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Sample records for 2004-5 southern brazil

  1. Metodologia do estudo da coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Metodologia de estudio de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Methodology of the Pelotas birth cohort study from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

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    Fernando C Barros

    2008-12-01

    ínicos fueron realizados en las visitas. Los participantes de la cohorte son descritos de acuerdo con las variables demográficas, socioeconómicas y de salud, obtenidas en los primeros acompañamientos, que son utilizadas como variables de exposición. RESULTADOS: La mayor parte de los jóvenes de la cohorte fueron acompañados durante 23 años de vida y distintas visitas. Los acompañamientos que obtuvieron mayor éxito fueron aquellos precedidos por un censo de la ciudad. Con éste método fueron localizados 87,2% en 1984 (edad promedio de 19 meses, 84,1% en 2006 (promedio 43 meses, y 77,4% en 2004-5 (promedio 23 años. CONCLUSIONES: Estudios de cohorte de nacimientos pueden ser realizados con éxito en países en desarrollo, y la metodología utilizada en esos estudios de ciclo vital permite estudiar la influencia de exposiciones precoces sobre la determinación de las enfermedades de la vida adulta.OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods employed in the longitudinal and follow-up studies of children born in Pelotas (Southern Brazil in 1982. METHODS: The cohort began with a perinatal health survey that included all 6,011 children born in maternity wards in Pelotas in 1982. The 5,914 children born alive in the city were included in the follow-up studies. By 2004-5, we had conducted eight follow-ups, which consisted of the administration of questionnaires to mothers and/or cohort members, depending on age, in addition to anthropometric and clinical examination. Cohort subjects are described in terms of demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables collected during early follow-up studies, which are used as exposure variables. RESULTS: The majority of subjects in the cohort were followed for 23 years and on multiple occasions. The most successful follow-ups were those preceded by a city census. Using this method, we were able to locate 87.2% of subjects in 1984 (mean age 19 months, 84.1% in 1986 (mean age 43 months, and 77.4% in 2004-5, and 77.4% in 2004-5 (mean age 23

  2. Maternidade e paternidade na coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Maternidad y paternidad en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

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    Denise P Gigante

    2008-12-01

    , en Pelotas (Sur de Brasil y entrevistados en 2004-5. Fueron considerados elegibles los jóvenes que señalaron haber tenido uno o más hijos, nacidos vivos o muertos. Dos cuestionarios fueron aplicados para colectar informaciones sobre salud reproductiva, datos socioeconómicos y demográficos. Las variables independientes fueron sexo y color de la piel, renta familiar en 1982 y 2004-5, cambio de renta, peso al nacer del joven y escolaridad a los 23 años. Los análisis brutos y ajustados fueron realizados por medio de regresión de Poisson para investigar los efectos de las variables independientes sobre la maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia. RESULTADOS: De 4.297 jóvenes entrevistados, 1.373 (32% eran madres o padres, de los cuales 842 (19,6% habían experimentado la maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia. La planificación del embarazo del primer hijo mostró relación directa con la edad del joven. Relación inversa fue observada entre las variables socioeconómicas y la ocurrencia de maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia. La probabilidad de ser mamá en la adolescencia fue mayor entre las mujeres negras o pardas, pero el color de la piel no estuvo asociado con la paternidad en la adolescencia. CONCLUSIONES: Hubo fuerte relación entre la maternidad/paternidad en la adolescencia y condiciones socioeconómicas, la cual debe ser considerada en el delineamiento de acciones preventivas en el campo de la salud pública.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS: The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic

  3. Determinantes sociais da iniciação sexual precoce na coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Determinantes sociales de la iniciación sexual precoz en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Determinants of early sexual initiation in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

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    Helen Gonçalves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar determinantes sociais da iniciação sexual precoce de jovens pertencentes a uma coorte de nascimentos. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados em 2004-5 os indivíduos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas (RS, em 1982 (N=4.297. A iniciação sexual precoce (OBJETIVO: Analizar las determinantes sociales de la iniciación sexual precoz de jóvenes pertenecientes a una cohorte de nacimientos. MÉTODOS: Fueron entrevistados en 2004-5 los individuos de la cohorte de nacimientos de Pelotas (Sur de Brasil, en 1982 (N= 4.297. La iniciación sexual precoz (OBJECTIVE: To analyze social determinants of early sexual initiation among young adults from a birth cohort. METHODS: Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297 were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexual initiation (<13 years of age was the outcome. Descriptive and stratified analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adult's level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5. Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of early sexual initiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexual initiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to influence early sexual initiation among men and women with lower level of education and income. CONCLUSIONS: Results found re-established the economic factor as a determinant of behavior or uses of sexuality for both sexes. To focus on political efforts that help the economically disadvantaged to have opportunities and egalitarian future perspectives is an important strategy for health

  4. Utilização de serviços de saúde por adultos da coorte de nascimentos de 1982 a 2004-5, Pelotas, RS Utilización de servicios de salud por adultos de la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982 a 2005, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Pattern of health services utilization by adults of the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil

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    Juvenal S Dias-da-Costa

    2008-12-01

    acompañados hasta los 23 años. El desenlace fue definido por informaciones colectadas sobre consultas con profesionales de la salud realizadas en el año anterior a la entrevista entre 2004 y 2005. Los locales de consulta fueron clasificados como públicos, privados o seguros de salud. Los análisis descriptivos fueron realizados para utilización y tipo de servicio de salud. Regresión de Poisson fue utilizada en el análisis ajustado. RESULTADOS: De los entrevistados, 72,0% tuvieron consulta con profesionales de la salud en el año anterior a la entrevista; 86,2% (IC 95% 84,7;87,7 de las mujeres y 59,3% (IC 95% 57,3;61,3 de los hombres. A pesar de que se excluyeron las consultas con ginecólogos, las mujeres continuaban más consultas que los hombres, 68,4% (IC 95% 66,4;70,4. La utilización de los servicios de salud fue más frecuente entre los entrevistados de mejor nivel socioeconómico. Diferencia de menor uso en relación al color de piel no blanca fue observada solamente entre los jóvenes del sexo masculino. Hubo diferencias en relación al tipo de profesional consultado por hombres y mujeres y también conforme a la renta familiar. Hombres y mujeres consultaron más frecuentemente el sistema público, los servicios por convenio y en menor proporción el sistema privado. CONCLUSIONES: La situación socioeconómica influencio la utilización y el tipo de servicio de salud, con hombres y mujeres clasificados como "pobres en el momento", indicando menor utilización de servicios. Tales diferencias socioeconómicas pueden ser indicativas de dificultades de acceso al sistema de salud.OBJECTIVE: To describe the pattern of health services utilization by young adults. METHODS: Longitudinal study in Pelotas (Southern Brazil, in which the individuals were identified at birth in 1982 and followed up until 23 years of age. The outcome was defined by information collected about visits to health professionals that were attended in the year before the interview, between 2004

  5. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

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    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  6. Human ocular sparganosis in southern Brazil

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    Márcia Bohrer Mentz; Fernando Procianoy; Marcelo Krieger Maestri; Marilise Brittes Rott

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of human ocular sparganosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A young female patient presented with three periocular moveable inflammatory masses in her right eye, during two years. By surgical excisional biopsy, a helminth larval stage was removed and identified as sparganum. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data on this parasite are presented.

  7. Human ocular sparganosis in southern Brazil

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    Márcia Bohrer Mentz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of human ocular sparganosis in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. A young female patient presented with three periocular moveable inflammatory masses in her right eye, during two years. By surgical excisional biopsy, a helminth larval stage was removed and identified as sparganum. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data on this parasite are presented.

  8. A new species of Fernandezina (Araneae, Palpimanidae from southern Brazil

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    Ricardo Ott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Fernandezina Birabén, 1951, F. nica sp. nov. is described from Rio Grande do Sul state, in southern Brazil. Fernandezina pulchra Birabén, 1951, is registered for Brazil and a new geographic record in Brazil is presented for F. pelta Platnick, 1975.

  9. Three new species of Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota from Southern Brazil

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    ANA M. CHARNEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia maculata, C. paranaensis and C. quiririensisare described as new to science. These species were found between the altitudes of 900 to 1887 meters on the Serra do Mar Mountain in Southern Brazil.

  10. Milk production characteristics in Southern Brazil

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    Tony Picoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to describe milk production in Southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and to identify factors that affect milk quality at this region. The average age of regional dairy farmers is 49, and 67.9% has not concluded elementary school. Dairy farming is carried out on properties with an average of 26.06 hectares and 8.4 lactating cows. Most of them (32.83% yield 50 to 100 L/day. Among the properties, 13.21% yield up to 30 L/day, and only 1.89% produces over 500 milk liters a day. Average yield was 6.8 L/day. Regarding to milking procedure, 39.3% farmers milk manually the animals, only 14.2% performed pre-milking teat disinfection, and 53.9% uses a single cloth to dry all animal teats. For infrastructure, 52.8% milks animals in wooden cowsheds. We observed that the average somatic cell count (SCC was within legal parameters, presenting negative correlation with milk production (r = -0.23 and lactose content (r = -0.39. However, the total bacterial count (TBC was above legal parameters. Education level seems to interfere in management and milk quality, because the less educated groups are, the less adequate are infrastructure, management, and product quality. Data show that there is a lower quality milk production where poor management techniques are adopted and owner education level affects milk quality.

  11. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  12. A new species of Thelypteris (Thelypteridaceae) from southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Matos, Fernando B.; Smith, Alan R.; Labiak, Paulo H.

    2010-01-01

    A new species, Thelypteris beckeriana (Thelypteridaceae), is here described. It belongs to subgenus Goniopteris because of the presence of forked and stellate hairs on some parts of its blades. It is a narrow endemic to the Atlantic Rain Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil. A complete description, illustrations, and comparisons with the most similar species are provided.

  13. New Sycoracinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) from southern Brazil.

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    Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15. PMID:24699606

  14. Cryptococcus gattii-Induced Infections in Dogs from Southern Brazil.

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    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Di Santis, Giovana Wingeter; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Costa, Thais Correa; da Silva, Elisangela Olegário; Pretto-Giordano, Lucienne Garcia; Gomes, Lucas Alécio; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico R L

    2015-10-01

    Cryptococcus gattii-induced cryptococcosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals worldwide, with rare descriptions of this infection in domestic animals from Brazil. This study presents the findings associated with C. gattii in dogs from Londrina, Paraná, Southern Brazil. Two dogs, a 3-year-old, female German shepherd and a 6-year-old, male Boxer, were evaluated by a combination of pathological, mycological, and molecular diagnostic techniques. Significant pathological alterations included cryptococcal lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, tonsillitis, and rhinitis with nasal cryptococcomas in the German shepherd dog, while cryptococcal lymphadenitis and pneumonia were observed in the Boxer; both dogs had pseudocystic cryptococcosis. The mucicarmine histochemical stain readily identified the intralesional cryptococcal budding organisms in all affected tissues. Mycological culture and isolation confirmed the yeasts as C. gattii due to positive reaction with the L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue agar. A PCR assay using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS)1 and ITS2 primers, which target the ITS1 and 2 regions including the 5.8S rRNA gene, amplified the desired amplicons; direct sequencing confirmed the isolate as C. gattii. ITS nucleotide differentiation demonstrated that the isolate forms part of the ITS type 4 Cryptococcus organisms which corresponds to the C. gattii VGII molecular subtype or the RAPD type 2 Cryptococcus organisms. Collectively, these findings confirmed the participation of C. gattii in the etiopathogenesis of the lesions observed in these dogs and expanded the epidemiological niche of this important mycotic agent to include Southern Brazil. It is noteworthy to mention that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that C. gattii-induced cryptococcosis is more frequently diagnosed in Northern relative to Southern Brazil, so these findings might suggest an expansion of the distribution of this agent within continental

  15. Rate of development of forensically-important Dipterain southern Brazil

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    Rodrigo F. Krüger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran larvae were collected from rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. carcasses during the four seasons in 2005 in the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The larvae were fed ground beef at ambient temperatures following collection from carcasses. The development of each species under these conditions was estimated. The most abundant species in the carcasses were Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Calliphoridae, and they were found in all seasons. The data were fitted to a linear model that describes the relationship between temperature and linear developmental rating. These two species are primary forensic indicators in southern Brazil. Other species such as Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani (Calliphoridae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, Muscina stabulans (Fallen (Muscidae, and Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Fanniidae were forensically less important because they only occurred in high frequency in certain seasons and during the first days of carcass decomposition.

  16. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil

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    Andre de Gasper; Alexander Christian Vibrans; Luis Adriano Funez; Morilo José Rigon-Jr.; Felipe Bittencourt; Carina Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the wh...

  17. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

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    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and p...

  18. Income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil: dual approach

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    Rita de Cassia Garcia Margonato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the formation and income differential of female labor in Southern Brazil in 2002 and 2009 based on microdata from the National Sample Survey (PNAD.The methodology is to estimate the selection and wages equations using the Heckman's Sample Selection Model (1979. For the measurement of the female income differential in commerce, industry and domestic service, compared to income of women in the service sector it is applied an adaptation of the Oaxaca-Blinder Decomposition (1973 adapted by Jann (2008. It was confirmed the hypothesis that segmentation occurs in the female labor market in Southern Brazil because the income differential cannot be explained only by personal attributes (productive or not and by formal work. There are specificities in the sectors (sector effect determining the income differential of women´s income in the labor market, moreover the sector effect explained 33% of the wage differential observed in industry, also explained 29% in the commerce and 35% of the female income gaps when compared to the service sector, which is considered as in advantage.

  19. Species of marine Isopoda (Crustacea, Peracarida from southern Brazil

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    Plínio Soares Moreira

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of marine Isopoda collected in southern Brazil mostly in shallow-water and amongst seaweeds are studied. Five species are discussed and illustrated. A diagnosis is given for each species. Idotea metallica and Synidotea marplatensis are new oc currences for the area, and both have had their geographical range extended to off Rio de Janeiro. The presence of Idotea balthica and Erichsonella filiformis in southern Brazil was definitely asserted. Illustrations of both sexes of Rocinela signata and details about its occurrence in the region surveyed were made.O presente trabalho relaciona algumas espécies de isopodes marinhos coletados na região centro-sul do Brasil, em águas razas, em algas, ou entre emaranhados de folhas e raizes. Cinco espécies são ilustradas e discutidas. Uma diagnose é dada para cada espécie. I. metallica e S. marplatensis, constituindo novas ocorrências para a região, tiveram sua distribuição geográfica consideravelmente ampliada ate o Rio de Janeiro. A presença de I. balthica e E. filiformes na região e seguramente confirmada. Finalmente, são figurados o macho e a fêmea da espécie R. signata, ao mesmo tempo em que são fornecidos detalhes sobre sua ocorrência.

  20. Schistosomiasis in Southern Brazil 17 years after the confirmation of the first autochthonous case

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    Demetrius da Silva Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is an important public health issue in Brazil, particularly Northern Brazil. Since the first recorded occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, it has spread to South Brazil. METHODS: Using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN, we assessed the disease spread in Southern Brazil. RESULTS: In Rio Grande do Sul, nine localities had confirmed cases (n = 95, 2001-2013. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed disease expansion to Southern Brazil. We demonstrated the effectiveness of SINAN to monitor notifiable diseases. Our results are useful to develop preventive actions for schistosomiasis control.

  1. Net Exchange Ecossistem in Subtropical Agriculture Area in Southern Brazil

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    Roberti, D. R.; Diaz, M.; Webler, G.; Fiorin, J.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Teichrieb, C.; Amado, T.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Brazil contribute to 38% of Brazilian grain production. In contrast with the rest of the country, the south has a wet, subtropical climate that permits two annual harvests (double cropping system). The soybean and/or maize (summer) and black oat and/or wheat (winter) succession is widely used by farmers in plateau areas. In river natural lowlands, the cultivation of flooded irrigated rice is common. Changes in the land use affect the carbon, water and energy balance, and crop management practices, such as fertilization, water management, harvest and crop residues have influence in carbon exchange between the crop field and the atmosphere. This study quantifies the net exchange ecosystem (NEE) between the atmosphere and the crop cultivations in this wide region of Brazil from 2010 to 2014. We use data from two micrometeorological sites: Cruz Alta, with crop rotation and Cachoeira do Sul, with rice paddy. The carbon flux was analyzed using the eddy covariance method and gap filling procedures. The annual integration of data carbon demonstrates that the agroecosystems in southern Brazil is a acting as an light atmospheric CO2 sink. However, the NEE emissions that occurred in the fallow periods contributed negatively for such annual accumulation. To reduce this loss of CO2, farmers could cultivate plants in fallow periods, because there are favorable weather conditions for growing plants year round. Additionally, other management practices can increase the influx of C, including the production of more dry matter with cover crops by improving management and the immediate harvesting of crop after physiological maturity to reduce the period between maturation and harvest.

  2. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil

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    Andreia Mauruto Chernaki-Leffer; Daniel Ricardo Sosa-Gómez; Lúcia M. de Almeida; Ivani de Oliveira Negrão Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an important insect pest in poultry houses in Brazil. Susceptibility of the lesser mealworm collected from eight poultry houses in Paraná state, southern Brazil, was evaluated for cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron. Adult A. diaperinus were tested in bioassays with cypermethrin and dichlorvo...

  3. Schistosomiasis in Southern Brazil 17 years after the confirmation of the first autochthonous case

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    Demetrius da Silva Martins; Mariana Fabris Xavier; Franciéle de Souza Masiero; Juliana Cordeiro; Patrícia Jacqueline Thyssen

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease, is an important public health issue in Brazil, particularly Northern Brazil. Since the first recorded occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, it has spread to South Brazil. METHODS: Using the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), we assessed the disease spread in Southern Brazil. RESULTS: In Rio Grande do Sul, nine localities had confirmed cases (n = 95, 2001-2013). CONCLUSIONS...

  4. Molecular characterization of encephalitic bovine listeriosis from southern Brazil.

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    Headley, Selwyn A; Fritzen, Juliana T T; Queiroz, Gustavo R; Oliveira, Rodrigo A M; Alfieri, Alice F; Di Santis, Giovana W; Lisbôa, Júlio A N; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2014-01-01

    Reports of bovine listeriosis in Brazil are uncommon, being restricted to citations within retrospective studies, resulting in scarce documented information of this important disease of cattle. This manuscript describes the molecular findings associated with spontaneous encephalitic listeriosis in two steers from distinct herds within the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Both animals demonstrated altered consciousness suggestive of brain stem dysfunctions and died a few days after the initial onset of disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were designed to target specific genes of infectious neurological agents of cattle. These included bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-5), ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), Listeria monocytogenes, and Histophilus somni. Rabies virus was discarded in evaluations done at the official state diagnostic laboratory. Gross alterations were insignificant; histopathology demonstrated rhombencephalitis associated with macrophage-predominant, multifocal to coalescing microabscesses and extensive perivascular cuffings in both steers. The L. monocytogenes PCR assay amplified the 172-bp amplicon of the listeriolysin gene from the brain stem of both animals and from the telencephalon, thalamus, and cerebellum of one of them. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the strains derived from this study clustered with known strains of L. monocytogenes lineage I. The BoHV-1 and BoHV-5, OvHV-2, and H. somni PCR assays were negative. These results confirm the participation of L. monocytogenes lineage I in the etiopathogenesis of the neurological disease herein described and represent the first complete description of encephalitic listeriosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23832703

  5. Vitamin A status of young children in Southern Brazil.

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    Favaro, R M; de Souza, N V; Batistal, S M; Ferriani, M G; Desai, I D; Dutra de Oliveira, J E

    1986-05-01

    A comprehensive survey was carried out to assess the vitamin A status of preschool children of poor migrant families in the periurban population of Ribeirao Preto, a typical agricultural town in the sugarcane and coffee region of the State of Sao Paulo in Southern Brazil. The intake of vitamin A and carotenoids from the rice and bean based diet of these children is considered low and appears to influence blood concentrations and liver reserves of this vitamin. With respect to plasma vitamin A, 1.8% of the children had a deficient level (less than 10 micrograms%), whereas 48.8% of the children had a low level (less than 20 micrograms%). Most children with inadequate plasma vitamin A (less than 20 micrograms%) responded positively to a massive dose of 200,000 IU vitamin A, suggesting that these children may be at risk of having low liver stores of vitamin A. Rose Bengal staining test and rapid dark adaptation time did not indicate definite signs of conjunctival xerosis and night blindness among these children. No ocular evidence of hypovitaminosis A was found in the children studied, but marginal or inadequate vitamin A status appears to be a common public health problem among young children in this region of Brazil. PMID:3706193

  6. Histophilus somni-induced infections in cattle from southern Brazil.

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    Headley, Selwyn A; Oliveira, Victor H S; Figueira, Gustavo F; Bronkhorst, Dalton E; Alfieri, Alice F; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2013-10-01

    The sudden death of three calves, one diarrheic calf, and one aborted fetus from four farms in southern Brazil was investigated. Two Histophilus somni-associated syndromes were identified: systemic histophilosis (n = 4) and abortion (n = 1). The principal pathological findings included vasculitis, meningoencephalitis with thrombosis, necrotizing myocarditis, renal infarctions, hepatic abscesses, and bronchopneumonia. PCR assays were used to amplify specific amplicons of the ovine herpesvirus 2, bovine herpesvirus 1 and -5, Listeria monocytogenes, H. somni, and pestivirus; bovine group A rotavirus (BoRV-A) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) were investigated in calves with diarrhea. H. somni DNA was amplified in tissues from all calves and the brain of the aborted fetus with pathological alterations consistent with histophilosis. All other PCR assays were negative; BoRV-A and BCoV were not identified. These findings confirm the participation of H. somni in the pathological alterations observed in this study and represent the first description of histophilosis in cattle from Brazil. PMID:23526124

  7. Reproductive biology of Echinanthera cyanopleura (Serpentes: Dipsadidae in southern Brazil

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    Noeli Zanella

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycles of snakes can be influenced by many factors, both biotic and abiotic, and information about these factors can contribute significantly to knowledge of the biology of many species. Here, we present data on the reproductive biology (body size, sexual dimorphism and female reproductive cycle of the forest-dwelling colubrid Echinanthera cyanopleura (Cope, 1885, based on analyses of 128 specimens preserved in collections and originating from the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil. The snout-vent length of females was significantly greater than in males. The tail length of mature females was greater than in males, although this difference was not significant. Vitellogenesis occurs from August to December and eggs were found in greater frequency from October through December. Juveniles were found in larger numbers beginning in February, indicating that recruitment occurs from January to April. The reproductive cycle of this species is seasonal, which is usual for oviparous colubrids of temperate areas of Brazil.

  8. Assessment of Broiler Chicken Welfare in Southern Brazil

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    JF Federici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific literature on broiler chicken welfare in Brazilian industrial systems is scarce. This study aimed at assessing broiler chicken welfare on industrial farms in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, using the Welfare Quality(r assessment protocol for poultry, to provide directly applicable scientific information. Results are presented as criteria scores ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better welfare; and percentages of prevalence. The scores classified as excellent (above 80 were absence of prolonged thirst, absence of prolonged hunger, litter quality, breast blister and touch test. Enhanced scores (between 55 and 80 were comfort around resting, plumage cleanliness and dust sheet test. Acceptable scores (between 20 and 55 were thermal comfort, stocking density, absence of injuries, footpad dermatitis and hock burn; and unacceptable scores (below 20 were lameness and qualitative behavioral assessment. The median percentage of mortality and culled birds were 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively. This study provides useful information to select priorities of action on assessed farms and may contribute for setting up legal standards and guiding decisions related to animal welfare issues in Brazil.

  9. Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Pinto e Vairo; Cátia Antunes de Mello-Patiu; Claudio J.B. de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial identification key for species of Sarcophagidae (Diptera) of potential forensic importance in southern Brazil. Species of the subfamily Sarcophaginae are important to forensic entomology due to their necrophagous habits. This contribution presents a pictorial key for the identification of 22 Sarcophaginae species in 10 genera that are commonly found in southern Brazil. Photographs of the main structures used in species identification, mainly from the male terminalia, are provided.Ch...

  10. First report of Lagochilascaris (Nematoda: Ascarididae) eggs in a public park in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Micaele Quintana; Jeske, Sabrina; Gallina, Tiago; Borsuk, Sibele; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Villela, Marcos Marreiro

    2012-03-23

    Public parks, especially in developing countries, are places where stray animals run free and may contaminate the environment with different species of parasites. In an evaluation of environmental sanitation of these sites, soil samples were collected monthly from public parks in the Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Eggs of the nematode Lagochilascaris sp. were found in a public playground. This is the first report of identification of this nematode in Southern Brazil.

  11. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Werner Hopp; Edilson Caron; Richard Ottermanns; Martina Roß-Nickoll

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment) and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage...

  12. Species of Serolis (Isopoda, Flabellifera from southern Brazil

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    Plínio Soares Moreira

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports species of Serolis (Isopoda, Flabellifera occurring on the continental shelf of southern Brazil. Five species are recorded. S. polaris Richardson, 1911 and S. laevis Richardson, 1911, new records from Brazil, are redescribed. S. uaperta sp. n., S. veaperta sp. n. and S. completa sp. n., are new to science. A full description of the female S. laevis is given for the first time. Furthermore, the nonidentity of this species with S. convexa Cunningham, 1871, is positively established. Family, generic and specific diagnosis are provided. Ecological and dis tributional notes, as well as a classification key based on adult specimens, are given for each species studied.Faz-se um primeiro levantamento das espécies do gênero Serolis (Isopoda, Flabellifera ocorrendo na plataforma continental - centro-sul do Brasil, a partir da Lat. 22º00'S. Cinco espécies são registradas. As espécies S. polaris Richardson, 1911 e S. laevis Richardson, 1911, são redescritas, e representam ocorrências novas para o Brasil. As espécies S. uaperta sp . n., S. veaperta sp. n. e S. completa sp.n., são novas para a ciência. A fêmea de S. laevis é descrita pela primeira vez. Confirma-se, também, a validez das espécies S. convexa Cunningham, 1871 e S. laevis como espécies distintas. Fornece-se diagnoses para a família, gênero e para cada espécie estudada, assim como uma chave de identificação elaborada à base de espécimens adultos. À descrição de cada espécie seguem-se observações ecológicas.

  13. Biophysical parameters in a wheat producer region in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; Cruz, Caroline R.

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the second most produced cereal in the world, and has major importance in the global agricultural economy. Brazil is a large producer of wheat, especially the Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the south of the country. The purpose of this study was to analyze the estimation of biophysical parameters - evapotranspiration (ET), biomass (BIO) and water productivity (WP) - from satellite images of the municipalities with large areas planted with wheat in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The evapotranspiration rate was obtained using the SAFER Model (Simple Algorithm for Retrieving Evapotranspiration) on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images taken in the agricultural year 2012. In order to obtain biomass and water productivity rates we applied the Monteith model and the ratio between BIO and ET. In the beginning of the cycle (the planting period) we observed low values for ET, BIO and WP. During the development period, we observed an increase in the values of the parameters and decline at the end of the cycle, for the period of the wheat harvest. The SAFER model proved effective for estimating the biophysical parameters evapotranspiration, biomass production and water productivity in areas planted with wheat in Brazilian Southern. The methodology can be used for monitoring the crops' water conditions and biomass using satellite images, assisting in estimates of productivity and crop yield. The results may assist the understanding of biophysical properties of important agro-ecosystems, like wheat crop, and are important to improve the rational use of water resources.

  14. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

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    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  15. A SURVEY OF SHEEP MASTITIS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Adil Knackfuss Vaz

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Ovine mastitis causes varying economic fosses in all countries where sheep are kept. A survey of 3128 breeding ewes in 22 farms in two areas with different management practices in Southern Brazil showed that the average prevalence of subclinical and chronic mastitis was 14.1% of ewes with at least one affected gland. From those, 4.49% were also bacteriologically positive. The prevalence in individual farms varied from 0 to 37% of ewes with clinical abnormalities of the udder. The overall prevalence was greater in Area II, where meat breeds predominate and animals are housed at night. It is concluded that subclinical and chronic mastitis is uniikely to be an economic problem in Area I, where wool production is the objective of the sheep industry. However, in individual farms with high prevalence of the disease lamb survival and development may be affected. In Area II, mastitis is more likely to be a problem because of the higher prevalence found in that area.

  16. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB, Blumenau, Southern Brazil

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    Andre de Gasper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species, Rubiaceae (129, Solanaceae (131, Poaceae (155, Melastomataceae (157, Myrtaceae (257, Orchidaceae (288, Fabaceae (323, and Asteraceae (426, between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30, Thelypteridaceae (31, Aspleniaceae (32, Dryopteridaceae (43, Pteridaceae (54 and Polypodiaceae (60. There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria.

  17. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of marine needlefishes (Beloniformes) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Roger Raupp; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; da Silva Cortinhas, Maria Cristina; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-08-01

    Cytogenetic studies have assisted in the taxonomic classification of organisms, especially those involving species with highly similar morphologic characteristics, or so-called cryptic species. Strongylura marina and Strongylura timucu collected from Paranaguá Bay, Paraná Coast in Southern Brazil are considered cryptic species, and the identification of interspecific variations based on the number and/or morphology of its chromosomes may serve as differentiating cytotaxonomic markers. Chromosomes of the two species were subjected to different banding and staining methods (C-, Ag-, and DAPI-CMA3), as well as chromosomal mapping of major rDNA (45S), revealed with an 18S probe by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The pattern of distribution of constitutive heterochromatin showed distinct features involving the pericentromeric and telomeric bands in both species. In S. marina, chromosome 1 represents the main species-specific marker, appearing almost entirely heterochromatic. In both species, the 45S rDNA is located at terminal region of the short arm of the chromosome 6, as detected by silver nitrate staining and FISH. Despite the apparent conserved diploid number of 48 chromosomes, data on the karyotype microstructure characterize the cytogenetic profile of the genus and may allow the establishment of cytotaxonomic and evolutionary inferences for these fishes. PMID:25388873

  18. Urban sediment particle size and pollutants in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poleto, Cristiano; Merten, Gustavo H. [Federal Univ. of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (BR). Hydraulic Research Inst. (IPH); Bortoluzzi, Edson C. [Univ. of Passo Fundo - UPF, RS (Brazil); Charlesworth, Susanne M. [Coventry Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography, Environment and Disaster Management

    2009-08-15

    Background, aim and scope: Studies of particulate-associated pollutants, or PAPs, in urban areas have become necessary due to their potentially deleterious effects on the environment. However, it is not just the sediments themselves which are problematic but also their particle size composition, which has a great influence on their capacity to adsorb and transport pollutants. This paper presents the particle size distributions and concentrations of five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of urban sediments collected from paved streets and gully pots from 20 cities in southern Brazil. The cities have different characteristics and hence sources of PAPs associated with differing geologies, soil types and type of urbanisation. Studies of this nature enable elucidation of the relationship between diffuse sources such as streets and gully pots and the likelihood of PAPs to subsequently pollute the urban aquatic environment. Materials and methods: Sediment samples were taken at random from paved streets and gully pots in 20 cities in Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil by means of a portable vacuum cleaner to avoid loss of finer particles. The particle sizes of the samples were measured using a Cilas {sup registered} 1180 laser particle analyzer, and the concentrations of five metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by wet acid digestion (HCl-HF-HClO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}) followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy on the <63-{mu}m fraction. Results: It was found that in comparison to sediments collected from the streets, gully pot sediments were more heterogeneous in terms of particle size and also that sediment samples from the gully pots were predominantly coarser than those originating on the streets. From the gully pot results, analysis of the modal particle diameter enabled the cities to be divided into three categories. The concentrations of metals in the street sediments were similar across all 20 cities, with all concentrations above

  19. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

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    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and pelagic zones. At each point, fish were captured through a set of gill nets with different mesh sizes. Captured specimens were identified, quantified and evaluated for weight and length. A total of 24 fish species belonging to 10 families was obtained, with Characidae presenting the highest species richness. Cyanocharax alburnus was the only species that occurred in all lagoons. Cyphocharax voga, Astyanax eigenmmaniorum, Oligosarcus jenynsii and O. robustus were also frequent species, present in most of the sampled lagoons. Lycengraulis grossidens was captured in just two lagoons with increased conductivity. The community structure showed the highest species richness in lakes with an area over 40 ha, however the highest mean diversity values were observed in ponds up to 40 ha. Cluster Analysis yielded the formation of two groups: a group formed by just one lagoon and a second one cluster grouping all the other lagoons. This pattern may be associated with the presence of Lycengraulis grossidens as a dominant species in this lagoon clustered apart. The results indicate that lagoons with up to 40 ha present greater homogeneity on the species composition and higher average values of diversity; while intermediate ponds (between 40 and 80 ha have lower average diversity for the fish fauna due to increased heterogeneity in species abundance.

  20. Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Gigante Luciana P; Béria Jorge U.; Palazzo Lilian S; Bassani Diego G; Figueiredo Andréia CL; Aerts Denise RGC; Raymann Beatriz CW

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionna...

  1. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  2. WATER INFILTRATION IN TWO CULTIVATED SOILS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Ildegardis Bertol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  3. Mathematical Modeling Applied to Prediction of Landslides in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lúcia; Araújo, João; Braga, Beatriz; Fernandes, Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Mass movements are natural phenomena that occur on the slopes and are important agents working in landscape development. These movements have caused serious damage to infrastructure and properties. In addition to the mass movements occurring in natural slopes, there is also a large number of accidents induced by human action in the landscape. The change of use and land cover for the introduction of agriculture is a good example that have affected the stability of slopes. Land use and/or land cover changes have direct and indirect effects on slope stability and frequently represent a major factor controlling the occurrence of man-induced mass movements. In Brazil, especially in the southern and southeastern regions, areas of original natural rain forest have been continuously replaced by agriculture during the last decades, leading to important modifications in soil mechanical properties and to major changes in hillslope hydrology. In these regions, such effects are amplified due to the steep hilly topography, intense summer rainfall events and dense urbanization. In November 2008, a major landslide event took place in a rural area with intensive agriculture in the state of Santa Catarina (Morro do Baú) where many catastrophic landslides were triggered after a long rainy period. In this area, the natural forest has been replaced by huge banana and pine plantations. The state of Santa Catarina in recent decades has been the scene of several incidents of mass movements such as this catastrophic event. In this study, based on field mapping and modeling, we characterize the role played by geomorphological and geological factors in controlling the spatial distribution of landslides in the Morro do Baú area. In order to attain such objective, a digital elevation model of the basin was generated with a 10m grid in which the topographic parameters were obtained. The spatial distribution of the scars from this major event was mapped from another image, obtained immediately

  4. Studies on diversity and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil

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    Tatiana T. Souza-Chies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the family Iridaceae are well represented in the grassland vegetation of southern Brazil, occurring in the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. Nevertheless, little is known about the taxonomy and evolution of Iridaceae species in southern Brazil. The main goal of this review is to compile published information about South American Iridaceae, and to discuss the evolution and genetic diversity of the family presenting our own research data in the light of the published literature. The main focus is on the genera Calydorea, Cypella, Herbertia, and Sisyrinchium. Aspects of reproductive system and of pollinator attraction are also discussed.

  5. Body masses and measurements of birds from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca L Reinert; Júlio C Pinto; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Mauro Pichorim; Miguel Â. Marini

    1996-01-01

    Five hundred and eigh body masses of 74 forest birds, and measurements of wing, tail, tarsus and beak of 14 poorly known species mist-netted at two sites in the Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraná State, southern Brazil, are presented.

  6. New species of Rhagoletotrypeta (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the Dominican Republic and southern Brazil and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhagoletotrypeta chapecensis Norrbom & Savaris, new species, and R. gelabertae Norrbom & Savaris, new species, are described and illustrated from specimens from southern Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina) and Paraguay, and from the Dominican Republic, respectively. The larvae of R. chapecensis develop ...

  7. Nematodes of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

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    Marcelo Knoff

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for nematode species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established and new systematical arrangements proposed. Parascarophis sphyrnae Campana-Rouget, 1955 from the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena is referred for the first time in South America as a new host record. Procamallanus (S. pereirai Annereaux, 1946, from the spiral valve of Raja castelnaui is reported parasitizing an elasmobranch host. Nematode larvae of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are listed from the stomach and spiral valves of several hosts. Anisakidae larvae previously referred in Brazil in the genus Phocanema should be reallocated in Pseudoterranova. Nematodes of the genera Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Raphidascaris are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranchs in Brazil.

  8. A new species of Dendrocerus (Hymenoptera, Megaspilidae) from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cleder Pezzini; Kássia Cristina Freire Zilch; Andreas Köhler

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the megaspiline genus Dendrocerus Ratzeburg is described and figured. Dendrocerus riograndensis sp. n., is known from a series of males from the central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and were captured with Malaise traps from an agricultural tobacco field.

  9. Child maltreatment: a survey of dentists in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Sousa Azevedo; Marília Leão Goettems; Adão Brito; Anna Paula Possebon; Juliana Domingues; Flávio Fernando Demarco; Dione Dias Torriani

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse is a serious public health problem and affects the victims' physical and mental health and development. The aims of this study were two-fold: to assess the attitudes and perceptions of dentists regarding child abuse, and to investigate professional characteristics associated with the identification of suspected child abuse. A questionnaire was sent to the 276 dentists of Pelotas, RS, Brazil , and 187 (68.0%) were returned. Demographic characteristics and profiles of the dentist...

  10. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    La Scala Newton; Romão Rangel; Panosso Alan; de Figueiredo Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equiv...

  11. Verification of concentration time formulae accuracy in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    The time of concentration (TC) of an urban catchment is a fundamental watershed parameter used to compute the peak discharge and/or in the hydrological simulation of sewer systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimative, several empirical formulae are used, however, almost none of them have been verified in Brazil leading to large uncertainties in the correct value. In this light, were tested several formulae such as the proposed by Kirpich (and a modifications of this equation proposed by the National Transport Bureau of Brazil (DNIT)), U.S. Corps. Of Engineers, Pasini, Dooge , Johnstone , Ventura and Ven T Chow as they are used in Brazil. The verification was accomplished against measured data in 5 sub-basins situated in the Dilúvio basin, a semi urbanized watershed that contains the most developed area of the city of Porto Alegre. All the rainfall stations were active in the period from late 1970's until early 1980's due to the existence of Projeto Dilúvio but today, however, only two of them are still in operation. Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul with a population of approximately 1.6 million inhabitants, the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area, with almost 4,5 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). The city is situated in a humid subtropical climate with high and regular precipitation throughout the year. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and an occasional tropical storm, hurricane or cyclone. The results showed an error of around 70% for half of the formulas, with a tendency to underestimate TC values. Among the tested methods, Johnstone had the best overall result, with an average error of 25%, well far from the second, Dooge, with 43% of average error. The best results were obtained in only one basin, Dilúvio, the largest one, with an area of 25km², with an error of just 3% for Modified Kirpich, and

  12. Karyology of the Atlantic forest rodent Juliomys (Cricetidae): A new karyotype from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Paresque; Alexandre Uarth Christoff; Valéria Fagundes

    2009-01-01

    Juliomys is a small rodent from the family Cricetidae which inhabits the Atlantic forest and forests from Argentina to eastern Brazil. The three species recognized so far have different karyotypes. In this paper, we describe a new karyotype with 2n = 32, FN = 48 found in Juliomys specimens from a high-altitude area in the Atlantic forest of southern Brazil. The karyotype was analyzed after G- and C-banding and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NOR) and its G-banding patte...

  13. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Olinda Tacuatiá; Lilian Eggers; Eliane Kaltchuk-Santos; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T.

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses usin...

  14. Cultivation of native seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Rhodophyta in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedrassoli Salles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the cultivation of Gracilaria domingensis in a mussel farming urbanized area in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Relative growth rate was the parameter used to evaluate the cuttings attachment methods on the cultivation rope, cuttings density, cultivation period and cystocarpic versus unfertile thalli performance. The cultivation was feasible only when protected by net cages due to herbivory. The tie-tie attachment method presented the best results. No differences were observed when comparing the cuttings densities and reproductive phase. Future studies should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of producing the species in net cages and its potential as biofilter.

  15. Astronomy and Cosmology of the Guarani of Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Flávia Cristina

    The Guarani Indians in South Brazil have a sophisticated system of thought about the cosmos. Presented here are some elements of their cosmology and cosmogony and the influences of the heavenly bodies in this people's everyday life, which have been collected in ethnographic research in the first decade of the 21st century. The main themes of cosmology and the origin of the Sun, Moon, and Earth are described, approximating this anthropological research to ethnoastronomy and cultural anthropology discussions. This research seeks to analyze comparatively this cosmological concept with other indigenous cosmological systems and to compare them with the Western cosmological system, thus including it in studies of cultural astronomy.

  16. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G

    2016-02-01

    Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area. PMID:26871745

  17. Leprosy and hepatitis B coinfection in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleverson Leitao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of leprosy with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, as yet unknown for South Brazil, we assessed hepatitis B virus coinfection in 199 South Brazilian leprosy patients (119 lepromatous, 15 tuberculoid, 30 borderline, 12 undetermined and 23 unspecified and in 681 matched blood donors by screening for the hepatitis B virus markers HBSAg and anti-HBc, using ELISA. Positive samples were retested and anti-HBc+ only samples were tested for the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs. There was a strong association between leprosy and hepatitis B virus infection (OR = 9.8, 95% CI = 6.4–14.7; p = 0.004·E−30, as well as an association between HBV infection and lepromatous leprosy, compared to other forms (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.2–4.8; p = 0.017. We also found that confinement due to leprosy was associated with hepatitis B virus infection (OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 2.1–7.4; p = 0.015·E−3. Leprosy patients are susceptible to develop hepatitis B virus infection, especially lepromatous. Institutionalized patients, who probably present a stronger Th2 response, have higher risk of being exposed to hepatitis B virus. This clearly emphasizes the need for special care to leprosy patients in preventing hepatitis B virus coinfection in South Brazil.

  18. Armadillo (Cingulata: Dasypodidae in the Diet Of the Neotropical Otter Lontra longicaudis in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Claws, hairs and osteoderms of armadillo (Cingulata: Dasypodidae were found in a scat of a neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis in an edge of a pluvial channel near a peat forest in the southern Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. Due to the absence of carrion-eating invertebrates in the sample, it is suggested that the armadillo was actively preyed upon by the otter. This is the first record of armadillo in the diet of Lontra longicaudis.

  19. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz; Larissa Reifur; Márcia Kiyoe Shimada; Juciliane Haidamak; Regielly Caroline Raimundo Cognialli; Tatiane Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding ...

  20. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n = 1,196. They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean’s criteria, and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  1. Digenea and acanthocephala of elasmobranch fishes from the southern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knoff Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for helminth species recovered from elasmobranch fishes in Brazil are established. Digenean and acanthocephalan parasites of elasmobranch fishes are reported from the southern coast of Brazil: Otodistomum veliporum (Creplin, 1837 Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Azygiidae in the stomach and spiral valve of Dipturus trachydermus and in the spiral valve of Squatina sp. Cystacanths and juveniles of the acanthocephalans Corynosoma australe Johnston, 1937 and Corynosoma sp., in the spiral valve of Squatina sp., Galeorhinus galeus and Hexanchus griseus and in the stomach of Squalus megalops; a juvenile of Gorgorhynchus sp., in the spiral valve of Sphyrna zygaena. Dipturus trachydermus and Squatina sp. are new host records for O. veliporum. Digeneans and acanthocephalans are reported for the first time parasitizing elasmobranch fishes in Brazil.

  2. Yellow Fever Virus in Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes serratus Mosquitoes, Southern Brazil, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Jáder da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosq...

  3. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Renata C. Campos; Malva I. Medina Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung) or carcasses (carrion) and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the ...

  4. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha; Igor Soares de Oliveira; Marilia Teresinha Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2), Bufonidae (2), Centrolenidae (1), Cycloramphidae (1), Hemiphractidae (1), Hylidae (18), Hylodidae (1), Leiuperidae (2), Leptodactylidae (3), and Microhylidae (1). Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while ...

  5. Aerobic fitness in adolescents in southern Brazil: Association with sociodemographic aspects, lifestyle and nutritional status

    OpenAIRE

    D.A.S. Silva; D. Monteiro Teixeira; Oliveira, G; E.L. Petroski; J. Marcio de Farias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose was to investigate the factors related to aerobic fitness levels of adolescents in southern Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 1081 students (545 males and 536 females), with mean age of 12.8 (± 1.2) years. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Aerobic fitness was assessed by the 9-min running test. The independent variables analyzed were: age, socioeconomic status, school system (public/private), sedentary behavior, physical activity level, nutritio...

  6. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma; Milton de Souza Mendonça Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae), galling 43 host...

  7. [Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. and associated culicidae fauna in a urban area of southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, J; da Silva, M A; Borsato, A M; de Oliveira, V D; Oliveira, F J

    1993-10-01

    Some aspects of the ecology of eleven species of Culicidae that were found breeding in recipients in an urban area of Southern Brazil are presented. A great variety of recipients were listed as efficient breeding sites. Apparently Aedes aegypti has been recently introduced into the region and was limited to two areas of the city. Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. coronator, Ae. aegypti, Ae. fluviatilis e Limatus durhamii were the predominant species.

  8. Synopsis of Dorstenia (Moraceae) in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeni, Bruna De Oliveira; Singer, Rodrigo Bustos

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic synopsis of Dorstenia (Moraceae) in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, is presented. Three species were recorded: D. brasiliensis, D. carautae, a new record for the state of RS, and D. tenuis. All species are described and illustrated through detailed photos of living specimens. A taxonomic key to separate the species, as well as details on distribution, overall phenology, habitat, conservation status and ecology are presented.

  9. Comparison between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive and Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lucélia Henn; Fabiano Nagel; Felipe Dal Pizzol

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the different characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and negative patients treated for tuberculosis (TBC) in a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 5-year period, from January 1992 through December 1996. We reviewed medical charts of patients from our institution who received TBC treatment. We reviewed 167 medical charts of patients with confirmed TBC. HIV positivity was detec...

  10. Childbearing during adolescence and offspring mortality: findings from three population-based cohorts in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Fernando C.; Matijasevich Alicia; Menezes Ana MB; Santos Iná S; Barros Aluísio JD; Restrepo-Méndez María C; Victora Cesar G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The role of young maternal age as a determinant of adverse child health outcomes is controversial, with existing studies providing conflicting results. This work assessed the association between adolescent childbearing and early offspring mortality in three birth cohort studies from the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Methods All hospital births from 1982 (6,011), 1993 (5,304), and 2004 (4,287) were identified and these infants were followed up. Deaths were monitored t...

  11. Essential oils of camphor tree (cinnamomum camphora nees & eberm) cultivated in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Caren D. Frizzo; Santos, Ana C; Natalia Paroul; Luciana A. Serafini; Eduardo Dellacassa; Daniel Lorenzo; Patrick Moyna

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils of two varieties of Camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm, Lauraceae), known as Hon-Sho and Ho-Sho cultivated in experimental stands in Southern Brazil were studied. The essential oils were obtained from the leaves and twigs of young plants by hydrodistillation. The identification of the components was performed using GC, GC/MS and retention indexes on methyl silicone and carbowax phases. The main components identified were linalool in the Ho-Sho and camphor in the...

  12. Species diversity and community structure in trap-nesting bees in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Tunes Buschini, Maria

    2006-01-01

    International audience The species diversity and community structure of trap-nesting bees in the Parque Municipal das Araucárias in Southern Brazil was studied during 2 years. Three different habitats (Araucaria forest, swamp and grassland) were investigated in terms of abundance, richness, diversity and similarity of bee communicites. A total of 120 nests of 11 species were collected. The largest abundance of individuals and species richness was found for the family Megachilidae. The most...

  13. Hemoplasma prevalence and hematological abnormalities associated with infection in three different cat populations from Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Pires dos Santos; Francisco de Oliveira Conrado; Joanne Belle Messick; Alexander Welker Biondo; Simone Tostes de Oliveira; Ana Marcia Sá Guimaraes; Naíla Cannes do Nascimento; Viviane Pedralli; Camila Serina Lasta; Félix Hilário Diaz González

    2014-01-01

    Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats) from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each...

  14. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    OpenAIRE

    André Filipe Testoni; Sérgio Luiz Althoff; André Paulo Nascimento; Francisco Steiner-Souza; Ives José Sbalqueiro

    2010-01-01

    Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3 /DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nin...

  15. Metal contamination of vineyard soils in wet subtropics (southern Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vine-growing areas in Brazil are the dampest in the world. Copper maximum value registered in this study was as much as 3200 mg kg-1, which is several times higher than reported for vineyard soils in temperate climates. Other pesticide-derived metals accumulate in the topsoil layer, surpassing in the old vineyards the background value several times for Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Copper is transported to deeper soils' horizons and can potentially contaminate groundwater. The soils from basaltic volcanic rocks reveal the highest values of Cu extracted with CaCl2, demonstrating a high capacity of copper transference into plants. When evaluating the risks of copper's toxic effects in subtropics, the soils from rhyolitic volcanic rocks are more worrisome, as the Cu extracted with ammonium acetate 1 M surpasses the toxic threshold as much as 4-6 times. - Copper-based pesticide use in wet subtropics is environmentally more risky

  16. Heating and cooling potential of buried pipes in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc O.; Santos, Gerson H. dos; Freire, Roberto Z.; Mendes, Nathan [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana (PUC-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: mabadie@univ-lr.fr, e-mail: gerson.santos@pucpr.br, e-mail: rozafre@terra.com.br; Mendes, Nathan [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana (PUCPR/CCET), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Thermal Systems Laboratory - LST], e-mail: nathan.mendes@pucpr.br

    2006-07-01

    The present numerical study aims to evaluate the heating and cooling potential of buried pipes in three cities of South Brazil i.e. Curitiba, Florianopolis and Porto-Alegre. In a first part, ground temperatures at the buried pipe location (between 1 and 3 m depth) are calculated by both a simplified model and a three-dimensional volume-finite code (SOLUM). Then, a prototypical house and its buried pipe are modeled with a building energy simulation tool (TRNSYS) to evaluate the positive and negative effects of such system on thermal comfort and heating and cooling energy. Results show that this passive system is particularly efficient in Curitiba, can reduce energy consumption in Porto Alegre and is not well-adapted to Florianopolis. (author)

  17. Pythiosis in sheep from Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio D. Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reports pythiosis in a sheep from southwestern Paraná, Brazil, confirmed by indirect ELISA (Enzime-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and immunohistochemistry, as well as it describes the macro and microscopic injuries, in order to understand the pathogenicity. A 4-year-old ewe from a flock of 30 Santa Inês sheep, raised semi-extensively with access to a weir, showed cachexia, bilateral enlargement in nasal region, a serous and bloody secretion with a fetid odor from its nose and swollen submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Blood collection was performed trough jugular vein puncture in order to make complete blood cell count (CBC and to obtain serum for the subsequent serological examination. As the hematological counts were within the normal range for sheep, the animal was euthanized and submitted to necropsy. Indirect ELISA resulted positive for pythiosis. Necropsy revealed necrosis of the hard palate with a diameter of 3.5cm and extending up to the nasal cavity, forming a fistula. Submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous on section. Microscopic findings for submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes consisted in moderate infiltration of eosinophils mainly in the subcapsular sinus, characterizing reactive eosinophilic lymphadenitis. The nasal cavity revealed rhinitis and oral cavity stomatitis with necro-eosinophilic and pronounced multifocal granulomatous infiltration and presence of hyphae. Hyphae found in palate and nasal cavity were positive for Pythium insidiosum by Grocott's method and immunohistochemistry, the last one considered to be confirmatory for the pathogen diagnostic. This report has an important epidemiological aspect, as it is the first case of pythiosis in sheep confirmed by serology in South Brazil and an alert of possible infection by the pathogen in floodplains.

  18. Narrowing inequalities in infant mortality in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldani Marcelo Zubaran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the trends of infant mortality from 1995 to 1999 according to a geographic area-based measure of maternal education in Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: A registry-based study was carried out and a municipal database created in 1994 was used. All live births (n=119,170 and infant deaths (n=1,934 were considered. Five different geographic areas were defined according to quintiles of the percentage of low maternal educational level (<6 years of schooling: high, medium high, medium, medium low, and low. The chi-square test for trend was used to compare rates between years. Incidence rate ratio was calculated using Poisson regression to identify excess infant mortality in poorer areas compared to higher schooling areas. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate (IMR decreased steadily from 18.38 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1995 to 12.21 in 1999 (chi-square for trend p<0.001. Both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates decreased although the drop seemed to be steeper for the post-neonatal component. The higher decline was seen in poorer areas. CONCLUSION: Inequalities in IMR seem to have decreased due to a steeper reduction in both neonatal and post-neonatal components of infant mortality in lower maternal schooling area.

  19. Child maltreatment: a survey of dentists in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sousa Azevedo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a serious public health problem and affects the victims' physical and mental health and development. The aims of this study were two-fold: to assess the attitudes and perceptions of dentists regarding child abuse, and to investigate professional characteristics associated with the identification of suspected child abuse. A questionnaire was sent to the 276 dentists of Pelotas, RS, Brazil , and 187 (68.0% were returned. Demographic characteristics and profiles of the dentists, and information about their knowledge and attitudes regarding child abuse were collected. Descriptive analysis was performed, and associations were tested by chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. From all dentists surveyed, 123 (71.9% reported providing treatment for children. Most dentists believed they could detect cases of child abuse (78.7%, but 85.7% had never suspected it. Among those who did suspect, 76.0% did not report the cases to authorities. No differences were observed between sexes, years of graduation, types of licenses, and the frequency at which children were treated. A higher proportion of dentists working at university had suspected child abuse. Even though dentists considered themselves able to identify suspicious cases, only a small percentage reported those suspicions, indicating a lack of awareness by these professionals in the adoption of protective measures for victims of aggression. It is necessary that dental professionals receive interdisciplinary training to enhance their ability to care for and protect children.

  20. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time. PMID:27276374

  1. Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso

    2016-06-01

    Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.

  2. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rodrigo R; Hartmann, Carlos; Tagliani, Paulo R A; Poersch, Luís H

    2011-09-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W) by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth), airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000), terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE), and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes). As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.

  3. Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Mauruto Chernaki-Leffer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae to cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron in southern Brazil. The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, is an important insect pest in poultry houses in Brazil. Susceptibility of the lesser mealworm collected from eight poultry houses in Paraná state, southern Brazil, was evaluated for cypermethrin, dichlorvos and triflumuron. Adult A. diaperinus were tested in bioassays with cypermethrin and dichlorvos. Larvae were fed rabbit feed wetted with a triflumuron-water solution. Concentration-mortality regressions were estimated using Probit analysis and resistance ratios were calculated based on the susceptible population. Among the field populations evaluated, cypermethrin LC50 values for adults, ranged from 68.1 to 6,263 ng (AI/cm². LC50 values for adults challenged with dichlorvos ranged from 10.3 to 1,385 ng (AI/cm². One population from Pato Branco showed reduced susceptibility to triflumuron (LC50 = 272 µg (AI/ml of solution when compared to the most susceptible population (LC50 = 109.8 µg (AI/ml. Application of cypermethrin and dichlorvos analogues should be managed with caution to minimize insecticide resistance problems.

  4. Population genetic structure of Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. (Iridaceae) in Itapuã State Park, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacuatiá, Luana Olinda; Eggers, Lilian; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Souza-Chies, Tatiana T

    2012-01-01

    Sisyrinchium micranthum Cav. is a member of the family Iridaceae, which is distributed over the American continent. In Brazil, this species is found, not only in disturbed areas and coastal regions, but is also very common in urban centers, such as public parks, during the spring. Chromosome counts for North American specimens are 2n = 32 and 2n = 48, whereas in southern Brazil, there is a polyploidy series with three chromosome numbers, 2n = 16, 2n = 32, and 2n = 48. Population analyses using DNA molecular markers are inexistent for this species, in spite of its wide distribution and morphological variation. To study the genetic population structure of S. micranthum, five natural populations were accessed in a conservation park within the Atlantic Rain Forest Biome in southern Brazil. Here, the chromosome numbers 2n = 16 and 2n = 48 had already been described. Molecular analysis showed that the populations are highly structured with low gene flow among them. The population with 2n = 48 was genetically less variable than and distinct from the other populations. Population genetics in relation to cytogenetic data provided new insights regarding the genetic diversification and mating system of S. micranthum. PMID:22481881

  5. The diet of cubomedusae (cnidaria, cubozoa in southern Brazil

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    Miodeli Nogueira Júnior

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of cubomedusae Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 (Carybdeidae and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 (Chirodropidae was examined in specimens collected on the Southern Brazilian coast (25º20' - 25º55'S; 48º10' - 48º35'W, between December 1998 and December 2004. This is the first study to analyze this biological aspect in cubomedusae from the South Atlantic. The gastrovascular cavities of most (55%; n = 29 specimens of T. haplonema were empty while the remainder had teleosteans parts such as scales, vertebrae and otoliths. In C. quadrumanus (n = 726, the most important items were the pelagic sergestid shrimp Peisos petrunkevitchi Burkenroad, 1945 and Brachyura larvae, mainly megalops. Small crabs, isopods, fish, fish eggs and nematodes were less common. A dietary shift was clearly observed during C. quadrumanus growth. Smaller individuals consumed a greater variety of prey, mostly Brachyura larvae, and they also had higher frequencies of empty stomachs. As their size increased, megalopas decreased and P. petrunkevitchi became the most important item in their diet.A dieta das cubomedusas Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 (Carybdeidae e Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 (Chirodropidae foi analisada em espécimes coletados no litoral do Paraná (25º20' - 25º55'S; 48º10' - 48º35'W, sul do Brasil, entre dezembro de 1998 e dezembro de 2004, e é o primeiro estudo a abordar este aspecto da biologia de Cubozoa no Atlântico Sul. A cavidade gastrovascular da maioria (55% dos 29 exemplares de T. haplonema mostrou-se vazia, e dos demais continha partes corporais de peixes teleósteos, como escamas, vértebras e otólitos. Em 726 exemplares de C. quadrumanus os itens alimentares mais importantes foram o camarão sergestídeo Peisos petrunkevitchi Burkenroad, 1945 e larvas de Brachyura, principalmente megalopas. Pequenos caranguejos, isópodes, peixes, ovos de peixes e nematóides foram menos comuns. Mudanças na dieta evidenciaram

  6. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

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    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  7. Footprints of large theropod dinosaurs and implications on the age of Triassic biotas from Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafael Costa; Barboni, Ronaldo; Dutra, Tânia; Godoy, Michel Marques; Binotto, Raquel Barros

    2012-11-01

    Dinosaur footprints found in an outcrop of the Caturrita Formation (Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil), associated with a diverse and well preserved record of fauna and flora, reopen the debate about its exclusive Triassic age. The studied footprints were identified as Eubrontes isp. and are interpreted as having been produced by large theropod dinosaurs. The morphological characteristics and dimensions of the footprints are more derived than those commonly found in the Carnian-Norian, and are more consistent with those found during the Rhaetian-Jurassic. The trackmaker does not correspond to any type of dinosaur yet known from Triassic rocks of Brazil. Recent studies with the paleofloristic content of this unit also support a more advanced Rhaetian or even Jurassic age for this unit.

  8. Lymnaea rupestris sp. n. from Southern Brazil (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of South American lymnaeid snail, Lymnaea rupestris, is described. So far it has been found only in its type-locality, Nova TeuTõnia, a village in the municipality of Seara (27° 07' S, 52° 17' W, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is distinguishable, by characteristics of the shell and internal organs, from the other two lymnaeid species known to occur in the area, Lymnaea columella and L. viatrix. Its shell has 4 markedly shouldered whorls, deep suture, ovoid or rounded aperture occupying about half the length of the shell, and reaches about 6 mm in length in adults; in columella and viatrix the shell has 4-5 rounded whorls, shallow suture, and reaches over 10 mm in adults; the aperture is ovoid, occupying about half the length of the shell in viatrix, about two thirds in columella. Anatomically it is readily separated from L. columella by the shape of the ureter, straight in rupestris, with a double flexure in columella. Comparison with L. viatrix shows the following main differences: distalmost portion of the oviduct with a low, caplike lateral swelling in rupestris, with a well-developed pouch in viatrix; uterus bent abruptly caudalward in rupestris, only slightly curved rightward in viatrix; basal half of the spermathecal duct hidden by the prostate in rupestris, wholly visible or nearly so in viatrix; spermiduct sinuous and uniformly wide in rupestris, straight and gradually narrowing in viatrix; prostate more than half as long and nearly as wide as the nidamental gland, and with a slit-like lumen in cross-section in rupestris, less than half as long as and much narrower than the nidamental gland, and with an inward fold in cross-section in viatrix; penial sheath about as long and as wide as the prepuce in rupesris, shorter and narrower than the prepuce in viatrix. An important ecological characteristic of L. rupestris is its habitat on wet rocks most often outside bodies of water, although in close proximity to them

  9. Water End-Uses in Low-Income Houses in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Kelly Marinoski; Abel Silva Vieira; Arthur Santos Silva; Enedir Ghisi

    2014-01-01

    Knowing water consumption patterns in buildings is key information for water planning. This article aims to characterize the water consumption pattern and water end-uses in low-income houses in the region of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing householders, as well as by measuring the flow rate of existing water fixtures and appliances. The results indicated that the shower was the fixture with the largest water consumption in households, i.e., about 30%–36% of...

  10. Some information on reproduction and embryonic development of the lesser guitarfish Zapteryx brevirostris in Southern Brazil

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    Vinícius ABILHOA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of Zapteryx brevirostris were caught from August 2003 to September 2004 using bottom trawl nets in a bay located in Southern Brazil. Total length ranged from 42.8 to 47.3 cm in males and 44.1 to 52.2 cm in females. Females with early developing embryos were captured in August 2003 and September 2004, suggesting that gestation occurs mainly in the spring. Length- weight relationship of the 45 embryos was alometric, and embryos’ total length did not reach the estimated newborn length. The data suggested that the studied area is used by Z. brevirostris during the gestation period.

  11. HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis prevalence and coinfection among sex workers in Southern Brazil

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    Fabiana Schuelter-Trevisol; Geisiane Custodio; Ana Carolina Barreto da Silva; Mikely Byala de Oliveira; Audrei Wolfart; Daisson Jose Trevisol

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sex workers (SWs) are vulnerable to HIV, hepatitis, and syphilis coinfection. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tubarão, Laguna, and Imbituba, Southern Brazil. We surveyed 147 SWs using face-to-face interviews and blood sampling for serological evaluation. Results Prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) was 23.1%, syphilis 19.7%, hepatitis C (HCV) 8.8%, and HIV 8.8%. Of 13 HIV-infected patients, 3 were co-infected with HCV, 4 with syphilis, and 5 with HBV. Concl...

  12. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo) (Carnivora: Felidae) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressler, Lucas Trevisan; Noll, Jéssica Caroline Gomes; Freitas, Ítallo Barros de; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique), simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique) and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time. PMID:27580395

  13. Psychiatry, bio-epistemes and the making of adolescence in southern Brazil.

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    Béhague, Dominique Pareja

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on an ethnographic study in southern Brazil, this paper explores how therapists' attempts to "resist bioreductionist" pharmaceutical use both succeed and crumble. Using a comparative framing, I show that pharmaceuticalization can become an anesthetizing "lid" that interacts with young people's polarizing micro-politics and is an outgrowth of multi-generational medico-political family histories. This lid, however, is not air-tight and exceptionalities are born out of these very same histories. I argue that both pharmaceuticalization and exceptions to it emerge not through "resistance" to biopsychiatric logics but from the transformative possibilities that the patterned co-production of social, political, and psychiatric life affords.

  14. Snakes killed on the roads in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.; Tobias Saraiva Kunz

    2009-01-01

    Roads cause diverse impacts to ecosystems, including habitat loss and fragmentation, alteration of the natural landscape and death of animals. However, little is known about the impact of this mortality on the animal populations. The snake fauna of the state of Santa Catarina is the least studied of southern Brazil. In this work we present data on 165 snakes of 38 species found dead on the roads of the state between 2003 and 2008, which corresponds to 50% of the snake species in relation to t...

  15. Accidental capture of vertebrates in small mammal studies in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil

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    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a list of vertebrate species caught accidentally by live-traps while conducting capture and recapture studies with small mammals in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Twentytwo terrestrial vertebrate species were registered: two amphibians, four reptiles, thirteen birds and three mammals. The use of vegetable baits as attractive smells, for example banana and peanut butter, was of great value in terms of the capture of a great diversity of species belonging to a wide range of feeding habitats, including insectivores and carnivores, probably attracted by arthropods that had fed on the baits.

  16. Wachholz, a new exquisite dinosaur-bearing fossiliferous site from the Upper Triassic of southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Rodrigo Temp; da Rosa, Átila Augusto Stock; Roberto da Silva, Lúcio; Aires, Alex Sandro Schiller; Pacheco, Cristian Pereira; Pavanatto, Ane Elise Branco; Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio

    2015-08-01

    The present contribution reports a new fossiliferous site from the Caturrita Formation (Upper Triassic of Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil), which yields articulate, complete, associated, and exceptionally well-preserved dinosaur specimens, together with the sole occurrence of an isolated tooth ascribed to a carnivore indetermined archosauriform. These specimens increase the sauropodomorph record from this geological unit. A preliminary evaluation of such specimens suggests that sauropodomorph dinosaurs could have been more abundant in Norian Faunas from southern Brazil, considering the increased sampling here reported. So far, about six specimens are previously recognized (disregarding Guaibasaurus) from the Caturrita Formation, and here we add four specimens, or even five if consider an additional autopodium. Also, the morphology of the isolated carnivorous-type tooth differs from other described carnivorous archosauriform teeth from the Caturrita Formation. Hence, it might represent a still undescribed taxon. Further studies of these specimens will certainly provide new data regarding biostratigraphy, phylogeny, paleoecology, and taphonomy, as this new fossiliferous locality preserves one of the most representative dinosaur records from the Norian worldwide.

  17. Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), a Parasite of Wild Mammals in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Felipe S; Martins, Thiago F; Oliveira, Caroline S; Binder, Lina C; Costa, Francisco B; Nunes, Pablo H; Gregori, Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    During 2013-2014, adult ticks were collected on the vegetation and subadult ticks were collected from small mammals [Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer), Euryoryzomys russatus (Wagner), Akodon montensis Thomas, Oxymycterus judex Thomas] in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southern Brazil. Analyses of the external morphology of the adult ticks revealed that they represent a new species, Amblyomma yucumense n. sp. Partial 16S rRNA sequences generated from males, females, and nymphs were identical to each other and closest (95% identity) to corresponding sequences of Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann. A. yucumense is morphologically and genetically closest related to A. dubitatum. Dorsally, male of these species can be separated by major longitudinal pale orange stripes associated with a pseudoscutum indicated by a pale stripe in A. yucumense, in contrast to pale creamy longitudinal stripes and absence of pseudoscutum in A. dubitatum. Ventrally, male coxal I spurs are separated by a space narrower than external spur width in A. yucumense, and wider than external spur width in A. dubitatum. Females of the two species can be separated by coxal I spurs, longer in A. yucumense than in A. dubitatum. In addition, the adult capitulum and ventral idiosoma of A. yucumense are generally dark brown colored, while A. dubitatum is yellowish or light brown colored. The nymph of A. yucumense differs from A. dubitatum by the scutal cervical groove length, slightly shorter in the former species. Currently, A. yucumense is restricted to southern Brazil. PMID:26336277

  18. Taphonomy and paleoecology inferences of vertebrate ichnofossils from Guará Formation (Upper Jurassic), southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; Schultz, Cesar L.; Bertoni-Machado, Cristina

    2008-03-01

    In southern Brazil, the eolian facies of the Guará Formation (Late Jurassic) reveal footprints and trackways of vertebrates (dinosaurs), as well as burrows made by small vertebrates. All the footprints and trackways are preserved in dunes and sand sheets. The footprints made in the sand sheets are not well preserved due to intense trampling and can be distinguished only by the deformation of the sandstone laminations. In some cases it is possible to see this deformation in plan and in section. Tracks of theropods, ornithopods and middle-sized sauropods are present. Two footprints preserved in the foreset of a paleodune permitted recognition of slide structures and identification of the trackmaker, a theropod. Burrows horizontally across the foresets were found at this same paleodune. Ribbons of massive sandstone - interpreted as the partial filling of the base of the burrows - covered by little blocks of stratified sandstone - suggest the collapse of the burrow roof inward. There are no body fossils in the Guará Formation, consequently the preservation of these tracks provides unique evidence of widespread dinosaurs activity in southern Brazil near the end of the Jurassic.

  19. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

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    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  20. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-11-23

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility.

  1. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil. PMID:19569487

  2. RESISTANCE TO AMOXICILLIN, CLARITHROMYCIN AND CIPROFLOXACIN OF Helicobacter pylori ISOLATED FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL PATIENTS

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    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1% H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9% to amoxicillin and three (5.5% to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil.

  3. Preliminary determination of the energy potential of ocean currents along the southern coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Andrea; Beluco, Alexandre; de Almeida, Luiz Emilio B. [Inst. Pesquisas Hidraulicas, Univ. Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ocean can be a strategic alternative for obtaining energy supplies, both from ocean waves as from sea currents and tides. Among these features, the power generation projects based on ocean currents are still under development. Generating energy from ocean can have great impact on the Brazilian energy grid, since Brazil has a vast coastline, with more than 9,000 km long, with potential for generating energy from ocean currents not fully estimated. This article presents a preliminary determination of the energy potential for power generation from ocean currents along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil, and also presents notes that contribute to the characterization of the system of ocean currents in the region. The data used were obtained in two areas near Tramandai, allowing the determination of velocities and directions of the currents on a seasonal basis. The maximum speeds obtained rarely exceed 0.750 m/s, while the average speeds do not exceed 0.200 m/s. A relationship with the prevailing winds in the region was identified. Unfortunately, the results do not allow optimism about the power generation from ocean currents on the southern coast of Brazil, at least over the continental shelf.

  4. Hepatitis B Virus Genotype D Isolates Circulating in Chapeco, Southern Brazil, Originate from Italy.

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    Carolina Souza Gusatti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1, of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013, probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3 and D (n = 88. The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52% patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8% who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78% patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.

  5. Denudation History and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Phanerozoic of southern Mantiqueira Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission

  6. Hydrology evaluation of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool considering measurement uncertainty for a small watershed in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areas under intensive tobacco crop cultivation have impacted the water balance and have become sources of environmental contamination in Southern Brazil. Correct determination of the area’s hydrology is essential since it is the driving force of sediment and nutrient loading dynamics. The Soil and W...

  7. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  8. Scenario of research and intellectual production in the area of didactics in the southern of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fernández Aquino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The text was drawn from results of research carried out between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to understand the state of research and intellectual production in the area of Didactic in Southern Brazil. The documentary analysis methodology, working with documents available online was applied. The research was carried out with 9 Postgraduate Program in Education, 12 research lines, 115 professors, 244 research projects and 1730 publications. It was concluded that there is a great number of research and publication on the investigative field of Didactics and on the dimension of its foundation, but very little on the disciplinary and professional fields and on the conditions and ways of teaching. It is noteworthy that only a transformative practice can help change the reality of the school, the quality of teacher formation, of learning and mental development of the students.

  9. Pesticide use and cholinesterase inhibition in small-scale agricultural workers in southern Brazil

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    Samuel Botião Nerilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A controlled cross-sectional study of family growers of fruit and vegetables was conducted between October 2009 and October 2010 to characterize the use of pesticides, establish the socio-demographic profile, and analyze cholinesterase activity in small-scale agricultural workers in Southern Brazil. Data was collected for 173 workers and 179 controls. A structured questionnaire was applied collecting socio-demographic information and determining knowledge and work practices in relation to pesticide use. The benchmarks for total cholinesterase (ChEs and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE were obtained from the average enzymatic activity of the occupationally unexposed group (control. The mean age of the exposed population was 40.0 ± 11.2 years. The symptoms differed significantly (p30% of ChEs activity, whereas no workers showed high inhibition (>50% of BuChE. Potential factors involved include gender, education, pesticide orientation, exposure, and hygiene measures.

  10. Recent transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a prison population in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana Julia; de David, Simone Maria Martini; Nunes, Luciana de Souza; Valim, Andreia Rosane de Moura; Possuelo, Lia Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study, characterized by classical and molecular epidemiology, involving M. tuberculosis isolates from a regional prison in southern Brazil. Between January of 2011 and August of 2014, 379 prisoners underwent sputum smear microscopy and culture; 53 (13.9%) were diagnosed with active tuberculosis. Of those, 8 (22.9%) presented with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis. Strain genotyping was carried out by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis; 68.6% of the patients were distributed into five clusters, and 87.5% of the resistant cases were in the same cluster. The frequency of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases and the rate of recent transmission were high. Our data suggest the need to implement an effective tuberculosis control program within the prison system.

  11. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli on broiler carcasses after chilling in southern Brazil

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    Gustavo Perdoncini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli have been associated with gastrointestinal disorders in human beings, due mainly to the consumption of chicken meat. Despite control measures for reducing contamination by these bacteria, the detection of Campylobacter in carcasses after chilling remains high. A total of 105 carcasses were assessed by the horizontal detection method in five federally inspected slaughterhouses in southern Brazil in 2012 and in the first three months of 2013. Campylobacterwas isolated in 37.1% of the carcasses, of which 97.5% contained C. jejuni and 2.5% were infected by C. coli. The rate of positive carcasses across the slaughterhouses ranged from 0 to 71.4%. Determining the occurrence of Campylobacter among flocks is crucial for estimating the microbial load at specific points along the slaughtering process and for minimizing the risk of contamination of end products by Campylobacter.

  12. [Use of evaluation by primary healthcare managers: a case study in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Daniela Alba; Natal, Sonia; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2014-12-01

    This article reports on a meta-evaluation, focused on utilization, in a state in southern Brazil. This was a single case study with primary data collection using semi-structured interviews with health department administrators and staff. Content analysis used categories defined in the evaluation matrix: political and organizational context and implementation of evaluation. The political and organizational context revealed weaknesses in the items on experience, evaluation team, and time and space for reflection. Technical autonomy was verified in the State and in one municipality. In the implementation of evaluation, evaluative quality met the established criteria, but there was no prior definition of the uses and users of evaluation. One report referred to use for planning actions and political use. The study concluded that evaluation produced important information for stakeholders, with the political and organizational context as the principal limiting factor for use.

  13. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Henrique C; Resende, Flávia C; Teixeira, Mauro; Dal Vechio, Francisco; Clemente, Cinara A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains. PMID:26131637

  14. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

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    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, galling 43 host plant species, which in turn belonged to 18 host plant families. Stem and buds together, compared to leaves, harbored more galls, which were mostly glabrous, isolated, fusiform and green. Myrtaceae, Asteraceae and Melastomataceae were the most representative host families. Similarities in gall characteristics to what has been reported in the literature probably result from spatial correlation in a larger scale driven by ecological and evolutionary processes.

  15. Feeding ecology and trophic comparisons of six shark species in a coastal ecosystem off southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornatowski, H; Braga, R R; Abilhoa, V; Corrêa, M F M

    2014-08-01

    The diets of six shark species, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena, Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Rhizoprionodon lalandii and Galeocerdo cuvier, were investigated in a subtropical coastal ecosystem of southern Brazil. Stomach content data were obtained to assess foraging niche segregation and ontogenetic shifts in the diets of these sharks. Five of the shark species off the Paraná coast were ichthyophagous, with the exception of S. zygaena, which was teutophagous. With the exception of G. cuvier, which had a generalist diet, the other five species displayed specialization in their feeding. Ontogenetic shifts were observed in C. obscurus and S. lewini with large individuals consuming elasmobranchs. Owing to the diet overlap between C. obscurus and S. lewini, C. obscurus and C. limbatus and R. lalandii and C. limbatus, future studies on the spatial and temporal distributions of these species are needed to understand the extent of competitive interactions. PMID:24919949

  16. Taxonomic reports of Otobothrioidea (Eucestoda, Trypanorhyncha from elasmobranch fishes of the southern coast off Brazil

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    Marcelo Knoff

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of elasmobranch fishes, captured in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, of the southern coast off Brazil, represented by three families, four genera, and four species, were parasitized with otobothrioid trypanorhynch cestodes: Heptranchias perlo (Bonnaterre, 1788, Squalus sp. and Carcharhinus signatus (Poey, 1868 were parasitized with Progrillotia dollfusi Carvajal & Rego,1987; Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 with Molicola horridus (Goodsir, 1841 Dollfus, 1942. Details of internal morphology and/or scolex and/or proglottids surface ultrastructure, that expanded the description of M. horridus, through observations with lightfield, and/or scanning eletronic microscopy, are provided. The known geographical distribution for the species M. horridus is enlarged. P. dollfusi is reported for the first time in elasmobranchs.

  17. Osteohistology of hyperodapedontine rhynchosaurs from the Upper Triassic of Southern Brazil

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    Fábio Hiratsuka Veiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first osteohistological study focused exclusively on rhynchosaurs (non-archosauriform archosauromorphs, based on the hyperodapedontines Teyumbaita sulcognathus and Hyperodapedon sp., from the Upper Triassic of Southern Brazil, indicates a relatively rapid growth rate in early ontogeny shown by the fibrolamellar complex, with a change to slow intermittent growth during late ontogeny represented by parallel-fibred bone with several growth marks. Contrary to previous studies, which described a typical non-archosaur reptilian bone tissue pattern for rhynchosaurs, with growth marks extending across the entire cortex, we demonstrate that, in both studied taxa, the initial growth rate was faster in comparison to the later. This suggests that the ability of rapid growth at high rates was already present in basal non-archosauriform archosauromorphs.

  18. On the wave energy potential along the southern coast of Brazil

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    Leandro Eduardo Assis, Alexandre Beluco, Luiz Emílio B. de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocean wave energy resource is a real alternative to supply part of the energy demand in various countries, since some locations have a remarkable capacity to generate electricity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the energy resource of ocean waves in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the southern state of Brazil. This note presents the first results. The wave data used were collected in the sea area near the Port of Rio Grande during the years 1996 to 1999, amounting to sixteen months of monitoring. The data set was treated and grouped resulting information monthly, seasonal and annual basis. The annual average was found to be 8.6 kW per meter of wave front, reaching 14.0 kW per meter for the month of May and 4.0 kW per meter for the month of January. The results indicate good perspectives in obtaining power supplies.

  19. Radon emissions related to the granitic Precambrian shield in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fianco, Ana C B; Roisenberg, Ari; Bonotto, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    The equivalent uranium (eU) activity concentration was analysed in selected granite samples at several sites in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, to obtain information on the radon ((222)Rn) generation by the aquifer rock matrices. Radon analyses of ground water and soil samples were also performed. Several samples exhibited a dissolved (222)Rn activity concentration exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq l(-1). The dissolved radon content in ground waters from the Fractured Precambrian Aquifer System exhibited a direct significant correlation with the eU in the rock matrices, which is a typical result of water-rock interactions. Variation in the soil's porosity was confirmed as an important factor for (222)Rn release, as expected, due to its gaseous nature. Thus, although the calcic-alkaline to alkaline Precambrian granitoid rocks of the study area are important reservoirs for underground resources, they can release high amounts of radon gas into the liquid phase.

  20. Snakes killed on the roads in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

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    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Roads cause diverse impacts to ecosystems, including habitat loss and fragmentation, alteration of the natural landscape and death of animals. However, little is known about the impact of this mortality on the animal populations. The snake fauna of the state of Santa Catarina is the least studied of southern Brazil. In this work we present data on 165 snakes of 38 species found dead on the roads of the state between 2003 and 2008, which corresponds to 50% of the snake species in relation to the expected occurrence for the state of Santa Catarina. The four most frequent species were Philodryas patagoniensis (n = 22; 13.33%, Liophis miliaris (n = 21; 12.72%, P. aestiva (n = 13; 7.87% and Bothrops jararaca (n = 12; 7.27%, which represent together about 41% of the snakes found dead on the roads. We extend the known distribution of Imantodes cenchoa by about 60km southward.

  1. A new species of Melanophryniscus (Anura, Bufonidae from the Campos Gerais region of Southern Brazil

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    Giovanna C. Steinbach-Padilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melanophryniscus is described from the Parque Estadual de Vila Velha, municipality of Ponta Grossa, Paraná State,Southern Brazil. The Parque Estadual de Vila Velha is located in the Campos Gerais region, an environment dominated by natural grasslands with patches of Araucaria Forest. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its small size (12.8-14.0 mm snout-vent length in adult males and unique color pattern of copper brown dorsum covered with small spinulose black warts; ventral surface black finely spotted with white, posterior abdomen and ventral surfaces of the forearm, hand and foot with red stains. The new species is nocturnal and breeds in the water accumulated in the leaf-axils of phytotelmata.

  2. DENDROECOLOGY OF A 25 YEARS OLD Cryptomeria japonica (L. F. DON. STAND IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Mário Dobner Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814579Cryptomeria japonica is indigenous to the temperate region of Japan, where it is known as ‘sugi’. In Brazil, the plantation of this species is recommended for the highlands and cold regions in the southern, where it is well adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between meteorological variables and growth of a 25 years old Cryptomeria japonica stand. Cross-sectional discs from 30 different trees were collected, within all diametric classes. After dried and sanded, annual rings were measured and correlated with meteorological data by dendrochronological analysis tools. The growth series showed an intercorrelation of 0.668. The radial growth of the species was positively influenced by the minimum temperature of September and by the medium temperature of May. There was no correlation between growth and precipitation, although peaks of growth were observed in years with high precipitation.  

  3. Factors associated with condom use in women from an urban area in southern Brazil

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    Mariângela Freitas da Silveira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the prevalence of factors associated with condom use during last sexual intercourse in 15-49-year-old women in a probabilistic sample from the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. A questionnaire administered by an interviewer, investigating socioeconomic characteristics and habits, and another (self-administered questionnaire on sexual behavior-related variables were used. Poisson regression, following a hierarchical model, was used for data analysis. 1,543 women were included, and losses and refusals amounted to 3.5%. Prevalence of condom use in last sexual intercourse was 28.0%. Condom use was positively associated with younger age, greater schooling, non-white color, single marital status, and greater number of sex partners in the previous three months. This suggests that the group most vulnerable to STDs/AIDS due to lack of condom use is white, adult women, in stable unions, with fewer sexual partners.

  4. The Montesbelos mass-flow (southern Amazonian craton, Brazil): a Paleoproterozoic volcanic debris avalanche deposit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverato, M.

    2016-07-01

    The present contribution documents the extremely well-preserved Paleoproterozoic architecture of the Montesbelos breccia (named here for the first time), which is interpreted as a rare example of a subaerial paleoproterozoic (>1.85 Ga) granular-dominated mass-flow deposit, few of which are recorded in the literature. Montesbelos deposit is part of the andesitic Sobreiro Formation located in the São Felix do Xingu region, southern Amazonian craton, northern Brazil. The large volume, high variability of textural features, presence of broken clasts, angular low sphericity fragments, mono- to heterolithic character, and the size of the outcrops point to a volcanic debris avalanche flow. Fluviatile sandy material and debris flows are associated with the deposit as a result of post-depositional reworking processes.

  5. On the wave energy potential along the southern coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Leandro Eduardo; Beluco, Alexandre; de Almeida, Luiz Emilio B. [Inst. Pesquisas Hidraulicas, Univ. Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ocean wave energy resource is a real alternative to supply part of the energy demand in various countries, since some locations have a remarkable capacity to generate electricity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the energy resource of ocean waves in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul, the southern state of Brazil. This note presents the first results. The wave data used were collected in the sea area near the Port of Rio Grande during the years 1996 to 1999, amounting to sixteen months of monitoring. The data set was treated and grouped resulting information monthly, seasonal and annual basis. The annual average was found to be 8.6 kW per meter of wave front, reaching 14.0 kW per meter for the month of May and 4.0 kW per meter for the month of January. The results indicate good perspectives in obtaining power supplies.

  6. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil

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    Henrique C. Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains.

  7. Association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and outcome of hepatitis B virus infection in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusatti, Carolina de Souza; Costi, Cintia; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Silva, Márcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa

    2016-10-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, no general consensus has been reached, possibly due to differences between ethnic groups. In this study, 345 individuals living in southern Brazil, including 196 chronic HBV carriers and 149 subjects who had spontaneously recovered from acute infection, were enrolled to evaluate the influence of cytokine gene polymorphisms on the outcome of HBV infection. Most participants were of European descent. Genotyping of IL2-330 G/T, IL4-589C/T, IL6-174 G/C, IL10-592C/A, IL10-1082 A/G, IL17A-197 G/A, IL17A-692 T/C, TNF-α-238 G/A, and TNF-α-308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed by using the minisequencing (single base extension) method. By multivariable analysis, a statistically significant association was found between genotypic profile AA + GA in TNF-α-308 and chronic HBV infection (OR, 1.82; 95%CI, 1.01-3.27; P = 0.046). In southern Brazil, the carriers of the -308A allele in the TNF-α gene promoter have a moderately higher risk of becoming chronic carriers in case of HBV infection. In addition, patients with chronic active hepatitis B (n = 60) exhibited a decreased frequency (3.3%) of the TNF-238A allele when compared to that (14.8%) found among asymptomatic HBV carriers (n = 136), suggesting that this could be a protective factor against liver injury (OR, 0.17; 95%CI, 0.04-0.076; P = 0.023). J. Med. Virol. 88:1759-1766, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26959287

  8. Pairing and reproductive success in two sympatric species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Bond-Buckup, Georgina

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing pairing and reproductive success in relation to male and female sizes of the sympatric freshwater gammarideans Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi from southern Brazil. These amphipods exhibit precopulatory mate guarding, in which a male will carry a potential mate beneath its ventral surface, guarding the female for several days until it molts and lays its eggs. The specimens were collected monthly with nets, from November 2003 to July 2004 in two trout aquaculture ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. The precopulatory pairs and ovigerous females were identified and separated in the field. In the laboratory, they were measured (cephalothorax length in mm), using a micrometer eyepiece in a stereoscopic microscope. Pairing success was estimated from the proportion of mating males and females related to their respective non-pairing individuals by size classes. Reproductive success was estimated from egg production. The mean cephalothorax length of paired males was larger than that of the unpaired males. For females, however, body size not affect pairing success for either species, because mean cephalothorax length of paired females did not differ significantly from unpaired females. Paired and unpaired males of both species of Hyalella were larger than the females. Positive assortative mating by size was observed in both species; i.e., larger males tended to pair with larger females. Male pairing success increased sharply with size. In both species, reproductive success in males increased with body size; however, the females of intermediate size classes showed greater reproductive success. This result supports the hypothesis that loading constraints play a part in structuring size-assortative pairing in these species.

  9. Wilson's disease in southern Brazil: a 40-year follow-up study

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    Ricardo Schmitt de Bem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term data on the clinical follow-up and the treatment effectiveness of Wilson's disease are limited because of the low disease frequency. This study evaluated a retrospective cohort of Wilson's disease patients from southern Brazil during a 40-year follow-up period. METHODS: Thirty-six Wilson's disease patients, diagnosed from 1971 to 2010, were retrospectively evaluated according to their clinical presentation, epidemiological and social features, response to therapy and outcome. RESULTS: Examining the patients' continental origins showed that 74.5% had a European ancestor. The mean age at the initial symptom presentation was 23.3 ± 9.3 years, with a delay of 27.5 ± 41.9 months until definitive diagnosis. At presentation, hepatic symptoms were predominant (38.9%, followed by mixed symptoms (hepatic and neuropsychiatric (30.6% and neuropsychiatric symptoms (25%. Kayser-Fleischer rings were identified in 55.6% of patients, with a higher frequency among those patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (77.8%. Eighteen patients developed neuropsychiatric features, most commonly cerebellar syndrome. Neuroradiological imaging abnormalities were observed in 72.2% of these patients. Chronic liver disease was detected in 68% of the patients with hepatic symptoms. 94.2% of all the patients were treated with D-penicillamine for a mean time of 129.9 ± 108.3 months. Other treatments included zinc salts, combined therapy and liver transplantation. After initiating therapy, 78.8% of the patients had a stable or improved outcome, and the overall survival rate was 90.1%. CONCLUSION: This study is the first retrospective description of a population of Wilson's disease patients of mainly European continental origin who live in southern Brazil. Wilson's disease is treatable if correctly diagnosed, and an adequate quality of life can be achieved, resulting in a long overall survival.

  10. Ehrlichia sp. infection in carthorses of low-income owners, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Thállitha S; Vieira, Rafael F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Soares, Herbert S; Guimarães, Ana M; Barros-Filho, Ivan R; Marcondes, Mary; Labruna, Marcelo B; Biondo, Alexander W; Vidotto, Odilon

    2016-10-01

    Although well established in dogs, Ehrlichia sp. infection has been scarcely reported in horses. The aim was to perform a comprehensive serological and molecular survey for the detection of Ehrlichia spp. in carthorses from Southern Brazil. Blood samples from 190 carthorses from Paraná State were sampled. Horses were also tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies were detected by a commercial rapid ELISA, and immunofluorescence antibody assays (IFA) with E. chaffeensis and E. canis as crude antigens. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia sp. was based on 16S rRNA and dsb genes. A total of 52 (27.4%), 4 (2.1%), and 3 (1.6%) horses were positive for Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, by the commercial rapid ELISA. Thirty-eight (20.0%) and 37 (19.5%) horses showed anti-E. chaffeensis and anti-E. canis antibodies by IFA, respectively. One blood sample that also showed anti-E. chaffeensis antibodies was PCR positive for the 16S rRNA and dsb genes of Ehrlichia spp., showing an identity of>98.0% to the uncultured Ehrlichia sp. previously detected in Brazilian jaguars (Panthera onca). Anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies and Ehrlichia DNA were detected in carthorses from Southern Brazil, which may post public health concerns due to intimate contact with low-income owners. This is the first report of a natural infection of this bacteria in horses from South America. Clinical signs and the tick vector remain unknown. PMID:27638113

  11. Association of the germline TP53 R337H mutation with breast cancer in southern Brazil

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    Srivastava Kumar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The germline TP53-R337H mutation is strongly associated with pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT in southern Brazil; it has low penetrance and limited tissue specificity in most families and therefore is not associated with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. However, other tumor types, mainly breast cancer, have been observed in carriers of several unrelated kindreds, raising the possibility that the R337H mutation may also contribute to breast tumorigenesis in a genetic background-specific context. Methods We conducted a case-control study to determine the prevalence of the R337H mutation by sequencing TP53 exon 10 in 123 women with breast cancer and 223 age- and sex-matched control subjects from southern Brazil. Fisher's test was used to compare the prevalence of the R337H. Results The R337H mutation was found in three patients but in none of the controls (p = 0.0442. Among the carriers, two had familial history of cancer meeting the Li-Fraumeni-like criteria. Remarkably, tumors in each of these three cases underwent loss of heterozygosity by eliminating the mutant TP53 allele rather than the wild-type allele. Polymorphisms were identified within the TP53 (R72P and Ins16 and MDM2 (SNP309 genes that may further diminish TP53 tumor suppressor activity. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the R337H mutation can significantly increase the risk of breast cancer in carriers, which likely depends on additional cooperating genetic factors. These findings are also important for understanding how low-penetrant mutant TP53 alleles can differentially influence tumor susceptibility.

  12. Divergent profile of emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Brazil: new endemic areas in the southern frontier.

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    Mariel Asbury Marlow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n = 401, 73.99% and occurring in urban zones (n = 422, 77.86%. Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09. Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania amazonensis cases (1.20%, majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia braziliensis (n = 248, 98.80%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V. braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

  13. Metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in two hospitals from southern Brazil

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    Fernanda W. Wirth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in two hospitals located in the Southern part of Brazil and compare the performance of two different phenotypic tests. Thirty-one non-repetitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from various clinical samples from patients admitted to two hospitals located in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (twenty-three from a hospital in Porto Alegre City and eight isolates from a hospital in Vale dos Sinos Region. All strains suggestive of possessing MBLs by phenotypic methods were included in this study. Phenotypic detection of MBLs was carried out simultaneously by using both the MBL Etest® and disk approximation test using 2-mercaptopropionic acid close to a ceftazidime disk. Strains positive were further confirmed using molecular techniques for blaVIM, blaIMP and blaSPM-1. The prevalence of MBLs from samplesof inpatients from the hospital located in Porto Alegre was 30.4% and that of inpatients from Vale dos Sinos hospital was only 3.1%. Only MBL type SPM-1 was detected in these samples by molecular analysis and all were detected by the Etest® MBL strips. The prevalence of P. aeruginosa that produce MBLs can be markedly different in distinct geographical areas, even among different hospitals in the same area. In our study, the EDTA-based method was the only method able to detect all strains harboring the SPM-1 enzyme.

  14. Local ecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen in southern Bahia, Brazil, about trophic interactions of sharks

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    Márcio Luiz Vargas Barbosa Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the serious threats that affect shark species living along the central coast of Brazil, knowledge about the life history of these animals is still scarce. The present study describes the knowledge and perceptions of fishermen from southern Bahia, Brazil, on the trophic interactions of sharks. The objective of this work was to generate information that contributes to a better understanding of the life history of sharks from this poorly known region. In 2012, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 fishermen, with over 15 years of experience, about fisheries and aspects of shark feeding behavior. The study found that the participants have comprehensive ethno-ecological knowledge about shark feeding habits, describing 39 types of items as components of the diets of these animals. They are also able to recognize the favored items in the diet of each ethnospecies of shark. Similar studies about shark feeding habits along the Brazilian coast should be developed. This will generate more detailed knowledge and/or new scientific hypotheses about the interspecific relationships of these predators and their prey.

  15. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

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    Medeiros Narjara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture is created. The search for organic products – that doesn't use artificial mineral and chemical fertilizers and exploits fertility as a way of fighting diseases and pests – and biodynamic products in the agricultural production unit is understood as a kind of organism also take place in the wine industry. But knowing which producers are involved in this type of activity is still a difficult task for the community, especially due to the informality of some agents. Thus, this paper proposes to identify organic and biodynamic wine producers in southern Brazil; as well as the tools and policies which have encouraged farmers to adopt these practices. Finally, understanding the main obstacles producers find dealing with certifications mechanisms. This region was chosen for being the largest grape and wine producing in the country.

  16. Structural framework and Mesozoic Cenozoic evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil

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    Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW-SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.

  17. New records and a new species of Serolis (Crustacea, Isopoda, Flabellifera from southern Brazil

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    Plínio Soares Moreira

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available The following species of the isopod genus Serolis are recorded from the continental shelf of southern Brazil: S. exigua Nordenstam, 1933, S. polaris Richardson, 1911, S. foresti Bastida & Torti, 1970 and S. inermis sp. n. S. exigua is for the first time recorded from off Brazil. Both S. polaris and S. foresti are recorded from new localities. S. inermis sp. n., a new species, is detailed described. Remarks are made on the importance and variations of some morphological features. The limit of distribution of both S. exigua and S. foresti is slightly extended northernwards.São assinaladas na plataforma continental centro-sul do Brasil as seguintes espécies de isópodes do gênero Serolis: S. exigua Nordenstam, 1933, S. polaris Richards on, 1911, S. foresti Bastida & Torti, 1970 e S. inermis sp, n. S. exigua é assinalada pela primeira vez ao longo do Brasil. Os registros de S. polaris e S. foresti representam novas localidades de ocorrência, S. inermis sp. n., espécie nova para a ciência, é detalhadamente descrita. São fornecidas informações adicionais sobre as espécies, assim como discute-se a variação e a importância de algumas características morfológicas. O limite Norte de ocorrência das espécies S. exígua e S. foresti é ampliado ligeiramente.

  18. A FRACTIONATION STUDY OF MINERAL ELEMENTS IN RAW AND COOKED LEAF VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    LUCIANE MIE KAWASHIMA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Five samplings of leaf vegetables widely consumed in Southern Brazil (lettuce, rucola, watercress, kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were taken during the period of a year in food markets of the city of Campinas, Brazil. A selective extraction of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc was conducted on the raw vegetables and four of the vegetables (kale, chicory, Chinese cabbage, and cabbage were also cooked briefly under dry heat for three minutes and submitted to the selective extraction. The extraction separated the minerals into fractions containing mineral elements bound to soluble complexes, bound to ligands solubilized by mild acidic oxidizing conditions, and bound to insoluble ligands under mild acidic oxidizing conditions. The minerals concentrations in each fraction were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The amount of K, Na, Ca, and Mg extractable at pH 7.0 (soluble fraction from raw vegetables varied between 22 to 75 % of the total content of the mineral present. The soluble fractions of minor elements such as Mn, Zn, and Fe varied from 0 to 100% in the raw vegetables. The brief cooking used besides causing negligible losses of the minerals also increased the solubility of the minerals by 44% to 200%. KEYWORDS: Leaf vegetables; soluble mineral elements in vegetables.

  19. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot. PMID:25408616

  20. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

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    Mariana Maleronka Ferron

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. To analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, ANOVA was performed with a Brown-Forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with Dunnett's T3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. RESULTS: Blood lead levels > 10.0 µg/dL was found in 16.5% of children. Recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. High lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. Studies should be conducted with other populations of Brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in Brazil.

  1. Diversity and ecological aspects of aquatic insect communities from montane streams in southern Brazil

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    Bruna Marmitt Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: In this study, the diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Coleoptera communities was surveyed in the Toropi River basin, a watershed localized in a slope region, in southernmost Brazil. The influence of some local abiotic factors on the most common genera was also analyzed. METHODS: Samplings were conducted at 40 sites in 1st-4th order streams, along a short elevation gradient (70-500 m, with a Surber sampler. Water physico-chemical factors, as well as substrate type, were obtained at each site. RESULTS: At all, 5,320 specimens were collected, belonging to 18 families and 52 genera. The caddisflies Austrotinodes and Celaenotrichia, and an undescribed Elmidae, Genus M, are new records for the region. The caddisfly Smicridea was the most frequent genus in the study area. The mayflies Camelobaetidius, Paracloeodes and Americabaetis were influenced by stream order. Smicridea was related to air temperature, while the mayfly Thraulodes was influenced by high levels of electrical conductivity. CONCLUSIONS: The high diversity found in the study area, compared to other Brazilian regions, reflects the environmental heterogeneity in the region. These data show that hydrographic basins in slope areas from extreme Southern Brazil sustain high levels of diversity of aquatic insect communities.

  2. Adverse working conditions and mental illness in poultry slaughterhouses in Southern Brazil

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    Claudio Simon Hutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness is one of the reasons for the great number of absences from work due to incapacity in Brazil. Recently, mental disorders were included in the list of occupational diseases of the International Labour Office. In spite of the difficulty in attributing a causal link between an inappropriate work environment and mental illness, studies have shown that workers exposed to high levels of stress are more likely to present psychopathological symptoms. The present study investigated the relationship between working conditions and the Neuroticism personality factor. Participants were 951 workers from southern Brazilian poultry slaughterhouses, who work in positions with varied levels of risk and stress. The neuroticism scores of such employees were compared with those of other samples. A scale which measures the Neuroticism factor in the model of the Big Five Personality Factor validated for use in Brazil was employed. The results showed that workers of the sectors in which the working conditions are highly stressful presented higher levels in all sub-factors of neuroticism than workers in other sectors and groups. These sectors also showed higher indexes of mental disorders.

  3. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cesar A; Madureira, Luiz A S

    2012-09-01

    The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa) and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g(-1) of extractable organic matter); low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region. PMID:22782538

  4. Dyke Swarms of the Paraná Triple Junction, Southern Brazil

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    José Moacyr Vianna Coutinho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This work intends primarily to survey the field, mineralogical and petrographic characters of the mafic dykes which occuron a stretch of 650 km along the Southeastern coast of Brazil, between the city of São Sebastião, and the island of SantaCatarina. New chemical and geochronological data are also presented. The coastal dyke swarms are envisaged as the northernand southern arms of a plume-generated triple junction system centered on the Paraná State coast, and related to the initialopening of the South Atlantic. Mafic magma intruded as dyke swarms along three directions: N-S (the southern arm, along theParaná-Santa Catarina coast, NW-SE (Ponta Grossa arch and NE-SW (the northern arm along the São Paulo coast. Fiftytwo dykes, almost all tholeiitic diabases, were mapped and sampled along the south arm coast. The Ponta Grossa arch dykes are chiefly composed of tholeiitic diabases and lesser intrusions of andesitic to rhyolitic composition. Over 240 dykes were sampled and identified along the north arm west of São Sebastião. Lamprophyres are here abundant, followed by diabases, microdiorite porphyries and lesser amounts of trachy-andesite, carbonatite and Precambrian dykes. Special attention was given to the study of lamprophyres, their field appearance relative abundance, mineral and chemical composition, enclaves and relations to neighboring alkaline intrusions.

  5. Apple production and quality when cultivated under anti-hail cover in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.

  6. Paraspidodera uncinata (Nematoda, Lauroiinae as parasite of Cavia magna and Cavia aperea (Rodentia, Caviidae in southern Brazil

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    Ana Gabriela da Silva Rocha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of the 5 species of Guinea pig registered for Brazil, 4 (Cavia fulgida, C. porcellus, C. aperea, and C. magna have already been reported as hosts of Paraspidodera uncinata. The rodent species C. magna and C. aperea are small-sized mammals, with terrestrial habits, which occur from southern Brazil to eastern Uruguay. Guinea pig specimens donated for research were necropsied for the analysis of endoparasites, and the nematodes found were identified as P. uncinata. The microhabitats of this species were the small and large intestines in C. magna and the large intestine in C. aperea. The prevalence of P. uncinata in the hosts was 60% in C. magna (n = 5 and 14% in C. aperea (n = 7. The record of P. uncinata in different Guinea pig species allows inferring that the foraging mode is similar in the different locations where they occur in southern Brazil, because, perhaps, the infection of hosts has occurred through the ingestion of vegetables contaminated with P. uncinata eggs. This study contributes to knowledge on the helminth fauna of C. magna and C. aperea in southern Brazil.

  7. The environmental impact on air quality and exposure to carbon monoxide from charcoal production in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Gabriel Meneghetti Faé; Encarnação, Fábio

    2012-07-01

    Black wattle silviculture is an important activity in southern Brazil. Much of the wood is used in the production of charcoal and the pyrolysis products impacts on air quality. This paper estimates the level of atmospheric contamination from the production of charcoal in one region of Brazil. We describe a low-cost charcoal kiln that can capture condensable gases and we estimate the levels of exposure of kiln workers to carbon monoxide. The latter results indicated that exposure to carbon monoxide can be reduced from an average of 950 ppm to 907 ppm and the mass of gases reduced by 16.8%. PMID:22541721

  8. Anti-Rickettsia spp. antibodies in free-ranging and captive capybaras from southern Brazil

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    Fernanda S. Fortes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris are among the main hosts of Amblyomma spp. ticks, which is able to transmit Rickettsia species to human beings and animals. Since they are often infested with potential vector ticks, capybaras may be used as sentinels for rickettsiosis, such as the Brazilian Spotted Fever. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA in 21 free-ranging and 10 captive animals from the Zoological Park of the 'Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary' (BVBS, Itaipu Binational, Foz do Iguaçu, Southern Brazil. Antigens of six rickettsial species already identified in Brazil (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis were used for IFA. Ticks from each capybara were collected for posterior taxonomic identification. A total of 19 (61.3% samples reacted to at least one of tested species. Seropositivity was found in 14 (45.2%, 12 (38.7%, 5 (16.1%, 4 (12.9%, 3 (9.7% and 3 (9.7% animals for R. rickettsii, R. bellii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. felis and R. rhipicephali, respectively. Two captive capybaras presented suggestive titers of R. rickettsii infection and one sample showed homologous reaction to R. parkeri. Only one free-ranging capybara presented evidence R. bellii infection. Ticks collected on capybaras were identified as Amblyomma dubitatum e Amblyomma sp. Results evidenced the rickettsial circulation in the area, suggesting a potential role of capybaras on bacterial life cycle.

  9. Salmonelloses in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, 2002 to 2004

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    Vanessa Rech Wagner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella has been identified as the main aetiological agent responsible for foodborne diseases in several countries worldwide, including Brazil. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, previews studies analysed official foodborne illnesses data, identifying Salmonella as the main bacterial agent of foodborne diseases during the period of 1997 to 2001. The present study aimed to analyse the official epidemiological data on salmonelloses occurred in the State of RS, during the period of 2002 to 2004. Even though data on recent salmonelloses were available, only data concerning the period comprising in 2002 to 2004 were analysed because the official worksheet records presented more consistent information about the salmonellosis outbreaks. Results indicated that, among the 624 foodborne outbreaks officially investigated, 202 (32.37% were confirmed as salmonellosis. Among them 23,725 people were involved, 4,148 became sick, 1,878 were hospitalized and one person died. The season with the highest incidence of salmonelloses was spring, and the most affected age group was composed of people aged between 20 to 49 years old (56.66%. Animal origin foods -especially eggs and meat products -were very often involved with the outbreaks, however homemade mayonnaise was identified as the main food vehicle for salmonelloses (53.51%. The majority of the cases occurred inside private homes (55.81% and food services (12.1%, and the main factors contributing to the occurrence of the outbreaks were the consumption of products without sanitary inspection (26.7% and exposure of food at room temperature for more than two hours (18.58%. Similarly to what was previously reported for the period of 1997 to 2001, Salmonella spp. was the most prevalent foodborne disease agent in the State of RS during the years of 2002 to 2004.

  10. Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

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    Gigante Luciana P

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5] was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]. Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3] and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7] ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

  11. Modeling sugarcane ripening as a function of accumulated rainfall in Southern Brazil

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    Cardozo, Nilceu P.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.; Panosso, Alan R.; Palhares, Antonio L.; Ide, Bernardo Y.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12 months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kg t-1). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120 days before harvest as an independent variable ( R 2 adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision ( R 2 adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy ( D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE ≤ 5 %), even in regions with different climatic conditions.

  12. Reproductive biology of the stingrays, Myliobatis goodei and Myliobatis ridens (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae), in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, P R V; Oddone, M C; Velasco, G

    2016-07-01

    This study, carried out between spring 2012 and winter 2014, characterized the sexual development and reproductive cycle of Myliobatis goodei and Myliobatis ridens in the extreme south of Brazil to support future management and conservation plans. Ninety-five specimens of M. goodei (24 males and 71 females) and 175 M. ridens (24 males and 151 females) were sampled. Female M. goodei attained disc-width-at-50% maturity (WD50 ) at 683 mm. Uterine fecundity was four to five embryos. The largest male recorded, a mature individual, had a disc width of 650 mm. In M. ridens, WD50 was 662 mm. Uterine fecundity varied from one to eight embryos. The largest male on record was a maturing 590 mm WD individual. The hepato-somatic index was higher in autumn in females of M. goodei, and in the summer in M. ridens. The gonado-somatic index and the largest vitellogenic follicle diameter were higher in spring in both species. Pregnant females of both species were recorded during spring, although for M. ridens, these females also occurred in summer. Embryos had WD of 61-218 and 40-236 mm for M. goodei and M. ridens, respectively. The incidence of pregnant females in southern Brazil in spring-summer coincides with the small-scale beach artisanal fisheries season peak, when M. goodei and M. ridens suffer fishing mortality, while using the coastal shallow areas in the warmer periods (spring-summer) to give birth. PMID:27221505

  13. Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is a 30.1 year half-life man-made radionuclide produced in the past by atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Natural radioactivity was determined by measuring some radionuclides belonging to Th-232 and U-238 natural radioactive families, and of K-40 concentrations. Several types of soils from Southern Brazil; and soil samples, marine sediments, lichens, mosses and algae collected at King George and other nearby islands (South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica) were analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radioactivity levels of the collected samples and its overall characteristics are analyzed in this work. (author)

  14. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

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    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.

  15. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  16. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species.

  17. Norovirus Recombinant Strains Isolated from Gastroenteritis Outbreaks in Southern Brazil, 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20) has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85%) non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9); GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4); GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4); GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2); GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1); GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1); GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1); and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1). On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009) no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains circulating in the

  18. Diatom associations in shelf waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil: annual variation in relation to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Felício Fernandes; Frederico Pereira Brandini

    2004-01-01

    The seasonal variation of diatoms in the inshore waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil was investigated to analyse their temporal dynamics and to detect the main environmental constraints of the planktonic community. Biomass peaks occurred from May to August and from December to March. Among the microplanktonic diatoms, Cerataulina pelagica, Chaetoceros spp., Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Guinardia striata, Lauderia annulata, Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf. delicatissima, P. austr...

  19. Population dynamics of Euryoryzomys russatus and Oligoryzomys nigripes (Rodentia, Cricetidae) in an Atlantic forest area, Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Eduardo Graipel; Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues Oliveira-Santos; Marilena Altenfelder Arruda Campos; Pâmela Castro Antunes

    2009-01-01

    The population dynamics and reproductive issues of two species of rodents of the family Cricetidae, Rice Rats (Euryoryzomys russatus) and Pygmy Rice Rats (Oligoryzomys nigripes), were studied for 24 months in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil. Euryoryzomys russatus presented density-dependent population fluctuation, and recruitment was positively associated with temperature. Oligoryzomys nigripes displayed the lowest abundance, greatest population fluctuation and shortest permanence ...

  20. Mechanical ventilation in patients in the intensive care unit of a general university hospital in southern Brazil: an epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkow, Léa; Farenzena, Maurício; Wawrzeniak, Iuri Christmann; Brauner, Janete Salles; Vieira, Sílvia Regina Rios; Vigo, Alvaro; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics, the frequency and the mortality rates of patients needing mechanical ventilation and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a general university hospital in southern Brazil. METHOD: Prospective cohort study in patients admitted to the ICU who needed mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours between March 2004 and April 2007. RESULTS: A total of 1,115 patients admitted to the ICU needed mechani...

  1. Thermomagnetic Features of Crust in Southern Parts of the Structural Provinces of Tocantins and São Francisco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Suze Nei P. Guimaraes; Hamza, Valiya M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work we report results of a regional scale investigation of the thermal and magnetic characteristics of the crust in the southern sector of the geologic provinces of Tocantins and São Francisco, Brazil. Updated compilations of aeromagnetic and geothermal data sets were employed for this purpose. Use of such techniques as vertical derivative, analytic signal, and Euler deconvolution in analysis of aeromagnetic data has allowed precise locations of the sources of magnetic anomali...

  2. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Filho Valter; de Campos Wagner; Bozza Rodrigo; Lopes Adair da

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess...

  3. Mechanical ventilation in patients in the intensive care unit of a general university hospital in southern Brazil: an epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Léa Fialkow; Maurício Farenzena; Iuri Christmann Wawrzeniak; Janete Salles Brauner; Sílvia Regina Rios Vieira; Alvaro Vigo; Mary Clarisse Bozzetti

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics, the frequency and the mortality rates of patients needing mechanical ventilation and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a general university hospital in southern Brazil. METHOD: Prospective cohort study in patients admitted to the ICU who needed mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours between March 2004 and April 2007. RESULTS: A total of 1,115 patients admitted to the ICU needed mecha...

  4. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Marinho, Jorge R.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2009-01-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene f...

  5. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae) along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gislene L; Marinho, Jorge R; Freitas, Thales R O

    2009-10-01

    The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus) was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high. PMID:21637469

  6. Genetic structure of sigmodontine rodents (Cricetidae along an altitudinal gradient of the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene L. Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of two sympatric species of sigmodontine rodents (Oligoryzomys nigripes and Euryoryzomys russatus was examined for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence haplotypes of the control region. Samples were taken from three localities in the Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil, along an altitudinal gradient with different types of habitat. In both species there was no genetic structure throughout their distribution, although levels of genetic variability and gene flow were high.

  7. NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS CONTROLLING GULLY EROSION IN THEBASALTIC UPLAND OF SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of natural and anthropogenic factors controlling the evolution of gullies in a rural basin in the basaltic upland in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this region of deep ferrallitic soils with more than 60% clay, runoff and erosion are of increasing concern. In the Tabo(a)o drainage basin (100 km2), gully erosion was studied in a field survey that measured rills and gullies. Eighty-four gullies were identified. They had an average length of 136 m, were 10 m wide, and 3 m deep and had a volume of 15.458 m3. Each gully was characterised in terms of factors that included slope, geological structure, presence of piping, drainage, soil use, and the presence of surface and subsurface flow. On average, the main channels had knickpoints varying from 2 m to 7 m, and their evolution in the vertical plane increased until bed-rock basalt material was reached, after which gullies increase in width and length. Gully development was also monitored from 1991 to 2003. Subsurface flow appears to be the principal agent controlling their development. Results show that both natural (slope, surface curvature, geological structure and rainfall) and anthropogenic (soil use, road construction) factors are important in gully development. The change in cultural practices throughout the drainage basin from conventional to direct seeding has led to increased subsurface flow, which was more important than surface runoff in causing erosion. However, the higher rainfall during El Ni(n)o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and the consequently higher subsurface flow were the dominant factors. From 1991 to 2003 a total land loss of 1,013 m3 was observed in one gully, with 236 m3 lost during the 1992 ENSO and 702 m3 during the 1997 ENSO; 95% of the total volume lost occurred during ENSO periods.

  8. Local distribution and abundance of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1928 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, J F; Batista, E; Metri, R; Metri, C B

    2014-02-01

    The blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) is officially included in the list of over-exploited species in Brazil, although still abundantly found in the state of Santa Catarina, the southern limit of its distribution. This species was found in forested areas, gardens, and grassy areas, including crabs with carapace width larger than 80mm. The existence of this population with these characteristics is surprising, since there is only one official record of the species in the southern region. The objectives of this study are to estimate the abundance and occupation patterns of C. guanhumi in this region. Correlations with conservation were discussed. The absolute abundance of crabs in the middle of summer activity was established for an area of 100,000 m2. A smaller area was mapped and divided into sampling units for statistical analyses. We distributed approximately 240 crabs in a forested area of about 3,000 m2 and 150 crabs in grassy areas (90,000 m2). The statistical test of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences between the sizes of the openings of the galleries inside the forest and that located in grassy areas. In the forest, the openings tend to be much larger. Burrows were found at a distance of 150 metres from the channel. The number of galleries was higher in the forested area, although the burrows were more densely grouped in grassy areas. Although C. guanhumi seems to be adjusting well to changes caused by human occupation, small forested areas are more conducive to growth and conservation of this species.

  9. A new microendemic species of Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) from southern Brazil and revalidation of Tropidurus catalanensis Gudynas & Skuk, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Tobias Saraiva; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    The South American and cis-andean lizard genus Tropidurus has a complex taxonomic history. Most species were recently described and previous revisions included few specimens from the southern part of the continent. Tropidurus torquatus has the broadest geographic distribution in the genus and several morphological and ecological differences were described within its distribution. We analyzed the geographic variation in external morphological characters of Tropidurus torquatus, including large number of samples from southern Brazil. Tropidurus catalanensis is revalidated and Tropidurus imbituba sp. nov., with a restrict distribution in the southern coast of Brazil, is described. The new species is distinguished from Tropidurus catalanensis by the number of dorsal scales. It can be distinguished from T. catalanensis and T. torquatus by a distinct orange ventral coloration in adults, which can reach the lateral portion of the body in adult males. Our analysis also suggests that at least two other undescribed species could be recognized under the name Tropidurus torquatus in southeastern and central Brazil. PMID:25232619

  10. Holocene dynamics of vegetation change in southern and southeastern Brazil is consistent with climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jackson Martins; Behling, Hermann; Giesecke, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    At mid to high northern latitudes postglacial vegetation change has often occurred synchronously over large regions triggered mainly by abrupt climate change. Based on 19 pollen diagrams from southern and southeastern Brazil we explore if similar synchronicities in vegetation change were also characteristic for the vegetation dynamics in low latitudes. We used sequence splitting to detect past vegetation change in the pollen diagrams and computed principal curves and rates of change to visually evaluate the changes in composition and dynamics. The results show that vegetation change occurred mostly during the second half of the Holocene with distinct episodes of change. The character of vegetation change is generally consistent with shifts to wetter conditions and agrees with inferred shifts of the South American Monsoon. Speleothems as well as the titanium record from the Cariaco Basin indicate several episodes of rapid shifts in the precipitation regime, which are within the dating uncertainty of the here detected periods of vegetation change (8900, 5900, 2800, 1200 and 550 cal yrs BP). Our results indicate that low latitude vegetation composition follows precession forcing of the hydrology, while change is often triggered and synchronized by rapid climate change much like in high and mid latitudes. Pollen diagrams document changes in the abundance of individual taxa and changes in the amount of woodland cover, while small compositional changes indicate a regional stability of vegetation types during the Holocene.

  11. Ecological risk analysis of pesticides used on irrigated rice crops in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Danielle Cristina; Noldin, José Alberto; Deschamps, Francisco C; Resgalla, Charrid

    2016-11-01

    Based on studies conducted in the past decade in the southern region of Brazil to determine residue levels of the pesticides normally used on irrigated rice crops, changes can be observed in relation to the presence of pesticides in the waters of the main river basins in Santa Catarina State. In previous harvests, the presence of residues of 7 pesticides was determined, with the herbicide bentazon and the insecticide carbofuran being the products showing highest frequency. Following toxicological tests conducted with 8 different test organisms, deterministic and probabilistic risk analysis was performed to assess the situation of the river basins in areas used for the production of irrigated rice. Of the species tested, the herbicide bentazon showed greatest toxicity toward plants, but did not present an ecological risk because in the worst-case scenario the highest concentration of this pesticide in the environment is 37 times lower than the lowest EC50/LC50 value obtained in the tests. The insecticide carbofuran, which had the highest toxicity toward the organisms used in the tests, presented an ecological risk in the deterministic analysis, but without any associated probability. The results highlight the need for increased efforts in training farmers in crop management practices and for the continual monitor of water bodies for the presence of pesticide residues. PMID:27479455

  12. Clinical and pathological study of an outbreak of obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretti Alexandre Paulino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, clinical picture and pathology of an outbreak of urolithiasis in cattle in southern Brazil are described. The disease occurred in August 1999 in a feedlot beef cattle herd. Five out of 1,100 castrated steers were affected. Clinical signs included colic and ventral abdominal distension. White, sand-grain-like mineral deposits precipitated on the preputial hairs. Affected cattle died spontaneously 24-48 hrs after the onset of the clinical signs. Only one animal recovered after perineal urethrostomy. Necropsy findings included calculi blocking the urethral lumen of the distal portion of the penile sigmoid flexure, urinary bladder rupture with leakage of urine into the abdominal cavity and secondary fibrinous peritonitis. Daily water intake was low since water sources were scarce and not readily available. The animals were fed rations high in grains and received limited amounts of roughage. Biochemical analysis revealed that the calculi were composed of ammonium phosphate. A calcium-phosphorus imbalance (0.4:0.6 was detected in the feedlot ration. For the outbreak, it is suggested that contributing factors to urolith formation include insufficient fiber ingestion, low water intake and high dietary levels of phosphorus. No additional cases were observed in that feedlot after preventive measures were established. Similar dietary mismanagement in fattening steers has been associated with obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot beef cattle in other countries.

  13. Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Maria Helena L R; Machado, Vilmar; Saul, Danilo A; Macedo, Vera R M; Marcolin, Elio; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program. The indicators used were: potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total and fecal coliforms. Principal Component and Discriminant Analysis showed consistent differences between the water irrigation and drainage, as the temporal variation demonstrated a clear reduction in the concentration of most of the variables analyzed. The pattern of this reduction is not the same in the two regions - that is, the importance of each of the different variables in the observed differentiation is modified in two locations. These results suggested that the variations in the water quality utilized for rice irrigation was influenced by certain specific aspects of each rice region in South Brazilian - such as anthropic action or soil/climate conditions in each hydrographic basin.

  14. Karyotype morphology and evolution in some Lathyrus (Fabaceae species of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klamt Adriane

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of Lathyrus nervosus Lam., L. pubescens Hook. et Arn., L. paranensis Burk. and L. crassipes Gill ap. Hook et Arn., native to Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil, are described in detail for the first time. All taxa have 2n = 14 chromosomes. The karyotypic formulae were 2 m + 12 sm for L. nervosus, L. pubescens and L. paranensis and 4 m + 10 sm for L. crassipes. In all species, the smallest chromosome pair bore a secondary constriction with a satellite in the long arm. Intraspecific variability in the position and number of secondary constrictions was observed in L. nervosus and L. pubescens. All of the species had a conservative and similar karyotype morphology, but differed in total complement size by as much as 20% between the highest (L. nervosus and lowest (L. crassipes values. These results suggest that changes in chromosome size during evolution have been similar for all the chromosomes of the complement. Together with data on the life cycle and mode of reproduction, these results also indicate that L. crassipes is a derived taxon, if an evolutionary trend towards a decrease in chromosome size is accepted.

  15. Ion microprobe (SHRIMP dates complex granulite from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉO A. HARTMANN

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex polymetamorphic granulites have been dated in the Santa Catarina granulite complex of southern Brazil through SHRIMP study of zircon. This complex is dominated by intermediate-acid plutonic rocks and contains small volumes of mafic and ultramafic rocks, and minor quartzite and banded iron formation. Porphyroblasts of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase in mafic and acid rocks are interpreted as magmatic remnants in a volumetrically dominant granoblastic aggregate (M1 of the same minerals and hornblende. Hornblende formed during a later M2 metamorphic event constitutes rims around pyroxene, but the hornblende is also rimmed by granoblastic simplectites of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, hornblende and plagioclase in a second granulite facies event (M3. Chlorite and epidote occur in shear zones (M4. This granulite terrain is part of a Neoproterozoic craton, because it was little affected by the Brasiliano Cycle. The two granulite-facies events (M1 and M3 are dated by U/Pb zircon SHRIMP at about 2.68 and 2.17 Ga, while the magmatic protoliths formed at about 2.72 Ga. The amphibolite facies event (M2 probably occurred close to the 2.17 Ga granulitic metamorphism.

  16. The association of health and income in the elderly: experience from a southern state of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda G Fillenbaum

    Full Text Available In high income, developed countries, health status tends to improve as income increases, but primarily through the 50(th-66(th percentile of income. It is unclear whether the same limitation holds in middle income countries, and for both general assessments of health and specific conditions.Data were obtained from Brazil, a middle income country. In-person interviews with a representative sample of community residents age ≥ 60 (N=6963, in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, obtained information on demographic characteristics including household income and number of persons supported, general health status (self-rated health, functional status, depression, and seven physician-diagnosed, self-reported health conditions. Analyses used household income (adjusted for number supported and economies of scale together with higher order income terms, and controlled for demographics and comorbidities, to ascertain nonlinearity between income and general and specific health measures.In fully controlled analyses income was associated with general measures of health (linearly with self-rated health, nonlinearly with functional status. For specific health measures there was a consistent linear association with depression, pulmonary disorders, renal disorders, and sensory impairment. For musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (negative association, and gastrointestinal disorders this association no longer held when comorbidities were controlled. There was no association with diabetes.Contrary to findings in high income countries, the association of household-size-adjusted income with health was generally linear, sometimes negative, and sometimes absent when comorbidities were controlled.

  17. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Collet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.

  18. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE: SYSTEMIC MODEL PROPOSAL FOR ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE FOR HOSPITALS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Jorge, Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of an organization depends increasingly on its business strategy. A structural component of the strategy is the fittting between their primary activities and support activities. And as in industry, in a hospital, a new strategy to be implemented in general involves reviewing business processes or introduce new ways to run the operations of the company. However, organizations that have problems of alienation between the business strategy with its Information Technology infrastructure will have difficulties to implement a systemic model of the competitive intelligence process. It is believed that the private hospital sector has problems of synchronization between the business strategy with information technology infrastructure. Therefore, one can question: A systemic model of Competitive Intelligence for the private hospital sector can be a conceptual model of the change process, liable to be implemented in this type of organization? The main objective of this research is to propose a systemic model of Competitive Intelligence process version 2 in private hospitals in the southern region of Brazil.

  19. Breastfeeding and feeding patterns in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: trends and differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar G.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S.; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Barros, Fernando C.

    2009-01-01

    Breastfeeding is fundamental for child health. Changes in the duration of breastfeeding are compared for three population-based cohorts of children born in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples of the 1982 and 1993 children and all of the children from the 2004 cohort study were sought at home when they were aged around 12 months. Both the duration of breastfeeding and the stage at which different kind of foods were regularly introduced were investigated. The median duration of breastfeeding increased from 3.1 to 6.8 months in this period. Exclusive breastfeeding at three months was practically non-existent in 1982 and had reached one third of infants by 2004. The increase was faster after 1993, suggesting an important impact made by promotion activities. Up to about 6-9 months, breastfeeding was more prevalent in high-income families, but after this age it became more common among the poor. Low birth weight babies were breastfeed for shorter durations. The duration of breastfeeding is still far short of international recommendations, justifying further campaigns. Special attention should be given to low birth weight babies and those from low-income families. PMID:18797716

  20. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Filipe Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

  1. Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Maria Helena L R; Machado, Vilmar; Saul, Danilo A; Macedo, Vera R M; Marcolin, Elio; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program. The indicators used were: potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total and fecal coliforms. Principal Component and Discriminant Analysis showed consistent differences between the water irrigation and drainage, as the temporal variation demonstrated a clear reduction in the concentration of most of the variables analyzed. The pattern of this reduction is not the same in the two regions - that is, the importance of each of the different variables in the observed differentiation is modified in two locations. These results suggested that the variations in the water quality utilized for rice irrigation was influenced by certain specific aspects of each rice region in South Brazilian - such as anthropic action or soil/climate conditions in each hydrographic basin. PMID:26959326

  2. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF BOWL TRAPPING BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APOIDEA IN A SOUTHERN BRAZIL FOREST FRAGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years bowl traps have gained attention as a useful method for sampling bees and are now commonly used across the world for this purpose. However, specific questions about the method itself have not yet been tested on different regions of the globe. We present the preliminary results of bowl trapping in a Semidecidual Seasonal forest fragment in southern Brazil, including the test of two different color bowls, two different habitats, and the interaction of these variables in bee species number and composition. We used blue and yellow bowls in the border and in the core trails of the forest fragment. In five sampling days between October to December bowl traps captured 745 specimens of 37 morphospecies, with Halictinae bees being the richest and most abundant group. Non parametrical statistical analyses suggested that different colors of bowl traps influenced bee richness and composition and thus, they should be used together for a more complete sampling. Different trails influenced only the composition, while the interaction with different colors did not have a significant effect. These results, as well as the higher taxonomic composition of the inventoried bees, are similar to other studies reported in the literature.

  3. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterization of pathogenic bacteria at different stages of cattle slaughtering in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiko, Márcia R; de Paula, Cheila M D; Langone, Ana C J; Rodrigues, Rochele Q; Cibulski, Samuel; Rodrigues, Rogério de O; Camargo, Anderson C; Nero, Luís A; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Tondo, Eduardo C

    2016-06-01

    Meat can be contaminated in different stages of the slaughtering process and the identification of these stages is the starting point to implement adequate control measures. The objectives of this study were to assess the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in cattle carcasses, to identify the most important contamination points of the slaughtering process, and to evaluate the possible risk factors related to them in a cattle slaughterhouse. To this aim, 108 cattle carcasses were sampled at three stages of the slaughtering process: Point 1 (hides after bleeding); Point 2 (carcasses after hide removal); and Point 3 (carcasses immediately after division). Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Livingstone were isolated from the carcasses. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that there was cross-contamination among animals, since bacteria with identical genotypic and phenotypic profiles were isolated from different animals at the same sampling day. Furthermore, this is the first report about the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in a bovine slaughterhouse from southern Brazil. PMID:26896744

  4. Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.

    2001-11-01

    Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.

  5. Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil

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    Letícia Silveira Cardoso

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%, physical (88.2%, physiological (64.3% and biological (62.4%. In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05. It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment.

  6. Risk Factors for Infection with Different Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Southern Brazil

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    Marisa Lúcia Romani Paraboni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the proportion of different genotypes in countryside microregions in southern Brazil, and their association with risk factors. Methods. Cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of patients who tested positive for HCV-RNA and were referred to a regional health center for genotyping, from December 2003 to January 2008. Data were obtained through the National Disease Surveillance Data System, from laboratory registers and from patient charts. Identification of genotypes was carried out using the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism “in house” technique. Independent associations with genotypes were evaluated in multinomial logistic regression and prevalence rates of genotypes were estimated with modified Poisson regression. Results. The sample consisted of 441 individuals, 41.1±12.0 years old, 56.5% men. Genotype 1 was observed in 41.5% (95% CI 37.9–48.1 of patients, genotype 2 in 19.3% (95% CI 15.0–23.6, and genotype 3 in 39.2% (95% CI 35.6–43.0. HCV genotype was significantly associated with gender and age. Dental procedures were associated with higher proportion of genotype 2 independently of age, education, and patient treatment center. Conclusions. The hepatitis C virus genotype 1 was the most frequent. Genotype 2 was associated with female gender, age, and dental procedure exposition.

  7. Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcelo C; Hartmann, Paulo A; Winck, Gisele R; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2014-04-25

    Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal) and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca and B. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region.

  8. Skeletonema potamos (Bacillariophyta in Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil: Taxonomy and distribution

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    Lezilda Carvalho Torgan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the morphogical features of the centric diatom Skeletonema potamos (Weber Hasle from Patos Lagoon, southern Brazil, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We discuss the abundance and dis- tribution of the species along the salinity gradient in the lagoon. Samples from the water surface were taken monthly at eight stations along the longitudinal axis of the lagoon, from December 1987 to December 1988. The species were counted by the Utermöhl method, and the density (cells.mL-1 was estimated based on live cells. The morphology of the specimens agrees with the type, from the Little Miami River, Ohio, U.S.A., except for the convexity and the pattern of granules on the valve face. Skeletonema potamos was found in the winter and spring, and was distributed in the limnetic, oligohaline and mesohaline zones of the lagoon. The cell con- centration appeared to be controlled by the salinity, with a significant negative correlation observed. Light and competition probably also influence the development of S. potamos populations in the Patos Lagoon.

  9. [Dietary patterns in menopausal women receiving outpatient care in Southern Brazil].

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    Hoffmann, Maichelei; Mendes, Karina Giane; Canuto, Raquel; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Theodoro, Heloísa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to identify dietary patterns and the relationship with menopausal status. It involved a cross-sectional study with 646 women in outpatient care in southern Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed by a frequency questionnaire and five dietary patterns were identified by main component analysis. The menopausal status was classified as premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Five dietary patterns were identified: fruit and vegetables; Brazilian fare (rice, beans and milk); snacks (cake, burgers, pizza and sweetbread); health diet (fish, fruit juice, bread and vegetable soup), and regional (typical food in the Serra Gaucha, like red meat, pasta and yams). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, there was no significant association between menopausal status and dietary patterns. Only age, education and income were associated with dietary patterns. Five dietary patterns that described the food consumption of the population studied were identified, which are similar to those indicated as ideal for the Brazilian population. The findings reveal that the dietary pattern of women in menopause are significantly influenced by age, education and income but are not influenced by the menopausal status per se. PMID:26017958

  10. Hemoplasma prevalence and hematological abnormalities associated with infection in three different cat populations from Southern Brazil

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    Andrea Pires dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three hemoplasma species are recognized in domestic cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. We report the prevalence and hematological abnormalities of hemoplasma infection in 369 domestic cats from three different populations (blood donors, hospitalized cats and shelter cats from Southern Brazil. Complete blood counts were performed at the time of blood collection, and DNA was extracted and tested by conventional PCR for each hemoplasma species. A total of 79 samples (21.40% were positive for at least one species. The most prevalent hemoplasma was ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, with 50/369 (13.55% positive cats, followed by ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’, 10/369 (2.71%, and Mycoplasma haemofelis, 8/369 (2.16%. Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ coinfection was observed in 4/369 (1.08%, whereas ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’ in 5/369 (1.35%. Three cats (0.81% were infected with all three hemoplasmas. There was no association between infection and the different populations. Anemia was associated with Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’, but not with ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis’. Male cats and cats with outdoor access were more likely to be infected. Although ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ is believed to cause minimal or no hematological alterations, the infected cats studied herein were more likely to be anemic.

  11. Genetic structure of drone congregation areas of Africanized honeybees in southern Brazil.

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    Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio

    2009-10-01

    As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465

  12. Hydrogeochemistry and statistical analysis applied to understand fluoride provenance in the Guarani Aquifer System, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimon, Maria Paula C; Roisenberg, Ari; Suhogusoff, Alexandra V; Viero, Antonio Pedro

    2013-06-01

    High fluoride concentrations (up to 11 mg/L) have been reported in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer System (Santa Maria Formation) in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. In this area, dental fluorosis is an endemic disease. This paper presents the geochemical data and the combination of statistical analysis (Principal components and cluster analyses) and geochemical modeling to achieve the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater and discusses the possible fluoride origin. The groundwater from the Santa Maria Formation is comprised of four different geochemical groups. The first group corresponds to a sodium chloride groundwater which evolves to sodium bicarbonate, the second one, both containing fluoride anomalies. The third group is represented by calcium bicarbonate groundwater, and in the fourth, magnesium is the distinctive parameter. The statistical and geochemical analyses supported by isotopic measurements indicated that groundwater may have originated from mixtures of deeper aquifers and the fluoride concentrations could be derived from rock/water interactions (e.g., desorption from clay minerals). PMID:23149723

  13. Ammonia volatilization from nitrogen fertilizers in no-till wheat and maize in southern Brazil

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    Fernando Viero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues on the soil surface of no-till systems can intensify ammonia volatilization from N fertilizers applied to cereal crops. This study assessed the magnitude of N losses through ammonia volatilization from urea applied to no-till winter (wheat and summer crops (maize on a Typic Hapludox in the south-central region of Paraná, southern Brazil. In addition, the potential of alternative N sources (urea with urease inhibitor, liquid fertilizer, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate and different urea managements (fertilizer applied in the morning or afternoon were evaluated. Two experiments with maize and wheat were carried out for two years, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Nitrogen volatilization losses were assessed with a semi-open static collector until 21 days after fertilization. In winter, the losses were low (<5.5 % of applied N for all N sources, which were not distinguishable, due to the low temperatures. In the summer, volatilization rates from urea were higher than in the winter, but did not exceed 15 % of applied N. The main factor decreasing N losses in the summer was the occurrence of rainfall in the first five days after fertilization. Urea with urease inhibitor, nitrate and ammonium sulfate were efficient to decrease ammonia volatilization in maize, whereas the application time (morning or afternoon had no influence.

  14. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

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    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  15. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  16. Application of agrometeorological spectral model in rice area in southern Brazil

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    Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Bolfe, Edson L.

    2015-10-01

    The southern region is responsible for 70% of rice production in Brazil. In this study, rice areas of Rio Grande do Sul were selected, using the land use classification, scale 1: 100,000, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). MODIS Images were used and meteorological data, available by National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The period of analysis was crop season 2011/2012, October to March. To obtain evapotranspiration was applied agrometeorological-spectral model SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Retrieving Evapotranspiration). From the analysis of the results, on planting and cultivation period , the average evapotranspiration (ET) daily was 1.93 +/- 0.96 mm.day-1. In the vegetative development period of rice, the daily ET has achieved 4.94 mm.day-1, with average value 2,31+/- 0.97 mm.day-1. In the period of harvest, evapotranspiration daily average was 1.84 +/- 0.80 mm.day-1. From results obtained, the estimation of evapotranspiration from satellite images may assist in monitoring the culture during the cycle, assisting in estimates of water productivity and crop yield.

  17. Food expenditures, cariogenic dietary practices and childhood dental caries in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R

    2013-01-01

    Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding.

  18. Water and CO2 Exchange for Different Land Use in Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, D. R.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Diaz, M.; Tatsch, J. D.; Acevedo, O. C.; Zimermann, H. R.; Rubert, G. C.; Acosta, R.; Campos Velho, H. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Pampa is the newest and most unknown Brazilian Biome. It is located in the Southern portion of the country, as well as part of Argentina and the entire Uruguay, and is formed principally by natural grasslands that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock. In recent decades it has gone through a process of intense land use change and degradation, with the replacement of natural vegetation by rice paddy crops, soybean and exotic forests. Recent studies show that the Pampa has only 36% of its original vegetation in Brazil. Research on carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in Pampa Biome are recent. It is known that the Pampa natural areas contain high stocks of soil organic carbon, and therefore their conservation is relevant for climate change mitigation. However, the net exchange of carbon and water between the surface and the atmosphere are unknown. To fill this gap, a flux tower network, SULFLUX - www.ufsm.br/sulfux, was created. Currently, SULFLUX comprises three flux towers in the Pampa biome, two of them being over natural vegetation and the other one over a rice paddy. The flux towers are nearly 100 km apart from each other. We examine the effects of climate on carbon fluxes of through the year 2014. Analysis of temporal variability in water and CO2 fluxes are examined at daily to annual scales. Overall, regional variability in climatic drivers, land use and soil proprieties appears to have a greater effect on evapotranspiration than on net carbon exchange.

  19. Conventional serological performance in diagnosis of Chagas' disease in southern Brazil

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    Anelise Bergmann Araújo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of Chagas' disease diagnosis show disagreement. The aim of this study was to compare commercial tests for Chagas' disease serodiagnosis in southern Brazil. A total of 161 samples were evaluated. Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, one indirect hemagglutination and one indirect immunofluorescence were assessed. Trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen-blot was a confirmatory method. From 161 samples, 65.84% were positive in all tests, while 34.16% presents mismatch result in at least one of the tests. All techniques tested presented false-positive and/or false-negative results as follows: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 1 had more false-positive results (lower specificity, indirect immunofluorescence had the highest rate of false-negative results (lower sen sitivity, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays had fewer false-negative results (higher sensitivity, while indirect hemagglutination showed no false-positive result (higher specificity. Knowing the characteristics of techniques make it possible to combine them and obtain more reliable diagnosis. Therefore, it seems useful to combine techniques for diagnosing this infection.

  20. Quality based payment program and milk quality in dairy cooperatives of Southern Brazil: an econometric analysis

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    Bruno Garcia Botaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Programs designed to enhance milk quality have been used to motivate dairy farmers to improve the quality of the raw milk they produce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between a milk quality payment program and four indicative variables of milk quality, by testing bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC, bulk tank total bacterial count (TBC, fat (FAT and protein (PROT percentages over three years in four dairy cooperatives in Southern Brazil. We used a multiple regression econometric model estimated from market data of milk delivered by farmers to the cooperatives. Bulk tank milk samples (n = 19,644 were monthly collected. The data set was analyzed for the effects of seasonality, average daily volume of milk, the award/penalty, producer, and cooperatives on SCC, TBC, FAT and PROT. Results suggested an association between the adoption of a payment program based on milk quality and the reduction of SCC and TBC. Nevertheless, the program seems to have not contributed to increase fat and protein milk percentages. This information may help the dairy industry in developing countries to conceive strategies to enhance overall milk quality.

  1. A studying of solar-ENSO correlation with southern Brazil tree-ring index (1955–1994

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    N. R. Rigozo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar activity, volcanic aerosol, El Niño-Southern Oscillation and global temperature anomalies effects on Southern Brazil tree growth rings are presented through multiple linear analysis. Linear correlations were made on annual, 10 year running averages and band pass filter. For annual averages, the correlation coefficients were low, and the 10 years running average correlations the coefficient correlations were much higher. The multiple regression of 2 to 5 year band pass filter indicates that 60% of the variance in tree ring index was explained by volcanic eruptions, Southern Oscillation Index and temperature anomalies. The multiple regression of 10 year running averages indicates that 84% of the variance in tree ring index was explained by solar activity and another time series. These results indicate that the effects of solar activity, volcanic eruptions, ENSO and temperature anomalies on tree rings are better seen on long timescales than volcanic eruption, ENSO and temperature anomaly.

  2. Identification of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, J; Costa, M M; do Amaral, R B; de Sousa, K C M; André, M R; Machado, R Z; Vieira, M I B

    2016-07-01

    Dogs and cats are often infected with vector-borne pathogens and play a crucial role as reservoirs and hosts in their life cycles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and cats in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. One hundred and ten blood samples were collected from dogs (n=80) and cats (n=30). Laboratory analysis were carried out through stained blood smears, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis (only for dogs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aiming the detection of pathogens. The following pathogens were screened by PCR among dogs and cats: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene for dogs and 16S rRNA gene for cats) and Bartonella spp. (nuoG gene only for cats). Using blood smears structures morphologically compatible with piroplasms were found in 5.45% (6/110) of the samples. Anti-B. vogeli and anti-E. canis antibodies were detected in 91% (73/80) and 9% (7/80) of the dogs, respectively. All the seropositive dogs to E. canis were also to B. vogeli. Nineteen (17.3%) animals were positive to hemoparasites by PCR. After sequencing Rangelia vitalii 6/80 (7.5%), B. vogeli 3/80 (4%), Hepatozoon spp. 1/80 (1%), and Anaplasma spp. 1/80 (1%) were found in the dogs, and B. vogeli 2/30 (7%) and Bartonella spp. 6/30 (20%) were detected in the screened cats. No sample was positive for genes dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia spp. Only those animals which were positive for R. vitalii showed findings compatible with rangeliosis, such as anemia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), jaundice (50%), external bleeding (50%), and anorexia (50%). This is the first time that B. vogeli detected among cats in Southern Brazil. PMID:27266811

  3. Proteolytic and lipolytic microbiota of refrigerated raw milk from northeast and southern regions of Brazil

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    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The shelf life of milk and milk derivatives is directly related to the microbiological quality of refrigerated raw milk. Spoilage microorganisms with proteolytic and/or lipolytic properties are primarily responsible for the decrease in the quality of milk, which is reflected in the shelf life of pasteurized milk and all derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the spoilage microbial load of refrigerated raw milk from the northeast and southern regions of Brazil, which have different climatic and technological conditions of production. We evaluated 46 samples of milk from the state of Paraná in the southern region, and 10 samples of milk from the state of Maranhão in the northeast region, totaling 56 samples collected from November 2013 to November 2014. The producers of Paraná were divided into large (20 or small (26 according to the average daily production. All producers of Maranhão were considered small (<500L/day. The proteolytic and lipolytic microorganism counts were conducted in milk agar and tributyrin agar, respectively. Milk from the large producers of Paraná had average counts of 1.4 × 104 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 1.2 × 103 CFU/mL for lipolytics microorganisms, significantly (p <0.05 lower than the small producers in the same state, and the producers of Maranhão. Producers of Maranhao had counts of 1.1 × 105 CFU/mL for proteolytic microorganisms and 2 × 105 CFU/mL for lipolytic microorganisms, with the proteolytic count significantly lower than that of small Paraná producers. The amount of proteolytic and lipolytic spoilage microorganisms in milk is influenced by the adaptation of the microorganisms to cold, promoted by the cooling of milk, which is practiced less frequently in the country’s northeastern region. The amount of spoilage microorganisms is also affected by the implementation of milking hygiene practices, which reduce contamination. Such practices are more frequently and efficiently

  4. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

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    Julia De Luca Maccarini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  5. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiciano, Isabela G; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K; Koch, Mariana S; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2016-01-01

    Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience. PMID:26871703

  6. Assessing Disease and Mortality among Small Cetaceans Stranded at a World Heritage Site in Southern Brazil.

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    Isabela G Domiciano

    Full Text Available Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1% of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7% animals and most (30 or 65.2% were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30 and trauma (2/30. The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16, emaciation (3/16, septicemia (1/16, neonatal pathology (1/16 and choking via food obstruction (1/16. Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience.

  7. Cognition and Indicators of Dietary Habits in Older Adults from Southern Brazil.

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    Vivian Francielle França

    Full Text Available To assess the association between unhealthy dietary habits and cognition in older adults from Southern Brazil.This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave of a population- and household-based epidemiological survey (2013-2014 conducted in the city of Florianópolis. A total of 1,197 older adults (778 women over 60 years old participated in the study. Cognition, the dependent variable, was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. The independent variables were the following indicators of unhealthy dietary habits: low intake of fruits and vegetables (≤ 4 servings/day; fish (< 1 serving/week; and habitual fatty meat intake (yes/no. Adjustments were made for age, education level, income, smoking status, alcohol intake, leisure-time physical activity, depression symptoms, chronic diseases, and body mass index. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed, considering sampling weights and stratification by gender.The mean MMSE scores for men and women were 25.15 ± 5.56 and 24.26 ± 5.68, respectively (p = 0.009. After adjustments, in women low fruit and vegetable intake (≤ 4 servings/day was independently associated with the lowest MMSE scores. No associations were found in men. Additionally, women's mean MMSE scores increased as their daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake increased (p = 0.001.Women with low fruit and vegetable intake according to the World Health Organization (WHO have lower cognition scores. Regular intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish in exchange of fatty meats may be a viable public policy strategy to preserve cognition in aging.

  8. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  9. A new karyotype for the genus Cavia from a southern island of Brazil (Rodentia - Caviidae

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    A. Gava

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific karyotype variation in mammal species is very common and often caused by centromeric fusion of acrocentric chromosomes. We describe here a new karyotype 2n = 62 (FN = 112 for the genus Cavia from the Moleques do Sul Islands, of the southern coast of Brazil. We analyzed two male and four female karyotypes that had twenty-four biarmed pairs and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and G-banding patterns were also seen.RESUMO A variação cariotípica nas espécies de mamíferos é bastante comum e geralmente causada pela fusão de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Foi descrito neste trabalho um novo cariótipo, com 2n = 62 e FN = 112, para o gênero Cavia proveniente das ilhas Moleques do Sul, da costa sul do Brasil. Foram analisados os cariótipos de dois machos e quatro fêmeas que possuiam 24 pares de cromossomos com dois braços e seis pares de acrocêntricos. O par sexual era constituído por um cromossomo X metacêntrico grande e um Y acrocêntrico. As bandas C estavam localizadas nas regiões centroméricas e pericentroméricas da maioria dos cromossomos, com exceção de alguns acrocêntricos e os cromossomos de dois braços menores. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolo ocorreram em dois cromossomos com dois braços e o padrão de bandamento G foi também apresentado.

  10. Three-dimensional interpolation of soil data: fertility and pedomorphological features in southern Brazil

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    Tales de Campos Piedade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The graphical representation of spatial soil properties in a digital environment is complex because it requires a conversion of data collected in a discrete form onto a continuous surface. The objective of this study was to apply three-dimension techniques of interpolation and visualization on soil texture and fertility properties and establish relationships with pedogenetic factors and processes in a slope area. The GRASS Geographic Information System was used to generate three-dimensional models and ParaView software to visualize soil volumes. Samples of the A, AB, BA, and B horizons were collected in a regular 122-point grid in an area of 13 ha, in Pinhais, PR, in southern Brazil. Geoprocessing and graphic computing techniques were effective in identifying and delimiting soil volumes of distinct ranges of fertility properties confined within the soil matrix. Both three-dimensional interpolation and the visualization tool facilitated interpretation in a continuous space (volumes of the cause-effect relationships between soil texture and fertility properties and pedological factors and processes, such as higher clay contents following the drainage lines of the area. The flattest part with more weathered soils (Oxisols had the highest pH values and lower Al3+ concentrations. These techniques of data interpolation and visualization have great potential for use in diverse areas of soil science, such as identification of soil volumes occurring side-by-side but that exhibit different physical, chemical, and mineralogical conditions for plant root growth, and monitoring of plumes of organic and inorganic pollutants in soils and sediments, among other applications. The methodological details for interpolation and a three-dimensional view of soil data are presented here.

  11. The reproductive biology of the plata pompano, Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei: Carangidae, in southern Brazil

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    Valéria M. Lemos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Plata pompano, Trachinotus marginatus (Cuvier, 1832, is an endemic carangid of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, occurring from Rio de Janeiro to Uruguay. This study describes the reproductive period, spawning type, the size at first gonadal maturation and the length-weight relationship of individuals sampled from landings of the artisanal and commercial fishing fleets in Rio Grande that operate along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil (~ 32ºS to the Uruguayan border (~ 34ºS. Monthly collections from September 2008 through January 2010 yielded 274 individuals ranging from 142 to 444 mm in total length (TL. The gonadal development stages were defined according to the histological examination of the ovaries and the testes. The relationship between TL (mm and total weight TW (g was statistically different between males (TW = 0.000463*TL2.7655 and females (TW = 0.000361*TL2.8131, showing negative allometric growth for both sexes. The sizes at first maturity were 187.2 mm and 254.9 mm for females and males, respectively. The presence of two modal groups of oocyte diameters suggested that total spawning occurred. The interpretation of the monthly variations of the condition factor and gonadosomatic index, which are associated with higher frequencies of the more advanced stages of gonadal development, identified the spring and summer months as the reproductive period, with a peak in the reproductive activity during November and January. These results suggested that the species has an opportunistic reproductive strategy.

  12. An agro-climatic approach to determine citrus postbloom fruit drop risk in Southern Brazil

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    Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.

    2016-06-01

    Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model ( R 2 = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.

  13. Chronic diseases, multimorbidity, and handgrip strength among older adults from Southern Brazil

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    Júlia PESSINI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the association between various chronic diseases, multimorbidity, and handgrip strength in community dwelling older adults in Southern Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out with 477 older adults (60 years and older who resided in Antônio Carlos, Santa Catarina state. Subjects aged 60-79 years were selected by probability sampling (n=343 and all subjects aged 80 years or older (n=134 were evaluated. Chronic diseases were identified by self-report. A mechanical dynamometer verified handgrip strength (i.e., the outcome. Adjustments variables were age, literacy, living arrangement, smoking, body mass index, cognitive function, and comorbid chronic diseases. Sex-stratified analyses were conducted with simple and multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 270 women (73.2±8.8 years and 207 men (73.3±9.0 years were assessed. In the adjustment analysis, cancer (β=-3.69; 95%CI=-6.97 to -0.41 and depression (β=-1.65; 95%CI=-3.20 to -0.10 were associated with lower handgrip strength in women. For men, diabetes (β=-5.30; 95%CI=-9.64 to -0.95, chronic lung disease (β=-4.74; 95%CI=-7.98 to -1.50, and coronary heart disease (β=-3.07; 95%CI=-5.98 to -0.16 were associated with lower handgrip strength values. There was an inverse trend between number of diseases and handgrip strength for men only. Conclusion: The results showed an independent association between chronic diseases and handgrip strength. As such, handgrip strength is a valid measure to use for prevention or intervention in chronic disease and multimorbidity.

  14. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in captive Neotropical felids from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Montaño, Patrícia; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2010-08-27

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. Members of the Felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. Wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of T. gondii IgG antibodies in 57 neotropical felids (1 Leopardus geoffroyi; 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 17 Leopardus wiedii; 22 Leopardus tigrinus; and 14 Leopardus pardalis) kept at the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, Itaipu Binacional, Southern Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using titer 16 as cut-off point. Seropositivity was observed in 38/57 (66.67%; 95% CI 53.66-77.51%) samples, with higher frequency in ocelots (71.43%). Wild-caught felids were three times more likely to be infected when compared to zoo-born animals (P

  15. Congenital toxoplasmosis in a reference center of Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Jaqueline Dario Capobiango

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the characteristics of 31 children with congenital toxoplasmosis children admitted to the University Hospital of Londrina, Southern Brazil, from 2000 to 2010. In total, 23 (85.2% of the mothers received prenatal care but only four (13.0% were treated for toxoplasmosis. Birth weight was <2500 g in 37.9% of the infants. During the first month of life, physical examination was normal in 34.5%, and for those with clinical signs and symptoms, the main manifestations were hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (62.1%, jaundice (13.8%, and microcephaly (6.9%. During ophthalmic examination, 74.2% of the children exhibited injuries, 58.1% chorioretinitis, 32.3% strabismus, 19.4% microphthalmia, and 16.2% vitreitis. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were detected in 48.3% of the children. Imaging brain evaluation was normal in 44.8%; brain calcifications, hydrocephaly, or both conditions were observed in 27.6%, 10.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, of the patients. Patients with cerebrospinal fluid protein ≥ 200 mg/dL presented more brain calcifications (p = 0.0325. Other sequelae were visual impairment (55.2% of the cases, developmental delay (31.0%, motor deficit (13.8%, convulsion (27.5%, and attention deficit (10.3%. All patients were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and folinic acid, and 55.2% of them exhibited adverse effects. The results demonstrate the significance of the early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy to reduce congenital toxoplasmosis and its consequences.

  16. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of Pedras Grandes Suite, southern Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Andréa R. Jelinek

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Two major magmatic pulses of the granitic Florianópolis Batholith in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, occurred between 613±5Ma and 595±5 Ma, during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. These ages were obtained by U-Pb isotopic determinations with the sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe on igneous zircons from Pedras Grandes Suite in Santa Catarina State. Euhedral zircons remained unaltered close to a fluorite vein deposited at 180?C or more. These ages suggest a northern limit for the Pedras Grandes Suite, explaining the spatial relationship between the fluorite veins and the source rock.Dois dos principais pulsos da atividade granítica no Batólito Florianópolis em Santa Catarina ocorreram entre 613 ±5 Ma e 595 ±5 Ma, durante o Neoproterozóico do Ciclo Brasiliano. Estas idades foram obtidas a partir dedeterminações isotópicas U-Pb em cristais de zircão da Suite Pedras Grandes por "Sensitive high-resolution íon microprobe" - SHRIMP II. Os cristais de zircão permaneceram inalterados mesmo mediante condições hidrotermais com temperaturas iguais e, até mesmo, superiores a 180ºC. Estas idades sugerem a delimitação norte do Maciço Pedras Grandes, explicando a relação espacial existente entre os filões de fluorita e a rocha fonte destas mineralizações.

  17. Situated knowledge and biodiversity: tensions between organic smallholders from Southern Brazil and the international intellectual property regime

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    Guilherme Francisco Waterloo Radomsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches knowledges and biodiversity maintenance among ecological farmers in the west of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The intellectual property rights have had direct effects onseed production. Between patents and other systems of control, family farmers deny treating life as a «resource». This paper has adouble aim: firstly, to analyze the intellectual property international panorama over biodiversity and knowledge; secondly, to examine practices of organic smallholders engaged to Rede Ecovida de Agroecologia (an organic farming network born in the southern Brazil related to alternative forms of knowledge management and production of patent-free seeds. The result is the action which parallels the critique of the decrease on the availability of crop varieties and the effort to multiply seeds and knowledges throughout networks and agro-biodiversity centres.

  18. Dipteran fauna associated with decaying organic matter in semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás, Brazil

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    José Eduardo Neto de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran diversity was studied in four seasonal, semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás state, Brazil. Species richness of Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae families was analyzed. The insects were collected each two months over the course of one year, using traps with decaying bait. The traps were kept in the field for five days each sampling period. A total of 1,956 individuals belonging to 13 families were collected. 29 species were identified belonging to the main families. Muscidae had the highest abundance, while Sarcophagidae presented the greatest number of species. We also report the occurrence of Philornis schildi (Muscidae for the first time in Brazil. These data reinforce the importance of preserving these areas, and indicate the need for new studies to improve knowledge of the biodiversity associated with these fragments. This information may also be useful in future studies regarding the impact of human activity on insect fauna associated with this environment.

  19. Population-based HIV prevalence and associated factors in male-to-female transsexuals from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required.

  20. Occurrence of Prosthenorchis elegans in Free-living Primates from the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Lilian S; Colosio, Adriana C; Oliveira, Leonardo C; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel M; Munhoz, Alexandre D; Deem, Sharon L; Pinto, Jaqueline M S

    2016-04-28

    Parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species' conservation. During necropsies on a free-living golden-headed lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ) and two Wied's marmosets ( Callithrix kuhlii ) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as Prosthenorchis elegans. This parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. Prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with increased risk of exposure from ingesting invertebrate intermediate hosts. The biological similarities and sympatric nature of these two nonhuman primates support that they may harbor similar infectious and parasitic agents. PMID:26981688

  1. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae) from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner C. Valenti; Jeanette de T.C. de Mello; Vera L Lobão

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW), southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L...

  2. Virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance of escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract of swine in southern of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Drescher, Guilherme; Maboni, Franciele; Weber, Shana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Schrank, Irene Silveira; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2008-01-01

    The present study determined the molecular and resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from urinary tract of swine in Southern of Brazil. Molecular characterization of urinary vesicle samples was performed by PCR detection of virulence factors from ETEC, STEC and UPEC. From a total of 82 E. coli isolates, 34 (38.63%) harbored one or more virulence factors. The frequency of virulence factors genes detected by PCR were: pap (10.97%), hlyA (10.97%), iha (9.75%), lt (8.53%), sta (7.31%) sfa (6.09...

  3. Macroinvertebrate fauna associated to the bromeliad Vriesea inflata of the Atlantic Forest (Paraná State, southern Brazil

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    Mestre Luiz Augusto M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated water inside the bromeliad leaf rosette is a microhabitat for several animal and plant species. In this study, the associated fauna of bromeliad Vriesea inflata was analyzed related to seasons, bromeliad height in relation to the ground and environmental factors. The samples were seasonally collected in Quatro Barras (a municipality of Paraná State, southern Brazil between March 1996 and March 1997. The associated fauna was very rich and it was grouped in 23 taxonomic groups, with a dominance of Coleoptera Scirtidae, Diptera and Hymenoptera Formicidae. We found higher abundance of macroinvertebrates in terrestrial bromeliads during the spring/1996 and in epiphyte bromeliads in the autumn/1997.

  4. Prevalence of serum antibodies to hantavirus in a rural population from the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Gregório Wrublevski Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.

  5. Wind Power Energy in Southern Brazil: evaluation using a mesoscale meteorological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, Nisia; Stoevesandt, Bernhard; Chang, Chi-Yao; Peralta, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, several wind farms were build in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul state. This region of Brazil was identified, in wind energy studies, as most favorable to the development of wind power energy, along with the Northeast part of the country. Site assessments of wind power, over long periods to estimate the power production and forecasts over short periods can be used for planning of power distribution and enhancements on Brazil's present capacity to use this resource. The computational power available today allows the simulation of the atmospheric flow in great detail. For instance, one of the authors participated in a research that demonstrated the interaction between the lake and maritime breeze in this region through the use of a atmospheric model. Therefore, we aim to evaluate simulations of wind conditions and its potential to generate energy in this region. The model applied is the Weather Research and Forecasting , which is the mesoscale weather forecast software. The calculation domain is centered in 32oS and 52oW, in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The initial conditions of the simulation are taken from the global weather forecast in the time period from October 1st to October 31st, 2006. The wind power potential was calculated for a generic turbine, with a blade length of 52 m, using the expression: P=1/2*d*A*Cp*v^3, where P is the wind power energy (in Watts), d is the density (equal to 1.23 kg/m^3), A is the area section, which is equal to 8500 m2 , and v is the intensity of the velocity. The evaluation was done for a turbine placed at 50 m and 150 m of height. A threshold was chosen for a turbine production of 1.5 MW to estimate the potential of the site. In contrast to northern Brazilian region, which has a rather constant wind condition, this region shows a great variation of power output due to the weather variability. During the period of the study, at least three frontal systems went over the region, and thre was a

  6. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil

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    Cesar A. Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g-1 of extractable organic matter; low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region.A distribuição relativa de vários compostos identificados em quatro amostras de sedimentos recentemente depositados no manguezal do Itacorubi, localizado na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil, foi comparada a dos diversos compostos extraídos de folhas frescas de três espécies de mangues: Avicennia schaueriana, espécie dominante na região, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, e a gramínea Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenóis identificados previamente em espécies de mangues no norte do Brasil também foram encontrados. A espécie A. schaueriana cont

  7. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Reveals a New Species in the Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis Group (Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae) from the Atlantic Forest of the Highlands of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruschi, Daniel P.; Lucas, Elaine M.; Garcia, Paulo C. A.; Shirlei M Recco-Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of a disjunctive population of Phyllomedusa from southern Brazil was diagnosed using molecular, chromosomal, and morphological approaches, which resulted in the recognition of a new species of the P. hypochondrialis group. Here, we describe P. rustica sp. n. from the Atlantic Forest biome, found in natural highland grassland formations on a plateau in the south of Brazil. Phylogenetic inferences placed P. rustica sp. n. in a subclade that includes P. rhodei + all the high...

  8. Lycophytes and ferns composition of Atlantic Forest conservation units in western Paraná with comparisons to other areas in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mayara Lautert; Lívia Godinho Temponi; Raquel S. Viveros; Alexandre Salino

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed lycophyte and fern species in four forest fragments in western Paraná, Brazil, and compared them to 15 other fragments with different plant formations from the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. In total, five lycophyte species (in two families and two genera) and 98 species and two varieties of ferns (in 16 families and 38 genera) were registered in the four fragments. The most represented families were Pteridaceae (23 spp.), Polypodiaceae (18 spp.), Aspleniaceae (...

  9. Gamma-ray spectrometry of granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihermann, Jessica Derkacz; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; Cury, Leonardo Fadel; da Silveira, Claudinei Taborda

    2016-09-01

    The Paranaguá Terrane, located in the coastal portion of the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná and São Paulo in Southern Brazil is a crustal segment constituted mainly by an igneous complex, with a variety of granitic rocks inserted into the Serra do Mar ridge. The average altitude is approximately 1200 m above sea level, with peaks of up to 1800 m. Due to the difficulty of accessing the area, a shortage of outcrops and the thick weathering mantle, this terrane is understudied. This research aims to evaluate the gamma-ray spectrometry data of the granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, in correspondence with the geological, petrographical, lithogeochemical, relief and mass movement information available in the literature. Aerogeophysical data were acquired along north-south lines spaced at 500 m, with a mean terrain clearance of 100 m. These data cover potassium (K, %), equivalent in thorium (eTh, ppm) and equivalent in uranium (eU, ppm). After performing a critical analysis of the data, basic (K, eU, eTh) and ternary (R-K/G-eTh/B-eU) maps were generated and then superimposed on the digital elevation model (DEM). The investigation of the radionuclide mobility across the relief and weathering mantle consisted of an analysis of the schematic profiles of elevation related with each radionuclide; a comparison of the K, eU and eTh maps with their 3D correspondents; and the study of mass movements registered in the region. A statistical comparison of lithogeochemical (K, U, Th) and geophysical (K, eU, eTh) data showed consistency in all the granitic suites studied (Morro Inglês, Rio do Poço and Canavieiras-Estrela). Through gamma-ray spectrometry, it was possible to establish relationships between scars (from mass movements) and the gamma-ray responses as well as the radionuclide mobility and the relief and to map the granitic bodies.

  10. Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea no Sul do Brasil Nycteribiidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea in the Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um levantamento taxonômico das espécies de Nycteribiidae e de seus hospedeiros foi realizado na Região Sul do Brasil, utilizando material depositados em coleções e dados de literatura. Foram encontradas um total de 12 espécies de Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 sobre oito espécies de morcegos pertencentes as famílias Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae. Considerando o número de espécies por estado, houve um decréscimo no sentido norte-sul. No Paraná, foram encontradas nove espécies, em Santa Catarina oito e no Rio Grande do Sul quatro. Basilia speiseri (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907 é registrada pela primeira vez nos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. Basilia juquiensis Guimarães, 1943 e B. producta Maa, 1968 são novos registros para Santa Catarina e B. plaumanni Scott, 1940 é registrada pela primeira vez no Rio Grande do Sul. Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 é registrado pela primeira vez como hospedeiro de B. producta e Myotis riparius Handley, 1960 de B. juquiensis. O macho de Basilia lindolphoi Graciolli, 2001 é descrito. Chave para as espécies de Basilia encontradas é disponibilizada.A survey of nicteribiid bat flies was carried out in the Southern Region of Brazil. Twelve species of Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 were recorded on eight species of bats. The number of species of Basilia decreased north to south. In the State of Paraná nine species were found, eight in Santa Catarina and four in Rio Grande do Sul. Basilia juquiensis Guimarães, 1943 and B. producta Maa, 1968 were recorded for the first time from Santa Catarina and B. plaumanni Scott, 1940 from Rio Grande do Sul. Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 is been reported as a new host for B. producta and Myotis riparius Handley, 1960 for B. juquiensis. The male of Basilia lindolphoi Graciolli, 2001 is described. Key for the collected species of Basilia is given.

  11. Vertical and lateral particle and element fluxes across soil catenas in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonejans, Jerome; Vanacker, Veerle; Opfergelt, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    At the Earth's surface, mechanical disaggregation and chemical weathering transform bedrock into mobile regolith and soil. Downslope translocation of weathering products by lateral transport of soil particles and elements are determinant for the development of soil catenas. To grasp the rates of soil formation and development along catenas, we need better constraints on the vertical and lateral fluxes of particles and nutrients along hillslopes. Our study aims to analyze soil catena development in a spatio-temporal framework. The data are collected in the central part of the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. The sampling area is located on the Serra Geral plateau composed by rhyodacite rocks (˜700 m.a.s.l). The climate is humid subtropical (Cfa), and the natural vegetation is characterized by deciduous tropical forest and native Araucaria angustifolia forests. Two soil catenas with different slope morphology were selected: a steep slope of 190m long with maximum slope angle of 24° , and a gentle one of 140m long with a maximum slope angle of 11° . In total, eight soil profiles were sampled and 67 soil and 8 saprock or bedrock samples have been analysed for total element composition. Bulk densities were determined on undisturbed soil samples. The soil thickness varies along catenas with soil depths of about 90 cm on the ridge top, 30 cm on the convex nose of the steep slope and >2 m on the foot slope. Chemical mass balance techniques are used to constrain chemical weathering intensities (CDF) and absolute chemical mass losses or gains (δj,w). In each one of the eight soil profiles, we notice important absolute chemical mass losses for the most mobile elements (Na, K and Ca). The mass transfer coefficients of Al and Fe do not show a clear pattern, and largely depend on soil depth and position along the soil catena. The weathering intensity of the soil and the absolute chemical mass transfer are correlated with the residence time of the soil. Our data

  12. Sheep Excreta as Source of Nitrous Oxide in Ryegrass Pasture in Southern Brazil

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    Michely Tomazi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Livestock urine and dung are important components of the N cycle in pastures, but little information on its effect on soil nitrous oxide (N2O emissions is available. We conducted a short-term (39-day trial to quantify the direct N2O-N emissions from sheep excreta on an experimental area of ryegrass pasture growing on a Typic Paleudult in southern Brazil. Four rates of urine-N (161, 242, 323, and 403 kg ha-1 N and one of dung-N (13 kg ha-1 N were applied, as well as a control plot receiving no excreta. The N2O-N emission factor (EF = % of added N released as N2O-N for urine and dung was calculated, taking into account the N2O fluxes in the field, over a period of 39 days. The EF value of the urine and dung was used to estimate the emissions of N2O-N over a 90-day period of pasture in the winter under two grazing intensities (2.5 or 5.0 times the herbage intake potential of grazing lambs. The soil N2O-N fluxes ranged from 4 to 353 µg m-2h-1. The highest N2O-N fluxes occurred 16 days after application of urine and dung, when the highest soil nitrate content was also recorded and the water-filled pore space exceeded 60 %. The mean EF for urine was 0.25 % of applied N, much higher than that for dung (0.06 %. We found that N2O-N emissions for the 90-day winter pasture period were 0.54 kg ha-1 for low grazing intensity and 0.62 kg ha-1 for moderate grazing intensity. Comparison of the two forms of excreta show that urine was the main contributor to N2O-N emissions (mean of 36 %, whereas dung was responsible for less than 0.1 % of total soil N2O-N emissions.

  13. Nest site selection by Hypsiboas faber(Anura, Hylidae in Southern Brazil

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    André L. Luza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male gladiator frogs of Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830 build nests on available substrate surrounding ponds and streams where female spawn eggs during the breeding period. Although gladiator frogs seem to show plasticity in the way they construct their nests, there is no study reporting if these species present preferences about microhabitat conditions for nest-building (mainly under subtropical climate. Predation pressure and environmental conditions have been considered major processes shaping the great diversity of reproductive strategies performed by amphibians, but microhabitat conditions should explain where to build a nest as well as how nest looks. This study aimed to test nest site selection for nest-building by Hypsiboas faber(Wied-Neuwied, 1821, determining which factors are related to nest site selection and nest features. The survey was conducted at margins of two permanent ponds in Southern Brazil. Habitat factors were evaluated in 18 plots with nest and 18 plots in the surrounding without nest (control, describing vegetation structure and heterogeneity, and substrate characteristics. Water temperature was measured inside the nest and in its adjacency. Nest features assessed were area, depth and temperature. Habitat characteristics differed between plots with and without nest. Microhabitat selected for nest-building was characterized by great vegetation cover and height, as well as shallower water and lower cover of organic matter in suspension than in plots without nest. Differences between temperature inside nest and in its adjacency were not observed. No relationship between nest features and habitat descriptors was evidenced. Results revealed that Hypsiboas faber does not build nests anywhere. Males seem to prefer more protected habitats, probably avoiding predation, invasion of conspecific males and inclement weather. Lack of differences between temperature inside- and outside-nest suggest that nest do not improve this

  14. Aerosol emissions from forest and grassland burnings in the southern amazon basin and central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Alistair C. D.

    1981-03-01

    Forest and grassland clearing by means of prescribed fires in tropical areas of the world may be responsible for large inputs of fine particulates to the global atmosphere besides being a major source of trace gases. The major continents on which extensive biomass burning takes place are Africa and South America. Such agricultural practices of burning have been employed throughout man's existence, but the importance and significance of such burning relative to anthropogenic industrial emissions to the atmosphere has not until extremely recently been seriously studied. In August-September 1979 project "Brushfire 1979" took place based in Brasília, Brazil. The Air Quality Division of the National Center for Atmospheric Research made ground level and aircraft measurements of trace gases (e.g. CO 2, CO, CH 4, N 2O, H 2, CH 3Cl, COS, NO, NO 2, O 3) and Florida State University sampled ground level aerosol emissions from grass and forest burnings. Aerosols were sampled using plastic 7-stage single orifice cascade impactors and FSU type linear and circular "streakers". Long term sampling was made of regional background for total particulates (8 μmad). Short term sampling within grass or forest fires was made using impactors incorporated into portable kits containing 4 miniature 12-18 V dc Brailsford pumps and a disposable dry cell power pack. Sampling times of 5-15 min were found optimal under these conditions. Grass fires were sampled in the savannah area northeast of Brasília and forest fires in the state of Mato Grosso on the southern edge of the dryland forest of the Amazon basin. Residual ash samples were collected. All of the samples were analyzed at Florida State University using PIXE for 15-20 elements including Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb and Sr. Computer reduction of the X-ray spectra was made using the "HEXB" program. One of the prominent features found was the large flux of small particles (containing P and S may be

  15. Falconiformes assemblages in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil

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    Alan Loures-Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecological analysis focused on distribution of Falconiformes, comprising abundance and morphology data, is provided. Samples were collected in a fragmented landscape within the Atlantic Rainforest, southern Brazil, between August and November 2001. Four main types of habitats were pinpointed among the 30 different sampling sites, while eight external morphological traits were employed. Twenty-one Falconiformes species were detected and jackknife estimates for regional richness reached 24.8 ± 2.56 species (p0.05. Mantel's test for relative abundance and species morphology reveals weak association rates, corroborating the lack of association between matrixes (r = 0.059, p>0.05. Difficulties in the analyses of distribution and species morphology data may have been caused by their generalist character and may be due to the high rate of environment degradation revealed by the regional landscape's mosaic aspect.Uma análise ecológica enfocando a distribuição das espécies de Falconiformes foi realizada, empregando dados de abundância e morfologia. As amostragens foram feitas em uma região de paisagem fragmentada sob o domínio da Floresta Atlântica, sul do Brasil, entre agosto e novembro de 2001, durante o período reprodutivo das espécies. A partir de 30 diferentes locais de amostragem, quatro principais tipos de hábitats foram encontrados (fragmentos de floresta, mata ciliar, várzea e campo/pastagem. Oito caracteres morfológicos externos foram utilizados nas análises. Foram detectadas 21 espécies de Falconiformes, sendo a estimativa Jackknife para a riqueza regional de 24.8 ± 2.56 espécies (P 0.05. O teste de Mantel para os dados de abundância relativa e morfologia das espécies indicou um fraco grau de associação, concordando com a hipótese de nenhuma associação entre as matrizes (r = 0.059, P > 0.05. As dificuldades encontradas nas análises dos dados de distribuição e de morfologia das espécies podem ter sido geradas

  16. Postnatal depression in Southern Brazil: prevalence and its demographic and socioeconomic determinants

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    Busnello Ellis DA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison, with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7. After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income

  17. Petrology, geochemistry and geochonology of the Jacupiranga ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatitic complex (southern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmyz, Luanna; Arnaud, Nicolas; Biondi, João Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian carbonatitic complexes are located at the edges of the Paleozoic basins and are usually associated to tectonic crustal flexuring or deep fault zones. The Jacupiranga Complex is a 65 km² ultrabasic-alkaline carbonatitic intrusive body outcroping at the northeastern border of the Paraná Basin, South of São Paulo State (Brazil). The northern portion of the unit is mostly composed of peridotitic rocks, while the southern part contains ijolites, melteigites, clinopyroxenites and carbonatites which host a phosphate deposit, mined since 1966. Even though the carbonatites only represent 1% of the Complex's area, they have concentrated most of the historical petrogenetic studies, leaving almost unknown the petrogenetic and the geochronological characteristics of other rocks. This explains why the few petrogenetic models from the literature are very partial and mostly unsatisfactory. While the peridotitic rocks are largely hindered by the absence of fresh outcrops, the regolith thickness and the high serpentinization degree, field observations and petrographic data notably show a heterogeneous zone around the peridotitic body. That zone is composed of a large variety of lithotypes over a relatively small area (~9 km²), comprising diorites, monzodiorites, alkali feldspar syenites, trachytes, lamprophyres and syenites. Moreover, these rocks present a restricted lateral continuity (decametric) and a lack of the magmatic bedding characteristic of the ijolitic and clinopyroxenitc rocks. The southern clinopyroxenitic zone (~20 km²) is composed of clinopyroxenite and melteigite with prominent magmatic layering, probably of cumulative origin, and a body of carbonatites which outcrops over less than 1 km2 essentially composed of sovite and beforsite, with abundant apatite. The Jacupiranga Complex characteristics indicate that its formation possibly comprises at least five magmatic events which cannot at present be surely ordinated in time: a) the emplacement of the

  18. Longitudinal clinical and serological survey of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in Guaporé, southern Brazil, from 1995 to 1999

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    Graeff-Teixeira Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a nematode with an intra-vascular location in the mesentery. Our objective was to address several aspects of the natural history of this parasitosis, in a longitudinal clinical and seroepidemiological study. A total of 179 individuals living in a rural area with active transmission in southern Brazil were followed for five years (1995-1999 resulting in yearly prevalence of 28.2%, 4.2%, 10%, 20.2% and 2.8% and incidences of 0%, 5.9%, 8% and 1.5%, respectively. Both men and woman were affected with higher frequencies at age 30-49 years. In 32 individuals serum samples were collected at all time points and IgG antibody reactivity detected by ELISA was variable and usually persisting not longer than one year. Some individual antibody patterns were suggestive of re-infection. There was no association with occurrence of abdominal pain or of other enteroparasites and there was no individual with a confirmed (histopathologic diagnosis. Mollusks were found with infective third-stage larvae in some houses with an overall prevalence of 16% and a low parasitic burden. In conclusion, abdominal angiostrongyliasis in southern Brazil may be a frequent infection with low morbidity and a gradually decreasing serological reactivity.

  19. Demography of the endangered tree species Ocotea porosa (Lauraceae along a gradient of forest disturbance in southern Brazil

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    Cibele Amato Munhoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocotea porosa (Ness Barroso (Lauraceae, a typical tree of the southern Atlantic Forest in Brazil, was heavily exploited for timber in the last century. With the aim of examining the status of the remaining populations, we surveyed five forest fragments in the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil, and evaluated whether disturbances caused by selective logging and fragmentation were related to population structure of O. porosa. We assessed demographic aspects related to tree density, size hierarchy and individual allometry, correlating those parameters with fragment structure variables (fragment size, isolation and logging level. We found that, although all populations occurred in low densities (60-440 individuals ha−¹, the number of adults was significantly lower in the smaller and most disturbed fragments (13 and 35 individuals ha−¹, respectively. We did not detect changes in allometric relationships among individuals in the five populations studied. However, we found that populations in more heavily disturbed areas presented lower size hierarchy (i.e., less dominance of larger trees than did those in undisturbed areas, suggesting that selective logging affects the population structure of O. porosa, possibly affecting the rates of reproduction and fecundity, which may ultimately increase the probability of local extinction.

  20. First assessment of the avifauna of Araucaria forests and other habitats from extreme southern Minas Gerais, Serra da Mantiqueira, Brazil, with notes on biogeography and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Ferreira de Vasconcelos; Santos D'Angelo Neto

    2009-01-01

    The avifauna of the Araucaria forests in the higher reaches of the Serra da Mantiqueira massif is little known and poorly documented. This region is recognized as an important area of differentiation of birds in southeastern Brazil. Here, we present the first ornithological survey of the Araucaria forests and associated habitats in the mountains of extreme southern Minas Gerais state, near the southern tip of the Serra da Mantiqueira. The study area comprises the Serra do Juncal region and se...

  1. Prevalência e determinantes precoces dos transtornos mentais comuns na coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS Prevalencia y determinantes precoces de los trastornos mentales comunes en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Prevalence and early determinants of common mental disorders in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Anselmi

    2008-12-01

    adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study nested in a 1982 birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In 2004-5, 4,297 subjects were interviewed during home visits. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Report Questionnaire. Risk factors included socioeconomic, demographic, perinatal, and environmental variables. The analysis was stratified by gender and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of common mental disorders was 28.0%; 32.8% and 23.5% in women and men, respectively. Men and women who were poor in 2004-5, regardless of their poor status in 1982, had nearly 1.5-fold increased risk for common mental disorders (p<0.001 when compared to those who have never been poor. Among women, being poor during childhood (p<0.001 and black/mixed skin color (p=0.002 increased the risk for mental disorders. Low birth weight and duration of breastfeeding were not associated to the risk of these disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Higher prevalence of common mental disorders among low-income groups and race-ethnic minorities suggests that social inequalities present at birth have a major impact on mental health, especially common mental disorders.

  2. Population structure of Rudgea parquioides (Rubiaceae, a shade-tolerant shrub species, in Southern Brazil

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    Fernanda C.G. Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The expectations that shade-tolerant forest species show 1 a population structure composed by a high amount of small individuals, and 2 biomass allocation for diameter higher than for height growth, were tested for Rudgea parquioides, a typical shrub in Southern Brazil. We described the size structure (height and stem diameter and allometrical relations of a R. parquioides population by counting and measuring all the individuals in a 725m² area in the municipality of Curitiba (25"25'S; 49"19'W. A total of 916 individuals (12,634 ind.ha-1 were recorded in the area. The firstexpectation was supported, since distribution by height and diameter classes showed a predominance of small individuals (skewness coefficients > 1. On the other hand, the regression between height and stem base diameter showed slope β Foram testadas duas hipóteses relativas a espécies florestaistolerantes à sombra em uma população de Rudgea parquioides, um arbusto característico do sul do Brasil: 1 espécies tolerantes à sombra possuem uma estrutura populacional composta por um grande número de indivíduos pequenos e 2 a alocação de biomassa para o crescimento em diâmetro é maior que para o crescimento em altura. Foram descritas as estruturas de tamanho (altura e diâmetro do tronco e relações alométricas através da contagem e medição de todos os indivíduos de R. parquioides em uma área de 725m² no município de Curitiba (25"25'S; 49"19'W. Um total de 916 indivíduos(12.634 ind.ha-1 foi medido nesta área. A primeira hipótese foi aceita, uma vez que a distribuição em classes de altura e de diâmetro mostrou um predomínio de indivíduos pequenos (coeficiente de assimetria > 1. Por outro lado, a regressão entre altura e diâmetro na base do caule mostrou inclinação β < 1, o que indica que o crescimento em altura é maior que em diâmetro, não suportando a segunda hipótese. Esses resultados mostram que as estratégias de crescimento em esp

  3. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centeno da Silva, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being recorded. T

  4. First records of Casiornis rufus (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Tyrannidae) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Bellagamba-Oliveira, Danielle; Bellagamba, Gina;

    2015-01-01

    The Rufous Casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Vielliot, 1916), is widespread in central South America, reaching its southernmost distribution in northern Argentina and Uruguay. Here we present the first nine records of the species for Rio Grande do Sul state, southern Brazil. The records were documented...

  5. New and additional records of Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955 (Decapoda, Caridea, Alpheidae from Brazil, with a key to the southern Atlantic species

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    Arthur Anker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the alpheid shrimp genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955, are reported from shallow waters of São Sebastião (SP, southeastern Brazil. Salmoneus depressus Anker, 2011 is recorded for the first time in Brazil and the southwestern Atlantic; this species was previously known only from the Caribbean region. Salmoneus ortmanni (Rankin, 1898 is recorded for the first time in southern Brazil (23°S, being previously known in Brazilian waters from a single confirmed record from Atol das Rocas (03°S, with older records referring to Salmoneus carvachoi Anker, 2007. A hitherto unknown morphological variation in S. depressus is discussed and illustrated. Both species are shown in colour to facilitate their identification in the field. A key to the southern Atlantic species of Salmoneus is also provided.

  6. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  7. Description of three new species of Eumida Malmgren, 1865 (Phyllodocidae, Annelida) from southern and southeastern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Oliveira, Verônica Maria; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Lana, Paulo Da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    We describe three new species of Eumida from shallow estuarine and shelf bottoms from south and southeastern Brazil as part of a regional survey of the family Phyllodocidae. Previous regional records of Eumida sanguinea (Ørsted, 1843) are herein referred to Eumida dracodermica sp. nov. The two...

  8. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with leaf diseases on Eucalyptus globulus in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodoro, M.G.; Ferreira, M.A.; Guimarães, L.M.S.; Mafia, R.G.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Alfenas, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf blight and defoliation caused by Teratosphaeria species is one of the most important leaf diseases of Eucalyptus globulus. Due to the importance of this tree species for the production of pulp and paper, and recent reports of severe leaf disease symptoms in Brazil, the present study was conduct

  9. Differences in common bean rhizobial populations associated with soil tillage management in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Hungria, M.; Santos, J.C.P.; Berton-Junior, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Progressive adoption of no-tillage (NT) agriculture in the tropics is finally reversing physical, chemical, and biological erosion of soil and in Brazil, an estimated 19 Mha are now devoted to NT. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a main component of Brazilian agriculture, and enhancement of yi

  10. Ownership of fishing areas and use of fishing resources by artisanal fishermen in a pond in southern Brazil

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    Jackes Mancke dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mangueira Lagoon located in southern Brazil, has its northern portion included in the Taim Ecological Station, a federal conservation unit. The fishing practice is among the activities at this region. It has its own characteristics due to environmental conditions and specific physiography of the area. A field protocol based on geographic information was used to characterize the occupation process and the use of fishing resources. Socio-economic information was collected through interviews of the fishermen and also based on fishing data. After compiling the data a statistical descriptive analyses was completed. The average catch per fisherman in the region is 4,766.5 kg per year. The Loricariichthys anus showed the highest catch volume, ensuring the economic viability of the local activity. The constant increase of the activity may be compromising the reproductive cycle of the local ichthyological fauna, thus compromising the fishery sustainability.

  11. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

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    Wagner C Valenti

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW, southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L3.28. Expressions obtained for length and weight growth curves are Lt = 21 .0 (1-e-0493t and Wt= 190 (1-e-0493t3.28. respectively. A symptotic maximum length and asymptotic maximum weight are nearly attained at six and eight years old, respectively.

  12. Diet of Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 (Carnivora: Mustelidae in three limnic systems in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Fernando Marques Quintela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the diet of Lontra longicaudis in three limnic systems (anthropogenic shallow lakes, pluvial channel and coastal stream in Rio Grande do Sul State coastal plain, southern Brazil. Fishes were the most consumed item in all the three systems, being Mugilidae the most representative family in the pluvial channel and coastal stream and Cichlidae in the shallow lakes. Other identified items were mollusks, insects, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals and vegetal fragments. The high frequency of birds in the shallow lakes was remarkable, considering the lower frequencies of this item in previous investigations on the species diet. There was a high frequency of swamp eels (Synbranchidae, Synbranchus marmoratus in the pluvial channel and shallow lakes, which were usually absent or found in low frequencies in previous studies.

  13. An evaluation of quality of life and its determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS from Southern Brazil

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    Susane Müller Klug Passos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study evaluated the quality of life and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. WHOQOL-HIV Bref, ASSIST 2.0, HAD Scale, and a questionnaire were used to assess 625 participants on quality of life, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression and anxiety. Multivariate analysis was performed through linear regression. The lowest results for quality of life were associated with being female, age (< 47 years, low education levels, low socioeconomic class, unemployment, not having a stable relationship, signs of anxiety and depression, abuse or addiction of psychoactive substances, lack of perceived social support, never taking antiretroviral medication, lipodystrophy, comorbidities, HIV related hospitalizations and a CD4+ cell count less than 350. Psychosocial factors should be included in the physical and clinical evaluation given their strong association with quality of life domains.

  14. COMPONENTS OF (COVARIANCE FOR AGE AT FIRST AND SECOND CALVING OF NELLORE FEMALES RAISED IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Dionéia Magda Everling

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability, genetic correlation and estimated breeding values for age at first (AFC and second calving (ASC for Nellore females raised in Southern Brazil. The (covariance and estimated breeding values were obtained using Bayesian inference in a bivariate analysis, adopting an animal model. The average ages were 49.30 and 69.85 months, and the heritabilities were 0.25 and 0.26, respectively for AFC and ASC. The genetic correlation between AFC and ASC was 0.88. The correlation between the classifications of sires according to their estimated breeding values was 0.93. The heritability estimates for AFC and ASC suggest the possibility of obtaining genetic gain by selection. The correlation between these traits close to one indicates that they are controlled by virtually the same genes and when selected for one will advance correlated gain for the other.

  15. Accumulation patterns of organochlorines in juveniles of Arctocephalus australis found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the specific distributions of organochlorine (OC) compounds in various tissues and organs of juveniles of the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) found stranded on beaches in southern Brazil. The OC residue concentrations occurred in the following order: PCBs > DDTs > CHLs > HCHs > HCB. OC concentrations in blubber were higher than other tissues (e.g. PCBs, 2480 ng g-1 wet weight; DDTs, 660 ng g-1 wet weight) indicating a positive association with lipid content (except for HCB). However, the poor nutritional status of these animals, possibly following a starvation period, is likely to have allowed the remobilization of organochlorines stored in lipids to other tissues throughout the body, increasing their vulnerability to toxic effects and possibly affecting their survival capability. - Analysis of tissues of juveniles of the South American fur seal suggests organochlorines are remobilized during their poor nutritional status, increasing their vulnerability to toxic effects

  16. HIV behind bars: human immunodeficiency virus cluster analysis and drug resistance in a reference correctional unit from southern Brazil.

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    Isabel M Prellwitz

    Full Text Available People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667. Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24% of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV, low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons.

  17. [Prevalence of neurocysticercosis among epileptic in-patients in the west of Santa Catarina--southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisol-Bittencourt, P C; da Silva, N C; Figueredo, R

    1998-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NC) is an endemic condition in several areas of Brazil. It is most likely the major responsible for the high prevalence of epilepsy in our country, estimated in 1-2% of general population. We performed a study to evaluate NC as aetiology of epilepsy in the west of Santa Catarina. This state belong to southern Brazil and it has a very developed economy. However, due the widespread swine farming in the west district, many of them without any sanitary control, the national health authorities have considered all this area at risk to NC. The study was carried out in Chapecó, the main town in that region, where CT Scan service was started in 1995. All patients put on hospital care due epileptic seizures in 1995-96 were considered. Febrile convulsions were excluded of the sample. We found a very expressive prevalence rate of NC among patients suffering from epilepsy. Roughly 24% of these patients, showed unequivocal tomography evidences for the diagnosis of NC. Our data suggest cysticercosis as a real endemic trouble in the area and, overdosis of information in proper language, diffuse to the whole population, seems to be the only remedy to fight against it. Moreover, we should pay special attention to everyone related to swine farming, does not matter how this activity has been classified.

  18. [Inadequate dietary micronutrient intake in men and women in southern Brazil: the EpiFloripa Adults Study, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembranel, Francieli; González-Chica, David Alejandro; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate dietary intake of micronutrients among adults in a city in Southern Brazil according to sex and age, and to measure the prevalence of inadequate dietary micronutrient intake according to sex. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study with 1,222 adults 22 to 63 years of age living in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Data on dietary intake were obtained from two 24-hour recalls (one in the total sample and the other in a subsample of 40% of the research subjects). Micronutrient intake and prevalence rates for inadequate intake were estimated according to the guidelines of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. High prevalence rates of inadequate intake in the entire sample were seen for vitamins A, C, D, and E (range, 52%-100%). Calcium and iron intake were more inadequate in women (87.3% and 13.7%, respectively), as was zinc in men (25.1%). Adults in Florianópolis, showed high prevalence rates of inadequate intake of essential micronutrients. PMID:27580235

  19. SOIL-PLANT NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS IN TWO MANGROVE AREAS AT SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Ana Paula Lang Martins Madi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMangrove forests have a simple architecture. They shelter a few number of arboreal species that grow in a saline environment subject to tidal activity. The research objective was to evaluate possible interactions between physical-chemical soil attributes and plant-leaf nutrient concentrations of different mangrove species. Different mangrove species growing in the same soil, and the same mangrove species growing in two different soil classes were evaluated as to their leaf nutrient concentration patterns. The study was carried out in mangrove areas of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, in two distinct soil classes: HISTOSOL THIOMORPHIC Salic sodic and GLEYSOL THIOMORPHIC Salic sodic; and three different species: Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. Two subareas were delimited within each area from which soil and leaf samples were collected. Samplings from five individuals of each dominant mangrove species were taken from the soil (0-10 cm deep under each tree crown projection. The data was submitted to statistical analysis using a set of simple and multivariate analysis in order to determine possible differences among mangrove species leaf nutrient concentrations, and whether these differences might be correlated with the soil attributes or not. The results exposed that the nutritional state of the mangrove species is different and independent form the soil attributes in which they grow. Few correlations were found among leaf nutrient concentrations and soil attributes, suggesting differential selective nutrient uptake among species.RESUMENLos manglares son bosques de arquitectura simple que albergan pocas especies arbóreas, creciendo en un ambiente salino sometido a la influencia de las mareas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las posibles interacciones entre las propiedades fisicoquímicas del suelo y la concentración de nutrientes en hojas de diferentes especies de mangle. Se investigó si

  20. Cytisus scoparius (Fam. Fabaceae) in southern Brazil - first step of an invasion process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Rodrigo León; Torchelsen, Fábio P; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Anand, Madhur

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented. PMID:26871495

  1. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas.

  2. Pathologies of Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Acanthocephala, Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Leopardus tigrinus (Carnivora, Felidae) in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Moisés; da Silveira, Eliane Fraga; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. PMID:23070447

  3. Population structure, sex ratio and growth of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae) from coastal waters of southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841

  4. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrastro, L; Ely, I

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of a species' diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard's diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, "sit-and-wait" or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often. PMID:26132010

  5. Contributions to the Dart versus Arrow Debate: New Data from Holocene Projectile Points from Southeastern and Southern Brazil

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    Mercedes Okumura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithic bifacial points are very common in the southern and southeastern regions of the Brazilian territory. Dated from Early to Late Holocene, these artifacts have not been studied in terms of their propulsion system. Given the characteristics of the bow and arrow compared to the atlatl and dart, there are important differences in the size and weight of arrowheads and dart points. Applying the techniques proposed by Shott (1997, Bradbury (1997, Fenenga (1953, Hughes (1998, and Hildebrandt and King (2012 to specimens recovered from eight sites dating from the early to the late Holocene, this work aims to present preliminary results to better understand the potential presence of darts and arrows in southeastern and southern Brazil. There was a variation in the results according to the application of different techniques. At least one set of points, dated from the Early Holocene, presented quite a high proportion of specimens classified as arrows, indicating the presence of points that could be used as arrowheads.

  6. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski; Eunice da Costa Machado; Nilva Brandini; Mariana Gallucci Nazario; Kleber Vieira Bonfim

    2012-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003) were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosph...

  7. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros Narjara; Machado Lays; da Silva Lisboa Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture i...

  8. Evaluation of different methods to estimate daily reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s‑1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m‑ 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than

  9. Occurrence (new record of maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 (Carnivora, Canidae in southern Brazil

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    Leandro Chisté Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents the record of occurrence of Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815 in an area of wet grasslands which is adjacent to the riparian forest along Ibicui river, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The species was found through the use of camera traps and search of vestiges in pre-established transections in the area, as part of a environmental monitoring program of a forestation project.

  10. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno da Silva, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being recorded. The rice production sector of Rio Grande do Sul is responsible for 240.000 jobs [production, industrialization and commercialization] and contributes 1,6 billion US dollar to Brazils' economy per ye...

  11. The Diatom Anorthoneis dulcis Hein from Southern Brazil: Morphology and Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new geographic locality for Anorthoneis dulcis is reported. The paper describes the distribution and relative abundance of A. dulcis in Lagoa dos Patos lagoon (a lagoon in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil) from samples collected between 2004 and 2005, and shows that this rare species is present all year round. This study extends the species distribution to South America indicating that the species can thrive on sand grains in lentic estuarine, and freshwater areas. It widens the range of tolerance to environmental parameters. The valve fine structure, morphology, and dimensions are in agreement with the original diagnosis.

  12. ISOLATION OF Ricket tsia bellii FROM Amblyomma ovale AND Amblyomma incisum TICKS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Pacheco; Simone Rosa; Leonardo Richtzenhain; Szabó, Matias P. J.; Marcelo B Labruna

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo. Aislar Rickettsias mediante cultivo celular a partir de muestras de garrapatas Amblyomma ovale y Amblyomma incisum del estado de São Paulo Materiales y métodos. A. ovale y A. incisum adultas de vida libre fueron colectadas en una área de selva tropical Atlántica en el estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Cada garrapata fue sometida a la prueba de hemolinfa, las garrapatas positivas en esta prueba fueron evaluadas con la técnica de shell vial con el propósito de aislar rickettsias en cultivo...

  13. A case of Exophiala spinifera infection in Southern Brazil: Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Castrillón, Mauricio Ramírez; Steglich, Raquel; Dos Santos, Inajara Silveira; Vettorato, Gerson; Valente, Patrícia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an 80-year-old Brazilian man, farmer, with lesions on the dorsum of the hand. A direct mycological examination, cultivation and microculture slide observation was performed. The sequencing of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region was carried out and the etiological agent confirmed as Exophiala spinifera. The in vitro susceptibility of this isolate to antifungal agents alone and in combination was evaluated. This is the third case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera in Brazil. PMID:24371743

  14. Vegetation and pollen rain relationship from the tropical Atlantic rain forest in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann Behling; Raquel R.B. Negrelle

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the southern Brazilian tropical Atlantic lowland rain forest and modern pollen rain was studied by pollen traps. The study was carried out on a one hectare plot undisturbed rain forest of the reserve Volta Velha and two secondary forests, ± 50 and 7 years old. About 248 identified tree, shrub and herb species (excluding epiphytes) of 50 families were represented by 126 different pollen and spore types (including non-local taxa). The calculated average influx of...

  15. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

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    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  16. Antibiotic resistance and enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus sp. isolates from polluted water in Southern Brazil

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    ANA P. BASSO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the species distribution, antibiotic-resistance profile and presence of enterotoxin (SE genes in staphylococci isolated from the Dilúvio stream in South Brazil. Eighty-eight staphylococci were identified, 93.18% were identified as coagulase-negative (CNS and 6.82% coagulase-positive (CPS. Fourteen Staphylococcus species were detected and the most frequently were Staphylococcus cohnii (30.48% and S. haemolyticus (21.95%. Resistance to erythromycin was verified in 37.50% of the strains, followed by 27.27% to penicillin, 12.50% to clindamycin, 6.81% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 5.68% to chloramphenicol and 2.27% to norfloxacin. None of the investigated strains showed gentamicin and ciprofloxacin resistance. The strains were tested for the presence of sea, seb, sec, sed and see genes by PCR and only CNS strains (43.18% showed positive results to one or more SE genes. The scientific importance of our results is due to the lack of data about these topics in polluted waters in Brazil. In conclusion, polluted waters from the Dilúvio stream may constitute a reservoir for disseminating antibiotic-resistance and enterotoxin into the community. In addition, the detection of staphylococci in the polluted waters of the Dilúvio stream indicated a situation of environmental contamination and poor sanitation conditions.

  17. SIXTEEN YEARS OF PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR IN METROPOLITAN AREA OF PORTO ALEGRE, SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Daiane; Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Vetoratto, Gerson; Amaro, Taís Guarienti; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malassezia yeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective cross-sectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease.

  18. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer.

  19. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer. PMID:25402242

  20. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A antibodies in a group of normal and Down Syndrome children in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil

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    Ferreira Cristina Targa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of Hepatitis A and B in institutionalized patients with Down Syndrome (DS is not fully understood. Under poor hygienic conditions, immunological alterations might predispose individuals to these infections. Sixty three DS children between 1 and 12 years old living at home with their families were examined for anti-HAV and compared to age-matched controls (64 healthy children. This cross-sectional study was carried out from May, 1999, to April, 2000, at the Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Groups were compared in terms of age, sex, skin color, and family income (> R$ 500 and < R$ 500/ month by the chi-square test, with Yates' correction and for the prevalence of anti-HAV (Fisher's exact test. In the DS group (n=63, the mean age was 4.4 ± 3.3 years, 94% of the patients were white and 51% were female. Family income was <= R$ 500/month in 40 cases (63%. In the control group (n=64, the mean age was 4.8 ± 2.7 years, 81% of the patients were white and 56% were female. Family income was <= R$ 500 in 20 patients (31%. DS children's families had a significantly lower income (P<0.0005. In the DS group there were 6 positive (9.5% anti-HAV cases, and all came from low-income families (less than R$ 500/ month. In the control group, 3 cases (4.7% were positive for anti-HAV (two were from a low-income family and one was from a higher income family. These differences were not significant. Our data indicate that Hepatitis A is not a special risk for mentally retarded DS outpatients, even in a developing country like Brazil.

  1. Gladius and statolith as tools for age and growth studies of the squid Loligo plei (Teuthida: Loliginidae off southern Brazil

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    José Angel Alvarez Perez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Statolith and gladius were investigated for their suitability as tools for age and growth studies in the loliginid squid Loligo plei off southern Brazil. Statoliths when polished, revealed a series of concentric increments deposited around a nucleus. Consistent increment counts covered the squid's entire life-time and could be considered suitable for individual age estimation. Growth increments were observed on the dorsal surface as delimited by consecutive marks formed during low growth periods. Because early growth was masked during chitin deposition, total increment counts underestimated individual age. Gladius growth was highly correlated with somatic growth, and gladius increments could be used to reconstruct individual growth histories. Both statolith and gladius increments were deposited with the same, possibly daily, periodicity. It could be inferred that L. plei off southern Brazil might live up to around nine months of age.Foi avaliada a viabilidade do estatólito e do gladius como ferramentas para estudos de idade e crescimento da lula loliginídea Loligo plei no sul do Brasil. Estatólitos são estruturas calcificadas que, após polimento, revelaram uma serie de incrementos concêntricos depositados em torno de um núcleo. Contagens consistentes desses incrementos cobriram toda a vida do animal e puderam ser consideradas apropriadas para a estimativa de idade desse organismo. O gladius é a concha interna que cresce pela deposição longitudinal de camadas de quitina. Incrementos foram observados na superfície dorsal, delimitados por consecutivas marcas formadas durante períodos de crescimento lento. Ao longo da deposição de quitina o crescimento do início da vida é progressivamente mascarado fazendo com que as contagens de incrementos totais subestimem a idade da lula. Devido ao crescimento do gladius correlacionar-se fortemente com o crescimento somático, os incrementos puderam ser utilizados para a reconstrução do

  2. Nine thousand years of upper montane soil/vegetation dynamics from the summit of Caratuva Peak, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Maurício B.; Pereira, Nuno Veríssimo; Behling, Hermann; Curcio, Gustavo R.; Roderjan, Carlos V.

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity loss, climate change, and increased freshwater consumption are some of the main environmental problems on Earth. Mountain ecosystems can reduce these threats by providing several positive influences, such as the maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and carbon storage, amongst others. The knowledge of the history of these environments and their response to climate change is very important for management, conservation, and environmental monitoring programs. The genesis of the soil organic matter of the current upper montane vegetation remains unclear and seems to be quite variable depending on location. Some upper montane sites in the very extensive coastal Sea Mountain Range present considerable organic matter from the late Pleistocene and other from only the Holocene. Our study was carried out on three soil profiles (two cores in grassland and one in forest) on the Caratuva Peak of the Serra do Ibitiraquire (a sub-range of Sea Mountain Range - Serra do Mar) in Southern Brazil. The δ13C isotopic analyses of organic matter in soil horizons were conducted to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities. Complementarily, we performed a pollen analysis and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. Except for a short and probably drier period (between 6000 and 4500 cal yr BP), C3 plants, including ombrophilous grasses and trees, have dominated the highlands of the Caratuva Peak (Pico Caratuva), as well as the other uppermost summits of the Serra do Ibitiraquire, since around 9000 cal yr BP. The Caratuva region represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands (campos de altitude altomontanos or campos altomontanos) and upper montane rain/cloud forests with soils that most likely contain some organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as has been reported in Southern and Southeastern Brazil for other sites. However, our results indicate that the studied deposits (near the summit) are from the early

  3. Epilithic community development on artificial reefs deployed along a cross-shelf environmental gradient off Paraná state, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Brandini; Ariel Scheffer da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Concrete modules were deployed on the bottom of the 11, 18 and 30 meters isobaths along a cross-shelf hydrographic gradient off Paraná State, Southern Brazil, with the purpose of studying the colonization of sessile epilithic macroinvertebrates on artificial surfaces. After one year of submersion a total of 63 species of epilithic organisms were identified, dominated by Ostrea puelchana, Chthamalus bisinuatus, Balanus cf spongicola, Astrangia cf rathbuni, Didemnum spp, poryphers and bryozoans...

  4. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) and Avian Poxvirus (APV) in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Freitas Nunes; Fabiane Fonseca; Alice Teixeira Meirelles Leite; Rodolfo Pinho da Silva Filho; Paula Fonseca Finger; Clarissa Caetano Castro; Geferson Fischer; Gilberto D'Avila Vargas; Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and avian poxvirus (APV) in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELI...

  5. [Perception, knowledge, and use of generic drugs in southern Brazil: what changed from 2002 to 2012?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttier, Marília Cruz; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-08-01

    This study compared the perception, knowledge, and use of generic drugs by adults in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, using two cross-sectional population-based studies from 2002 and 2012. Study outcomes were: (a) prevalence of use of generics; (b) generics as a proportion of all medication; (c) users' perceptions of prices and quality; (d) users' knowledge of generics; and (e) strategies for acquisition of medicines. Prevalence of generics use increased from 3.6% (95%CI: 3.0-4.3) to 26.1% (95%CI: 24.5-27.7) in the 10-year period. Perceptions of prices and quality of generics remained stable, identification of characteristics that distinguish generics from other drugs improved (p generics. Between 2002 and 2012 there was an increase in knowledge and use of generics, while perception of lower prices and equivalent quality remained high.

  6. Edentulism, Severe Tooth Loss and Lack of Functional Dentition in Elders: A Study in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Camila Garcez; Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Silva, Alexandre Emídio Ribeiro; Seerig, Lenise Menezes; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate self-reported prevalence of edentulism, severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition in elders, and to identify potential associated factors. A population based cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,451 elders (≥60 years), in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regressions. The prevalence of edentulism, severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition was 39.3%, 60.9% and 82.7%, respectively. The factors positively associated with tooth loss in the three-degree severity were sex (females), older individuals, low familial income, low level of schooling and having the last dental visit longer than 24 months ago. The high prevalence of tooth loss in its different degrees of severity and the association with preventable factors highlight the need of programs focused on elders, emphasizing the prevention of tooth loss and need for prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:27224572

  7. Avian pox virus infection in a common barn owl (Tyto alba in southern Brazil

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    Gilberto D. Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A young common barn owl (Tyto alba was referred to the Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre (Nurfs, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, after been found in a barn of a brick factory in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The bird was apathic, weak and with crusty lesions in the featherless areas (eyes, beak, legs, and died soon after arrival at Nurfs. Necropsy and histopathological examination of the lesions were carried out. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the cutaneous lesions, several eosinophilic intracyto-plasmic inclusion bodies in epithelial cells (Bollinger bodies, as well as particles characteristic of poxvirus, observed by electronic microscopy, confirmed the infection by avian poxvirus, what highlights the importance of Tyto alba as carrier of the virus in the wild.

  8. Dolphin interactions with the mullet artisanal fishing on Southern Brazil: a qualitative and quantitative approach

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    Paulo C. Simões-Lopes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the interactions between Tursiops truncatus (Montagu, 1821 and the artisanal fishing of mullets (Mugil spp. is presented at two localities in the south of Brazil: Laguna (Santa Catarina and Inibé/Tramandaí (Rio Grande do Sul. Its behavioral strategies and the advantages of their association are re-described and quantified based on the success of the capture and on the selectivity of the prey sizes. The mullets are the main resource involved (92% to 75% both at numerical level and as biomass. Twenty individuals of Tursiops truncatus participated in the interactions in Laguna and 9 in Imbé/Tramandaí. The participation and learning of calves is also reported.

  9. Enterovirus and herpesviridae family as etiologic agents of lymphomonocytary meningitis, Southern Brazil

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    Luine Rosele Renaud Vidal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral meningitis is a common infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS that occurs worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify the etiologic agent of lymphomonocytary meningitis in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. During the period of July 2005 to December 2006, 460 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples with lymphomonocytary meningitis were analyzed by PCR methodologies. Fifty nine (12.8% samples were positive. Enteroviruses was present in 49 (83% samples and herpes virus family in 10 (17%, of these 6 (10% herpes simplex virus, 1 (2% Epstein Barr virus, 2 (3% human herpes virus type 6 and 1 (2% mixed infection of enterovirus and Epstein Barr virus. As conclusion enterovirus was the most frequent virus, with circulation during summer and was observed with higher frequency between 4 to 17 years of age. PCR methodology is an important method for rapid detection of RNA enterovirus and DNA herpesvirus in CSF.

  10. [Perception, knowledge, and use of generic drugs in southern Brazil: what changed from 2002 to 2012?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttier, Marília Cruz; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-08-01

    This study compared the perception, knowledge, and use of generic drugs by adults in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, using two cross-sectional population-based studies from 2002 and 2012. Study outcomes were: (a) prevalence of use of generics; (b) generics as a proportion of all medication; (c) users' perceptions of prices and quality; (d) users' knowledge of generics; and (e) strategies for acquisition of medicines. Prevalence of generics use increased from 3.6% (95%CI: 3.0-4.3) to 26.1% (95%CI: 24.5-27.7) in the 10-year period. Perceptions of prices and quality of generics remained stable, identification of characteristics that distinguish generics from other drugs improved (p drug classification errors decreased (p drugs with generics. Between 2002 and 2012 there was an increase in knowledge and use of generics, while perception of lower prices and equivalent quality remained high. PMID:27487440

  11. Enterovirus and herpesviridae family as etiologic agents of lymphomonocytary meningitis, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Luine Rosele Renaud; Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro de; Messias-Reason, Iara José de; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Debur, Maria do Carmo; Pessa, Luís Felipe Cavalli; Pereira, Luciane Aparecida; Rotta, Indianara; Takahashi, Gislene Reche de Almeida; Silveira, Clyete Santos da; Araújo, Josianne Maria Reimann; Raboni, Sonia Mara

    2011-06-01

    Viral meningitis is a common infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that occurs worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify the etiologic agent of lymphomonocytary meningitis in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. During the period of July 2005 to December 2006, 460 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples with lymphomonocytary meningitis were analyzed by PCR methodologies. Fifty nine (12.8%) samples were positive. Enteroviruses was present in 49 (83%) samples and herpes virus family in 10 (17%), of these 6 (10%) herpes simplex virus, 1 (2%) Epstein Barr virus, 2 (3%) human herpes virus type 6 and 1 (2%) mixed infection of enterovirus and Epstein Barr virus. As conclusion enterovirus was the most frequent virus, with circulation during summer and was observed with higher frequency between 4 to 17 years of age. PCR methodology is an important method for rapid detection of RNA enterovirus and DNA herpesvirus in CSF.

  12. Assessment of inorganic contaminants in golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ederson R.; Soares, Bruno M.; Duarte, Fabio A., E-mail: fabioand@gmail.com [Escola de Quimica e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande-RS (Brazil); Vieira, Joao P.; Mai, Ana C.G. [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande-RS (Brazil); Picoloto, Rochele S.; Muller, Edson I.; Flores, Erico M.M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria-RS (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Major and trace element content was determined in golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) collected in the Sao Goncalo Channel (Rio Grande City, Brazil). A microwave-assisted digestion procedure in closed vessels was applied to mussel decomposition and subsequent determination of elements by spectrometric techniques. Results showed that the mussel tissue contains Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Pb, S, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn, while the same elements (except Ag and Hg) were quantified in its shell, demonstrating its potential as a biomarker. In this sense, these results can be used to establish an initial view and to contribute to further studies related to element contamination in the area under study (author)

  13. Habitat use and seasonal activity of insectivorous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the grasslands of southern Brazil

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    Marília A. S. Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.

  14. Sequential extraction and availability of copper in Cu fungicide-amended vineyard soils from Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Nogueirol, Roberta [University of Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), C.P. 9, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Ferracciu Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo, E-mail: alleoni@esalq.usp.br [Department of Soil Science, ESALQ/USP. C.P. 9, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro Nachtigall, Gilmar; Wellington de Melo, George [National Research Center of Grapes and Wine - Embrapa Uva e Vinho, C.P. 130, Bento Goncalves 95700-000, RS (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The continuous use of cupric fungicides in vineyards, mainly copper sulfate (as a component of the bordeaux mixture), has increased Cu concentration in soils to levels near or even above the maximum established by the Commission of Soil Chemistry and Fertility of the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Besides the total content, the fractions of the element along the soil profile must be known, because the total content of Cu in the soil is not sufficient to express its environmental impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of Cu contentes along the soil profile and its speciation and partitioning in 29 soil samples from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were collected in areas cropped with vineyards older than 15 years that had been frequently treated with the bordeaux mixture. These samples were from Nitosols, Acrisols, Cambisols and Leptosols and were analysed by sequential extractions and several chemical extractors. Soils had diverse chemical and physical attributes: clay content in the plowed layer (0-0.2 m) ranged from 120 to 610 g kg{sup -1}, pH ranged from 5.3 to 7.3 and organic carbon contents varied from 2.9 to 51 g dm{sup -3}. Among the 29 samples, 16 had the total Cu above the maximum limit allowed by the European Community regulations (140 mg kg{sup -1}). The average amount of Cu bonded to the oxide fraction accounted for 49.5% of the total Cu.

  15. The burrows of Parastacus defossus (Decapoda: Parastacidae, a fossorial freshwater crayfish from southern Brazil

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    Clarissa K. Noro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parastacus defossus Faxon, 1898 is a fossorial crayfish species, which constructs its burrows in swampy areas in southeast Uruguay and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The present field study was carried out in Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May 2003 through August 2005. Environmental measurements (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and water-table depth of the water in the galleries were made monthly. Burrow morphology was analyzed by means of resin and gypsum casts. The spatial distribution and changes in the number and shape of the surface openings over time were observed in a 100 m² area. To estimate the spatial distribution of the openings, the observed distribution was compared with the expected distribution predicted by the Poisson and Negative Binomial frequency-distribution models. The adult population density was estimated by direct observation of burrows and counts in the study area. Inside the burrows of P. defossus, the water temperature ranged between 16.6°C (autumn 2004 and 23°C (spring 2003. The water was hypoxic and slightly acidic, and the dissolved oxygen content was very low (mean 1.43 mg/l (18.2% saturation. The soil with burrows had higher percentages of coarse sand, fine sand, and silt. The spatial distribution of the openings showed a significant fit to the Negative Binomial distribution, indicating that the distribution of the openings is aggregated, as confirmed from the burrow morphology. The galleries are always formed by a central tunnel with multiple branchings that connect the underground water to the soil surface by one or more openings, which can be recognized by the chimneys. From knowledge of the burrow morphology, the population density was estimated to be about 120 individuals/100 m².

  16. Land suitability for final waste disposal with emphasis on septic systems installation in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeani Moreira de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Environmental pollution is a problem that has been noted due to changes in the environment, affecting natural resources. Regarding the soil, it may offer great potential for waste disposal. Thus, this study aims to propose criteria for evaluating local suitability for waste disposal, according to soil and terrain attributes for southern Minas Gerais State, and to apply those criteria to define the most appropriate locations for installation of septic systems in a pilot watershed. Literature and the authors' experience were used to propose the more important criteria regarding the suitability of sites for waste disposal. The set of attributes taken into account was grouped into four suitability classes: Adequate, Regular, Restricted and Inadequate. The defined criteria and considered limiting were: soil depth, texture, textural gradient, structure, natural drainage, water infiltration, type of surface horizon, water table depth, depth of perched water table, distance from water bodies, relief, stoniness, rockiness and risk of flooding. From these, soil depth, natural drainage, water table depth, relief and distance from water bodies were adopted for the installation of septic systems. From the total area of the watershed, 5.29% fit in the Adequate suitability class. The Regular, Restricted, and Inadequate sites accounted for, respectively, 19.72%, 41.99% and 33% of the wathershed. Factors such as soil and terrain attributes provide a basis for defining more appropriate places for waste disposal. Future work should involve the refinement of these propositions, since there are rare studies in this research line in Brazil.

  17. Use of bioindicators to evaluate air quality and genotoxic compounds in an urban environment in Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. Parmotrema tinctorum and Teloschistes exilis have been used to verify the presence of pollutants and analyze morphophysiological alterations in the thallus of species caused by their action. Species were exposed for seven months, in an urban area, in southern Brazil. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of PM10 organic extracts were assessed in the Salmonella/microsome assay at two stations. High concentrations of S, Pb, Cr, Zn and Hg were registered in the last period of exposure and more significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens. Generally a higher mutagenic activity is observed in organic extracts of airborne particulate matter during the first months and in the third period of exposure of lichens. In addition, nitro compounds was detected through nitro-sensitive strains. Lichens and mutagenic biomarkers enabled the evaluation of air quality and the presence of environmentally-aggressive compounds. - Highlights: ► Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. ► High concentrations of S and metals were registered in the last period of exposure. ► More significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens in the last period of exposure. ► The results reveals that a set of factors contributed to the morphophysiological alterations of lichens. - Bioindicators are valuable monitors of genotoxic compounds and atmospheric pollution.

  18. Infant malnutrition and obesity in three population-based birth cohort studies in Southern Brazil: trends and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar G; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Araújo, Cora L; Barros, Fernando C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the evolution of nutritional deficits and overweight in one-year-old children from three birth cohorts started in 1982, 1993 and 2004 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Samples from the 1982 and 1993 cohorts and all children from 2004 were weighed and measured, and their mothers interviewed. Anthropometric deficits and overweight were assessed using both NCHS and WHO growth standards. A comparison of the existence of nutritional deficits showed that, after a decline between 1982 and 1993, its prevalence stabilized between 1993 and 2004. Across the whole period, a decrease in all deficits was observed. Obesity, on the other hand, increased. A deficit in the ratio of body length to age was found to be strongly associated with family income. The group with income below one minimum wage was the only to present a significant reduction of stunting during the study period. The most significant improvements in the reduction of nutritional deficits occurred in the first half of the study period, while social differentials remained. Fighting malnutrition is still necessary among the 40% of the population considered poor, and must be accompanied by efforts to combat overweight which is being observed in all social strata.

  19. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenir I. Palmero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9% reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8% had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ³ 20% and 214 (23.7% had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%. The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65. These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3% indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers.

  20. Temporal and ontogenetic variations in feeding habits of Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Teleostei: Characidae in coastal Atlantic rainforest streams, southern Brazil

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    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the characin Hollandichthys multifasciatus were investigated. Samplings were made between March 2004 and February 2005 in two black water streams of the coastal Atlantic rainforest in southern Brazil. The diet, evaluated by qualitative and quantitative methods, included aquatic and terrestrial insects, decapods, oligochaetes, plants and spiders. Large individuals feed mainly on plants, terrestrial insects, and spiders, whereas small fish feed basically on plants and oligochaetes. The species showed an omnivorous feeding habit, and its diet was composed of autochthonous (mainly oligochaetes and allochthonous (plants and terrestrial insects material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do caracídeo Hollandichthys multifasciatus. Amostras foram obtidas entre março de 2004 e fevereiro de 2005, em dois riachos de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. A dieta, avaliada por métodos quantitativos e qualitativos, inclui insetos aquáticos e terrestres, decápodes, oligoquetos aquáticos, plantas e aranhas. Os maiores indivíduos alimentaram-se principalmente de plantas, insetos terrestres e aranhas, enquanto que os menores indivíduos alimentaram-se basicamente de plantas e oligoquetos aquáticos. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar onívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por material autóctone (principalmente oligoquetos aquáticos e alóctone (plantas e insetos terrestres.

  1. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country. PMID:26712361

  2. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize.

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    Natália Carolina de Almeida Silva

    Full Text Available Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4-18, non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20 with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians.

  3. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, D C; Ferreira, J D; Bueno, P A A; Iwakura, L; Bueno, R O; Campiolo, J B

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period) and April (rainy period), 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m(2) for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April), but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth.) had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir. PMID:26628226

  4. Maternal Gene Polymorphisms Involved in Folate Metabolism as Risk Factors for Down Syndrome Offspring in Southern Brazil

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    Ana Paula Carneiro Brandalize

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the role of maternal polymorphisms, as well as their risk genotypes combinations of MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, CBS 844ins68, and RFC A80G, involved in folate/homocysteine metabolism, as possible risk factors for Down syndrome (DS in Southern Brazil. A case-control study was conducted with 239~mothers of DS children and 197 control mothers. The investigation of polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP. The distribution of genotypic variants was similar in both groups when they were analyzed separately. An investigation of combined risk genotypes showed that the risk of having a DS child for one, two or three risk genotypes was 6.23, 6.96 and 5.84 (95%CI 1.48–26.26; 1.69–28.66; 1.37–24.86, respectively. The combined MTRR 66G and MTHFR 677T alleles were significantly more common among mothers of children with DS than among control mothers (OR 1.55; IC 95% 1.03–2.35. The results show that individual polymorphisms studied in this work are not associated with DS; however, the effects of the combined risk genotypes among MTR, MTRR, CBS and RFC genes are considered maternal risk factors for DS offspring in our population.

  5. Dental pain, use of dental services and oral health-related quality of life in southern Brazil.

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    Cavalheiro, Charles Henrique; Abegg, Claides; Fontanive, Victor Nascimento; Davoglio, Rosane Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the relationship between dental pain and the reason for using dental services and oral health quality of life in people aged 50 to 74 years in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 720 individuals aged 50 to 74 years, living in three health districts in the city of Porto Alegre. Dental impacts on daily life and sociodemographic data were assessed using structured interviews. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance - OIDP instrument was used to measure oral impacts. The information was analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment, taking into account cluster sampling. Dental pain was present in 32.5% of those reporting an oral impact on their daily activities. Dental pain most frequently affected talking (37.6%), cleaning teeth and gums (37.0%) and enjoying the companionship of people (36.5%). After adjustments to the multivariate analysis, the reason for dental visits due to dental pain was found to have a high impact on daily activities [RP 1.68 (1.11 - 2.54]. PMID:27556550

  6. Ecological guilds of epiphytic diatoms (Bacillariophyta on Acrostichum danaeifolium Längst. & Fisch in a subtropical wetland in southern Brazil

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    Vanessa Corrêa da Rosa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: Seasonal patterns diatom community on Acrostichum danaeifolium were examined in a wetland in southern Brazil. Methods The adhered diatoms were removed from the plant, species identification and growth forms were performed, and determined physical-chemical parameters of water. Results In total, 96 taxa belonging to 46 genera were identified. Nitzschia frustulum, Pseudostaurosira brevistriata and Plagiogramma tenuissimum were abundant species. Distinct growth forms that formed low-and high-profile ecological guilds and a mobile guild were observed. Navicula and Nitzschia were the genera with the greatest number of species, and these diatoms formed mucilage tubes. The water temperature varied from 10-26 °C, the depth from 0.35-0.80 m, the transparency from 0.20-0.23 m, the flow from 9.4-42.12 m3 s–1, the pH from 7.08-8.89, the electrical conductivity from 0.65-15.83 mS cm–1, the total organic phosphorus from 0.03-0.11 mg L–1, and the total organic nitrogen from 0.29-0.49 mg L–1. In summer, marine species such as Thalassiosira eccentrica and Rhaphoneis castracanii were also present. Conclusions The high-profile guild prevailed in all seasons of the year, with higher number of growth forms in the guild in winter. The richness found on A. danaeifolium shows that this plant provide a favorable habitat for epiphytic diatoms in wetlands such as Lagoa Pequena.

  7. Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil.

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    Ilha, M R S; Loretti, A P; Reis, A C F

    2005-10-10

    A sporadic wasting syndrome affecting beef cattle herds parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum is described in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The disease was characterized by progressive weight loss, poor body condition despite plenty of good quality forage available, and death. Annual losses ranged from 1 to 3%. The clinical course of the disease varied from 2 to 10 months after the onset of the first clinical signs. At necropsy, one of the three distinct following patterns of lesions were observed: the pancreas was of normal size and color; small, shrunken, white and markedly and diffusely firm (fibrosis); or slightly enlarged and dark with a shriveled capsular surface. Myriads of leaf-shaped trematodes of the genus Eurytrema were packed inside multiple dilated ducts with thickened, whitish fibrous walls, or the flukes were embedded in the remaining pancreatic parenchyma. Microscopic findings included extensive loss of the pancreatic parenchyma with replacement fibrosis, intralesional flukes and eggs, and ductal hyperplasia. Inflammatory reaction varied from absent to severe with the presence of a granulomatous reaction around the trematode eggs. One affected animal had high plasma amylase concentration (1580U/L) suggesting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Glucose blood levels were not significantly increased. We suggest that diffuse and marked fibrosis of the pancreas induced by the presence of large amounts of pancreatic flukes is the cause of the sporadic cases of chronic wasting and death of cattle in this geographic area. PMID:16046069

  8. Annual variation in canopy openness, air temperature and humidity inthe understory of three forested sites in southern Bahia State, Brazil

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    Marayana Prado Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing to the knowledge of physical factors affecting community structure in Atlantic Forest remnants of southern Bahia state, Brazil, we analyzed the annual variation in the understory microclimate of a hillside forest fragment in the ‘Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Teimoso’ (RST and a rustic cacao agroforestry system (Cabruca, located nearby the RST. Canopy openness (CO, air temperature (Ta, air relative humidity (RH and vapor pressure deficit (VPD data were collected between April, 2005 and April, 2006 at the base (RSTB, 340 m and the top (RSTT, 640 m of the RST and at the Cabruca (CB, 250 m. Data of rainfall, Ta, RH and VPD were also collected in an open area (OA, 270 m. The highest rainfalls (> 100 mm occurred in November, 2005 and April, 2006, whereas October, 2005 was the driest month (< 20 mm. CO ranged between 2.5 % in the CB (April, 2006 and 7.7 % in the RST (October, 2005. Low rainfall in October, 2005 affected VPDmax in all sites. Those effects were more pronounced in OA, followed by CB, RSTB and RSTT. During the period of measurements, the values of Ta, RH and VPD in CB were closer to the values measured in OA than to the values measured inside the forest.

  9. Presence of Zea luxurians (Durieu and Ascherson) Bird in Southern Brazil: Implications for the Conservation of Wild Relatives of Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4–18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577

  10. Molecular detection of bovine coronavirus in a diarrhea outbreak in pasture-feeding Nellore steers in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2016-03-01

    Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country.

  11. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic. PMID:26960764

  12. High genetic differentiation of Aegla longirostri (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) populations in southern Brazil revealed by multi-loci microsatellite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomei-Santos, M L; Roratto, P A; Santos, S

    2011-01-01

    Species with a broad distribution rarely have the same genetic make-up throughout their entire range. In some cases, they may constitute a cryptic complex consisting of a few species, each with a narrow distribution, instead of a single-, widely distributed species. These differences can have profound impacts for biodiversity conservation planning. The genetic differentiation of four populations of Aegla longirostri, a freshwater crab found in two geographically isolated basins in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, was investigated by analyzing pentanucleotide multi-loci microsatellites in a heteroduplex assay. Although no morphological differences were evident, we found significant genetic differentiation among the four populations, based on F(ST) values and clustering analysis. This high level of differentiation may be indicative of cryptic species in these populations. If this hypothesis is correct, then the species occurring in the Ibicuí-Mirim River, at the southern limit of the Atlantic Rain Forest, would be under threat, considering its very restricted distribution. PMID:22179994

  13. High proportion of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 and 3 in a large cohort of patients from Southern Brazil

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    Cláudia Maria Dornelles da Silva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV isolates have been divided into six genotypes (1 to 6. The duration of hepatitis C standard treatment is 48 weeks for patients infected with HCV genotype 1 vs 24 weeks for those infected with genotypes 2 and 3. A total of 1544 HCV isolates from chronic patients living in the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 627 and Santa Catarina (SC, n = 917 were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of polymerase chain reaction (PCR products. In RS, 338 (53.9%; 95% CI 50.0 - 57.8%, 34 (5.4%; 95% CI 3.8 - 7.4% and, 255 (40.7%; 95% CI 36.9 - 44.6% samples were from genotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In SC, 468 (51%; 95% CI 47.8 - 54.2%, 26 (2.9%; 95% CI 1.9 - 4.1% and, 423 (46.1%; 95% CI 42.9 - 49.3% samples were from genotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Genotyping results were confirmed by direct nucleotide sequencing of PCR products derived from 68 samples, without any discrepancy between PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequencing methods. In conclusion, almost half of the hepatitis C patients from South of Brazil are infected by genotypes 2 and 3 and, these results have important consequential therapeutic implications as they can be treated for only 24 weeks, not 48.

  14. New species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on Aegla serrana Buckup & Rossi (Crustacea, Anomura from southern Brazil

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    José Felipe Ribeiro Amato

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 is described from southern Brazil, ectosymbiont on Aegla serrana Buckup & Rossi, 1977, an anomuran crustacean, collected in a creek and a reservoir of the highlands in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. All crustaceans examined were positive for this species of Temnocephala and carried eggs in different regions of the ventral side: perioral area, pleural strips, esternal plates, pereiopods and chelipods; to a lesser extent in the dorsal side of the cephalothorax and dorsal side of the uropods; as well as adult and young specimens. The most distinctive characters of the new species are: 1 cyanophilous glands forming an irregular-shaped, grape-like, bunch of approximately 10-15 cells, deeply staining with hematoxylin; 2 shape and size of the cirrus and its introvert section; 3 number, size and distribution of the rhabdite glands and 4 shape and position of the post tentacular, 'excretory' syncytial plates, with the off-centered nephridiopore.

  15. Wilson's disease in Southern Brazil: genotype-phenotype correlation and description of two novel mutations in ATP7B gene

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    Ricardo Schmitt de Bem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Wilson's disease (WD is an inborn error of metabolism caused by abnormalities of the copper-transporting protein encoding gene ATP7B. In this study, we examined ATP7B for mutations in a group of patients living in southern Brazil. METHODS: 36 WD subjects were studied and classified according to their clinical and epidemiological data. In 23 subjects the ATP7B gene was analyzed. RESULTS: Fourteen distinct mutations were detected in at least one of the alleles. The c.3207C>A substitution at exon 14 was the most common mutation (allelic frequency=37.1% followed by the c.3402delC at exon 15 (allelic frequency=11.4%. The mutations c.2018-2030del13 at exon 7 and c.4093InsT at exon 20 are being reported for the first time. CONCLUSION: The c.3207C>A substitution at exon 14, was the most common mutation, with an allelic frequency of 37.1%. This mutation is the most common mutation described in Europe.

  16. [Adhering to or resisting tobacco cultivation? Stories of rural workers from a producing region in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Hennington, Elida Azevedo

    2014-10-01

    This study sought to understand the standpoints of farming families who have resisted or abandoned tobacco cultivation and also the perceptions of State representatives, civil society organizations and the tobacco industry regarding the implementation and the continuity of this cultivation in a producing region in southern Brazil. In this ethnographic study, 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with farming families and key informants. Besides that, participant observation was conducted. For those who abandoned tobacco cultivation, the main reason mentioned was indebtedness, and for those who have never planted, the main reasons alleged were fear of indebtedness, a limited workforce or religious issues. State representatives and civil society organizations highlighted illusory financial returns as the main reason for tobacco cultivation. Tobacco industry representatives insisted on the difficulty of commercializing the production and the low price of foodstuffs as a stimulus to adhere to the integrated system. It is therefore concluded that the formation of associations and the development of crop rotation plans are important strategies to be adopted to facilitate the change of cultivation in order to promote better working and living conditions for the rural population.

  17. Reproductive biology of a population of Gymnotus aff.carapo (Teleostei: Gymnotidae from southern Brazil

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    Diego de Paula Cognato

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive period and its relation with somatic and abiotic factors, the relative and absolute fecundity, spawning type, length of first maturation and sex ratio is describe for Gymnotus aff.carapo from a small lake at Itapuã State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Gymnotus aff. carapo presents a relatively long reproductive cycle extending from November/2003 to March/2004. Decreases in water conductivity and increases in dissolved oxygen are correlated with increased gonadal development in males. In females, seasonal increases in temperature and photoperiod and decreases in dissolved oxygen are correlated with increased gonadal development. The mean absolute fecundity was 915.3 oocytes, and mean relative fecundity 0.20 oocytes/mg body weight. Egg size distributions indicate multiple spawning. The size of first maturation was 141 mm in females and 146 mm in males. The sex ratio was 1:1, with a male bias only in smaller size classes.São descritos o período reprodutivo e a relação deste com fatores bióticos e abióticos, a fecundidade absoluta e relativa, o tipo de desova, comprimento de primeira maturação e proporção sexual de Gymnotus aff. carapo de um pequeno lago no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A espécie apresentou um período reprodutivo relativamente longo, de novembro de 2003 até março de 2004. Houve correlação significativamente positiva entre o IGS dos machos e o oxigênio dissolvido e negativa em relação à condutividade. O IGS das fêmeas se correlacionou positivamente com a temperatura e fotoperíodo, e negativamente com o oxigênio dissolvido. A fecundidade absoluta média foi de 915,3 ovócitos e a fecundidade relativa média foi de 0,20 ovócitos por miligrama de peso da fêmea. A desova foi considerada parcelada e o tamanho de primeira maturação gonadal foi de 141 mm para fêmeas e 146 mm para machos. A proporção sexual no período amostrado foi de 1:1, sendo que somente na menor

  18. A critical evaluation of coastal erosion in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    Dillenburg Sérgio R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidences of coastal erosion in Rio Grande do Sul have been obtained by three methods: (a analysis of the long-term morphodynamics and stratigraphy of coastal barriers, (b annual shoreline mapping using the Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS, and (c local beach profile measurements. The first method reflects coastal erosion as continuity of the geological evolution in the last 5 ka, taking place mainly along the southern half of gentle coastal projections. The second method represents a shorter temporal scale and indicates that approximately 80% of the coast is eroding. Beach profiling has been measured in very few places that are distant from each other since the early 1990s; consequently, their results reflect local and very short time shoreline behavior. A critical evaluation of published data addressing coastal erosion in Rio Grande do Sul strongly suggests that short and long term negative balance on the sediment budget is the main cause of erosion along this coastline.

  19. Evidences of Holocene transgression on Domingos Petrolini Swamp, southern coastal plain, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Domingos Petrolini Swamp, located on the Southern Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul, near the town of Rio Grande, constitutes an ample holocene lagoonal deposit. Events related to the holocene transgression and their diverse phases of glacial-eustatic ocillations were found through palynological analysis. Bases on these palynological data, four distinct phases to the paleoenvironmental evolution of the ecosystem were identified. It has also shown a transgressive restricted marine sequence on the base, which suggests the existence of a coastal brackish lagoon or a marisme type of environment. Later, there was a gradation for continentality conditions along with a scarce pollinical record. The third phase is characterized by the presence of marine components and halophyte vegetation, showing another transgressive event in that place. Lastly, the end of direct marine influence over the swamp was recorded and also the vegetation development as it appears these days.

  20. ISOLATION OF Rickettsia bellii FROM Amblyomma ovale AND Amblyomma incisum TICKS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Richard Pacheco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To isolate and characterize rickettsiae from the ticks Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma incisum collected in the state of São Paulo. Materials and methods. Adult, free-living A. ovale and A. incisum were collected in an Atlantic rainforest area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Each tick was tested using the hemolymph assay; samples from positive ticks were placed in shell vials in order to isolate rickettsiae and subsequently grown in Vero cells. Amplification of three rickettsial genes (gltA, htrA and ompA was attempted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for each isolate obtained. Amplicons were subsequently sequenced. Results. A total of 388 A. incisum and 50 A. ovale were collected. Only one A. incisum and one A. ovale were hemolymph-test positive. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from these ticks; however establishment in Vero cell culture was successful only for the isolate from A. ovale. Bacterial contamination in the first cell passage of the A. incisum isolate precluded successful isolation of the organism. PCR products were obtained with the gltA and htrA primers for the two isolates, but no product was obtained with the ompA primers. By BLAST analysis, partial gltA and htrA sequences of isolates from A. ovale and A. incisum were similar to the corresponding sequences of R. bellii. Conclusions. This is the first report of R. bellii infecting A. incisum and the first successful isolation from A. ovale.

  1. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Toad Venoms from Southern Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho

    2016-08-01

    The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance ('1') identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance ('1') tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance '1' showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds. PMID:27658592

  2. Geochemical assessment of a subtropical reservoir: a case study in curitiba, Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton; Hirata, Patricia Y.; Godoi, Ana F.L.; Cunha, Cynara L.N.; Soares, Ana P.K.; Gobbi, Eduardo F. [Environmental Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana/UFPR, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Bitterncourt, Andre V.L. [Department of Geology, Federal University of Parana/UFPR, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Jafelicci, Miguel Jr.; Santos, Francisco J. dos; Bini, Rafael [Chemistry Institute, Sao Paulo State University UNESP, Araraquara, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Zara, Liuz F.; Gardolinski, Jose E.F.C.; Reis Neto, Jose M. [University of Brasilia, Planaltina, DC (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Rotondo, Giuliana Gatto; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-04-15

    Suspended particles and dissolved substances in water provide reactive surfaces, influence metabolic activity and contribute to the net sediment deposition. It therefore plays an important part in the ecology and quality of the water mass. The water quality in reservoirs is crucial and it is naturally maintained by flushing and sedimentation, which continuously remove phosphorus from the water. In some reservoirs, however, these removal processes are countered by recycling of ions which could play a key role to start and/or maintain the eutrophic state. The combination of macro-, trace- and microanalysis techniques can be useful to trace pollution sources through a chemical fingerprint, whether be during an acute environmental disaster or a long-term release of pollutants. The water quality and total metal content of reservoir sediments were assessed in a reservoir, situated in the capital of the Parana State, in the South-Eastern part of Brazil. The goal of this paper was to determine the metal presence in the sediment and metal and ionic speciation in the Green River reservoir water. Water and bed sediment samples, collected from various sites during 2008 and 2009, were investigated using XRF, ICP-OES, ICP-MS, XRD and zeta potential measurements. Based on the results, the heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the suspended matter in the water samples, as well as the sediment's chemical composition will be discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Incidence of Acute Diarrhea Among Children Aged 0 - 1 Year in Southern Brazil, 2012

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    Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence rate of acute diarrheal disease in children is a health indicator, and the estimation of these data can help guide public health policies. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors for acute diarrheal disease in children aged 0 - 1 year. Patients and Methods An observational prospective cohort study was conducted on 210 children recruited at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, in Tubarao, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Children born between July and September 2012 were followed up for 12 months. The presence of three or more liquid or loose stools during a 24-hour period was considered acute diarrhea. The categories of variables evaluated were comprised of sociodemographic characteristics (per capita income, maternal education, maternal age, access to medical care [public or private], and housing and living conditions [sanitation and hygiene, water supply, daycare attendance, and domestic animal] and characteristics of the child (gender, birth weight, and breastfeeding. Results The incidence of acute diarrhea among the 0 - 1-year-old children was 26.7 cases per 1,000 children per month. Independent risk factors for the occurrence of diarrhea were maternal age under 20 years and health care services provided by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. Conclusions The high incidence density of diarrhea among the children recruited in this study indicates the need for educational programs directed at people who are involved in this issue.

  4. The beliefs of mothers in southern Brazil regarding risk-factors associated with congenital abnormalities

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    Gilberto de Lima Garcias

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We describes a study in which conventional wisdom about congenital malformations was investigated, the two main objectives being to list mothers' ideas by comparing six well-known causes of congenital abnormalities (ingestion of alcoholic beverages, smoking tobacco, drug use, marriage between relatives (consanguinity, rubella infection, maternal age with explanations current in the general population and to discover the most common fallacies held by the general population concerning such abnormalities. The data were collected from 1 January to 31 December 1995 during a population study in which mothers were interviewed in hospitals in the city of Pelotas (population 400,000, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. On each day of the study, the first three mothers to give birth were interviewed, resulting in 3,219 interviewed mothers out of 6,048 births. Our conclusion is that even though conventional wisdom is non-scientific it cannot be ignored because it is the source of a lot of suffering for the mother and can interfere with how she cares for her health . Although erroneous ideas about the causes of congenital abnormalities were more common among mothers from families receiving less than one minimum wage such ideas were found in all socioeconomic groups. In our discussion we emphasize that both mothers and the general public should be made aware of those risk-factors, especially maternal age and consanguinity, that really can cause congenital abnormalities.

  5. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba spp. from thermal swimming pools and spas in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabres, Laura Fuhrich; Rosa Dos Santos, Sayonara Peixoto; Benitez, Lisianne Brittes; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2016-03-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed in soil and water. A few number of them are implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Species of Acanthamoeba can cause keratitis and brain infections. In this study, 72 water samples were taken from both hot tubs and thermal swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the water as well as perform the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolates. The identification of the isolates was based on the cysts morphology and PCR amplification using genus-specific oligonucleotides. When the isolates were submitted to PCR reaction only 8 were confirmed as belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba. The sequences analysis when compared to the sequences in the GenBank, showed genotype distribution in group T3 (12,5%), T5 (12,5%), T4 (25%) and T15 (50%). The results of this study confirmed the presence of potentially pathogenic isolates of free living amoebae in hot swimming pool and spas which can present risks to human health.

  6. Reproductive phenology of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassman (Arecaceae in Atlantic Forest, in southern Brazil

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    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the reproductive phenology of Syagrus romanzoffiana in an area of secondary vegetation of Atlantic Forest in Parque Municipal da Lagoa do Peri, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Evaluations were made every 30 days, for 39 reproductive palms, from June 2006 to July 2008. Two flowering events were recorded, one from November 2006 to February 2007 and another from October 2007 to March 2008. Flowering intensity was greater in December 2006 (mean ± sd (0.38 ± 0.63 inflorescences/plant and January 2008 (0.59 ± 0.55. Fruiting was continuous, with green fruits present during all 26 months of the study; intensity was greatest in March of 2008 (1.64 ± 1.11 infructescenses/plant. Ripe fruits were discontinuously present, occurring between March and November, with the highest intensity of infructescences in July 2006 (0.56 ± 0.50 and July 2008 (0.51 ± 0.51. The monthly mean of inflorescences and mature infructescences per plant showed significant correlations with the photoperiod, rainfall and temperature during the months of the study period. The reproductive intensity of Syagrus romanzoffiana, between 2006 and 2008, varied with periods of greater and smaller intensity.

  7. Acute gastroenteritis and enteric viruses in hospitalised children in southern Brazil: aetiology, seasonality and clinical outcomes

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    Sonia Maria Raboni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV, RVA, norovirus (NoV and astrovirus (AstV. NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26% were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5, HAdV/NoV (3 and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1. The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations.

  8. Nitrogen fractions in the microbial biomass in soils of southern Brazil

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    F. A.O. Camargo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of nitrogen compounds with ninhydrin can be used as an indicator of cytoplasmic materials released from microbial cells killed by fumigation. Total-N, ninhydrin-reactive-N (NR-N, ammonium-N (A-N, and α-amino-N in the microbial biomass of soils from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were determined, in 1996, in 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 extracts of fumigated and non-fumigated soils. Total-N varied from 20.3 to 104.4 mg kg-1 and the ninhydrin-reactive-N corresponded, in average, to 27% of this. The ninhydrin-reactive-N was made up of 67% ammonium-N and 33% aminoacids with the amino group at the α-carbon position. It was concluded that colorimetric analysis of NR-N and A-N may be used as a direct measure of microbial N in soil. This simple and rapid procedure is adequate for routine analyses.

  9. Dental pain, socioeconomic status, and dental caries in young male adults from southern Brazil

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    João Luiz Dornelles Bastos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess dental pain prevalence and its association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in 18-year-old males from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample (n = 414 selected from the Brazilian Army conscription list in 2003. Dental pain during the 12 months prior to the interview was recorded as the outcome. Socioeconomic data were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT Index. Analyses included simple and multiple non-conditional logistic regression following a hierarchical approach. Response rate was 95.6%. High rates of inter-examiner agreement were achieved (kappa > 0.83. Dental pain prevalence was 21.2% (95%CI: 17.3-25.1. After adjustment, individuals with one or more untreated caries were 3.2 times more likely (95%CI: 1.7-5.8 to have dental pain compared to caries-free subjects. Conscripts with low family income were 1.8 times more likely (95%CI: 1.0-3.3 to have dental pain than those with higher income.

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Kaingang native americans in southern Brazil

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    Heloisa Nakai Kwabara dos Anjos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and obesity among a Brazilian indigenous population. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 among Kaingang native Americans from the central region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Eighty two of the inhabitants aged 15 or older were selected. Height, weight, blood pressure, waistline circumference, and hip circumference were measured. After fasting, the blood was collected for the measurement of glucose, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, total cholesterol, AI and B apolipoprotein, and hemoglobin. The prevalences found were: fasting hyperglycemia (9.8%, hypercholesterolemia (4.9%, reduced HDL cholesterol (13.4%, hypertriglyceridemia (11%, abdominal obesity (37.8%, generalized obesity (26.8%, arterial hypertension (26.8%, and anemia (46.3%. The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among the Kaingang was 11%, all in females 20 to 49 years of age. The results suggested that the changes in the indigenous lifestyle, especially in eating habits and physical activity, have occurred.

  11. Marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugoni, L; Krause, L; Petry, M V

    2001-12-01

    Dead stranded sea turtles were recovered and examined to determine the impact of anthropogenic debris and fishery activities on sea turtles on the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Esophagus/stomach contents of 38 juvenile green Chelonia mydas, 10 adults and sub-adults loggerhead Caretta caretta, and two leatherback Dermochelys coriacea turtles (adult or sub-adult) included plastic bags as the main debris ingested, predominated by white and colorless pieces. The ingestion of anthropogenic debris accounted for the death of 13.2% of the green turtles examined. Signs of damage over the body and carapace indicated that fishing activities caused the death of 13.6% (3/22) of loggerheads and 1.5% (1/56) of green turtles. Therefore, it appears that direct and indirect effects of fishing activities may pose a threat to these species in Brazilian waters. Other sources of plastic debris should be investigated as well as the direct impact of fisheries, especially bottom trawl and gill nets, in order to establish effective conservation action.

  12. Maternal care influence on children’s caries prevalence in southern Brazil

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    Gabriela dos Santos PINTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate the influence of specific maternal-factors on caries prevalence in offspring. This cross sectional study was conducted in Pelotas, Brazil nested in a cohort of adolescent mothers with children aged 24–42 months. A questionnaire was administered to collect information in relationship to socio-economic, demographic, and behavioral maternal variables. The outcome (children’s dental caries prevalence – dmfs > 0 was collected from clinical examinations. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. A total of 538 mother/child dyads were evaluated and 15.1% of the children exhibited caries. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed children from mothers living without partners (p < 0.027 had more caries than those living with partners. Maternal perception of a child’s oral health was associated to occurrence of caries, particularly when mothers classified their child as poor and these children had a higher level of caries. In addition, mothers accurately evaluated their child’s teeth when associated with caries occurrence. Maternal oral health care practices were associated with children’s caries prevalence. Our results demonstrated mothers accurately evaluated the oral health of their offspring.

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil

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    Edmundo C Grisard

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI, in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI, located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed.

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisard, E C; Carvalho-Pinto, C J; Scholz, A F; Toma, H K; Schlemper, B R; Steindel, M

    2000-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI), in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI), located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed. PMID:11080763

  15. Green microfinance: the case of the Cresol System in Southern Brazil

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    Lauro Gonzalez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change which until recently seemed a luxury for the microfinance sector, now appears to be crucial for the future of the sector. Due to their low adaptive capacity, the millions of MF clients worldwide happen to be the most vulnerable to a changing climate. Adapting previous analysis conducted in Nepal and Bangladesh by Agrawala and Maëlis (2010 to the Brazilian context, in this inductive qualitative study we aim to assess potential synergies between MF and CC actions and what strategies can be harnessed to better respond to CC vulnerabilities at client/MF level. To do so, we investigated the case of the second largest rural microcredit programme in Brazil, Sistema Cresol de Cooperativas de Crédito Rural com Interação Solidária. Albeit important overlaps between Cresol's product envelope and CC strategies exist, there is still room to realise synergies to both mitigate a new potential source of risk to Cresol's portfolio and to increase clients' adaptive capacity.

  16. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

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    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  17. Marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugoni, Leandro; Krause, Ligia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Dept. de Zoologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Petry, Maria Virginia [Universidade do Rio dos Sinos, Museu de Zoologia, Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Dead stranded sea turtles were recovered and examined to determine the impact of anthropogenic debris and fishery activities on sea turtles on the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Esophagus/stomach contents of 38 juvenile green Chelonia mydas, 10 adults and sub-adults loggerhead Caretta caretta, and two leatherback Dermochelys coriacea turtle (adult or sub-adult) included plastic bags as the main debris ingested, predominated by white and colorless pieces. The ingestion of anthropogenic debris accounted for the death of 13.2% of the green turtles examined. Signs of damage over the body and carapace indicated that fishing activities caused the death of 13.6% (3/22) of loggerheads and 1.5% (1/56) of green turtles. Therefore, it appears that direct and indirect effects of fishing activities may pose a threat to these species in Brazilian waters. Other sources of plastic debris should be investigated as well a the direct impact of fisheries, especially bottom trawl and gill nets, in order to establish effective conservation action. (Author)

  18. Mercury bioaccumulation in fishes of a paddy field in Southern of Brazil

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    Vinicius Tavares Kütter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of present study was to evaluate the Hg concentration in two species of fish (Astyanax sp and Corydoras paleatus and its potential use as a biomonitor, in order to know if the use of pesticides and fertilizers in paddy can enhance the Hg contamination to adjacent aquatic environment.MethodsSoil, suspended particulate matter and fish samples were sampled in a paddy field in South Brazil. A cold vapor system, coupled with a GBC 932 atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for total Hg determinations in samples.ResultsThe paddy soil shows Hg concentration 2-fold higher (mean 31 ng g-1 in comparison to background areas (not cultivated. Suspended particle matter Hg concentration in paddy channels (mean 232.5 ± 44.2 ng g–1 are 1.5 times higher than the regional background. The analyzed fish specimens Astyanax sp in paddy showed Hg concentration 4-fold higher and significant different to background area. The mean Hg concentration in fish was: 51.7 ± 19.5 ng g–1 in Astyanax sp and 156.8 ± 44.0 ng g–1 in Corydoras paleatus.ConclusionsConsidering the linear regression and Man whitney test hypothesis to Hg concentration in fish tissue from paddy suggests that Astyanax sp. can be a good biomonitor of Hg contamination, whereas Corydoras paleatus is a potential biomonitor. However, more studies with Corydoras are necessary in order to aggregate consistency to this hypothesis.

  19. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum surface application in a no-till system in Southern Brazil

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    Nivea Maria Piccolomini Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the impact of phosphogypsum application on 226Ra and 228Ra activities in the soil and on their accumulation in soybean grains. A field experiment was carried out in Paraná state, Brazil, on a loamy Typic Hapludox, under no-till system, with increasing phosphogypsum rates: 4, 8, and 12 Mg ha-1. GammA ray spectrometry was carried out using HPGe detectors with 45 and 10% relative efficiencies, for soybean grains and soil, respectively. No increment of 226Ra and 228Ra activities was observed due to the increase in phosphogypsum rates in the soil, and a small reduction was noticed in the grains. Average values found for 226Ra and 228Ra activities were 37 and 57 Bq kg-1 in the soil and 1.44 and 3.19 Bq kg-1 in soybean grains. The application of phosphogypsum for no-till soybean production is a safe practice regarding the risks of radiation damage to human health

  20. Foraging activity of the snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves: Accipitridae) in wetlands of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, F B; Amaral, H L C; Pinto, D P; Chivittz, C C; Tozetti, A M

    2013-05-01

    The snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is widely distributed in the American continent. Its specialised diet consists mostly of the gastropod mollusk Pomacea sp and its foraging strategy probably varies depending on the season, prey availability, and climate factors, which can be reflected in its semi-nomad behaviour. This study was aimed at examining the hunting strategy of the snail kite, and its association with climate factors and habitat heterogeneity. Direct observations of birds between January 2010 and March 2011 in southernmost Brazil revealed that hunting was still the predominant foraging strategy (79% of records) to capture mollusks. Despite morphological specialisations to extract mollusks from the shells, the handling time (average = 92.4 s) was twice as much the time between prey search and capture (average = 55 s). The increase in the number of mollusks ingested apparently occurs when the resting time on perches or any other substrates near the hunting sites decreases between successive unsuccessful attempts. The correlation between the number of consumed preys and the climatic variables examined was low. Regarding habitat heterogeneity, our findings suggest that birds forage preferentially in marshes with low vegetation, which may increase the access to mollusks. The hunting efficiency of the snail kite was high (76 % successful attempts) compared to those of other birds of prey. PMID:23917551

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMBROZIO, Cíntia Lima; NAGEL, Andréia Saggin; JESKE, Sabrina; BRAGANÇA, Guilherme Cassão Marques; BORSUK, Sibele; VILLELA, Marcos Marreiro

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Trichomonas vaginalis infections have been associated with other diseases so that epidemiological studies of the parasite are important and help to prevent the spread of the disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis in female patients of 19 counties in southwestern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For diagnosis, was used direct examination, followed by applying a socio-epidemiological questionnaire. We analyzed 300 women and 9% were infected by Trichomonas vaginalis. The highest frequency occurred in women between 18 and 39 years old, single/divorced/widowed, whose family income was at one minimum wage or less, and they had not completed the primary school. Statistically significant risk factors were: women reporting two or more sexual partners in the last year were 3.3 times more likely to acquire the parasite, and those in use of oral contraceptives were 2.7 times more likely to have T. vaginalis. Importantly, 33% of the asymptomatic women were infected, and most of the negative results were from women presenting symptoms consistent with the infection. The findings emphasize that it is necessary to expand the knowledge of individuals about the disease, especially among women with the above mentioned risk factors and also to include the regular screening of Trichomonas vaginalis infections in health centers. PMID:27680166

  2. Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Toad Venoms from Southern Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho

    2016-01-01

    The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance (‘1’) identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance (‘1’) tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance ‘1’ showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds. PMID:27658592

  3. New species of titi monkey, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903 (Primates, Pitheciidae, from Southern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Julio César Dalponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Callicebus is one of the most diverse Neotropical primate groups, with 31 recognized species. However, large knowledge gaps still exist regarding the diversity of this genus. Such gaps are gradually being filled due to recent intensification of sampling efforts. Several geographic distributions have been better delimited, and six new species have been described in the last 15 years. The goal of the present study is to describe a new species of Callicebus belonging to the Callicebus moloch species group, recently discovered in an area previously considered to be part of the geographic distribution of C. cinerascens. Data collection was conducted through direct observations, specimen collection and interviews with local residents during four expeditions. Specimens were deposited in the mammalian collection of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi.. For a comparative evaluation, we examined specimens of the other species of the Callicebus moloch species group, especially the geographically neighboring forms, C. bernhardi and C. cinerascens. We examined 10 chromatic characters of the fur. In addition to body mass, we verified the conventional external variables and 26 craniometric variables. The new species differs from all other Amazonian Callicebus by an exclusive combination of characters, being easily distinguished by the light gray line of the forehead, dark ocher sideburns and throat, dark gray portions of the torso and flanks, and uniformly orange tail. The geographic distribution of the new species is limited by the Roosevelt and Aripuanã rivers, in the states of Mato Grosso and Amazonas, Brazil. Approximately 25% (1,246.382 ha of this area falls within conservation areas, with five areas of sustainable use (746,818 ha and three of integral protection (499,564 ha. Furthermore, a considerable portion of the distribution area is located within indigenous lands (1,555.116 ha - 32%. Therefore, 57% (2,801.498 ha of the occurrence area of

  4. Isolation and identification of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus in Southern Brazil

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    Andréia Henzel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Feline calicivirus (FCV and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1 are the two primary causes of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the distribution of FCV and FHV-1 among the feline population of several counties in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. To this end, conjunctival and nasal swabs were collected from 302 cats from different locations, including households, breeding catteries, veterinary clinics, animal hospitals and experimental research facilities. The samples were collected between July 2006 to June 2009. The virus isolation was performed in CRFK cells and, subsequently, the identification was confirmed by PCR. FCV, FHV-1, or both were isolated from 55 cats from 28 different locations. FCV alone was isolated from 52.7% (29/55 of the animals that tested positively, FHV-1 alone was isolated from 38.2% (21/55 of the animals that tested positively, and co-infection were detected in 9.1% (5/55 of the animals that tested positively. Virus detection was more prevalent in cats that were less than 1 year old, among animals that shared a living space with other cats, and females. FCV and FHV-1 were isolated from vaccinated cats. In addition, both viruses were isolated from cats that showed no signs of disease. The results suggest that a carrier state is common for both viruses in the evaluated population. A search for other causes of respiratory disease in that population is necessary; and further studies relating to the molecular characterization of viruses and vaccine efficacy are also necessary.

  5. Volcanic stratigraphy of intermediate to acidic rocks in southern Paraná Magmatic Province, Brazil

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    Liza Angélica Polo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first map in detail scale for an area covered by Palmas type volcanic rocks in the south border of the eocretaceous Paraná Magmatic Province, south Brazil. The study of the structural features coupled with petrography and geochemistry made it possible to separate these rocks into three main volcanic sequences and recognize their stratigraphy. The older Caxias do Sul sequence rests directly over the first low-Ti basalt flows (Gramado type, and corresponds to the stacking of lobated lava flows, laminar flows and lava domes, mostly emitted as continuous eruptions; only the latest eruptions are intercalated with thin sandstone deposits. These rocks have dacitic composition (~ 68 wt% SiO2 with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and subordinate pyroxenes and Ti-magnetite immersed in glassy or devitrified matrix. A second volcanic sequence, named Barros Cassal, is composed of several lava flows of basaltic andesite, andesitic and dacitic composition (~ 54; ~ 57 and ~ 63 wt% SiO2 , respectively, with microphenocrysts of plagioclase, pyroxenes and Ti-magnetite. The frequent intercalation of sandstone between the flows attests to the intermittent behaviour of this event. The upper sequence, Santa Maria, is made up of more silica-rich (~ 70 wt% SiO2 rocks occurring as laminar flows, lobated flows and lava-domes. These rocks have rhyolitic composition with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and Ti-magnetite set in a glassy or devitrified matrix with microlites. The structures and textures of all three silicic sequences favor the interpretation that they had a predominantly effusive character, which is thought to be a reflection of the remarkably high temperatures of the lavas (~ 1,000 ºC.

  6. Diet and reproductive dynamics of Trachelyopterus lucenai (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae in subtropical coastal lagoons in southern Brazil

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    Renata Maia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the diet and reproductive dynamics of Trachelyopterus lucenai Bertoletti, Pezzi da Silva & Pereira, 1995, an allochthonous fish species in the subtropical coastal lagoons of the Tramandaí River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The fecundity of the species is described for the first time. Specimens were captured in the interconnected lagoons Itapeva, Quadros and Malvas, on a monthly basis, from November 2008 to April 2010, with gillnets of different mesh sizes. The food items identified were assessed for abundance and frequency of occurrence. The sex ratio, reproductive period for males and females, for mature females, fecundity, were estimated. These results were analyzed with respect to seasonal variation. We captured 135 individuals, including 82 females and 53 males, especially in months with high temperatures (October 2009 to March 2010. Females were more abundant than males in all months. There was no difference between the mean size of females and males, and both sexes showed allometric growth. The feeding analysis showed a generalist-opportunist food habit; 26 items were consumed, with a predominance of autochthonous items (insects and fish. Temporal variations in diet were associated with variations in water and air temperature and rainfall in the region, but these variations did not differ between males and females. The sex ratio differed significantly from 1:1, with 1.5 females per male. The reproductive period occurred from October to March, with most activity in November and December, and showing no variation between the peaks of gonadal development of males and females. The mean fecundity of mature females was 1,536 oocytes per spawning (n = 17. The feeding habits and reproductive behavior of the species in the study site are similar to those described for where the species is native. Although clearly seasonal, the reproductive period was long, in spite of the low fecundity. These features facilitate the

  7. Tectonic evolution of the Brusque Group, Dom Feliciano belt, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

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    Basei, M. A. S.; Campos Neto, M. C.; Castro, N. A.; Nutman, A. P.; Wemmer, K.; Yamamoto, M. T.; Hueck, M.; Osako, L.; Siga, O.; Passarelli, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Dom Feliciano Belt constitutes the main geotectonic unit of the southeastern portion of Brazil and Uruguay. It was formed by the end of the Neoproterozoic as a result of the interaction among the Rio de La Plata, Paranapanema, Congo and Kalahari cratons during the formation of Western Gondwana. The Brusque Group represents the supracrustal units of the Dom Feliciano Belt that occur in its northernmost part, which ends in the Brazilian coast and probable continuity in the Kaoko Belt in southwestern Africa. It is possible to constrain the evolution of the Brusque Group paleobasin to the Neoproterozoic, with the rift phase starting in the Tonian (940-840 Ma) and the main sedimentation occurring until 640 Ma, as indicated by the ages of the acid volcanic rocks intercalated with the metasedimentary sequence. The supracrustal rocks can be grouped in three main units lithostratigraphically organized from the oldest to the youngest: Rio Oliveira Formation (rift phase, predominating metavolcanic units), Botuverá Formation (metasedimentary) and Rio da Areia Formation (metavolcano-carbonatic). Between 640 and 600 Ma several metamorphism and deformation phases affected the Brusque Group. Around 600 ± 10 Ma the three granitic suites (São João Batista, Valsungana and Nova Trento) were emplaced within regional metamorphites, producing post-foliation S2 metamorphic aureoles. S2 represents the main foliation observed in the metavolcanosedimentary rocks that constitute the Brusque Group. The tectonic model for the evolution of Brusque Group can be better achieved only when the geochemical, isotopic and geochronologic information available for the Dom Feliciano Belt in Santa Catarina, is considered as a whole. Therefore it is here suggested that the Brusque Group initially evolved in an independent peri-cratonic basin setting separated from the Florianópolis - Pelotas-Aiguá magmatic arc by the Adamastor ocean, having been juxtaposed to it only around 600 Ma, when Brusque

  8. Nutrient recovery from swine waste and protein biomass production using duckweed ponds (Landoltia punctata): southern Brazil.

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    Mohedano, R A; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important countries in pork production worldwide, ranking third. This activity has an important role in the national economic scenario. However, the fast growth of this activity has caused major environmental impacts, especially in developing countries. The large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in pig manure has caused ecological imbalances, with eutrophication of major river basins in the producing regions. Moreover, much of the pig production in developing countries occurs on small farms, and therefore causes diffuse pollution. Therefore, duckweed pond have been successfully used in the swine waste polishing, generating further a biomass with high protein content. The present study evaluated the efficiency of two full scale duckweed ponds for the polishing of a small pig farm effluent, biomass yield and crude protein (CP) content. Duckweed pond series received the effluent from a biodigester-storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3)/day (chemical oxygen demand rate = 186 kg/ha day) produced by 300 animals. After 1 year a great improvement of effluent quality was observed, with removal of 96% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and 89% of total phosphorus (TP), on average. Nitrogen removal rate is one of the highest ever found (4.4 g TKN/m(2) day). Also, the dissolved oxygen rose from 0.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The two ponds produced together over 13 tons of fresh biomass (90.5% moisture), with 35% of CP content, which represents a productivity of 24 tonsCP/ha year. Due to the high rate of nutrient removal, and also the high protein biomass production, duckweed ponds revealed, under the presented conditions, a great potential for the polishing and valorization of swine waste. Nevertheless, this technology should be better exploited to improve the sustainability of small pig farms in order to minimize the impacts of this activity on the environment.

  9. Epidemiology of leisure-time physical activity: a population-based study in southern Brazil

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    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to measure the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI during leisure time and to identify variables associated with it in a southern Brazilian adult population. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out, covering a multiple-stage sample of 1,968 subjects aged 20-69 years. Weekly participation in leisure-time physical activity was addressed. For each activity, energy expenditure was calculated using data on duration, metabolic equivalent, and body weight. Energy expenditures of individual activities were summed to give a weekly total. PI was defined as fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per week. The prevalence of PI was 80.7% (95%CI: 78.9-82.4. After adjusted analyses, the following variables were positively associated with the outcome: female gender, age, living with a partner, and smoking. Schooling and economic status were inversely associated with PI. Chronically undernourished individuals were significantly more likely to be inactive. We found no differences according to skin color or alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the prevalence of PI in this adult population was higher than in populations from developed countries, but the associated variables were similar.

  10. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

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    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly. PMID:27394218

  11. Paleoproterozoic andesitic volcanism in the southern Amazonian craton (northern Brazil); lithofacies analysis and geodynamic setting

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    Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano; Capra, Lucia; Dias Fernandes, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    Precambrian volcanism played an important role in geological evolution and formation of new crust. Most of the literature on Precambrian volcanic rocks describes settings belonging to subaqueous volcanic systems. This is likely because subaerial volcanic rocks in Proterozoic and Archean volcano-sedimentary succession are poorly preserved due to erosive/weathering processes. The late Paleoproterozoic Sobreiro Formation (SF) here described, seems to be one of the rare exceptions to the rule and deserves particular attention. SF represents the subaerial expression of an andesitic magmatism that, linked with the upper felsic Santa Rosa F., composes the Uatumã Group. Uatumã Group is an extensive magmatic event located in the Xingú region, southwestern of Pará state, Amazonian Craton (northern Brazil). The Sobreiro volcanism is thought to be related to an ocean-continent convergent margin. It is characterized by ~1880 Ma well-preserved calc-alkaline basaltic/andesitic to andesitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and associated reworked successions. The superb preservation of its rock-textures allowed us to describe in detail a large variety of volcaniclastic deposits. We divided them into primary and secondary, depending if they result from a direct volcanic activity (pyroclastic) or reworked processes. Our study reinforces the importance of ancient volcanic arcs and rocks contribution to the terrestrial volcaniclastic sedimentation and evolution of plate tectonics. The volcanic activity that produced pyroclastic rocks influenced the amount of detritus shed into sedimentary basins and played a major role in the control of sedimentary dispersal patterns. This study aims to provide, for the first time, an analysis of the physical volcanic processes for the subaerial SF, based in field observation, lithofacies analysis, thin section petrography and less geochemical data. The modern volcanological approach here used can serve as a model about the evolution of Precambrian

  12. Biology of Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey, 1867 (Clupeiformes: Pristigasteridae in a continental shelf region of southern Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo Corrêa

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the biology of C. bleekerianus from Paraná State coast, Brazil, assembling data about its abundance, size structure, diet and reproduction. Monthly collections were accomplished in 1999 and 2000 in the internal continental shelf, with trawl net. The catch-per-unit-effort did not vary significantly among the seasons. In the summer, the individuals were larger, followed by autumn, spring and winter. C. bleekerianus was predominantly planktivorous and the most frequent items in its diet were copepods followed by diatomaceous algae. Seasonal variation in the frequency values of the gonad maturation stages, gonadossomatic index and gonadal condition factor indicated that the reproductive period encompassed spring and summer. The mean total length at first maturity of females was estimated to be 76 mm.Este trabalho fornece dados sobre a biologia de C. bleekerianus do litoral do Estado do Paraná, reunindo dados sobre sua abundância, estrutura em tamanho, dieta e reprodução. Coletas mensais foram realizadas em 1999 e 2000 na plataforma continental interna, com rede de arrasto de fundo com portas. A captura por unidade de esforço não variou significativamente entre as estações do ano. No verão os indivíduos eram maiores, seguido do outono, primavera e inverno. C. bleekerianus é predominantemente planctívora, sendo copépodos seguidos de algas diatomáceas os itens alimentares mais freqüentes em sua dieta. As variações sazonais de valores da freqüência de estádios de maturação gonadal, do índice gonadossomático e do fator de condição gonadal indicam que o período reprodutivo compreende primavera e verão. O comprimento total médio de primeira maturação das fêmeas é estimado em 76 mm.

  13. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

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    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  14. Neotropical Monogenoidea 59. Polyonchoineans from Characidium spp. (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from southern Brazil.

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    Boeger, Walter A; Ferreira, Renata C; Vianna, Rogério T; Patella, Luciana

    2014-04-01

    Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae (Monogenoidea) are described or reported from three species of Characidium Reinhardt (Crenuchidae), small species of Characiformes, from streams located in southern Brazilian states. Gyrodactylus carolinae sp. n. (Gyrodactylidae) is described from the body surface of Characidium lanei Travassos (type host), C. pterostictum Gomez, and Characidium sp. from streams in the states of Paraná and São Paulo. This new species closely resembles species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 described from species of Poeciliidae, from which it differs by the morphology of the hooks and nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Gyrodactylus inesperatus sp. n. is described from the body surface of Characidium sp. from a stream in the State of São Paulo. The latter new species is characterised by lacking a shield on the superficial bar and by the morphology of the hooks, both unique characteristics for Neotropical species of Gyrodactylus. Marumbius gen. n. (Dactylogyridae) is proposed to accommodate two species, M. dorsivaginatus sp. n. from the gills of Characidium pterostictum (type host) and C. lanei, and M. amplexus sp. n. from the gills of C. lanei (all from the state of Paraná). Both species are characterised by having dorsal vagina, hook pairs 2-4, 6 and 7 composed by two subunits, hook pairs 1 and 5 lacking proximal subunit, and by the length of proximal subunits (when present) varying among hook pairs, completely or partially overlapping gonads, and male copulatory organ (MCO) represented by an incomplete coil of a sclerotized tube articulated to the accessory piece by a copulatory ligament. Cacatuocotyle paranaensis Boeger, Domingues et Kritsky, 1997 is reported from C. lanei at low prevalence in the Rio Marumbi (state of Paraná). The Monogenoidea that parasitize species of Characidium are members of several independent lineages, some of distant evolutionary relationships, suggesting a complex origin for this parasitic fauna. PMID

  15. HYDRODYNAMICS AND BIO-OPTICAL ASSESSMENT OF TWO PRISTINE SUBTROPICAL ESTUARIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Mauricio Almeida Noernberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring small-scale physical processes and how they affect the spatial patterns of sea water's optical constituents plays a key role in understanding the functioning of complex coastal ecosystems such as estuaries. The spatial variations of physical and bio-optical water properties were investigated during one spring tidal cycle in austral summer, on two transects across the channel of the Medeiros and Itaqui sub-estuaries. These sub-estuaries are a biosphere reserve, and part of the Paranaguá Estuarine System, located on the Southern Brazilian coast. Both sub-estuaries were classified as Type 1a, wellmixed with low stratification. The salinity variations are in phase with the water level, and the tidal propagation is well represented by a standing wave. The vertical velocity profiles showed little vertical shear, and the intensity of the u-component of the velocity varied semi-diurnally. The upper estuary salt transport was dominated by tidal diffusion in an unstable water column. The optical environment presented a mixed dominance of optically active substances, as indicated by the absorption coefficients of dissolved and particulate matter. The colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM showed overall conservative behavior and was dominant in light absorption below 550 nm in the Medeiros, while nonalgal particles play the most important role in light absorption in the Itaqui in the blue absorption band. The phytoplanktonic contribution is prominent in the red domain and increases as a function of saline intrusion. However, due to the influence of freshwater discharge and the re-suspension of bottom sediments induced by physical processes, the concentrations of the optical components in the water column do not generally have any simple relationships between them.

  16. Application of PCR in serum samples for diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis in the southern Bahia-Brazil.

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    Lucas Dias

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM cannot always be diagnosed by conventional means such as direct examination of histopathology or clinical samples, and serological methods, used as an alternative, still have many cases of cross-reactivity. In this scenario, molecular techniques seem to arise as a rapid approach, specific and direct that could be used in the diagnosis of this mycosis. In this study we analyzed 76 serum samples from patients in southern Bahia suspected of having paracoccidioidomycosis using a conventional PCR with primers for the ITS1 ribosomal DNA of P. brasiliensis. Of these 76 patients, 5 were positive for PCM by double immunodiffusion and/or direct examination and histopathology. To test specificity of PCR, we used human DNA and three isolates of P. lutzii (1578, 01 and ED01. Additionally, we analyzed by serial dilutions of DNA the limit of detection of the assay. The test of PCR proved specific, as only a 144 bp fragment of the three isolates of P. lutzii and no human DNA was amplified. Detection limit was 1.1 pg/µL of DNA. Despite the high detection limit and specificity of PCR none of the 76 serum samples were found positive by PCR, but a biopsy specimen obtained from one of the patients with PCM was positive. These results, albeit limited, show that PCR is not effective in detecting DNA of P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii in serum, but could perhaps be used with other types of clinical samples, especially in those instances in which conventional methods fail.

  17. Local ecological knowledge on the goliath grouper epinephelus itajara (teleostei: serranidae in southern Brazil

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    Leopoldo Cavaleri Gerhardinger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara is a large sized (> 400 kg and critically endangered marine fish, which is protected in many countries, including Brazil. Through the application of semi-structured interviews, we investigated the local ecological knowledge of seven fishermen specialist on catching E. itajara from the Babitonga bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Local long-line fisheries for E. itajara seemed to be a disappearing tradition in the studied site, with a detailed inherent local ecological knowledge system, which is also being lost. Our study also showed that fishermen engaged in recent fisheries, such as spear-fishing, can also possess a detailed local ecological knowledge system. Through the analysis of fishermen local ecological knowledge, several aspects of E. itajara life history were registered. This species is found in the inner and outer Babitonga bay, from saline waters to areas with a large input of freshwater, and inhabits submerged wooden substrates and artificial reefs such as shipwrecks, mooring pillars and cargo containers. It is known to spawn in December and subsequent summer months in the studied area. Spawning aggregations are usually seen in December (during full moon, being also eventually observed in January and February by our informants. While lobsters, spadefishes and octopuses seem to constitute the most important food items of inner bay E. itajara, outer bay individuals may feed on catfishes, crustaceans and other fish species. The goliath grouper is regarded as pacific and curious fish, but frequently display agonistic behavior in the presence of divers. Based on the perception of well experienced spear fishermen, we hypothesize that E. itajara undertakes seasonal migrations from the inner to the outer bay during summer, and that the studied population is suffering from growth over-fishing. Our data provides a practical evidence of how joining scientific and local ecological knowledge will likely benefit E

  18. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  19. Positive inversion of extensional footwalls in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Brazil - insights from sandbox laboratory experiments

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    Caroline J.S. Gomes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Analogue experiments were carried out to get insights into the processes governing positive inversion during the foreland propagating thrust tectonics in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, a Brasiliano/Panafrican foldthrust belt in southeast Brazil. In particular, model listric half-grabens were inverted by applying contractional displacement to the footwall blocks. We investigated two different inversion conditions in listric half-grabens: (i extensional and contractional detachments at the same level and (ii at different positions. The models revealed that the development of a forward-breaking thrust system occurs in the basin synrift deposits, by contractional translation of the extensional footwall block when the extensional and contractional master faults do not coincide. Our experiments show the tectonic imbrication between basement and synrift sequences which characterizes the southern Serra do Espinhaço, and support the location in the eastern mountain range domain of the Espinhaço rift master fault system, which is not exposed at the surface.Em experimentos de areia foi simulada a inversão positiva com o intuito de investigar os processos que governam a tectônica da Cordilheira do Espinhaço Meridional na borda sudeste do Cráton São Francisco. Analisou-se, em particular, a evolução progressiva de hemigrabens, com falha de borda lístrica, na qual o fechamento da bacia ocorreu através da translação do bloco do muro da falha mestra. Duas condições foram investigadas: (i os descolamentos distensivos e compressivos ocorrem na mesma cota e (ii os descolamentos situam-se em posições diferentes. Os modelos revelaram que um sistema de falhas de cavalgamento com estilo colapso da lapa se desenvolve no interior do depósito sinrift quando os descolamentos não coincidem. O imbricamento entre escamas do pré- e sinrift, nos modelos, permite esboçar uma analogia com a tectônica da porção sul da Cordilheira do Espinhaço e situar a

  20. Evaluation of the Swat Model in a Small Watershed Representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, I. R.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Beling, F. A.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    This study presents the results of simulations with the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in a small watershed in Southern Brazil (latitude 29°38'37.5 " and longitude 53°48'2.2"), representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome. This area was monitored by two sequential stations, each with one rain gauge and one stage gauge, having contributing areas of 4.5 km2 and 12 km2 respectively. The altitudes in the basins range from 316 m to 431 m and vegetation is predominantly composed of native forest (55%) and native pasture (39%). The simulated period was from August 2007 to July 2011, corresponding to the period of monitoring. The temperature ranged from -2.2°C to 39.2°C, and annual rainfall ranged between 2005 mm and 2250 mm. For this application, a modification in the SWAT 2000 model algorithm was made, as proposed by Paiva and Paiva (2006), to adjust the rate of leaf area during the winter season of the region. The quality of the results was characterized by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSE) and by the coefficient of determination (R2). The model was evaluated in a monthly and daily scale. At the monthly scale, the values obtained for NSE in the calibration phase, were 0.73 and 0.81, respectively for the two sections. The values obtained for R2 were 0.77 and 0.83 in the same sections. At the daily scale, in the calibration phase NSE values were -0.44 and -0.31, respectively, for the two sections, while for R2, the values were 0.27 and 0.38 in the same sections. These results show that the fit was good for monthly values, but for daily values a proper adjustment was not possible. Due to the short period of monitoring, the validation of the model results was made with the observed data from first station with an area of 4.5 km2. The values obtained for the NSE in the validation phase were 0.73 and -0.33 for the monthly and daily scales respectively, and for R2, 0.77 and 0.27 for the monthly and daily values, thus confirming the quality of the fit

  1. Stocks and sources of carbon buried in the salt marshes and seagrass beds of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Elizabeth; Johnson, Beverly; Dostie, Philip; Copertino, Margareth

    2016-04-01

    This project investigates carbon stocks in salt marshes and seagrass beds in the Patos Lagoon estuary, the largest choked lagoon in the world, located in Southern Brazil. The study was conducted in the mesohaline region, at three shallow shoals. At each shoal, three sediment cores (50 cm deep) and plant biomass samples (above and belowground) were collected along a transect line, spanning from the marsh to seagrass beds (total = 9 sediment cores). The 50cm cores were subsampled and analyzed for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, C/N ratios, and the isotope ratios of 13C/12C, and 15N/14N. The organic carbon content of these sediments ranged between 10% (in surface sediments) and 1% (deeper in the core), suggesting that both the salt marshes and seagrass beds in this region are sequestering carbon. Early results indicate that cores taken in marsh dominated by C3 plants (Scirpus maritimus) tended to be the most depleted in 13C with δ13C values around -25‰. Cores taken in marsh dominated by C4 plants (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora), seagrass beds (Ruppia maritima) , and non vegetated areas were generally isotopically heavier with δ13C values ranging -20‰ to -15‰, indicating a mix of organic sources in the sediments. The δ15N values and C/N ratios both varied with most values falling in a range of 2-8‰ and 7-20 respectively. Analysis of the δ 34S isotope composition of the sediments is currently underway and may provide better information on the relative contributions of macro and micro algae in the sediments. The present data will reveal the carbon stock size, as well as the types and history of organic matter deposition in Patos Lagoon estuary.

  2. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Andre; Santos, Luciana Ruschel dos; Borsoi, Anderlise; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Calasans, Max; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning.

  3. Changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal associations and fine root traits in sites under different plant successional phases in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangaro, Waldemar; de Assis, Rafael Leandro; Rostirola, Leila Vergal; de Souza, Priscila Bochi; Gonçalves, Melissa Camargo; Andrade, Galdino; Nogueira, Marco Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Fine root morphological traits and distribution, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, soil fertility, and nutrient concentration in fine root tissue were compared in sites under different successional phases: grass plants, secondary forest, and mature forest in Londrina county, Paraná state, southern Brazil. Soil cores were collected randomly at the 0-10- and 10-20-cm depths in three quadrants (50 m2) in each site. Plants from the different successional stages displayed high differences in fine root distribution, fine root traits, and mycorrhizal root colonization. There were increases in the concentration of nutrients both in soil and fine roots and decrease of bulk soil density along the succession. The fine root biomass and diameter increased with the succession progress. The total fine root length, specific root length, root hair length, and root hair incidence decreased with the succession advance. Similarly, the mycorrhizal root colonization and the density of AM fungi spores in the soil decreased along the succession. Mycorrhizal root colonization and spore density were positively correlated with fine root length, specific root length, root hair length, root hair incidence, and bulk density and negatively correlated with fine root diameter and concentration of some nutrients both in soil and root tissues. Nutrient concentration in root tissue and in soil was positively correlated with fine root diameter and negatively correlated with specific root length, root hair length, and root hair incidence. These results suggest different adaptation strategies of plant roots for soil exploration and mineral acquisition among the different successional stages. Early successional stages displayed plants with fine root morphology and AM fungi colonization to improve the root functional efficiencies for uptake of nutrients and faster soil resource exploration. Late successional stages displayed plants with fine root morphology and mycorrhizal symbiosis for both a lower

  4. Factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS patients: a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil

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    C.A.T. Pinheiro

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV-infected adults being treated with antiretroviral drugs at a reference service in Southern Brazil. Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and were tested by scales assessing sociocognitive variables. Adherence to treatment was assessed by a self-report inventory developed for the study. Clinical information was obtained from the patients' records. Significance tests were conducted using univariate logistic regressions followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 195 patients participated in the study and 56.9% of them reported > or = 95% adherence on the previous two days. In univariate analysis, the odds of adherence increased with self-efficacy (a person's conviction that he/she can successfully execute the behavior required to produce a certain desired outcome in taking medications as prescribed (OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.90-6.55, and decreased with perception of negative affect and physical concerns (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.95. The odds were lower for taking antiretroviral medications >4 times a day (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.94 and higher for patients with 8 years of schooling (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.12-4.66. In the multivariate analysis, self-efficacy (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.69-6.56 and taking medication >4 times a day (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.14-0.80 were independently associated with adherence. Self-efficacy was the most important predictor of adherence, followed by number of times antiretroviral medication was taken per day. Among sociodemographic and clinical variables, only the number of years of schooling was associated with adherence. Motivational interventions based on self-efficacy may be useful for increasing treatment adherence.

  5. Diversity, composition and phenology of araneid orb-weavers (Araneae, Araneidae associated with riparian forests in southern Brazil

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    Everton N. L. Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Araneidae is a speciose family including web-spinning spiders that are very abundant in various terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies demonstrate that changes in vegetation surrounding rivers, streams and brooks affect the associated araneofauna. The aim of this research was to compare differences found in diversity (abundance and richness, composition and phenology of Araneidae spiders sampled in different habitats in four riparian forest catchments in southern Brazil. Samples were taken from riparian forests in four rivers of Rio Grande do Sul State: Piratini, Camaquã, Sinos and Maquiné rivers, each in a different hydrographic basin. Samples were taken twice seasonally on each basin during two years, sampling the araneofauna of the tree-shrub strata with beating tray. Six transects were employed on each basin, two per habitat: edge with grassland, forest interior and river edge. Araneids totalled 20 genera and 65 species. Comparing riparian forests significant differences are found. Spider abundance differed among riparian forests as well as species richness. Overall, Piratini river riparian forest had the higher abundance and richness for Araneidae; the lower values were in Sinos river forest. The stronger degradation and fragmentation of the riparian forests of Sinos river probably influenced the results, with human disturbance gradients associated negatively to web building. We present data on the diversity of these spiders, which were very abundant in the riparian forest interior and very rich in species in the grassland/riparian forest edge. Species composition also differs among the studied habitats (the above plus river/riparian forest edge. For the most abundant species the phenological pattern across the seasons was also analysed.

  6. New data on Echinococcus spp. in Southern Brazil Novos dados sobre Echinococcus spp. no sul do Brasil

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    Mário L. de La Rue

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available 40 Echinococcus isolates from sheep and cattle in Southern Brazil were genetically analysed in order to obtain further data on the presence of different taxa of the Echinococcus granulosus complex. Differentiation was done using a PCR technique and sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1. Most samples (38 could be allocated to the sheep strain (G1 of E. granulosus, while two samples belonged to E. ortleppi, previously known as cattle strain (G5 of E. granulosus. Due to the shorter prepatent period in dogs of the latter taxon, this records have important implications for the design of control measures in this endemic region.Quarenta isolados de Echinococcus provenientes de ovinos e bovinos do sul do Brasil foram analisados geneticamente com o objetivo de obter dados a respeito das diferentes cepas dentro do gênero Echinococcus granulosus. A diferenciação foi feita empregando-se a técnica de PCR a o seqüenciamento da subunidade 1 da citocromo c oxidase (CO1. A maior parte das amostras (38 pôde ser alocada na cepa ovina (G1 enquanto duas amostras pertenceram ao gênero E. ortleppi, anteriormente conhecido como cepa bovina (G5 do E. granulosus. Devido ao menor período pré-patente em cães deste último gênero ressalta-se a importância do presente registro devido às implicações no delineamento de medidas de controle nesta região endêmica.

  7. SEROVARS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Salmonella spp. ISOLATED FROM TURKEY AND BROILER CARCASSES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    PALMEIRA, Andre; dos SANTOS, Luciana Ruschel; BORSOI, Anderlise; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; CALASANS, Max; do NASCIMENTO, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. SalmonellaEnteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562

  8. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil

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    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.

  9. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime.

  10. Clinical and epidemiological features of respiratory virus infections in preschool children over two consecutive influenza seasons in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamberardin, Heloisa I G; Homsani, Sheila; Bricks, Lucia F; Pacheco, Ana P O; Guedes, Matilde; Debur, Maria C; Raboni, Sonia M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the results of a systematic screening for respiratory viruses in pediatric outpatients from an emergency department (ED) in southern Brazil during two consecutive influenza seasons. Children eligible for enrollment in this study were aged 24-59 months and presented with acute respiratory symptoms and fever. Naso- and oropharyngeal swabs were collected and multiplex reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was performed to identify the respiratory viruses involved. In total, 492 children were included in this study: 248 in 2010 and 244 in 2011. In 2010, 136 samples (55%) were found to be positive for at least one virus and the most frequently detected viruses were human rhinovirus (HRV) (18%), adenovirus (AdV) (13%), and human coronavirus (CoV) (5%). In 2011, 158 samples (65%) were found to be positive for at least one virus, and the most frequently detected were HRV (29%), AdV (12%), and enterovirus (9%). Further, the presence of asthma (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.86-5.46) was independently associated with HRV infection, whereas fever was associated with AdV (OR, 3.86; 95% CI, 1.31-16.52) and influenza infections (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.26-16.06). Ten patients (2%) were diagnosed with pneumonia, and six of these tested positive for viral infection (4 HRV, 1 RSV, and 1 AdV). Thus, this study identified the most common respiratory viruses found in preschool children in the study region and demonstrated their high frequency, highlighting the need for improved data collection, and case management in order to stimulate preventive measures against these infections. J. Med. Virol. 88:1325-1333, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26773605

  11. Asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil: popular myths and features

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    Cristian Roncada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the frequency of popular myths about and features of asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil. Methods: The parents or legal guardians of public school students (8-16 years of age completed a specific questionnaire regarding their understanding of asthma, asthma control, and treatment characteristics. The sample included parents or legal guardians of students with asthma (n = 127 and healthy controls (n = 124. Results: The study involved 251 parents or legal guardians, of whom 127 (68.5% were the mothers and 130 (51.8% were White. The mean age of these participants was 38.47 ± 12.07 years. Of the participants in the asthma and control groups, 37 (29.1% and 26 (21.0%, respectively, reported being afraid of using asthma medications, whereas 61 (48% and 56 (45.2%, respectively, believed that using a metered dose inhaler can lead to drug dependence. However, only 17 (13.4% and 17 (13.7% of the participants in the asthma and control groups, respectively, reported being afraid of using oral corticosteroids. In the asthma group, 55 students (43.3% were diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma, only 41 (32.3% had a prescription or written treatment plan, and 38 (29.9% used asthma medications regularly. Conclusions: Popular myths about asthma treatment were common in our sample, as were uncontrolled asthma and inappropriate asthma management. Further studies in this field should be conducted in other developing countries, as should evaluations of pediatric asthma treatment programs in public health systems.

  12. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

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    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003 were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. Based on the evaluation of six parameters (chlorophyll, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and dissolved oxygen, Guaratuba Bay shows a low to medium trophic status, i.e. from meso- to oligotrophic, and a predominant heterotrophic metabolism, meaning that respiration overcomes primary production. Horizontal stratification was observed during the rainy season, while during the dry season the system showed more homogeneous conditions. Inorganic and/or organic matter in Guaratuba Bay seem to be controlled mainly by the seasonality of precipitation and/ also by ebb and flood tidal phase variations.A dinâmica das variáveis físico-químicas, biológicas e hidrográficas, em escalas temporal e espacial, sua variabilidade e tendências, permite avaliar a qualidade ambiental de estuários. Esse trabalho descreve as flutuações da qualidade de água da Baía de Guaratuba, sul do Estado do Paraná. Foram amostrados doze pontos em campanhas bimensais (outubro/2002 a agosto/2003, em situação de sizígia e de quadratura, para a análise das variáveis pH, transparência, saturação de CO2, oxigênio dissolvido, clorofila-a, material particulado em suspensão e nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos (nitrato, nitrito, amônio, fosfato e silicato. Considerando as seis variáveis descritoras da qualidade de água (clorofila-a, profundidade de Secchi, saturação de CO2, fósforo e nitrogênio inorg

  13. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

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    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  14. Paleomagnetic constraints on the age of the Botucatu Formation in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

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    Endale Tamrat

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the aeolian Botucatu Formation, in the southern Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. Oriented samples were taken from a section located between the cities of Jaguari and Santiago. After thermal and alternating field demagnetization, both normal and reversed characteristic remanent magnetizations were found. These results yielded 13 reversed and 5 normal polarity sites, composing a magnetostratigraphic column displaying a sequence of reversed-normal-reversed polarity events. The paleomagnetic pole calculated for 18 sites is located at 114.7ºE, 78.5ºS (dp=8.1º; dm=1.2º, after restoring the strata to the paleohorizontal. This paleomagnetic pole indicates a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age to the Botucatu Formation in the investigated area, and places the sampling sites at paleolatitudes as low as 21ºS.Dados paleomagnéticos e de magnetismo de rochas dos sedimentos eólicos da Formação Botucatu, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, obtidos de uma seção localizada entre as cidades de Jaguari e Santiago, permitiram definir a idade dessa formação. Direções de magnetização características com polaridades normal e reversa foram obtidas após desmagnetizações térmicas e por campos magnéticos alternados. Do total de sítios amostrados 13 apresentaram polaridade reversa e 5, polaridade normal, compondo uma coluna magnetoestratigráfica onde se identificam três horizontes de polaridade, na ordem, reverso-normal-reverso. O pólo paleomagnético baseado em 18 sítios está localizado a 114.7ºE, 78.5ºS (dp = 8.1º; dm = 1.2º, depois de restaurada a paleohorizontal dos sítios de amostragem. Este pólo paleomagnético indica idade do Jurássico Superior-Cretáceo Inferior para a Formação Botucatu na área estudada, e indica que as paleolatitudes ocupadas eram da ordem de 21ºS.

  15. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Reisser, Júlia Wiener; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  16. The immunogenetics of multiple sclerosis. The frequency of HLA-alleles class 1 and 2 is lower in Southern Brazil than in the European population

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    Lineu Cesar Werneck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To study the HLA of class 1and 2 in a multiple sclerosis (MS population to verify the susceptibility for the disease in the Southern Brazil. Methods We analyzed patients with MS and controls, by direct sequencing of the genes related to HLA DRB1, DQB1, DPB1, A, B and C alleles with high resolution techniques. Results We found a lower frequency of all HLA alleles class 1 and 2 in MS and controls comparing to the European population. Several alleles had statistical correlation, but after Bonferroni correction, the only allele with significance was the HLA-DQB1*02:03, which has a positive association with MS. Conclusions Our data have different frequency of HLA-alleles than the previous published papers in the Southeast Brazil and European population, possible due to several ethnic backgrounds.

  17. Cat infected by a variant of bat rabies virus in a 29-year disease-free urban area of southern Brazil

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    Vivien Midori Morikawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: After 29 years, rabies was detected in a cat in Curitiba, southern Brazil. METHODS: The fluorescent antibody test (FAT and mouse inoculation test (MIT were performed on central nervous system (CNS samples. RESULTS: Direct immunofluorescence was negative, but the biological test was positive and rabies virus was characterized as variant 4 (from Tadarida brasiliensis. CONCLUSIONS: Reappearance of rabies in domestic animals warns of sylvatic-aerial risk of infection and the necessity of monitoring bats in historically rabies-free areas.

  18. Orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the coastal forests of southern Brazil: diversity, efficiency of sampling methods and comparison with other Atlantic forest surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa C. Mattozo; Luiz R. R. Faria; Gabriel A. R. Melo

    2011-01-01

    Surveys of orchid bees at the Brazilian Atlantic forest have been restricted to a few regions, making difficult to understand latitudinal patterns of distribution and diversity of these bees. For this reason we sampled the euglossine fauna at Atlantic forest areas at the coastal region of São Paulo (Sete Barras, Faz. Morro do Capim: SP3) and state of Paraná (Antonina, Reserva Natural do Rio Cachoeira: PR3), in southern Brazil. In PR3, we also evaluated the efficiency of collecting methods for...

  19. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Kuhnen; Rudinei Butka Stibuski; Luciana Aparecida Honorato; Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado Filho

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This study provides the characteristics of the conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based production systems used in Southern Brazil, and its consequences on production and milk quality. C-HI farms had larger farms and herds, annual pasture with higher inputs and milk yield, whereas O-LI had smaller farms and herds, perennial pastures with lowest input and milk yields; C-LI was in between. O-LI farms may contribute ...

  20. Provenance of the Passo Feio complex, Dom Feliciano Belt: Implications for the age of supracrustal rocks of the São Gabriel Arc, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carina Graciniana; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Gruber, Leonardo; Armstrong, Richard; Junges, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The Passo Feio complex (PFC) is a sequence of metapelite, amphibolite, metavolcanic/metavolcanoclastic rocks, marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite and magnesium schist. It is part of the São Gabriel Terrane, a Neoproterozoic juvenile arc formed during the early stages of evolution of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB), in southern Brazil. This belt corresponds to the southernmost portion of the Mantiqueira Province, an important Neoproterozoic orogenic system exposed in the NNE direction along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The geotectonic significance of the original Passo Feio basin in the tectonic evolution of São Gabriel Terrene is not well understood. It has been considered as part of a passive margin sequence or as a back-arc sequence. Geochronological and isotopic data are very scarse for the Passo Feio rocks and this has hampered the better understanding of its significance in the Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of southern Brazil. In the present study the age and significance of metasedimentary rocks of the PFC were investigated. The provenance study was carried out in four metapelite samples from the southern and northern Passo Feio complex, using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon. The results showed varied provenance patterns and zircon ages range from 3637 to 803 Ma. Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are present in all samples, but an important Neoproterozoic population has been identified in one of them. 3.5 Ga old zircon grains form the oldest population of detrital zircon ever reported in southern Brazil. Paleoproterozoic/Archean terranes within the Rio de la Plata Craton may represent the main source of detrital sediments and this suggests that part of the Passo Feio complex might have been a passive margin sequence, developed along the northeastern margin of that paleocontinent. However, the presence of a Neoproterozoic zircon population is not consistent with derivation solely from the craton and indicates

  1. Pollen resources and trophic niche breadth of Apis mellifera and Melipona obscurior (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in a subtropical climate in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hilgert-Moreira, Suzane; Nascher, Carla; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia; Blochtein, Betina

    2013-01-01

    Pollen sources that comprise the trophic niche of native bee species Melipona obscurior and introduced Apis mellifera and the breadth of this niche were studied in two areas in the Atlantic rain forest of southern Brazil. Pollen obtained from the forager bees during a period of 12 months showed that the richness of pollen types found in each sample varied from 5 to 21 for A. mellifera and from 1 to 10 for M. obscurior. In both areas, A. mellifera had higher niche breadth. M. obscurior demonst...

  2. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  3. A LPUE (LANDING PER UNIT EFFORT ANALYSIS OF THE TRAWL FISHERY FOR THE COASTAL SHRIMPS Artemesia longinaris AND Pleoticus muelleri OFF SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Cassiana Baptista Metri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Argentine stiletto shrimp (Artemesia longinaris and the Argentine red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri currently sustain an important fishery in terms of tonnage and revenues in southern Brazil. This study analyzed the factors affecting the abundance of both species through the application of Generalized Linear Models to landing-per-unit-of-effort (LPUE data of the trawl fleet operating on the main fishing grounds between 1998 and 2005. The main patterns of LPUE variability of both species were attributed do the effect of seasons and annual cycles. Larger yields were obtained in the southern shallow areas of Rio Grande do Sul State. No tendency either to an increase or a decline in stock abundance was observed, but the effort in one year was affected by the success of the captures of the previous year. In the last two years analyzed the abundance and the total captures declined.

  4. Application of a geographical information system approach for risk analysis of fascioliasis in southern Espírito Santo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire; de Avelar, Barbara Rauta; Pereira, Maria Julia Salim; da Fonseca, Adevair Henrique

    2012-09-01

    A model based on geographical information systems for mapping the risk of fascioliasis was developed for the southern part of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The determinants investigated were precipitation, temperature, elevation, slope, soil type and land use. Weightings and grades were assigned to determinants and their categories according to their relevance with respect to fascioliasis. Theme maps depicting the spatial distribution of risk areas indicate that over 50% of southern Espírito Santo is either at high or at very high risk for fascioliasis. These areas were found to be characterized by comparatively high temperature but relatively low slope, low precipitation and low elevation corresponding to periodically flooded grasslands or soils that promote water retention.

  5. Freshwater temperature in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, and its implication for fish culture

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    Luciano de Oliveira Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we verified data of water temperatures collected by CORSAN-RS from 1996 to 2004 in several cities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and analyzed the possibility of raising the most cultivated fish species in Brazil. The water temperature from 1996 to 2004 was 16 to 28ºC in summer, 17 to 23ºC in fall, 14 to 17ºC (down to 9ºC in the coldest months in winter and 14 to 21ºC in spring. Native species of this state, such as silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dorado (Salminus brasiliensis, pintado (Pimelodus maculatus, as well as carps (family Cyprinidae, are resistant to the low winter temperatures. These species have a lower growth rate in coldest months (winter/spring but a good development in warmer months (summer/fall, reaching a satisfactory performance throughout the year. In the periods of more intense cold, mortality of some introduced species, such as surubim from Amazon Basin (Pseudoplatystoma sp., pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus, pirarucu (Arapaimas gigas, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus may occur. In addition, as most tropical species have a thermal range for growth and reproduction between 20 to 28ºC, some species may have poor development even in fall. Therefore, water temperature in this state should be considered in the choice of fish species to be cultivated.Neste estudo verificaram-se dados de temperaturas de água coletados pela CORSAN-RS de 1996 a 2004, em várias cidades do estado do Rio Grande Sul, sul do Brasil, e analisou-se a possibilidade de criação das principais espécies de peixe cultivadas no Brasil. A temperatura da água de 1996 a 2004 foi de 16 a 28ºC no verão, de 17 a 25ºC no outono, 14 a 17ºC (chegando a 9ºC nos meses mais frios no inverno e 14 a 21ºC na primavera. Espécies nativas deste estado, como o jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus, dourado

  6. Diatom associations in shelf waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil: annual variation in relation to environmental factors

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    Luciano Felício Fernandes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variation of diatoms in the inshore waters off Paraná State, Southern Brazil was investigated to analyse their temporal dynamics and to detect the main environmental constraints of the planktonic community. Biomass peaks occurred from May to August and from December to March. Among the microplanktonic diatoms, Cerataulina pelagica, Chaetoceros spp., Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Guinardia striata, Lauderia annulata, Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf. delicatissima, P. australis, Rhizosolenia spp., Skeletonema costatum and Thalassionema nitzschioides were dominant species. Nanoplanktonic diatoms were dominated by Naviculaceae, Nitzschia spp., Thalassiosira spp. and Chaetoceros cf. tenuissimus. Concentrations of most of the species decreased during and just after the blooms of Phaeocystis pouchetii in September and of Coscinodiscus wailesii in April. Based on cluster analysis and interpretations of the environmental parameters monitored, six diatom associations were discerned. Four main environmental factors were attributed as the determinants for the grouping: (a the stronger influence of the tropical oligotrophic waters of the Brazil Current in spring/summer, (b the alternation between dry and rainy (nutrient-richer seasons, (c the influence of subantarctic waters mixed with coastal ones in fall/winter, bringing cold species and promoting the growth of autochthonous species, and (d the blooms of nanoplanktonic (Phaeocystis and microplanktonic (C. wailesii species.A variação sazonal das diatomáceas em águas neríticas do estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil, foi investigada para analisar sua dinâmica temporal e detectar as principais forçantes ambientais da comunidade planctônica. Picos de biomassa ocorreram de Maio a Agosto e de Dezembro a Março. As espécies dominantes foram Cerataulina pelagica, Chaetoceros spp., Dactyliosolen fragilissimus, Guinardia striata, Lauderia annulata, Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudo-nitzschia cf

  7. An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

    2012-04-01

    A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly

  8. The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil

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    Marcel G. Hermes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae in two areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. The structure of flower-visiting social wasps' assemblages in the CPCN Pró-Mata of São Francisco de Paula and in the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, are characterized. A total of 879 polistine wasps were collected, of which 475 (11 spp. in the CPCN and 404 (21 spp. in the Green Belt, from September 1997 to April 2001 and from September 2001 to April 2004, respectively. Foraging social wasps were observed on flowers of 36 species of angiosperms (20 families in the Green Belt, and on flowers of 54 species of angiosperms (21 families in the CPCN. Asteraceae was the most visited plant family on both studied localities. A list of pant species visited by the polistines is provided.Vespas sociais (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae visitantes de flores em duas áreas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A estrutura da assembléia de vespas sociais que visitam flores no CPCN Pró-Mata de São Francisco de Paula e no Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, são caracterizadas. Do total de 879 polistíneos, 475 (11 spp. foram coletados no CPCN, e 404 (21 spp. no Cinturão Verde entre Setembro de 1997 a Abril de 2000 e Setembro de 2001 a Abril de 2004, respectivamente. Vespas sociais foram observadas em flores de 36 espécies de angiospermas (20 famílias no Cinturão Verde, e em flores de 54 espécies de angiospermas (21 famílias no CPCN. Asteraceae foi a família de planta que mais recebeu visitas por parte das vespas nas duas localidades estudadas. Uma lista com as espécies de plantas visitadas pelos polistíneos é apresentada.

  9. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Barbosa Filho Valter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9 and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0. Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class

  10. 1-methylcyclopropene effects on volatile profile and quality of 'Royal Gala' apples produced in Southern Brazil and stored in controlled atmosphere

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    Fabio Rodrigo Thewes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Apple volatile aroma depends of complex interaction among organic compounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP application on volatile profile and quality on 'Royal Gala' apples produced in Southern Brazil and stored under controlled atmosphere condition (CA; 1.0kPa O2+1.2kPa CO2; 0.5±0.1°C; 94±1% relative humidity. Volatile profile was determined after eight month of CA storage plus 7 days of shelf life via solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. In the volatile profile were identified 8 esters, 11 alcohols, 6 aldehydes, 6 acids, 2 ketones, 1 ether and 1 terpene. 1-MCP application reduced significantly the main volatile compounds production by 'Royal Gala' apples produced in Southern Brazil. Its application decreases significantly the esters production, especially 2-methyl-butyl acetate and hexyl acetate, compared to 'Royal Gala' apples storage under CA. 1-methylcyclopropene application decrease ethylene production and respiration rate. Apples treated with 1-MCP exhibit higher hexanal and 2(E-hexenal production.

  11. Metacercárias livres (Digenea: Diplostomidae em Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae no Sul do Brasil Free metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae in Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae in southern Brazil

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    Viviane Gularte Tavares dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Metacercárias livres de uma espécie não determinada de trematódeo digenético (Diplostomidae foram encontradas nos rins de anuros da espécie Rhinella fernandezae coletados no Município de Imbé, Litoral Norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em uma amostra de 90 anuros, as metacercárias apresentaram prevalência de 3,3% e intensidade de infecção de 8,7 helmintos/hospedeiro. Este é o primeiro registro de metacercárias livres de diplostomídeos em anuros da região Sul do Brasil e do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.Free metacercariae of an undetermined species of digenetic (Diplostomidae were found over in the kidneys of anurans of the species Rhinella fernandezae collected in the in the municipality of Imbé, on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. In a sample of 90 anurans, the prevalence of free metacercariae was 3,3, and the mean intensity of infection was 8,7 helminths/host. This is the first record of free metacercariae in anurans from Southern Brazil and from the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  12. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (Sagittae of Southeastern - Southern Brazil Part I: Gadiformes (Macrouridae, Moridae, Bregmacerotidae, Phycidae and Merlucciidae; Part II: Perciformes (Carangidae, Sciaenidae, Scombridae and Serranidae

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    Carmen Lucia Del Bianco Rossi-Wongtschowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drawings, detailed pictures, precise descriptions and measurements that characterize otoliths must be made available for studies in various areas, including taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, fisheries, paleontology, diversity, predator-prey relationships and modeling. The Collection of Teleostei Fish Otoliths of Southeastern-Southern Brazil (COSS-Brasil of IOUSP contains 45,000 pairs of otoliths from 210 species. This publication is the first in a series that will constitute an atlas of Teleostei otoliths for southeastern-southern Brazil and presents the results of the morphologic and morphometric analyses of 11 Gadiformes and 36 Perciformes species by means of the most commonly used features, measurements and indices. Three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed whenever possible. The frequency of occurrence was calculated for each characteristic by total length classes (TL, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed (multiple χ2 test; significance 0.05. Morphometric analyses were conducted for each characteristic per total length (TL class and for the whole sample, and the ontogenetic differences were analyzed.

  13. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

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    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  14. Lycophytes and ferns composition of Atlantic Forest conservation units in western Paraná with comparisons to other areas in southern Brazil

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    Mayara Lautert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study surveyed lycophyte and fern species in four forest fragments in western Paraná, Brazil, and compared them to 15 other fragments with different plant formations from the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. In total, five lycophyte species (in two families and two genera and 98 species and two varieties of ferns (in 16 families and 38 genera were registered in the four fragments. The most represented families were Pteridaceae (23 spp., Polypodiaceae (18 spp., Aspleniaceae (13 spp., and Thelypteridaceae (11 spp.. Asplenium (12 spp., Thelypteris (10 spp., and Blechnum (seven spp. were among the most represented genera. The occurrence of Dicksonia sellowiana was noteworthy because it was associated with seasonal semideciduous forest and is threatened in Brazil. Similarity among areas was determined by a cluster analysis (UPGMA and Sørensen’s index and the relation between similarity and geographic distance was determined through Matel’s analysis. The analyses revealed greater similarity among the four study areas and, for these areas as a whole, greater similarity to fragments in Rio Grande do Sul, which is evidence that these areas have similar environmental conditions.

  15. Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

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    Walfrido Kühl Svoboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26 trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT. Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43, Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64, and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26 monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42 of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64 of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26 of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23 of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

  16. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863 (Squamata: Dipsadidae in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  17. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Alves de Souza Filho; Luciano Leandro Plombon

    2014-01-01

    Philodryas agassizii (Dipsadidae) occurs in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; in Brazil, it has been recorded in open areas of the regions Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and South. In the state of Paraná, it has only old records in southeastern of the state. We report, here, the rediscovery of P. agassizii in Paraná, forty years after the last record, and review its distribution within the state, including the central-south region.

  18. LEAF TRAITS AND PLASTIC POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES IN A LIGHT-EDAPHIC GRADIENT FROM RESTINGA IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    João Carlos Ferreira Melo Júnior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTRestinga formations grow on sandy spits of coastal plains, an environment whose conditions limit the growth and development of vegetal species. Studies on restinga gradients are good examples of how plants acclimate to restrictive environments. This work compares three woody species co-occurring in four vegetations of a restinga from Southern Brazil. It pinpoints morpho-anatomical attributes that favor the survival of species faced with spatial variability of soil and light conditions. Results indicate that they respond differently to environmental variables on different scales. The plastic response of morphological attributes is more marked than that of anatomical ones. Varronia curassavica and Dodonaea viscosa showed more xeromorphic features on the more stressful restinga formations while Symphyopappus casarettoi varied between xerophyte to mesophyte forms along the gradient. Individual height, fresh and dry leaf masses, leaf area, specific leaf mass and area, leaf density, and water content are particularly noteworthy. These responses are strategies allowing the studied species to survive in restinga environment with highly variable soil nutrient, water availability, and light conditions. The environmental conditions are important features that modulate de plant morphology along the gradient. Keywords: coastal vegetation, leaf morphology, leaf anatomy, light and soil conditions.RESUMENRestinga (o cordón litoral es una formación que se desarrolla en cordones arenosos de planícies litorales. Este ambiente presenta condiciones limitantes al crecimiento y desarrollo de las especies vegetales. Estudios en gradientes de restinga son buenos ejemplos de como las plantas se aclimatan a las condiciones ambientales restrictivas. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo comparar tres especies leñosas co-ocurrentes en cuatro fisonomías de una restinga del sur de Brasil, buscando conocer los atributos morfo-anatómicos que favorecen la sobrevivencia

  19. Biomarkers responses in fish (Atherinella brasiliensis of paranaguá bay, southern Brazil, for assessment of pollutant effects

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    Ciro Alberto de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paranaguá bay is a complex estuary located in southern Brazil containing three protected areas listed by UNESCO. Historically, the estuary has been affected by urban, industrial, agricultural and harbor activities, and occasional accidents. Specifically, the explosion of the Chilean ship Vicuña in December 2004 spilled methanol and crude and fuel oils which affected both protected and non-protected areas. The present study sought to investigate the pollution threat to aquatic organisms in order to evaluate the potential effects of pollutants. One hundred and twenty adult fish Atherinella brasiliensis were collected from different sites within Paranaguá estuary, including the harbor and open ocean, during summer, autumn and winter of 2005. Among the biomarkers, the somatic index, chemical analysis of bile, biochemical, genetic and morphological parameters were considered. Chemical analysis of bile showed a continuous bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs according to proximity to the harbor site. The histopathological findings have demonstrated aconsiderable incidence of severe pathologies in the liver and gills, corroborated by biochemical disturbances and genetic damage. These findings indicate that more studies are necessary to evaluate both water quality and fish health so as to permit a better analysis of the impact of pollution in Paranaguá estuary.A Baia de Paranaguá é um complexo estuarino localizado no sul do Brasil constituído de três áreas de proteção ambiental listadas pela UNESCO. Historicamente, o estuário tem sido afetado por atividade urbana, industrial, agricultura e portuária, e eventualmente por acidentes. Particularmente a explosão do navio Chileno Vicuña em dezembro de 2004 derramou metanol, óleo cru e combustível atingindo áreas protegidas e não protegidas. O presente estudo tem por objetivo investigar a poluição em organismos aquáticos. Cento e vinte indivíduos adultos do peixe

  20. Runoff response for a peri-urban watershed in the Atlantic Forest Biome, southern Brazil, using the Kineros2 model

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    Beling, F. A.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    Simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed for different scenarios is an important tool for assessing the rational use of the land and natural resources, especially in environments where urbanization is not ever an organized procedure. This study used the Kineros2 event oriented hydrological model to simulate the runoff response of a 4.9 km2 peri-urban basin located in the Atlantic Forest biome in Southern Brazil, with 47% of the area being impermeable. The goal of the simulations was to estimate the characteristic parameters of the soils and land cover of the watershed to then enable the prediction of basin response for different land uses. To acheive this objective, the responses of ten measured rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate five parameters of the model. The PEST (Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) package was used for automatic calibration of the model parameters. The quality of results is shown in Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index values varying from 0.64 up to 0.98, with an average value of 0.88. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow was 4.5% and 20.7% in the simulated runoff volume. A cross-validation using the same events used in the calibration and using average values of the calibrated parameters. gave Nash-Sutcliffe index values varying from 0.26 up to 0.92, with an average value of 0.73. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow and runoff volume were 22.7% and 25.6%, respectively. We used two validated events to simulate distinct scenarios, being representative of a wet and of dry antecedent moisture conditions. For a scenario of a totally forested land cover, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -53% and -46% respectively, and for a wet condition, -63% and -41% respectively, relatively to the present land use. For a complete pasture land use, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -31% and -27% respectively and

  1. Influence of effluents from a Wastewater Treatment Plant on nutrient distribution in a coastal creek from southern Brazil

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    Isaac Rodrigues Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that effluents treated through activated sludge process cause changes in nutrient biogeochemistry of receiving water bodies was investigated in Vieira creek, southern Brazil. Dissolved oxygen, suspended matter, and pH did not vary among the sampling stations. Nutrient, biochemical oxygen demand, and conductivity values were significantly higher downstream from the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP effluents. Further downstream, nitrate concentrations were higher due to ammonium nitrification, organic matter remineralization and/or the occurrence of unidentified sources. Per capita nutrient emission factors were estimated to be 0.16 kg P.yr-1 and 4.14 kg N.yr-1. Under pristine conditions, low N:P ratios were observed, which were significantly increased downstream due to the high ammonium input. The mixing zone of the nitrogen-rich waters from Vieira creek with the phosphorus-enriched waters from Patos lagoon estuary was considered under high risk of eutrophication. The results could be useful for planning and management of WWTP-effluent receiving waters in temperate regions from developing countries.A hipótese de que efluentes urbanos tratados através de um sistema de lodo ativado causam alterações na qualidade de água de ambientes aquáticos foi investigada no Arroio Vieira, Rio Grande, RS. Amostras de água foram coletadas a montante e a jusante dos emissários de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE. Oxigênio, material em suspensão e pH não variaram espacialmente. Já os valores para os nutrientes e para a demanda bioquímica do oxigênio foram significativamente maiores a jusante dos efluentes. Mais a jusante, as concentrações de nitrato aumentam devido à nitrificação do nitrogênio amoniacal, remineralização da matéria orgânica e/ou ocorrência de outros aportes não-identificados. A emissão de nutrientes per capita após o tratamento dos efluentes domésticos (0.16 kg P ano-1 e 4.14 kg N ano-1

  2. The Late Holocene upper montane cloud forest and high altitude grassland mosaic in the Serra da Igreja, Southern Brazil

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    MAURÍCIO B. SCHEER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many soils of the highlands of Serra do Mar, as in other mountain ranges, have thick histic horizons that preserve high amounts of carbon. However, the age and constitution of the organic matter of these soils remain doubtful, with possible late Pleistocene or Holocene ages. This study was conducted in three profiles (two in grassland and one in forest in Serra da Igreja highlands in the state of Paraná. We performed δ13C isotope analysis of organic matter in soil horizons to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. C3 plants seem to have dominated the mountain ridges of Serra da Igreja since at least 3,000 years BP. Even though the Serra da Igreja may represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands in soils containing organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as reported elsewhere in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, our results indicate that the sites studied are at least from the beginning of the Late Holocene, when conditions of high moisture enabled the colonization/recolonization of the Serra da Igreja ridges by C3 plants. This is the period, often reported in the literature, when forests advanced onto grasslands and savannas.Muitos solos dos picos da Serra do Mar, como em muitas outras serras, apresentam horizontes hísticos espessos com elevados estoques de carbono. No entanto, a idade e constituição da matéria orgânica destes solos ainda é pouco conhecida e não se sabe se é predominantemente proveniente de comunidades de plantas do final do Pleistoceno ou do Holoceno. Este estudo foi realizado em três perfis, dois em campos altomontanos sobre Organossolos (1.335 m s.n.m e um em um colo (ponto de sela, onde a floresta altomontana sobre Gleissolos alcança seu patamar mais alto (1.325 m s.n.m. Foram realizadas análises isotópicas (δ13C da matéria orgânica de horizontes do solo para saber se plantas C3 ou C4 dominaram

  3. Energy intake and requirements of infants in southern Brazil - the influence of breast feeding pattern and socio-economic status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , energy requirements of breast-fed infants in southern Brazil are well below existing international recommendations (20-25%), but similar to the new and recently published American estimated energy requirements (FNB), and values likely to emerge from recent WHO/FAO/UNU consultations. The higher total energy intake of infants receiving cows' milk, their higher fat mass index at 8 months, and the low activity energy expenditure of high SES babies with a tendency towards a higher prevalence of obesity may have implications in relation to the current epidemic of obesity later life in Latin America and elsewhere. High SES babies receiving cows' milk may be a population group that particularly need attention in this respect. (author)

  4. Revisión zoogeográfica marina del sur del Brasil A marine zoogeographical revision of southern Brazil

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    Francisco J Palacio

    1982-01-01

    ", que contiene una proporcion significativa de elementos endemicos y algunos miembros de las faunas adjacentes, Caribe y Patagónica, ademas de organismos circuntropicales. Los límites de la provincia Paulista se hallan, en el norte en la isoterma de los 23ºC, y en el sur, en la isocrima (temperaturas mas frías durante 30 días consecutivos, definidas por Dana, 1853 de los 23ºC.The zoogeography of the Tropical/Subtropical region of Southern Brazil is reviewed through a detailed analysis of numerous studies by different authors. Transition zones are established in the global patterns of zoological provinces (Dana, 1853. The Province "Paulista" is proposed between the States of Espírito Santo and Rio Grande do Sul, limited north and south by the 23ºC isotherm.

  5. Fatores associados ao uso de drogas entre adolescentes escolares Factors associated with drug use among adolescent students in southern Brazil

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    Beatriz Franck Tavares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar fatores associados ao uso de drogas entre adolescentes de escolas com ensino médio. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal, em 1998, em Pelotas, RS. Um questionário anônimo, auto-aplicado em sala de aula, foi respondido por uma amostra proporcional de estudantes com idade entre 10 e 19 anos, matriculados no ensino fundamental (a partir da quinta série e no ensino médio, em todas as escolas públicas e particulares na zona urbana do município que tinham ensino médio. Realizaram-se até três revisitas para aplicação aos alunos ausentes. Os resultados foram expressos como razão de prevalências (RP. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistados 2.410 estudantes e o índice de perdas foi de 8%. A prevalência do uso de drogas (exceto álcool e tabaco no último ano foi 17,1%. Após controle para fatores de confusão, permaneceu a associação entre uso de drogas e separação dos pais (RP=1,46; IC 95%: 1,18-1,80, relacionamento ruim ou péssimo com o pai (RP=1,67; IC 95%: 1,17-2,38, relacionamento ruim ou péssimo com a mãe (RP=2,71; IC 95%: 1,64-4,48, ter pai liberal (RP=1,36; IC 95%: 1,08-1,72, presença em casa de familiar usuário de drogas (RP=1,61; IC 95%: 1,17-2,18, ter sofrido maus tratos (RP=1,62; IC 95%: 1,27-2,07, ter sido assaltado ou roubado no ano anterior (RP=1,38; IC 95%: 1,09-1,76 e ausência de prática religiosa (RP=1,31; IC 95%: 1,07-1,59. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo indica que diversas características familiares estão associadas ao uso de drogas pelos adolescentes, fornecendo informações úteis para a compreensão integral desse problema em nosso País.OBJECTIVE: To assess factors associated with drug use among adolescent students from schools providing secondary education. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1998. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was answered by a proportional sample of 10-19-year-old students, enrolled in primary (5th grade and

  6. Towards a Political Ecology of Education: The Educational Politics of Scale in Southern Pará, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, David

    2015-01-01

    Social movements have initiated both academic programs and disciplines. I present ethnographic data that I gathered during 17 months of fieldwork with the Brazilian Landless Workers' Movement (MST) in southeastern Pará, Brazil, to explore the MST's role in creating agroecological education opportunities. My analysis highlights three factors in…

  7. Knowing electricity end-uses to successfully promote energy efficiency in buildings: a case study in low-income houses in Southern Brazil

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    Arthur Santos Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show the importance of measuring electricity end-uses in order to promote energy efficiency in low-income houses in Southern Brazil. Sixty low-income houses were surveyed, and data of socioeconomic variables, electricity use, and usage pattern were measured and obtained. Confidence intervals were assigned to obtain representative electricity end-uses and usage patterns. The results showed that the electric shower has the greatest electricity end-use, i.e., 33.5 to 40.3%, followed by the refrigerators, with end-use of 27.4 to 33.1% with 90% non-parametric confidence interval. Usage patterns were obtained for appliances and lighting for each room and also for the electric shower. The results of this study will provide basis for determination of guidelines for low-income houses and government programmes for energy efficiency, rational use of energy and renewable energy.

  8. Structure and composition of the assemblage of parasitoids associated to Phyllocnistis citrella pupae Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus orchards in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Simone M.; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Soglio, Fabio K. Dal [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade; Diefenbach, Lucia M.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Producao e Pesquisa em Saude (FEPPS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Biologicas. Lab. Central do Estado (LACEN)

    2007-09-15

    The structure and composition of the assemblage of pupal parasitoids of Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, the citrus leaf miner, were studied in two citrus orchards (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Montenegrina and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco hybrid Murcott), in Montenegro County (29 deg 68S and 51 deg 46W), southern Brazil. At fortnightly samplings, from July 2001 to June 2003, all the new shoots from 24 randomly selected trees were inspected. The species richness reached five native species in the Murcott orchard, and six in Montenegrina. In Murcott, the presence of Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an exotic species, was detected in the first year of sampling, probably migrating from the nearby areas where it had been released for the miner control. In Montenegrina, its presence was only registered in the second year. A. citricola in both areas was dominant and changed the community structure of parasitoid complex of P. citrella in both orchards. (author)

  9. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV and Avian Poxvirus (APV in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

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    Cristina Freitas Nunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and avian poxvirus (APV in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.

  10. Influence of stocking density and culture management on growth and mortality of the mangrove native oyster Crassostrea sp. in southern Brazil

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    João Guzenski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the growth and survival of the mangrove native oyster Crassostrea sp. in the initial stages of culture (nursery and intermediate culture submitted to different treatments of stocking density and cleaning management for 5 months, in Florianópolis/SC, southern Brazil. Treatments consisted of two cleaning managements (every 7 or 14 days and two initial stocking densities (1,000 and 2,000 seeds per tray. After every thinning, densities were kept proportional per area, according to oyster growth. All treatments showed excellent results, but the best growth rate (9.9mm per month was observed in the treatment with high stocking density and long cleaning interval, with a final height of 60mm and allometric shell growth. A low mortality rate (7.5% suggests good conditions of the area and of the native oyster for the grow-out of hatchery-reared spats.

  11. Composition of mixed flocks of understory forest birds in areas of the Atlantic coast and lowlands of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

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    Marcos Antonio Guimarães Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An accompaniment of forest mixed flocks was carried in two localities of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, one on a forest hillside of the Atlantic on the Island of Santa Catarina (June to September, 2000 and another in a quaternary plain forest of the Volta Velha Reserve, Itapoá (June to November, 2000. Sixty-four species of birds were registered from the 79 identified flocks, 33 of which showed a frequency of occurrence above 10%. The flocks had an average number of six species. The nuclear species responsible for the aggregation and compacting of the flocks, for the two localities was Basileuterus culicivorus. The mixed flocks presented little difference in their composition in the two areas. This is probably due to the history of the colonization and the distinct forest formations of the two areas involved.

  12. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics. PMID:27231665

  13. Spatial and temporal variability of seawater properties, current velocity and SPM concentration off Cassino Beach-Rio Grande-Southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, J. V.; Azevedo, M. M.; Esteves, L. S.;

    2009-01-01

    , southern Brazil. The measurements were part of the Cassino Experiment, a project conducted at an open, sandy coastal area known for the occurrence of patches of fairly large amounts of muddy sediments that are sporadically fluidized, transported onshore and eventually stranded on the beach. The study area......Water column profiles and near-bed time series of pressure, current velocity, suspended-particulate matter (SPM) concentration and seawater temperature and salinity were collected during three short cruises carried out in May 2005 in the shoreface and inner shelf area adjacent to Cassino Beach...... is close to the Patos Lagoon mouth, being influenced by its water and suspended-sediment discharge. The presence of the Patos Lagoon outflow on the inner shelf was detected in one of the cruises (May 13) through measurements of near-surface salinity: while close to shore salinity was 29.4, a minimum value...

  14. Reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia in the periurban environment of Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil

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    Manoel dos Santos Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The various aspects of reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita were studied through capture-recapture on Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil. Surveys were carried out from April 1996 to March 1997. The study area was located near the stream of a swamp in a disturbed Atlantic Forest area. On 880 trap-nights, 31 opossums were captured on 108 occasions during one year. The results of this paper indicate a seasonal polyestrous reproduction pattern. Autumn-winter population levels grew on account of juvenile recruitment. The sex ratio favored females in first captures and total captures. Emigration was discussed as being the main reason for the female bias. The effects of sampling procedures over deviation in the pouch young sex ratio of resident females were also discussed.

  15. Effect of the implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP prerequisite program in an institutional foodservice unit in Southern Brazil

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    Kelly Lameiro Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the hygienic practices in the food production of an institutional foodservice unit in Southern Brazil and to evaluate the effect of implementing good food handling practices and standard operational procedures using microbiological hygiene indicators. An initial survey of the general operating conditions classified the unit as regular in terms of compliance with State safety guidelines for food service establishments. An action plan that incorporated the correction of noncompliance issues and the training of food handlers in good food handling practices and standard operational procedures were then implemented. The results of the microbiological analysis of utensils, preparation surfaces, food handlers' hands, water, and ambient air were recorded before and after the implementation of the action plan. The results showed that the implementation of this type of practice leads to the production of safer foods.

  16. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

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    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  17. Food and feeding habits of king weakfish, Macrodon ancylodon (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 caught in the southern coast of Brazil (lat, 29º to 32ºs

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    Anastácio Afonso Juras

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrodon ancylodon was obtained from landings in Santos Port (São Paulo State of fish caught monthly by commercial vessels, on the southern coast of Brazil during September 1976 to August 1977. The measurements of total lenght, total weight determination of sex and maturity stages were made. The food items found in stomach contents were: shrimp (Artemesia longinaris, fishes (Paralonchurus brasiliensis, Macrodon ancylodon, Trichirus lepturus, Gadidae, Engraulidae, molluscs (Loliginidae, Bivalvia and Stomatopoda. Widening of food spectrum was observed in winter. The index of preponderance showed that immature females, immature and mature males fed predominantly on shrimp, while mature females fed mainly on fishes. During spring and summer (spawning season M. ancylodon exhibited relatively low percentage of full stomachs. Cannibalism was encountered more intensively for mature fish.

  18. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

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    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  19. Parasitas intestinais em centros de educação infantil municipal de Lages, SC, Brasil Intestinal parasites in nursey schools of Lages, southern Brazil

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    Rosiléia Marinho de Quadros

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Infecção por enteroparasitas foi avaliada em 200 crianças em idade escolar, residentes em Lages. A prevalência geral entre helmintos e protozoários foi de 70,5% com 61,4% no sexo masculino e 74,5% no feminino. Os parasitos mais prevalentes foram Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lamblia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.Two hundred chinldren from nursery schools in Lages, southern Brazil, were associated as to parasitic ibfections. The overall prevalence of helminths and protozoa was 70.5%, affecting 61.4% of male and 74.5% of female children. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides (35%, Giardia lambia (14% e Trichuris trichiura (13%.

  20. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF RESPIRATORY AND GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF THREE SPECIES OF PINNIPEDS (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS, ARCTOCEPHALUS GAZELLA, AND OTARIA FLAVESCENS) IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Kristy; Marigo, Juliana; Gastal, Silvia Bainy; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Tseng, Florina

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve understanding of parasitism in South American pinnipeds, respiratory and gastrointestinal samples were collected from 12 Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal), one Arctocephalus gazella (Antarctic fur seal), and one Otaria flavescens (South American sea lion). Ova and larvae were microscopically identified from fecal samples and respiratory secretions collected from live A. australis undergoing rehabilitation at Centro de Recuperação de Animais Marinhos (CRAM-FURG) in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil during June-July 2012. Adult parasites were collected from the lungs and gastrointestinal tracts of animals that died while undergoing treatment or were found dead along the southern Brazil coast. Parasites were identified by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing, microscopic examination, comparison with keys, and histologic examination of tissues. Lung parasites of the Parafilaroides genus (Metastrongyloidea, Filaroididae) were identified at necropsy in both A. australis and A. gazella and gastrointestinal parasites were found in all three species of pinniped studied. Gastrointestinal parasites identified in A. australis included the nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova cattani, the cestodes Adenocephalus pacificus (previously Diphyllobothrium pacificum), one from the Tetrabothridae family and one undetermined, and the acanthocephalans Corynosoma sp. and Bolbosoma sp.; from A. gazella the nematode Contracaecum sp. and the acanthocephalan Corynosoma sp.; and from O. flavescens the acanthocephalan Corynosoma sp. Ova from fecal samples from A. australis represent ascarid nematodes, Parafilaroides sp., Adenocephalus pacificus, acanthocephalans, and an egg determined either to be a trematode or pseuophyllidean cestode. With limited information surrounding parasitism, these findings are an important contribution to knowledge of the health of Southern Hemisphere pinnipeds.

  2. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites. PMID:27085719

  3. Beach ridges, foredunes or transgressive dunefields? Definitions and an examination of the Torres to Tramandaí barrier system, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesp Patrick A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many prograded barriers and some dunefields in theworld have been termed 'beach ridge' plains, but the actual genesis of the 'ridges' is often unknown. Use of the terms, berms, beach ridges and foredunes is also confusing in the literature because their definitions are highly variable and are commonly used interchangeably. Thus, the formation and definition of sand berms, beach ridges and foredunes is briefly reviewed. Beach ridges are re-defined as entirely wave formed deposits which are most commonly formed during high wave conditions and/or elevated water levels (e.g. storm surges. Foredunes are formed by aeolian sand deposition in vegetation on the backshore. Some dunefields in Brazil have been called beach ridge plains when they are, in fact, foredune plains, transgressive dunefields, or complex barriers (i.e. barriers comprising two types of dunes. The Holocene barrier extending from Torres to Tramandaí in southern Brazil has been regarded as a beach ridge plain. The landforms of this Holocene barrier comprise wide, relatively linear, widely spaced (400-600m, shore parallel ridges on the landward half, and more closely spaced (80-400m, lobate and crescentic, discrete ridges on the seaward half. Low, rolling dunefields, sand sheets, nebkha fields and deflation plains occur between the ridges. The barrier is re-interpreted as a prograded, transgressive dunefield barrier.

  4. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites.

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus among users attending a voluntary testing centre in Rio Grande, southern Brazil: predictive factors and hepatitis C virus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, F N; dos Santos, C A; Honscha, G; Strasburg, A; Gabbi, B; Mendoza-Sassi, R A; Soares, E A; Seuánez, H N; Soares, M A; Martínez, A M B

    2010-07-01

    We estimated the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection and associated risk factors in 750 individuals attending the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center of Rio Grande (VCT/RG), in Southern Brazil, and identified viral genotypes. Demographic data and risk factors for HCV transmission were also collected and analysed. Anti-HCV antibody-positive individuals were tested for HCV-RNA and genotyped by sequencing the 5' untranslated region of the viral genome. Prevalence estimates of anti-HCV and HCV-RNA were 6% and 5.5%, respectively. We identified genotypes 1 (67%), 2 (2%) and 3 (31%); the latter was more prevalent than in other regions of Brazil. Anti-HCV prevalence in VCT/RG users was similar to previous reports. Age, previous blood transfusion, sexual orientation and injecting drug use were independent predictors of HCV infection. The presence of multiple risk factors was also associated with a higher risk for HCV infection. HCV genotype was not associated with any variable analysed in this study. PMID:20852195

  6. Major shear zones of southern Brazil and Uruguay: escape tectonics in the eastern border of Rio de La plata and Paranapanema cratons during the Western Gondwana amalgamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, C. R.; Basei, M. A. S.; Wemmer, K.; Siga, O.; Oyhantçabal, P.

    2011-04-01

    The Mantiqueira Province represents a series of supracrustal segments of the South-American counterpart formed during the Gondwana Supercontinent agglutination. In this crustal domain, the process of escape tectonics played a conspicuous role, generating important NE-N-S-trending lineaments. The oblique component of the motions of the colliding tectonic blocks defined the transpressional character of the main suture zones: Lancinha-Itariri, Cubatão-Arcádia-Areal, Serrinha-Rio Palmital in the Ribeira Belt and Sierra Ballena-Major Gercino in the Dom Feliciano Belt. The process as a whole lasted for ca. 60 Ma, since the initial collision phase until the lateral escape phase predominantly marked by dextral and subordinate sinistral transpressional shear zones. In the Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil and Uruguay, transpressional event at 630-600 Ma is recognized and in the Ribeira Belt, despite less coevally, the transpressional event occurred between 590 and 560 Ma in its northern-central portion and between ca. 625 and 595 Ma in its central-southern portion. The kinematics of several shear zones with simultaneous movement in opposite directions at their terminations is explained by the sinuosity of these lineaments in relation to a predominantly continuous westward compression.

  7. Positive inversion of extensional footwalls in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Brazil--insights from sandbox laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Caroline J S; Martins-Neto, Marcelo A; Ribeiro, Valéria E

    2006-06-01

    Analogue experiments were carried out to get insights into the processes governing positive inversion during the foreland propagating thrust tectonics in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, a Brasiliano/Panafrican foldthrust belt in southeast Brazil. In particular, model listric half-grabens were inverted by applying contractional displacement to the footwall blocks. We investigated two different inversion conditions in listric half-grabens: (i) extensional and contractional detachments at the same level and (ii) at different positions. The models revealed that the development of a forward-breaking thrust system occurs in the basin synrift deposits, by contractional translation of the extensional footwall block when the extensional and contractional master faults do not coincide. Our experiments show the tectonic imbrication between basement and synrift sequences which characterizes the southern Serra do Espinhaço, and support the location in the eastern mountain range domain of the Espinhaço rift master fault system, which is not exposed at the surface.

  8. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz; Frederico Pereira Brandini; Franciane Maria Pellizzari

    2004-01-01

    The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil) were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass,...

  9. Design, randomization and methodology of the TriAtiva Program to reduce obesity in school children in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Roberta R; Caetano, Lisandrea C; Schiffner, Mariana D; Mário B. Wagner; Schuch, Ilaine

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of child obesity in Brazil has increased rapidly in recent decades. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop effective strategies to prevent and control child obesity. In light of these considerations, an intervention program with a focus on nutrition education and physical activity was developed for to prevent and control obesity in schools. The intervention was called the TriAtiva Program: Education, Nutrition and Physical Activity. This article describes the...

  10. Feeding strategy of Menticirrhus americanus and Menticirrhus littoralis (Perciformes: Sciaenidae) juveniles in a sandy beach surf zone of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio L. Rodrigues; João P Vieira

    2010-01-01

    The diet and foraging strategy of juvenile Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Menticirrhus littoralis (Holbrook, 1847) were studied, testing the existence of trophic overlap between these species and within different seasons (spring and summer). Individuals were sampled using a beach seine in the surf zone near Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Based on Morisita's Simplified Overlap Index and Bootstrapping technique, trophic overlap between species was considered high ...

  11. A systematic review of diapoma (teleostei: characiformes: characidae: stevardiinae: diapomini with descriptions of two new species from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio A. Menezes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diapoma is reviewed and four species are recognized: (1 Diapoma thauma, new species, from streams of the rio Jacuí basin, state of Rio Grande do Sul; (2 D. pyrrhopteryx, new species collected from the rio Canoas and streams flowing into this basin in the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil; (3 Diapoma terofali, from streams flowing into rio Uruguay in Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and streams flowing into rio de la Plata, Argentina; and (4 Diapoma speculiferum, from lowland coastal streams in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Uruguay. Diapoma pyrrhopteryx possess the posteroventral opercular elongation typical of D. speculiferum, type species of the genus, but which is absent in D. thauma and D. terofali. Nonetheless, all the diapomin species have the caudal pouch organ about equally developed in both sexes and the dorsal portion of the pouch opening bordered by a series of 3 to 8 elongated scales, the two derived features that characterize the group. The two previously described species, D. speculiferum and D. terofali, are redescribed. Previous hypotheses of relationships among the diapomin genera Planaltina, Diapoma and Acrobrycon are discussed on the basis of preliminary morphological information. It is proposed that the Diapomini is a monophyletic group. An identification key, information on sexual dimorphism, gonad anatomy, reproductive mode and distribution of the species of Diapoma are provided.

  12. Enzyme Polymorphism in Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 and Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in southern Brazil

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    Danielle das Neves Bespalhok

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beetles of the species Sitophilus oryzae and S. zeamais are pests of great economic importance since they attack not only rice and maize but also several other cereals. In fact, these beetles are one of the most visible threats to sustainable food production. Current study estimated the genetic variability of S. oryzae in two samples, one from the State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, and another from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, and a sample of S. zeamais from the State of Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil. Isozyme electrophoresis in starch gel technique was employed to analyze eight enzyme systems (AAT, ACP, GDH, GPI, IDH, MDH, PGM and ME. Average heterozygosity rates were 0.0091, 0.0100 and 0.0000 and expected heterozygosity rates were 0.0419, 0.0452 and 0.0000 respectively for the samples of PR, SC and RS samples. The percentage of polymorphic loci was 30% in the PR sample, 0% in the RS sample and 30% in the SC sample. Genetic identity rates were I=0.9983 between samples from PR and RS; I = 0.6892 between PR and SC, and I = 0.6925 between SC and RS. Nei´s (1978 genetic distance rates  were 0.0017, 0.3722 and 0.3675. Samples presented low genetic variability.

  13. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: adaltobianchini@furg.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  14. El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall erosivity in the headwater region of the Grande River Basin, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Mello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between regional climate and oceanic and atmospheric anomalies are important tools in order to promote the development of models for predicting rainfall erosivity, especially in regions with substantial intra-annual variability in the rainfall regime. In this context, this work aimed to analyze the rainfall erosivity in headwaters of Grande River Basin, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This study considered the two most representative environments, the Mantiqueira Range (MR and Plateau of Southern Minas Gerais (PSM. These areas are affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO indicators Sea Surface Temperature (SST for Niño 3.4 Region and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI. Rainfall erosivity was calculated for individual rainfall events from January 2006 to December 2010. The analyses were conducted using the monthly data of ENSO indicators and the following rainfall variables: rainfall erosivity (EI30, rainfall depth (P, erosive rainfall depth (E, number of rainfall events (NRE, number of erosive rainfall events (NEE, frequency of occurrence of an early rainfall pattern (EP, occurrence of late rainfall pattern (LP and occurrence of intermediate rainfall patter (IP. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between the rainfall variables and SST and MEI. The coefficients of correlation were significant for SST in the PSM sub-region. Correlations between the rainfall variables and negative oscillations of SST were also significant, especially in the MR sub-region, however, the Person's coefficients were lesser than those obtained for the SST positive oscillations. The correlations between the rainfall variables and MEI were also significant but lesser than the SST correlations. These results demonstrate that SST positive oscillations play a more important role in rainfall erosivity, meaning they were more influenced by El-Niño episodes. Also, these results have shown

  15. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretation of aeromagnetic data over the Lancinha Shear Zone, Southern Ribeira Belt, in Paraná State, Southern Brazil

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    Luís Gustavo de Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of shear zones at the southern portion of the Ribeira Belt, PR, BR, as well as its recognition in depth is a major challenge. Despite the lack of subsurface information, the influence of such structures on the installation and evolution of the Paraná Basin during the Phanerozoic is widely accepted. Therefore, in this paper, are applied methods of anomaly enhancement (qualitative analysis and estimative of the sources depth (semiquantitative analysis, on the aeromagnetic coverage of the Lancinha Shear Zone area (LSZ in the Paraná state, in order to verify its spatial arrangement in subsurface. The processing resulted in the interpretation of magnetic-structural framework of the study area, which was validated by the depth estimative of the magnetic sources (Euler solutions. The results indicated the extension of the Lancinha, Morro Agudo and Itapirapuã shear zones under the Paraná Basin coverage.

  16. A new species and notes on Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Paraná and Santa Catarina States, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) deposited in the Entomological Collection "Padre Jesus S. Moure" of the Universidade Federal do Paraná and additional material recently collected in Paraná and Santa Catarina states, Brazil were studied. Six previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. cathia Froehlich, 2002, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. trimacula Jewett, 1959, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacoson and Bianchi, 1905) and K. colossica (Navás, 1934). Additionally, a new species, Anacroneuria iguazu n. sp is described. PMID:24870914

  17. Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

    2014-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding

  18. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago José Canali; Sylvia Marina Soares de Oliveira; Deivid Montero Reduit; Daniele Botelho Vinholes; Viviane Pessi Feldens

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-...

  19. MELTING CURVE ANALYSIS FOR THE SCREENING OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS GENOTYPES A, D AND F IN PATIENTS FROM A GENERAL HOSPITAL IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo BECKER

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Hepatitis B virus (HBV can cause fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is one of the most common causes of acute and chronic liver failure. The genetic variants of HBV can be decisive for the evolution of these diseases as well as for the election of therapy. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and standardize an in house methodology based on the analysis of the melting curve polymerase chain reaction (PCR of real-time (qPCR to screen for genotypes A, D and F of HBV in patients from a hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods We evaluated 104 patients presumably with HBV chronic infection. Viral DNA was extracted from plasma and viral genotypes and different mutations were determined using PCR-based protocols. Results A PCR-based methodology was standardized for the analysis of genotypes A, D and F of HBV. The technique was based in a nested PCR with the final step consisting of a multiplex real-time PCR, using the melting curve as a tool for the differentiation of fragments. A higher frequency of genotype D (44.4%, followed by genotype A (22.2% and genotype F (3.7% was observed. Conclusion The standardized assay, a nested PCR-multiplex qPCR using specific primers, provides a rapid and accurate method for the differentiation of HBV genotypes that are more frequent in Southern Brazil – A, D and F. This method can be applied in the clinical practice.

  20. Status taxonômico e distribucional do complexo Eumops bonariensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) no sul do Brasil Distibutional and taxonomic status of the Eumops bonariensis species complex (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Itiberê P. Bernardi; João M. D. Miranda; Fernando C. Passos

    2009-01-01

    The taxonomic status and the geographical distribution of the specimens from southern Brazil previously identified as members of the Eumops bonariensis (Peters, 1874) species complex are here reviewed based on specimens deposited in collections of the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The results of an investigation of diagnostic morphological characters and a multivariate morphometrics analysis suggest the recognition of two forms, E. bonariensis and E. patagonicus Thomas, 1924, thus a...

  1. Biomass and fishing potential yield of demersal resources from the outer shelf and upper slope of southern Brazil Biomasa y rendimiento potencial pesquero de recursos demersales de la plataforma externa y talud superior del sur de Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Haimovici; Luciano Gomes Fischer; Carmem L.D.B.S Rossi-Wongtschowski; Roberto Ávila Bernardes; Roberta Aguiar dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    The relative abundance and fishing potential of the commercially valuable fishes and cephalopods with marketable size was assessed using two seasonal bottom trawl surveys performed in 2001 and 2002 on the outer shelf and upper slope (100-600 m depth) off the coast of southern Brazil. These surveys were part of REVIZEE, a national program designed to assess the fishery potential within the Economic Exclusive Zone. Of the 228 fish and cephalopod species caught during the surveys, only 27 specie...

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency and its correlation with other risk factors in jaundiced newborns in Southern Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clarissa Gutirrez Carvalho; Simone Martins Castro; Ana Paula Santin; Carina Zaleski; Felipe Gutirrez Carvalho; Roberto Giugliani

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the correlation between glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and neonatal jaundice.Methods: Prospective, observational case-control study was conducted on490 newborns admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre for phototherapy, who all experienced35 or more weeks of gestation, from March to December2007. Enzymatic screening ofG6PD activity was performed, followed byPCR.Results:There was prevalence of4.6% and a boy-girl ratio of3:1 in jaundiced newborns. No jaundiced neonate withABO incompatibility presented G6PD deficiency, and no Mediterranean mutation was found. A higher proportion of deficiency was observed in Afro-descendants. There was no association withUGT1A1 variants. Conclusions:G6PD deficiency is not related to severe hyperbilirubinemia and considering the high miscegenation in this area of Brazil, other gene interactions should be investigated.

  3. Prevalence and associated factors with body image dissatisfaction among adults in southern Brazil: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Nahas, Markus Vinicius; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; Del Duca, Giovâni Firpo; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2011-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and associated factors in Florianopolis, Brazil. BID was analyzed in a sample (N=1720) of adults through the Figure Rating Scale. The independent variables were sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and morbidities. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. More men (14.2%) than women (6.1%) presented BID by being lighter than ideal (LI). Conversely, more women (66.6%) than men (46.3%) showed BID by being heavier than ideal (HI). BID by being HI was higher among older women, those with high BMI and those with a partner. In men, lower BMI and the presence of common mental disorders were associated with BID due to being LI. Advanced ages, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, and obesity were associated with BID due to being HI. We must consider different public health interventions for men and women to reduce BID in Brazilian adults. PMID:21768003

  4. Natural Infection of Wild Canids (Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus) with the Intraendothelial Piroplasm Rangelia vitalii in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredo, Gabriela; Bianchi, Matheus V; De Andrade, Caroline P; De Souza, Suyene O; Leite-Filho, Ronaldo V; Bandinelli, Marcele B; Amorim, Derek B; Driemeier, David; Sonne, Luciana

    2015-10-01

    Rangelia vitalii is a piroplasm that infects canines, causing lesions typical of a hemolytic disorder. Two wild canids, a crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and a Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus), were presented for necropsy in Setor de Patologia Veterinária at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. On gross examination, both animals had pale mucosae and moderate tick infestation (Amblyomma aureolatum). There was severe splenomegaly, and the liver had a diffusely orange-reddish lobular pattern. The mesenteric lymph nodes were brownish and slightly enlarged. Structures compatible with R. vitalii were observed in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells in the liver, stomach, heart, kidney, lungs, lymph nodes, and bladder. The agent was characterized by PCR and genetic sequencing of liver samples and ticks. We show that parasitism with R. vitalii follows an epidemiologic cycle in which wild canids act as reservoirs.

  5. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2%) handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9%) was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%), Blastocystis hominis (28.2%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1%) and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%). Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00). The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p food via handling.

  6. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential.

  7. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n=29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species.

  8. Spatial distribution pattern of Mezilaurus itauba (Meins. Taub. Ex mez. in a seasonal forest area of the southern Amazon, Brazil

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    Ebert A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial analysis of forest tree distribution is a powerful tool to respond to basic ecological questions, and represent a useful support to strategies of genetic conservation and sustainable management practices of forest resources. Spatial analysis techniques combined with the use of Geographical Information Systems have been commonly applied to the study of stochastic processes in order to determine the existence of clusters to be related to microenviromental conditions and/or genetic factors. The present study focused on the distribution patterns of individuals of Mezilaurus itauba in a seasonal forest of the southern Amazon, with the aim of providing information about the spatial arrangement of these species at the juvenile and adult stages. Ripley’s K function with radius of 10, 20 and 30 m was used to describe spatial distribution patterns. The hypothesis of complete spatial randomness (CSR of individuals was tested by constructing confidence envelopes for the Ripley’s K function through Monte Carlo simulations using a Poisson homogeneous process. The results obtained suggest a general random distribution of individuals, though a tendency to clustering at close distances was detected for individuals classified as adults (DBH > 50 cm. Contrastingly, a completely randomized spatial pattern was found for juveniles trees (DBH < 50 cm. Our results provide a useful baseline for the development of sustainable management plans and conservation of Mezilaurus itauba, as well as for other economically-exploited, native tree species in the southern Amazon forest.

  9. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Filho, Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado

    2015-01-01

    Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day(-1)). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R² = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  10. Hematological and histopathological changes in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes) exposed to clomazone herbicide in the Madre River, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Aline; Dotta, Geovana; Roumbedakis, Katina; Gonçalves, Eduardo L T; Garcia, Laura P; Garcia, Patrícia; Scussel, Vildes M; Martins, Maurício L

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the clomazone herbicide (2-[(2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxazolidinone) contamination on the hematological parameters and histological changes in gills and liver of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) from Madre River, Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. Fish were collected between March 2010 and January 2012 at two different sites of the Madre River, one site receiving residual water (contaminated site) from rice culture (n=49) and another that do not receive residual water (reference site) (n=48). The herbicide clomazone analysis detected 3.40±1.70 μg/L in the contaminated site and 1.1±0.33 μg/L in the reference site. Fish from contaminated site showed increased (Pclomazone. On the other hand, no difference was found in the hematocrit percentage, red blood cell count, total thrombocyte number, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, and neutrophils number. Fish from both sites showed histopathological changes in gills and liver, possibly caused by chronic exposure to contamination. The influence of herbicide sub doses on fish health is also discussed.

  11. Gastrointestinal parasites and prey items from a mass stranding of false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens, in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A L; Pinedo, M C; Barreto, A S

    2001-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of 14 false killer whales, 6 males and 8 females, stranded in June 1995 in southern Brazil, with total standard lengths from 338 to 507 cm, were analysed for endoparasites and food items. A pregnant female had a male foetus of 77.5 cm. Parasites were found in all 14 false killer whales. The nematode Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) was found in the stomach of 57% of the animals and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma capitatum (Linstow, 1889) Porta, 1908 was present in the intestine of all specimens and showed densities up to 600 m-1. An unidentified cestode (Tethrabothridae) was found also in the intestines of 14% of the individuals. The high infections of B. capitatum and A. simplex were not directly related with the cause of death. In the stomachs of four females, beaks of at least eight specimens of the oceanic and epipelagic species Ommastrephes bartramii (Lesueur, 1821) were found, with mantle lengths ranging from 189.8 to 360.9 mm. The distribution of O. bartramii in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul is consistent with false killer whales feeding in continental shelf waters. PMID:11340462

  12. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil

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    FRANCIELE P. MARAGNO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  13. Sepse por Staphylococus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirida na comunidade no sul do Brasil Sepsis due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil

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    Luciane Cristina Gelatti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina foi inicialmente descrito como um típico microrganismo adquirido em infecções nosocomiais. No entanto, nos últimos anos Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade é causa de infecções de pele e tecidos moles, mas infecções graves como pneumonia e sepse podem ocorrer. Este relato descreve um caso de sepse em criança, complicado com pneumonia secundária a lesão em partes moles por Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina adquirido na comunidade no Sul do Brasil. O paciente foi atendido em Unidade de Emergência com história de ferimento provocado por trauma em membro inferior que evoluiu para celulite, pneumonia e sepse.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was initially described as a typical microorganism acquired in nosocomial infections. However, over recent years, community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been a cause of skin and soft-tissue infections. Serious infections such as pneumonia and sepsis can also occur. This report describes a case of sepsis in a child that was complicated by pneumonia secondary to soft tissue lesions that were due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in southern Brazil. The patient was attended at the Emergency Unit with a history of injury caused by lower-limb trauma that evolved to cellulitis, pneumonia and sepsis.

  14. Habitat associations of small mammals in southern Brazil and use of regurgitated pellets of birds of prey for inventorying a local fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibler, D R; Christoff, A U

    2007-11-01

    We inventoried terrestrial small mammals in an agricultural area in southern Brazil by using trapping and prey consumed by Barn Owls (Tyto alba) and White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus). Small mammals were trapped in three habitat types: corn fields, uncultivated fields ("capoeiras"), and native forest fragments. A total of 1,975 small mammal specimens were trapped, another 2,062 identified from the diet of Barn Owls, and 2,066 from the diet of White-tailed Kites. Both trapping and prey in the predators' diet yielded 18 small mammal species: three marsupials (Didelphis albiventris, Gracilinanus agilis, and Monodelphis dimidiata) and 15 rodents (Akodon paranaensis, Bruceppatersonius iheringi, Calomys sp., Cavia aperea, Euryzygomatomys spinosus, Holochilus brasiliensis, Mus musculus, Necromys lasiurus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys angouya, Oxymycterus sp.1, Oxymycterus sp.2, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus (Linnaeus, 1758)). The greatest richness was found in the uncultivated habitat. We concluded that the three methods studied for inventorying small mammals (prey in the diet of Barn Owls, White-tailed Kites, and trapping) were complementary, since together, rather than separately, they produced a better picture of local richness. PMID:18278312

  15. Boron-isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of hematitic phyllite in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Koglin, Nikola; Lehmann, Bernd; de Abreu, Francisco R.

    2012-05-01

    Metasiliciclastic rocks predominate in the lower units of the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço Supergroup, in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The lower units also comprise rocks with locally preserved igneous fabrics, but which have very unusual chemistries. These rocks, collectively known as hematitic phyllite, are characterised by abundant fine-grained muscovite, i.e. sericite, and variable amounts of titaniferous hematite, rutile and tourmaline. Currently, the hematitic phyllite has been interpreted as a metamorphosed palaeosol after basaltic rocks and, as such, has been used as a palaeoclimatic indicator. However, the lateritic nature of the hematitic phyllite cannot unambiguously be determined because of the K metasomatism, hematitisation and tourmalinisation recorded in the hematitic phyllite and in the arenaceous country rocks. Here we report the B-isotopic and chemical compositions of tourmaline from the hematitic phyllite. Our δ11B data are in the range between - 15‰ and 4‰. The tourmaline compositions fall along the povondraite-"oxy-dravite" join, which defines a meta-evaporitic tourmaline trend. A meta-evaporitic B source is constrained by the B-isotopic data as non-marine. Our model for the hematitic phyllite suggests that B- and K-rich brines were derived from the metamorphic dewatering of non-marine evaporites. Such brines extensively altered volcanic rocks of basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, leading to tourmaline-bearing, hematite-sericite assemblages of the hematitic phyllite.

  16. Characterization of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and minerals in landraces of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Southern Brazil

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    Daniela PRIORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability for the synthesis of bioactive compounds and minerals in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata landraces. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals were evaluated in 10 accessions of Cucurbita moschata landraces from the Genebank of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture (Pelotas - RS, Brazil. Twenty plants of each accession were cultivated in the field during the spring/summer of 2013/2014. After harvesting of mature fruits, the seeds were discarded and opposite longitudinal portions of the pulp were manually prepared for analysis of the bioactive compounds. For the determination of minerals, pumpkin samples were frozen in plastic bags, and after freeze-dried and milled. All analysis were performed in triplicate. The data obtained showed high genetic variability for the synthesis of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals. The accessions C52, C81, C267 e C389 showed high levels of antioxidants and minerals, being recommended for use in pumpkin breeding programs. The accessions C52 and C389 are promising, especially because they present the highest levels of total carotenoids.

  17. Effect of personal and microclimatic variables on observed thermal sensation from a field study in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Eduardo L.; Rossi, Francine A. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba PR (Brazil)

    2011-03-15

    Urban climate, which is influenced by land use patterns, heat-generating activities, and the physical texture of urban fabric, has a great impact on outdoor comfort as well as on a building's energy consumption. A climate-responsive urban planning can provide optimal, comfortable thermal conditions not only for the permanence of humans in outdoor spaces but also reducing the need of air conditioning systems in buildings. The purpose of this article is to present results of an outdoor comfort research with passers-by in downtown Curitiba, Brazil (25 31'S, 917m elevation). Urban locations have been monitored regarding standard comfort variables: air temperature and humidity, wind speed and globe temperature. Alongside the quantitative assessment of comfort conditions, a survey of pedestrian's thermal comfort perception according to ISO 10551 was carried out on each monitoring campaign by means of questionnaires with the local population. As a whole, from fourteen monitoring campaigns using a couple of weather stations, beginning on January 9 through August 12, 1654 valid comfort votes were obtained. In this paper, we perform a data consistency check, evaluating the relationship between personal (gender and age of respondents) and objective, microclimatic (comfort variables) factors on observed thermal sensation. (author)

  18. A multibiomarker evaluation of urban, industrial, and agricultural exposure of small characins in a large freshwater basin in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Carolina A; Souza-Bastos, Luciana R; Chiesse, Juliana; Tincani, Flávio H; Piancini, Laercio D S; Randi, Marco A F; Prodocimo, Viviane; Cestari, Marta M; Silva-de-Assis, Helena C; Abilhoa, Vinícius; Vitule, Jean R S; Bastos, Leonardo P; de Oliveira-Ribeiro, Ciro A

    2015-09-01

    Iguaçu River is the second most polluted river of Brazil. It receives agrochemicals and contaminants of urban and industrial sources along its course. A multibiomarker approach was employed here to evaluate the health of a small characin (Astyanax spp.) at two sites along the river, sampled during a dry (autumn) and a rainy (spring) season. Biomarkers were condition factor and somatic indices (gonads and liver); genetic damage (comet assay and micronucleus test); enzyme activities such as hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), lipoperoxidation (LPO), branchial and renal carbonic anhydrase (CA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the muscle and the brain, histopathology of the liver and gills, and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bile. There were no consistent differences in biomarker responses between the two study sites. Some biomarkers revealed greater potential impact in the rainy season, when increased amounts of contaminants are washed into the river (combined CAT inhibition and LPO increase, CA upregulation). Other biomarkers, however, revealed potential greater impact in the dry season, when contaminants potentially concentrate (GST induction, AChE inhibition, and liver histopathological alterations). Although of a complex nature, field experiments such as this provide rich data for monitoring protocols and assessment of general risk of exposure to pollutants of river systems. PMID:25940483

  19. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF Ehrlichia SPECIES IN DOGS, HORSES AND HUMANS: ZOONOTIC SCENERY IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a Brazilian rural settlement using a commercial ELISA rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA with E. canis and E. chaffeensis crude antigens. Serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. Fifty-six out of 132 (42.4% dogs were seropositive for E. canis. Dogs > one year were more likely to be seropositive for E. canis than dogs ≤ one year (p = 0.0051. Ten/16 (62.5% and 8/16 (50% horses were seropositive by the commercial ELISA and IFA, respectively. Five out of 100 (5% humans were seropositive for E. canis and E. chaffeensis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 291, 97.98% on dogs and Amblyomma cajennense (n = 25, 96.15% on horses were the most common ticks found. In conclusion, anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies were found in horses; however, the lack of a molecular characterization precludes any conclusion regarding the agent involved. Additionally, the higher seroprevalence of E. canis in dogs and the evidence of anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies in humans suggest that human cases of ehrlichiosis in Brazil might be caused by E. canis, or other closely related species.

  20. Factors that impact the financial performance of broiler production in southern states of Paraná, Brazil

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    AS Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the factors that affect the financial performance of broiler chicken production in Southwest of Paraná state in Brazil, as well as to study the relationship of these factors with the social-economic situation of poultry farmers. Data were obtained from a questionnaire applied to broiler chicken farmers between February and March, 2011. The questionnaire included 39 questions relative to farmer's age, family size, land possession, capital invested in broiler farming, gross income per flock, training and broiler farming experience, production size, credit needs, technical service, labor, production problems, and bird weight at slaughter. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. The relationship between production data and financial performance was determined using Pearson correlation coefficient, at 95% confidence level. Approximately 64.84% of the interviewed broiler farmers in Paraná state presented medium to low financial performance. Factors such as education level, facility size, labor, gross income per flock, and average bird weight at slaughter had a positive impact on financial performance. The production problems that most affected the broiler production were environmental challenges, poor feed conversion, as well as management problems and low-quality chicks.

  1. Influence of laying hen systems on the mite fauna (Acari) community of commercial poultry farms in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Tamara Bianca; Körbes, Júlia Horn; Granich, Juliana; Senter, Malena; Ferla, Noeli Juarez

    2016-01-01

    Intensive production of confined laying hens affects their welfare and increases the risk of epidemics. Ectoparasites as hematophagous and feather mites cause low productivity and decreased egg quality. This study aimed to determine the diversity of mites captured with traps in different commercial systems of laying hens (Gallus gallus L.) (Phasianidae) in Taquari Valley, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samplings were conducted from August 2013 to August 2014, totaling 21 sampling events in three different commercial laying hen systems: automatic production systems (A(1), (2), (3)), semiautomatic systems (S(1), (2)), and free-range system (FR). A total of 9981 mites belonging to 21 families, 31 genera, and 35 species were found. Acaridae, Caligonellidae, and Cheyletidae showed the highest richness with four species each. Megninia ginglymura (Mégnin, 1877) (Analgidae) was the most abundant ectoparasite species with 1328 specimens and was present in all commercial laying hen systems. No hematophagous mites were found. Cheyletus malaccensis(Cheyletidae) (3503), Typhlodromus transvaalensis (Phytoseiidae) (304), and Blattisocius keegani (Blattisocidae) (181) were the predators present in all systems. The similarity with control system (S(1)--without pesticide) was low (36.5 %) when compared to all other commercial laying hen systems, and it had the highest richness. In FR, low populations of mites and highest diversity were observed. The commercial laying hen system and the management influence the mite fauna in poultry farms.

  2. Evidence of Gondwana early rifting process recorded by Resende-Ilha Grande Dike Swarm, southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Eliane; Heilbron, Monica; de Morisson Valeriano, Claudio; de Almeida, Julio César Horta; Szatmari, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Continental flood basalts and dike swarm have been related to continental breakup process through geological time. The Resende - Ilha Grande Dike swarm (RIGDS) located in the southeast Brazil, is related the Gondwana breakup and composed of dikes/sills intruded in Precambrian gneiss. The dikes have three distinguish orientations: NNW more inland; NS-NNE in the central segment and NE orientation in the coast line, consistent with Precambrian structural lineaments. The swarm comprises high-TiO2 tholeiitic basalts divided into three suites based on REE and Sr and Nd isotope data. The Resende and Volta Redonda suites present higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.7077 and 0.7065, while Angra dos Reis suite presents values of 0.7066 to 0.7057. Geochemical and isotopic data support the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) as the main source for the high-TiO2 basalts. The suites heterogeneities are explained by different compositions of SCLM in accreted Precambrian terranes and/or different degree of partial melting and fractional. 40Ar/39Ar data indicate age interval between ca. 156 to 144 Ma for the swarm, older than the average for Gondwana breakup (ca. 130-120 Ma). The age interval places the RIGDS between the Karoo magmatism (181-178 Ma) and the Paraná-Etendeka magmatism (133-134 Ma) and indicates that extensional process affected the supercontinent prior the break-up.

  3. PREVALENCE OF HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THIS INFECTION IN WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Thais Duquia Moraes Caldeira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HVS-2 is the most prevalent infection worldwide. It is a cofactor in the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and the persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV. This study evaluated the prevalence of HSV-2, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and associated factors in patients treated at the Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG and Basic Health Units (BHU in Rio Grande, Brazil. The observed prevalence of HSV-2 was 15.6%. Among the 302 women studied, 158 had received assistance in BHU and 144 were treated at FURG. The prevalence of HSV-2 in these groups was 10.8% and 20.8%, respectively, RR 1.9 and p = 0.012. Knowledge about the Pap smear, and the presence of lesions showed no association with HSV-2 infection. Multivariate analysis showed that the variable that most influenced the risk of HSV-2 infection was the presence of HIV infection, with a relative risk of 1.9 and p = 0.04. Discussion: Genital ulcers are an important entry point for HIV, and condom use is an important strategy to reduce transmission of HIV and HSV-2.

  4. Soil and crop residue CO2-C emission under tillage systems in sugarcane-producing areas of southern Brazil

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    Luís Gustavo Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate management of agricultural crop residues could result in increases on soil organic carbon (SOC and help to mitigate gas effect. To distinguish the contributions of SOC and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. residues to the short-term CO2-C loss, we studied the influence of several tillage systems: heavy offset disk harrow (HO, chisel plow (CP, rotary tiller (RT, and sugarcane mill tiller (SM in 2008, and CP, RT, SM, moldboard (MP, and subsoiler (SUB in 2009, with and without sugarcane residues relative to no-till (NT in the sugarcane producing region of Brazil. Soil CO2-C emissions were measured daily for two weeks after tillage using portable soil respiration systems. Daily CO2-C emissions declined after tillage regardless of tillage system. In 2008, total CO2-C from SOC and/or residue decomposition was greater for RT and lowest for CP. In 2009, emission was greatest for MP and CP with residues, and smallest for NT. SOC and residue contributed 47 % and 41 %, respectively, to total CO2-C emissions. Regarding the estimated emissions from sugarcane residue and SOC decomposition within the measurement period, CO2-C factor was similar to sugarcane residue and soil organic carbon decomposition, depending on the tillage system applied. Our approach may define new emission factors that are associated to tillage operations on bare or sugarcane-residue-covered soils to estimate the total carbon loss.

  5. Feeding strategy of Menticirrhus americanus and Menticirrhus littoralis (Perciformes: Sciaenidae juveniles in a sandy beach surf zone of southern Brazil

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    Fábio L. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet and foraging strategy of juvenile Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Menticirrhus littoralis (Holbrook, 1847 were studied, testing the existence of trophic overlap between these species and within different seasons (spring and summer. Individuals were sampled using a beach seine in the surf zone near Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Based on Morisita's Simplified Overlap Index and Bootstrapping technique, trophic overlap between species was considered high during the spring (Cik = 0.97 ± 0.07 and low during the summer (Cik = 0.37 ± 0.14. Juveniles shared the same food resources during the spring (FO of amphipods > 0.75, with the M. americanus diet presenting lower prey diversity (N = 7 when compared to M. littoralis (N = 13. In the summer, M. americanus presented a more varied diet (N = 13 than during the spring, suggesting a non-specialized opportunistic diet, whereas M. littoralis continued to show a diversified diet (N = 14. During the summer, M. americanus presented a generalist-opportunist feeding strategy, whereas juvenile M. littoralis tended to be more specialist.

  6. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi

    2013-05-01

    The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  7. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

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    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  8. Integrated quality assessment of sediments from harbour areas in Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruaem, Lucas Moreira; de Castro, Ítalo Braga; Hortellani, Marcos Antonio; Taniguchi, Satie; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sasaki, Silvio Tarou; Varella Petti, Mônica Angélica; Sarkis, Jorge Eduardo de Souza; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Maranho, Luciane Alves; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Nonato, Edmundo Ferraz; Cesar, Augusto; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza

    2013-09-01

    Santos-São Vicente Estuarine System is a highly populated coastal zone in Brazil and where it is located the major port of Latin America. Historically, port activities, industrial and domestic effluents discharges have constituted the main sources of contaminants to estuarine system. This study aimed to assess the recent status of sediment quality from 5 zones of Port of Santos by applying a lines-of-evidence approach through integrating results of: (1) acute toxicity of whole sediment and chronic toxicity of liquid phases; (2) grain size, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzenes and butyltins; (3) benthic community descriptors. Results revealed a gradient of increasing contamination for metals and organic compounds, alongside with their geochemical carriers. Sediment liquid phases were more toxic compared to whole sediment. Low number of species and individuals indicated the impoverishment of benthic community. The use of site-specific sediment quality guidelines was more appropriate to predict sediment toxicity. The integration of results through Sediment Quality Triad approach and principal component analysis allowed observing the effects of natural stressors and dredging on sediment quality and benthic distribution. Even with recent governmental efforts to control, pollution is still relevant in Port of Santos and a threat to local ecosystems.

  9. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

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    Hallal Pedro C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births. In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3 and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9, respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children.

  10. Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in feces and slurry from swine farms, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

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    J. Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly disseminated among swine herds worldwide. HEV is also a threat to public health, since particularly genotypes 3 and 4 may cause acute hepatitis in human beings. No previous studies were done on the occurrence of HEV in environmental samples in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the present study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was employed to detect the presence of HEV in swine feces and in effluents from slurry lagoons in farms located in the municipality of Teutônia, inside the area of swine husbandry in the state. Pooled fecal samples from the floor of pig barns from 9 wean-to-finish farms and liquid manure samples were collected from the slurry lagoons from 8 of these farms. From the pooled fecal samples, 8/9 were positive for the HEV ORF1 gene by RT-PCR; all the slurry lagoon samples were positive for HEV RNA (100%. The identity of the HEV ORF1 amplicons was confirmed by sequencing belonging to HEV genotype 3, which was previously shown to be circulating in South America.

  11. PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS FOR HEPATITIS C AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS: a population-based study in southern Brazil

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    David Timm KVITKO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The hepatitis C is a severe public health problem worldwide because its consequences. Studies which aim at determining the prevalence of risk factors are really important to understand the problem. Objective To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with some risk factors for the disease in a community, called Restinga, located in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Method This paper is based on a population-based cross-sectional study, with systematic sampling and proportional to the size of census tracts in which 3,391 adults answered a standardized questionnaire. Results The prevalence of blood transfusion among the people who were interviewed was 14.98%, 60.83% of those had it before 1993. A total of 16.16% of the people had a tattoo, 7.23% wore a piercing, 1.09% said they had already injected illicit drugs and 12.39% reported previous hospitalization. Prevalence ratios showed that tattoos were more common among young people, piercings among women and illicit drugs among men. Conclusions To summarize, the recognition of risk factors for hepatitis C enables proper screening of possible carriers of the hepatitis C virus, thus enabling a reduction in virus shedding. However, being only possible if health services are prepared to deal with hepatitis C virus, through education and public awareness.

  12. Interspecific variation in leaf pigments and nutrients of five tree species from a subtropical forest in southern Brazil

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    MÁRCIA BÜNDCHEN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the seasonal variation in the nutrient and pigment content of leaves from five tree species - of which three are perennial (Cupania vernalis, Matayba elaeagnoides and Nectandra lanceolata and two are deciduous (Cedrela fissilis and Jacaranda micrantha - in an ecotone between a Deciduous Seasonal Forest and a Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Leaf samples were collected in the four seasons of the year to determine the content of macronutrients (N, K, P, Mg, Ca, S and photosynthetic pigments (Chla, Chlb, Chltot, Cartot, Chla:Chlb and Cartot:Chltot. The principal component analysis showed that leaf pigments contributed to the formation of the first axis, which explains most of the data variance for all species, while leaf nutrient contribution showed strong interspecific variation. These results demonstrate that the studied species have different strategies for acquisition and use of mineral resources and acclimation to light, which are determinant for them to coexist in the forest environment.

  13. Integrated biomarker response in catfish Hypostomus ancistroides by multivariate analysis in the Pirapó River, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisi, Nédia C; Oliveira, Elton C; Mendonça Mota, Thais F; Vanzetto, Guilherme V; Roque, Aliciane A; Godinho, Jayson P; Bettim, Franciele Lima; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina da; Prioli, Alberto J

    2016-10-01

    Aquatic pollutants produce multiple consequences in organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems, affecting the function of organs, reproductive state, population size, species survival and even biodiversity. In order to monitor the health of aquatic organisms, biomarkers have been used as effective tools in environmental risk assessment. The aim of this study is to evaluate, through a multivariate and integrative analysis, the response of the native species Hypostomus ancistroides over a pollution gradient in the main water supply body of northwestern Paraná state (Brazil). The condition factor, micronucleus test and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA), comet assay, measurement of the cerebral and muscular enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and histopathological analysis of liver and gill were evaluated in fishes from three sites of the Pirapó River during the dry and rainy seasons. The multivariate general result showed that the interaction between the seasons and the sites was significant: there are variations in the rates of alterations in the biological parameters, depending on the time of year researched at each site. In general, the best results were observed for the site nearest the spring, and alterations in the parameters at the intermediate and downstream sites. In sum, the results of this study showed the necessity of a multivariate analysis, evaluating several biological parameters, to obtain an integrated response to the effects of the environmental pollutants on the organisms. PMID:27421103

  14. Evaluation of the origin of a sample of Sporothrix schenckii that caused contamination of a researcher in Southern Brazil.

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    Landell, Melissa Fontes; Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Billodre, Raisa G; Heidrich, Daiane; Sorrentino, Julia Medeiros; Vainstein, Marilene H; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia; Valente, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of a researcher from a laboratory of Mycology in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil that presented a clinical evidence of sporotrichosis. The researcher had an accident while manipulating the microculture slides of chromoblastomycosis agents and presented a clinical evidence of sporotrichosis. As the laboratory has some cultures of Sporothrix schenckii, it was suggested that it might be a laboratory contamination. In order to test this hypothesis, the genotypic characterization of the samples was performed by means of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis method. In addition, we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of four antifungal agents against the isolated fungus. The sample obtained from the researcher was not genetically similar to any of the samples kept in the laboratory and showed the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.5 μg/mL for itraconazole and ketoconazole, > 64 μg/mL for fluconazole and 0.125 μg/mL for terbinafine. It is suggested that the contamination had an environmental origin. PMID:20835914

  15. Acute bacterial meningitis in HIV, pacients in southern Brazil: Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Meningite bacteriana aguda em portadores de HIV, no sul do Brasil: Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil

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    Sérgio M. de Almeida

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute communitarian bacterial meningitis and AIDS are prevalent infectious disease in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of acute communitarian bacterial meningitis in AIDS patients, the clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF characteristics. It was reviewed the Health Department data from city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, from 1996 to 2002. During this period, 32 patients with AIDS fulfilled criteria for acute bacterial meningitis, representing 0.84% of the AIDS cases and 1.85% of the cases of bacterial meningitis. S. pneumoniae was the most frequent bacteria isolated. The number of white blood cells and the percentage of neutrophils were higher and CSF glucose was lower in the group with no HIV co-infection (p 0.12; 0.008; 0.04 respectively. Bacteria not so common causing meningitis can occur among HIV infected patients. The high mortality rate among pneumococcus meningitis patients makes pneumococcus vaccination important.A meningite bacteriana aguda comunitária e a AIDS são doenças prevalentes no Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de meningite bacteriana aguda comunitária entre os pacientes com AIDS e as características clínicas e do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR. Foram revistos os dados da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil, nos anos de 1996 a 2002. Nesse período, 32 pacientes com AIDS preencheram os critérios para meningite bacteriana aguda, representando 0,84% dos casos com AIDS e 1,85% dos casos com meningite bacteriana aguda. A bactéria mais freqüentemente isolada foi S. pneumoniae. A celularidade total e a porcentagem de neutrófilos no LCR foi mais elevada e a glicose foi mais baixa no grupo sem co-infecção (p 0,12; 0,008; 0,04 respectivamente. Bactérias menos freqüentes como agentes etiológicos de meningite podem ocorrer. A taxa de mortalidade elevada entre pacientes com meningite por pneumococo torna a vacinação importante.

  16. Outbreak of avian malaria associated to multiple species of Plasmodium in magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian

  17. Trade-offs and spatial variation of functional traits of tree species in a subtropical forest in southern Brazil

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    Missio FF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant functional traits have been recognized as important factors related to the ecological strategies of species in forest ecosystems. We examined the relationships between functional traits and both tree species performance and environmental conditions in a subtropical forest in Brazil. Over four years (2008-2012, we investigated how demographic rates were related to functional traits (wood density, leaf area and tree height of 20 species sampled within 50 plots of 10 × 20 m, which had previously evaluated as to environmental conditions. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to order the species by their functional traits. The demographic rates were fit a posteriori to the ordination, with significant rates (p < 0.05 plotted as vectors. The relationships between environmental conditions and the community-weighted means (CWMs of trait values were verified using redundancy analysis. CWM wood density was positively correlated with soil pH. CWM leaf area and CWM maximum tree height were both negatively correlated with altitude and positively correlated with soil magnesium (Mg content. The taller species with lower wood density, which occupied the forest canopy, had a greater diameter increment and lower recruitment than did the shortest species with higher wood density. The shorter species with higher wood density, which occupied the understory, had greater recruitment and a greater increase in abundance than did the taller/lower-wood-density species. Our study (i revealed changes in the forest related to the light environment, with an increase in the relative participation of shade-tolerant species with higher wood densities, and (ii detected small-scale spatial variation in community traits as a response to variations in soil chemical properties and topography.

  18. Occurrence and sensitivity profile of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae at a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil

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    Cristina Letícia Rugini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections are closely associated with antimicrobial drug resistance. One of the most important mechanisms of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of ESBL-producing strains and to assess the evolution of antimicrobial drug resistance between 2007 and 2013 at the Hospital São Vicente de Paulo, Passo Fundo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study. Bacterial culture was performed from January to December 2013. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of these cultures was determined using the disk diffusion method. Phenotypic screening for ESBL production was performed using the disk approximation method. RESULTS : We analyzed a total of 19,112 cultures, 11.5% of which were positive for Enterobacteriaceae. Of these, 30.3% of the isolates were positive for ESBL production, and the most prevalent species was Klebsiella sp. (37.5%. Over 95% of these isolates showed reduced susceptibility to all cephalosporins, aztreonam, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The isolates also showed high sensitivity to the following antimicrobials: amikacin, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Overall, the resistance rates among ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae decreased from 2007 to 2013. CONCLUSIONS : In our hospital, the increased sensitivity to certain antimicrobial agents seems to be directly related to the implementation of improvements in the methods to prevent and control nosocomial infections in addition to the natural development of other resistance mechanisms.

  19. Functional morphology and biomechanics of the cynodont Trucidocynodon riograndensis from the Triassic of Southern Brazil: Pectoral girdle and forelimb

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    Téo Veiga De Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-mammalian cynodonts provide insights on several points about mammalian evolution, such as the postural change and locomotory advances within the group. Unfortunately, complete skeletons of Triassic cynodonts are rather uncommon and where more complete specimens are found they can offer a global vision on some traits not available from partial specimens. This is the case of the cynodont Trucidocynodon riograndensis, from the Triassic of Brazil, that has preserved its forelimbs providing some insights into locomotory properties. The movements between interclavicle and clavicle must have been limited, as such as those occurring between the latter and the scapulocoracoid although the long acromion process of this should have permitted a greater degree of freedom. Some of the more significant movements were those on the shoulder joint, in which the maximum adduction should have been ca. 35º relative to the parasagittal plane and the greater abduction ca. 55º. The maximum adduction occurred when the humerus was in the more retracted position during stride and the variation in the adduction/abduction should have been significant to the limb posture during its recovery stroke. The long olecranon and the distal overlapping between radius and ulna suggest the predominance of simple flexion/extension on the forearm without significant pronation/supination. The poorly preserved hand suggests that Trucidocynodon could have evolved a slight semidigitigrad condition in its forelimbs. All these features give to this cynodont an important role in the evolution of the mammalian locomotory properties indicating that some features, such as the possibility of greater humeral adduction, evolved early in cynodont lineage.

  20. Reproductive ecology of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) in a coastal area of Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia; Castilho, Antonio Leão

    2016-01-01

    The predictability of certain environmental factors that affect the life cycle of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) was evaluated in a study of its reproductive biology in an area adjacent to Babitonga Bay, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Monthly sampling was conducted from July 2010 through June 2011 at depths of 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 m. 76 004 individuals were obtained, with a pronounced peak in absolute abundance in austral autumn (34 208), coinciding with the annual closed season from March to May. Grain size composition of the sediment showed the closest relationship to the distribution of individuals (multiple linear regression, P <0.05), related to their burying habit. The observed correlations between the abundance of reproductive males (bearing spermatophores) and females with spent gonads (cross-correlation, P <0.05), and between reproductive males and reproductive females (with a 1-month lag) suggest that the peak of reproductive males preceded the peak of female ones. This result agrees with the pattern expected for females, which copulate in post-ecdysis (spent gonads). Spawning seemed to take place at greater depths, as evidenced by the concentration of reproductive females in these areas. The reproductive activities observed here confirm that this species follows a tropical/subtropical reproductive pattern, spawning continuously throughout the year, with the highest peaks in spring and autumn. The data indicate that the juvenile recruitment period observed in August-September resulted from the reproductive output noted in April-May. Additionally, the reproductive period recorded in November led to the juvenile peak observed in March-May.

  1. Long-term sediment yield from small catchment in southern Brazil affected by land use and soil management changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Merten, Gustavo; Alessandra Peixoto de Barros, Claudia; Dalbianco, Leandro; Ramon, Rafael; Schlesner, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. Despite this, there is a lack of information about the effects of the soil management on the hydrology and sediment yield at catchment scale. This study aimed to investigate the long-term relationship between the land use and sediment yield in a small catchment with significant changes in soil management, and its impacts on soil erosion and sediment yield. To account the anthropogenic and climatic effects on sediment yield were monitored precipitation, stream flow and suspended sediment concentration during thirteen years (2002 and 2014) at 10 minutes interval and the changes that occurred each year in the land use and soil management. Despite the influence of climate on the sediment yield, the results clearly show three distinct periods affected by the land use and soil management changes during this this period. In the first four years (2002-2004) the predominant land use was the tobacco with traditional soil management, where the soils are plough every year and without winter cover crop. In this period the sediment yield reached the order of 160 t.ha-1.y-1. In the period of 2005-2009, a soil conservation program introduced the adoption of minimum tillage in the catchment and the sediment yield decrease to 70 t.ha-1.y-1. In the last period (2010-2014) there was a partial return to the traditional soil management practices with an increase trend in sediment yield. However, there was also an increase in reforestation areas with positive effect in reducing erosion and sediment yield. The magnitude order of sediment yield in this period was 100 t.ha-1.y-1. The long term sediment yield data was able to demonstrate the impact of the improved management practices in reducing soil erosion and sediment yield. The results allowed a good understanding of the changing sediment dynamics and soil erosion at catchment scale.

  2. Outbreak of avian malaria associated to multiple species of Plasmodium in magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Kolesnikovas, Cristiane K M; Sandri, Sandro; Silveira, Patrícia; Belo, Nayara O; Ferreira Junior, Francisco C; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Steindel, Mário; Braga, Érika M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28) of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18) of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9) of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba) sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28) penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to prevent avian

  3. Outbreak of avian malaria associated to multiple species of Plasmodium in magellanic penguins undergoing rehabilitation in southern Brazil.

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    Ralph Eric Thijl Vanstreels

    Full Text Available Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. Avian plasmodia are recognized conservation-threatening pathogens due to their potential to cause severe epizootics when introduced to bird populations with which they did not co-evolve. Penguins are considered particularly susceptible, as outbreaks in captive populations will often lead to high morbidity and rapid mortality. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate an outbreak of avian malaria in 28 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus at a rehabilitation center during summer 2009 in Florianópolis, Brazil. Hemosporidian infections were identified by microscopic and molecular characterization in 64% (18/28 of the penguins, including Plasmodium (Haemamoeba tejerai, Plasmodium (Huffia elongatum, a Plasmodium (Haemamoeba sp. lineage closely related to Plasmodium cathemerium, and a Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus sp. lineage closely related to Haemoproteus syrnii. P. tejerai played a predominant role in the studied outbreak and was identified in 72% (13/18 of the hemosporidian-infected penguins, and in 89% (8/9 of the penguins that died, suggesting that this is a highly pathogenic parasite for penguins; a detailed description of tissue meronts and lesions is provided. Mixed infections were identified in three penguins, and involved P. elongatum and either P. tejerai or P. (Haemamoeba sp. that were compatible with P. tejerai but could not be confirmed. In total, 32% (9/28 penguins died over the course of 16 days despite oral treatment with chloroquine followed by sulfadiazine-trimethoprim. Hemosporidian infections were considered likely to have occurred during rehabilitation, probably from mosquitoes infected while feeding on local native birds, whereas penguin-mosquito-penguin transmission may have played a role in later stages of the outbreak. Considering the seasonality of the infection, rehabilitation centers would benefit from narrowing their efforts to

  4. Childhood trauma and suicide risk in a sample of young individuals aged 14-35 years in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Luana Porto; Quevedo, Luciana; da Silva, Giovanna Del Grande; Jansen, Karen; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Branco, Jerônimo; Lara, Diogo; Oses, Jean; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    Suicide is among the main causes of death of people aged between 15 and 44 years old. Childhood trauma is an important risk factor for suicide. Hence, the objective of this study was to verify the relationship between childhood trauma and current suicide risk (suicidal behavior and ideation) in individuals aged 14-35 years, in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study. Sample selection was performed by clusters. Suicide risk was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Childhood trauma was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Moreover, the participants responded to a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic status, work, and substance use. The sample was composed of 1,380 individuals. The prevalence of suicide risk was 11.5%. The prevalence figures of childhood trauma were 15.2% (emotional neglect), 13.5% (physical neglect), 7.6% (sexual abuse), 10.1% (physical abuse), and 13.8% (emotional abuse). Suicide risk was associated (psuicide risk were higher in women (OR=1.8), people who were not currently working (OR=2.3), individuals who presented alcohol abuse (OR=2.6), and among tobacco smokers (OR=3.4). Moreover, suicide risk was increased in all types of trauma: emotional neglect (OR=3.7), physical neglect (OR=2.8), sexual abuse (OR=3.4), physical abuse (OR=3.1), and emotional abuse (OR=6.6). Thus, preventing early trauma may reduce suicide risk in young individuals.

  5. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

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    Canali, Tiago José; Oliveira, Sylvia Marina Soares de; Reduit, Deivid Montero; Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Feldens, Viviane Pessi

    2014-11-01

    This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9%) had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%). Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  6. Evaluation of self-esteem among homosexuals in the southern region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Tiago José Canali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate self-esteem in homosexuals from southern Santa Catarina and relate it to several variables such as gender, age, bullying and psychiatric treatment. Participants were selected using the "Snowball" technique. The Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used for self-esteem assessment with subsequent comparison with other variables. A total of 403 individuals were interviewed, including 310 males with a mean age of 24.02. Most of the population studied (80.9% had high self-esteem, with a mean score of 5.55 on the Rosenberg scale. Individuals who had only studied up to primary school level, were unemployed, evangelicals, with a history of psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment, or who had been subjected to bullying in the last year and those who wished to change their sexual orientation, had significantly lower self-esteem than the others. 114 people had used psychotropic drugs, 47.58% of which were benzodiazepine-based, primarily Clonazepam (27.58%. Most of this population had high self-esteem. There was a difference between some categories of the variables studied, however, all averages corresponded to high self-esteem on the Rosenberg scale. Benzodiazepines were the psychotropic drugs most often used by the individuals in this study.

  7. Enfermidades do sistema nervoso dos ruminantes no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Neurological diseases in ruminants in southern Brazil

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    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central dos ruminantes, diagnosticadas na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, incluindo: abiotrofia cerebelar; hipoplasia cerebelar; hipermetria hereditária; artrogripose; hipomielinogênese congênita; abscesso cerebral; listeriose; tétano; botulismo; necrose simétrica focal; raiva; leucose; encefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5; febre catarral maligna; intoxicações por Solanum fastigiatum, Claviceps paspali, Ramaria flavo-brunnescens, Halimium brasiliense e Diplodia maydis; encefalopatia hepática causada por Senecio spp. e Echium plantagineum; cetose; coenurose; e síndrome espinhal.The main epidemiological, clinical and pathologic aspects of the diseases of the nervous system in cattle in Southern Rio Grande do Sul are described, including, the following conditions: cerebellar abiotrophy; cerebellar hypoplasia; congenital hypermetria; arthrogryposis; congenital hypomyelinogenesis; brain abscess; listeriose; tetanus; botulism; focal symmetrical encephalomalacia; rabies; leucosis; encephalitis by Herpesvirus Bovine-5; bovino malignant catarrh; intoxications by Solanum fastigiatum, Claviceps paspali, Halimium brasiliense, Diplodia maydis, and Ramaria flavo-brunnescens; hepatoencephalopaty caused by Senecio spp. and Echium plantagineum; ketosis; coenurosis; and spinal syndrome.

  8. A model to optimize public health care and downstage breast cancer in limited-resource populations in southern Brazil. (Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort

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    Giacomazzi Juliana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC is a major public health problem, with rising incidence in many regions of the globe. Although mortality has recently dropped in developed countries, death rates are still increasing in some developing countries, as seen in Brazil. Among the reasons for this phenomenon are the lack of structured screening programs, a long waiting period between diagnosis and treatment, and lack of access to health services for a large proportion of the Brazilian population. Methods and design Since 2004, an intervention study in a cohort of women in Southern Brazil, denominated Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort, is being conducted in order to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a model for BC early detection and treatment. In this study, over 4,000 women from underserved communities aged 40 to 69 years are being screened annually with mammography and clinical breast examination performed by a multidisciplinary team, which also involves nutritional counseling and genetic cancer risk assessment. Risk factors for BC development are also being evaluated. Active search of participants by lay community health workers is one of the major features of our program. The accrual of new participants was concluded in 2006 and the study will last for 10 years. The main goal of the study is to demonstrate significant downstaging of BC in an underserved population through proper screening, attaining a higher rate of early-stage BC diagnoses than usually seen in women diagnosed in the Brazilian Public Health System. Preliminary results show a very high BC incidence in this population (117 cases per 100,000 women per year, despite a low prevalence of classical risk factors. Discussion This study will allow us to test a model of BC early diagnosis and treatment and evaluate its cost-effectiveness in a developing country where the mortality associated with this disease is very high. Also, it might contribute to the

  9. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

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    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass, were resuspended from the interface after turbulent periods, and may take advantage of calm periods to stay and grow at the interface. Small benthic diatoms were more susceptible to wind-induced turbulence occurring in higher densities in the water column just above the water-sediment interface. A cyanobacterial bloom (Trichodesmiun was observed at these bottom layers in the spring-summer periods.A composição geral e a biomassa da comunidade microalgal da interface sedimento/água da plataforma do Estado do Paraná (Brasil foram estudadas em 1999 em relação ao regime de ventos. A cada dois meses foram coletadas amostras para a identificação de organismos e determinação de clorofila a, na interface água-sedimento e em profundidades discretas, ao longo da coluna d'água, até 4m acima do sedimento. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma comunidade constituída principalmente por diatomáceas planctônicas e bentônicas maiores que 30 µm, diatomáceas bentônicas menores que 30 µm, e cianobactérias coloniais. As densidades celulares foram geralmente mais altas na interface. Eventos de mistura e sedimentação parecem ser determinantes na regulação da composição e biomassa de tais comunidades. Formas menores, mais susceptíveis à turbulência, dominaram a comunidade de água de fundo na maioria das ocasiões, e foram as mais abundantes na interface apenas em períodos de extrema estabilidade. Células maiores, aparentemente contendo a maior parte

  10. Paleosols in low-order streams and valley heads in the Araucaria Plateau - Record of continental environmental conditions in southern Brazil at the end of MIS 3

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    Paisani, Julio Cesar; Pontelli, Marga Eliz; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; Paisani, Sani Daniela Lopes; Fachin, Andressa; Guerra, Simone; Oliveira, Leandro

    2014-10-01

    The Araucaria Plateau is a geomorphological unit that occupies approximately three-quarters of the terrain in the southern region of Brazil. The plateau displays different altitudinal levels (600 to S8-S1). These surfaces are maintained by basic (S3-S8) and acidic (S1 and S2) volcanic flows from the Neocretaceous period of the Paraná Basin. The largest extent of this plateau is located in a humid subtropical climate zone. Colluvial, colluvial-alluvial, alluvial sediments and paleosols (Ab diagnostic horizons) occur predominantly in S2. The paleosols are located in low-hierarchical-order fossil valleys (first- to fourth-order in Strahler's stream classification) and valley heads, which are referred to as paleovalleys in this paper. We employed these paleosols as stratigraphic level markers of the pedogenesis of the regional Upper Quaternary and propose their importance as records of the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau in areas above 1200 m a.s.l. These paleosols were dated by 14C and show ages between 23.8 ± 0.05 kyr BP (28.06-29.08 kyr cal. BP) and 41.16 ± 0.48 kyr BP (44.13-45.58 kyr cal. BP). The calibrated ages are related to Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), in which the last period of global warming occurred (approximately 60-25 kyr cal. BP). We integrated the morphological, pedogeochemical, clay fraction mineralogy, micromorphological and δC-13 analyses of five paleosols from S2 to verify the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Araucaria Plateau and its correspondence with the paleoclimatic phenomena that were identified on a global scale during MIS 3 in the Southern Hemisphere. We obtained the following conclusions: a) the properties of paleosols reflect pedological processes that are adjusted to the paleoenvironmental conditions at the end of MIS 3 and the transition to MIS 2 (Last Glacial Maximum); b) aplasmogenic partial acidolysis was the predominant pedogeochemical process during MIS 3; c) during this period, the water regime

  11. Epilithic community development on artificial reefs deployed along a cross-shelf environmental gradient off Paraná state, southern Brazil

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    Frederico Brandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete modules were deployed on the bottom of the 11, 18 and 30 meters isobaths along a cross-shelf hydrographic gradient off Paraná State, Southern Brazil, with the purpose of studying the colonization of sessile epilithic macroinvertebrates on artificial surfaces. After one year of submersion a total of 63 species of epilithic organisms were identified, dominated by Ostrea puelchana, Chthamalus bisinuatus, Balanus cf spongicola, Astrangia cf rathbuni, Didemnum spp, poryphers and bryozoans. Diversity index and percent cover at reef stations placed at 11, 18 and 30 meters isobaths were respectively 2.28 and 66.7%, 2.79 and 96.6% and 1.66 and 77.4%. Differences of general community structure among the three assemblages were not clearly related to the general environmental conditions at the bottom layers near the reef stations. Turbidity and larval abundance are discussed as important factors affecting colonization processes. Results indicate that depths between 15-20 meters are more suitable for the implementation of large scale artificial reef systems in the inner shelf off Paraná and, possibly, throughout the inner shelves off southern Brazil with similar hydrographic conditions.Blocos quadriláteros de concreto foram assentados no fundo marinho nas isóbatas de 11, 18 e 30 metros ao longo de um transecto na plataforma interna perpendicular a costa do estado do Paraná, Região sudeste do Brasil, com o objetivo de analisar a colonização de macroinvertebrados epilíticos em superfícies artificiais em relação ao gradiente ambiental. Após um ano de submersão foram identificadas 63 espécies de organismos epilíticos dominados por Ostrea puelchana, Chthamalus bisinuatus, Balanus cf spongicola, Astrangia cf rathbuni, Didemnum spp, esponjas e briozoários. Os índices de diversidade e porcentagens de cobertura da macrofauna epilítica nos recifes artificiais assentados sobre as isóbatas de 11, 18 e 30 metros foram respectivamente 2.28 and

  12. The effects of unpaved roads on suspended sediment concentration of third- to fifth-order streams- A case study from southern Brazil

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    Thomaz, E. L.; Vestena, L. R.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Unpaved roads have earned a reputation of inducing adverse effects on downstream water resources by increasing suspended sediment concentration because they typically generate sediment at rates up to several orders of magnitude above background and because they may enhance the efficiency of sediment delivery to fluvial networks. Although much research has been conducted on road effects in forested landscapes, proper understanding of their hydro-geomorphic role in rural areas is still desired. Unpaved roads are fundamental in the agricultural systems employed for the cultivation of maize and black beans on topographically-steep, marginal lands of southern Brazil. Marginal lands generate a sizeable fraction of the agricultural production in the state of Paraná, one of Brazil's agricultural powerhouses. This study documents the localized impacts on suspended sediment concentration of seven unpaved road crossings in the Guarabiroba River Catchment, Paraná, Brazil. A total of 156 suspended sediment samples were manually collected both upstream and downstream of road-crossings between 22-Apr-09 and 26-Apr-10 during 14 rainfall events ranging between 16 and 96 mm in total rainfall. The average length of road directly delivering runoff to each crossing varied from 0.56 - 2.4 km, and the size of the catchment areas of the third to fifth order monitored streams ranged from 0.3 to 13.5 km2. In addition to stream samples, 78 samples representing unpaved road runoff were collected during the same rain events. Upstream and downstream mean concentration values were compared for each storm at every site based on a paired t-test analysis (0.05% level). Mean suspended sediment concentration at stream segments located upstream of road crossings was 0.04 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.05 mg L-1), while the mean downstream concentration was 0.11 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.14 mg L-1) or 2.9 times higher than upstream samples. Meanwhile, road runoff had an average concentration of 0.93 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.97 mg

  13. Seroprevalence and seroincidence of Leptospira infection in dogs during a one-year period in an endemic urban area in Southern Brazil

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    Vivien Midori Morikawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonosis that affects both humans and animals. Dogs may serve as sentinels and indicators of environmental contamination as well as potential carriers for Leptospira. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence and seroincidence of leptospirosis infection in dogs in an urban low-income community in southern Brazil where human leptospirosis is endemic. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was designed that consisted of sampling at recruitment and four consecutive trimestral follow-up sampling trials. All households in the area were visited, and those that owned dogs were invited to participate in the study. The seroprevalence (MAT titers ≥100 of Leptospira infection in dogs was calculated for each visit, the seroincidence (seroconversion or four-fold increase in serogroup-specific MAT titer density rate was calculated for each follow-up, and a global seroincidence density rate was calculated for the overall period. RESULTS: A total of 378 dogs and 902.7 dog-trimesters were recruited and followed, respectively. The seroprevalence of infection ranged from 9.3% (95% CI; 6.7 - 12.6 to 19% (14.1 - 25.2, the seroincidence density rate of infection ranged from 6% (3.3 - 10.6 to 15.3% (10.8 - 21.2, and the global seroincidence density rate of infection was 11% (9.1 - 13.2 per dog-trimester. Canicola and Icterohaemorraghiae were the most frequent incident serogroups observed in all follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Follow-ups with mean trimester intervals were incapable of detecting any increase in seroprevalence due to seroincident cases of canine leptospirosis, suggesting that antibody titers may fall within three months. Further studies on incident infections, disease burden or risk factors for incident Leptospira cases should take into account the detectable lifespan of the antibody.

  14. Comparative study of lymphocytes from individuals that were vaccinated and unvaccinated against the pandemic 2009-2011 H1N1 influenza virus in Southern Brazil

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    Deise Nascimento de Freitas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:While no single factor is sufficient to guarantee the success of influenza vaccine programs, knowledge of the levels of immunity in local populations is critical. Here, we analyzed influenza immunity in a population from Southern Brazil, a region with weather conditions that are distinct from those in the rest of country, where influenza infections are endemic, and where greater than 50% of the population is vaccinated annually.METHODS:Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 40 individuals. Of these, 20 had received the H1N1 vaccine, while the remaining 20 were unvaccinated against the disease. Cells were stimulated in vitro with the trivalent post-pandemic influenza vaccine or with conserved major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I peptides derived from hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Cell viability was then analyzed by [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide]-based colorimetric assay (MTT, and culture supernatants were assayed for helper T type 1 (Th1 and Th2-specific cytokine levels.RESULTS:Peripheral blood lymphocytes from vaccinated, but not unvaccinated, individuals exhibited significant proliferation in vitro in the presence of a cognate influenza antigen. After culturing with vaccine antigens, cells from vaccinated individuals produced similar levels of interleukin (IL-10 and interferon (IFN-γ, while those from unvaccinated individuals produced higher levels of IFN-γ than of IL-10.CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that peripheral blood lymphocytes from vaccinated individuals are stimulated upon encountering a cognate antigen, but did not support the hypothesis that cross-reactive responses related to previous infections can ameliorate the immune response. Moreover, monitoring IL-10 production in vaccinated individuals could comprise a valuable tool for predicting disease evolution.

  15. Kaolinite, illite and quartz dissolution in the karstification of Paleozoic sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

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    Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo

  16. Acidentes de transporte terrestre em município da Região Sul do Brasil Road accidents in a city of southern BraziL

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    Selma Maffei de Andrade

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as características dos acidentes de transporte terrestre, com 3.643 vítimas, ocorridos no primeiro semestre de 1996, em Londrina, PR. O tipo de acidente mais freqüente foi a colisão com carro/caminhonete. A frota de motocicletas foi a que gerou a maior taxa de vítimas (cerca de sete vezes a apresentada por carros/caminhonetes. Maior risco de óbito foi evidenciado entre motociclistas que colidiram com objeto fixo (letalidade de 29,4%, seguido por pedestres atropelados por caminhão ou ônibus (22,2%, muito superiores ao coeficiente médio (1,8%. O conhecimento desses aspectos é elemento norteador de políticas públicas para a redução da morbimortalidade por essa causa.The study was conducted in the municipality of Londrina, a medium-sized city of southern Brazil. Analysis was performed in the characteristics of road accidents that had occurred during the first semester of 1996, resulting in 3,643 victims. Car or small truck collisions were the most common type of accident. The rate of motorcycle-related injuries (per 1,000 registered vehicles was seven times higher than that resulting from cars or small trucks. Fatality rates were higher for motorcyclists who collided with stationary objects (29.4% and pedestrians who were injured by lorries or buses (22.2%, in comparison with a mean fatality rate of 1.8%. This information may provide a basis for the implementation of public policies aiming at reducing accidents.

  17. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.

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    Costa, G M; Droste, A

    2012-11-01

    The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms. PMID:23295507

  18. Lithofacies analysis of basic lava flows of the Paraná igneous province in the south hinge of Torres Syncline, Southern Brazil

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    Barreto, Carla Joana Santos; de Lima, Evandro Fernandes; Scherer, Claiton Marlon; Rossetti, Lucas de Magalhães May

    2014-09-01

    The Paraná igneous province records the volcanism of the earlier Cretaceous that preceded the fragmentation of the Gondwana supercontinent. Historically, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic pile as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. This work provides a detailed analysis of the emplacement conditions of these basic volcanic rocks, applying the facies analysis method integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. The Torres Syncline is a NW-SE tectonic structure, located in southern Brazil, where a thick sequence of the Paraná-Etendeka volcanic rocks is well preserved. This study was performed in the south hinge of the syncline, where the basaltic lava flows are divided into three lithofacies associations: early compound pahoehoe, early simple pahoehoe and late simple rubbly. The first lavas that erupted were more primitive compound pahoehoe flow fields composed of olivine basalts with higher MgO contents and covered the sandstones of the Botucatu Formation. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flow fields is possibly related to intermittent low effusion rates, whereas the emplacement of simple pahoehoe is related to sustained low effusion rates with continuous supply. The thick simple rubbly lavas are associated with high effusion rates and were formed during the main phase of volcanism in the area. The absence of paleosoils between the lavas and lithofacies associations suggests that the successive emplacement of the lava flows occurred in a relatively short time gap. Geochemically, the lithofacies associations are low-TiO2 and belong to Gramado magma type. The lavas of the south hinge of the Torres Syncline have a similar evolution when compared to other Continental Basaltic Provinces with earlier compound flows at the base and thicker simple flows in the upper portions.

  19. Abundance and seasonality of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Southern Pantanal, Brazil Sazonalidade de Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Pantanal Sul-mato-grossense, Brasil

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    Wilson Werner Koller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throughout the study period and collections were carried out on a weekly basis. A total of 159,397 Calliphoridae were caught and C. macellaria (57.33% was the most abundant species. C. macellaria occurred all over the year showing a bimodal behavior with peaks in May-July (late autumn/early winter and October-December (spring.Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, conhecida como mosca-varejeira, ocorre no continente americano e apresenta importância médico-veterinária e forense. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a flutuação sazonal dessa espécie na região do Pantanal. De dezembro/2004 a novembro/2007 foram realizadas coletas de dípteros na fazenda Nhumirim, sub-região da Nhecolândia, Pantanal sul-mato-grossense. Foram utilizadas quatro armadilhas orientadas pelo vento, iscadas com fígado bovino deteriorado. As armadilhas permaneceram ativas durante todo o período de estudo, e coletas foram realizadas semanalmente. Foram capturados 159.397 califorídeos, sendo C. macellaria (57,33% a espécie mais abundante. C. macellaria foi observada em todos os meses do ano, apresentando comportamento bimodal com picos populacionais em maio/julho (final de outono/início de inverno e outubro/dezembro (primavera.

  20. A new species of Benthana (Crustacea: Isopoda: Philosciidae from southern Brazil Uma nova espécie de Benthana Budde-Lund (Crustacea: Isopoda: Philosciidae sul do Brasil

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    Carolina C. Sokolowicz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Benthana Budde-Lund, 1908 is described from southern Brazil. Benthana cairensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the other species in the genus by having 17 aesthetascs on the antennula and the elongated male pleopod 1 exopod with a lobe on the inner lateral margin and up to six setae on the outer lateral margin. The new species most resembles B. olfersii (Brandt, 1833, but may be distinguished by lacking the lobe with six setae on the internal margin of the proximal extremity of the merus of pereiopod 7. Furthermore, we include B. olfersii in the subgenus Benthanoscia based on the examined material as described herein.Uma nova espécie de Benthana Budde-Lund, 1908, é descrita de material coletado no sul do Brasil. B. cairensis sp. nov. distingue-se das outras espécies do gênero por apresentar 17 estetascos na antênula e o exópode do pleópode 1 do macho alongado, com um lobo e portando seis setas na margem lateral externa. A nova espécie assemelha-se a B. olfersii (Brandt, 1833 em várias características, mas pode ser diferenciada pela ausência do lobo com seis setas na margem externa da extremidade proximal do mero do pereiópodo 7. Além disso, B. olfersii é incluída, neste trabalho, no subgênero Benthanoscia, com base no material examinado.