU(2) in 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ronald [Department of Philosophy, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States)], E-mail: ronald.anderson@bc.edu; Joshi, G.C. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: joshi@physics.unimelb.edu.au

    2008-04-15

    The role mathematics plays within physics has been of sustained interest for physicists as well as for philosophers and historians of science. We explore this topic by tracing the role the mathematical structure associated with SU(2) has played in three key episodes in 20th century physics - intrinsic spin, isospin, and gauge theory and electroweak unification. We also briefly consider its role in loop quantum gravity. Each episode has led to profound and new physical notions of a space other than the traditional ones of space and spacetime, and each has had associated with it a complex and in places, contested history. The episodes also reveal ways mathematical structures provide resources for new physical theorizing and we propose our study as a contribution to a need Roger Penrose has identified to develop a 'profoundly sensitive aesthetic' sense for locating physically relevant mathematics.

  3. Did 20th century physics have the means to reveal the nature of inertia and gravitation?

    CERN Document Server

    Petkov, V B

    2000-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the classical electron theory (or, perhaps more appropriately, the classical electromagnetic mass theory) - the first physical theory that dared ask the question of what inertia and mass were - was gaining momentum and there were hopes that physics would be finally able to explain their origin. It is argued in this paper that if that promising research path had not been inexplicably abandoned after the advent of relativity and quantum mechanics, the contemporary physics would have revealed not only the nature of inertia, mass, and gravitation, but most importantly would have outlined the ways of their manipulation. Another goal of the paper is to try to stimulate the search for the mechanism responsible for inertia and gravitation by outlining a research direction, which demonstrates that the classical electromagnetic mass theory in conjunction with the principle of equivalence offers such a mechanism.

  4. Simulation of Sea Ice in FGOALS-g2: Climatology and Late 20th Century Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiming; SONG Mirong; LIU Jiping; WANG Bin; LI Lijuan; HUANG Wenyu; LIU Li

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is an important component in the Earth's climate system.Coupled climate system models are indispensable tools for the study of sea ice,its internal processes,interaction with other components,and projection of future changes.This paper evaluates the simulation of sea ice by the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model Grid-point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2),in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5),with a focus on historical experiments and late 20th century simulation.Through analysis,we find that FGOALS-g2 produces reasonable Arctic and Antarctic sea ice climatology and variability.Sea ice spatial distribution and seasonal change characteristics are well captured.The decrease of Arctic sea ice extent in the late 20th century is reproduced in simulations,although the decrease trend is lower compared with observations.Simulated Antarctic sea ice shows a reasonable distribution and seasonal cycle with high accordance to the amplitude of winter summer changes.Large improvement is achieved as compared with FGOALS-g1.0 in CMIP3.Diagnosis of atmospheric and oceanic forcing on sea ice reveals several shortcomings and major aspects to improve upon in the future:(1) ocean model improvements to remove the artificial island at the North Pole;(2) higher resolution of the atmosphere model for better simulation of important features such as,among others,the Icelandic Low and westerly wind over the Southern Ocean; and (3) ocean model improvements to accurately receive freshwater input from land,and higher resolution for resolving major water channels in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

  5. On the transformation of antique stories and images in German literature of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharypina T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of Russian and foreign scholars, the work is aimed at studying the specificity of the transformation of antique stories and images, which is the desired model in the art of the 20th century thanks to its fluidity and unlimited variability. Actualization of antique stories and images in the works of German-language writers account for life-changing moments of social life, the periods of losing of constant moral landmarks and the periods of looking for new moral and aesthetic ideals. The analysis of the reception and transformation of mythological stories and images in the contemporary literature proves the conception of its polysemy. The built-in contradiction of myths is realized through the transformation of mythological stories and images in the literary works of contemporary writers and is explained by the individuality of writers and theirs aesthetic aims. On the one side, the absence de facto in German drama of the 20th century of interpretations of the story about Achilles and of the image of Achilles, and numerous variations on the topic of moral strivings of fearless and peccant Ulysses, on the other side, are proving the statements of classic aesthetic that the tragedy is based on the conflict, which is close to lofty and linked with the idea of dignity of the man, which is ready and capable of promoting the views of his own by the real acts that are often lead to suffer and death. According to Aristotle, the sympathy for the character leads to catharsis - the basis of education of real civic-mindedness and humanness.

  6. Outsets for studying interrelations between heritage institutions in the 20th century: initial theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjica Faletar Tanacković

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage institutions, archives, libraries and museums, which share the common goal of safeguarding and enabling wide accessibility to and use of cultural heritage, have developed in different but not diametrically opposing directions. Many scientists and practitioners from archival science, librarianship, museology and the wider area of information science have therefore studied, over many years, fundamental principles and characteristics of their activity and similarities and differences between these institutions and professions with the ultimate aim of discovering and describing potential models and guidelines for their coordinated action. First papers on this topic in the 20th century appeared in 1930s. Authors of these papers were most often librarians and archivists whose writing was initiated by their immediate working and professional environment. Based on the analysis and overview of accessible literature this paper presents and comments the thoughts of the author who was writing on this subject for over five decades, from 1930s to 1980s. These authors came, in most cases, from the United States of America and they dealt with similarities and differences between archives and libraries. Museum professionals joined this discussion only in 1960s by introducing specific characteristics and aspects of museums and museum work. In order to contribute to the understanding of interrelationships and evident convergence of these three cultural heritage institutions, which resulted in their mutual respect and in some cases with practical and active collaboration in particular in the modern networked society, the authors will try to present the development of theoretical and methodological thought on this phenomenon. The paper will provide a critical review of the most important authors who wrote on this topic from the first works that appeared through the last decade of the 20th century.

  7. Aspen Delineation - Plumas National Forest, FRRD [ds376

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents delineations of aspen stands associated with stand assessment data (PLUMAS_NF_FEATHERRIVER_PTS) collected in aspen stands in the Plumas...

  8. Fire regimes of quaking aspen in the Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Baker, William L.; Rogers, Paul C.; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is the most widespread tree species in North America, and it is found throughout much of the Mountain West (MW) across a broad range of bioclimatic regions. Aspen typically regenerates asexually and prolifically after fire, and due to its seral status in many western conifer forests, aspen is often considered dependent upon disturbance for persistence. In many landscapes, historical evidence for post-fire aspen establishment is clear, and following extended fire-free periods senescing or declining aspen overstories sometimes lack adequate regeneration and are succeeding to conifers. However, aspen also forms relatively stable stands that contain little or no evidence of historical fire. In fact, aspen woodlands range from highly fire-dependent, seral communities to relatively stable, self-replacing, non-seral communities that do not require fire for persistence. Given the broad geographic distribution of aspen, fire regimes in these forests likely co-vary spatially with changing community composition, landscape setting, and climate, and temporally with land use and climate – but relatively few studies have explicitly focused on these important spatiotemporal variations. Here we reviewed the literature to summarize aspen fire regimes in the western US and highlight knowledge gaps. We found that only about one-fourth of the 46 research papers assessed for this review could be considered fire history studies (in which mean fire intervals were calculated), and all but one of these were based primarily on data from fire-scarred conifers. Nearly half of the studies reported at least some evidence of persistent aspen in the absence of fire. We also found that large portions of the MW have had little or no aspen fire history research. As a result of this review, we put forth a classification framework for aspen that is defined by key fire regime parameters (fire severity and probability), and that reflects underlying biophysical

  9. Aspen biology, community classification, and management in the Blue Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, David K; Schmitt, Craig L; Shirley, Diane M; Erickson, Vicky; Schuetz, Kenneth J; Tatum, Michael L; Powell, David C

    2010-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a valuable species that is declining in the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon. This publication is a compilation of over 20 years of aspen management experience by USDA Forest Service workers in the Blue Mountains. It includes a summary of aspen biology and occurrence in the Blue Mountains, and a discussion of aspen conservation and management techniques such as fencing, conifer removal, and artificial propagation. Local data on bird use of as...

  10. Aspen: A microsimulation model of the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.; Quint, T.; Arnold, T.

    1996-10-01

    This report presents, Aspen. Sandia National Laboratories is developing this new agent-based microeconomic simulation model of the U.S. economy. The model is notable because it allows a large number of individual economic agents to be modeled at a high level of detail and with a great degree of freedom. Some features of Aspen are (a) a sophisticated message-passing system that allows individual pairs of agents to communicate, (b) the use of genetic algorithms to simulate the learning of certain agents, and (c) a detailed financial sector that includes a banking system and a bond market. Results from runs of the model are also presented.

  11. From posters to displaying: poster communication in Osijek in the early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velagić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many monographs, articles, chapters and exhibitions and their catalogues dedicated to Croatian posters from the early 20th century. Posters are evaluated as works of art, but received very little attention as an advertising medium. Their communication and advertising role in the specified time and place has not been investigated thoroughly. This paper does not investigate the relationship between the artistic and marketoriented aspects of posters, neither does it evaluate which and what type of posters deserve to be considered works of art. It focuses on how and where did people in the early 20th century used posters to inform themselves about new events and products. Posters are viewed only as a communicative and promotion medium, and the place where they were displayed as a sort of an information hub.The authors investigate the possibility of using two types of historical resources: city administration documents that regulated the displaying of posters and different pictures - like postcards, newspaper photos showing current events, posters and notice-boards or columns. The city of Osijek is selected as a case study for this approach. As the appropriation of posters is determined by their content, graphic design and place where they are displayed, the aim of the paper is to investigate the possible resources that can help us reconstruct the procedures and locations for poster displays. Following the methodology proposed by Robert Darnton, who listed five possible approaches to investigating different texts, and by Roger Chartier’s papers in which he stresses the importance of content appropriation, i.e. the subjectivity of readers, and not the de-contextualized content itself, the authors propose a step from posters to displaying them - or advertising - in public places in the city.Analyzing the above stated sources it can be established that there was a demand for the public advertising space in Osijek in the early 20th century

  12. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic

  13. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous

  14. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies are focused on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review the previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second third of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. This estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the major part of the previous trends observed at many areas of the

  15. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, A.; Calbó, J.; Wild, M.

    2012-07-01

    Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC) and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain) since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866-2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant) increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous studies, especially

  16. Reconstructing 20th Century Summer Precipitation on the South-Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, J. L.; Hudson, A. M.; Overpeck, J. T.; Cole, J. E.; Liu, K.; Wang, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced significant increases in temperature over the 20th century, but trends in precipitation are less clear, as station precipitation records are sparse and satellite observations only extend back to 1979. Here we use the sediment record from Ngamring Co, a closed-basin, freshwater lake in south-central Tibet, to assess summer precipitation over the last century. Ngamring Co is located in a watershed without glaciers, so recent changes in runoff and lake level are independent of the influence of glacial ice volume. The first principal component of the Ngamring Co grain size dataset is highly correlated with median grain size and covaries significantly with local July-August precipitation from the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). From 1979 to 2007, median grain size decreases with increasing July-August precipitation and increases with decreasing July-August precipitation. There is prominent multidecadal variability in the 20th century grain size record, including a gradual decline in median grain size from 1900 to 1930, a gradual increase in median grain size from 1930 to 1990, and a rapid decline in median grain size since 1990. Median grain size values from 2000-2007 are the lowest in the 107-year record, suggesting the most abundant monsoon precipitation in the last 107 years has occurred in the last decade. Satellite images of the lake also confirm an increase in lake area since the early 1990s, but also show the greatest lake area occurred in the 1970s. Thus, although summer precipitation and lake area do covary, precipitation does not seem to control grain size by influencing lake area. We presently hypothesize that increased July-August precipitation causes enhanced erosion of the fine-grained sediment (likely paleolake sediments and loess) that blankets the slopes surrounding the lake. The ensuing runoff and deposition of this sediment into the lake then results in a decline in median grain size within the lake

  17. Numerical Simulation of Global Temperature Change during the 20th Century with the IAP/LASG GOALS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓燕; 郭裕福; 石广玉; 俞永强

    2004-01-01

    The IAP/LASG GOALS coupled model is used to simulate the climate change during the 20th century using historical greenhouse gases concentrations, the mass mixing ratio of sulfate aerosols simulated by a CTM model, and reconstruction of solar variability spanning the period 1900 to 1997. Four simulations,including a control simulation and three forcing simulations, are conducted. Comparison with the observational record for the period indicates that the three forcing experiments simulate reasonable temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature change. The global warming during the 20th century is caused mainly by increasing greenhouse gas concentration especially since the late 1980s; sulfate aerosols offset a portion of the global warming and the reduction of global temperature is up to about 0.11°C over the century; additionally, the effect of solar variability is not negligible in the simulation of climate change over the 20th century.

  18. Dental health of the late 19th and early 20th century Khoesan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, D; Steyn, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performed on a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early 20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material from two European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to compile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencies were calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%), periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus (44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated that the group under study had an average rate of attrition compared to other southern African populations. Frequency and intensity data were compared to several other samples from both the pre-contact and contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcome of the study suggested that the group under study was most likely in a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with those of groups from a low socio-economic status. PMID:25882044

  19. Anthropogenic lead inputs to the western Pacific during the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Mayuri [Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-15-1 Minamidai Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan)], E-mail: mayuri-inoue@ori.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tanimizu, Masaharu [Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Monobe-B 200, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502 (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    Unlike in the North Atlantic, no continuous record of anthropogenic lead (Pb) has been available in the western Pacific. We reconstructed historical changes in anthropogenic Pb on the basis of Pb isotope ratios recorded in annually-banded coral retrieved from Ogasawara Island, Japan. Whereas the predominant natural source of Pb to the surface of the western Pacific apparently is Chinese loess, anthropogenic Pb has affected the western Pacific at least since the late 19th century. From the late 19th to the early 20th century, Australian Pb used in Japan was an important source of anthropogenic Pb. During 1920-1940, Pb emitted from parts of the world other than Japan contributed somewhat to the western Pacific, and the amount of Pb imported from Australia declined. Alkyl Pb used in Japan became the main source from 1950 until the mid-1970s, when leaded gasoline began to be regulated in Japan. Since the mid-1980s, aerosols from China have been the predominant source of Pb in the western Pacific. During the 1990s, around 60% of Pb in the surface of the western Pacific was from Chinese aerosols. We also investigated the present spatial distribution and likely sources of Pb in the western Pacific by using coral samples. Enrichment in {sup 208}Pb, which is a characteristic of Pb from China, was found in all coral samples except that from Pohnpei, Micronesia, suggesting that at present anthropogenic Pb is transported to the western Pacific mainly from China via westerly winds.

  20. High-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition in Rhode Island over the past approximately 180 years was constructed using a sediment core from the anoxic Pettaquamscutt River basin. The record showed significantly more structure than has hitherto been reported and revealed four distinct maxima in PAH flux. The characteristic increase in PAH flux at the turn of the 20th century was captured in detail, leading to an initial maximum prior to the Great Depression. The overall peak in PAH flux in the 1950s was followed by a maximum that immediately preceded the 1973 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo. During the most recent portion of the record, an abrupt increase in PAH flux between 1996 and 1999 has been found to follow a period of near constant fluxes. Because source-diagnostic ratios indicate that petrogenic inputs are minor throughout the record, these trends are interpreted in terms of past variations in the magnitude and type of combustion processes. For the most recent PAH maximum, energy consumption data suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause for the increase in PAH flux. Systematic variations in the relative abundance of individual PAHs in conjunction with the above changes in flux are interpreted in relation to the evolution of combustion processes. Coronene, retene, and perylene are notable exceptions, exhibiting unique down-core profiles. PMID:12542290

  1. The great exodus of 1939 and other exiles of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Pujol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of being a historic constant and a characteristic phenomenon of the 20th century, the subject ‘exile’ is still little valued by contemporary historiography´. The civil war from 1936 to 1939 and the Francoist triumph provoked an exile without precedent in recent Catalonian history. This exile was decisive in the preservation of Catalan culture (persecuted by the Franco regime in Catalonia itself, as well as for the continuity of Catalan self-government, the ‘Generalitat of Catalonia’. It was also an extremely important platform for the democratic opposition to Francoism, although it lost its political weight around the nineteen sixties. At that time, though, new waves of exiles took place caused by the fight against the dictatorship, but they were in no way related to the scale of those from the civil war in the thirties. At the dictator’s death many people returned home, but the fragility of the democracy born from the political transition process brought new exiles. In order to know more in detail on such an important subject it is necessary to promote a culturally institutionalised process that makes possible its systematic study, and it is also necessary that the analysis of this phenomenon become a top priority aim of study for historiography and for all human sciences.

  2. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  3. Proceedings of the 20th meeting for tandem accelerators and their associated technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 20th Meeting of Tandem Accelerators and their Associated Technologies was held from July 12 through 13, 2007 at Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken, under the auspices of the Nuclear Science Research Institute of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). About one hundred and ten people participated in the meeting from thirty-three organizations; universities, research institutes and industries, which have a tandem accelerator or an electrostatic accelerator. The objective of the meeting is to contribute to research and development of accelerator technology by exchanging information on their accelerators each other. The meeting consisted of oral and poster sessions. Forty-seven presentations about present status and technical development on tandem accelerators or electrostatic accelerators and applications using these accelerators were discussed during the two days. This report summarizes the forty-five presentations including posters in the meeting. This publication is the collection of the paper presented at the title meeting. The 44 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  4. Einstein and early 20th Century avant-garde art: points of contact?

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, José X

    2007-01-01

    Art history linked some early 20th Century avant-garde visual art movements to contemporary systems of ideas in mathematics and theoretical physics. One of the proposed connections is the one that might have existed between Cubism and Relativity, or more precisely, between Picasso and Einstein. The suggested links are similarity (in a weak version) or identity (in a strong version) in matters of space, time and simultaneity. It is possible, however, that these supposed links of Einstein and avant-garde art movements were more the product of the imagination of historians and critics, than the result of connections between painters and scientists. On the one hand, the visual arts (in contrast to music, as far as we now) were of no interest to Einstein, who, moreover, did not seem inclined or knowledgeable enough to appreciate advanced forms. On the other hand, Einstein's theories fell outside the artists' ken, let alone their understanding, although there are firm clues pointing to the fact that repercussions o...

  5. Feeding better food habits in mid-20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Sarah E; Wells, Miriam E

    2005-01-01

    Public health nursing work has always involved education about nutrition and food habits. Nurses serve as interpreters of scientific and medical knowledge and as agents of behavioral change among the individuals and groups for whom they provide care. For public health nurses in mid-20th-century America, this meant direct involvement in many aspects of family life at home. Meal preparation and the eating patterns of family members were two areas into which most public health nurses had access. This brief history provides an introduction to some of the issues confronting American public health nurses at mid-century. Examining the content of articles related to nutrition in families around mid-century yields evidence about the role of the nurse, the state of the art in nutritional knowledge, and opinions and prejudices related to eating habits prevalent at the time. These glimpses into concerns expressed in the original Public Health Nursing journal may enhance understanding of the role of public health nurses in preventing diet-related disorders and form the basis for additional historical research.

  6. Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2003-01-01

    We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

  7. Solar radiation measurements from coordinated radiosonde flights during the 20th March 2015 solar eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Williams, Paul; Nicoll, Keri

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation sensors can be carried on standard weather balloon packages and provide additional information about the atmosphere's vertical structure beyond the traditional thermodynamic measurements [1]. An interesting set of circumstances for such sensors occurs during a solar eclipse, which provides a rapidly changing solar radiation environment within the duration of a typical free balloon flight. Coordinating several launches of solar radiation measuring radiosondes brings a good likelihood of at least one being above any cloud during the maximum eclipse, allowing solar eclipse radiation measurements for comparison with theory. For the 20th March 2015 solar eclipse, a coordinated campaign of balloon-carried solar radiation measurements was undertaken from Reading (51.44N, 0.94W), Lerwick (60.15N, 1.13W) and Reykjavik (64.13N, 21.90W), straddling the path of the eclipse. All three balloons reached sufficient altitude at the eclipse time for eclipse-induced variations in solar radiation and solar limb darkening to be measured above cloud. Because the sensor platforms were free to swing, techniques have been evaluated to correct the measurements for their changing orientation. These approaches, which are essentially independent, give values that agree with theoretical expectations for the eclipse-induced radiation changes. [1] K.A. Nicoll and R.G. Harrison, Balloon-borne disposable radiometer Rev Sci Instrum 83, 025111 (2012) doi: 10.1063/1.3685252

  8. Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Narayan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru respectively. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

  9. Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Narayan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. It was also noted that the trends in meridional wind stress obtained from different datasets differ substantially from each other. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

  10. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Faye

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/ reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

  11. Peace-Making Ideas by M.M. Kovalevsky at the Beginning of 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAEV N.Yu.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the peace-making ideas of famous historian, sociologist and lawyer M.M. Kovalevsky at the beginning of 20th century and analyzes the sociological conception of solidarity which served as the basis for his views on war and peace. He considered social progress as broadening of solidarity sphere which was unavoidably promoted to the consciousness of political integration society. The scientist approximately compared the progress with concentric circles which embodied of uninterruptedly widing human solidarity. The final stage of social and political development should be the creation of national and federal unions, which in their turn would unify in international union. The union built on the principles of democracy and observance of international right standards was destined not only to keep and to ensure the common peace, but also to promote the development of international trade and industry. Kovalevsky played important role in building the peace-making movement in Russia by supporting it with his high scientific and moral authority. In particular, he headed the St. Petersburg’s peace society, established in 1909. Besides, there were a lot of contradictions in his peaceful views. Being the patriot and supporter of the state, the scientist was very far from peace when Russian national interests were taken ino account. This contradiction was clearly revealed during Balkan’s conflict (1912-1913 and the First World War.

  12. THE ISSUE OF PELOTAS' SLUMS BETWEEN THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Nörnberg Maciel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper talks about the formation, urban expansion and the emergence of 19th and early 20th century slums at Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul state. Since the rise of this kind of residential building, during the second half of the 19th century up to, at least, the 1920s – the last decade covered by this research – government and local elites had been putting a great effort in order to move away these residences towards the outskirts of the city. All of this ideas were paved around hygienist ideals. Lots and edifications in downtown Pelotas had an increase in economic value because of the expansion of that area. That being said, it was important to force a migration of these slums, away from central areas, based upon aesthetic reasons and in order to increase even more the value of the area.

  13. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  14. Pedagogy in Slovenia at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vidmar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogy in Slovenia gradually won its recognition as an academic science, and therefore obtained improved possibilities for its conceptualization, when the university in Ljubljana was established in 1919. The time between the two world wars was marked with three principal pedagogical concepts: Herbartianism, geisteswissenschaftliche pedagogy, and reform pedagogy. The first of these to be theoretically conceptualized in Slovenia was the geisteswissenschaftliche, or cultural pedagogy. Ideas of reform pedagogy, especially its social-critical movement, interpreted, represented, and defended primarily left-oriented pedagogues and teachers, who were convinced that actual school reform would be possible only after (revolutionary changes of social conditions. In the first decades of the 20th century, numerous conflicts and disagreements occurred in the process of establishing individual pedagogical currents and orientations in Slovenia. The strongest and most productive polemics were held between geisteswissenschaftliche, or cultural pedagogy, and some currents, or just individual representatives, of reform pedagogy (e.g., theory vs. praxis, old vs. new school. Unfortunately, the postwar Marxist pedagogical concept was highly unfavorable to the prewar orientations and prevented their further development.

  15. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  16. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petôvári, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well. PMID:20938058

  17. 20th CISM-IFToMM Symposium on Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators

    CERN Document Server

    Glazunov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains papers that have been selected after review for oral presentation at ROMANSY 2014, the 20th CISM-IFToMM Symposium on Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators. These papers cover advances on several aspects of the wide field of Robotics as concerning Theory and Practice of Robots and Manipulators. ROMANSY 2014 is the twentieth event in a series that started in 1973 as one of the first conference activities in the world on Robotics. The first event was held at CISM (International Centre for Mechanical Science) in Udine, Italy on 5-8 September 1973. It was also the first topic conference of IFToMM (International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science) and it was directed not only to the IFToMM community. Proceedings volumes of ROMANSY have been always published to be available, also after the symposium, to a large public of scholars and designers with the aim to give an overview of new advances and trends in the theory, design, and practice of robots....

  18. The 20th-century development and expansion of Louisiana shelf hypoxia, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Senn, D.B.; DiMarco, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Since systematic measurements of Louisiana continental-shelf waters were initiated in 1985, hypoxia (oxygen content hypoxia zone. We constructed a network of 13 PEB records with excess 210Pb-derived chronologies to establish the development of low-oxygen and hypoxic conditions over a large portion of the modern dead zone for the last 100 years. The PEB index record indicates that areas of low-oxygen bottom water began to appear in the early 1910s in isolated hotspots near the Mississippi Delta and rapidly expanded across the entire Louisiana shelf beginning in the 1950s. Since ???1950, the percentage of PEB species has steadily increased over a large portion of the modern dead zone. By 1960, subsurface low-oxygen conditions were occurring seasonally over a large part of the geographic area now known as the dead zone. The long-term trends in the PEB index are consistent with the 20th-century observational and proxy data for low oxygen and hypoxia. ?? 2009 US Government.

  19. Randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis of the 20th century climate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Seitola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a new algorithm called randomised multichannel singular spectrum analysis (RMSSA, which is a generalisation of the traditional multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA into problems of arbitrarily large dimension. RMSSA consists of (1 a dimension reduction of the original data via random projections, (2 the standard MSSA step and (3 a recovery of the MSSA eigenmodes from the reduced space back to the original space. The RMSSA algorithm is presented in detail and additionally we show how to integrate it with a significance test based on a red noise null-hypothesis by Monte-Carlo simulation. Finally, RMSSA is applied to decompose the 20th century global monthly mean near-surface temperature variability into its low-frequency components. The decomposition of a reanalysis data set and two climate model simulations reveals, for instance, that the 2–6 yr variability centred in the Pacific Ocean is captured by all the data sets with some differences in statistical significance and spatial patterns.

  20. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  1. Summary, the 20th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    For advancement of radioisotope in vitro tests such as radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, the Subcommittee for Radioisotope in vitro Test in Medical and Pharmaceutical Committee of Japan Radioisotope Association has conducted the yearly quality control survey for the test facilities in Japan since 1978. This is the summary of the 20th survey in 1998 where non-radioisotope tests like enzyme-immunoassay were involved as well. The survey was done for 143 facilities: 20 national and public university hospitals, 18 private university hospitals, 8 national hospitals, 13 public hospitals, 21 private hospitals, 41 hygienic laboratories and 22 manufacturers of reagents. Facilities examined intra- and between day-reproducibility, freeze-thaw effect and time change of the measured values on the same samples. Assays were for: growth hormone (h), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating h, luteinizing h, prolactin, thyroid stimulating h, triiodothyronines, thyroxines, thyroxine binding protein, calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagons, gastrin, testosterones, estradiol, progesterone, gonadotropin, 17{alpha}-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandorosterone sulfate, renin, IgE, digoxin, {alpha}-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, CA (125, 19-9 and 15-3), prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, {beta}2-microglobulin, ferritin, and neuron specific enolase. There was no great difference between this and last survey results although tendency of improvement was recognized. There were problems to be solved from the standpoint of clinical practice. (K.H.)

  2. René leriche and the development of 20(th) century surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioncioaia, Bogdan; Bud, Ioan Teodor; Muresan, Mircea

    2016-01-01

    René Leriche (1879-1955) was a 20(th) century French surgeon generally known in medicine for the syndrome that carries his name, namely the Leriche syndrome in the aorto-iliac occlusive disease. This paper is published to mark the commemoration of 60 year since Leriche's death. Although Dr. Leriche's legacy resides in the domain of vascular medicine, his research enclosed bone pathology and surgical management of pain. Having his surgical training done under professors Mathieu Jaboulay and Antonin Poncet, his friendship and association with Alexis Carrel and William Halsted have contributed to René Leriche's development as a surgeon, researcher and thinker. Following the footsteps of his mentors, he produced outstanding clinical and academic work which had earned him a good reputation among his students and colleagues. Surgeons such as Jean Kunlin, Jao Cid dos Santos, Michael DeBakey, René Fontaine and others came to study and learn from him. These future generations of surgeons would themselves bring much contribution to the understanding and treatment of vascular diseases and medicine in general. René Leriche pioneered medicine with his research and ideas. His assiduous work of teaching, research and clinical practice made his influence last to our present. PMID:27004042

  3. Development of Foreign Relations of Mongolia in the 1st half of the 20th century : Mongolia's struggle for independence

    OpenAIRE

    Buyanlham Tumurjav; ブヤンルハム トムルジャブ

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is a historical analysis of the development of Foreign Relations of the Mongolian People’s Republic (Mongolia) in the 1st half of the 20th century. The main focus of the research is the struggle of this small nation, sandwiched between two giant neighbors, for its independence, which had been at stake several times in early 20th century. Prior to discussing independence movements in Mongolia, the research analyzed how Mongolia became a subject of another state, the Qing dynasty an...

  4. Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet and Icelandic Glaciers in the 20th Century Using Geodetic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    by bedrock geometry. It is revealed that dynamic ice loss recently seen in the southeast and northwest GrIS also occurred in the northwest between 1985 and 1993, highlighting the difficulty of capturing these events in mass balance models. Extending the record back to the LIA, the results show...... that for the past 110 years, the surface mass balance has been decreasing, while the dynamic term has been constant. The spatial pattern of thinning in the 20th century is identical to that of current change, suggesting this pattern will continue in the near future. The mass change of the GrIS in 20th century...

  5. Experiential Education at Aspen High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1981-01-01

    Aspen High School's (Colorado) Experiential Education Week, developed to provide a "real-world" experience for students from a small, mountain, tourist-oriented community, is planned by both student and faculty; the whole process encourages both self-reliant and responsible students and develops positive student-teacher and peer relationships.…

  6. Lens and cataract research of the 20th century: a review of results, errors and misunderstandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockwin, Otto; Kojima, Masami; Müller-Breitenkamp, Ursula; Wegener, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Lens and cataract research from a clinical, biophysical, biological and mainly biochemical point of view has a long tradition. Already since the beginning of the 20th century research relating to the chemical composition and metabolism of the lens was conducted. With these analyses an attempt was made to understand the existence and maintenance of lens transparency and the mechanisms leading to lens opacities. Around the middle of the century the stationary analyses measuring the content of certain substances in the lens were more and more replaced by the search for dynamic metabolic processes responsible for lens growth, maintenance of transparency and possibly active participation in lens function (such as accommodation). Also the disturbances as a result of ageing or the formation of lens opacities have been investigated and resulted partially in the elucidation of reaction chains, leading from a trigger to the formation of a cataract. Lens biochemistry is no longer a closed book to us, but there are still many question marks. Why were we not able to solve more problems around lens and cataract? The research effort with a remarkable financial input and a great number of scientists worldwide during the second half of the century does not correspond to the results obtained. There must be something wrong with our strategy, our interpretation of the results or even both. We would like to stress some points which might be regarded as errors or misunderstandings in the lens research community, thus preventing a better outcome of the enormous investment of work and money. A great disadvantage is the missing cooperation between clinicians and epidemiologists on one hand and basic lens researchers on the other. Especially the ignorance of basic researchers regarding the clinical problems of the lens and of cataracts might be to blame for several 'errors and misunderstandings'. It is not even so long ago since the slitlamp microscope examination of animals belonged to the

  7. Downscaling 20th century flooding events in complex terrain (Switzerland) using the WRF regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Ulla; Gómez Navarro, Juan Jose; Franke, Jörg; Brönnimann, Stefan; Cattin, Réne

    2016-04-01

    Switzerland has experienced a number of severe precipitation events during the last few decades, such as during the 14-16 November of 2002 or during the 21-22 August of 2005. Both events, and subsequent extreme floods, caused fatalities and severe financial losses, and have been well studied both in terms of atmospheric conditions leading to extreme precipitation, and their consequences [e.g. Hohenegger et al., 2008, Stucki et al., 2012]. These examples highlight the need to better characterise the frequency and severity of flooding in the Alpine area. In a larger framework we will ultimately produce a high-resolution data set covering the entire 20th century to be used for detailed hydrological studies including all atmospheric parameters relevant for flooding events. In a first step, we downscale the aforementioned two events of 2002 and 2005 to assess the model performance regarding precipitation extremes. The complexity of the topography in the Alpine area demands high resolution datasets. To achieve a sufficient detail in resolution we employ the Weather Research and Forecasting regional climate model (WRF). A set of 4 nested domains is used with a 2-km resolution horizontal resolution over Switzerland. The NCAR 20th century reanalysis (20CR) with a horizontal resolution of 2.5° serves as boundary condition [Compo et al., 2011]. First results of the downscaling the 2002 and 2005 extreme precipitation events show that, compared to station observations provided by the Swiss Meteorological Office MeteoSwiss, the model strongly underestimates the strength of these events. This is mainly due to the coarse resolution of the 20CR data, which underestimates the moisture fluxes during these events. We tested driving WRF with the higher-resolved NCEP reanalysis and found a significant improvement in the amount of precipitation of the 2005 event. In a next step we will downscale the precipitation and wind fields during a 6-year period 2002-2007 to investigate and

  8. Intercomparison of an improved 20th Century reanalysis version 2c dataset spanning 1850 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compo, G. P.; Whitaker, J. S.; Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Giese, B. S.; Brohan, P.

    2014-12-01

    The historical reanalysis dataset generated by NOAA ESRL and the University of Colorado CIRES, the Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRv2), is a comprehensive global atmospheric circulation dataset spanning 1871-2012, assimilating only surface pressure and using monthly Hadley Centre SST and sea ice distributions (HadISST1.1) as boundary conditions. It has been made possible through collaboration with GCOS, WCRP, and the ACRE initiative. It is chiefly motivated by a need to provide an observational validation dataset, with quantified uncertainties, for assessments of climate model simulations of the 20th century, with emphasis on the statistics of daily weather. It uses, together with an NCEP global numerical weather prediction (NWP) land/atmosphere model to provide background "first guess" fields, an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation method. This yields a global analysis every 6 hours as the most likely state of the atmosphere, and also yields the uncertainty of that analysis. Improvements in the new version ("2c") include an extension back to 1850 and the specification of new boundary conditions. These come from new fields of monthly COBE-SST2 sea ice concentrations and an ensemble of daily Simple Ocean Data Assimilation with Sparse Input (SODAsi.2c) sea surface temperatures. SODAsi.2c itself was forced with 20CR, allowing these boundary conditions to be more consistent with the atmospheric reanalysis. Millions of additional pressure observations contained in the new International Surface Pressure Databank version 3 are also included. These improvements result in 20CR version "2c" having comparable or better analyses, as suggested by improved 24 hour forecast skill, more realistic uncertainty in near-surface air temperature, and a reduction in spurious centennial trends in the tropical and polar regions. An intercomparison with ERA-Interim, MERRA, and JRA-55 reanalyses that assimilate all available upper-air and satellite observations will

  9. Landscape pattern dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city in the 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOXinxiang; DINGShengyan

    2005-01-01

    Landscape spatial pattern mainly refers to the distribution of patches, which are different in size and shape in space owing to the interaction of various ecological activities. In landscape ecology study, landscape pattern has been one of the key study areas. Water body landscape plays an important role in the development history of a city, but at present city water body landscape in many cities has been destroyed, hence protecting water body in the city is becoming more and more important. In order to protect city water body landscape reasonably, the precondition is to probe the dynamics of water body landscape. Based on historical data and remote sensing data, six indexes including patch number, patch area, landscape dominance index, fractal dimension, patch density and connectivity index etc. were used to analyze landscape pattern dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city since the end of the Qing Dynasty (in the 20th century). The results showed: (1) Since the end of the Qing Dynasty, landscape area of water body in Kaifeng city increased first and then decreased from 1898 to 2002AD; the landscape dominant degree had the same changing tendency with the area. (2) Patch number of water body landscape in Kaifeng city had an increase from 1898 to 2002, but maximum area of patch, minimum area of patch and average area of patch decreased, which resulted in an increase in landscape fragment degree. (3) Connectivity index decreased and fractal dimension increased from 1898 to 2002. The reasons for these changes were the repeated overflows and flooding of the Yellow River and the influence of human activities.

  10. THE POPULATION’S NOMINAL AND REAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor AXENCIUC

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of Romania’s population incomes for a period of a century has not only an incontestable historical importance, but also a social one, as it may give answer to the question what was gained from the viewpoint of the living standard of the population in the 20th century. The issue is approached under two aspects of the economic and social polarisation process, and of the real incomes, and also with respect to the capacity of comparing the main population categories. The differing purposes of the social and ideological systems underwent during this century, and the periods of war and destruction have both triggered a sinuous incomes’ curve with considerable raises and falls of incomes. The final conclusion is that the level of average incomes from 1914 is re-established in the aftermath of the First World War only about 1929, and the year 1938 is situated beneath the pre-crises threshold. World War II and the crisis following it have diminished average incomes to 20 - 25% from the level of the year 1938 and only after 1970 the pre-war threshold is reached again, which is followed in the eighties and nineties by significant growth to be brutally annulled by the transition processes up to 2000, when the average real income is again at the level of the year 1970. It results that the development efforts of six decades, 1939-2000, from the viewpoint of incomes’ level were lost for the majority of the country’s population in favour of a minority that was made rich by the transition.

  11. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Construction of Canada’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. Its varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue into the 21st century. The first major research observatory built with public funding on the West Coast of North America, it was Canada’s first ‘big science’ project. DAO welcomed scientists from around the world to use its 1.8m telescope designed by John Stanley Plaskett working in close collaboration with the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, OH. Their original design was copied seven times around the globe, the last occasion being in the 1960s. From Day 1 the DAO welcomed the public for viewing and interaction with the small scientific staff whose early efforts would today be characterized as ‘Key Projects’. Those efforts included measuring the radial velocities of O and B stars that, interpreted through Oort’s ideas of differential rotation, determined the most reliable estimate of the size and mass of the Milky Way available until radio astronomical techniques emerged in the 1950s. The first organic molecule in interstellar space, CH, was discovered by a DAO astronomer. The first, very puzzling estimate of ~3K for the temperature of interstellar space was deduced from interstellar CN observations a year after interstellar CH and CN were discovered. DAO’s heritage of innovative instrumentation continues to the present day where expertise in optically efficient, mechanically stable spectrographs and adaptive optics are much in evidence at Mauna Kea’s CFHT, Gemini and Subaru observatories. In 2009 the DAO was designated a National Historic Site. This presentation will draw links between DAO, developments of Canadian astronomy and the emergence of Mauna Kea as an exceptional global astronomical reserve.

  12. Meteorological Effects of Land Cover Changes in Hungary during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüszler, Á.; Vig, P.; Csirmaz, K.

    2012-04-01

    Geological, paleontological and geomorphologic studies show that the Earth's climate has always been changing since it came into existence. The climate change itself is self-evident. Therefore the far more serious question is how much does mankind strengthen or weaken these changes beyond the natural fluctuation and changes of climate. The aim of the present study was to restore the historical land cover changes and to simulate the meteorological consequences of these changes. Two different land cover maps for Hungary were created in vector data format using GIS technology. The land cover map for 1900 was reconstructed based on statistical data and two different historical maps: the derived map of the 3rd Military Mapping Survey of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Synoptic Forestry Map of the Kingdom of Hungary. The land cover map for 2000 was derived from the CORINE land cover database. Significant land cover changes were found in Hungary during the 20th century according to the examinations of these maps and statistical databases. The MM5 non-hydrostatic dynamic model was used to further evaluate the meteorological effects of these changes. The lower boundary conditions for this mesoscale model were generated for two selected time periods (for 1900 and 2000) based on the reconstructed maps. The dynamic model has been run with the same detailed meteorological conditions of selected days from 2006 and 2007, but with modified lower boundary conditions. The set of the 26 selected initial conditions represents the whole set of the macrosynoptic situations for Hungary. In this way, 2×26 "forecasts" were made with 48 hours of integration. The effects of land cover changes under different weather situations were further weighted by the long-term (1961-1990) mean frequency of the corresponding macrosynoptic types, to assume the climatic effects from these stratified averages. The detailed evaluation of the model results were made for three different meteorological

  13. Water Quality Loading: Trends in the Northeastern Corridor of US During the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, M.; Vogel, R. M.; Hale, R. L.; Thomas, B.; Hoover, J. H.; Brideau, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Water quality in surface waters is influenced by watershed climate, hydrology, land cover and land use. Inputs from anthropogenic sources, such as fertilizers, wastewater and livestock, can greatly degrade water quality as they are transferred into surface water bodies. It is important to quantify the rate and severity of this transformation in order to minimize water quality damages to water resources. Additionally, throughout the 20th century, land use practices have constantly shifted with technological advancements and increases in population. Export coefficient models are useful regional scale models, which can address non-point pollution sources; however, such models only address land use practices without regard for other inputs to the hydrologic system. While physical models can model the relationships between the hydrologic system, human activities and water quality, such models are complex to develop and only apply to localized areas. Our primary goal is to quantify and characterize the trends in total nitrogen, total phosphorus and BOD loading into surface waters in the Northeast Corridor of the US from 1920-2000. The models combine features of export coefficient models and physical models using streamflow, climate, land use and anthropogenic inputs. Models are developed for 26 watersheds across the Northeast Corridor, which have over 10 years of water quality data. These models are representative of a wide range of land use types and thus may be applied to HUC 8 watersheds within the region. The resulting models describe how land use practices and the hydrologic system have affected water quality for this time period. Cross validation methods are employed to test and evaluate the resulting models.

  14. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  15. Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century

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    Antonio Viñao, España.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a imagem e idéias de e sobre Rousseau transmitidas na Espanha ao magistério primário durante o século 20, através dos manuais de História da Educação e outras fontes similares. Após analisar as fontes utilizadas e seus destinatários, se expõe a imagem e a idéia de Rousseau como pai da pedagogia moderna, predominante nos escritos pedagógicos da época para, em seguida, e a modo de contraste, examinar o lugar e o tratamento dado à Rousseau nos mencionados manuais. Esse exame se divide em duas épocas: a anterior à guerra civil e a posterior, com o fim de mostrar o predomínio, sobre tudo durante o franquismo, de uma visão católica, conservadora, moralizante e crítica do genebriano. Palavras-chave: Rousseau, manuais escolares, educação primária, formação do magistério primário, Espanha (século 20.   Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century Abstract This article deals with Rousseau’s images and ideas present in the school books of History of Education, and other similar sources, used in the training of primary school teachers in Spain during the 20th century. After analyzing the sources used and their addresses, the predominance of Rousseau’s ideas and image as the father of modern pedagogy in the pedagogical literature of this period is explained. Immediately after, by way of contrast, Rousseau’s place and the way of considering him in the above mentioned school books are examined. The above analysis is divided into two periods, before and after the civil war, in order to show the predominance of the catholic-conservative moralizing and critical approach, particularly during francoism. Key-words: Rousseau, school books, primary education, teacher’s training, Spain (20th century.   La recepción de Rousseau en la formación inicial del magisterio primario (España, siglo 20 Resumen Este artículo versa sobre la imagen e ideas de y sobre Rousseau

  16. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them. PMID:26824058

  17. Two-Decade Development, Full of Gratitude——On the 20th Anniversary of Scitech Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On September 1,2007,Scitech Tower warmly celebrated its 20th birthday.As one of the first joint-ventured Office building,Scitech Tower has been insisting on its business principle of "Limited Space,Unlimited Service" and striving for customer satisfaction by improving facilities and providing superior services.Scitech Tower has been enjoying good reputation among its customers.

  18. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century (1910s-1930s). In the main,…

  19. 20th International Symposium on Shiftwork and Working Time: Biological Mechanisms, Recovery, and Risk Management in the 24-h Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecklund, L.G.; Milia, L. Di; Axelsson, J.; Lowden, A.; Äkerstedt, T.

    2012-01-01

    This dedicated issue of Chronobiology International is devoted to the selected proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Shift Work and Working Time held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28 June to 1 July 2011. It constitutes the fifth such issue of the journal since 2004 dedicated to the selected pro

  20. Example of health hazard: people killed by gas during a phreatic eruption: Dieng Plateau (Java, Indonesia), February 20th 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guern, F. (Lab. mixte CNRS-CEA, Yvette, France); Tazieff, H.; Faivre Pierret, R.

    1982-01-01

    On February 20th, 1979, 142 inhabitants of Dieng Plateau (Indonesia) were asphyxiated by poisonous gases during a mild phreatic eruption. From later fields gas collection and analysis, the casualties are considered to be due to CO/sub 2/ rich volcanic gases.

  1. Representations of Technology in the "Technical Stories" for Children of Otto Witt, Early 20th Century Swedish Technology Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge…

  2. Sexism in Advertising Industry Through the Study of Auto Magazine Advertisements in Late 20th Century Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination against female in advertising industry appears to be ubiquitous especially in late 20th century.I intend to demonstrate that auto ads are under the influence of common gender stereotype which discriminates women as an inferior role in the society.

  3. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  4. MINING ENTREPRENEURS IN CROATIA FROM THE MID-19TH TO THE MID-20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The masters, or owners, of mining rights for the exploration of ores were prospectors and free or independent prospectors. Concession books and registers were kept about the proprietors of ore fields or mines. In them was entered, among other things, which ore was planned to be exploited. The possessor of a licence, permits for exploration and exploitation of ores, paid a certain fee every year. He could also sell his mining righis. in the shape of permits, partially or, more frequently, totally, as was recorded in the books. If he did not pay taxes, he could lose all his rights, which were then deleted, or crossed out of the mining books. Those who possessed mining permits had to solve the questions of compensation to the owners of the lands where they intended to do detailed explorations, and to exploit the ore, even to the extent of leasing or buying the land. The mining activity in Croatia between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries is richly documented in the (Imperial and Royal mining captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar and Split. The basic mining law was the General Austrian Mining Law of 1854, with its amendments of 1911 (Legal Article VI about mineral oil substances and natural gases. In Croatia, mining enterpreneurs were individuals or companies (including the slate with the proviso that at the beginning there were more foreigners. However, Croatian traders, industrialists, magnates, officials, bankers, various companies, engineers, artists, retired persons, peasants, officers and others soon became involved in mining. Among the entrepreneurs there were various noblemen. It has been ascertained in this research that in individual periods between 1855 and 1945 there was a dominance of individuals (mainly 81%-85% while today (1990-1995 it is quite the opposite (86% are companies, because this is the end of the long term control of the socially owned companies. Thes same situation obtains today with respect to exploitation licenses, where

  5. Rumours about the Po Valley earthquakes of 20th and 29th May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Longa, Federica; Crescimbene, Massimo; Camassi, Romano; Nostro, Concetta

    2013-04-01

    The history of rumours is as old as human history. Even in remote antiquity, rumours, gossip and hoax were always in circulation - in good or bad faith - to influence human affairs. Today with the development of mass media, rise of the internet and social networks, rumours are ubiquitous. The earthquakes, because of their characteristics of strong emotional impact and unpredictability, are among the natural events that more cause the birth and the spread of rumours. For this reason earthquakes that occurred in the Po valley the 20th and 29th May 2012 generated and still continue to generate a wide variety of rumours regarding issues related to the earthquake, its effects, the possible causes, future predictions. For this reason, as occurred during the L'Aquila earthquake sequence in 2009, following the events of May 2012 in Emilia Romagna was created a complex initiative training and information that at various stages between May and September 2012, involved population, partly present in the camp, and then the school staff of the municipalities affected by the earthquake. This experience has been organized and managed by the Department of Civil Protection (DPC), the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), the Emilia Romagna region in collaboration with the Network of University Laboratories for Earthquake Engineering (RELUIS), the Health Service Emilia Romagna Regional and voluntary organizations of civil protection in the area. Within this initiative, in the period June-September 2012 were collected and catalogued over 240 rumours. In this work rumours of the Po Valley are studied in their specific characteristics and strategies and methods to fight them are also discussed. This work of collection and discussion of the rumours was particularly important to promote good communication strategies and to fight the spreading of the rumours. Only in this way it was possible to create a full intervention able to supporting both the local institutions and

  6. Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In

  7. Variation in surface air temperature of China during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, Willie; Dutta, Koushik; Legates, David R.; Velasco, Victor; Zhang, Weijia

    2011-10-01

    The 20th century surface air temperature (SAT) records of China from various sources are analyzed using data which include the recently released Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project dataset. Two key features of the Chinese records are confirmed: (1) significant 1920s and 1940s warming in the temperature records, and (2) evidence for a persistent multidecadal modulation of the Chinese surface temperature records in co-variations with both incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere as well as the modulated solar radiation reaching ground surface. New evidence is presented for this Sun-climate link for the instrumental record from 1880 to 2002. Additionally, two non-local physical aspects of solar radiation-induced modulation of the Chinese SAT record are documented and discussed.Teleconnections that provide a persistent and systematic modulation of the temperature response of the Tibetan Plateau and/or the tropospheric air column above the Eurasian continent (e.g., 30°N-70°N; 0°-120°E) are described. These teleconnections may originate from the solar irradiance-Arctic-North Atlantic overturning circulation mechanism proposed by Soon (2009). Also considered is the modulation of large-scale land-sea thermal contrasts both in terms of meridional and zonal gradients between the subtropical western Pacific and mid-latitude North Pacific and the continental landmass of China. The Circum-global teleconnection (CGT) pattern of summer circulation of Ding and Wang (2005) provides a physical framework for study of the Sun-climate connection over East Asia. Our results highlight the importance of solar radiation reaching the ground and the concomitant importance of changes in atmospheric transparency or cloudiness or both in motivating a true physical explanation of any Sun-climate connection. We conclude that ground surface solar radiation is an important modulating factor for Chinese SAT changes on multidecadal to centennial timescales. Therefore, a

  8. Disastrous floods and landslides in Portugal in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Ivânia; Zêzere, José Luis

    2010-05-01

    The record and analysis of statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses have been made worldwide in recent years. The development of natural disasters databases is crucial for risk management purposes, because it allows improving systems of indicators on disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales. During the last century, Portugal was affected by several destructive natural disasters, namely of hydrologic (floods) and geomorphologic (landslides) origin. However, only recently risk prevention and management was assumed to be a national priority by the Portuguese Government. The basic information on past floods and landslides that occurred in Portugal is disperse and incomplete, and this is a shortcoming for the implementation of effective disaster mitigation measures, particularly when it is expectable an increase of frequency, magnitude, dimension and complexity of the hydro-geomorphologic phenomena resulting from climate change. In this work we present a preliminary assessment of hydro-geomorphologic disasters occurred in Portugal during the 20th century, based on the systematic survey of daily national newspapers. We included into a database those floods and landslides that produced, alternatively, dead people, injured people, missing people, evacuated and homeless. A total of 937 hydro-geomorphologic events were registered. In addition to physical and material damages, these events produced economic losses amounting to millions Euros. Our attention will focus on the geographic distribution and the temporal dimension of disastrous floods and landslides occurred in Portugal, and the temporal trends of hydro-geomorphologic disasters will be presented. The preliminary results shown that disastrous floods and landslides have been more frequent on the most populated regions of Portugal: the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto. In addition, data shows that disastrous hydrologic and geomorphologic phenomena were more

  9. Translating MAPGEN to ASPEN for MER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg R.; Knight, Russell L.; Lenda, Matthew; Maldague, Pierre F.

    2013-01-01

    This software translates MAPGEN (Europa and APGEN) domains to ASPEN, and the resulting domain can be used to perform planning for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER). In other words, this is a conversion of two distinct planning languages (both declarative and procedural) to a third (declarative) planning language in order to solve the problem of faithful translation from mixed-domain representations into the ASPEN Modeling Language. The MAPGEN planning system is an example of a hybrid procedural/declarative system where the advantages of each are leveraged to produce an effective planner/scheduler for MER tactical planning. The adaptation of the planning system (ASPEN) was investigated, and, with some translation, much of the procedural knowledge encoding is amenable to declarative knowledge encoding. The approach was to compose translators from the core languages used for adapting MAGPEN, which consists of Europa and APGEN. Europa is a constraint- based planner/scheduler where domains are encoded using a declarative model. APGEN is also constraint-based, in that it tracks constraints on resources and states and other variables. Domains are encoded in both constraints and code snippets that execute according to a forward sweep through the plan. Europa and APGEN communicate to each other using proxy activities in APGEN that represent constraints and/or tokens in Europa. The composition of a translator from Europa to ASPEN was fairly straightforward, as ASPEN is also a declarative planning system, and the specific uses of Europa for the MER domain matched ASPEN s native encoding fairly closely. On the other hand, translating from APGEN to ASPEN was considerably more involved. On the surface, the types of activities and resources one encodes in APGEN appear to match oneto- one to the activities, state variables, and resources in ASPEN. But, when looking into the definitions of how resources are profiled and activities are expanded, one sees code snippets that access

  10. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, John C. H. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehner, Michael F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical

  11. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    multiple speakers, presenters listed on link below

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, �New Data From the Energy Frontier.� There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week�s events included a public lecture (�The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson� given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics caf� geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was �Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter.� It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled �What Makes Up Dark Matter.� There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics caf� to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: quaking aspen [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available quaking aspen Populus tremuloides Populus_tremuloides_L.png Populus_tremuloides_NL.png Populus_trem...uloides_S.png Populus_tremuloides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+trem...uloides&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NL http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NS ...

  13. Abaxial Greening Phenotype in Hybrid Aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Julia S; Douglas, Carl J; Cronk, Quentin C B

    2013-04-24

    The typical angiosperm leaf, as in Arabidopsis, is bifacial consisting of top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces readily distinguishable by the underlying cell type (palisade and spongy mesophyll, respectively). Species of the genus Populus have leaves that are either conventionally bifacial or isobilateral. Isobilateral leaves have palisade mesophyll on the top and bottom of the leaf, making the two sides virtually indistinguishable at the macroscopic level. In poplars this has been termed the "abaxial greening" phenotype. Previous work has implicated ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) as an essential determinant of palisade mesophyll development. This gene, as well as other genes (84 in all) putatively involved in setting the dorsiventral axis of leaves, were investigated in two Populus species: black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and hybrid aspen (P. tremula x tremuloides), representative of each leaf type (bifacial and isobilateral, respectively). Poplar orthologs of AS1 have significantly higher expression in aspen leaf blade and lower in the petiole, suggestive of a potential role in the isobilateral leaf phenotype consistent with the previously observed phenotypes. Furthermore, an ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) ortholog has significantly lower expression in aspen leaf tissue, also suggesting a possible contribution of this gene to abaxial greening.

  14. Abaxial Greening Phenotype in Hybrid Aspen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S. Nowak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The typical angiosperm leaf, as in Arabidopsis, is bifacial consisting of top (adaxial and bottom (abaxial surfaces readily distinguishable by the underlying cell type (palisade and spongy mesophyll, respectively. Species of the genus Populus have leaves that are either conventionally bifacial or isobilateral. Isobilateral leaves have palisade mesophyll on the top and bottom of the leaf, making the two sides virtually indistinguishable at the macroscopic level. In poplars this has been termed the “abaxial greening” phenotype. Previous work has implicated ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1 as an essential determinant of palisade mesophyll development. This gene, as well as other genes (84 in all putatively involved in setting the dorsiventral axis of leaves, were investigated in two Populus species: black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa and hybrid aspen (P. tremula x tremuloides, representative of each leaf type (bifacial and isobilateral, respectively. Poplar orthologs of AS1 have significantly higher expression in aspen leaf blade and lower in the petiole, suggestive of a potential role in the isobilateral leaf phenotype consistent with the previously observed phenotypes. Furthermore, an ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS ortholog has significantly lower expression in aspen leaf tissue, also suggesting a possible contribution of this gene to abaxial greening.

  15. Automated Design Space Exploration with Aspen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle L. Spafford

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Architects and applications scientists often use performance models to explore a multidimensional design space of architectural characteristics, algorithm designs, and application parameters. With traditional performance modeling tools, these explorations forced users to first develop a performance model and then repeatedly evaluate and analyze the model manually. These manual investigations proved laborious and error prone. More importantly, the complexity of this traditional process often forced users to simplify their investigations. To address this challenge of design space exploration, we extend our Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation language with three new language constructs: user-defined resources, parameter ranges, and a collection of costs in the abstract machine model. Then, we use these constructs to enable automated design space exploration via a nonlinear optimization solver. We show how four interesting classes of design space exploration scenarios can be derived from Aspen models and formulated as pure nonlinear programs. The analysis tools are demonstrated using examples based on Aspen models for a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform, the CoMD molecular dynamics proxy application, and the DARPA Streaming Sensor Challenge Problem. Our results show that this approach can compose and solve arbitrary performance modeling questions quickly and rigorously when compared to the traditional manual approach.

  16. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... alternatives, within the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project area. The purpose of the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project is to implement land management activities that...

  17. Aspen Characteristics - Plumas National Forest, FRRD [ds375

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents point locations and associated stand assessment data collected within aspen stands in the Plumas National Forest, Feather River Ranger...

  18. Aspen Characteristics - El Dorado National Forest [ds363

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents aspen stand locations and field assessments conducted in the Eldorado National Forest, Eldorado and Amador Counties, California. Data was...

  19. Inventory of aspen trees in spruce dominated stands in conservation area

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Maltamo; Annukka Pesonen; Lauri Korhonen; Jari Kouki; Mikko Vehmas; Kalle Eerikäinen

    2015-01-01

    Background The occurrence of aspen trees increases the conservation value of mature conifer dominated forests. Aspens typically occur as scattered individuals among major tree species, and therefore the inventory of aspens is challenging. Methods We characterized aspen populations in a boreal nature reserve using diameter distribution, spatial pattern, and forest attributes: volume, number of aspens, number of large aspen stems and basal area median diameter. The data were collecte...

  20. Aspen Open Solver接口技术研究%Study on Aspen Open Solver Interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智强; 陈曦; 邵之江; 张正江

    2007-01-01

    Aspen Open Solver接口集中的非线性代数方程组(NLA)部分作为研究对象,在对接口集进行系统地分析之后,利用AspenTech提供的接口代码将分别基于梯度和非基于梯度的四种求解算法嵌入生成solver组件,并实现用Aspen Plus调用该solver组件观察各种算法嵌入的结果.

  1. Ecosystem evolution of seal colony and the influencing factors in the 20th century on Fildes Peninsula, West Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Huang; Liguang Sun; Xinming Wang; Yuhong Wang; Tao Huang

    2011-01-01

    As the topmost predator in Antarctica,the seal is a unique indicator of Antarctic environment and climate changes.In this study,we collected a sediment core from the Fildes Peninsula of West Antarctica,and used cholesterol,cholestanol,epicoprostanol,coprostanol,and seal hair numbers as the proxy indicators of seal population size and phytol as of general vegetation,and we reconstructed the 20th century history of variation of the seal population and vegetation abundance on this island.The sealing industry in the early 20th century caused the dramatic decline of seal population,and the ban of seal hunting since the 1960s led to its recovery of seal population.The seal population during the past century was primarily controlled by human activities and krill density.The reconstructed relation between seal population and vegetation abundance may offer new insights into Antarctic environment and ecology.

  2. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ershova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological

  3. [Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstädter, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century, PMID:22822609

  4. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  5. PLOT REELED INTO AN EKPHRASIS IN BELLES LETTRES OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasil’evna Astaschenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plots reeled into the ekphrasis have always existed. In belles lettres of the beginning of the 20th century, the fight between the pagan and the Christian manifests in the opposition of scenic space and it creates a powerful «magnetic» field. This is a special type of mythologism in which the Christian imagery is on the positive side of the binary opposition with its respective system of ethical coordinates. In «polytheistic systems, the presentations of evil is static as of the essential and eternal beginning of the world», but in the orthodox Christianity, the devil is a ghost, lure, disembodied temptation and «with every day it approaches nonexistence» (from the «Moralia» of the 6th century by Gregory the Great. However, Gregory the Great also notes that the power of Satan is from God as all other powers, he just distorted his power with his God-given free will. Even at the level of worldly wisdom aphorisms there is a conventional belief that our shortcomings are the continuation of our merits, and therefore it is necessary to adhere to the golden mean. Accroding to A. Gracheva in the book «Dialogues of Janus: Belles lettres and classics in the Russian literature of the early twentieth century», at the beginning of the 19th century, the mythologism of the spontaneous and not experimental type (often encyclopaedic and «algebraic» like in the works of Joyce and Bely, is especially pronounced in the works of writers, who are close to mass literature with their democracy or «boudoir» and especially in the works of female writers. This is due both to existing archetypes of the collective unconscious (some of which are even atavistic and «migratory plots» which are characteristic of both folklore and popular culture. Despite the compelling erotic subject matter, belles lettres is not always frivolous and, on the contrary, it is edifying and full of moral questions, which are sometimes rhetorical: «What is a sin and what does the

  6. Developing and Transition Economies in the Late 20th Century: Diverging Growth Rates, Economic Structures, and Sources of Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Codrina Rada; Lance Taylor

    2006-01-01

    This study reviews the growth and development performance of developing countries in the latter part of the 20th century. Sustained growth among “successful” countries was accompanied by structural change in terms of output and labour share shifts, trade diversification, sustained productivity growth with some strong reallocation effects due to movements of labour from low to high productivity sectors. Neither the widely accepted “twin deficits” nor the “consumption-smoothing” behaviour views...

  7. A general overview of the literature for children in the first part of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Rudina Alimerko

    2011-01-01

    Although in the first decades of the 20th century the Albanian literature for children did not recognize any distinguished literary work, a series of liberation insurrections in north and south as well as the Declaration of Independence in 1912 show the great efforts of our Renaissance figures who were teachers, ideologists and active participants in the armed movement. All this big issues in the life of Albanian people as well as their freedom-loving spirit become the inspiration of many the...

  8. Socio-spatial segregation and housing in Brazil between late 19th and the early 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Edmilson Soares; Leandro Bruno Santos

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to analysis the Brazilian city between late 19th and the early 20th century, when there are structural changes in the economic, social and political framework that will lead to new forms of production and consumption of the city and housing. It overlaps the archaic matrix of colonial trait a new guise that disguised as modern has only exacerbated their dramatic njustices, leading to production of a segregated urban space, both socially and space terms. The access to land...

  9. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Ershova, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two ...

  10. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-10-26

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

  11. Trade and the flag:integration and conflict in 19th and early 20th century deglobalization

    OpenAIRE

    Chase-Dunn, Chris; Anders Carlson; Chris Schmitt; Shoon Lio; Richard Niemeyer; Hanneman, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The density and contours of networks of transnational and international economic integration are hypothesized by many theorists to be causally related to the patterns of cooperation and conflict. [1] The usual notion is that trade creates ties of symmetrical interdependence, which are likely to inhibit conflict. We seek to test this hypothesis in the 19th and early 20th century run-up to World War I. We examine the relationship between the structure of conflict and the contours of trade ties ...

  12. Ukrainian-Polish-Russian relations as covered by Volyn periodicals of the 19th-20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Bila, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews historical and regional studies publications of Volyn periodicals in the 19th-20th centuries, which covered the Ukrainian-Polish-Russian relations. Their key theme lines are indicated, specifically a socio-economic line which addressed social inequality problems,  enslavement of Ukrainian peasants by Polish gentry at the time when some Ukrainian regions were a part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; a religious line which covered consequences of Polonization, threats to ...

  13. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  14. Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Jungclaus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean–atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

  15. The reversal of the relation between economic growth and health progress: Sweden in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A; Ionides, Edward L

    2008-05-01

    Health progress, as measured by the decline in mortality rates and the increase in life expectancy, is usually conceived as related to economic growth, especially in the long run. In this investigation it is shown that economic growth is positively associated with health progress in Sweden throughout the 19th century. However, the relation becomes weaker as time passes and is completely reversed in the second half of the 20th century, when economic growth negatively affects health progress. The effect of the economy on health occurs mostly at lag 0 in the 19th century and is lagged up to 2 years in the 20th century. No evidence is found for economic effects on mortality at greater lags. These findings are shown to be robustly consistent across a variety of statistical procedures, including linear regression, spectral analysis, cross-correlation, and lag regression models. Models using inflation and unemployment as economic indicators reveal similar results. Evidence for reverse effects of health progress on economic growth is weak, and unobservable in the second half of the 20th century.

  16. CCR 20th anniversary commentary: Radioactive Drones for B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Susan J; Levy, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    In a study published in the March 1, 1996, issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Knox and colleagues (1) demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Yttirium-90 ((90)Y)-anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy, as well as the benefit of preinfusion of unlabeled antibody on radiolabeled antibody biodistribution. Subsequent clinical trials with this radiolabeled antibody led to regulatory approval of this treatment for B-cell lymphoma. See related article by Knox et al., Clin Cancer Res 1996;2(3) Mar 1996; 457-70.

  17. CCR 20th anniversary commentary: Radioactive Drones for B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Susan J; Levy, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    In a study published in the March 1, 1996, issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Knox and colleagues (1) demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Yttirium-90 ((90)Y)-anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy, as well as the benefit of preinfusion of unlabeled antibody on radiolabeled antibody biodistribution. Subsequent clinical trials with this radiolabeled antibody led to regulatory approval of this treatment for B-cell lymphoma. See related article by Knox et al., Clin Cancer Res 1996;2(3) Mar 1996; 457-70. PMID:25646179

  18. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World…

  19. THE NATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE ROMANIAN POPULATION AT THE 20TH OF OCTOBER 2011 CENSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. P. POP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The National Structure of the Romanian Population at the 20th of October 2011 Census. This is the third study regarding the national structure of the population of Romania. The first two approached the 1992 and 2002 censuses and were published in Studia UBB, Geographia, 2 (1991 and the Romanian Review of Political Geography (20042. On the census day, Romania had 20,121,641 inhabitants, of which 83.45% (16,792,868 are Romanians, while the other 16.55% belong to: Hungarians 6.10% (1,227,623 inhabitants, Gypsies 3.09% (621,573 people, other 18 national minorities (Ukrainians, Germans, Turks, Russian-Lipovans, Tartars, Serbs, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Croats, Greek, Italians, Jews, Czechs, Poles, Chinese, Armenians, Csangos, Macedonians and the category “other national groups” have together only 1.21% (242,767 inhabitants. There is also a category of people for which the information was ”unavailable”, totaling 6.15% (1,236,810 people of the Romanian population (fig. 1. As requested to assess the essential issues of such a subject, one needs to analyze the distribution of the national minorities across Romania, at the level of the counties and the eight geographical-historical provinces of Romania: Transylvania, Moldavia, Dobrudja, Muntenia, Oltenia, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş. Generally, regarding the presence of the Romanian population, one notices the following situation at the level of the counties: in 18 counties of the total of 41 in Romania, the weight of the Romanian population is over 90%, including all the eight Moldavian counties (Bacău, Botoşani, Galaţi, Iaşi, Neamţ, Suceava, Vaslui, Vrancea, six out of the ten counties of Muntenia (Argeş, Brăila, Buzău, Dâmboviţa, Prahova, Teleorman and four out of five counties of Oltenia (Dolj, Gorj, Olt, Vâlcea. The highest weight of Romanians is recorded in the counties of Gorj (94.17% and Botoşani (94.08%. A weight between 80 and 90% was recorded in five out of the ten counties of

  20. Aspen Competition Drives Innovative Ideas for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    When Valencia College became the first recipient of the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence last month, an unsung sector earned uncommon recognition. Now that the speeches are over and the prize money has been awarded, the Aspen Institute is sharing early lessons from its yearlong effort to determine the top community college in the…

  1. What Is Community College Excellence? Lessons from the Aspen Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyner, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Over the past year, in a process to select the winner of the Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence, the Aspen Institute has convened national experts to define and determine how to measure "excellence," to identify community colleges with high levels of student success, and to help more community colleges understand what can be done to…

  2. Aspen Handbook on the Media: Research, Publications, Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, William L., Ed.; Slater, William T., Ed.

    The Aspen Program on Communications and Society represents a major attempt to bring together men, ideas, and institutions to pioneer in the communications field, to identify the main communications issues confronting society, and to develop effective programs to implement these policies. This handbook was compiled as a result of an Aspen program…

  3. Polyploidy in aspen alters plant physiology and drought sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, B.; Still, C. J.; Brooks, J. R.; Meinzer, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Polyploids of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) may be better suited to dry climatic conditions than diploids. However, the expression of diploid and polyploid functional traits, including water use efficiency, an important component of drought avoidance and tolerance, are not well understood in quaking aspen. In this study diploid and triploid aspen clones' leaf, ramet, and stand functional traits were measured near the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory in Gothic, Colorado. The physiology of diploid and triploid aspen, including leaf size, chlorophyll content, stomatal size and density and stomatal conductance, as well as growth rates and carbon isotope discrimination in response to climate (measured in tree rings), were found to be significantly different between ploidy levels. These findings demonstrate different sensitivities of diploid and triploid clones to drought related climate stressors which may impact strategies for aspen forest management and conservation.

  4. ASPEN PLUS在化工设计中的应用%ASPEN PLUS Applications in Chemical Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚

    2011-01-01

    Using the ASPEN PLUS simulation methanol-water distillation separation,through sensitivity analysis and mapping tools to optimize the design.%使用ASPEN PLUS模拟甲醇一水精馏分离,通过灵敏度分析和绘图工具优化设计。

  5. Consistent QBO-dependent effect of geomagnetic activity on the Northern Annular Mode during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliniemi, Ville; Asikainen, Timo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2016-04-01

    Several earlier studies have shown that geomagnetic activity (GA), as a proxy for energetic particle precipitation into the atmosphere, affects the winter-time Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which is the dominant circulation pattern in the northern hemisphere during winter. It has also been found that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) modulates the relationship between GA and NAM. However, some of the earlier studies on this QBO modulation have been mutually conflicting, with some studies suggesting a stronger positive relation in the easterly phase of the QBO, while other studies suggest a stronger positive relation in the westerly phase of the QBO. Here we study the QBO-GA-NAM relationship using a QBO reconstruction covering the whole 20th century. We find that the QBO modulation of the GA-NAM relation is temporally variable, which explains the earlier, seemingly differing results. Positive GA-NAM relation is found to be valid in the easterly QBO phase at 30 hPa during the whole 20th century. We also find that the QBO at 30 hPa represents the Holton-Tan relation for the surface circulation better than QBO at 50 hPa, and that the Holton-Tan relation is only observed during early/mid winter, while an anti-Holton-Tan relation is found in the late winter for strong geomagnetic activity. These results emphasize the variable but systematic response of NAM to energetic particle precipitation during the entire 20th century, and underline the importance of considering the preconditioning of the atmosphere when studying the solar-related effects upon climate.

  6. Jeewanu, or the `particles of life’ The approach of Krishna Bahadur in 20th century origin of life research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mathias Grote

    2011-09-01

    Starting in the 1960s, the Indian chemist Krishna Bahadur, from the University of Allahabad, published on organic and inorganic particles that he had synthesized and baptized `Jeewanu’, or `particle of life’. Bahadur conceived of the Jeewanu as a simple form of the living. These studies are presented in a historical perspective and positioned within mid-20th century research on the origin of life, notably the so-called `coacervate theory’ of the Soviet biochemist Aleksandr I Oparin. The concepts of life proposed by Bahadur, Oparin and others are discussed from a historical standpoint.

  7. The influence of inequality on the standard of living: worldwide anthropometric evidence from the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    We provide empirical evidence on the existence of the Pigou-Dalton principle. The latter indicates that aggregate welfare is - ceteris paribus - maximized when incomes of all individuals are equalized (and therefore marginal utility from income is as well). Using anthropometric panel data on 101 countries during the 19th and 20th centuries, we determine that there is a systematic negative and concave relationship between height inequality and average height. The robustness of this relationship is tested by means of several robustness checks, including two instrument variable regressions. These findings help to elucidate the impact of economic inequality on welfare. PMID:23352274

  8. Jeewanu, or the 'particles of life'. The approach of Krishna Bahadur in 20th century origin of life research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Mathias

    2011-09-01

    Starting in the 1960s, the Indian chemist Krishna Bahadur, from the University of Allahabad, published on organic and inorganic particles that he had synthesized and baptized 'Jeewanu', or 'particle of life'. Bahadur conceived of the Jeewanu as a simple form of the living. These studies are presented in a historical perspective and positioned within mid-20th century research on the origin of life, notably the so-called 'coacervate theory' of the Soviet biochemist Aleksandr I Oparin. The concepts of life proposed by Bahadur, Oparin and others are discussed from a historical standpoint.

  9. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For t....... Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females....

  10. The life-cycle of Barcelona and Madrid book-publishing districts in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Catalan; Guillermo Gil-Mugarza

    2013-01-01

    Spain ranks among the world?s top five countries as far as value of book exports is concerned. One of the features of this industry is that, at the beginning of the century, the Spanish book publishing sector as a whole was considered backward by those who knew the sector firsthand. Another one is that book production is largely concentrated in two towns: Barcelona and Madrid. The book-publishing industries of Barcelona and Madrid during the 20th century had similar sizes and shared the three...

  11. Two hegemonies – two technological regimes : American and Norwegian whaling in the 19th and 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Basberg, Bjørn L.

    2006-01-01

    The 19th century whaling industry was dominated by the United States while the 20th century industry had its origins in Norway and was dominated for years by that nation. The focus of the paper, is to explore the relationship between the two so-called hegemonic whaling nations. Specifically, we are looking for encounters between the two industries that in one way or another may explain why the Norwegians did not enter into traditional pelagic whaling in the mid 19th century, an...

  12. Dialogue of cultures and cultural primitivism in anti-utopian novel of the first half of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Dolzhenko, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the dialogue of cultures as it is represented in the antiutopian novels of the first half of the 20th century. The author points out the typological features of the novels “We” by Evgeny Zamyatin, “Brave New World” by Aldous Huxley and “1984” by George Orwell and investigates the place and the role of the dialogue of cultures in the light of Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept and tendency toward cultural primitivism as the result of totalitarian influence in ...

  13. Development of the metallurgical industry in the Dnieper region of Ukraine at the beginning of the 20th century (1900–1917)

    OpenAIRE

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.; Yevseeva, H. P.; Peretokin, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Peculiarities of the metallurgical industry development in the Dnieper region of Ukraine at the beginning of the 20 th century are regarded in the article. The beginning of the 20th century was characterized by the difficult social-economic and political situation. Different aspects of the industrial development of the Dnieper region in the beginning of the 20th century were regarded in the works of the well-known researchers D. I. Shpoliansky, P. O. Khromov, A. L. Tsukernik, O. O. Nesterenko...

  14. Genetic diversity in aspen and its relation to arthropod abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Vornam, Barbara; Volmer, Katharina; Prinz, Kathleen; Kleemann, Frauke; Köhler, Lars; Polle, Andrea; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The ecological consequences of biodiversity have become a prominent public issue. Little is known on the effect of genetic diversity on ecosystem services. Here, a diversity experiment was established with European and North American aspen (Populus tremula, P. tremuloides) planted in plots representing either a single deme only or combinations of two, four and eight demes. The goals of this study were to explore the complex inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity of aspen and to then relate three measures for diversity (deme diversity, genetic diversity determined as Shannon index or as expected heterozygosity) to arthropod abundance. Microsatellite and AFLP markers were used to analyze the genetic variation patterns within and between the aspen demes and deme mixtures. Large differences were observed regarding the genetic diversity within demes. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the total genetic diversity was found within demes, but the genetic differentiation among demes was also high. The complex patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation resulted in large differences of the genetic variation within plots. The average diversity increased from plots with only one deme to plots with two, four, and eight demes, respectively and separated plots with and without American aspen. To test whether intra- and interspecific diversity impacts on ecosystem services, arthropod abundance was determined. Increasing genetic diversity of aspen was related to increasing abundance of arthropods. However, the relationship was mainly driven by the presence of American aspen suggesting that species identity overrode the effect of intraspecific variation of European aspen.

  15. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor. PMID:21936227

  16. A multidisciplinary approach of the status of women in Europe in the 20th-21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was marked by the feminine revolution and the change of status of women throughout the world. The following article wishes to approach from a multidisciplinary perspective the contrasting differences of the woman’s condition in two different “worlds” (Occidental and the Balkans given the access of women towards education, social attitude and the afferent politics for women. These indexes influence the rate of participation of women in the working field, thus, they play a crucial role in the personal development of them. The comparative analysis of the specialized literature points out the main characteristics of women from France and Germany (as defining parts of the Occidental Europe and Turkey and Bosnia (representative countries for the Balkans and the Islamic part of the continent throughout the 20th and the 21st century. Although there is a common set of features, it is the differences that draw attention regarding the unequal participation of women in the social, economical and political life.

  17. Socio-spatial segregation and housing in Brazil between late 19th and the early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Soares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analysis the Brazilian city between late 19th and the early 20th century, when there are structural changes in the economic, social and political framework that will lead to new forms of production and consumption of the city and housing. It overlaps the archaic matrix of colonial trait a new guise that disguised as modern has only exacerbated their dramatic njustices, leading to production of a segregated urban space, both socially and space terms. The access to land and the State participation are central to the explanation of theses inequalities. The methodological procedures include bibliographic survey, selection and reading, data compilation, data and information systematization, data analysis. We conclude that, between late 19th and early 20th century, the Brazilian cities are the product of urbanization whose logic state intervention produced clear inequalities between sectors of the city, because it favored those spaces fitted with infrastructure at the expense of the shortage of rest of the city.

  18. Response of the everglades ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, C.E.; Willard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The ridge and slough landscape of the Florida Everglades consists of a mosaic of linear sawgrass ridges separated by deeper-water sloughs with tree islands interspersed throughout the landscape. We used pollen assemblages from transects of sediment cores spanning sawgrass ridges, sloughs, and ridge-slough transition zones to determine the timing of ridge and slough formation and to evaluate the response of components of the ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management. These pollen data indicate that sawgrass ridges and sloughs have been vegetationally distinct from one another since initiation of the Everglades wetland in mid-Holocene time. Although the position and community composition of sloughs have remained relatively stable throughout their history, modern sawgrass ridges formed on sites that originally were occupied by marshes. Ridge formation and maturation were initiated during intervals of drier climate (the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age) when the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted southward. During these drier intervals, marsh taxa were more common in sloughs, but they quickly receded when precipitation increased. Comparison with regional climate records suggests that slough vegetation is strongly influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation variability, even under 20th-century water management practices. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Collective Memory and Collective Identity of Hlučín Region Inhabitants in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kubátová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hlučín Region is a small border area in the Moravia-Silesia Region. Its history is specific. Over 25 years in the 20th century, its border shifted three times and its inhabitants’ nationality also changed three times. The region was annexed by the German Reich in 1938 and its inhabitants gained the rights of citizens of the Reich, with the obligation to enlist in the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Germany. These historical turning points and their consequences after the Second World War are part of the cultural and communicative memory of most of the local people. The purpose of the article is to show the communicative memory of Hlučín Region inhabitants and the common knowledge of 20th century historical events to be one of the important integral parts of regional identity, which is a source of regional consciousness. Hlučín Region inhabitants identify themselves strongly with their region and society. This identification results from specific culture finding its expression in shared values, faith and traditions, and from the awareness of their own specificity. As a consequence of the predominant regional endogamy, this culture is handed down from one generation to another. Strong regional consciousness based on this identification, has a positive influence on the rich communal life and possibilities of stabilization and further development of the region.

  20. The controversial early brightening in the first half of 20th century: a contribution from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain)

    CERN Document Server

    Antón, M; Aparicio, A J P

    2014-01-01

    A long-term decrease in downward surface solar radiation from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming") followed by a multi-decadal increase up to the present ("brightening") have been detected in many regions worldwide. In addition, some researchers have suggested the existence of an "early brightening" period in the first half of 20th century. However, this latter phenomenon is an open issue due to the opposite results found in literature and the scarcity of solar radiation data during this period. This paper contributes to this relevant discussion analyzing, for the first time in Southern Europe, the atmospheric column transparency derived from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain) for the period 1911-1928. This time series is one of the three longest dataset during the first quarter of the 20th century in Europe. The results showed the great effects of the Katmai eruption (June 1912, Alaska) on transparency values during 1912-1913 with maximum relative anomalies around 8%. Outside the period affect...

  1. International dimensions of higher education in nursing in Canada: tapping the wisdom of the 20th century while embracing possibilities for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Linda D; Paul, Pauline; Burgess-Pinto, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    New focus on the internationalization of universities occurred in the late 20th century and higher education in nursing has been quick to embrace the opportunities. In this manuscript, writers provide a brief overview of the nursing and more general literature from the late 20th century relating to key dimensions of internationalization, as well as present data from a survey conducted in 1995-96 of the international activities and dimensions at Canadian faculties/schools of nursing. While it is clear that nurses in Canadian universities were engaged in significant international endeavours in the 20th century, the literature and our experience suggest that the extent of such activity has increased substantially in recent years. Discussion centres on examination of how knowledge generated in the 20th century can inform current internationalization initiatives and on identification of key questions that merit consideration as we move forward in the 21st century.

  2. The dawning of the theory of equilibrium figures: a brief historical account from the 17th through the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Iurato, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A brief but complete historical survey of the theory of equilibrium figures from its early origins, dating back to 17th-century, until the late 20th-century developments, with a view towards its applications, is carried out.

  3. Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. III. From the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991 to the End of the Century

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, N.; Kaštelan-Macan (ur.), M.; Paušek-Baždar, S.; Vančik, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this last part of our attempt to present briefly the history of Croatian chemistry in the 20th century, the development of chemistry in the Republic of Croatia, established as an independent state on June 25th, 1991 is outlined. The last 10 years of the 20th century are characterized first by defense of the country by arms until 1995, and then until the end of century, and after the constructive building of the foundations of Croatia....

  4. Aspen Grupp võitis RKASi / Lemmi Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Lemmi

    2008-01-01

    Ehitusfirma Aspen Grupp OÜ võitis Tallinna ringkonnakohtus Riigi Kinnisvara AS-i, kes diskvalifitseeris ehitusfirma riigihankelt seaduses olnud maksevõlgnevuse keelu tõttu. Vt. samas: Lahendust ootavad veel kaks kohtuasja

  5. Increase of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere wave baroclinicity during the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Castanheira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A strengthening of the equatorward temperature gradient in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS, at subtropics and midlatitudes, is consistently reproduced in several modelling studies of the atmospheric response to the increase of greenhouse gas radiative forcing. Some of those studies suggest an increase of the baroclinicity in the UTLS region because of the enhanced meridional temperature gradient.

    This study presents observational evidence of an increase of UTLS wave baroclinicity, during the second half of the 20th century. The evidence is given by significant positive trends in the energy of baroclinic normal modes of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and significant positive trends in the eddy available potential energy of the ERA-40 reanalysis as well as in the eddy available potential energy of the JRA-25 reanalysis. Significant positive trends in the frequency of double tropopause events in radiosonde data are also interpreted as a manifestation of an increase of the UTLS wave baroclinicity.

  6. Metallographic study of articles of the Kamensk iron foundry and iron works produced in the 18th-20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gizhevski, B. A.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Naumov, S. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    Results have been presented for studies of the microstructure and chemical composition of a number of articles made of iron and cast iron at the Kamensk plant, which cover the period from the start of the production of iron on the territory of the city of Kamensk-Ural'skii at the turn of the 17th-18th centuries to the beginning of the 20th century. Differences in the composition of the Kamensk cast iron and modern grades of foundry cast iron have been established. Possible sources of technological difficulties and production waste at the Kamensk plant have been revealed. The potential of metallographic studies for the attribution of historical articles made of ferrous metals are shown.

  7. Borders, laborers, and racialized medicalization Mexican immigration and US public health practices in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Natalia

    2011-06-01

    Throughout the 20th century, US public health and immigration policies intersected with and informed one another in the country's response to Mexican immigration. Three historical episodes illustrate how perceived racial differences influenced disease diagnosis: a 1916 typhus outbreak, the midcentury Bracero Program, and medical deportations that are taking place today. Disease, or just the threat of it, marked Mexicans as foreign, just as much as phenotype, native language, accent, or clothing. A focus on race rendered other factors and structures, such as poor working conditions or structural inequalities in health care, invisible. This attitude had long-term effects on immigration policy, as well as on how Mexicans were received in the United States.

  8. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  9. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  10. Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

    2005-11-01

    At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

  11. Modeling Arctic Ocean heat transport and warming episodes in the 20th century caused by the intruding Atlantic Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jia; JIN Mei-bing; Jun Takahashi; Tatsuo Suzuki; Igor V Polyakov; Kohei Mizobata; Moto Ikeda; Fancois J.Saucier; Markus Meier

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the Arctic Ocean warming episodes in the 20th century using both a high-resolution coupled global climate model and historical observations. The model, with no flux adjustment, reproduces well the Atlantic Water core temperature (AWCT) in the Arctic Ocean and shows that four largest decadalscale warming episodes occurred in the 1930's, 70s, 80s, and 90s, in agreement with the hydrographic observational data. The difference is that there was no pre-warming prior to the 1930s episode, while there were two pre-warming episodes in the 1970s and 80s prior to the 1990s, leading the 1990s into the largest and prolonged warming in the 20th century. Over the last century, the simulated heat transport via Fram Strait and the Barents Sea was estimated to be, on average, 31.32 TW and 14.82TW, respectively, while the Bering Strait also provides 15.94 TW heat into the western Arctic Ocean. Heat transport into the Arctic Ocean by the Atlantic Water via Fram Strait and the Barents Sea correlates significantly with AWCT ( C =0.75 ) at Olag. The modeled North Atlantic Oscillation ( NAO ) index has a significant correlation with the heat transport ( C = 0.37 ). The observed AWCT has a significant correlation with both the modeled AWCT (C =0.49) and the heat transport (C =0.41 ).However, the modeled NAO index does not significantly correlate with either the observed AWCT (C =0.03 ) or modeled AWCT (C = 0. 16) at a zero-lag, indicating that the Arctic climate system is far more complex than expected.

  12. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opuni Marjorie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of λ against the null that λ = 0 (logarithmic model and against the null that λ = 1 (linear model. We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log

  13. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 20th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME 09) (Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009) Selected papers from the 20th Micromechanics Europe Workshop (MME 09) (Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Patrick

    2010-06-01

    This special section of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 20th European Workshop on Micromechanics (MME 2009), which was held in Toulouse, France, 20-22 September 2009. The MME workshop series started in 1989 in Twente and was the first European event created in the field of micro machining technology for developing micro components, micro sensors, micro actuators, and micro systems. Over the last two decades the MEMS community has grown considerably, and the MME workshops have sustained this progress through annual meetings all around Europe: Twente (The Netherlands, 1989), Berlin (Germany, 1990), Leuven (Belgium, 1992), Neuchatel (Switzerland, 1993), Pisa (Italy, 1994), Copenhagen (Denmark, 1995), Barcelona (Spain, 1996), Southampton (United Kingdom, 1997), Ulvik (Norway, 1998), Gif-sur-Yvette (France, 1999), Uppsala (Sweden, 2000), Cork (Ireland, 2001), Sinaia (Romania, 2002), Delft (The Netherlands, 2003), Leuven (Belgium, 2004), Goteborg (Sweden, 2005), Southampton (United Kingdom, 2006), Guimaraes (Portugal, 2007) and Aachen (Germany, 2008). For twenty years, MME conferences have provided an excellent opportunity to bring together many, predominantly European, scientists and engineers to present and discuss the latest developments in this field. For the 20th anniversary of the MicroMechanics Europe Workshop, 115 papers from 23 countries were submitted. Selected contributions were presented during four poster sessions, including short oral presentations. A very interesting feature of the MME workshops is their ability to promote young researchers. Six invited speakers from research centres and industry also gave an overview on advanced technological, characterization and simulation tools. The two day workshop was attended by 185 delegates from 22 countries all over Europe, and from Japan, Taiwan, USA and Mexico. On behalf of the MME 2009 Program Committee, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all authors of

  14. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  15. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is

  16. Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will analyze economic and political migration in the Gora region at the end of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st century. It is my intent to consider and explain their cause and their intensity and scope. In short, I view the socioeconomic and political dimension of these migrations from an ethnological and anthropological point of view. The economic and political migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century represent the continuation of earlier migrations, albeit more intensive and larger in scope (whole families are migrating. There migrations can be viewed as the effects of political changes in Kosovo, as well as the socioeconomic crisis of the 1990’s. There are no fixed boundaries between these types of migrations, and the only truly stand out examples are the cases in which people migrated for safety reasons. A certain type of migration can be identified based on the terminology used by the interlocutors. I have encountered the terms “banishment” and “displacement” in the narrative discourse of my interlocutors. These terms are used to describe the migrations from Gora during the 1999 war, as well as immediately after. The differences between economic and political migrants can be gouged from other factors such as going to Gora during vacations and holidays as well as investing money into real-estate in the region. Individuals who emigrated from Gora because they feared for their and the loves of their families go to Gora rarely (to attend funerals for example and are not currently thinking of investing unlike those who had left Gora as economic migrants. There are no differences when it comes to where people migrate to for different reasons. Places of migration can, however, be indicative of the form of migration in the sense of whether people migrated to a foreign country or not. One can turn into the other due to the changing of state borders. Thus

  17. Systematic recover of long high-resolution rainfall time series recorded by pluviographs during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.; Deidda, Roberto; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Piga, Enrico; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    During most of the 20th century, precipitation has been continuously measured by means of the so-called "pluviographs", i.e. rain gauges including a mechanical apparatus for continuously recording the depth of water from precipitation on specific strip charts, usually on a weekly basis. The signal recorded on such strips was visually examined by trained personnel on a regular basis, in order to extract the daily precipitation totals and the maximum precipitation intensities over short periods (from a few minutes to hours). The rest of the high-resolution information contained in the signal was usually not extracted, except for specific cases. A systematic recovering of the entire information at high temporal resolution contained in these precipitation signals would provide a fundamental database to improve the characterization of historical rainfall climatology during the previous century. The Department of Land Engineering of the University of Cagliari has recently developed and tested an automatic software, based on image analysis techniques, which is able to acquire the scanned images of the pluviograph strip charts, to automatically digitise the signal and to produce a digital database of continuous precipitation records at the highest possible temporal resolution, i.e. 5 to 10 minutes. Along with that, a significant amount of daily precipitation totals from the late 19th and the 20th century, either elaborated from pluviograph strip charts or simply derived from bucket rain gauges, still exists in paper form, but it has never been digitalized. Within a project partly-funded by the Operational Programme of the European Union "Italia-Francia Marittimo", the Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia and the University of Cagliari will recover both the high-resolution rainfall signals and the older time series of daily totals recorded by a large number of pluviographs belonging to the historical monitoring networks of the island of Sardinia. Such data

  18. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less man-power rises.Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. The Automated-Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN)tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the ASE project's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  19. Increase of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere wave baroclinicity during the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gimeno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A strengthening of the equatorward temperature gradient in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS, at subtropics and midlatitudes, is consistently reproduced in several modelling studies of the atmospheric response to the increase of greenhouse gas radiative forcing. Some of those studies suggest an increase of the baroclinicity in the UTLS region because of the enhanced meridional temperature gradient.

    This study presents observational evidence of an increase of the baroclinic wave components of UTLS circulation (UTLS wave baroclinicity, during the second half of the 20th century. The evidence is given by significant positive trends in the energy of baroclinic normal modes of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and significant positive trends in the UTLS eddy available potential energy of the NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40, NCEP-2 and JRA-25 reanalyses. Significant positive trends in the frequency of double tropopause events in radiosonde data are also interpreted as a manifestation of an increase of the UTLS wave baroclinicity.

  20. The problems of national history in the school literature of the 18th - beginning of the 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramkin O. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of historical literature allows to consider profoundly the development of national culture and science of the 18th-first half of the 20th centuries and the formation and change of different historical concepts. With the analysis of historical periods that are highlighted in the research, general trends in the changing of paradigms about Russian historical development were concluded, which were translated to mass historical consciousness from the beginning of the 18th century up to 1917. The periods were closely connected with the specific political, historical and economic changes in Russian Empire and with the dominance of certain textbooks during this time. The books were selected because of a number of factors: their inclusion to the school curriculum, the number of publications (10 and more, the equal number of textbooks devoted to different historical periods. For the analysis were used 19 textbooks, schoolbooks for different courses of secondary schools and primary schools. All the sources of educational literature were grouped into two concepts - officially-state (patriotic and the liberal. Each publication was highlighted the dominant concept as a base for the whole textbook. There is also a characteristic of the concepts that are presented chronologically. The analysis represents school history books as an important source for the formation of state policy in the representing of Russian history, and, that is more important, for creation of the concept of the state of Russian history.

  1. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  2. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  3. Time with or without death: Researching death in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Topics of ethnological research, as well as scientific discourse in general often represent the mirror of social reality. This paper researches the ways in which dealing with death and current ethnological approaches in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century, reflect the Zeitgeist. The intensity and the quality of interests for this important anthropological theme varied during the researched period, wherefore it is possible to differentiate two types of works and authors: those who write about funeral rituals, and those who 'read' them. From 1980s until nowadays there are three subgroups of contributions to this theme that reflect critical moments of the contemporary Serbian history. The issues raised in this paper are the following: The way in which state/society regards death the way in which it structures death, the way in which it gives meaning to death, as well as the usage of death for political purpose and the constant effort of civilization to repress it into oblivion.

  4. Proceedings of the 20th anniversary conference: Water management in the '90s. A time for innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings contains papers presented at the 20th anniversary conference of ASCE's Water Resources Planning and Management Division held in Seattle, Washington, May 1-5, 1993. The conference theme is an acknowledgement of the need for water resources professionals to face major challenges in managing diminishing supplies for ever-increasing demands, in protecting valuable watersheds from urban and agricultural pollution, and in building and maintaining critical infrastructure with limited financial resources. The papers in this proceedings reflect a practical, problem-solving focus with emphasis on novel solutions for current and near future challenges. Included are papers from three symposia held as part of the conference: (1) Urban runoff and the Environment, (2) Water Supply and Conservation, and (3) the National Drought Study. Other topics covered include: computer-aided decision support systems, the Endangered Species Act impact on major water systems, international disasters, geographic information systems, global warming, and hydropower planning. Individual papers are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  5. The death of "Till death us do part": the transformation of pair-bonding in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, William M

    2002-01-01

    During the last half of the 20th century within Western civilization, for the first time in human history, divorce replaced death as the most common endpoint of marriage. In this article I explore the history of this death-to-divorce transition, the forces associated with the transition, and what the transition may have revealed about the human capacity for monogamous, lifelong pair-bonding. The impact and consequences of the transition for the generations that came of age during it and immediately afterwards are examined, with particular attention to the emergence of new, alternative pair-bonding structures such as cohabitation and nonmarital co-parenting. The article highlights the inability of the dichotomous marriage-versus-being-single paradigm to encompass the new pair-bonding structures and the normalizing of divorce. Precepts for a new, more encompassing, veridical and humane pair-bonding paradigm are presented, and some of their implications for social policy, family law, social science, and couple and family therapy are elaborated. PMID:12140958

  6. Fighting for Anatomy. Overview regarding two prestigious Romanian anatomists of the 20th century: Victor Papilian and Grigore T. Popa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    During many centuries, the progress of Anatomy was based on the perseverant and laborious activities done by anatomists. Their work can be considered as a fight for Anatomy. A particular problem arouse when this fight is excessively done and it limits the ability to correctly analyze the contribution made by other scientists in the same domain. This situation was identified at different personalities who lived in the same time and were involved in the same fundamental field of research. If, theoretically, the similarities between scientists should get them closer, in order to have a better communication, the antagonisms can lead them to rivalry. Our paper exemplifies a historical case in which the personages are Victor Papilian (1888-1956) and Grigore T. Popa (1892-1948). The resemblances between these two famous Romanian anatomists from the first half of the 20th century induced an evident scientific rivalry. Papilian and Popa brought a significant contribution in anatomy. Each of them was very much appreciated by his students. It is interesting that both of them had achievements in literature. We present the reasons of their disagreement and its consequences. Paradoxically, not the contrasts, but the resemblances between their strong characters produced a sort of animosity between them. This attitude diminished in time and their successors - Ioan Albu from the Cluj Faculty of Medicine and Ion Iancu from the Jassy Faculty of Medicine - had a long lasting and successful cooperation. PMID:27151732

  7. Changes in carbon fluxes and pools induced by cropland expansion in South and Southeast Asia in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A process-based ecosystem model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM, was applied to evaluate the effects of cropland expansion on terrestrial carbon fluxes and pools in South and Southeast Asia in the 20th century. The results indicated that cropland expansion in both regions has resulted in a release of 18.26 Pg C into the atmosphere in the study period. Of this amount, approximately 23 % (4.19 Pg C was released from South Asia and 77 % (14.07 Pg C from Southeast Asia. More land area was converted to cropland but less carbon was emitted in South Asia than in Southeast Asia, where forest biomass and soil carbon are significantly higher. Carbon losses in vegetation, soil organic matter, and litter carbon pools accounted for 15.09, 2.01, and 1.60 Pg C, respectively. Significant decreases in vegetation carbon occurred across most regions of Southeast Asia due to continuous cropland expansion and depletion of natural forests. Our study also indicated that it is important to take into account the land use legacy effect when evaluating the contemporary carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wisser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations. The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. The sensitivity of the results to variations in input data was tested by using three global gridded datasets of precipitation.

    Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction of reservoirs has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans annually, however, are governed primarily by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing a minor role. Globally, we do not find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century.

    The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes such as ability to decompose organic matter or the cycling of nutrients in the river system.

  9. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, D.; Fekete, B. M.; Vörösmarty, C. J.; Schumann, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities) and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations). The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. The sensitivity of the results to variations in input data was tested by using three global gridded datasets of precipitation. Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction of reservoirs has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans annually, however, are governed primarily by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing a minor role. Globally, we do not find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century. The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes such as ability to decompose organic matter or the cycling of nutrients in the river system.

  10. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wisser

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th Century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations. The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans, however, are governed by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing secondary role. Globally, we do find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century.

    The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes.

  11. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  12. Louis Nico Marie Duysens (March 15, 1921-September 8, 2015): a leading biophysicist of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindjee; Pulles, M P J

    2016-06-01

    Louis Nico Marie (L. N. M.) Duijsens (Duysens) was one of the giants in the biophysics of photosynthesis. His PhD thesis "Transfer of Excitation Energy in Photosynthesis" (Duysens, 1952) is a classic; he introduced light-induced absorption difference spectroscopy to photosynthesis research and proved the existence of reaction centers, introducing advanced methods from physics to understand biological processes. Further, it is his 1959-1961 seminal work, with Jan Amesz, that provided evidence for the existence of the series scheme for the two light reactions in oxygenic photosynthesis. In one word, he was one of the master biophysicists of the 20th century-who provided direct measurements on many key intermediates, and made us understand the intricacies of photosynthesis with a simplicity that no one else ever did. We present here our personal perspective of the scientist that Lou Duysens was. For an earlier perspective, see van Grondelle and van Gorkom (Photosynth Res 120: 3-7, 2014). PMID:27039907

  13. Floodplain lakes as an archive for the metal pollution in the River Elbe (Germany) during the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A floodplain sediment sequence (about 1900–1998) was analyzed on potentially harmful elements. • High sediment contamination by industry restricted to unstable metal binding forms. • After closure of industries (1990) the level of floodplain contamination perpetuates. • Antagonistic binding forms indicate a sensitive equilibrium in sediments. • Floodplain management requires the stabilization of the environmental equilibrium. - Abstract: The German Elbe River floodplains rank under the most polluted areas in Europe. A sudden concentration increase of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is documented in sediment profiles of Elbe bayous. The increase is dated to the mid of the 20th century (137Cs) and indicates industrialization of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) as the source of intense pollution. The collapse of the GDR and the industries in the 1990s is traced by a concentration decrease in young sediments. The contamination is restricted to an increase of unstable binding forms; the hydroxide binding form is predominant. The geogenic concentration portions are of normal level and remain stable throughout the profiles (0–2 m). The equilibrium of contradictory binding forms in the sediments makes it mandatory not to interfere with the thermodynamic conditions and to keep the Elbe floodplain as an undisturbed ecological system

  14. Evolution of forest cover in Portugal:A review of the 12th-20th centu-ries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fernando Reboredo; João Pais

    2014-01-01

    Portugal’s forests in the 12th century were dominated by the Fagaceae represented by Quercus and Castanea, and several pine species. From the 12th century onwards, forests underwent changes in their man-agement starting with protection and ultimately leading to intense ex-ploitation. The massive naval construction during the maritime expansion (mainly in the 15th-16th centuries) involved felling of approximately 5 million trees mainly Quercus suber, Pinus pinea and other Quercus species. Cumulative fuel-wood consumption of 959 Mm3 during 1300-1854 was attributed to demographic expansion while the deforesta-tion rate during 1636-1854 accounted for a minimum of 72.6% and a maximum of 96% of total forest cover. The volume of timber used in railway sleepers from 1856 onwards might have reached 0.5 Mm3. The last quarter of the 20th century increased the forest cover of Portugal through the World Bank program of Eucalyptus globulus reforestation.

  15. Predicting U.S. food demand in the 20th century: a new look at system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Mukund; Cellier, Francois E.; LaFrance, Jeffrey T.

    1998-08-01

    The paper describes a new methodology for predicting the behavior of macroeconomic variables. The approach is based on System Dynamics and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. A four- layer pseudo-hierarchical model is proposed. The bottom layer makes predications about population dynamics, age distributions among the populace, as well as demographics. The second layer makes predications about the general state of the economy, including such variables as inflation and unemployment. The third layer makes predictions about the demand for certain goods or services, such as milk products, used cars, mobile telephones, or internet services. The fourth and top layer makes predictions about the supply of such goods and services, both in terms of their prices. Each layer can be influenced by control variables the values of which are only determined at higher levels. In this sense, the model is not strictly hierarchical. For example, the demand for goods at level three depends on the prices of these goods, which are only determined at level four. Yet, the prices are themselves influenced by the expected demand. The methodology is exemplified by means of a macroeconomic model that makes predictions about US food demand during the 20th century.

  16. Aspen Plus功能扩展方法探讨%Discussions on Method of Function Development for Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原璐; 吕海霞; 项曙光

    2005-01-01

    对化工过程模拟软件Aspen Plus的用户模型的开发进行了分析,探讨了Aspen Plus用户模型开发步骤和编写方法.Aspen Plus支持6种用户模型,其编写除了要遵循一个通用的规则外,针对每一种用户模型又有不同的定义方式.用户模型的编译和连接通过Aspen Plus提供的编译程序aspcomp和asplink来完成,最终生成一个目标模块文件或动态连接库.将该目标模块文件或动态连接库复制到Aspen Plus的执行目录下,即完成一个用户模型的开发全过程.最后给出一个具体用户模型的例子,以帮助用户熟悉该方法.

  17. 78 FR 46312 - Spruce Beetle Epidemic and Aspen Decline Management Response; Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Forest Service Spruce Beetle Epidemic and Aspen Decline Management Response; Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and...,000 acres of aspen forests have experienced substantial mortality from insects and diseases over the..., juniper and ponderosa pine to Engelmann spruce, subalpine fir, and quaking aspen. Tree ring records...

  18. 20th Century trends and budget implications of trihalomethanes and dihalomethanes inferred from North GRIP firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the three firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~40% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~19% at the beginning of the 21st Century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the northern hemisphere have increased over the 20th Century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  19. 20th century human pressures drive reductions in deepwater oxygen leading to losses of benthic methane-based food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Simon; Millet, Laurent; Verneaux, Valérie; Lami, Andrea; David, Etienne; Murgia, Laurie; Parent, Claire; Musazzi, Simona; Gauthier, Emilie; Bichet, Vincent; Magny, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Freshwater lakes play a key role in the global carbon cycle as sinks (organic carbon sequestration) and sources (greenhouse gas emissions). Understanding the carbon cycle response to environmental changes is becoming a crucial challenge in the context of global warming and the preponderance of human pressures. We reconstructed the long-term (1500 years) evolution of trophic functioning of the benthic food web, based on methanotrophic ancient DNA and chironomid isotope analyses). In addition, human land use is also reconstructed in three different lakes (eastern France, Jura Mountains). Our findings confirm that the benthic food web can be highly dependent on methane-derived carbon (up to 50% of the chironomid biomass) and reveal that the activation of this process can correspond to a natural functioning or be a consequence of anthropic perturbation. The studied lakes also showed a similar temporal evolution over the last century with the disappearance of the profundal aquatic insects (Chironomidae, Diptera), considered as keystone for the whole lake food web (e.g., coupling benthic-pelagic), inducing a potential collapse in the transfer of methane to top consumers. This functional state, also called the dead zone expansion, was caused by the change in human land-use occurring at the beginning of the 20th century. The strong modification of agro-pastoral practices (e.g., fertilization practices, intensive grazing, and sewage effluent) modified the influx of nutrients (by diffuse and/or point-source inputs) and induced a significant increase in the trophic status and organic matter sedimentation to reach unprecedented values. Further studies should be planned to assess dead zone expansion and, according to the regime shift theory, to provide environmental tipping points for sustainable resource management.

  20. The emergence of the "motoneuron concept": from the early 19th C to the beginning of the 20th C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, François; Barbara, Jean-Gaël

    2011-08-29

    This article addresses the emergence of the "motoneuron concept," i.e., the idea that this cell had properties of particular advantage for its control of muscle activation. The motor function of the ventral roots was established early in the 19th C and the term "motor cell," (or "motor nerve cell") was introduced shortly thereafter by Albrecht von Kölliker and some other histologists. They knew that motor cells were among the neurons with the largest soma in vertebrates and for this reason they were, and remained for many decades, the best and most studied neuronal model. The work of clinicians like Guillaume Duchenne de Boulogne and Jean-Martin Charcot on motor degenerative syndromes began before a clear description of motor cells was available, because it was initially more difficult to establish whether the deficits of paralysis and muscle weakness were due to neuronal or muscular lesions. Next, the pioneering physiologist, Charles Sherrington, who was influenced greatly by the anatomical contributions and speculations of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, used the term, "motor neuron," rather than motor cell for the neuron that he considered was functionally "the final common path" for providing command signals to the musculature. In the early 20th C he proposed that activation of a motor neuron resulted from the sum of its various excitatory and inhibitory CNS inputs. The contraction of motor neuron to "motoneuron(e)" was put into common usage by John Fulton (among possibly others) in 1926. The motoneuron concept is still evolving with new discoveries on the horizon.

  1. MONARCHIC SENTIMENTS IN THE RUSSIAN SOCIETY IN EARLY 20th CENTURY: THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDYING THE ARCHIVAL SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alexandrovna KAPTELINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains source analysis of the contents of letters, addressed to the Master Council of the Union of Russian People (URP and «Russian Banner» newspaper editorial office, which have been preserved in the State Archive of the Russian Federation. The author focuses on the issue of public sentiments in the Russian society after the revolutionary events of 1905-1907.The novelty of this study is related to the database de-velopment and search of the formal-quantitative methods of processing the content of Black Hundreds’ letters that increases their informative value.Letters addressed to the URP Master Council and the «Russian Banner» newspaper editorial office are mass-scaled and weakly structured sources. The information they contain is of «multi-layer» nature and is «intangible» within a particular document. The information becomes accessible on the level of the formal quantitative analysis of the whole bunch of letters.The article thoroughly describes the methodology of creating the database, its structure, informative value of archival materials selected that have provided basis for creating the database.This study has resulted in creation of the data base ena-bling to put together separate materials of the Archive Fund of the URP, to process the information of the whole block of historical sources and apply the formal quantita-tive analysis methods to the Black Hundreds’ letters for increasing their informative feedback. Thanks to the use of such database it became possible to reveal the peculi-arities of monarchists’ public sentiments that are record-ed in the sources and are not expressed in explicit forms.The database is a universal tool that can be applied for other blocks of sources, which allow to study public mood of citizens of the Russian Empire in the early 20th century.

  2. Global aridification in the second half of the 20th century and its relationship to large-scale climate background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The variation in surface wetness index (SWI), which was derived from global gridded monthly precipi- tation and monthly mean surface air temperature datasets of Climatic Research Unit (CRU), from 1951― 2002 over global land was analyzed in this paper. The characteristics of the SWI variation in global continents, such as North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia, were compared. In addition, the correlation between the SWI variation of each continent (or across the globe) and the large-scale background closely related to SST variations, which affects climate change, was analyzed. The results indicate that the SWI variation shows distinct regional characteristics in the second half of the 20th century under global warming. A drying trend in the last 52 years occurred in Africa, Eurasia, Australia and South America, most obviously in Africa and Eurasia. North America shows a wetting trend after 1976. A 30-year period of dry-wet oscillation is found in South America and Australia; the latest is in a drying period in two regions. The results also revealed that global warming has changed the dry-wet pattern of the global land. South America and Australia have a drying trend despite in- creases in precipitation. This indicates that increases in surface air temperature cannot be ignored in aridification studies. Global dry-wet variation is closely related to large-scale SST variations: the drying trend in Africa and Eurasia and the wetting trend in North America are correlated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO); the interdecadal oscillation of SWI in South America and Australia is consistent with the interdecadal variation in Southern Oscillation Index (SOI).

  3. Global aridification in the second half of the 20th century and its relationship to large-scale climate background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA ZhuGuo; FU CongBin

    2007-01-01

    The variation in surface wetness index (SWI), which was derived from global gridded monthly precipitation and monthly mean surface air temperature datasets of Climatic Research Unit (CRU), from 1951 -2002 over global land was analyzed in this paper. The characteristics of the SWI variation in global continents, such as North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, and Australia, were compared. In addition, the correlation between the SWI variation of each continent (or across the globe) and the large-scale background closely related to SST variations, which affects climate change, was analyzed.The results indicate that the SWl variation shows distinct regional characteristics in the second half of the 20th century under global warming. A drying trend in the last 52 years occurred in Africa, Eurasia,Australia and South America, most obviously in Africa and Eurasia. North America shows a wetting trend after 1976. A 30-year period of dry-wet oscillation is found in South America and Australia; the latest is in a drying period in two regions. The results also revealed that global warming has changed the dry-wet pattern of the global land. South America and Australia have a drying trend despite increases in precipitation. This indicates that increases in surface air temperature cannot be ignored in aridification studies. Global dry-wet variation is closely related to large-scale SST variations: the drying trend in Africa and Eurasia and the wetting trend in North America are correlated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO); the interdecadal oscillation of SWl in South America and Australia is consistent with the interdecadal variation in Southern Oscillation Index (SOI).

  4. Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albinas Mocevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

  5. Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents – Mendoza, Argentina, 16th–20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009 with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation. In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

  6. The 20th century transitions in basic and extreme monsoon rainfall indices in India: Comparison of the ETCCDI indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Dileep K.; Panigrahi, P.; Mohanty, S.; Mohanty, R. K.; Sethi, R. R.

    2016-11-01

    The mean and extreme matrices of the monsoon rainfall in India not only play an important role in depicting the global monsoon climate, but also their spatiotemporal patterns influence the socio-economic profile of a major proportion of the country's huge population. Given the reported conflicting trends at the global and national scales, the present study investigates the 20th century (1901-2004) changes in monsoon rainfall of India, particularly focusing the indices developed by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) to facilitate a global comparison. Result of this comprehensive analysis, which includes the response of fifteen indices over two study periods (i.e., 1901-1940 and 1961-2004), indicates clear signals of change with respect to the period and region of study and the choice of the ETCCDI indices. While wet day frequency, low-to-moderate events and consecutive wet days (CWD) exhibit a prominent transition from a pre-1940 wetting to a post-1960 drying tendency over a large part of the central-north India (CNI), both the wet and dry extremes have occurred in a spatially less consistent manner during the recent decades. For consecutive dry days (CDD), the reported less clear global signals could be related to the timescale of analysis, as our sub-seasonal scale results display consistent changes compared to that of the seasonal and annual scales. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) provides clear indications of a post-1960 non-stationarity, showing changes in the mean as well as variance. Based on the partial Mann-Kendall test (PMK), some of the identified rainfall trends during 1961-2004 are found to be influenced more by the tropical Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures than the El Niño-Southern Oscillation index. These results have important implications for formulating the water resource management strategy, particularly over the drying central and northern parts of the country.

  7. Stevens’ forgotten crossroads: The divergent measurement traditions in the physical and psychological sciences from the mid-20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A McGrane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The late 19th and early 20th Centuries saw the consolidation in physics of the three main traditions that predominate in discussions of measurement theory. These are: (i the systematic tradition pioneered by Maxwell; (ii the representational tradition pioneered by Campbell; and (iii the operational tradition pioneered by Bridgman (1927. These divergent approaches created uncertainty about the nature of measurement in the physical sciences and provided Stevens (1946 with an opportunity and rationale to, in effect, reinvent the definition of scientific measurement. Stevens appropriated the representational and operational traditions as the sole basis for his definition of measurement, excluding any place for the systematic approach. In committing to Stevens’ path, the psychological sciences were blinded to the advances made in metrology, the establishment of the International System (SI and the standard units contained within this system. These advances were only possible due to the deep conceptual and instrumental connections between the system of physical units and the body of physical theory and laws developed over the preceding centuries. It is argued that if the psychological sciences are to ever achieve equivalent methodological advances, they must bridge this ‘metrological gap’ created by Stevens’ measurement crossroads and understand the ways in which the systematic approach advanced measurement. This means that psychological measurement needs to be de-abstracted, rid of operational rules for numerical assignment and set upon a foundation of quantitative theory, definition and law. In the absence of such theoretical foundations, claims of measurement in the psychological sciences remain a methodological chimera.

  8. Aspen Plus 7.3在精馏设计中的应用%The Application of Aspen Plus 7.3 in Distillation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛科创; 许航线

    2014-01-01

    Aspen Plus 7.3作为化工设计的首选软件,得到了众多化工爱好者的青睐。以Aspen Plus 7.3在精馏设计中的应用为例,介绍了Aspen Plus 7.3在化工设计中的步骤和方法,为我们进行化工设计和原有工艺改进提供了方法。%Aspen Plus 7.3 as the chemical engineering design software of the first choice have liked by many chemical enthusiasts. This paper shows that Aspen Plus 7.3 in the chemical design steps and methods for us to carry out chemical process design and improvement of existing methods by Aspen Plus 8.0 in distillation design application as an example.

  9. Educating about Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography. Research in Curriculum and Instruction. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Educating About Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography, is comprised of critical essays accompanied by annotated bibliographies on a host of programs, models, strategies and concerns vis-a-vis teaching and learning about social issues facing society. The primary goal of the book is to provide undergraduate…

  10. Changes in Vascular Plant Biodiversity in the Netherlands in the 20th Century Explained by their Climatic and other Environmental Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Van der Meijden, R.; Udo de Haes, H.A. [Nationaal Herbarium Nederland/Leiden University Branch, P.O. Box 9514, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Van ' t Zelfde, M. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    In the Netherlands nation-wide databases are available with about 10 million records of occurrences of vascular plant species in the 20th century on a scale of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. These data were analysed with a view to identifying relationships between changes in botanical biodiversity and climatic and other environmental factors. Prior to analysis the data were corrected for several major forms of survey bias. The records were broken down into three periods: 1902-1949, 1975-1984 and 1985-1999. Using multiple regression analysis, differences between successive periods were related to plant functional characteristics as explanatory variables. Between the periods 1902-1949 and 1975-1984 there were small but significant increases in the presence of both thermophilic ('warm') and psychrophilic ('cold') species. However, in the final decades of the 20th century there was a marked increase in thermophilic species only, coinciding with the marked increase in ambient temperature observed during this period, evidence at least of a rapid response of Dutch flora to climate change. Urbanisation was also examined as an alternative explanation for the increase in thermophilic plant species and was found to explain only 50% of the increased presence of such species in the final decades of the 20th century. Besides temperature-related effects, the most important change during the 20th century was a strong decline in oligotrophic and a marked increase in eutrophic plant species.

  11. History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, Arie H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

  12. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Gian Luigi; Dionisi, Davide; Federico, Stefano; Congeduti, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy) during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  13. American Journalism Historians Association Annual Convention (London, Ontario, Canada, October 3-5, 1996). Part II: Selecting Papers Covering the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The 17 papers in this collection all deal with 20th-century journalism, journalists, and mass media. The papers and their authors are: "Building One's Own Gallows: The Trade Publications' Reaction to a Federal Shield Law, 1972-1974" (Karla Gower); "The Useful Ogre: Sweden's Use and Views of American Television, 1956-62" (Ulf Jonas Bjork); "Black…

  14. Nostalgic for What? The Epidemic of Images of the Mid 20th Century Classroom in American Media Culture and What it Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Stacy

    2005-01-01

    Within this paper the author examines the current nostalgia for a never-present past through critical analysis of images of the mid 20th century American classroom in media culture. The author uses theories of nostalgia and the history of the photographic image to trouble the numerous equity issues surrounding the unchallenged canonization of the…

  15. Effect of vaccination programmes on mortality burden among children and young adults in the Netherlands during the 20th century : a historical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijhe, Maarten; McDonald, Scott A; de Melker, Hester E; Postma, Maarten J; Wallinga, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 20th century, childhood mortality decreased rapidly, and vaccination programmes are frequently suggested as a contributing factor. However, quantification of this contribution is subject to debate or absent. We present historical data from the Netherlands that allow us to quantify

  16. Application of Model Analysis Tools in ASPEN PLUS%ASPEN PLUS模型分析工具的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建方

    2011-01-01

    随着计算机技术的发展,ASPENPLUS在化工中的应用越来越广泛,文章对ASPENPLUS模拟软件进行概括,重点论述模型分析工具在化工中的应用。%With the development computer technique,ASPEN PLUS is used more and more widely in the chemical engineering,model analysis tools is mainly discussed in the chemical engineering according to summarizing ASPEN PLUS.

  17. Populations of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) with different evolutionary histories differ in their climate occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Burke T; Still, Christopher; Howe, Glenn T; Tague, Christina; Roberts, Dar A

    2016-05-01

    Quaking aspens (Populus tremuloides Michx.) are found in diverse habitats throughout North America. While the biogeography of aspens' distribution has been documented, the drivers of the phenotypic diversity of aspen are still being explored. In our study, we examined differences in climate between northern and southwestern populations of aspen, finding large-scale differences between the populations. Our results suggest that northern and southwestern populations live in distinct climates and support the inclusion of genetic and phenotypic data with species distribution modeling for predicting aspens' distribution.

  18. 76 FR 69279 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Aspen Wind Energy Project, Wyoming, and Notice of Segregation of Public Lands AGENCY: Bureau of Land... prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Quaking Aspen Wind Energy Project (Quaking Aspen... comments and identify potential issues related to the Quaking Aspen EIS; and (2) Segregating 3,698.35...

  19. RESTORATION OF QUAKING ASPEN WOODLANDS INVADED BY WESTERN JUNIPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaking aspen woodlands are important plant communities in the interior mountains of the western United States, providing essential habitat for many wildlife species and contain a high diversity of understory plants. Western juniper woodlands are rapidly replacing lower elevation (<6800 ft) quaking...

  20. The 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlstein, Linda

    2013-01-01

    For millions of Americans, community colleges provide an essential pathway to well-paying jobs and continuing higher education. The Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence honors those institutions that strive for and achieve exceptional levels of success for all students, while they are in college and after they graduate. Community colleges…

  1. Defining Excellence: Lessons from the 2013 Aspen Prize Finalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In many respects, one couldn't find a group of 10 schools more diverse than the finalists for the 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence. One community college serves 1,500 students, another 56,000. There are institutions devoted primarily--even solely--to technical degrees, and ones devoted mainly to preparing students for further…

  2. Widespread triploidy in Western North American aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Karen E; Callahan, Colin M; Islam-Faridi, M Nurul; Shaw, John D; Rai, Hardeep S; Sanderson, Stewart C; Rowe, Carol A; Ryel, Ronald J; Madritch, Michael D; Gardner, Richard S; Wolf, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    We document high rates of triploidy in aspen (Populus tremuloides) across the western USA (up to 69% of genets), and ask whether the incidence of triploidy across the species range corresponds with latitude, glacial history (as has been documented in other species), climate, or regional variance in clone size. Using a combination of microsatellite genotyping, flow cytometry, and cytology, we demonstrate that triploidy is highest in unglaciated, drought-prone regions of North America, where the largest clone sizes have been reported for this species. While we cannot completely rule out a low incidence of undetected aneuploidy, tetraploidy or duplicated loci, our evidence suggests that these phenomena are unlikely to be significant contributors to our observed patterns. We suggest that the distribution of triploid aspen is due to a positive synergy between triploidy and ecological factors driving clonality. Although triploids are expected to have low fertility, they are hypothesized to be an evolutionary link to sexual tetraploidy. Thus, interactions between clonality and polyploidy may be a broadly important component of geographic speciation patterns in perennial plants. Further, cytotypes are expected to show physiological and structural differences which may influence susceptibility to ecological factors such as drought, and we suggest that cytotype may be a significant and previously overlooked factor in recent patterns of high aspen mortality in the southwestern portion of the species range. Finally, triploidy should be carefully considered as a source of variance in genomic and ecological studies of aspen, particularly in western U.S. landscapes.

  3. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution. The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation.

    For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America.

    The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin.

    Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the

  4. Adriatic and Black Sea level in the 20th century and projection to the end of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Adriatic and Black Sea are semi-enclosed basins characterized by densely populated coasts, industrial compounds and a rich cultural and historical heritage. It appears to be crucial, for the management and the protection of their coastlines, to understand how much they will be impacted by the global sea level (SL) rise, projected by the end of this century. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows to estimate to which extent the SL of the two basins will depart from the mean global level. The future evolution of global sea level is not a meaningful indicator at this regional scale and past deviations, due to local factors of the Adriatic and Black Sea levels from the global one, have been observed. The Adriatic Sea is the basin of the Mediterranean Sea best covered by past SL observations. In fact, for the Adriatic Sea is possible to obtain, by statistical method based on PCA and Least square Method, a seamless and long time series (from 1900 to 2009) using records of 7 mareographic stations located along the Italian and Croatian coasts (from PSMSL database). Satellite data of SL are available for the whole Mediterranean from 1993 to 2012 and they show a very high correlation (rho > 0.9) with Adriatic time series based on mareographic records. The SL time series of the 20th century in the Black Sea is computed using data of 4 stations, which are available in the PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) archive, located on the north-east coast. This time series shows a lower correlation (rho about 0.5) with satellite data than in the case of Adriatic Sea. Further it shows a higher interannual variability. All the time series are considered after the subtraction of the Inverse Barometer (IB) effect. A statistical approach, based on a multivariate linear regression model, is used to investigate the link between SL anomaly, computed as the difference between the regional SL and global SL, and three large scale climate variables (sea level pressure

  5. Impacts of 20th century aerosol emissions on the South Asian monsoon in the CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in Greenhouse Gas (GHG-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthropogenic aerosol-only experiments. Comparison of these single-forcing experiments with the all-forcings historical experiment suggests aerosol emissions have dominated South Asian monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades, especially during the 1950s to 1970s. The variations in South Asian monsoon rainfall in these experiments follows approximately the time-evolution of inter-hemispheric temperature gradient over the same period, suggesting a contribution from the large-scale background state relating to the asymmetric distribution of aerosol emissions about the equator. By examining the twenty-five available all-forcings historical experiments, we show that models including aerosol indirect effects dominate the negative rainfall trend. Indeed, models including only the direct radiative effect of aerosol show an increase in monsoon rainfall, consistent with the dominance of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and planetary warming on monsoon rainfall in those models. For South Asia, reduced rainfall in the models with indirect effects is related to decreased evaporation at the land surface rather than from anomalies in horizontal moisture flux, suggesting the impact of indirect effects on local aerosol emissions. This is confirmed by examination of aerosol loading and cloud droplet number trends over the South Asia region. Thus while remote aerosols and their asymmetric distribution about the equator play a role in setting the inter-hemispheric temperature distribution on which the South Asian monsoon, as one of the global monsoons, operates, the addition of indirect aerosol effects acting on very local

  6. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Fast, I.; Kaspar, F.

    2011-09-01

    Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution). The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation. For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America. The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin. Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the north along the western slope of the Andes

  7. Could a 1755-like tsunami reach the French Atlantic coastline? Constraints from 20th century observations and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeyer, S.; Daubord, C.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Schindelé, F.; Madariaga, R.

    2012-04-01

    The tsunami generated by the 1st November 1755 (Mw ~8.5) earthquake off Portugal affected mainly the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Morocco, and was observed in some places on the North Atlantic coasts, towards the West Indies, but also towards Ireland and the Great Britain, in Cornwall. However, no evidence of observation were found along French Atlantic coastline so far. In a first step, to determine whether there could be effects due to tsunamis on the French coastline, we conducted a study to search for actual tsunamis signals in all historical tide gauge stations of the French Atlantic coast available during the 20th century, specifically for the 1969 and 1975 tsunamis that were well observed in Portugal. Because many recordings are available from the French Hydrographic Service in La Rochelle (west French Atlantic coastline), we focus our study on this harbor. The analysis of these historical tide gauge data shows no evidence for tsunamis in La Rochelle, neither in 1969 or in 1975. Then, to confirm this lack of tsunami, we simulate the tsunamis from the 1969 and 1975 sources, using non linear shallow water equations and a series of imbricated bathymetric grids focusing to the French coastline, and then towards the harbor of La Rochelle: the modeling results confirm unnoticeable amplitudes. In the following step, tsunamis from three different scenarios for the 1755 earthquake have been similarly modeled to estimate the impact of such a tsunami on the French Atlantic coast, with a focus on La Rochelle harbor. The results show that, while the harbor is well protected (amplitudes computed on a synthetic tide gage in the harbor do not exceed 20 to 30 cm crest-to-trough) several areas may have undergone a more important, yet moderate impact, from 0.5 to 1 m, especially in the western part of the island of Ré and the northern coast of the island of Oléron. This may have caused possible local inundations in lowland areas, all the more since the tide

  8. History of mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Part 3: the 19th to mid-20th centuries and "rediscovery".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubuhovich, Ronald V

    2007-06-01

    The start of the 19th century saw the enthusiasm of the previous one for mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MMV) dissipated. To inflate the lungs of the asphyxiated, the Royal Humane Society in the United Kingdom had recommended bellows since 1782. Principal determinants for change were aesthetic distaste for mouth-to-mouth contact and the perceived danger of using expired air, although MMV survived in the practice of some midwives. Following the 1826-9 investigations of Jean-Jacques Leroy d'Etiolles then François Magendie, all positive pressure ventilation methods were generally abandoned, after 1829 in France, and 1832 in the UK; but not chest compressions. During the next quarter century, rescuers lost understanding of the primary need for "artificial respiration", apart from researchers such as John Snow and John Erichsen, until Marshall Hall's "Ready Method" heralded the second half-century's various methods of negative pressure ventilation. Some of those methods continued in use until the 1940s. Sporadic anecdotal cases of MMV rescues were documented throughout. In the 20th century, inadequate mechanical inhalators were also tried from 1908, while obstetricians devised indirect methods of expired air ventilation (EAV). Anaesthetists in the 1940s, such as Ralph Waters, Robert Dripps, and the pair, Robert Macintosh and William Mushin, described the usefulness of MMV, and James Elam was "re-discovering" it. Following World War II, "Cold War" concerns stimulated research at the Edgewood Medical Laboratories in Maryland in the United States into the possibilities of MMV, and Elam et al confirmed and expanded on brief experiments at Oxford (United Kingdom) on the efficacy of mouth-to-tube EAV. Studies, 1957-9, by Archer Gordon, Elam and especially Peter Safar resulted in the resolution of previous airway problems, established the primacy of MMV, and incorporated it into an integrated system for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ready adoption of MMV in the US was

  9. Commemoration Meeting on 20th Anniversary of CAIM and CJIM and 2001 CAIM Working Conference Held in Xi’an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@On Oct. 20-22, 2001, a commemorating meeting for the 20th anniversary on the founding of Chinese Association of Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine (CAIM) and the start publication of Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine (CJIM) was held in Xi'’an, 436 participants from various provinces and districts, as well as Taiwan province attended the meeting. Rapid development and outstanding achievements were summarized by Prof. Wei BEI-hai, Vice-President of CAIM. Since 1981, CAIM has held 12 international and 380 national academic conferences, 62,000 member-times participated the meetings, the CAIM member increased from 13,000 to 52,000 in 20 years. There are 57 integrated hospitals, over 30 integrated institutes, 10 integrated journals, 35 specialty committees nationwide. Some well-known scholars delivered special lectures, such as Prof. XU Xiao-jie of Peking University (“Chemistry and Chinese Medicine”), Prof. HOU Can from Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences (“Unified Medicine of Post-Gene Era”), Prof. Yang Sze Piao of Taiwan Association of Integrated Medicine (“Education of New Generation Chinese Medical Practitioner of Taiwan”) and other 5 scholars'’ lectures. Deputy Director of Editorial Board CHEN Dong-yan reported that CJIM ( Chinese edition) has published 21 volumes, particularly the citation frequency listed 1st among 2 804 scientific journals in China 1999, indicating the quality of this journal is high. Prof. WANG Wen-jian of Shanghai has been elected as Vice President of CAIM, and Prof. ZHAO Jian-xiong elected as member of director board of CAIM. Prof. SHE Jin, on behalf of State Administration of TCM (SATCM), delivered a speech entitled “4 Famous Veteran TCM Practitioners in Beijing and Integrated Medicine” to congratulate the convening of the meeting. Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences, President of CAIM Prof. CHEN Ke-ji chaired the meeting, he said, “Past 20 years was the

  10. Orbital Express mission operations planning and resource management using ASPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Daniel

    2008-04-01

    As satellite equipment and mission operations become more costly, the drive to keep working equipment running with less labor-power rises. Demonstrating the feasibility of autonomous satellite servicing was the main goal behind the Orbital Express (OE) mission. Like a tow-truck delivering gas to a car on the road, the "servicing" satellite of OE had to find the "client" from several kilometers away, connect directly to the client, and transfer fluid (or a battery) autonomously, while on earth-orbit. The mission met 100% of its success criteria, and proved that autonomous satellite servicing is now a reality for space operations. Planning the satellite mission operations for OE required the ability to create a plan which could be executed autonomously over variable conditions. As the constraints for execution could change weekly, daily, and even hourly, the tools used create the mission execution plans needed to be flexible and adaptable to many different kinds of changes. At the same time, the hard constraints of the plans needed to be maintained and satisfied. The Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) tool, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was used to create the schedule of events in each daily plan for the two satellites of the OE mission. This paper presents an introduction to the ASPEN tool, an overview of the constraints of the OE domain, the variable conditions that were presented within the mission, and the solution to operations that ASPEN provided. ASPEN has been used in several other domains, including research rovers, Deep Space Network scheduling research, and in flight operations for the NASA's Earth Observing One mission's EO1 satellite. Related work is discussed, as are the future of ASPEN and the future of autonomous satellite servicing.

  11. Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. III. From the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991 to the End of the Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinajstić, N:

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this last part of our attempt to present briefly the history of Croatian chemistry in the 20th century, the development of chemistry in the Republic of Croatia, established as an independent state on June 25th, 1991 is outlined. The last 10 years of the 20th century are characterized first by defense of the country by arms until 1995, and then until the end of century, and after the constructive building of the foundations of Croatia. In these turbulent times, scientists could not be just bystanders. Thus, some went to defend the country by arms and others (perhaps older kept informing colleagues all around the globe about our defense of the homeland. This was the reason why scientific research in Croatia showed very limited results. This article briefly describes research in chemistry at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, the Rugjer Bošković Institute, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agronomy and Faculty of Forestry. This article logically follows our previous two articles on the history of Croatian chemistry in 20th century: N. Trinajstić, S. Paušek-Baždar, Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. I. From the turn of the Century to May 8th , 1945 (Kem. Ind. 56 (2007 403–416 and N. Trinajstić, M. Kaštelan-Macan, S. Paušek-Baždar, H. Vančik, Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. II. From the Colapse of the Independent State of Croatia to the Establishmernt of the Republic of Croatia, (Kem. Ind. 58 (2009 315–336. It is also related to our article on the history of Croatian chemistry in 19th century: S. Paušek-Baždar, N. Trinajstić, Croatian Chemistry in the 19th Century (Kem. Ind. 55 (2006 333–339 and our survey of the Croatian chemical journals: N. Trinajstić, N. Raos, S. Paušek-Baždar, D. Škare, Croatian Chemistry in 20th Century. IV. Croatian Chemical Journals (Kem. Ind. 57 (2008 447

  12. The 20th anniversary of interleukin-2 therapy: bimodal role explaining longstanding random induction of complete clinical responses

    OpenAIRE

    Coventry BJ; Ashdown ML

    2012-01-01

    Brendon J Coventry, Martin L AshdownDiscipline of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, AustraliaBackground: This year marks the twentieth anniversary of the approval by the US Food and Drug Administration of interleukin-2 (IL2) for use in cancer therapy, initially for renal cell carcinoma and later for melanoma. IL2 therapy for cancer has stood the test of time, with continued widespread use in Europe, parts of Asia, and th...

  13. Quantifying the consequences of conifer succession in aspen stands: decline in a biodiversity-supporting community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, S A; O'Geen, A T; Whiting, M L; Sarr, D A; Tate, K W

    2013-07-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) stands are important for biodiversity in conifer-dominated forest landscapes. Our goal was to quantify the consequences of conifer succession on understory diversity and litter quality, as well as associated changes in aspen stand condition. We studied aspen stands on national park land in the transition zone between the northern Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade mountain ranges. We field-measured ten metrics of aspen stand condition in 29 aspen stands. Along a gradient of increasing current conifer cover, we observed decreases in herbaceous species diversity and richness and an increase in forest floor O horizon depth. We interpreted aerial photos from 1952 and 1998 to determine whether directional changes in conifer cover had occurred in the stands over the past half century, and used regression modeling to associate succession with the observed range of aspen stand condition. From the period 1952 to 1998, we found that conifer encroachment occurred in half the sampled stands, with an average increase in conifer cover of 1% a year. Aspen were persistent in the remaining stands. Stand cover dynamics and percent total canopy cover interacted to influence species richness, diversity, aspen sprouting, and litter quality. In stands with conifer encroachment, both understory species richness and diversity declined. Although aspen sprouting increased, aspen establishment declined and the relative mass of woody to fine soil litter increased.

  14. aspenONE先进控制和优化集成解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺建敏

    2006-01-01

    Aspen DMCplus多变量模型预估先进过程控制系统、Aspen Apollo非线性多变量模型预估先进过程控制系统、Aspen Plus Optimizer闭环实时优化系统、Aspen Blend油品调合多变量先进过程控制与优化系统、Aspen Watch在线监控系统、Aspen IQmodel Powertools软仪表系统,以及Aspen SmartStep智能化的控制器维护系统等构成了AspenTech的aspenONE先进过程控制和优化集成解决方案(见图1)。AspenTech的多变量模型预估控制技术与智能化的控制器维护系统和在线监控系统相结合,

  15. Quantifying the consequences of conifer succession in aspen stands: decline in a biodiversity-supporting community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, S A; O'Geen, A T; Whiting, M L; Sarr, D A; Tate, K W

    2013-07-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) stands are important for biodiversity in conifer-dominated forest landscapes. Our goal was to quantify the consequences of conifer succession on understory diversity and litter quality, as well as associated changes in aspen stand condition. We studied aspen stands on national park land in the transition zone between the northern Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade mountain ranges. We field-measured ten metrics of aspen stand condition in 29 aspen stands. Along a gradient of increasing current conifer cover, we observed decreases in herbaceous species diversity and richness and an increase in forest floor O horizon depth. We interpreted aerial photos from 1952 and 1998 to determine whether directional changes in conifer cover had occurred in the stands over the past half century, and used regression modeling to associate succession with the observed range of aspen stand condition. From the period 1952 to 1998, we found that conifer encroachment occurred in half the sampled stands, with an average increase in conifer cover of 1% a year. Aspen were persistent in the remaining stands. Stand cover dynamics and percent total canopy cover interacted to influence species richness, diversity, aspen sprouting, and litter quality. In stands with conifer encroachment, both understory species richness and diversity declined. Although aspen sprouting increased, aspen establishment declined and the relative mass of woody to fine soil litter increased. PMID:23093369

  16. Between autonomy of music and the composer’s autonomy. Notes on modernisms and traditionalisms in Slovenian music of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanija Leon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the relations between the old and the new in the context of 20th-century Slovenian music. The question about the old and the new is seen not only as a question of different facets of an age-old opposition, but also as a complex issue of the epistemological contextualization of those different facets. Centered on the main historiographical entries – the avant-garde, modernity, traditionalism, and post-modernity –, the outline of the 20th-century Slovenian musical culture endeavors to point out what is a common problem of the Western musical heritage from the past century: the problem of defining constituents of the old and the new within different epistemological contexts.

  17. 20世纪中国气候变暖的归因分析%Progress in the Attribution of Climate Warming in China for the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天军; 赵宗慈

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the attribution of climate warming in China for the 20th century is summarized. Three sets of climate model experiments including both coupled and uncoupled runs have been used in the attribution analyses. Comparison of climate model results with the observations proves that in the 20th century, especially in the recent half century, climate warming in China is closely related to the increasing of the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, while sulfate aerosol should also have contributions. When both external forcing and natural forcing agents are prescribed, coupled climate models have better results in producing the observed variation of temperature in China. The role of oceanic forcing is also emphasized in the attribution analyses. The observed climate warming of China in the 1920s could not be reproduced in any set of climate model simulations.

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  19. Extension of the SIM Hydrometeorological Reanalysis Over the Entire 20th Century by Combination of Observations and Statistical Downscaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minvielle, M.; Céron, J.; Page, C.

    2013-12-01

    The SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) system is a combination of three different components: an atmospheric analysis system (SAFRAN) providing the atmospheric forcing for a land surface model (ISBA) that computes surface water and energy budgets and a hydrological model (MODCOU) that provides river flows and level of several aquifers. The variables generated by the SIM chain constitute the SIM reanalysis and the current version only covers the 1958-2012 period. However, long climate datasets are required for evaluation and verification of climate hindcasts/forecasts and to isolate the contribution of natural decadal variability from that of anthropogenic forcing to climate variations. The aim of this work is to extend of the fine-mesh SIM reanalysis to the entire 20th century, especially focusing on temperature and rainfall over France, but also soil wetness and river flows. This extension will first allow a detailed investigation of the influence of decadal variability on France at very fine spatial scales and will provide crucial information for climate model evaluation. Before 1958, the density of available observations from Météo-France necessary to force SAFRAN (rainfall, snow, wind, temperature, humidity, cloudiness) is much lower than today, and not sufficient to produce a correct SIM reanalysis. That's why is has been decided to use the available atmospheric observations over the past decades combined to a statistical downscaling algorithm to overcome the lack of observations. The DSCLIM software package implemented by the CERFACS and using a weather typing based statistical methodology will be used as statistical downscaling method to reconstruct the atmospheric variables necessary to force the ISBA-MODCOU hydrological component. The first stage of this work was to estimate and compare the bias and strengths of the two approaches in their ability to reconstruct the past decades. In this sense, SIM hydro-meteorological experiments were performed for some recent

  20. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  1. EDITORIAL: The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases The 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2011-03-01

    This special issue consists of papers that are associated with invited lectures, workshop papers and hot topic papers presented at the 20th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG XX). This conference was organized in Novi Sad (Serbia) from 13 to 17 July 2010 by the Institute of Physics of the University of Belgrade. It is important to note that this is not a conference 'proceedings'. Following the initial selection process by the International Scientific Committee, all papers were submitted to the journal by the authors and have been fully peer reviewed to the standard required for publication in Plasma Sources Science and Technology (PSST). The papers are based on presentations given at the conference but are intended to be specialized technical papers covering all or part of the topic presented by the author during the meeting. The ESCAMPIG conference is a regular biennial Europhysics Conference of the European Physical Society focusing on collisional and radiative aspects of atomic and molecular physics in partially ionized gases as well as on plasma-surface interaction. The conference focuses on low-temperature plasma sciences in general and includes the following topics: Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function Physical basis of plasma chemistry Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) Plasma diagnostics Plasma and discharges theory and simulation Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas Low-pressure plasma sources High-pressure plasma sources Plasmas and gas flows Laser-produced plasmas During ESCAMPIG XX special sessions were dedicated to workshops on: Atomic and molecular collision data for plasma modeling, organized by Professors Z Lj Petrovic and N Mason Plasmas in medicine, organized by Dr N Puac and Professor G Fridman. The conference topics were represented in the

  2. Mission-Driven Media: Not Just Survival, but Success. A Report of the Aspen Institute Forum on Diversity and the Media (Aspen, Colorado, July 11-14, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Titus

    This report of the Aspen Institute Forum on Diversity and the Media, supported and funded by the Ford Foundation, is not a typical Aspen Institute forum report. It explores an issue--the sustainability of mission-driven media--and through this discussion becomes a kind of resource guide for managers and others who desire to preserve and promote…

  3. Analysis of Early 20th century Chromatic Modal Music with the use of the Generative Theory of Tonal Music - Pitch Space and Prolongational issues in selected modal idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Tsougras, Costas

    2009-01-01

    The Generative Theory of Tonal Music in its original form (Lerdahl & Jackendoff 1983) applied to music belonging to the Western tonal idiom only. However, during the last decade, theoretical and analytical research has been conducted on its application on diatonic or chromatic modal music. More specifically, Lerdahl addresses chromatic pitch spaces in chapters 6 & 7 of his "Tonal Pitch Space" (2001) and conducts analyses of late 19th century and 20th century music, while Temperley (The Cognit...

  4. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Baillargeon; Patrice Gélinas

    2009-01-01

    The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records ...

  5. Physiology of Penile Erection—A Brief History of the Scientific Understanding up till the Eighties of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mels F. van Driel, MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: As the Renaissance's innovative research defined neural and vascular physiologic phenomena responsible for penile erection. The concepts from animal experimentations in Europe in the 19th century significantly contributed to the current understanding of penile erection. van Driel MF. Physiology of penile erection—a brief history of the scientific understanding up till the eighties of the 20th century. Sex Med 2015;3:343–351.

  6. Biblical Studies at the Kyiv Theological Academy (19th — early 20th Centuries): The Results and Prospects of the Research

    OpenAIRE

    Golovashchenko, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a multiyear study undertaken by the author in a number of his research articles and monographs. For the first time in Ukrainian academic studies, the historical and theoretical reconstruction of biblical studies at the Kyiv Theological Academy in the 19th and early 20th centuries has been accomplished. This phenomenon is demonstrated and reviewed as a holistic system of research, instructional, theological, apologetic, religious and educational activity. Therefore, the h...

  7. Change of Spectral Analysis of Fetal Heart Rate During Clinical Hypnosis: a Prospective Randomised Trial from the 20th Week of Gestation Till Term

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard, J.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; S Schiermeier; Hatzmann, W.; Heinrich, T. M.; Hüsken-Janßen, H.; E. Herrmann; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the functional adaptive process of the fetal autonomic nervous system during hypnosis from the 20th week of gestation till term. Are there changes in the power spectrum analysis of fetal heart rate when the mother is having a clinical hypnosis or control period? Study Design: Fourty-nine FHR recordings were analysed. Included recordings were from singletons and abdominal fetal ECG-monitored pregnancies. All women were randomised to receive clinical hypnosis followed ...

  8. COMMENTS ON BEDOUIN FUNERAL RITES IN THE WRITINGS OF WESTERN TRAVELERS AND EXPLORERS FROM THE LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Mairna H.; Tayeh, Sultan N. Abu

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at discussing the Bedouin funeral rites mentioned by European travelers who visited Transjordan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; there was a focus on the inaccuracy of these accounts in referring to some particular funeral rites as being originally of Bedouins, also in generalizing them among all tribes. Such misinterpretation came from not considering the level of sedentarization of tribes, as well as cultural influences of urban and rural communities living in the ...

  9. Proceedings of a Joint Meeting held between The Norwegian Society of Infectious Diseases and the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Oslo, 20th June 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Newport, Melanie J.; Myrvang, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH) has a tradition of holding joint meetings with fellow European Societies, providing opportunities to facilitate discussion, exchange information, foster mutual interests and develop collaboration between the societies’ members and fellows. This paper presents the proceedings from a scientific meeting that was held between The RSTMH and the Norwegian Infectious Diseases Society at Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo on 20th June 2008. Th...

  10. Proceedings of V International Seminar and V National Workshop 'Use and development of products isotopic health industry'. 20th anniversary CENTIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Salon Copa Room. Hotel Habana Riviera Took place the V International Seminar and V National Workshop 'Use and development of products isotopic health industry' for the 20th anniversary CENTIS. The event was organized by the Isotope Center. Some 200 domestic and foreign experts debated topics related to the development and production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba and the world, its therapeutic applications in certain tumors, and quality management systems in nuclear medicine. (author)

  11. Is susceptibility to chronic rheumatic heart disease determined in early infancy? An analysis of mortality in Britain during the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, D I W; Osmond, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The reason why some individuals but not others are susceptible to rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease is not understood. Because of the substantial evidence that poverty is an important determinant of the disease and must operate in early life, we have investigated the role of the early environment in an ecological study using 20th century mortality as an index of disease prevalence. Methods: We analysed 37,321 deaths from rheumatic heart disease in England and Wal...

  12. The Concerns Underlying Sex Education for Young People in France During the First Half of the 20th Century: Morality, demography and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Virginie De Luca Barrusse

    2011-01-01

    During the first half of the 20th century, the issue of sex education for young people was the topic of virulent debate. Increasing proposals for sex education in schools, along with lectures and information leaflets, were quickly opposed by Catholic circles, which did not reject sex education in principle but sought to control its form and content. Yet no matter which form or content was chosen, sex education remained underpinned by considerations about the future of the population and the s...

  13. Demographic situation in Vojvodina in the last decade of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Đurđev Branislav S.; Martinov-Cvejin Mirjana; Penev Goran; Jovanović Sonja; Stevanović Radoslav

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the analyzed demographic data for the last decade of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, one could conclude that the most significant characteristics of the population of Vojvodina are: slow demographic increase; negative population growth; more and more unfavourable age structure; increase in the decision to remain single; relatively low level of urbanization, a very heterogeneous national composition of the population; acceptance of low reproductive norms...

  14. The Application of Aspen Plus Simulation in Fluorine Chemistry%Aspen Plus模拟在氟化工中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛姬; 田端正; 吴江平; 张建君

    2011-01-01

    Aspen Plus is a large-scale process simulation system which is used universally in producing equipment design,steady-state simulation and optimization.Many famous engineering and manufacturing companies of chemical engineering,petro-chemical industry and%Aspen Plus是生产装置设计、稳态模拟和优化的大型通用流程模拟系统。全球各大化工、石化、炼油等过程工业制造企业及著名的工程公司都是Aspen Plus的用户。举例介绍了Aspen Plus模拟在氟化工中的应用,分析可能存在的困难,并展望Aspen Plus模拟在氟化工中的应用前景。

  15. Elevated Rocky Mountain elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Fettig, Stephen M.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widespread tree species in North America and has supported a unique ecosystem for tens of thousands of years, yet is currently threatened by dramatic loss and possible local extinctions. While multiple factors such as climate change and fire suppression are thought to contribute to aspen’s decline, increased browsing by elk (Cervus elaphus), which have experienced dramatic population increases in the last ∼80 years, may severely inhibit aspen growth and regeneration. Fires are known to favor aspen recovery, but in the last several decades the spatial scale and intensity of wildfires has greatly increased, with poorly understood ramifications for aspen growth. Here, focusing on the 2000 Cerro Grande fire in central New Mexico – one of the earliest fires described as a “mega-fire” - we use three methods to examine the impact of elk browsing on aspen regeneration after a mega-fire. First, we use an exclosure experiment to show that aspen growing in the absence of elk were 3× taller than trees growing in the presence of elk. Further, aspen that were both protected from elk and experienced burning were 8.5× taller than unburned trees growing in the presence of elk, suggesting that the combination of release from herbivores and stimulation from fire creates the largest aspen growth rates. Second, using surveys at the landscape level, we found a correlation between elk browsing intensity and aspen height, such that where elk browsing was highest, aspen were shortest. This relationship between elk browsing intensity and aspen height was stronger in burned (r = −0.53) compared to unburned (r = −0.24) areas. Third, in conjunction with the landscape-level surveys, we identified possible natural refugia, microsites containing downed logs, shrubs etc. that may inhibit elk browsing by physically blocking aspen from elk or by impeding elk’s ability to move through the forest patch. We did not find any

  16. Stand Composition, Tree Proximity and Size Have Minimal Effects on Leaf Function of Coexisting Aspen and Subalpine Fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Aaron C; Barney, Trevor; St Clair, Samuel B

    2016-01-01

    Forest structural heterogeneity due to species composition, spatial relationships and tree size are widely studied patterns in forest systems, but their impacts on tree function are not as well documented. The objective of this study was to examine how stand composition, tree proximity relationships and tree size influence the leaf functional traits of aspen, an early successional species, and subalpine fir, a climax species. We measured foliar nutrients, nonstructural carbohydrates (aspen only), defense chemistry and xylem water potential of aspen and subalpine fir trees in three size classes growing in close proximity or independently from other trees under three stand conditions: aspen dominant, aspen-conifer mixed, and conifer dominant stands. Close proximity of subalpine fir to aspen reduced aspen's storage of starch in foliar tissue by 17% suggesting that competition between these species may have small effects on carbon metabolism in aspen leaves. Simple sugar (glucose + sucrose) concentrations in aspen leaves were slightly higher in larger aspen trees than smaller trees. However, no differences were found in stem water potential, foliar concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, or secondary defense chemicals of aspen or subalpine fir across the gradients of stand composition, tree proximity or tree size. These results suggest that mechanisms of coexistence allow both aspen and subalpine fir to maintain leaf function across a wide range of stand structural characteristics. For aspen, resource sharing through its clonal root system and high resource storage capacity may partially contribute to its functional stability in mixed aspen-conifer stands.

  17. Sap flux in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests exposed to elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddling, Johan; Teclaw, Ronald M; Kubiske, Mark E; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Ellsworth, David S

    2008-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3]) have the potential to affect tree physiology and structure and hence forest water use, which has implications for climate feedbacks. We investigated how a 40% increase above ambient values in [CO2] and [O3], alone and in combination, affect tree water use of pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests in the free air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (Aspen FACE). Measurements of sap flux and canopy leaf area index (L) were made during two growing seasons, when steady-state L had been reached after more than 6 years of exposure to elevated [CO2] and [O3]. Maximum stand-level sap flux was not significantly affected by elevated [O3], but was increased by 18% by elevated [CO2] averaged across years, communities and O(3) regimes. Treatment effects were similar in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch communities. Increased tree water use in response to elevated [CO2] was related to positive CO2 treatment effects on tree size and L (+40%). Tree water use was not reduced by elevated [O3] despite strong negative O3 treatment effects on tree size and L (-22%). Elevated [O3] predisposed pure aspen stands to drought-induced sap flux reductions, whereas increased tree water use in response to elevated [CO2] did not result in lower soil water content in the upper soil or decreasing sap flux relative to control values during dry periods. Maintenance of soil water content in the upper soil in the elevated [CO2] treatment was at least partly a function of enhanced soil water-holding capacity, probably a result of increased organic matter content from increased litter inputs. Our findings that larger trees growing in elevated [CO2] used more water and that tree size, but not maximal water use, was negatively affected by elevated [O3] suggest that the long-term cumulative effects on stand structure may be more important than the expected primary stomatal closure responses to

  18. ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles W. White III

    2003-09-30

    ASPEN Plus simulations have been created for a CO{sub 2} capture process based on adsorption by monoethanolamine (MEA). Three separate simulations were developed, one each for the flue gas scrubbing, recovery, and purification sections of the process. Although intended to work together, each simulation can be used and executed independently. The simulations were designed as template simulations to be added as a component to other more complex simulations. Applications involving simple cycle or hybrid power production processes were targeted. The default block parameters were developed based on a feed stream of raw flue gas of approximately 14 volume percent CO{sub 2} with a 90% recovery of the CO{sub 2} as liquid. This report presents detailed descriptions of the process sections as well as technical documentation for the ASPEN simulations including the design basis, models employed, key assumptions, design parameters, convergence algorithms, and calculated outputs.

  19. The decline of winter monsoon velocity in the South China Sea through the 20th century: Evidence from the Sr/Ca records in corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Chen, T.; Wei, G.; Sun, W.; Sun, R.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Zartman, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    A modern massive Porites coral was collected from the Longwan Bay (19??20???N, 110??39???E) on the east coast of the Hainan Island, China. The coral was sectioned vertical to the growth axis into discs of double density-bands representing annual growth. The samples were analyzed for the Sr/Ca ratio by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The history of winter sea-surface temperature (SST) is reconstructed using the Sr/Ca ratio in winter bands of corals. The winter SST at Xisha in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) is weakly correlated with the instrument-measured winter monsoon velocity (WMV) with a correlation coefficient of 0.19. The winter SST data from corals at Longwan Bay, Hainan, in the northern SCS are moderately correlated with the WMV (r = 0.40). Interestingly we found that the difference of winter SSTs between the two sites (Xisha and Longwan Bay, Hainan) (the X-H index) is significantly negatively correlated with the WMV (r = - 0.73). This negative correlation may be related to the intrusion of the warm Kuroshio Current into the SCS through the Luzon Strait promoted by the strong northeastern monsoon winds in the winter. Using the relationship between our coralline data and observed WMV, the calculated winter monsoon velocity (WMVc) was obtained for 87??years. This data set in combination with the instrument-measured data between 1993 and 1998 generate a record of WMVc for a period of 93??years from 1906 to 1998. The WMVc in the 20th century shows significant interannual and decadal variability with a trend of persistent decline in the whole 20th century at the rate of decrease of - 0.02 (m/s)/a. The lowest wind velocity occurred during the last two decades of the 20th century. The WMVc has decreased significantly by about 30% from the early to the late of 20th century. The 20th century decline of winter monsoon velocity evidenced from the SCS coral records is consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models

  20. A flexible model for biomass fast pyrolysis in Aspen+

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Thomas; Laukkanen, Timo; Järvinen, Mika

    2012-01-01

    In order to estimate the heat of condensation of fast pyrolysis product of woody biomass a model to be used in the chemical process simulation software Aspen+ has been developed based on the composition of wood fast pyrolysis product. A simulation model for biomass fast pyrolysis was developed. The results obtained are in good accordance with values found in the literature. With more specific data (e.g. from measurements) it should be possible to adjust the flexible model to other data. ...

  1. Analysis of Cryogenic Cycle with Process Modeling Tool: Aspen HYSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, D. M.; Patel, H. K.

    2015-10-01

    Cryogenic engineering deals with the development and improvement of low temperature techniques, processes and equipment. A process simulator such as Aspen HYSYS, for the design, analysis, and optimization of process plants, has features that accommodate the special requirements and therefore can be used to simulate most cryogenic liquefaction and refrigeration processes. Liquefaction is the process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure which is below the critical pressure. Cryogenic processes require special attention in terms of the integration of various components like heat exchangers, Joule-Thompson Valve, Turbo expander and Compressor. Here, Aspen HYSYS, a process modeling tool, is used to understand the behavior of the complete plant. This paper presents the analysis of an air liquefaction plant based on the Linde cryogenic cycle, performed using the Aspen HYSYS process modeling tool. It covers the technique used to find the optimum values for getting the maximum liquefaction of the plant considering different constraints of other parameters. The analysis result so obtained gives clear idea in deciding various parameter values before implementation of the actual plant in the field. It also gives an idea about the productivity and profitability of the given configuration plant which leads to the design of an efficient productive plant.

  2. Analysis of Cryogenic Cycle with Process Modeling Tool: Aspen HYSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryogenic engineering deals with the development and improvement of low temperature techniques, processes and equipment. A process simulator such as Aspen HYSYS, for the design, analysis, and optimization of process plants, has features that accommodate the special requirements and therefore can be used to simulate most cryogenic liquefaction and refrigeration processes. Liquefaction is the process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure which is below the critical pressure. Cryogenic processes require special attention in terms of the integration of various components like heat exchangers, Joule-Thompson Valve, Turbo expander and Compressor. Here, Aspen HYSYS, a process modeling tool, is used to understand the behavior of the complete plant. This paper presents the analysis of an air liquefaction plant based on the Linde cryogenic cycle, performed using the Aspen HYSYS process modeling tool. It covers the technique used to find the optimum values for getting the maximum liquefaction of the plant considering different constraints of other parameters. The analysis result so obtained gives clear idea in deciding various parameter values before implementation of the actual plant in the field. It also gives an idea about the productivity and profitability of the given configuration plant which leads to the design of an efficient productive plant

  3. Reconciling divergent interpretations of quaking aspen decline on the northern Colorado Front Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashian, Daniel M; Romme, William H; Regan, Claudia M

    2007-07-01

    Ecologists have debated over the past 65 years whether quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) has or has not declined in abundance, vigor, or regeneration in western North America. Many studies have provided divergent interpretations of the condition of aspen forests, leading to difficulty in translating this ecological information into management recommendations. To reconcile these contrasting conclusions and to test the hypothesis that multiple types of aspen decline and persistence occur simultaneously on heterogeneous landscapes, we assessed 91 aspen stands across the northern Colorado Front Range to determine the range of ecological conditions that underlie aspen decline or persistence. Approximately 15% of aspen forest area in our sample exhibited dieback of mature stems coupled with a lack of young trees indicative of declining stands, most often at lower elevations where elk browsing is heavy and chronic, and where effects of fire exclusion have been most significant. However, 52% of the area sampled had multiple cohorts indicative of self-replacing or persistent stands. Conifer dominance was increasing in over 33% of all aspen forest area sampled, most often at high elevations among lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Englem. ex Wats.) forests. Reconstructions of relative basal area and density of aspen and lodgepole pine in these stands suggest cyclical dominance of these species, where conifers gradually replace aspen over long fire intervals, and aspen vigorously re-establish following stand-replacing fires. The diversity of ecological contexts across the northern Colorado Front Range creates a variety of aspen dynamics leading to decline or persistence, and no single trend describes the general condition of aspen forests in appropriate detail for managers. Active management may be useful in preserving individual stands at fine scales, but management prescriptions should reflect specific drivers of decline in these stands.

  4. Aquatic Ecosystem Response to Timber Harvesting for the Purpose of Restoring Aspen

    OpenAIRE

    Bobette E Jones; Monika Krupa; Kenneth W Tate

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located ...

  5. Genetic Variation in Functional Traits Influences Arthropod Community Composition in Aspen (Populus tremula L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Pär K Ingvarsson; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod ...

  6. Using Aspen plus in thermodynamics instruction a step-by-step guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Stanley I

    2015-01-01

    A step-by-step guide for students (and faculty) on the use of Aspen in teaching thermodynamics Used for a wide variety of important engineering tasks, Aspen Plus software is a modeling tool used for conceptual design, optimization, and performance monitoring of chemical processes. After more than twenty years, it remains one of the most popular and powerful chemical engineering simulation programs used both industrially and academically. Using Aspen Plus in Thermodynamics Instruction: A Step by Step Guide introduces the reader to the use of Aspen Plus in courses in thermodynamics. It prov

  7. 2012 Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy and Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John; Olivier, Dore; Fox, Patrick; Furic, Ivan; Halkiadakis, Eva; Schmidt, Fabian; Senatore, Leonardo; Smith, Kendrick M; Whiteson, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Aspen Center for Physics Project Summary DE-SC0007313 Budget Period: 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012 The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 11 to February 17, 2012. Sixty-seven participants from nine countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies. There were 53 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The weeks events included a public lecture-Hunting the Dark Universe given by Neal Weiner from New York University) and attended by 237 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists conducted by Spencer Chang (University of Oregon), Matthew Reece (Harvard University) and Julia Shelton (Yale University) and attended by 67 locals and visitors. While there were no published proceedings, some of the talks are posted online and can be Googled. The workshop was organized by John Campbell (Fermilab), Patrick Fox (Fermilab), Ivan Furic (University of Florida), Eva Halkiadakis (Rutgers University) and Daniel Whiteson (University of California Irvine). Additional information is available at http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=143360. Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era. It was held from January 30 to February 4, 2012. The 62 participants came from 7 countries and attended 43 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists

  8. Design and simulation of heat exchangers using Aspen HYSYS, and Aspen exchanger design and rating for paddy drying application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Kamin, N. H.; Wong, K. H.; Tham, H. J.; Kong, V. V.; Farajpourlar, M.

    2016-06-01

    Air heating unit is one of the most important parts in paddy drying to ensure the efficiency of a drying process. In addition, an optimized air heating unit does not only promise a good paddy quality, but also save more for the operating cost. This study determined the suitable and best specifications heating unit to heat air for paddy drying in the LAMB dryer. In this study, Aspen HYSYS v7.3 was used to obtain the minimum flow rate of hot water needed. The resulting data obtained from Aspen HYSYS v7.3 were used in Aspen Exchanger Design and Rating (EDR) to generate heat exchanger design and costs. The designs include shell and tubes and plate heat exchanger. The heat exchanger was designed in order to produce various drying temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70°C of air with different flow rate, 300, 2500 and 5000 LPM. The optimum condition for the heat exchanger were found to be plate heat exchanger with 0.6 mm plate thickness, 198.75 mm plate width, 554.8 mm plate length and 11 numbers of plates operating at 5000 LPM air flow rate.

  9. Aspen Plus软件在烟气脱硫系统中的应用%Application of Aspen Plus Software in Flue Gas Desulfuration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茂兵; 缪明烽; 卢作基

    2011-01-01

    介绍了Aspen Plus软件的概况,系统地阐述了Aspen Plus在湿法脱硫工艺系统中应用,详细介绍了Aspen Plus在湿法脱硫FGD系统中的吸收塔、换热器、泵等关键设备设计,开发、选型中的应用,以及模型分析工具在工艺参数优化、降低工程造价中的应用.

  10. Aspen Plus在循环冷却水系统中的应用%Application of Aspen Plus in Circulating Cooling Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽华; 李波

    2016-01-01

    Aspen Plus是一个生产装置设计、稳态模拟和优化的大型通用流程模拟系统.基于此,综述Aspen Plus在换热网络中的应用,并且利用Aspen Plus模拟了换热器的换热过程,同时也模拟了污垢对换热器的影响,为优化循环冷却水系统提供了一种新的方法.

  11. The Ukrainian community of Western Siberia: specific features of formation and development in the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian crisis in the European part of the Russian Empire in the middle of the 20th century seriously impeded agricultural progress. Agrarian overpopulation and peasants deprived of land in the course of the peasant reform of 1861 further aggravated the negative situation in the governorates of Central Russia, Belarus, and left-bank Ukraine. These factors provided fertile soil for migratory sentiments among peasants. It was resettlement in vacant lands in the Asiatic Russia and North Caucasus, which allowed most of them to preserve their homesteads. In the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century, Ukrainian peasants were actively engaged in the migration movement which was supported by the state. One of the main placement areas became Western Siberia where a large Ukrainian peasant community was formed. The history of research on the Ukrainian community in Western Siberia is fragmentary, as many aspects remain unstudied. Hence, the article focuses on the following questions: causes of the Ukrainian migration to the border lands of the Russian Empire; stages in the migration; main areas where Ukrainians resided in Siberia; population dynamics of the Ukrainian community; adaptation patterns specific for Ukrainian migrants in their new places of residence; their role in the economic life of Siberia in the early 20th century. This article utilizes primary data from the All-Russian Agricultural and Land Census of 1917, which have been introduced for scientific use for the first time. As the methodological basis, the study draws on the system approach combining regional, neo-imperial and comparative principles.

  12. Students Life in the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in the First Years of Its Existence (Late 19th — Early 20th Ct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Bilyavska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the various pages of the life of students of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute in the first years of its existence — educational, scientific, casual and students participated in the revolutionary-democratic movement of Kyiv late 19th—early 20th centuries. Study of student life Kyiv Polytechnic Institute late 19th and early 20th centuries is a separate page in the history of this institution. In conditions of autocracy, strict control of the Government, of the Ministry of Finance, which was subject to institute systematic interference in its activities of the Kyiv authorities and police, students themselves organized and find different ways to influence the improvement of educational and methodical process, improve their daily lives. Analysis of historical sources provides an answer to the causes of the growth of public and revolutionary activity of a large number of students of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute that time. General political crisis of the Russian Empire, autocratic way, national and social oppression, lack of political rights and freedoms have caused strong protests from students. One of the main requirements of students was the recognition of the autonomy of higher education institutions, police interference in their activities. Unfair considered sexual, national and class limit admission to the KPI. Object of study was chosen by the author as Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, its work in the late 19th and early 20th century, as the oldest and reputable higher engineering school at that time. Experience of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute is of great importance for the modern transformation of higher education in Ukraine.

  13. Recovering aspen follow changing elk dynamics in Yellowstone: evidence of a trophic cascade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Luke E; Beschta, Robert L; Larsen, Eric J; Ripple, William J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the extent and causes of recent quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment in northern Yellowstone National Park, we measured browsing intensity and height of young aspen in 87 randomly selected aspen stands in 2012, and compared our results to similar data collected in 1997-1998. We also examined the relationship between aspen recovery and the distribution of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison) on the Yellowstone northern ungulate winter range, using ungulate fecal pile densities and annual elk count data. In 1998, 90% of young aspen were browsed and none were taller-than 200 cm, the height at which aspen begin to escape from elk browsing. In 2012, only 37% in the east and 63% in the west portions of the winter range were browsed, and 65% of stands in the east had young aspen taller than 200 cm. Heights of young aspen were inversely related to browsing intensity, with the least browsing and greatest heights in the eastern portion of the range, corresponding with recent changes in elk density and distribution. In contrast with historical elk distribution (1930s-1990s), the greatest densities of elk recently (2006-2012) have been north of the park boundary (approximately 5 elk/km2), and in the western part of the range (2-4 elk/km2), with relatively few elk in the eastern portion of the range (aspen stands have begun to recover. Increased predation pressure following the reintroduction of gray wolves (Canis lupius) in 1995-1996 played a role in these changing elk population dynamics, interacting with other influences including increased predation by bears (Ursus spp.), competition with an expanding bison population, and shifting patterns of human land use and hunting outside the park. The resulting new aspen recruitment is evidence of a landscape-scale trophic cascade in which a resurgent large carnivore community, combined with other ecological changes, has benefited aspen through effects on ungulate prey.

  14. Determination of droughts and high floods of the Bermejo River (Argentina) based on documentary evidence (17th to 20th century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2015-10-01

    This study reconstructs a series of droughts and high flow volumes of the Bermejo River from the 17th to 20th century based on a content analysis of historic documentary evidence, which is calibrated with instrumental climate data. The historic data series shows an increase in the frequency of extraordinarily high waters beginning in the 19th century and a significant decrease in extreme droughts beginning in 1890. The data are compared to variations in the Mendoza River for the same period, which show that there was a long-standing lack of correlation between the rivers.

  15. Paper presentation abstract: The multiple meanings and cultural aspects of the own-home garden in the early 20th century Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Gardening has multiple meanings depending on where and how it is performed as well as what purpose it is attributed. This paper will discuss the meanings and cultural aspects of own-home gardens in the early 20th century Swedish urban context. Stately loans were paid out in order for people to be able to build houses with gardens, so called own-homes, in the countryside or in the outskirts of cities in the early 1900s. A home of one's own, with a garden, had a positive effect on health and so...

  16. Abrupt and severe 20th Century changes in the fire regimes of southeastern Australia: Evidence from a 3000 year multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Patrick; Mooney, Scott; Allen, Kathryn; Willersdorf, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Fire is the dominant natural disturbance in southeastern Australia. For millennia it has been the driving force shaping terrestrial ecosystems in the region -- simultaneously killing vegetation and initiating regeneration across whole landscapes. Fire regimes across the region are driven by several factors including climate, vegetation, and ignition sources. Humans have been a significant contributing factor to past and present fire regimes. Prior to European settlement in the late 1700s, Aboriginal Australians used frequent, low-intensity fires to manage vegetation across much of the landscape. European settlement led to the displacement of Aboriginal communities and a shift to active fire suppression and control. This changing approach to fire management is widely believed to have initiated a fundamental shift towards extreme, high-intensity fire events as fuel loads increased. In addition, during the 20th Century prolonged periods of warm, dry conditions have occurred with greater frequency and intensity. The relative importance of climate and fire management practices on contemporary fire regimes is vigorously debated in Australia and is directly relevant to land management policies and their implementation. To put the current fire regime into historical context, we used a multi-proxy approach combining palaeo-charcoal and tree-ring analyses to assess how fire regimes have changed over the last 3000 years in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia. We found almost no evidence of high-intensity fires in the 3000 years that preceded the 20th Century. However, in the mid-20th Century there is a sudden and dramatic increase in the presence of charcoal and the pulsed establishment of trees across the landscape, suggesting a recent shift from low-intensity fires with minimal charcoal signatures to moderate- to high-intensity fires with substantial charcoal inputs. Importantly, the tree-ring data demonstrate that most of these fires were not stand

  17. In memory of Professor Leonor Michaelis in Nagoya: great contributions to biochemistry in Japan in the first half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, Toshiharu Toshi

    2013-09-01

    Leonor Michaelis spent the years of 1922-1926 as Professor of Biochemistry of the Aichi Medical College (now Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in Nagoya, Japan. Michaelis succeeded in gathering many bright young biochemists from all over Japan into his laboratory, and made tremendous contributions to the promotion of biochemistry in Japan. Michaelis was invited to many places in Japan to present lectures over those years. Kunio Yagi, who was Professor of Biochemistry at Nagoya University in the second half of the 20th century, succeeded in crystallizing the "Michaelis" enzyme-substrate complex. Historically, Michelis has had an enormous impact on biochemistry in Japan.

  18. What Constitutes  Good Writing ? – A Comparative Analysis of 20 th  and Early 21 st  Century Poetics

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva, Casandra Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Is it any good? Most readers have asked and been asked this question. But is there such a thing as a good book, or good writing? That is the question here, examined through a comparative analysis of the poetics of a group of 20th century writers: Jack Kerouac, David Foster Wallace, Stephen King and Ayn Rand. It appears that these writers, who had seemingly little in common except for the fact that they wrote fiction in America, mainly after World War 2, agree on some important aspects consid...

  19. An evaluation of 20th century climate for the Southeastern United States as simulated by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Rupp,

    2016-05-05

    The 20th century climate for the Southeastern United States and surrounding areas as simulated by global climate models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) was evaluated. A suite of statistics that characterize various aspects of the regional climate was calculated from both model simulations and observation-based datasets. CMIP5 global climate models were ranked by their ability to reproduce the observed climate. Differences in the performance of the models between regions of the United States (the Southeastern and Northwestern United States) warrant a regional-scale assessment of CMIP5 models.

  20. From village to city through maps: historical cartographic materials as an information source on 20th century environmental changes due to urbanisation in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Nieścioruk Kamil

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the use of historical Polish post-war topographic maps and their usefulness in the detection and assessment of environmental changes caused by 20th century urbanisation. The case study area is the Polish city of Lublin. Two main research questions are defined and answered. The first is what kinds of maps can be used to trace environmental changes as well as to find the present-day remains of past environments and what is the reliability of these maps? Several series of to...

  1. The making of a social, representative and intellectual police force - Recruitment and education of police trainees in Sweden during the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Furuhagen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the development of recruitment and education of police trainees in Sweden during the 20th century. The aim is to analyse the efforts to promote a role for the police and a police force that would be more social, representative and intellectual. While this has been the goal during the last ten to fifteen years, this investigation shows that the roots of these efforts go back to the 1930s. The ideas underlying recruitment originally sought the ideal police among soldiers, ...

  2. Transition to an IP Environment. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Conference on Telecommunications Policy (15th, Aspen, Colorado, August 12-16, 2000) with Thoughts on the Implications of Technological Change for Telecommunications Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entman, Robert M.; Katz, Michael L.

    The Aspen Institute's Communications and Society Program convened leaders and experts in the telecommunications and related fields to address telecommunications regulation in an IP (Internet Protocols) environment at the 15th annual Aspen Institute Telecommunications Policy Conference (Aspen, Colorado, August 12-16, 2000). The report from this…

  3. Using user models in Matlab® within the Aspen Plus® interface with an Excel® link

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Fontalvo Alzate

    2014-01-01

    Process intensification and new technologies require tools for process design that can be integrated into well-known simulation software, such as Aspen Plus®. Thus, unit operations that are not included in traditional Aspen Plus software packages can be simulated with Matlab® and integrated within the Aspen Plus interface. In this way, the user can take advantage of all of the tools of Aspen Plus, such as optimization, sensitivity analysis and cost estimation. This paper gives a detailed desc...

  4. Aspen increase soil moisture, nutrients, organic matter and respiration in Rocky Mountain forest communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Joshua R; St Clair, Samuel B

    2012-01-01

    Development and change in forest communities are strongly influenced by plant-soil interactions. The primary objective of this paper was to identify how forest soil characteristics vary along gradients of forest community composition in aspen-conifer forests to better understand the relationship between forest vegetation characteristics and soil processes. The study was conducted on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, USA. Soil measurements were collected in adjacent forest stands that were characterized as aspen dominated, mixed, conifer dominated or open meadow, which includes the range of vegetation conditions that exist in seral aspen forests. Soil chemistry, moisture content, respiration, and temperature were measured. There was a consistent trend in which aspen stands demonstrated higher mean soil nutrient concentrations than mixed and conifer dominated stands and meadows. Specifically, total N, NO(3) and NH(4) were nearly two-fold higher in soil underneath aspen dominated stands. Soil moisture was significantly higher in aspen stands and meadows in early summer but converged to similar levels as those found in mixed and conifer dominated stands in late summer. Soil respiration was significantly higher in aspen stands than conifer stands or meadows throughout the summer. These results suggest that changes in disturbance regimes or climate scenarios that favor conifer expansion or loss of aspen will decrease soil resource availability, which is likely to have important feedbacks on plant community development.

  5. 75 FR 13805 - Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet... Aspen Group Resources Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period...

  6. 76 FR 77591 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Aspen American Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Supplement No. 3 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Aspen American Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Aspen American Insurance Company (NAIC 43460). Business Address:...

  7. Simulation of Quaking Aspen Potential Fire Behavior in Northern Utah, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Justin DeRose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current understanding of aspen fire ecology in western North America includes the paradoxical characterization that aspen-dominated stands, although often regenerated following fire, are “fire-proof”. We tested this idea by predicting potential fire behavior across a gradient of aspen dominance in northern Utah using the Forest Vegetation Simulator and the Fire and Fuels Extension. The wind speeds necessary for crowning (crown-to-crown fire spread and torching (surface to crown fire spread were evaluated to test the hypothesis that predicted fire behavior is influenced by the proportion of aspen in the stand. Results showed a strong effect of species composition on crowning, but only under moderate fire weather, where aspen-dominated stands were unlikely to crown or torch. Although rarely observed in actual fires, conifer-dominated stands were likely to crown but not to torch, an example of “hysteresis” in crown fire behavior. Results support the hypothesis that potential crown fire behavior varies across a gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather, where it was likely under extreme and severe fire weather, and unlikely under moderate and high fire weather. Furthermore, the “fire-proof” nature of aspen stands broke down across the gradient of aspen dominance and fire weather.

  8. Application of Aspen Plus in the Course of Chemical Engineering Principle%Aspen Plus软件在化工原理教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春勇; 郑纯智; 汪斌; 张国华; 文颖频; 张纪霞

    2010-01-01

    化工原理是一门内容广、实践性强的课程.为了培养学生的工程实践能力,将Aspen Plus软件应用于化工原理教学.介绍了Aspen Plus软件在化工原理教学中的应用,论述了将Aspen Plus软件强大的参数化建模功能应用于教学过程.将Aspen Plus引入到化工原理教学中,有助于学生对化工原理的理解,有助于学生学习兴趣的提高.

  9. Aspen Plus 8.0在精馏设计中的应用%The Application of Aspen Plus 8.0 in Distillation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛科创; 闫晓前

    2014-01-01

    作为21世纪的化工人才,不但要懂得化工设计,而且要会使用电脑软件进行设计.Aspen Plus作为化工设计的首选软件,尤其是Aspen Plus 8.0以其新特点,得到了众多化工爱好者的青睐.本文以Aspen Plus 8.0在精馏设计中的应用为例,介绍了Aspen Plus 8.0在化工设计中的步骤和方法,为我们进行化工设计和原有工艺改进提供了方法.

  10. 77 FR 60119 - Proposed Consent Agreements: DesignerWare, LLC, Timothy Kelly and Ronald P. Koller, Aspen Way...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Proposed Consent Agreements: DesignerWare, LLC, Timothy Kelly and Ronald P. Koller, Aspen Way Enterprises..., LLC; Timothy Kelly and Ronald P. Koller; Aspen Way Enterprises, Inc.; Watershed Development Corp...Ware, LLC''; ``Timothy Kelly and Ronald P. Koller''; ``Aspen Way Enterprises, Inc.'';...

  11. 77 FR 10491 - City of Aspen; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application Document...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Aspen; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre....: 13254-002. c. Date Filed: December 12, 2011. d. Submitted By: City of Aspen. e. Name of Project: Castle Creek Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On Maroon and Castle Creeks near the City of Aspen, in...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF GOVERNMENTAL, PUBLIC AND PEDAGOGICAL INITIATIVES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL EDUCATION IN THE SECOND PART OF THE 19TH CENTURY - EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vasilievna FEDOSEEVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today in Russia serious attention is paid to the problems of the governmental and social-educational initiatives. The article highlights the governmental, public and pedagogical initiatives in the sphere of national education. Based on the analysis of the historical materials, the author highlights the content of the governmental, public and pedagogical initiatives in national education of the Arkhangelsk Governorate in the second half of the19th century early 20th century. The article shows the impact which the governmental, public and pedagogical initiatives had on national education of the Arkhangelsk Governorate in the second half of the19th century early 20th century. Two types of impact are noted: direct and indirect. The article specifies the variety of governmental, public and pedagogical initiatives in the Arkhangelsk Governorate. The impact of governmental, public and pedagogical initiatives is shown through the increased literacy level of the population, involvement of inhabitants in the process of national education, increased number of educational institutions and national libraries, stabilization of financial and social position of teachers, diversity of public involvements into the process of managing educational institutions, expansion of channels financing national education in legal terms etc. The article also characterizes the specific features of the Arkhangelsk Governorate, such as: absence of Zemstvos (local governments in prerevolutionary Russia, territorial remoteness of educational institutions from each other etc. 

  13. Ankylosing spondylitis or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in royal Egyptian mummies of 18th -20th Dynasties? CT and archaeology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sahar N; Hawass, Zahi

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To study the computed tomography(CT) images of royal Ancient Egyptian mummies dated to the 18th to early 20th Dynasties for the claimed diagnoses of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and to correlate the findings with the archaeology literature.Methods. We studied the CT images of 13 royal Ancient Egyptian mummies (1492–1153 BC) for evidence of AS and DISH and correlated our findings with the archaeology literature.Results. The findings of the CT scans excluded the diagnosis of AS, based on the absence of sacroiliac joint erosions or fusion of the facet joints. Four mummies fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for DISH:Amenhotep III (18th Dynasty), Ramesses II, his son Merenptah, and Ramesses III (19th to early 20th Dynasties).The diagnosis of DISH, a commonly a symptomatic disease of old age, in the 4 pharaohs is in concordance with their longevity and active lifestyles.Conclusion. CT findings excluded the diagnosis of AS in the studied royal Ancient Egyptian mummies and brought into question the antiquity of the disease. The CT features of DISH during this ancient period were similar to those commonly seen in modern populations,and it is likely that they will also be similar in the future.The affection of Ramesses II and his son Merenptah supports familial clustering of DISH. The process of mummification may induce changes in the spine that should be considered during investigations of disease in ancient mummies.

  14. Can't a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Lisa; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Popular depictions of 20th-century American motherhood have typically emphasized the joy and fulfillment that a new mother can expect to experience on her child's arrival. But starting in the 1950s, discussions of the "baby blues" began to appear in the popular press. How did articles about the baby blues, and then postpartum depression, challenge these rosy depictions? In this article, we examine portrayals of postpartum distress in popular magazines and advice books during the second half of the 20th century to examine how the unsettling pairing of distress and motherhood was culturally negotiated in these decades. We show that these portrayals revealed a persistent reluctance to situate motherhood itself as the cause of serious emotional distress and a consistent focus on changing mothers to adapt to their role rather than changing the parameters of the role itself. Regardless of whether these messages actually helped or hindered new mothers themselves, we suggest that they reflected the rarely challenged assumption that motherhood and distress should not mix.

  15. 20 世纪中国音乐美学现代部分研究%Study on Contemporary Chinese Aesthetics of Music in the 20 th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨和平

    2015-01-01

    With contemporary Chinese aesthetics of music in the 20 th century as the research object and based on a large number of literature and historical materials , the paper tries to make a dynamic grasp of the nature of music , the value of music , music form and content , aesthetics of music at home and abroad , process of music practice , aesthetic education practice , music criticism , music psychology and translated works of aes-thetics of music on a macro level , which aims to promote the development of Chinese aesthetics of music in the 20 th century .%本文以20世纪中国音乐美学现代部分为研究对象,在搜集整理阅读分析大量文献史料的基础上,力图对音乐存在的本质、音乐的价值功能、音乐形式与内容、中外音乐美学史、音乐实践的诸环节、美育实践、 音乐批评、音乐心理以及音乐美学的译文译著等,进行宏观有机动态的理论把握,旨在推进20世纪中国音乐美学学科的发展.

  16. The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism

  17. Progress in China's climate change study in the 20th century%20世纪中国气候变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟盘茂; 巢清尘; 邹旭恺

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the 20th century climate change in China have revealed that under the background of global warming over the past century,climate in China has also experienced significant change with mean annual temperature increased by about 0.5 °C.More reliable results for the latter part of the 20th century indicate that the largest warming occurred in Northwest China,North China and Northeast China,and the warming in winter is most significant.Although no obvious increase or decrease trends were detected for mean precipitation over China in the past half century,regional differences are very distinct.In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River,precipitation increased,while that in the Yellow River Basin markedly decreased.Studies suggest that climate change in China seems to be related not only with the internal factors such as ENSO,PDO,and the others,but also with the anthropogenic effects such as greenhouse gas emissions,and land use.The future climate change studies in China seem to be important in narrowing understanding the nature of China's climate change and its main causes,since it is significant for projection and for impact assessment of climate change in the future.

  18. The investigation of ionospheric response to total eclipses on 29th March, 2006 and on 20th March, 2015 based on HF oblique sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertogradov, G. G.; Vertogradova, E. G.

    2016-09-01

    The investigation of ionosphere response to solar eclipses was carried out. Maximum observable frequencies were analyzed during two eclipses on 29th March, 2006 and on 20th March, 2015 on several oblique sounding paths which were within the range of solar flux obscuration. The model describing local changes in the ionosphere, caused by the obscuration of solar flux during eclipse, is suggested. The computer simulation of HF radiowave propagation during the eclipses was carried out on the basis of this model, while quiet ionosphere was described by IRI-2012 model. It is shown that this approach gives adequate description of HF channel during eclipses for all propagation paths under consideration while the parameters of the model were the same for all paths. As the result of computer simulation time delays of ionosperic responses during eclipses were obtained (~1800-2000 s). It was found that maximum depletion of electron concentration reached 85% in D-region for both eclipses. The electron density depletions at height of F2-peak were 48% and 34% for eclipse on 29th March, 2006 and on 20th March, 2015 respectively.

  19. A Time-Series Analysis of the 20th Century Climate Simulations Produced for the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Francisco; Perron, Pierre; Gay-García, Carlos; Martínez-López, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    In this paper evidence of anthropogenic influence over the warming of the 20th century is presented and the debate regarding the time-series properties of global temperatures is addressed in depth. The 20th century global temperature simulations produced for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report and a set of the radiative forcing series used to drive them are analyzed using modern econometric techniques. Results show that both temperatures and radiative forcing series share similar time-series properties and a common nonlinear secular movement. This long-term co-movement is characterized by the existence of time-ordered breaks in the slope of their trend functions. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that while natural forcing factors may help explain the warming of the first part of the century, anthropogenic forcing has been its main driver since the 1970’s. In terms of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, significant anthropogenic interference with the climate system has already occurred and the current climate models are capable of accurately simulating the response of the climate system, even if it consists in a rapid or abrupt change, to changes in external forcing factors. This paper presents a new methodological approach for conducting time-series based attribution studies. PMID:23555866

  20. Natural stones and types of tombstones in National cemetery in Martin from half of the 19th to half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pivko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available About 500 tombstones from National cemetery in Martin were carried out. The cemetery represents section through sepulchral architecture in the 19th and 20th centuries and records history of natural stones use and tombstone evolution. From c. 1850, classicistic steles were produced from Gerecse marble and Banská Bystrica sandstone. Historicist steles of Silesian marble were imported from 1870s. End of 1880s years, variability of tombstone appearance began to grow. Outlined text, carved text fields, ornaments and new typefaces were emerged. In 90s years Carrara marble is imported. Real variousness of tombstone face is typical for first 20 years of the 20th century, when hard natural stones (Silesian granite, Swedish dolerite, and Norwegian larvikite are widely used. Besides them domestic Cenozoic conglomerates, Banská Bystrica sandstone and Bohemian Hořice sandstone were utilized. From 20s years to half of the century, variability of natural stones decreased at the expense of Swedish dolerite. Variety of tombstone shapes grew from decorated secession steles, through geometric functionalistic compositions, to simple tabular tombstones.

  1. Bookseller’s Classification: Classification Examples and Criteria of Croatian Booksellers in Sales Catalogs and Book Lists from the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Topić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to conduct research on the topic of ways of bookstore (sales classification of Croatian bookstores from the beginning of the 20th century. By content analysis of the 17 sales lists/catalogs of books from Dubrovnik, Split, Zadar, Karlovac, Zagreb and Osijek, the classification structure has been reconstructed, and the criteria according to which the booksellers offerings have been classified in the early 20th century have been determined. Conducting of the analysis established the following criteria of the bookstore classification: topic/content, form/type of work, type of corpus, genre, language, purpose, publishing series, publisher, time of publication, (new edition, time of publication/purchase, customer's specific interests, number, letter and author. Order of enumeration within specific categories is mostly alphabetic, numeric or according to order of publication. Unlike the library classification and classification systems in general, the problematics of bookstore classification is not very present in the current existing sources. Research studies that focus on the history of bookselling, even if they reveal ways of classification of booksellers offers remain on a descriptive level without any deeper analysis of the criteria or possible reasons of such classification. Therefore, the contribution of the paper is a detailed analysis of a larger pattern of bookstore sales catalogs, and also an attempt of illuminating the criteria and reasons of creating a system of bookstore classification in the defined historical, spatial and time context.

  2. Tank SY-102 remediation project summary report: ASPEN modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. As a part of this program, personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed and demonstrated a flow sheet to remediate tank SY-102, which is located in the 200 West Area and contains high-level radioactive waste. In the conceptual design report issued earlier, an ASPEN plus trademark computer model of the flow sheet was presented. This report documents improvements in the flow sheet model after additional thermodynamic data for the actinide species were incorporated

  3. Modelling and Simulation of Gas Engines Using Aspen HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ekwonu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper gas engine model was developed in Aspen HYSYS V7.3 and validated with Waukesha 16V275GL+ gas engine. Fuel flexibility, fuel types and part load performance of the gas engine were investigated. The design variability revealed that the gas engine can operate on poor fuel with low lower heating value (LHV such as landfill gas, sewage gas and biogas with biogas offering potential integration with bottoming cycles when compared to natural gas. The result of the gas engine simulation gave an efficiency 40.7% and power output of 3592kW.

  4. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Correia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years

  5. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Taupin

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l. was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g−1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent

  6. 某化工系统流程的Aspen Plus软件模拟分析%Simulation Analysis with Aspen Plus for a Chemical System Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立娟; 王佳; 齐鹏

    2015-01-01

    利用Aspen Plus软件对某化工系统流程模拟,并查看各物流结果.应用实例表明,在化工生产中应用Aspen Plus软件可以优化生产,对设备和整套生产装置的操作参数进行模拟,从而实现装置设计优化.

  7. Drought characteristics' role in widespread aspen forest mortality across Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, Leander D L; Anderegg, William R L; Abatzoglou, John; Hausladen, Alexandra M; Berry, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    Globally documented widespread drought-induced forest mortality has important ramifications for plant community structure, ecosystem function, and the ecosystem services provided by forests. Yet the characteristics of drought seasonality, severity, and duration that trigger mortality events have received little attention despite evidence of changing precipitation regimes, shifting snow melt timing, and increasing temperature stress. This study draws upon stand level ecohydrology and statewide climate and spatial analysis to examine the drought characteristics implicated in the recent widespread mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.). We used isotopic observations of aspen xylem sap to determine water source use during natural and experimental drought in a region that experienced high tree mortality. We then drew upon multiple sources of climate data to characterize the drought that triggered aspen mortality. Finally, regression analysis was used to examine the drought characteristics most associated with the spatial patterns of aspen mortality across Colorado. Isotopic analysis indicated that aspens generally utilize shallow soil moisture with little plasticity during drought stress. Climate analysis showed that the mortality-inciting drought was unprecedented in the observational record, especially in 2002 growing season temperature and evaporative deficit, resulting in record low shallow soil moisture reserves. High 2002 summer temperature and low shallow soil moisture were most associated with the spatial patterns of aspen mortality. These results suggest that the 2002 drought subjected Colorado aspens to the most extreme growing season water stress of the past century by creating high atmospheric moisture demand and depleting the shallow soil moisture upon which aspens rely. Our findings highlight the important role of drought characteristics in mediating widespread aspen forest mortality, link this aspen die-off to regional climate change

  8. Contrasting the patterns of aspen forest and sagebrush shrubland gross ecosystem exchange in montane Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, A.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the environmental controls on Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE) at an aspen forest and a sagebrush shrubland in southwest Idaho. The two sites were situated within a mosaic of vegetation that included temperate deciduous trees, shrublands, and evergreen conifer trees. The distribution of vegetation was presumably linked to water availability; aspen were located in wetter high-elevations sites, topographic drainages, or near snow drifts. Local temperatures have increased by ~2-3 °C over the past 50 years and less precipitation has arrived as snow. These ongoing changes in weather may impact snow water redistribution, plant-water availability, and plant-thermal stress, with associated impacts on vegetation health and production. We used eddy covariance to measure the exchange of water and carbon dioxide above the two sites and partitioned the net carbon flux to determine GEE. The sagebrush record was from 2003-2007 and the aspen record was from 2007-12. The region experienced a modest-to-severe drought in 2007, with ~73% of typical precipitation. We found that aspen were local "hotspots" for carbon exchange; peak rates of aspen GEE were ~ 60% greater than the peak rates of sagebrush GEE. Light, temperature, and water availability were dominant controls on the seasonality of GEE at both sites. Sagebrush and aspen were dormant during winter, limited by cold temperatures during winter and early spring, and water availability during mid-late summer. The onset of summer drought was typically later in the aspen than in the sagebrush. Drifting snow, lateral water redistribution, or increased rooting depths may have increased water availability in the aspen stand. Seasonal patterns of observed soil moisture and evaporation indicated aspen were rooted to >= 1 m. The sagebrush and aspen both responded strongly to the 2007 drought; peak GEE decreased by ~75%, peak GEE shifted to earlier parts of the year, and mid-summer GEE was decreased. We consider potential

  9. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius, Darius Staliūnas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  10. 20th July 2011 - Ambassador Bhattarai, Permanent Representative of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal and familiy members in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Spokesperson A. Lankford, accompanied by Adviser J. Ellis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    20th July 2011 - Ambassador Bhattarai, Permanent Representative of Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal and familiy members in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Spokesperson A. Lankford, accompanied by Adviser J. Ellis.

  11. [Russland an der Ostsee - Russia on the Baltic. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) - Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns od Perception (16th - 20th Centuries)] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Wien [etc.] : Böhlau, 2012

  12. Aspen shaving versus chip bedding: effects on breeding and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E; Demarest, K; Eckert, W J; Cates-Gatto, C; Nadav, T; Cates, L N; Howard, H; Roberts, A J

    2015-01-01

    The choice of laboratory cage bedding material is often based on both practical and husbandry issues, whereas behavioral outcomes rarely appear to be considered. It has been noted that a breeding success difference appears to be associated with the differential use of aspen chip and aspen shaving bedding in our facility; therefore, we sought to analyze breeding records maintained over a 20-month period. In fact, in all four mouse strains analyzed, shaving bedding was associated with a significant increase in average weanlings per litter relative to chip bedding. To determine whether these bedding types also resulted in differences in behaviors associated with wellbeing, we examined nest building, anxiety-like, depressive-like (or helpless-like), and social behavior in mice housed on chip versus shaving bedding. We found differences in the nests built, but no overall effect of bedding type on the other behaviors examined. Therefore, we argue that breeding success, perhaps especially in more challenging strains, is improved on shaving bedding and this is likely due to improved nest-building potential. For standard laboratory practices, however, these bedding types appear equivalent.

  13. Modeling water/lithium bromide absorption chillers in ASPEN Plus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Single- and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller designs are numerically modeled using ASPEN. → The modeling procedure is described and the results are compared to published modeling data to access prediction accuracy. → Predictions for the single- and double-effect designs are within 3% and 5%, respectively of published data for all cycle parameters of interest. → The absorption cycle models presented allow investigation of using absorption chillers for waste heat utilization in the oil and gas industry. -- Abstract: Absorption chillers are a viable option for providing waste heat-powered cooling or refrigeration in oil and gas processing plants, thereby improving energy efficiency. In this paper, single- and double-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller designs are numerically modeled using ASPEN. The modeling procedure is described and the results are compared to published modeling data to access prediction accuracy. Predictions for the single- and double-effect designs are within 3% and 5%, respectively of published data for all cycle parameters of interest. The absorption cycle models presented not only allow investigation into the benefits of using absorption chillers for waste heat utilization in the oil and gas industry, but are also generically applicable to a wide range of other applications.

  14. A site dependent top height growth model for hybrid aspen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tord Johansson

    2013-01-01

    In this study height growth models for hybrid aspen were developed using three growth equations. The mean age of the hybrid aspen was 21 years (range 15−51 years) with a mean stand density of 946 stems ha-1 (87−2374) and a mean diameter at breast height (over bark) of 19.6 cm (8.5−40.8 cm). Site index was also examined in relation to soil type. Multiple samples were collected for three types of soil: light clay, medium clay and till. Site index curves were constructed using the col-lected data and compared with published reports. A number of dynamic equations were assessed for modeling top-height growth from total age. A Generalized Algebraic Difference Approach model derived by Cieszewski (2001) performed the best. This model explained 99% of the observed variation in tree height growth and exhibited no apparent bias across the range of predicted site indices. There were no significant differences between the soil types and site indices.

  15. Conservation and yield aspects of old European aspen Populus tremula L. in Swedish forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazell, Per [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    1999-06-01

    Biodiversity issues are becoming integrated parts of Swedish forest management. In this context, the amount and distribution of broadleaved species, including aspen, are important. This thesis summarises results of two studies in which species from the rich epiphytic flora on aspen were used to evaluate important features of aspens, and two studies relating these features to production losses due to retention of aspen. The presence and abundance of four epiphytic, bark-living bryophytes in relation to stand and host-tree characteristics, were investigated in four mixed forest stands in central Sweden. There was no general and consistent relation between aspen density and bryophyte presence. Large diameter and rough bark of the aspen host, together with site factors and stand density around the host, were important. On 35 clearfelled areas, the bryophyte Antitrichia curtipendula (Hedw.) Brid. and the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., species considered sensitive to clearfelling, were transplanted on retained aspen stems. As a reference, transplants were made on aspens in adjacent old stands. After two years the bryophyte showed its highest vitality in the forest, but was also vigorous on the north side of retained trees. The lichen thrived best on the clearfelled areas, on the north side of trees retained in groups. For conservation purposes, aspen are best retained in groups. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of retained large aspens (diameter 49.6{+-}7.0 cm and height 29.4{+-}1.0 m) were studied in a 110-year-old aspen stand. Twelve trees were destructively analysed to establish allometric equations relating stem, bark and branch biomass and current annual stem increment (CAI{sub s}) to diameter at breast height. Biomass of the mean tree was 1172 kg, of which 80% was stemwood. CAI{sub s} was 1.5% of total stem biomass. Finally, the yield of a 44-year-old Norway spruce stand under an aspen overstorey was compared with that of pure Norway spruce, estimated

  16. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Binkley, Dan; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Romme, William H.; Yin, Tongming; DiFazio, Stephen; Singer, Francis J.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado have been a cause of concern for more than 70 years. We used a combination of traditional dendrochronology and genetic techniques as well as measuring the characteristics of regenerating and nonregenerating stands on the elk winter range to determine when and under what conditions and estimated elk densities these stands established and through what mechanisms they may regenerate. The period from 1975 to 1995 at low elevation on the east side had 80-95 percent fewer aspen stems than would be expected based on the trend from 1855 through 1965. The age structure of aspen in the park indicates that the interacting effects of fires, elk population changes, and livestock grazing had more-or-less consistent effects on aspen from 1855 to 1965. The lack of a significant change in aspen numbers in recent decades in the higher elevation and west side parts of the park supports the idea that the extensive effects of elk browsing have been more important in reducing aspen numbers than other factors. The genetic variation of aspen populations in RMNP is high at the molecular level. We expected to find that most patches of aspen in the park were composed of a single clone of genetically identical trees, but in fact just 7 percent of measured aspen patches consisted of a single clone. A large frequency of polyploid (triploid and tetraploid) genotypes were found on the low elevation, east-side elk winter range. Nonregenerating aspen stands on the winter range had greater annual offtake, shorter saplings, and lower density of mid-height (1.5-2.5 m) saplings than regenerating stands. Overwinter elk browsing, however, did not appear to inhibit the leader length of aspen saplings. The winter range aspen stands of RMNP appear to be highly resilient in the face of

  17. Variability on different time scales of Extra-tropical Cyclones and Windstorms in latest 20th century reanalyses ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Daniel J.; Wild, Simon; Kruschke, Tim; Ulbrich, Uwe; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2016-04-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms are responsible for a large portion of damages all around the globe. Thus, knowledge about the temporal variability of these events during the past is of high socio-economic importance. In this study, the temporal variability of extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms during the past century are analysed using ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR reanalysis datasets. Cyclones are identified using six hourly mean sea level pressure fields whereas wind storms are identified based on near-surface wind speeds. Analyses focus on wintertime events over both hemispheres and also for several subregions. Long-term trends as well as higher-frequency variability are investigated. Therefore, cyclone and wind storm time series are low-pass filtered with a cut-off frequency of 1/31 years using 31 weights and the high-frequency time series are obtained by calculating the residuum of the original and low pass-filtered time series. To analyse long-term trends, a linear regression model is fitted to the original time series for three different periods: 1901-1930, 1931-1960 and 1961-1999. Results suggest substantial differences regarding long-term trends between ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR for cyclones and wind storm events, especially during the first half of the 20th century. In general, a better agreement is found for extreme cyclones compared to all cyclones. Furthermore, high-frequency variability over the Northern Hemisphere is in good agreement for cyclones and wind storms over most regions and throughout the century, with the highest correlations found at the end of the 20th century. Analyses for the Southern Hemisphere show smaller agreement between ERA-20C and NOAA-20CR for cyclone and wind storms regarding their high-frequency variability. The results of this study indicate that no reliable conclusion regarding long-term variability of cyclones and wind storms can be drawn, based on solely these two 20th century reanalysis products. However, analyses

  18. The Influence of Canadian Intellectuals’ Ideological Views on the Political Culture in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOV I.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political views of Canadian intellectuals which had influence on the formation of Canadian political culture at the turn of the 20th century. The author confirms that the Canadian intellectual thought was the main ideological factor in the conditions of the formation of Canadian statehood, undeveloped party and political system, the lack of deep traditions of the parliamentary system, insufficient political practice and the lack of distinct ideology of basic political parties in the process of forming the Canadian nation. On the basis of studied Canadian sources, the author makes conclusion that the most of Canadian intellectuals did not participate directly in the political process and they considered themselves its bystanders. Besides, the Canadian intellectuals promoted the British political culture of the Victorian epoch. Although all of them were familiar wih the British socialistic thought – Fabianism, they insisted that the social transformation in the Canadian society is possible only through the improvement of moral system, the education of lower social classes and the maintenance of elite monarch traditions. The American influence on Canadian political culture was peripheral at the beginning of the 20th century. The ideas of the Chicago Sociological School and the European continental thought were not used. The Victorian intellectuals understood their time as the social crisis and their political discussions were often devoted to the problems of imperialism, religion, education and feminism. They undoubtedly influenced the Canadian political elite in the matter of further development of the Canadian nation and state, but they expressed their own unique views on the contemporary society in academic press and in elite clubs discussions. They did not share the opinion of publicity about contemporary social processes, because their position was far from the direct party policy. Though some of them participated as

  19. French school of neurology in the 19 th and first half of the 20th century, and its influence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available French medicine was of the utmost importance for the birth of modern medicine and neurology in the 19 th century. Innovative approaches, such as examination at the bedside, the use of the stethoscope, techniques of auscultation, palpation, and close patient examination, besides emphasis on anatomical-clinical correlation and observation of the outcome of the disease, were put into practice. French medicine offered professional training and incentives for the beginnings of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry. Returning from France, many Brazilian physicians implemented what they had learned, mainly in Paris. The most important pupils of the French neurology schools in Brazil during the 19 th century and first half of the 20 th century include names like Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré, and Deolindo Couto, founders of the leading Brazilian neurological schools, directly influenced by Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski.

  20. Recovering voices for the Spanish poetry of the 20th century: the writing on the margins of César Simón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pozo Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The poetry of César Simón is still maintaining the ungrateful marginal position. Although many eminent poets and critics recognize the Simón's opus as one of the most comprehensive and pervasive in the second half of the 20th century, it still has not entered into literary and critical studies. The persistent silence that hovers over Simón's work is a result of the difficulty of its clasification and of the peculiarities of its aesthetic principles in the context of Spanish poetry of the last century. This article attempts to bring closer Simón's work and thus contribute to the proliferation of views on this different poetics.

  1. Preconditions and Reasons of Religions Educational and Missionary Activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena D. Mikhailova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying the reasons and preconditions for religions, educational and missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Basing on the archive records, the author shows that most important preconditions for enhancing religions – educational activities were the following: the destruction of traditional patriarchal life of the masses, which was based on religions values, the need to overcome “religions ignorance” of a significant part of Orthodox population, the rapid religions dissent in the Russian Empire. Analysis of reasons for their wide spread shows that it wasn’t the cause of foreign influence or any kind of social protest. Studying contemporary opinions as well as specific facts of provincial parish life led to the conclusion that there existed a wide complex of preconditions that influenced the growth of “protest” forms of religion.

  2. Review and Consideration of Tibetan Archaeology in the 20th Century%20世纪西藏考古的回顾与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甲央; 霍巍

    2001-01-01

    Tibetan archaeology has always drawn close attention from academic circles both athome and abroad. In the first half of the 20th century, archaeological work in this region was principallydone by Western scholars. They obtained some achievements, such as those in the surveys of Tubo royaltombs, though there appeared shortcomings. Since the 1950s, Chinese scholars have independently car-tied out a series of archaeological surveys and diggings on the Qamdo karub site and in the NaogxianLieshan cemetery. The 1990s was an remarkable decade, when Tibetan archaeology was going ahead byleaps and bounds. The general investigation of ancient monuments across Tibet laid the foundations offuture Tibetan archaeology. The excavation of the prehistoric site at Qugoog village, Lhasa, the explo-ration of the ancient Guge city in Ngari and other archaeological projects carried out in recent years ex-erted significant influence in Chinese and foreign academic circles.

  3. Proceedings of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing First Flight's 20th Anniversary Celebration. Volume 2; Bibliography Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Kenneth E. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    A technical symposium, aircraft display dedication, and pilots' panel discussion were held on May 27, 1992. to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the first flights of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Supercritical Wing (SCW) research aircraft. The symposium featured technical presentations by former key government and industry participants in the advocacy, design, aircraft modification, and flight research program activities. The DFBW and SCW technical contributions are cited. A dedication ceremony marked permanent display of both program aircraft. The panel discussion participants included eight of the eighteen research and test pilots who flew these experimental aircraft. Pilots' remarks include descriptions of their most memorable flight experiences. The report also includes a survey of the Gulf Air War, an after-dinner presentation by noted aerospace author and historian Dr. Richard Hallion.

  4. Proceedings of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing First Flight's 20th Anniversary Celebration. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Kenneth E. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    A technical symposium, aircraft display dedication, and pilots' panel discussion were held on May 27, 1992, to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the first flights of the F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) and Supercrit- ical Wing (SCW) research aircraft. The symposium featured technical presentations by former key government and industry participants in the advocacy, design, aircraft modification, and flight research program activities. The DFBW and SCW technical contributions are cited. A dedication ceremony marked permanent display of both program aircraft. The panel discussion participants included eight of the eighteen research and test pilots who flew these experimental aircraft. Pilots' remarks include descriptions of their most memorable flight experiences The report also includes a survey of the Gulf Air War, and an after-dinner presentation by noted aerospace author and historian Dr. Richard Hallion.

  5. The Social-Economic Stratification of the Jewish Population of Ukrainian Governorates within the Russian Empire in the Late 19th-Early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor O. Dotsenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks into the history of the Jewish community in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire in the 19th century. The article examines the social-economic state of the Jewish community in Ukrainian governorates in the 19th century and analyzes preconditions for the creation of national Jewish public organizations in the Russian Empire in the early 20th century. At the turn of the century, there formed a specific social structure of the Jewish population in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire. Even a superficial analysis and comparison of the social structure of the Jewish and other ethnoses lets us draw a conclusion about the prevalence of representatives of the merchant, craftsman, and usurer social groups among the Jews of the region. The prevalence of Jews within the non-productive sphere led to interethnic conflicts with representatives of the Ukrainian and Polish ethnoses.

  6. Proceedings of the 24th Day of Scientific lectures and 20th Annual Meeting of the National Society of Black Physicists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K.H; Carwell, H.V.

    1999-11-29

    The National Society of Black Physicists will hold its Twentieth annual meeting and its XXIIII Day of Scientific Lectures at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on March 27th - 30th, 1997. The meeting provides a major opportunity for African American physicists and students to present their current research and discuss issues germane to the constituency. It is therefore crucial to have the broadest cross-section of the membership at each meeting. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was chosen as the site of the 20th annual meeting because of its historical significance to Physics (being one of the first national laboratories in the United States) and the laboratories continuing support of the goals and objectives of the society.

  7. The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, Roy K.

    2011-06-01

    Geodetic leveling observations from Biloxi, MS, to New Orleans, LA, and water level gauge measurements in the New Orleans-Lake Pontchartrain area were analyzed to infer late 20th century vertical motions. These data were used to test the validity of previous subsidence rate measurements and the models that predict the location and causes of subsidence. Water gauges attached to bridge foundations and benchmarks affixed to deep rods that penetrate Holocene strata subsided as much as 0.8 m locally between 1955 and 1995. The observed deep-seated subsidence far exceeds model predictions and demonstrates that shallow processes such as compaction and consolidation of Holocene sediments are inadequate by themselves to explain late 20th century subsidence. Deep-seated subsidence occurring east and north of the normal faults marking the Gulf of Mexico basin margin can be explained by local groundwater withdrawal, and regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta (MRD). Sharp changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal faults. Displacements are consistent with activity and show motions consonant with fault creep. Deep subsidence of the region to the south, including New Orleans, can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and perhaps, nongroundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ˜160 to 200 m deep dominated urbanized areas and is likely responsible for helping to lower local flood protection structures and bridges by as much as ˜0.8 m.

  8. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  9. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th) centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th) century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th) century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th) century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  10. Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ARIZTEGUI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (∼ 6,000 km2 and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. Sediments accumulated during positive hydrological balances (i.e., high lake level are mainly composed of allogenic mineral due to higher riverine inputs into the lake. This fluvial-dominated lake phases are recorded as sediments enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2 and in trace elements such as Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Hf, Ta, Th as well as rare earth elements (REE. Sediments accumulated during dry phases (i.e., low lake levels and high salinity are evaporite mineral-rich with elevated concentrations of CaO, MnO, MgO, and P2O5. High contents of As and U are probably due to a co-precitation during high evaporative phases. The calibration of the sediment chemical composition of Laguna Mar Chiquita to well-defined water-level fluctuations of the 20th century shows that elemental geochemistry can be a useful proxy to study former lake-water fluctuations. It may further provide a comparative model to evaluate past environmental conditions in other saline lacustrine basins.

  11. Underground fieldwork – A cultural and social history of cave cartography and surveying instruments in the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Mattes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 20th century, the practical examination of caves went through a radical change. Governmental organizations and private clubs were founded in an attempt to establish speleology as an independent academic subject. In contrast to earlier cave visitors, travelers began entering underground areas and attributing the names of “explorers” or “researchers” to themselves. Fieldwork—especially cave surveying and cartography—became common practice in speleology and such work provided important clues on speleogenesis, which was a controversial issue in the first half of the 20th century. Due to the fact that speleologists began separating themselves from ordinary cave visitors and tourists, tools and instruments for cave exploration and mapping, such as carbide lamps, ropes, compasses, clinometers, and drawing boards, became the emblems of speleology. Through historical discourse analysis, this paper examines whether this change in the status and practice of underground fieldwork had an effect on the self-perception of speleology and led to new forms of social cooperation and control between speleologists. Further questions address the manner in which the usage of new surveying instruments and the relevance of cave mapping modified the scientific research parameters and the cultural perceptions of the subterranean world. As a contribution to speleo-history, this approach opens a new perspective on the social and cultural dimensions of speleological fieldwork as well as the historical, scientific, and political dynamics in which they were involved. Sources for this research comprised historical scientific papers on cave mapping, textbooks, and archive materials from the Austrian National Library, the Natural History Museum in Vienna, and the Austrian Speleological Association.

  12. Changes in the relationships between climate and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growth during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.; Bottacci, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the Tuscan Apennine Alps, recent research has shown that similarity in trends of monthly climate variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall) is non-stationary amongst sites during the 20th century even between sites that differ little in elevation and at a relatively short distance from each other (D'Aprile et al., 2010; D'Aprile et al., 2011). Moreover, the level of correlation between series of monthly climate variables varies irregularly from highly positive to negative over time. We hypothesised that those changing climate conditions, even at the local level, could cause different tree-ring growth responses in silver fir amongst sites. The hypothesis was tested by dendroclimatological analysis, which was applied to study stands in silver fir forests close to the meteorological stations where climate analysis has been made. Results show that the influences of both monthly mean temperature and monthly rainfall on silver fir growth vary greatly during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps, and the ways that they change differ with month and amongst sites. Within sites, differences in the relationships between climate variables and silver fir tree-ring growth appear small in spite of different elevation of the study stands. These results contribute a changing point in forest planning and management especially in consideration of the need to adapt forest management and interventions to changing climate conditions and mitigate the impacts on silver fir forests. Moreover, they introduce climate variability as a key parameter in sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, socially responsible uses, nature conservation, and survival of the only conifer tree species typical of mountain mixed forest ecosystems in the Apennine Alps.

  13. Leaf and canopy conductance in aspen and aspen-birch forests under free-air enrichment of carbon dioxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddling, Johan; Teclaw, Ronald M; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Ellsworth, David S

    2009-11-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) have the potential to affect tree physiology and structure, and hence forest feedbacks on climate. Here, we investigated how elevated concentrations of CO2 (+45%) and O3 (+35%), alone and in combination, affected conductance for mass transfer at the leaf and canopy levels in pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and in mixed aspen and birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) forests in the free-air CO2-O3 enrichment experiment near Rhinelander, Wisconsin (Aspen FACE). The study was conducted during two growing seasons, when steady-state leaf area index (L) had been reached after > 6 years of exposure to CO2- and O3-enrichment treatments. Canopy conductance (g(c)) was estimated from stand sap flux, while leaf-level conductance of sun leaves in the upper canopy was derived by three different and independent methods: sap flux and L in combination with vertical canopy modelling, leaf 13C discrimination methodology in combination with photosynthesis modelling and leaf-level gas exchange. Regardless of the method used, the mean values of leaf-level conductance were higher in trees growing under elevated CO2 and/or O3 than in trees growing in control plots, causing a CO2 x O3 interaction that was statistically significant (P aspen and mixed aspen-birch communities. These results demonstrate that short-term primary stomatal closure responses to elevated CO2 and O3 were completely offset by long-term cumulative effects of these trace gases on tree and stand structure in determining canopy- and leaf-level conductance in pure aspen and mixed aspen-birch forests. Our results, together with the findings from other long-term FACE experiments with trees, suggest that model assumptions of large reductions in stomatal conductance under rising atmospheric CO2 are very uncertain for forests.

  14. Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) intake and preference by mammalian herbivores: the role of plant secondary compounds and nutritional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Juan J; Burritt, Elizabeth A; St Clair, Samuel B

    2014-10-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) has evolved a chemical defense system comprised of phenolic glycosides (PG), which effectively deter insect herbivory. However, much less is known about the role of PG and the nutritional quality of the associated plant community on aspen browse susceptibility to mammalian herbivores. In three successive periods during the growing season, we conducted experiments with sheep by offering leaves from two aspen stands with different concentrations of PG (LOW, HIGH) or aspen leaves vs. leaves from a forb (Utah pea, Lathyrus pauciflorus) or a grass (smooth brome, Bromus inermis Leyss.) growing in an aspen understory. Intake of aspen (19 to 35 % PG) was low in all periods (1 to 6 g/Kg(0.75) in 2 hr) supporting the notion that aspen's defense system may contribute to its ecological success. However, lambs ate larger amounts of LOW than of HIGH suggesting that sheep could discriminate between aspen stands with different concentrations of PG, even when both stands were relatively well defended. Concentration of nutrients and chemical defenses in aspen leaves remained fairly stable across the growing season, and preference for aspen increased over the growing season. In contrast, preference for the forb and the grass decreased across the growing season in concert with a decline in the nutritional quality of these plants. The data suggest that nutritional context of aspen and associated forage species drove preference more than contrasts in defense chemistry of aspen. There may be periods of "susceptibility" of aspen use by mammalian herbivores, despite high concentrations of chemical defenses, which can potentially be targeted by management to reduce aspen herbivory.

  15. Inventory of aspen trees in spruce dominated stands in conservation area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matti Maltamo; Annukka Pesonen; Lauri Korhonen; Jari Kouki; Mikko Vehmas; Kalle Eerikinen

    2015-01-01

    Background:The occurrence of aspen trees increases the conservation value of mature conifer dominated forests. Aspens typically occur as scattered individuals among major tree species, and therefore the inventory of aspens is challenging. Methods:We characterized aspen populations in a boreal nature reserve using diameter distribution, spatial pattern, and forest attributes:volume, number of aspens, number of large aspen stems and basal area median diameter. The data were collected from three separate forest stands in Koli National Park, eastern Finland. At each site, we measured breast height diameter and coordinates of each aspen. The comparison of inventory methods of aspens within the three stands was based on simulations with mapped field data. We mimicked stand level inventory by locating varying numbers of fixed area circular plots both systematically and randomly within the stands. Additionally, we also tested if the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data as auxiliary information would improve the accuracy of the stand level inventory by applying the probability proportional to size sampling to assist the selection of field plot locations. Results:The results showed that aspens were always clustered, and the diameter distributions indicated different stand structures in the three investigated forest stands. The reliability of the volume and number of large aspen trees varied from relative root mean square error figures above 50%with fewer sample plots (5–10) to values of 25%–50%with 10 or more sample plots. Stand level inventory estimates were also able to detect spatial pattern and the shape of the diameter distribution. In addition, ALS-based auxiliary information could be useful in guiding the inventories, but caution should be used when applying the ALS-supported inventory technique. Conclusions:This study characterized European aspen populations for the purposes of monitoring and management of boreal conservation areas. Our results suggest that

  16. 基于Aspen Plus的克劳斯硫回收过程模拟%Analog of ClausSulfur Recovery Process Based on Aspen Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林发现; 丁玲; 陈延林; 李繁荣; 师慧灵; 邹隐文

    2011-01-01

    Adopting Aspen Plus process analog calculation software,process flow for Claus sulfur recovery was simulated,simulated data was good coincident with the data demarcated by analog software used specially for sulfur recovery;on that basis,author has studied the influence of Claus key data on process flow by use of Aspen Plus modular analysis function,its conclusion was coincident with practical production process;result indicates that it has optimizing role for both design calculation and production operation based on the Claus sulfur recovery process analog.%采用Aspen P lus工艺模拟计算软件模拟了克劳斯硫回收工艺过程,模拟数据与硫回收专用模拟软件的标定数据吻合较好;在此基础上,利用Aspen P lus模块化分析功能,研究了克劳斯工艺的关键数据对工艺过程的影响,其结论与实际生产过程相符合;结果表明,基于Aspen P lus的克劳斯硫回收过程模拟,对设计计算和生产操作均具有优化作用。

  17. 2013 Aspen Winter Conference on particle physics: Higgs Quo Vadis

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    By winter of 2013, the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC will establish their discovery of a new Higgs-like particle with a mass around 125 GeV. The new data will shed light on its properties. Many fundamental questions in Physics will start to get their answer. The 2013 Aspen Winter Conference on particle physics will bring together experimentalists and theorists, creating an ideal environment to present and discuss the implications of the Higgs discovery in the framework of the Standrad Model and beyond. The conference will be formulated to encourage close collaborations and active exchange of information, which is crucial for making progress on this central topic of particle physics.

  18. Orbital Express Mission Operations Planning and Resource Management using ASPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Caroline; Knight, Russell; Jones, Grailing; Tran, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The Orbital Express satellite servicing demonstrator program is a DARPA program aimed at developing "a safe and cost-effective approach to autonomously service satellites in orbit". The system consists of: a) the Autonomous Space Transport Robotic Operations (ASTRO) vehicle, under development by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, and b) a prototype modular next-generation serviceable satellite, NEXTSat, being developed by Ball Aerospace. Flexibility of ASPEN: a) Accommodate changes to procedures; b) Accommodate changes to daily losses and gains; c) Responsive re-planning; and d) Critical to success of mission planning Auto-Generation of activity models: a) Created plans quickly; b) Repetition/Re-use of models each day; and c) Guarantees the AML syntax. One SRP per day vs. Tactical team

  19. Simulation of IGFC power generation system by Aspen Plus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sayem, Abu Sadahat;

    2010-01-01

    and therefore, very high efficiencies can be achieved. The outputs from SOFC can be utilized by HRSG which drives steam turbine for electricity production. The SOFC stack model developed using the process flow sheet simulator Aspen Plus which is of equilibrium type. The results indicate there must be tread off...... efficiency and power with respect to a variety of SOFC inputs. HRSG which is located after the SOFC is also included in current simulation study with various operating parameters. This paper also describes for the IGFC Power Plants, the optimization of the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG......) is of particular interest in order to improve the efficiency of the heat recovery from SOFC exhaust gas and to maximize the power production in the steam cycle in IGFC system....

  20. Coal conversion systems design and process modeling. Volume 1: Application of MPPR and Aspen computer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a coal gasification system design and mass and energy balance simulation program for the TVA and other similar facilities is described. The materials-process-product model (MPPM) and the advanced system for process engineering (ASPEN) computer program were selected from available steady state and dynamic models. The MPPM was selected to serve as the basis for development of system level design model structure because it provided the capability for process block material and energy balance and high-level systems sizing and costing. The ASPEN simulation serves as the basis for assessing detailed component models for the system design modeling program. The ASPEN components were analyzed to identify particular process blocks and data packages (physical properties) which could be extracted and used in the system design modeling program. While ASPEN physical properties calculation routines are capable of generating physical properties required for process simulation, not all required physical property data are available, and must be user-entered.

  1. ASPEN: A Framework for Automated Planning and Scheduling of Spacecraft Control and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, David; Fukunaga, Alex S.; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we describe ASPEN (Automated Planning/Scheduling Environment), a modular, reconfigurable application framework which is capable of supporting a wide variety of planning and scheduling applications.

  2. Best Practices Case Study: Shaw Construction Burlingame Ranch Ph.1, Aspen, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory & Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2010-12-01

    Shaw Construction built 84 energy efficient, affordable condominiums forthe City of Aspen that achieved HERS scores of less than 62 with help from Building America’s research team lead Building Science Corporation.

  3. 20th Century variability of Atlantic Meridional overturning circulation: Planetary wave influences on world ocean surface phosphate utilization and synchrony of small pelagic fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamykowski, Daniel

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), part of the global Thermohaline Circulation (THC), is variable. In the present analysis, an Atlantic Dipole Phosphate Utilization (ADPU) index, related to the existing Atlantic Dipole Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (ADSA) index, is used to represent 20th century changes in AMOC strength that are applied to global ecosystem variability. ADPU index cycles set the timing for the calculation of six 2° latitude-longitude resolution world ocean maps depicting higher surface phosphate utilization (SPU) in some regions when AMOC is weaker and in other regions when AMOC is stronger. The average of these six maps yields a summary map with a pattern of alternating latitudinal SPU regions differentiated by AMOC strength that exhibits relationships with ocean bathymetry and wind-driven currents through a consideration of the THC deep and shallow limbs. The latitudinal pattern of SPU regions exhibits conceptual associations with sardine (S) and anchovy (A) population ranges off Japan (J), California (C), Peru (P) and South Africa (B). These sardine and anchovy populations have exhibited apparently synchronous fluctuations on decadal scales through at least part of the 20th century that is summarized in a Regime Indicator Series (RIS=(JS+CS+PS+BA)-(JA+CA+PA+BS)) index. In the present analysis based on Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) catch data, a revised Regime Indicator Series index formulation (RIS3=(JS+CA+PS+BA)-(JA+CS+PA+BS)), in which CS and CA catches reverse positions, is defined. AMOC variability represented in ADPU is significantly correlated with the RIS3 index (no lag but a significant range of 14 years) and four of eight small pelagic fisheries (JS, PS, BA, and JA). The post-1950 RIS3 index is significantly correlated with seven of eight small pelagic fisheries but not CS. When the regional small pelagic fisheries are considered as normalized species differences (S-A), ADPU has significant positive

  4. Enhancement of production of eugenol and its glycosides in transgenic aspen plants via genetic engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Koeduka, Takao; SUZUKI, SHIRO; Iijima, Yoko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Shibata, Daisuke; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Pichersky, Eran; Hiratake, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol, a volatile phenylpropene found in many plant species, exhibits antibacterial and acaricidal activities. This study attempted to modify the production of eugenol and its glycosides by introducing petunia coniferyl alcohol acetyltransferase (PhCFAT) and eugenol synthase (PhEGS) into hybrid aspen. Gas chromatography analyses revealed that wild-type hybrid aspen produced small amount of eugenol in leaves. The heterologous overexpression of PhCFAT alone resulted in up to 7-fold higher eug...

  5. Continental-scale assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Colin M.; Rowe, Carol A.; Ryel, Ronald J.; Shaw, John D.; Madritch, Michael D.; Mock, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) has the largest natural distribution of any tree native to North America. The primary objectives of this study were to characterize range-wide genetic diversity and genetic structuring in quaking aspen, and to assess the influence of glacial history and rear-edge dynamics. Location: North America. Methods: Using a sample set representing the full longitudinal and latitudinal extent of the species’ distribution, we examined geographical patterns o...

  6. 20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型阐释%20th Century Chinese Literature Gun Yu Archetypical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙胜杰

    2014-01-01

    Gun Yu myth as a prototype in the literature as a hero mythology, it is perhaps the epitome of human to the hero worship, accumulate at the bottom of the pioneers of the original consciousness. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype is not simply repeat the Gun Yu myth, not just confined to a single, forever hero model, but with the development of history and the cultural background of the different age is rich, the constantly changing, constantly displacement deformation, from hero to ordinary mortals. In 20th century Chinese literature Gun Yu prototype become forces so as to express its own cultural codes, not only reflects the profound connotation of culture and history of the works, but also let us in the same original thinking mode of the experience of different cultures, and more direct, more profound understanding prototype this is both abstract and concrete, is both varied and genetic stability of human culture and literature.%鲧禹神话作为原型在文学中被塑造成英雄神话,它凝结了人类对英雄的崇拜,积淀在原始先民的意识底层。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型并不是对鲧禹神话的简单重复,也不仅局限在单一的、永远不变的英雄模式,而是随着历史发展和不同时代文化背景被不断丰富、变化,不断置换变形,从英雄走向普通凡人。20世纪中国文学中的鲧禹原型成为各种力量借以表达自身的文化符码,既体现出了作品的深厚的文化底蕴和历史内涵,又能让我们在相同的原始思维的模式下体验不同的文化,也能更直接、更深刻地认识原型这一既抽象又具体,既多变又稳定的人类文化与文学基因。

  7. Genetic variation of hydraulic and wood anatomical traits in hybrid poplar and trembling aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Stefan G; Hacke, Uwe G; Hamann, Andreas; Thomas, Barb R

    2011-04-01

    Intensive forestry systems and breeding programs often include either native aspen or hybrid poplar clones, and performance and trait evaluations are mostly made within these two groups. Here, we assessed how traits with potential adaptive value varied within and across these two plant groups. Variation in nine hydraulic and wood anatomical traits as well as growth were measured in selected aspen and hybrid poplar genotypes grown at a boreal planting site in Alberta, Canada. Variability in these traits was statistically evaluated based on a blocked experimental design. We found that genotypes of trembling aspen were more resistant to cavitation, exhibited more negative water potentials, and were more water-use-efficient than hybrid poplars. Under the boreal field test conditions, which included major regional droughts, height growth was negatively correlated with branch vessel diameter (Dv ) in both aspen and hybrid poplars and differences in Dv were highly conserved in aspen trees from different provenances. Differences between the hybrid poplars and aspen provenances suggest that these two groups employ different water-use strategies. The data also suggest that vessel diameter may be a key trait in evaluating growth performance in a boreal environment.

  8. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathryn M; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Jansson, Stefan; Albrectsen, Benedicte R

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  9. Genetic variation in functional traits influences arthropod community composition in aspen (Populus tremula L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Robinson

    Full Text Available We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

  10. Applications of Aspen Plus in the teaching of the separation engineering%Aspen Plus在《分离工程》教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢泽湘; 范立维; 廖益强

    2010-01-01

    分析了Aspen Plus化工流程模拟软件的学习方法,探讨了Aspen Plus软件在课程教学改革中的运用.教改结果表明,教学中软件的应用提高了学生的学习兴趣,加深了学生对课程内容的理解,同时拓宽了学生的视野,使课程教学更接近工程实际,获得了良好的教学效果.

  11. The Application of Aspen Plus in Chemical Engineering Learning%Aspen Plus在化工学习中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滑纬博; 李云凯; 吕燕

    2013-01-01

    在化工学习中,应用Aspen Plus对化工生产中的典型工艺——苯加氢合成环己烷系统进行模拟,结果表明,Aspen Plus不仅可以简化复杂的化工过程,而且可以提高学生学习的效率和质量,增强工程意识,有利于理论和实践的结合.

  12. Predation risk, elk, and aspen: tests of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnie, John A

    2012-12-01

    Aspen in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are hypothesized to be recovering from decades of heavy browsing by elk due to a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade (BMTC). Several authors have suggested that wolves interact with certain terrain features, creating places of high predation risk at fine spatial scales, and that elk avoid these places, which creates refugia for plants. This hypothesized BMTC could release aspen from elk browsing pressure, leading to a patchy recovery in places of high risk. I tested whether four specific, hypothesized fine-scale risk factors are correlated with changes in current elk browsing pressure on aspen, or with aspen recruitment since wolf reintroduction, in the Daly Creek drainage in Yellowstone National Park, and near two aspen enclosures outside of the park boundary. Aspen were not responding to hypothesized fine-scale risk factors in ways consistent with the current BMTC hypothesis.

  13. FIRST STEPS IN URBAN PLANNING OF BULGARIAN CITIES WITH PARTICIPATION OF CZECH ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS AT THE TURN OF 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Brankov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on beginnings of the urban planning and first organized planning activities of Bulgarian cities at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries when many Czech engineers and architects participated in significantly. A common feature of all Bulgarian cities was irregular structure and build-up area. The main task of the Czech engineers was to cope with this situation and to design modern cities. In general, the original structure did not make planning easy and unambiguous. Planning of the cities destroyed in the Russian-Turkish war in 1877-78 was easier. A possibility to apply a new city structure freely existed in Stara Zagora and partially in Nova Zagora. A usual principle was straightening of the streets where the engineers used original street network and the new modern streets were built according to it, e.g. the centre of Kystendil and the old part of Nova Zagora. These principles were used also in some central parts of Sofia and Plovdiv. The city of Sofia itself is a distinctive example. Although the original structure was preserved during the war and in the first steps the principle of straightening of the streets in the centre was applied, the other parts of Sofia were designed with a new structure and the old city disappeared. Plovdiv is in contrary to Sofia and its original structure was preserved as an old city and the new one was joined to it in neighbourhoods.

  14. Response of the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway to the 20th and 21st century climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Giesen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers respond to mass balance changes by adjusting their surface elevation and area. These properties in their turn affect the local and area-averaged mass balance. To incorporate this interdependence in the response of glaciers to climate change, models should include an interactive scheme coupling mass balance and ice dynamics. In this study, a spatially distributed mass balance model, comprising surface energy balance calculations, was coupled to a vertically integrated ice-flow model based on the shallow ice approximation. The coupled model was applied to the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway. The available glacio-meteorological records, mass balance and glacier length change measurements were utilized for model calibration and validation. Forced with meteorological data from nearby synoptic weather stations, the coupled model realistically simulated the observed mass balance and glacier length changes during the 20th century. The mean climate for the period 1961–1990, computed from local meteorological data, was used as a basis to prescribe climate projections for the 21st century at Hardangerjøkulen. For a linear temperature increase of 3 °C from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100, the modelled net mass balance soon becomes negative at all altitudes and Hardangerjøkulen disappears around the year 2100. The projected changes in the other meteorological variables could at most partly compensate for the effect of the projected warming.

  15. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework. PMID:27501548

  16. Manuscripts and Broadsheets. Narrative Genres and the Communication Circuit among Working-Class Youth in early 20th-Century Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the hazy boundary between folklore and literature, orality and literacy is explored in relation to the individual and the community. How do people who belong to the first generation of active writers in their family and community express their own experiences through fictional narratives and the literary tradition? This question is explored in relation to the working-class youth in the small industrial community of Karkkila (Högforsin southern Finland. The most important research materials are the editions of hand-written newspapers written by these young people from 1914 to 1925.My theoretical background is derived from both folklore studies and book history. Inspired by the research of Robert Darnton, I have outlined the communication circuit of the working-class youth during the early 20th century, discussing the position of the manuscript tradition (hand-written newspapers, ballad books, minutes in relation to the printed texts(books, newspapers, broadsheets and the oral tradition. In my article I focus on the narratives of love in the manuscripts written by the working-class youth. How do they work with the ideas and narrative genres and themes adopted from the printed media and the oral tradition? I outline fictionalization of personal experiences and localization of fictional, printed texts as two basic narrative strategies utilized in these processes.

  17. Risk communication and the transformations in the meta narrative of the nuclear field in the 20th and 21st centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meta narrative of the nuclear field was influenced in the beginning by the perspectives of economic prosperity and the possibility of diversifying to alternative sources of power. However, it has been transformed throughout the 20th and the early 21st centuries by the collective memory and micro narratives of the nuclear bombs during the II World War and the nuclear or radiologic incidents of Three Mile Island, in 1979, Chernobyl, 1986, Goiania, 1987, and Fukushima, 2011. The most recent occurrence made countries like France and Germany, which depend a great deal on nuclear power supply, to suspend their nuclear programs, although having to retake them afterwards due to the impossibility of getting new sources of energy in a short period of time. All that attracted negative attention to the field and severely impacted the perception of risk by the society. This paper observes the future of the meta narrative in such area will be based in the influence of other national and supranational risk communication narratives around security, pollution, environment and economy. The discussion is based on theories by researchers such as Andreas Huyssen, Carlo Ginzburg, Lorenzo Negri, Maurice Halbwachs, Max Weber, Pedro Fernando Bendassolli, Peter Sandman, Roland Barthes, Ulrick Beck and Walter Benjamin. (author)

  18. Russian Literature and Chinese Literature in 20th Century%俄苏文学与20世纪中国文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊星

    2001-01-01

    本文通过对20世纪中国作家接受俄苏文学影响的历程的 勾勒,揭示了俄苏文学的道德感、抒情风格在塑造中国文学现代品格中发挥的重要作用。同 时,论证了中国作家在兼收并蓄世界文学丰富成就的过程中显示出的超越性,并指出了中国 文学与俄苏文学的差距。%The paper shows that the Russian literature greatly influences the Chinese write rs in the 20th century and plays an important part in shaping the modern Chinese literatu re with its sense of morality and lyric style. It also reveals that Chinese lite ratur has overpassed Russian literature in the course of taking in the rich achi evements of world literature and points out the distance between C hinese literature and Russian literature.

  19. RUSSIAN LITERARY NEOTRADITIONALISM OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE CONTEXT OF PHILOSOPHICAL AND AESTHETIC-AXIOLOGICAL PROBLEM OF THE CREATIVE CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nikolaevich Sklyarov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of the series of the research on the phenomenon of neotraditionalism in philosophical-aesthetic thought and artistic literature of the 20th century. The crisis phenomena in the creative consciousness of the post-traditionalist period, a kind of "response" to which became the new traditionalism, which was formed in the non-classical conditions and combining in itself the sensitivity to the most valuable discoveries of European modernism and the aspiration to eternal landmarks of classical culture.Cultural, historical, mental preconditions of the neotraditionalism and its key features are considered in the article. The author gives priority to the ontology, and also axiological and poetological aspects of neotraditional thinking. By virtue of the fact that it appears as a special vector of the creative research, and alternative to the divergent strategies of avant-gardism and reglamentaric intentions of the so-called "Socialist Realism" art. The subject of the research interest are the predominant traits of neotraditional mentality such as life acceptance, logocentric, responsibility, a tendency to seek modern forms of actualization of the eternal universals, and solidarity (convergence of the creative aspirations.

  20. The speech choir in central European theatres and literary-musical works in the first third of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Kalkus Reinhart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech choirs emerged as an offshoot of the choral gatherings of a wider youth musical and singing movement in the first half of the 20th century. The occasionally expressed opinion that choral speaking was cultivated primarily by the Hitler Youth and pressed into service on behalf of Nazi nationalist and racist propaganda is, historically, only partially accurate. The primary forces of choral speaking in Germany were, from 1919, the Social Democratic workers’ and cultural movement and the Catholic youth groups, in addition to elementary and secondary schools. The popularity of speech choirs around 1930 was also echoed in the music of the time. Compositions for musical speech choirs were produced by composers like Heinz Thiessen, Arnold Schönberg, Ernst Toch, Carl Orff, Vladimir Vogel, Luigi Nono, Helmut Lachenmann and Wolfgang Rihm. Moving forward from the Schönberg School, the post-1945 new music thereby opens up the spectrum of vocal expressions of sound beyond that of the singing voice. It does so not only for solo voices but for the choir as well.

  1. From village to city through maps: historical cartographic materials as an information source on 20th century environmental changes due to urbanisation in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieścioruk Kamil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the use of historical Polish post-war topographic maps and their usefulness in the detection and assessment of environmental changes caused by 20th century urbanisation. The case study area is the Polish city of Lublin. Two main research questions are defined and answered. The first is what kinds of maps can be used to trace environmental changes as well as to find the present-day remains of past environments and what is the reliability of these maps? Several series of topographic maps are used here together with aerial photography. The second research question is what changes can be found by comparing spatial sources and what features can be found today with the help of early maps. The main features investigated in this section are linear (road networks and areal (orchards supplemented with point features of various kinds (trees, wells, shrines. The quality of cartographic information is assessed and remnants of the past environment are discovered.

  2. The Concerns Underlying Sex Education for Young People in France During the First Half of the 20th Century: Morality, demography and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie De Luca Barrusse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the 20th century, the issue of sex education for young people was the topic of virulent debate. Increasing proposals for sex education in schools, along with lectures and information leaflets, were quickly opposed by Catholic circles, which did not reject sex education in principle but sought to control its form and content. Yet no matter which form or content was chosen, sex education remained underpinned by considerations about the future of the population and the state of public health, particularly the resurgence of syphilis, as well as moral principles. The concerns underlying sex education were morality, demography and public health, which set limits on what was desirable and undesirable in this area and guided the objectives it was to achieve. Sex education was therefore conceived as an instrument for the reproduction and preservation of the race but was not supposed to become an instrument of debauchery. This is confirmed by an analysis of the proposed systems, which differed according to the sexes.

  3. Energy feedbacks of northern high-latitude ecosystems to the climate system due to reduced snow cover during 20th century warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    The warming associated with changes in snow cover in northern high-latitude terrestrial regions represents an important energy feedback to the climate system. Here, we simulate snow cover-climate feedbacks (i.e. changes in snow cover on atmospheric heating) across the Pan-arctic over two distinct warming periods during the 20th century, 1910-1940 and 1970-2000. We offer evidence that increases in snow cover-climate feedbacks during 1970-2000 were nearly three times larger than during 1910-1940 because the recent snow-cover change occurred in spring, when radiation load is highest, rather than in autumn. Based on linear regression analysis, we also detected a greater sensitivity of snow cover-climate feedbacks to temperature trends during the more recent time period. Pan-arctic vegetation types differed substantially in snow cover-climate feedbacks. Those with a high seasonal contrast in albedo, such as tundra, showed much larger changes in atmospheric heating than did those with a low seasonal contrast in albedo, such as forests, even if the changes in snow-cover duration were similar across the vegetation types. These changes in energy exchange warrant careful consideration in studies of climate change, particularly with respect to associated shifts in vegetation between forests, grasslands, and tundra. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Sections and features in newspapers published in Osijek from mid-19th to mid-20th century: overview of continuity and changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Selthofer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the development of sections and features in newspapers published in Osijek from mid-19th to mid-20th century. The paper focuses on the establishment, development and shaping of sections, i.e. their setting, headings, name changes, change patterns, graphic and typographical solutions, etc. The research was conducted in the Newspaper Collection of the Museum of Slavonia. It was based on two criteria: years of publication and cultural importance, and included the following newspapers: Die Drau, Slavonische Presse, Narodna (Hrvatska obrana and Hrvatski list. The research results prove that newspaper sections and features are only in the initial stage of development as a concept of newspaper content organization. Their names are mostly highlighted graphically as sub-headings on a page, often not systematically. The more important news is often not embedded in feature sections - features are a content element and not an organizational category. They often gather related information and occur only when there’s a sufficient amount of particular type of information. The paper takes a fresh look at investigating the history of Croatian newspapers, showing not only the development of sections and features, but also how research of this type can help reconstruct social change and the way it is reflected in daily newspapers, as we can assume that a new section or feature is introduced only when there is increased interest or sufficient attention of the public to a particular topic.

  5. Secular changes in the height of the inhabitants of Anatolia (Turkey) from the 10th millennium B.C. to the 20th century A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Başak Koca; Sağır, Mehmet; Ozer, Ismail

    2011-03-01

    We use human-skeleton samples to estimate the height of adults living in Anatolia during the Neolithic period. We also report the results of surveys taken in the 20th century on the height of the Turkish population. Neolithic and the Chalcolithic (5000-3000 B.C.) male heights are estimated as 170.9 cm and 165.0 cm, respectively. Pronounced increases were observed for both sexes between the Chalcolithic and Iron (1000-580 B.C.) periods and sharp decreases among both males and females in the Hellenistic-Roman period (333 B.C. to 395 A.D.). Moreover, recovery to the Iron Age levels was achieved in the Anatolian Medieval period (395-1453 A.D.) for both sexes (169.4 cm for males and 158.0 cm for females). In 1884 the mean height of men was 162.2 cm and by the beginning of the 1930s it increased to 166.3 cm. In the first nationwide survey in 1937 males mean height was 165.3 cm, and females was 152.3 cm, where today current heights are 174.0 cm and 158.9 cm, respectively. PMID:21316315

  6. Loss of genetic diversity among ocelots in the United States during the 20th century linked to human induced population reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Jan E; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda; Caso, Arturo; Grassman, Lon I; Honeycutt, Rodney L

    2014-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the United States currently exhibit low levels of genetic diversity. One hypothesis for this observation is that habitat fragmentation, resulting from human induced changes in the landscape during the 20(th) century, created island populations with highly reduced gene flow and increased genetic drift and inbreeding. In an effort to investigate this, we used a portion of the mitochondrial control region and 11 autosomal microsatellite loci to examine historical levels of genetic diversity and infer temporal changes in ocelot populations between 1853 and 2005. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in historical ocelot populations than in extant populations from Texas. The earliest documented loss of mitochondrial haplotype diversity occurred at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. The second extant population inhabiting private lands in Willacy County retained higher levels of genetic diversity through the 1990s, but subsequently lost diversity over the next decade. A similar pattern was observed for autosomal microsatellite loci. This supports the argument that low levels of genetic diversity in Texas are related to human induced population reductions and fragmentation, both of which threaten the remaining ocelots in the United States. At this time, the best means of mitigating the continued erosion of genetic variation are translocation of individuals either from larger populations in Mexico to Texas, or between the Texas populations. PMID:24586737

  7. The making of a social, representative and intellectual police force - Recruitment and education of police trainees in Sweden during the 20th century

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    Björn Furuhagen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of recruitment and education of police trainees in Sweden during the 20th century. The aim is to analyse the efforts to promote a role for the police and a police force that would be more social, representative and intellectual. While this has been the goal during the last ten to fifteen years, this investigation shows that the roots of these efforts go back to the 1930s. The ideas underlying recruitment originally sought the ideal police among soldiers, a foundation that metamorphosed into the desire to attract men from different social and occupational groups, and finally developed into attempts at including more women and immigrants. Gradually, police education has been prolonged with an orientation and introduction, plus increased instruction in theoretical subjects such as the social sciences, psychology and Swedish. The conclusion is that more research is needed in other countries as well, because knowledge about changes in recruitment and education can make a valuable contribution to the general field of police history.

  8. Loss of genetic diversity among ocelots in the United States during the 20th century linked to human induced population reductions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Janecka

    Full Text Available Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis in the United States currently exhibit low levels of genetic diversity. One hypothesis for this observation is that habitat fragmentation, resulting from human induced changes in the landscape during the 20(th century, created island populations with highly reduced gene flow and increased genetic drift and inbreeding. In an effort to investigate this, we used a portion of the mitochondrial control region and 11 autosomal microsatellite loci to examine historical levels of genetic diversity and infer temporal changes in ocelot populations between 1853 and 2005. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in historical ocelot populations than in extant populations from Texas. The earliest documented loss of mitochondrial haplotype diversity occurred at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. The second extant population inhabiting private lands in Willacy County retained higher levels of genetic diversity through the 1990s, but subsequently lost diversity over the next decade. A similar pattern was observed for autosomal microsatellite loci. This supports the argument that low levels of genetic diversity in Texas are related to human induced population reductions and fragmentation, both of which threaten the remaining ocelots in the United States. At this time, the best means of mitigating the continued erosion of genetic variation are translocation of individuals either from larger populations in Mexico to Texas, or between the Texas populations.

  9. Demographic situation in Vojvodina in the last decade of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century

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    Đurđev Branislav S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the analyzed demographic data for the last decade of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, one could conclude that the most significant characteristics of the population of Vojvodina are: slow demographic increase; negative population growth; more and more unfavourable age structure; increase in the decision to remain single; relatively low level of urbanization, a very heterogeneous national composition of the population; acceptance of low reproductive norms in the majority of the population; and a very probable depopulation in the future. The discussed demographic features characteristic for Vojvodina as a whole are also present in most of the smaller territorial-administrative units like districts and muinicipalities. Their population is also characterized by the negative population growth, low birthrate and fertility, high general mortality-rate as well as by a very advanced process of demographic ageing. The analysis about the demographic situation in Vojvodina was primarily based on the data from the 1991 and 2002 censuses, as well as on the data of the vital statistics for that inter-census period.

  10. Between Egyptian "national purity" and "local flexibility": prostitution in al-Mahalla al-Kubra in the first half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Hanan

    2011-01-01

    This article traces prostitution in al-Mahalla in the first half of the 20th century as a regulated urban practice until the trade was outlawed in Egypt in 1949. Studying prostitution during this period of exceptionally rapid growth and transformation not only provides a window on a particular type of illicit sexuality and public morality in a colonial context, it also gives us a hint as to gender relations and inter-communal relations on the invisible marginalized part of a provincial local community, and how it was socially transformed. I argue that the regulation of prostitution in Egypt in 1882 and 1905 created a sphere for a power contest between the colonial state and the local community, between nationalist discourse and the local way of life, and between public morality and private space. While nationalist discourse constructed one virtuous nation, the local community accepted the licensed prostitution quarter, and resisted secret prostitution. The people of the town actively and continually shifted boundaries on what was public and what was private, what was the state's responsibility and what was communal liability.

  11. 《二十世纪中国百项考古大发现》读后思考%Book Review: One Hundred Major Archaeological Discoveries in China in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何驽

    2002-01-01

    The book is a monograph compiled by the Archaeology Publications based on the results of the Voting of "One Hundred Major Archaeological Discoverises in CHina in the 20th Century," The present paper introduces the book's structure,content and summarizes its authoritativeness in the choice of major discoveries,initiative in compilation form,theorization in summarization ,academic character in content and popularity in statement,Meanwhile,the paper analyzes the features of significant archaeological discoveries in CHina in the 20th century,and puts forward that they are characterized by the leding role of academic researches,close connection with social development and taking the Central Plains as the center.

  12. Dynamic Simulation of the Methanol Synthesis Reactor with the Aspen Dynamics Software%基于 Aspen Dynamics 的甲醇合成塔动态模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳芳华; 刘东斌; 申延明

    2014-01-01

    以某年产300 kt甲醇合成装置为研究对象,利用先进的Aspen Plus工程设计软件对其进行全流程稳态模拟;并在稳态模拟的基础上,应用Aspen Dynamics软件对甲醇合成塔进行动态模拟,从而得到可供参考的最优的工艺控制参数,以指导实际生产操作。%Taking the 300 kt/a methanol synthesis unit as the study object ,make its whole process steady‐state simulation with the advanced Aspen Plus engineering design software . On the basis of steady‐state simulation ,make the dynamic simulation of methanol synthesis reactor with the Aspen Dynamics software to obtain the optimal control parameters for reference ,which could guide the actual production operations .

  13. The Application of Aspen Plus 7.3 in Chemical Engineering Design%Aspen Plus 7.3在化工设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛科创

    2014-01-01

    Chemical engineering design is the calculation process of the related parameters by computer. Because of the large amount of calculation, it must through the corresponding chemical simulation software to achieve. Aspen Plus 7.3 because the precise calculating, fast running speed, become the preferred software in chemical engineering design. This paper show the steps and methods of chemical engineering design by computer thought the flash condition is determined by Aspen Plus 7.3.%由于化工设计计算量大,必须通过相应的化工模拟软件来实现。Aspen Plus 7.3计算精确,运行速度快,成为化工设计者的首选软件。通过介绍利用Aspen Plus 7.3进行闪蒸条件的确定,说明利用计算机进行化工设计的步骤和方法。

  14. The Challenges of Change. A Report from the Aspen Institute Seminar on Hispanic Americans and the Business Community (Aspen, Colorado, July 27-30, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Georgianna; Nicolau, Siobhan

    This report from the 1997 Aspen Institute seminar concerns how demographic changes in American will affect Hispanic Americans' role in the business community. Section 1, "Lashes: Back, Front, and Sideways" (Harold Hodgkinson), describes pervasive national pessimism over demographic change and documents universal backlash to that change among all…

  15. Residential Access to Bandwidth: Exploring New Paradigms. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Conference on Telecommunications Policy (13th, August 9-13, 1998, Aspen, Colorado).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entman, Robert M.

    The 1998 Aspen Systems Conference on Telecommunications Policy met to consider ways of speeding the deployment of telecommunication systems that allow for robust, reliable, and innovative communications services to the home. By organizing participants into three working groups, the session was able to come up with analytical suggestions and policy…

  16. Impact of epidermal leaf mining by the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) on the growth, physiology, and leaf longevity of quaking aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Diane; DeFoliart, Linda; Doak, Patricia; Schneiderheinze, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    The aspen leaf miner, Phyllocnistis populiella, feeds on the contents of epidermal cells on both top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces of quaking aspen leaves, leaving the photosynthetic tissue of the mesophyll intact. This type of feeding is taxonomically restricted to a small subset of leaf mining insects but can cause widespread plant damage during outbreaks. We studied the effect of epidermal mining on aspen growth and physiology during an outbreak of P. populiella in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Experimental reduction of leaf miner density across two sites and 3 years significantly increased annual aspen growth rates relative to naturally mined controls. Leaf mining damage was negatively related to leaf longevity. Leaves with heavy mining damage abscised 4 weeks earlier, on average, than leaves with minimal mining damage. Mining damage to the top and bottom surfaces of leaves had different effects on physiology. Mining on the top surface of the leaf had no significant effect on photosynthesis or conductance and was unrelated to leaf stable C isotope ratio (delta(13)C). Mining damage to the bottom leaf surface, where stomata are located, had significant negative effects on net photosynthesis and water vapor conductance. Percent bottom mining was positively related to leaf delta(13)C. Taken together, the data suggest that the primary mechanism for the reduction of photosynthesis by epidermal leaf mining by P. populiella is the failure of stomata to open normally on bottom-mined leaves.

  17. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Matthew J; Brodie, Jedediah F; Jules, Erik S

    2010-09-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen Stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  18. Are wolves saving Yellowstone's aspen? A landscape-level test of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Matthew J.; Brodie, Jedediah F.; Jules, Erik S.

    2010-01-01

    Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades (BMTCs) occur when the fear of predation among herbivores enhances plant productivity. Based primarily on systems involving small-bodied predators, BMTCs have been proposed as both strong and ubiquitous in natural ecosystems. Recently, however, synthetic work has suggested that the existence of BMTCs may be mediated by predator hunting mode, whereby passive (sit-and-wait) predators have much stronger effects than active (coursing) predators. One BMTC that has been proposed for a wide-ranging active predator system involves the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park, USA, which is thought to be leading to a recovery of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by causing elk (Cervus elaphus) to avoid foraging in risky areas. Although this BMTC has been generally accepted and highly popularized, it has never been adequately tested. We assessed whether wolves influence aspen by obtaining detailed demographic data on aspen stands using tree rings and by monitoring browsing levels in experimental elk exclosures arrayed across a gradient of predation risk for three years. Our study demonstrates that the historical failure of aspen to regenerate varied widely among stands (last recruitment year ranged from 1892 to 1956), and our data do not indicate an abrupt cessation of recruitment. This pattern of recruitment failure appears more consistent with a gradual increase in elk numbers rather than a rapid behavioral shift in elk foraging following wolf extirpation. In addition, our estimates of relative survivorship of young browsable aspen indicate that aspen are not currently recovering in Yellowstone, even in the presence of a large wolf population. Finally, in an experimental test of the BMTC hypothesis we found that the impacts of elk browsing on aspen demography are not diminished in sites where elk are at higher risk of predation by wolves. These findings suggest the need to further evaluate how trophic

  19. Aspen Simulation of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Combustion

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    Pérez-Sánchez Armando

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which currently is gaining attention as a diesel substitute. It represents an opportunity to reduce CO2, SO2, CO, HC, PAH and PM emissions and contributes to the diversification of fuels in Mexico's energetic matrix. The results of the simulation of the combustion process are presented in this paper with reference to an engine specification KUBOTA D600-B, operated with diesel-biodiesel blends. The physicochemical properties of the compounds and the operating conditions of equipment were developed using the simulator Aspen® and supplementary information. The main aspects of the engine working conditions were considered such as diesel-biodiesel ratio, air/fuel mixture, temperature of the combustion gases and heat load. Diesel physicochemical specifications were taken from reports of PEMEX and SENER. Methyl esters corresponding to the transesterification of fatty acids that comprise castor oil were regarded as representative molecules of biodiesel obtained from chromatographic analysis. The results include CO2, water vapor, combustion efficiency, power and lower calorific value of fuels.

  20. Somatic Embryogenesis from Cell Suspension Cultures of Aspen Clone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Suspension cultures initiated from callus derived from petiole explants of aspen hybrid (Populus tremuloides × P.tremula) produced somatic embryos. Callus was induced on a MS medium supplemented with 5 mg·L-1 2,4-D and 0.05 mg·L-1 zeatin under light conditions. Embryogenic calli were obtained when a subsequent subculture of calli was suspended in the same basal medium with 10 mg·L-1 2,4-D. The highest number of globular embryos were induced from embryogenic calli by cell suspension culture in a MS liquid medium supplemented with 10 mg·L-1 2,4-D. Genotype and 2,4-D concentration were vital to the induction of embryogenic calli producing competent cells. Embryogenic calli for each genotype were heterogeneous. Green calli with gel-like consistency could yield more competent cells than light yellow embryogenic calli. However, some globular embryos broke into slices and some developed abnormally after one month of culture under the same or other hormonal conditions.

  1. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  2. Motherland Image Evolution in Chinese Free Verse of the 20th Century%20世纪中国新诗中"祖国"意象的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永睿; 张向东

    2011-01-01

    In Chinese free werse of the 20th century, "the motherland" (or"China")is a common image, as a result of China's destiny ups and downs in 20th century, "mother land's" image connotation in free poetry also changes. By the end of Qing Dynasty, motherland was the mountains and rivers broken as well as Chinese territory overrun and occupied by the enemy; During May Forth Movement, motherlan is"the nirvana phoenix", "youth China", "motherland like flower's"; During 1920's and 1930's China is" the nightmare hanging from cliff","a ditch despairs stagnant water"; During Sino-Japanese War, motherland is"coldly blocking China", covers entirely by" the blood and the muds"; After the liberation, great motherland is grand"Tian'an men",the bright"Five-Starred Red Flag"and the great leader; Since the new time,motherland's connotation has been richly colorful, not only"riverside worn-out old waterwheel"but also"the crimson daybreak", prosperous" scaffold"and" railway line"" the language and the quarry stone throw build" the spiritual home;In overseas Chinese eyes, motherland is"specially anchors of Chinese local accent" "the Chinatown" ,several millennium bright cultures"sad kind nurses with hardship""the Baiyu balsam pear".%"祖国"(或"中国")是二十世纪中国诗歌中常见的一个意象,由于二十世纪中国命运的坎坷多变,诗歌中"祖国"意象的内涵也与时俱变.清末诗歌中的祖国是山河破碎、神州陆沉;五四的祖国是"涅槃的凤凰"、"少年中国"、"如花的祖国";二、三十年代的中国是"噩梦挂着悬崖"的"一沟绝望的死水";抗战期间的祖国是被"寒冷封锁着的中国"、布满"血和泥"的中国;解放后的伟大祖国,是雄伟的"天安门"、鲜艳的"五星红旗"和伟大领袖;新时期以来的祖国,其内涵丰富多彩,既是"河边破旧的老水车",也是"绯红的黎明",欣欣向荣的"脚手架"和"铁道线",又是"语言和乱石投筑"的精神家园;在海外华人眼中,祖国则

  3. Adventurers, Flaneurs, and Agitators: Travel Stories as Means for Marking and Transgressing Boundaries in 19th and Early 20th Century Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on border crossings in travel stories, which were published in hand-written newspapers in 19th- and early 20th-century Finland. These papers were a popular tradition in student organizations and popular movements. Border crossings appear in travel stories in three different representations. Firstly, border crossings are repeated motifs in travel stories, both as challenging events and as small gestures and encounters. Travel stories demarcate boundaries, but they also provide a means for transgressing them. Secondly, hand-written newspapers as a literary practice highlight borders between oral and written communication. They were produced as one single manuscript copy, and published by being read out aloud in social events. Thirdly, the authors of hand-written newspapers were placed on the border of different positions in society such as class, gender and age. My analysis is based on the methodological discussion of small stories and personal experience narratives; travel stories can be defined as "local event narratives". I have outlined four basic models for travel stories which emerge from hand-written newspapers: the great mission story, the grand tour story, the flaneur story and the retreat story. The analysis of travel stories is presented through four different case studies with a time range from the 1850s to the 1920s: these materials have been produced in two provincial student fraternities (osakunta, in the temperance society "Star" in Helsinki in the 1890s, and in the Social Democratic Youth Club in the small industrial town of Karkkila in the 1910s and the 1920s. Many parallel features can be observed in travel stories, even though the social background and ideology of the authors are quite different. Time and space are important aspects in travel stories, and they often demarcate boundaries of class and gender.

  4. Two historians in front of the economic crisis of 2007-2008: Hobsbawm and Judt between Marxism and the legacies of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Marco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How did intellectuals react to the economic crisis of 2007-2008 and its long-term backlash? What did they learn from the main twentieth-century political and social experiences, in order to make a new sense of the traditional cultures of the Left? In order to answer these crucial issues, this proposal will analyze the paths of the well-known historians E. Hobsbawm and T. Judt and their apparently similar, but actually different reactions to the crisis. First, I will focus on their respective books: How to Change the World (2011 and Ill Fares the Land (2010. On the one hand, Hobsbawm’s critical approach to the post-1991 world, shaped by his lifelong fidelity to Marxism and his persistent sympathy for the Russian Revolution, was connected to his catastrophic vision of the end of the both conflicting and collaborative dynamics between capitalism and socialism. On the other hand, Judt’s re-thinking of the social-democratic tradition, compelled by the global transformations of the social question, was inspired by his connections with the East Central European dissidents’ anti-totalitarian liberalism and by his critical approach to the engagement of the French intellectuals. Second, I will investigate their different interpretations of the „Golden Age“ of post-1945 Europe (with special regard to the long-term impact of the crisis of 1929 and to the influence of Soviet communism and of the causes of its crisis. Third, I will show how, in spite of their common reference to Marx, late Hobsbawm’s and Judt’s historical visions - respectively combined with determinism and moralism - provide opposite ways of coping with the legacies of the 20th century and of criticizing the language of neoliberal economy within the Left.

  5. 20世纪开封水域景观变化%Landscape pattern dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city in the 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹新向; 丁圣彦

    2005-01-01

    Landscape spatial pattern mainly refers to the distribution of patches, which are different in size and shape in space owing to the interaction of various ecological activities. In landscape ecology study, landscape pattern has been one of the key study areas. Water body landscape plays an important role in the development history of a city, but at present city water body landscape in many cities has been destroyed, hence protecting water body in the city is becoming more and more important. In order to protect city water body landscape reasonably, the precondition is to probe the dynamics of water body landscape. Based on historical data and remote sensing data, six indexes including patch number, patch area, landscape dominance index, fractal dimension, patch density and connectivity index etc. were used to analyze landscape pattem dynamics of water body in Kaifeng city since the end of the Qing Dynasty (in the 20th century). The results showed: (1) Since the end of the Qing Dynasty, landscape area of water body in Kaifeng city increased first and then decreased from 1898 to 2002AD; the landscape dominant degree had the same changing tendency with the area. (2) Patch number of water body landscape in Kaifeng city had an increase from 1898 to 2002, but maximum area of patch, minimum area of patch and average area of patch decreased, which resulted in an increase in landscape fragment degree. (3) Connectivity index decreased and fractal dimension increased from 1898 to 2002. The reasons for these changes were the repeated overflows and flooding of the Yellow River and the influence of human activities.

  6. American Adult Immigration Citizen Education in the Mid- 20^th Century%20世纪中期美国成人移民公民教育概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正桂

    2011-01-01

    美国一直很重视对移民的同化,公民教育是移民同化采用的非常重要的手段。为此,20世纪中期美国采取了一系列相应的措施,其实践探索值得研究。美国成人移民公民教育的基本理念是帮助非美国公民身份的成人移民通过入籍考试,加入美国国籍,并培养他们对美国文化和价值观的认同感,使之与整个社会结合成一个团结而统一的整体。为实现这一目标,公立学校、移民归化局和其他一些机构相互配合,共同努力,取得了显著的成效。%They always pay much attention to assimilation of immigrants in the United States, the very important as- similation way is citizenship education. They took a series of measures of citizenship education for adult immigrants in Mid -20th Century in America, which is worth researching for us. The fundamental concept of citizenship education for adult immigrants was to help non- Americans of adult immigrants pass American Citizenship Test and be Americans, and train them to identify American culture and outlook of American value, then make them and the society as a unite and unified whole. To fulfill the objective, the public schools, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service and other organizations cooperated and worked hard together. At last, their work was very effective.

  7. Over the hills and further away from coast: global geospatial patterns of human and environment over the 20th-21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Salvucci, Gianluigi; Viviroli, Daniel; Ward, Philip J.; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    Proximity to the coast and elevation are important geographical considerations for human settlement. Little is known, however, about how spatial variation in these factors exactly relates to human settlements and activities, and how this has developed over time. Such knowledge is important for identifying vulnerable regions that are at risk from phenomena such as food shortages and water stress. Human activities are a key driving force in global change, and thus detailed information on population distribution is an important input to any research framework on global change. In this paper we assess the global geospatial patterns of the distribution of human population and related factors, with regard to the altitude above sea level and proximity to the coast. The investigated factors are physical conditions, urbanisation, agricultural practices, economy, and environmental stress. An important novel element in this study, is that we included the temporal evolution in various factors related to human settlements and agricultural practices over the 20th century, and used projections for some of these factors up to the year 2050. We found population pressure in the proximity of the coast to be somewhat greater than was found in other studies. Yet, the distribution of population, urbanisation and wealth are evolving to become more evenly spread across the globe than they were in the past. Therefore, the commonly believed tendency of accumulation of people and wealth along coasts is not supported by our results. At the same time, food production is becoming increasingly decoupled from the trends in population density. Croplands are spreading from highly populated coastal zones towards inland zones. Our results thus indicate that even though people and wealth continue to accumulate in proximity to the coast, population densities and economic productivity are becoming less diverse in relation to elevation and distance from the coast.

  8. Enlightenment of Germanic Rise and Fall in the 20th Century to China%20世纪德国的兴衰对中国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓锋

    2013-01-01

    20世纪德国的发展轨迹极为典型。自从1871年俾斯麦统一德国后,德国借着国家统一和两次工业革命的东风,迅速崛起,一跃成为当时的资本主义强国之一。随后德国相继经历了战争、战败、再复兴、再挑起战争、再战败。在二战后,德国终于跳出战争怪圈,与其欧洲邻国启动欧洲一体化进程,成就了今天德国的大国地位。德国的发展特别是二战后再度迅速崛起有许多值得中国借鉴的地方,尤其在崛起方式、统一问题、外交选择和文化实力等方面。%The developing track of German is a typical one in the 20th century. After Bismarck unified German in 1871, it became one of the strongest capitalist countries by means of its unification and the two industrial revolutions. Then German experienced the World War I, being defeated and its renaissance. And then it provoked the World War II and was defeated again. After World War II, German finally jumped out of the vicious circle of war and with its neighbor countries promoted the development of European Integration, and achieved its status of great power today. German’s development, especially which after World War II, its developing track has great reference value to China, especially in the way of rising, unification, diplomacy and cultural power.

  9. Lovro Stepišnik and the development of travelling librarianship in Slovenia at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vozel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Travelling library service is a field of librarianship which has not been thoroughly explored yet either in Slovenia or abroad. The most interesting question is who the beginner was and how the idea of a travelling library service has been introduced to Slovenia.Methodology/approach: The analysis of primary and secondary resources served to represent the life and work of Lovro Stepišnik as well as a short introduction to the history of travelling librarianship in Slovenia at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century.Results: The findings show that the hypothesis on Lovro Stepišnik as the first travelling librarian in Slovenia could be confirmed. After establishing the library together with the Reading society in the year 1863, either Stepišnik or his assistant, delivered baskets of books to rural readers. At the same time, some initiatives on private travelling libraries based on American and European practices emerged. The aim of the first travelling libraries was to stimulate reading and literacy among rural population, especially in the areas without reading societies and on the borders with German speaking population,in order to stimulate national consciousness and the use of the Slovenian language.Research limitation: The research was limited to the selected primary resources of selected serial publication in the Slovenian language. Some difficulties due to the variety of terms and archaic expressions were identified.Originality/practical implications: The short study should stimulate the research in the development of travelling libraries in Slovenia.

  10. Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fischer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL. The forcings included sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitudinal total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal model variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among

  11. 20世纪中国文学中的 "风水" 叙事%The Feng Shui Narration in the 20 th Century Chinese Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旋波

    2015-01-01

    近代以来, 作为中国传统文化一脉的风水观因其缺乏 "真确的知识" 而受到摒弃和批判, 五四以来风水一直受到科学理性、 唯物主义主导的文学思潮的攻伐. 随后, 20世纪中国社会及文化思潮发生了巨大的变迁,风水在文学中的境遇也因时而易, 这不但反映了时代思潮的嬗变, 还纠结着20世纪纷繁复杂的政治、 哲学及美学取向. 尤其是随着90年代中国文化语境的变迁, 风水文化逐渐浮现出其反思现代性的 "复魅" 特质.%In modern times, Feng Shui, which has been inherent to traditional Chinese culture, has been denounced and defamed as lack of scientific and truthful knowledge, and has long been criticized by the rational and materialistic school of literature since the May Fourth Movement. In the 20th century, as the Chinese society and ideology is undergoing dramatic changes, Feng Shui varies from time to time in literature, which reflects not only the transformation of ideology but also the complication of politics, philosophy and aesthetics. Particularly in the 1990s, as the cultural environment in China has greatly changed, the culture of Feng Shui tends to be charged with the nature of "revitalizing the enchantment of the world", i. e. reflections upon modernism.

  12. Climate and polar motion during the GRACE observing period: 2002-2015: Implications for decadal scale oscillations during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, Erik; Adhikari, Surendra; Larour, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The motion of the Earth's pole in space has been observed with great accuracy for the last 115 years. The angular variations of the pole position away from its mean are a well explained at annual and 434-day periods. Variations at annual periods are caused by changes in the mass and angular momentum forced by all Earth surface changes that have near seasonality. The 434-day period is explained as a resonance between the cumulative driving forces having periods near the Chandler wobble free eigenmode of the Earth and is well understood theoretically. The Earth also has a longer-term drift that is explained primarily as a response to the ice age changes in the moments of inertial of the Earth. However, there has been a long-standing search for the origins of pole variations that have a period near 10 years. Using GRACE space gravimetry we show that ice mass losses from Greenland and Antarctica, and when combined with changes in continental hydrology, explain almost all the main features of interannual time scale polar wander. The discovery has broad interdisciplinary implications, as we show that decadal scale pole variations are directly linked to global changes continental water. The energy sources for these pole position changes are, therefore, likely to be associated with decadal scale ocean and atmospheric oscillations that also drive 20th Century on-land wet-dry oscillations at decadal-scale across the globe. Variability in pole position, therefore, offers a tool for assessing past stability of our climate, and for the future, now faced with an increased intensity in the water cycle and more vulnerable to ice sheet instability.

  13. A Review of Chinese Fu Study in the End of the 20th Century%20世纪末期中国赋学述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志啸

    2013-01-01

      20世纪80年代初至世纪末约20年左右的时间,是中国赋学史上赋学研究的高峰期和多产期。这一时期,因着改革开放的社会和时代因素,赋学研究呈现出了学者不断涌现、成果丰硕喜人的景象,赋在文学史研究领域也开始和其他文体一样,被置于相当的地位,予以尽可能客观的研究,且这种研究是在传统赋学基础上展开进行的,因而更趋于科学化和理性化。%From the early 1980s to the end of the 20th century, it is a productive peak period in the history of Chinese Fu study. At that time, thanks to the reform and opening-up policy and the advantageous social circumstances, Fu study underwent a pros-perous development, bringing about many scholars and fruitful achievements.Like other genres, Fu was properly positioned in the research field of literary history and its study received an objective treatment.Since the research was based on traditional Fu study, it was more scientific and rational.

  14. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  15. Detecting long-term metabolic shifts using isotopomers: CO2-driven suppression of photorespiration in C3 plants over the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Betson, Tatiana R; Nilsson, Mats B; Marshall, John D; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-12-22

    Terrestrial vegetation currently absorbs approximately a third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mitigating the rise of atmospheric CO2. However, terrestrial net primary production is highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 levels and associated climatic changes. In C3 plants, which dominate terrestrial vegetation, net photosynthesis depends on the ratio between photorespiration and gross photosynthesis. This metabolic flux ratio depends strongly on CO2 levels, but changes in this ratio over the past CO2 rise have not been analyzed experimentally. Combining CO2 manipulation experiments and deuterium NMR, we first establish that the intramolecular deuterium distribution (deuterium isotopomers) of photosynthetic C3 glucose contains a signal of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio. By tracing this isotopomer signal in herbarium samples of natural C3 vascular plant species, crops, and a Sphagnum moss species, we detect a consistent reduction in the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio in response to the ∼100-ppm CO2 increase between ∼1900 and 2013. No difference was detected in the isotopomer trends between beet sugar samples covering the 20th century and CO2 manipulation experiments, suggesting that photosynthetic metabolism in sugar beet has not acclimated to increasing CO2 over >100 y. This provides observational evidence that the reduction of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio was ca. 25%. The Sphagnum results are consistent with the observed positive correlations between peat accumulation rates and photosynthetic rates over the Northern Hemisphere. Our results establish that isotopomers of plant archives contain metabolic information covering centuries. Our data provide direct quantitative information on the "CO2 fertilization" effect over decades, thus addressing a major uncertainty in Earth system models. PMID:26644588

  16. The Outline of Chinese Western Literary Geography in the 20th Century%2O世纪中国西部文学地理学论纲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向东

    2011-01-01

    西部文学在20世纪中国文学版图占有重要的一席之地,从学术史来看,从文学地理学的角度来研究西部文学的理论和实践日趋成熟.在此基础上,运用文化地理学的视角和方法,对西部地理大发现与西部文学的崛起、西部作家的地理分布、西部地理景观对西部文学的影响、多民族人口地理与西部文学的多元性、语言地理学与西部文学的语言等问题进行深入而系统的研究,会进一步拓展西部文学研究的视野,具有重要的方法论意义.%Western Chinese literature occupies a very important place in Chinese literature map in the 20th century. From the viewpoint of academic history, the study of western literature theory and practice with literary geography as a starting point turns to be mature. On this basis, carrying out an in-depth and systematic study on the following problems with the perspective and method of literary geography will further expand the horizon of western literature study: the study on western geographic discovery and the rise of western literature; the geographic distribution of western writers; the influence of western geographical landscape on western literature;the diversity of multi-ethnic population geography and western literature;linguistic geography and the language of western literature, etc. It also proves to be of great methodological significance.

  17. [Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Mati, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

  18. Phenology and climate relationships in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forest and woodland communities of southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Gretchen A.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Evelsizer, Ross J.; Vogelmann, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) occurs over wide geographical, latitudinal, elevational, and environmental gradients, making it a favorable candidate for a study of phenology and climate relationships. Aspen forests and woodlands provide numerous ecosystem services, such as high primary productivity and biodiversity, retention and storage of environmental variables (precipitation, temperature, snow–water equivalent) that affect the spring and fall phenology of the aspen woodland communities of southwestern Colorado. We assessed the land surface phenology of aspen woodlands using two phenology indices, start of season time (SOST) and end of season time (EOST), from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) database of conterminous U.S. phenological indicators over an 11-year time period (2001–2011). These indicators were developed with 250 m resolution remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer processed to highlight vegetation response. We compiled data on SOST, EOST, elevation, precipitation, air temperature, and snow water equivalent (SWE) for selected sites having more than 80% cover by aspen woodland communities. In the 11-year time frame of our study, EOST had significant positive correlation with minimum fall temperature and significant negative correlation with fall precipitation. SOST had a significant positive correlation with spring SWE and spring maximum temperature.

  19. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K

    2014-08-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  20. A simple PCR-based marker to determine sex in aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakull, B; Kersten, B; Lüneburg, J; Fladung, M

    2015-01-01

    The genus Populus features a genetically controlled sex determination system, located on chromosome 19. However, different Populus species vary in the position of the sex-linked region on the respective chromosome and the apparent heterogametic sex, and the precise mechanism of sex determination in Populus is still unknown. Using next generation sequencing of pooled samples of male and female aspens, we identified the aspen homologue of the P. trichocarpa gene Potri.019G047300 ('TOZ19') to be male-specific. While in P. tremuloides, the complete gene is missing in the genome of female plants, a short fragment of the 3'-part of the gene is still present in P. tremula females. The male-specific presence and transcription of TOZ19 was further verified using PCR in various different aspen individuals and RT-PCR expression analysis. TOZ19 is potentially involved in early steps of flower development, and represents an interesting candidate gene for involvement in sex determination in aspen. Regardless of its role as candidate gene, TOZ19 represents an ideal marker for determination of the sex of non-flowering aspen individuals or seedlings.

  1. Differential response of aspen and birch trees to heat stress under elevated carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbah, Joseph N T; Sharkey, Thomas D; Calfapietra, Carlo; Karnosky, David F

    2010-04-01

    The effect of high temperature on photosynthesis of isoprene-emitting (aspen) and non-isoprene-emitting (birch) trees were measured under elevated CO(2) and ambient conditions. Aspen trees tolerated heat better than birch trees and elevated CO(2) protected photosynthesis of both species against moderate heat stress. Elevated CO(2) increased carboxylation capacity, photosynthetic electron transport capacity, and triose phosphate use in both birch and aspen trees. High temperature (36-39 degrees C) decreased all of these parameters in birch regardless of CO(2) treatment, but only photosynthetic electron transport and triose phosphate use at ambient CO(2) were reduced in aspen. Among the two aspen clones tested, 271 showed higher thermotolerance than 42E possibly because of the higher isoprene-emission, especially under elevated CO(2). Our results indicate that isoprene-emitting trees may have a competitive advantage over non-isoprene emitting ones as temperatures rise, indicating that biological diversity may be affected in some ecosystems because of heat tolerance mechanisms.

  2. Synergetic hydrothermal co-liquefaction of crude glycerol and aspen wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Jasiunas, Lukas; Casamassima, Luca;

    2015-01-01

    Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co-processing ......Crude glycerol-assisted hydrothermal co-liquefaction of aspen wood was studied in batch micro-reactors. An experimental matrix of 14 experiments was defined to investigate the effects of three different process parameters on the yields of biocrude and char, and on biocrude quality. Co......-processing aspen wood and neat glycerol led to a significant reduction in the char yield, and glycerol is hypothesized to act as a radical scavenger, alleviating re-polymerization of especially lignin-derived fragments. In the temperature range of 380–420 °C, it was found that biocrude and char yield, and biocrude...... quality were all invariant to the reaction temperature. By increasing the crude glycerol to aspen wood mass ratio from 0:1 to 3:1, char yield was decreased from 18.3% (only aspen wood) to 3.4%. Furthermore, the biocrude quality in terms of the effective hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H/Ceff) was significantly...

  3. Perturbation of wood cellulose synthesis causes pleiotropic effects in transgenic aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Chandrashekhar P; Thammannagowda, Shivegowda; Fujino, Takeshi; Gou, Ji-Qing; Avci, Utku; Haigler, Candace H; McDonnell, Lisa M; Mansfield, Shawn D; Mengesha, Bemnet; Carpita, Nicholas C; Harris, Darby; Debolt, Seth; Peter, Gary F

    2011-03-01

    Genetic manipulation of cellulose biosynthesis in trees may provide novel insights into the growth and development of trees. To explore this possibility, the overexpression of an aspen secondary wall-associated cellulose synthase (PtdCesA8) gene was attempted in transgenic aspen (Populus tremuloides L.) and unexpectedly resulted in silencing of the transgene as well as its endogenous counterparts. The main axis of the transgenic aspen plants quickly stopped growing, and weak branches adopted a weeping growth habit. Furthermore, transgenic plants initially developed smaller leaves and a less extensive root system. Secondary xylem (wood) of transgenic aspen plants contained as little as 10% cellulose normalized to dry weight compared to 41% cellulose typically found in normal aspen wood. This massive reduction in cellulose was accompanied by proportional increases in lignin (35%) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (55%) compared to the 22% lignin and 36% non-cellulosic polysaccharides in control plants. The transgenic stems produced typical collapsed or 'irregular' xylem vessels that had altered secondary wall morphology and contained greatly reduced amounts of crystalline cellulose. These results demonstrate the fundamental role of secondary wall cellulose within the secondary xylem in maintaining the strength and structural integrity required to establish the vertical growth habit in trees.

  4. Perturbation of Wood Cellulose Synthesis Causes Pleiotropic Effects in Transgenic Aspen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandrashekhar P.Joshi; Nicholas C.Carpita; Darby Harris; Seth DeBolt; Gary F.Peter; Shivegowda Thammannagowda; Takeshi Fujino; Ji-Qing Gou; Utku Avci; Candace H.Haigler; Lisa M.McDonnell; Shawn D.Mansfield; Bemnet Mengesha

    2011-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of cellulose biosynthesis in trees may provide novel insights into the growth and development of trees. To explore this possibility,the overexpression of an aspen secondary wall-associated cellulose syn-thase (PtdCesA8) gene was attempted in transgenic aspen (Populus tremuloides L.) and unexpectedly resulted in silencing of the transgene as well as its endogenous counterparts. The main axis of the transgenic aspen plants quickly stopped growing,and weak branches adopted a weeping growth habit. Furthermore,transgenic plants initially developed smaller leaves and a less extensive root system. Secondary xylem (wood) of transgenic aspen plants contained as little as 10% cellulose normalized to dry weight compared to 41% cellulose typically found in normal aspen wood. This massive reduction in cellulose was accompanied by proportional increases in lignin (35%) and non-cellulosic polysaccharides (55%) compared to the 22% lignin and 36% non-cellulosic polysaccharides in control plants. The transgenic stems produced typical collapsed or 'irregular' xylem vessels that had altered secondary wall morphology and contained greatly reduced amounts of crystalline cellulose. These results demonstrate the fundamental role of secondary wall cellulose within the secondary xylem in maintaining the strength and structural integrity required to establish the vertical growth habit in trees.

  5. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  6. Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Lack of aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment and canopy replacement of aspen stands that grow on the edges of grasslands on the low-elevation elk (Cervus elaphus) winter range of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) in Colorado has been a cause of concern for more than 70 years (Packard, 1942; Olmsted, 1979; Stevens, 1980; Hess, 1993; R.J. Monello, T.L. Johnson, and R.G. Wright, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2006, written commun.). These aspen stands are a significant resource since they are located close to the park's road system and thus are highly visible to park visitors. Aspen communities are integral to the ecological structure of montane and subalpine landscapes because they contain high native species richness of plants, birds, and butterflies (Chong and others, 2001; Simonson and others, 2001; Chong and Stohlgren, 2007). These low-elevation, winter range stands also represent a unique component of the park's plant community diversity since most (more than 95 percent) of the park's aspen stands grow in coniferous forest, often on sheltered slopes and at higher elevations, while these winter range stands are situated on the low-elevation ecotone between the winter range grasslands and some of the park's drier coniferous forests.

  7. The Internet Time Lag: Anticipating the Long-Term Consequences of the Information Revolution. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (10th, Aspen, Colorado, August 2-5, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Evan I.

    This is a report of the 10th annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (Aspen, Colorado, August 2-5, 2001). Participants were also polled after the events of September 11, and these comments have been integrated into the report. The mission of this report is to take a wide-ranging look at the trends that are defining the next new…

  8. 76 FR 15306 - Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Aspen Merchant Energy LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Aspen Merchant Energy LP's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  9. Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-09-01

    The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index.

  10. Aspen Plus”软件在化工生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐增花

    2013-01-01

      文章介绍了化工流程模拟软件“Aspen Plus”的主要功能及成功应用实例,应用实例表明,在化工生产中应用“Aspen Plus”软件不仅可以优化生产,而且还可以对某设备和整套生产装置的操作参数进行模拟分析,提高生产装置技术管理水平,从而产生巨大的经济效益,故应尽快在化工厂广大工程技术人员中推广使用“Aspen Plus”软件。

  11. ASPEN PLUS在化工教学及科研中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅博; 刘杨

    2015-01-01

    近年来,随着计算机技术的发展,大型的模拟仿真软件,尤其是Aspen Plus软件的应用,对推动化工专业教学及科研的发展起到了很大的作用。本文重点论述Aspen Plus软件在化工专业教学以及在科研中的应用。实践表明,Aspen Plus软件的使用,可以提高化工专业教学的质量,促进科研的的创新及发展。

  12. Aspen Plus在化工专业教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩慧艳

    2013-01-01

    信息技术的普及推动了其在教育领域的应用,对提高教学质量起到了积极的促进作用。特别是Aspen Plus作为一种先进的计算机软件,凭借着较高的实验仿真能力,在化工专业教学中得到了广泛的应用。本文笔者在分析了化工专业课程体系的基础上,分析了Aspen Plus软件的优势,重点探讨了Aspen Plus在化工专业教学中的应用,目的是为化工专业教学提供指导和借鉴。

  13. Fibrillation of Aspen by Alkaline Cold Pre-treatment and Vibration Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄRNER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt to fibrillate aspen bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP fibre in an environmentally friendly way is reported. The effects of various NaOH, KOH, urea and ethanol aqueous solutions at lowered temperature were tested for pre-treatment. The pre-treatment was followed by vibration milling aiming to peel off outer cell wall layers and to fibrillate S2 layer of the aspen wood fibre. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that it is possible to fibrillate BCTMP aspen fibres by using alkaline aqueous solutions at low temperatures followed by a mechanical treatment. A strong dependence on fibrillation of cellulose on temperature, time and alkali concentration was established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7412

  14. Effect of warming on larch trees in the Asian southern border of the boreal forest, Mongolia and China in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Caceres, Maximo Larry; Cho, Qiqin; Nobori, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Kazuo; Byambasuren, Mijidsuren; Zhang, Yandong; Sugimoto, Atsuko

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades air temperature (Ta) has been increasing steadily around the globe and it is reported that in the last 40 years Ta in Mongolia alone has increased by about 2.1 deg.C. The boreal region as a whole is expected to experience changes due to atmospheric drying, permafrost degradation, increases in the frequency of forest fires and other factors that will lead to a shift of the forest ecosystems northward. The southern border of the boreal forest distributes in northern Mongolia and northeast China, which as transition areas are more sensitive to changes. In a 500 km long south-north transect of larch forests extending in each of these two countries, larch forest sites were chosen (Larix sibirica in Mongolia and Larix gmeliini in China). Studies until now have used only tree-ring analysis to determined past and recent climate in Mongolia and China. However, isotope analysis has not been coupled with this analysis to give a wider overview of the environmental changes taking place in these regions. Therefore in this study tree core samples were collected for tree-ring and carbon isotope analysis to be coupled with available meteorological data. These data indicate that in the last four decades, the northernmost site of the selected transect has experienced the largest increase in Ta, but nevertheless the annual Ta in the southernmost site remained several degrees higher. On the other hand precipitation shows a very slight increase in the central and northernmost sites while an insignificant decrease is observed in the southernmost site. Tree-ring analysis shows that for most of the 20th century tree ring growth had lower inter-annual variability until the beginning of the 1970's but from then on the annual variability has increased. Unlike the results of the tree-ring analysis, the carbon isotope analysis revealed that until the 1970's the increases in the drying atmospheric conditions (higher temperature-no changes in rainfall) were not present but the

  15. Reconstructing hydroclimatic variability of the Bermejo River (Subtropical Andes of Argentina-Bolivia) through Archival Documents - 17th to 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario Prieto, M.; Cueto, C.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use climatic history for contributing to the general objectives of the IAI -CRN II-047 Project. It will reconstruct, from archival documents, the hydroclimatic variability occurring in the high basin of the Bermejo River during the last centuries and its effects on the floods and swellings in the middle basin. The Río Bermejo in the Southern Andes, is a binational (Argentina-Bolivia) river that contributes the largest proportion of the sediment load to the La Plata basin. Its headwaters are in the Subtropical Andes, near Tarija, Bolivia (22?00'14"S, 64?57'38"W). The main headwater tributaries are the Río Grande de Tarija, in Bolivia and the Iruya and San Francisco Rivers in Argentina. When the river abandons the mountain and turns eastwards (Gran Chaco), it acquires the characteristics of typical lowland rivers, widens its course, and occupies a large, low sedimentary plain with vast floodland areas. Quite often during very high sediment discharge the main river avulses and changes its course, creating big alluvial plains that are occupied for many years. Administrative documents from the colonial and republican periods have provided useful information to reconstruct climate and hydrology of the region. Documents from the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Archivo Nacional de Bolivia and Archivo General de la Nación (Argentina) have been used to identify extreme floods and swellings in the high and middle-basin of the Rio Bermejo from the 17th century to the first decades of the 20th century. Old maps of the region, reports from annals, chronicles, priests' and travelers' descriptions were also used. Diaries written by the military, explorers and government officials in charge of discovering and taking possession of the territory also provide important sources of information. The archival documents show abrupt hydrological changes in response to the climatic fluctuations in the headwaters region. These records document

  16. Impacts of land use and land cover change on water resources and water scarcity in the 20th century: a multi-model multi-forcing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen

    2016-04-01

    Socioeconomic developments increasingly put pressure on our global fresh water resources. Over the past century, increasing extents of land were converted into (irrigated) agricultural production areas whilst dams and reservoirs were built to get grip on the timing and availability of fresh water resources. Often targeted to be of use at local, regional, or national levels, such human interventions affect, however, terrestrial water fluxes on larger scales. Although many of these interventions have been studied intensively at global and regional scales, the impact of land use and land cover change has often been omitted, and an assessment on how land conversions impact water resources availability and water scarcity conditions was not executed before, despite its importance in the development of sound integrated river basin water management plans. To address this issue, we evaluate in this contribution how land use and land cover change impact water resources and water scarcity conditions in the 20th century, using a multi-model multi-forcing framework. A novelty of this research is that the impact models applied in this study use the dynamic HYDE 3.1 - MIRCA dataset to cover the historical (1971-2010) changes in land use and land cover. Preliminary results show that more than 60% of the global population, predominantly living in downstream areas, is adversely affected by the impacts of land use and land cover change on water resources and water scarcity conditions. Whilst incoming discharge generally (in 97% of the global land area) tends to decrease due to upstream land conversions, we found at the same time increases in local runoff levels for a significant share (27%) of the global land area. Which effect eventually dominates and whether it causes water scarcity conditions is determined by the dependency of a region to water resources originating in upstream areas, and by the increasing rates with which the (locally generated) stream flow is used to fulfil (non

  17. Physiology of Penile Erection—A Brief History of the Scientific Understanding up till the Eighties of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    erection. The concepts from animal experimentations in Europe in the 19th century significantly contributed to the current understanding of penile erection. van Driel MF. Physiology of penile erection—a brief history of the scientific understanding up till the eighties of the 20th century. Sex Med 2015;3:343–351. PMID:26797073

  18. The role of local and external factors in determining the interannual sea level variability of the Adriatic and Black Seas during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea are two semienclosed basins connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Otranto and the Bosporus straits, respectively. This work aims to reconstruction the sea level for both basins in the 20th century and to investigate main sources of interannual variability. Using 7 tide gauge timeseries located along the Adriatic coast and 5 along the Black Sea coast, provided by the PSMSL (Permanent service of mean sea level), a seamless sea level timeseries (1900-2009) has been obtained for each basin on the basis of statistical procedure involving PCA and Least Square Method. The comparison with satellite data in the period 1993 - 2009 confirms that these are reliable representations of the observed sea level for the whole basin, showing a great agreement with a correlation value of 0.87 and 0.72 for Adriatic and Black Sea respectively. The sea level has been decomposed in various contributions in order to analyze the role of the factors responsible for its interannual variability. The annual cycles of the local effect of pressure (inverse barometer effect IB), of the steric effect due to temperature and salinity variation and of the wind effect have been computed. The largest contribute for the Adriatic Sea is due to the wind, whilst inverse barometer effect plays a minor role and the steric effect seems to be almost negligible. For the Black Sea, on the contrary, wind effect is negligible, and the largest source of variability is due to the Danube river, which is estimated from the available discharge data of Sulina (one of the exits of the Danube delta. Steric and IB effects play both a minor role in this basin. A linear regression model, built considering as predictor the SLP gradient identified at large scale after having carried out the correlation analysis, is capable to explain a further percentage of variability (about 20-25%) of the sea level after subtracting all the factors considered above. Finally, residual sea levels show a

  19. 试论20世纪初中国学堂乐歌之特征%Characteristicsof Chinese School Music of the Early 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张戈

    2014-01-01

    学堂乐歌是20世纪初随着新式学堂的建立而兴起的音乐文化,其一般涵盖学堂开设的音乐课或为学堂歌唱而编创的歌曲。学堂乐歌在其发展过程中,形成一系列鲜明的特征,并成为中国近代音乐文化开启的标志。当时学堂乐歌的时代特征以救亡图存、提倡新精神、致力于国民素质之改善、鼓励学习新文化为主要内容,其创作的基本原则为“取彼国之善本,易我国之歌词。”表现出了中西合璧的音乐特色。另外,学堂乐歌集体而歌的形式,由校内走向社会,对其后大规模的群众歌咏运动产生了巨大的影响。%School music means a music culture which emerged with the establishment of the new school during the early 20th century .And it generally included the school music class or the specialized school singing songs .It has not only formed a series of distinct features but also become the beginning symbol of the China modern music culture during its development process .First of all ,it focused its main content on salvaging the country ,advocating the new spirit ,promoting national patriotism ,encouraging learning new culture .Secondly ,the basic principle of school music was “to absorb the foreign format to replace the lyr‐ics of our country” .This had showed the mixed music features that combined with China and Western .In Addition ,the school music synthesized its collective singing ways and eventually had a huge influence on the massive singing songs movement .

  20. Defensive effects of extrafloral nectaries in quaking aspen differ with scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Brent; Wagner, Diane; Doak, Patricia

    2011-04-01

    The effects of plant defenses on herbivory can differ among spatial scales. This may be particularly common with indirect defenses, such as extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), that attract predatory arthropods and are dependent on predator distribution, abundance, and behavior. We tested the defensive effects of EFNs in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) against damage by a specialist herbivore, the aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella Cham.), at the scale of individual leaves and entire ramets (i.e., stems). Experiments excluding crawling arthropods revealed that the effects of aspen EFNs differed at the leaf and ramet scales. Crawling predators caused similar reductions in the percent leaf area mined on individual leaves with and without EFNs. However, the extent to which crawling predators increased leaf miner mortality and, consequently, reduced mining damage increased with EFN expression at the ramet scale. Thus, aspen EFNs provided a diffuse defense, reducing damage to leaves across a ramet regardless of leaf-scale EFN expression. We detected lower leaf miner damage and survival unassociated with crawling predators on EFN-bearing leaves, suggesting that direct defenses (e.g., chemical defenses) were stronger on leaves with than without EFNs. Greater direct defenses on EFN-bearing leaves may reduce the probability of losing these leaves and thus weakening ramet-scale EFN defense. Aspen growth was not related to EFN expression or the presence of crawling predators over the course of a single season. Different effects of aspen EFNs at the leaf and ramet scales suggest that future studies may benefit from examining indirect defenses simultaneously at multiple scales.