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Sample records for 2000-2001 pesticide market

  1. Progress report 2000 / 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2000-2001 period has seen many facts of importance for the EURATOM-Cea association. The first outstanding fact is the positive evolution of the ITER project because of both the willingness of the partners and the French proposition to the European Union to consider the Cadarache site as the European site. The second outstanding fact is both the installation on Tore-Supra of a new generation of plasma-facing component: the Ciel project and the launch of the Cimes project whose aim is to allow Tore-Supra to reach discharge up to 1000 s. The third outstanding fact is the continuation of experiments in Jet after 1999, end date of the Jet Joint Undertaking. These new provisions aim at maintaining in activity the spearhead of the European program, waiting for a clarification of the ITER situation. Among the results obtained in Jet operations, we can quote those having a direct influence on the ITER performances: - the beneficial effect of a high triangularity on the ELM (edge localized modes) and on the confinement factor at high density, - the real time control of advanced tokamak discharges at quasi steady state, and the theoretical explanation of the current hole (in lower hybrid advanced scenarios, a region with vanishing current density that appears in the plasma centre). (A.C.)

  2. Annual Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report for the year 2000-2001 has been compiled, which offers concise description of tasks achieved and status of on going efforts pertaining to PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Commission) programme. The tasks description are as: highlights of various projects, nuclear power plants, physical sciences and engineering, biosciences, nuclear minerals, human resource development, projects, international relations. At the end of this report financial position of PAEC and list of publication is also available. (A.B.)

  3. Influenza activity 2000/2001

    OpenAIRE

    Pechirra, Pedro; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Guiomar, Raquel; Ribeiro, Carlos; Coelho, Anabela; Pedro, Sónia; George, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    As infecções por vírus influenza são uma importante causa de morbilidade em todos os grupos etários e estão associados a uma elevada mortalidade nos idosos e nos indivíduos pertencentes a grupos de risco. No presente estudo analisaram-se os dados da vigilância epidemiológica da gripe durante o Inverno de 2000/2001. Os dados clínicos, epidemiológicos e virológicos referentes aos casos de síndroma gripal foram recolhidos através do Programa Nacional de Vigilância da Gripe que ...

  4. Progress report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports the activities of the ISN (nuclear sciences institute of Grenoble) for the 2 last years 2000, 2001. ISN's teams are involved in 3 research axis: elementary particles and hadrons, astro-particles and new systems for producing nuclear energy. In this document the activities have been classified into 18 topics: 1) the ATLAS experiment (detector for LHC), 2) the D0 experiment (electron identification and b-tagging), 3) the DELPHI experiment (R-parity violation), 4) the AMS experiment (embarked cosmic ray detector), 5) the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 6) the MUNU experiment (magnetic moment of antineutrinos), 7) the EUSO experiment (detection of the extreme energy cosmic rays), 8) 2 parity violation experiments (GO and SAMPLE), 9) the photo-production of mesons on proton (GRAAL), 10) a new isomeric state for Sb136, 11) a new shape isomer for Kr72, 12) new μs isomers near Sn132, 13) laser spectroscopy measurements for very neutron-rich tin isotopes, 14) hybrid demonstrator, 15) hadron-therapy (Etoile project), 16) positron emission tomography, 17) theories and models, and 18) technological work on accelerators and ion sources. (A.C.)

  5. SPACE LIFE SCIENCE IN 2000-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Chinese scientists studied some of the problems in the field of space life science and achieved success in the area during 2000-2001. Space biological experi ments were carried out in the orbit and the results of ground studies on protein crystallization, space radiation, space motion sickness were introduced in this paper. The influences of simulated weightlessness on the brain-function, the car diovascular, endocrine hormones, immunity, skeletal and muscle systems were presented. In addition, gravity medicine and space environment medicine, as well as countermeasures to space deconditioning, such as the traditional Chinese medicine, were also reported.

  6. Annual review 2000-2001; Rapport d'activite 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report reviews the activities of the LAPP (particle physics laboratory of Annecy-le-Vieux) for the years 2000-2001. The central themes of research are: 1) the standard model and its extension, 2) the study of CP violation (contribution to the experiments BABAR and LHCb), 3) the search for the Higgs'boson (contribution to the experiments ALEPH, L3, ATLAS and CMS), 4) physics of neutrinos (contribution to the experiments NOMAD and OPERA), 5) the study of anti-matter and cosmic radiation (contribution to the experiment AMS and to the project EUSO embarked on the international spatial station), and 6) the search for gravitational waves (contribution to the experiment VIRGO)

  7. Progress report 2000 / 2001; Rapport d'activite 2000 / 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The 2000-2001 period has seen many facts of importance for the EURATOM-Cea association. The first outstanding fact is the positive evolution of the ITER project because of both the willingness of the partners and the French proposition to the European Union to consider the Cadarache site as the European site. The second outstanding fact is both the installation on Tore-Supra of a new generation of plasma-facing component: the Ciel project and the launch of the Cimes project whose aim is to allow Tore-Supra to reach discharge up to 1000 s. The third outstanding fact is the continuation of experiments in Jet after 1999, end date of the Jet Joint Undertaking. These new provisions aim at maintaining in activity the spearhead of the European program, waiting for a clarification of the ITER situation. Among the results obtained in Jet operations, we can quote those having a direct influence on the ITER performances: - the beneficial effect of a high triangularity on the ELM (edge localized modes) and on the confinement factor at high density, - the real time control of advanced tokamak discharges at quasi steady state, and the theoretical explanation of the current hole (in lower hybrid advanced scenarios, a region with vanishing current density that appears in the plasma centre). (A.C.)

  8. Progress report 2000-2001; Rapport d'activite 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrand, S.; Carbonell, J.; Chauvin, J.; Compara, V.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Conto, J.M. de; Favro, C.; Lleres, A.; Merle, E.; Quemener, G.; Renault, C.; Tur, C

    2001-07-01

    This document reports the activities of the ISN (nuclear sciences institute of Grenoble) for the 2 last years 2000, 2001. ISN's teams are involved in 3 research axis: elementary particles and hadrons, astro-particles and new systems for producing nuclear energy. In this document the activities have been classified into 18 topics: 1) the ATLAS experiment (detector for LHC), 2) the D0 experiment (electron identification and b-tagging), 3) the DELPHI experiment (R-parity violation), 4) the AMS experiment (embarked cosmic ray detector), 5) the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 6) the MUNU experiment (magnetic moment of antineutrinos), 7) the EUSO experiment (detection of the extreme energy cosmic rays), 8) 2 parity violation experiments (GO and SAMPLE), 9) the photo-production of mesons on proton (GRAAL), 10) a new isomeric state for Sb{sup 136}, 11) a new shape isomer for Kr{sup 72}, 12) new {mu}s isomers near Sn{sup 132}, 13) laser spectroscopy measurements for very neutron-rich tin isotopes, 14) hybrid demonstrator, 15) hadron-therapy (Etoile project), 16) positron emission tomography, 17) theories and models, and 18) technological work on accelerators and ion sources. (A.C.)

  9. Estonie 2000-2001 : La fin des consensus politiques? / Celine Bayou, Matthieu Chillaud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bayou, Celine

    2001-01-01

    Ülevaade Eesti poliitikast ja majandusest aastal 2000-2001. Tabelid: Eesti majandusnäitajad 1993-2000; poliitiliste sündmuste kronoloogia 2000-2001 mai; Eesti erakonnad; valitsuse koosseis juuni 2001

  10. ARE. Regional energy supplies - progress report 2000-2001; ARE. Regionale Energieversorgung 2000-2001. Taetigkeitsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    The ARE progress report discusses the following issues: Economic development and its effects on power supply; Deregulation of the electricity and gas market; Competition between regional utilities; Energy policy of the new German government; European regulations; Legislation on energy supply; Energy supply and cartel law; Regional supply in the East German states. [German] Der Taetigkeitsbericht der ARE befasst sich mit folgenden Themen: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung und ihre Auswirkung auf die Energiewirtschaft, Oeffnung des Monopoles fuer Strom und Gas, Wettbewerb der regionalen Energieversorger, Energiepolitik der neuen Bundesregierung, Europaeische Richtlininen, energiewirtschaftsrecht, Versorgungswirtschaft und Kartellrecht und der Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern.

  11. Vildtudbyttet i Danmark i jagtsæsonen 2000 / 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, T.

    I denne rapport præsenteres den danske vildtudbyttestatistik for jagt-sæsonen 2000/2001. Vildt-udbytte-stati-stik-ken er et af de vigtigste red-skaber til over-våg-ning af de jagtbare pattedyr og fugle. Tendenser og sving-ninger i udbyttet kan for de fleste vildtarter bruges som indika-tor for be......I denne rapport præsenteres den danske vildtudbyttestatistik for jagt-sæsonen 2000/2001. Vildt-udbytte-stati-stik-ken er et af de vigtigste red-skaber til over-våg-ning af de jagtbare pattedyr og fugle. Tendenser og sving-ninger i udbyttet kan for de fleste vildtarter bruges som indika......-sagelig store ned-gange i ud-byttet af gråænder (-93.100), fasaner (-28.300), ring-duer (-23.200) og krager (-19.200). Der var dog også et par mar-kante fremgange, nemlig for skovsneppe (+20.300) og samlegruppen Andre svømmeænder (+29.500). Udbyttet af harer faldt 3,4% til 95.800. Dermed er hareudbyttet...

  12. THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF 2000-2001 FINANCIAL CRISES AND 2008 GLOBAL CRISIS ON THE TURKISH ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    TEMİZ, Dilek; GÖKMEN, AYTAÇ

    2015-01-01

    The economic crisis of 2000-2001 was proved to be demolishing for Turkey after the abundance ofcurrency peg in the same year. The crisis in question stemmed from insufficient implementation ofregulations, inadequate depth of the capital markets, lack of assessment of risk, excessive lending toincorporated institutions by national banks, restricted interest rates, monitored foreign exchangeoperations, limited foreign asset holding, lack of competition, barriers to foreign entry & low liqui...

  13. LESSONS FROM THE CRISIS – TURKISH BANKING CRISIS OF 2000-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela PICIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades or so the Turkish banking system has experienced many changes especially with the liberalization of the financial markets, financial inovations, inovations in the information technology and the increase in the number of financial transactions. With consolidations, competition has grown among banks and they are now competing for smaller profit margins. With all these changes, there has also been a change in the type of risks to which banks are now exposed. If the banking system in Turkey is following the right path as the authorities in Turkey claim then how did the country get into the grip of the banking crisis of 2000-2001? What went wrong and why bank loans turned into bad debts must be examined. The Turkish Experience resulting from the financial crisis of 2000-2001 shows that the country has learned the lesson. The financial crisis of 2008 hadn't an impact so great in Turkey compared with other countries.

  14. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  15. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  16. Wind River Watershed Restoration : 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-02-01

    This report focuses on work conducted in 2000 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project. The project started in the early 1990s, and has been funded through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) since 1998. The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the Wind River subbasin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. In addition to USGS-CRRL, other BPA-funded entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To describe the activities and accomplishments of the USGS-CRRL portion of the project, we partitioned the 2000-2001 annual report into two pieces: Report A and Report B. In Report A, we provide information on flow, temperature, and habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Personnel from CRRL monitored flows at 12 sites in 2000 and 17 sites in 2001. Flow measurements were generally taken every two weeks during June through October, which allowed tracking of the descending limb of the hydrograph in late spring, through the base low flow period in summer, and the start of the ascending limb of the hydrograph in fall. We maintained a large array of water-temperature sites in the Wind River subbasin, including data from 25 thermographs in 2000 and 27 thermographs in 2001. We completed stream reach surveys on 14.0 km in 2000 and 6.1 km in 2001. Our focus for these reach surveys has been on the upper Trout Creek and upper Wind River watersheds, though some reach surveys have occurred in the Panther Creek watershed. Data generated by these reach surveys include stream width, stream gradient, large woody debris frequency, pool frequency, canopy

  17. Telecommunication and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP) Certification for Expenditures, Fiscal Year 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindy

    This document presents the guidelines for the California Community College 2000-2001 State-Funded Telecommunication and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP) Program. The 2000-2001 State Budget Act contains $44.3 million for expenditures on the TTIP. The Act provides that $31,600,000 be allocated to colleges for the following purposes: (1) data…

  18. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  19. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  20. Chlorinated organic pesticides in marketed food: Barcelona, 2001-06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports concentration levels of 22 chlorinated organic compounds (both primary compounds and metabolites) in food marketed in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in 2001-06. Samples included meat products, fish and seafood, eggs, milk and dairy, vegetal oils, cereal products and derivates, vegetables, fresh fruits, dry fruits, spices, formula and baby food, tea and wine. Levels of chlorinated organic compounds were determined by gas chromatography with selective detectors: electron capture (ECD), flame photometric (FPD) and confirmation with mass-spectrometry. Chlorinated organic pesticides were detected in 7 of the 1,484 samples analyzed in the 2001-06 period (0.5%): 1 dairy product, 1 fruit, 1 olive oil and 4 vegetables. Specific pesticides detected are lindane and endosulfan α, β or sulphate. A decrease in both the proportion of samples with detectable residues and in the variety of chlorinated pesticides found is visible when comparing these results with those of the previous 1989-2000 period. These results suggest the gradual disappearance of regulated chlorinated organic pesticides as a consequence of the growing worldwide implementation of current regulatory agreements

  1. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100% were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers in Osun state and 58.8% in Ogun state stated that they did not receive information on the banned pesticides from government agencies but through other channels. More than half of the marketers (52.9% in Ogun, 55% in Kwara and 47.1% in Osun strongly disagreed that government should place a ban on pesticides. Availability of banned pesticides in their stock, insufficient information from the concerned government agricultural agencies, and fear of short supply of approved pesticides are among the reasons proffered by the marketers for not supporting the ban of pesticides. Relevant government regulatory agencies should conduct a comprehensive inventory of pesticides offered for sale by the marketers of agrochemicals. There should be massive public awareness programme, and wellcoordinated association for all the marketers of agrochemicals. Agrochemical manufacturers should translate instructions and warnings on pesticide labels to local languages understood by the farmers.

  2. Honolulu Community College Program Health Indicators: 2000-2001 Program Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Honolulu Community Coll.

    This report presents an overall health summation of 21 programs offered at Honolulu Community College (Hawaii) during 2000-2001. The programs profiled are: (1) Auto Body Repair and Painting; (2) Aeronautics Maintenance Technology; (3) Administration of Justice; (4) Automotive Mechanics Technology; (5) Boat Maintenance Repair; (6) Carpentry; (7)…

  3. A European survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background, administration and current status of the monitoring programme 'European Survey of Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition' is described. All European states are invited to join the survey 2000- 2001. The co-ordination and responsibility for the survey will gradually be transferred from the Nordic Council of Ministers to the International Cooperative Programme on Effects of Air Pollution on Natural Vegetation and Crops (ICP Vegetation). (author)

  4. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rodents, noxious weeds, and insects. Pesticides help prevent crop loss and, potentially, human disease. According to the ... pesticides. DO NOT mix pesticides. DO NOT set traps or place bait in areas where children or ...

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2000-2001 NASA "Why?" Files Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; Ashcroft, Scott B.; Williams, Amy C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA 'Why?' Files, a research and standards-based, Emmy-award winning series of 60-minute instructional programs for grades 3-5, introduces students to NASA; integrates mathematics, science, and technology by using Problem-Based Learning (PBL), scientific inquiry, and the scientific method; and motivates students to become critical thinkers and active problem solvers. All four 2000-2001 NASA 'Why?' Files programs include an instructional broadcast, a lesson guide, an interactive web site, plus numerous instructional resources. In March 2001, 1,000 randomly selected program registrants participated in a survey. Of these surveys, 185 (154 usable) met the established cut-off date. Respondents reported that (1) they used the four programs in the 2000-2001 NASA 'Why?' Files series; (2) series goals and objectives were met; (3) programs met national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) programs enhanced/enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  6. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain; Md. Alamgir Hossain; Md. Abdur Rahman; Md Mainul Islam; Md Atiqur Rahman; Tanveer Mehedi Adyel

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three comm...

  7. Monitoring of Some Pesticides Residue in Consumed tea in Tehran Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amirahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of various cultivars and sub-varieties of the Camellia sinensis plant, processed and vulcanized using various methods. Tea is a main beverage in Iranian food basket so should be free from toxic elements such as pesticides residue. There is no data bank on the residue of pesticides in the consumed black tea in Iran. The present study is the first attempt for monitoring of 25 pesticide residues from different chemical groups in tea samples obtained from local markets in Tehran, I.R. Iran during the period 2011. A reliable and accurate method based on spiked calibration curve and QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of pesticide residues in tea by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The using of spiked calibration standards for constructing the calibration curve substantially reduced adverse matrix-related effects and negative recovery affected by GCB on pesticides. The recovery of pesticides at 3 concentration levels (n = 3 was in range of 81.4 - 99.4%. The method was proved to be repeatable with RSDr lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were <=20 ng/g. 53 samples from 17 imported and manufactured brand were analyzed. Detectable pesticides residues were found in 28.3% (15 samples of the samples. All of the positive samples were contaminated with unregulated pesticides (Endosulfan Sulfate or Bifenthrin which are established by ISIRI. None of the samples had contamination higher than maximum residue limit set by EU and India.

  8. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Brian C. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Department of Natural Resources, Pendleton, OR); Duke, Bill B. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2004-02-01

    In the late 1990's, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow measures, and initiating trap and haul efforts. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2000-2001 project year, there were 624 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 24 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and 47 spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) counted at the Nursery Bridge Dam adult trap between December 27, 2000 and June 7, 2001. The Little Walla Walla River juvenile trap was not operated this year. The project transported 1600 adult spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery to the South Fork Walla Walla Brood Holding Facility and outplanted 1156 for natural spawning in the basin. The project also provided equipment for transportation of juveniles captured during the construction fish salvage at Nursery Bridge Dam.

  9. Chloroquine resistance and Plasmodium falciparum in Punjab, Pakistan during 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Muhammad Saleem; Tanveer, Akhtar

    2004-06-01

    During the years 2000-2001, the rural populations of 5 districts in Punjab were examined for malarial parasites. The incidence of Plasmodium falciparum was more than double (8.98%) that of P. vivax (4.06%). The incidence was higher among male subjects (53.5%) than females (46.9%). The largest number of infected male subjects was found in Sheikhupura district (77.78%). Chloroquine resistance was only checked in the subjects harboring P. falciparum, using in vivo techniques. Overall chloroquine sensitivity was 63.8%. Overall frequency of chloroquine resistance in the 5 Punjabi districts was 35%, with 30.6% RI and 4.4% RII. It is important that RIII was not found in the present study. Among the five districts, maximum RI (35.1%) and RII (5.4%) were noted in Multan. By age, maximum chloroquine resistance was noted in the 1-5 year age group (ie RI, 41%; RII 8%). A similar RI value (41%) was noted for the 6-14 age group, but with a low RII (3%) value. Although, the present finding is an outcome of a survey conducted in only 5 districts of Punjab, it reflects an alarming situation, as not only RI and RII resistance against chloroquine is increasing, but at the same time the incidence of P. falciparum is increasing two-fold that of P. vivax. The findings warrant that top priority be given to determining the exact status of chloroquine resistance among P. falciparum in this region, which is now hosting a heavy influx of refugees from Afghanistan, a country endemic for P. falciparum. PMID:15691126

  10. Monitoring pesticides residues and contaminants for some leafy vegetables at the market level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticide residues and contaminants in selected leafy vegetables, namely (lettuce, garden rocket and salad onion) were monitored at market level in Riyadh City in Saudi Arabia, during the period june to july 2001. Fifteen samples of vegetables from the City vegetable market of Riyadh were collected and subjected to multi-pesticide residue detection and analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometer and electron capture detectors (GC/MS,ECD). Results of sample extracts analysis showed that the two vegetables of: garden rocket and salad onion contain pesticide residues and contaminants which have no Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) collaborate with World Health and Food and Agriculture Organizations (WHO/FAO). Whereas lettuce vegetable was found free of any identified pesticide residues or contaminants. Garden rocket was shown to contain dibutyl phthalate (0.04 ppm)-steryl chloride (0.02 ppm) tridecane (0.06 ppm)-hexadecane (0.07 ppm)-BIS (ethylhexyl) phthalate (0.006 ppm) and pyridinium, 1-hexyl chloride (0.01 ppm). The salad onion was found to contain 9-octadecanamide (0.13 ppm)-tridecane (0.15 ppm) and tetradecane (0.16 ppm). There are no established MRL s for these pesticides and contaminants detected in garden rocket and salad onion, although when impacts on human health were reviewed some of them were found probably hazardous. (Author)

  11. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  12. Are they All in the Same Boat? the 2000-2001 Growth Slowdown and the G-7 Business Cycle Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Helbling; Tamim Bayoumi

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the international business cycle among Group of Seven (G-7) countries since 1973 from two angles. An examination of business cycle synchronization among these countries using simple descriptive statistics shows that synchronized slowdowns have been the norm rather than the exception and that the slowdown in 2000-2001 largely followed patterns seen in the past. The paper also identifies the international business cycle with an asymptotic dynamic factor model. Two global fact...

  13. Evaluation of selected wild plants flowering season 1991 - 2009 (1991 - 2000 & 2001 - 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkova, L.; Nekovar, J.; Novak, M.; Richterova, D.

    2009-09-01

    The subsequent wild plants are observed by volunteer observers at CHMI phenological network: CALTHA palustris L., ANEMONE nemorosa L., HEPATICA nobilis Mill., RANUNCULUS acer L., FRAGARIA vesca L., TRIFOLIUM repens L., HYPERICUM perforatum L., CHAMAENERION angustifolium L. Holub, VACCINIUM myrtillus L., LAMIUM album L., CHRYSANTHEMUM leucanthemum L., TUSSILAGO farfara L., PETASITES albus (L.) Gaert., PETASITES hybridus (L.) G. M. Sch., CONVALLARIA majalis L., GALANTHUS nivalis L., DACTYLIS glomerata L., ALOPECURUS pratensis L. and others. Some of them start to blossom in early spring, some others in the summer. Part of them belong to very important allergens, part of them have medicinal effects. Phenophases first leaves (FL - BBCH11), inflorescence emergence (IE - BBCH 51), beginning and end of flowering (BF - BBCH 61, EF - BBCH 69) are observed by these species. Statistical parameters (average, median, lower quartile, upper quartile, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, variation range and variation coefficient) of phenophase onset are computed from all of phenological stations in Czechia for the period 1991 - 2009. The phenophase onset and phenophase duration depend not only on genetic base but also on external effects such as weather. We have compiled dynamics of temperature to phenophase onset according CHMI meteorological stations for the same period 1991 - 2009 (especially sums of active temperatures above biological minimum 5°C and progression of extreme temperatures). We have also compared results between two periods (1991 - 2000, 2001 - 2009). Phenological stations are at different altitude. At this case study were used results from 4 phenological stations at altitude ( 500 m asl). GALANTHUS nivalis L. Station: Lednice (165 m n. m.) Period: 1991 - 2000 Statistical parameter/phenophase BBCH 61 BBCH 69 Average 62 94 Median 60 97 Lower quartile 57 86 Upper quartile 66 101 Minimum 51 70 Maximum 79 116 Variation range 28 46 Standard deviation 8,6 12

  14. Regional inventory of soil surface nitrogen balances in Indian agriculture (2000-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V Krishna; Badarinath, K V S; Yonemura, S; Tsuruta, H

    2004-11-01

    Nitrogen regulates several ecological and biogeochemical processes and excess reactive nitrogen in the environment can lead to pollution problems, including the deterioration of air quality, disruption of forest processes, acidification of lakes and streams, and degradation of coastal waters. Much of the excess nitrogen inputs are related to food and energy production. An important step to understanding the sources of nitrogen and ultimately defining solutions to excess nitrogen is to describe the geographic distribution of agricultural nitrogen contributions from different regions. In this study, soil surface nitrogen loads were quantified for different states of India for the period 2000-2001. Nearly 35.4 Tg of nitrogen has been estimated as inputs from different sources, with output nitrogen from harvested crops of about 21.20 Tg. The soil surface nitrogen balance, estimated as inputs minus outputs, is found to be about 14.4 Tg surplus from the agricultural land of India. Livestock manure constituted a major percentage of total inputs (44.06%), followed by inorganic fertilizer (32.48%), atmospheric deposition (11.86%) and nitrogen fixation (11.58%). Nitrogen balance varied from deficit to surplus for different states. The highest nitrogen surplus was found in Uttar Pradesh (2.50 Tg) followed by Madhya Pradesh (1.83 Tg), Andhra Pradesh (1.79 Tg), etc. A negative nitrogen balance was found in Orissa (-0.01 Tg), Andaman Nicobar Islands (-0.32 Tg) and for some of the northeastern states. Major fertilizer consumption states were found to be Tamilnadu (204 kg/ha), Haryana (132 kg/ha), Punjab (148 kg/ha), followed by others. Similarly, nitrogen inputs from total livestock excretions were found to be high for Kerala (616 kg/ha), Jammu and Kashmir (389 kg/ha), Tamil Nadu (338 kg/ha), etc. The average nitrogen surplus of about 54 kg/ha observed for the agricultural land of the entire country of India is comparatively higher than the average surplus of about 31 kg

  15. Effect of environment on extremely severe road traffic crashes:retrospective epidemic analysis during 2000-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃华丽; 赵新才; 周继红; 邱俊; 杨在亮; 蒋志泉; 朱秉忠

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To make an epidemiological analysis of the effect of environment on extremely severe road traffic crashes (RTCs). Methods: Epidemiologic data of extremely severe RTCs associated with environmental factors, including weather, topography, road conditions and other traffic conditions in Mainland China during 2000-2001, were collected and analyzed. Results: (1) During 2000-2001, there were 3 365 extremely severe RTCs with 13 666 deaths, 12 204 injuries and a direct economical loss of 136 million RMB. (2) Most extremely severe RTCs occurred in fine weather days and in the daytime. The high occurrence sites were plain areas, horizontal and straight roads, Grade B and C roads, ordinary road segment, and asphalt, smooth and mixed roads. (3) Compared with other RTCs, extremely severe RTCs were more likely to happen under following conditions: on cloudy, snowing, misty and blustering days; in hill and mountainous areas; on crooked and sloping roads; on freeway, Grade A, B, and C roads; mixed roads; ordinary, bridge, narrow and transitional roads; sand and dirt-roads; without traffic control measures; night without lighting. (4) Extremely severe RTCs of mountainous area or crooked and sloping roads were most severe in terms of deaths and injures per crash. Conclusions: Extremely severe RTCs are closely related with environmental factors. Rational road programming, enhancing road establishment and improving road conditions are probably effective measures to reduce the road traffic injuries.

  16. Evaluation of carcinogenic modes of action for pesticides in fruit on the Swedish market using a text-mining tool

    OpenAIRE

    Ilona eSilins; Anna eKorhonen; Ulla eStenius

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity caused by chemical mixtures has emerged as a significant challenge for toxicologists and risk assessors. Information on individual chemicals’ modes of action is an important part of the hazard identification step. In this study, an automatic text mining-based tool was employed as a method to identify the carcinogenic modes of action of pesticides frequently found in fruit on the Swedish market. The current available scientific literature on the 26 most common pesticides found in appl...

  17. Evaluation of carcinogenic modes of action for pesticides in fruit on the Swedish market using a text-mining tool

    OpenAIRE

    Silins, Ilona; Korhonen, Anna; Stenius, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity caused by chemical mixtures has emerged as a significant challenge for toxicologists and risk assessors. Information on individual chemicals' modes of action is an important part of the hazard identification step. In this study, an automatic text mining-based tool was employed as a method to identify the carcinogenic modes of action of pesticides frequently found in fruit on the Swedish market. The current available scientific literature on the 26 most common pesticides found in appl...

  18. Within-Farm Changes in Dairy Farm-Associated Salmonella Subtypes and Comparison to Human Clinical Isolates in Michigan, 2000-2001 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habing, Greg G; Manning, Shannon; Bolin, Carole; Cui, Yuehua; Rudrik, James; Dietrich, Stephen; Kaneene, John B

    2015-09-01

    Temporal changes in the distribution of Salmonella subtypes in livestock populations may have important impacts on human health. The first objective of this research was to determine the within-farm changes in the population of subtypes of Salmonella on Michigan dairy farms that were sampled longitudinally in 2000-2001 and again in 2009. The second objective was to determine the yearly frequency (2001 through 2012) of reported human illnesses in Michigan associated with the same subtypes. Comparable sampling techniques were used to collect fecal and environmental samples from the same 18 Michigan dairy farms in 2000-2001 and 2009. Serotypes, multilocus sequence types (STs), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) banding patterns were identified for isolates from 6 farms where >1 Salmonella isolate was recovered in both 2000-2001 and 2009. The distribution of STs was significantly different between time frames (P Salmonella were due to recovery of MDR subtypes of S. enterica serotypes Senftenberg and Typhimurium in 2000-2001 and genetically distinct, pansusceptible subtypes of the same serotypes in 2009. The annual frequency of human illnesses between 2001 and 2012 with a PFGE pattern matching a bovine strain decreased for patterns recovered from dairy farms in 2000-2001 and increased for patterns recovered in 2009. These data suggest important changes in the population of Salmonella on dairy farms and in the frequency of human illnesses associated with cattle-derived subtypes.

  19. Glaciers in a changing global climate: first results of worldwide glacier mass balance measurements 2000/2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, R.; Hoelzle, M.; Haeberli, W.

    2003-04-01

    Glacier signals from mountain areas are key elements of early detection strategies for dealing with possible man-induced climate change. The IPCC Third Assessment Report indeed defines mountain glaciers as one of the best natural indicators of atmospheric warming with the highest reliability ranking. In the chain of processes linking climate and glacier fluctuations, glacier length variation is the indirect/delayed response, whereas glacier mass change is the direct/undelayed reaction. Internationally coordinated long-term monitoring of glaciers started in 1894. The responsibility to collect and publish standardized data has been assumed since 1986 by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). This work is primarily being carried out under the auspices of the International Commission on Snow and Ice (ICSI/IAHS) and the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Services (FAGS/ICSU). The WGMS maintains data exchange with the ICSU World Data Center A (WDC-A) for Glaciology in Boulder, Colorado. Corresponding data bases and measurement networks form an essential part of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G: operated by the WGMS) as a pilot project within the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS/GCOS). A network of 60 glacier mass balance observations provides information on presently observed rates of change in glacier mass, corresponding acceleration trends and regional distribution patterns. A preliminary calculation of the mass balance observations in 2000/2001 relating to 23 selected data sets provide a mean specific (annual) net balance of -367 mm w.e., 26 % of the observed balances were positive. The corresponding mean in six mountain ranges was -571 mm w.e. Such values indicate that mass losses in 2000/2001 have been less extreme than in the extraordinary years before but are still strongly negative. Over the past two decades glacier melt appears to continue at a considerable and possibly even an accelerating rate. The observed average

  20. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in

  1. EXAMINING THE PROFITABILITY OF TURKISH COMMERCIAL BANKS WITH THE LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS IN CRISIS YEARS 1999, 2000, 2001 AND 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Açelya TELLİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial crisis which were occured especially after 1980, damaged particularly Turkish Banking System then all financial system and caused to be determine by researchers seriously. In this line, the aim of this study is searching the effect of the profitability performance of commercial banks in Turkish Banking System comparing with the financial crisis which were occured in 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2008. With this purpose, three profitability ratios were published in the Banks Association of Turkey were taken as dependent variables and four financial ratio groups were taken as independent variables and it was set up a regression model for every related year. As a result of this study, the ratio group of income and expense took over for dependent variables which are the profitability of asset and the profitability of equity at analyzed years. The margin of interest didn’t stand out at 1999, 2000 and 2008 but at 2001, the ratio group of income and expense and the ratio group of adequacy of capital took over for dependent variable which is the margin of net interest.

  2. Dependence of biologically active UV radiation on the atmospheric ozone in 2000 - 2001 over Stara Zagora, Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates how the changes in simultaneously measured ozone columns influence the biologically active UV irradiance. Spectral ground-based measurements of direct solar ultraviolet radiation performed at Stara Zagora (42oN, 25oE), Bulgaria in 2000 - 2001 are used in conjunction with the total ozone content to investigate the relation to the biologically active UV radiation, depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA) and the ozone. The device measures the direct solar radiation in the range 290 - 360 nm at 1 nm resolution. The direct sun UV doses for some specific biological effects (erythema and eyes) are obtained as the integral in the wavelength interval between 290 and 330 nm of the UV solar spectrum weighted with an action spectrum, typical of each effect. For estimation of the sensitivity of biological doses to the atmospheric ozone we calculate the radiation amplification factor (RAF) defined as the percentage increase in the column amount of the atmospheric ozone. The biological doses increase significantly with the decrease of the SZA. The doses of SZA=20o are about three times larger than doses at SZA=50o. The RAF derived from our spectral measurements shows an increase of RAF along with the decreasing ozone. For example, the ozone reduction by 1% increases the erythemal dose by about 2%. (authors)

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans stress related gene responses to selected pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou-Kourounioti, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are used widely and more than 2 million tons are released in the environment annually (data for 2000-2001, Kiely 2004). Details of their toxicity towards non-target organisms, are not complete for many of these pesticides and serious environmental issues have previously arisen as a result (e.g. effects of DDT on reproduction of wild birds). Unfavourable conditions, including the presence of toxicants, can induce the stress response pathways through which an organism attempts t...

  4. Pesticide residues and estrogenic activity in fruit and vegetables sampled from major fresh produce markets in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni Thomas; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard; Korsten, Lise; Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina; De Jager, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Food is likely to be one of the major pathways through which people are exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. With the exception of residual effects, there are concerns that a number of naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals exert adverse effects upon endocrine systems in wildlife and humans. The current study reports selected pesticide concentrations and the total estrogenic activity of fruit and vegetables using the recombinant yeast oestrogen screen (YES) and T47D-KBluc reporter gene assays. A total of 53 food samples (27 fruit and 26 vegetables) from Johannesburg and Tshwane fresh produce markets (in South Africa) were analysed. Of these, 17 contained one to three different pesticide residues with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 0.68 mg kg(-1), whereas in the rest of the samples no residues were detected. All pesticides detected except in one sample were below the maximum residue level (MRL), but others were unauthorised for use in specified fruit and vegetables. Estrogenic activity was detected in 26.4% (14 samples) of the samples tested, and the estradiol equivalents ranged from 0.007 to 2 pg g(-1). Although the estrogenic activity was low, it may contribute to adverse health effects. Continuous monitoring for pesticides in fruit and vegetables is important in view of the unauthorised pesticides detected in produce from South Africa and the endocrine-disrupting chemical activity found.

  5. Verification of Short-Term Predictions of Solar Soft X-ray Bursts for the Maximum Phase (2000-2001) of Solar Cycle 23

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Lian Zhu; Jia-Long Wang

    2003-01-01

    We present a verification of the short-term predictions of solar Xray bursts for the maximum phase (2000-2001) of Solar Cycle 23, issued by two prediction centers. The results are that the rate of correct predictions is about equal for RWC-China and WWA; the rate of too high predictions is greater for RWC-China than for WWA, while the rate of too low predictions is smaller for RWC-China than for WWA.

  6. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables from farms, markets, and a supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapbamrer, Ratana; Hongsibsong, Surat

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated organophosphorus (OP) residues in vegetables from 27 farms, 106 markets, and 1 supermarket around Kwan Phayao Lake, Northern Thailand, between August and September 2013. Types of vegetables sampled were all vegetables cultivated or sold around the study site. The most common OP pesticides detected in farm samples were chlorpyrifos (50 %), malathion (31.8 %), monocrotophos (31.8 %), diazinon (13.6 %), omethoate (13.6 %), and dicrotophos (9.1 %). The most common OP pesticides detected in market samples were chlorpyrifos (33.9 %), diazinon (18.6 %), parathion-methyl (3.4 %), profenofos (3.4 %), primiphos-ethyl (3.4 %), and fenitrothion (1.7 %). The OP pesticides detected in supermarket samples were chlorpyrifos (33.3 %), and diazinon (66.7 %). Among the compounds detected, chlorpyrifos was detected in most of the vegetable samples from all sources. The highest chlorpyrifos level in farm samples were found in lemon balm (2.423 mg/kg) followed by Vietnamese coriander (0.835 mg/kg), and cowpea (0.027 mg/kg). The highest level in markets samples were found in garlic (7.785 mg/kg) followed by Chinese cabbage (2.864 mg/kg) and Vietnamese coriander (1.308 mg/kg). Residues from supermarket samples were found only in parsley (0.027 mg/kg). The findings showed that 16 samples (59.3 %) from farms and 14 samples (13.2 %) from markets contained OP residues at or above the maximum residue limits established by the European Union. It is concluded that awareness, safety education, and strict regulation of pesticide use are necessary.

  7. Organochlorine pesticide in fresh and pasteurized cow's milk from Kampala markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampire, Edwige; Kiremire, Bernard T; Nyanzi, Steven A; Kishimba, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Fresh and pasteurized milk samples from Kampala markets were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides using a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Five organochlorine pesticides, namely; aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, lindane, DDT and its metabolites were detected in the milk samples and confirmed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer [GC-MS]. The mean values are expressed in mgkg(-1) milk fat (mf) basis. The mean concentration in the fresh milk (n=54) were: 0.026 ± 0.003 mg kg(-1) mf; 0.002 ± 0.0003 mg kg(-1), below the detection limit; 0.007 ± 0.003 mg kg(-1), 0.009 ± 0.002 mg kg(-1) milk fat for lindane, endosulfan dieldrin and aldrin, respectively. The mean concentrations of p,p'-DDE; p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT were 0.009 ± 0.002 mg kg(-1); 0.033 ± 0.007 mg kg(-1) and 0.008 ± 0.001 mg kg(-1) mf, respectively in the fresh milk samples. In the pasteurized milk samples (n=47), the mean concentrations recorded were: 0.008 ± 0.003 mg kg(-1), 0.025 ± 0.004 mg kg(-1), and 0.007 ± 0.001 mg kg(-1), respectively for p,p'-DDE; p,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT. Alpha and beta-endosulfan recorded the concentration below the detection limit and the mean of 0.022 ± 0.001 mg kg(-1) mf, 0.005 ± 0.002 mg kg(-1) mf, and 0.006 ± 0.0002 mg kg(-1) mf, respectively for lindane, dieldrin and aldrin. Although, most of the residues detected were above the residue limits set by the FAO/WHO (2008), bioaccumulation of these residues is likely to pose health risks to the consumers of milk in Uganda. PMID:21737114

  8. The Research of the Influence of the New Policy for Pesticide Management on Hainan Pesticide Market%农药管理新政对海南农药市场影响探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺混; 杨衍; 苏珊珊

    2013-01-01

    农药是农业种植重要的生产资料,日常种植生产中农药的滥用与否直接影响着农产品质量安全.本文简要介绍了海南农药经营体制的变迁,并从农药批发商、农药零售商、农户三个方面出发,就海南农药管理新政出台后,对于海南农药市场的影响进行了分析.%Pesticide is an important means of production of agricultural cultivation, pesticide abuse or not in daily plant directly impact on the safety of agricultural products quality. This paper briefly introduced the changes of Hainan pesticide management system, analyze the influence of the new policy for pesticide management on Hainan pesticide market from three aspects of the pesticide wholesalers, pesticide Retailer, farmers after pesticide policy was issued.

  9. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, William P. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2003-02-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001.

  10. Post-release attributes and survival of hatchery and natural fall chinook salmon in the Snake River : annual report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 2000, 2001, and years previous to aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. The report is divided into sections and self-standing chapters. For detailed summaries, we refer the reader to the abstracts given on the second page of each chapter. The Annual Reporting section includes information provided to fishery managers in-season and post-season, and it contains a detailed summary of life history and survival statistics on wild Snake River fall chinook salmon juveniles for the years 1992-2001. The Journal Manuscripts section includes complete copies of papers submitted or published during 2000 and 2001 that were not included in previous annual reports. Publication is a high priority for this project because it provides our results to a wide audience, it ensures that our work meets high scientific standards, and we believe that it is a necessary obligation of a research project. The Bibliography of Published Journal Articles section provides citations for peer-reviewed papers co-authored by personnel of project 199102900 that were published from 1998 to 2001

  11. Variability of pesticide residues in cauliflower units collected from a field trial and market places in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, M D H; Papadakis, Emmanouil-N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the variability of pesticide residue levels present in cauliflower units, a total of 142 samples were collected from a field trial of a cooperative farmer, and 120 samples were collected from different market places in Thessaloniki, Greece. The collected samples were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique, and the residues were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated by evaluating the accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The average recoveries for all the analytes, derived from the data of control samples fortified at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, ranged from 74 to 110% with a relative standard deviation of ≤8%. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was ≥0.997 for all the analytes using matrix-matched calibration standards. The LOD values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 mg/kg, and the LOQ was determined at 0.01 mg/kg for all the sought analytes. The matrix effect was found to be at a considerable level, especially for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, amounting to +90% and +145%, respectively. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) calculated for cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 2.38 and 2.32, respectively, while the average VF for the market basket samples was 5.11. In the market basket samples, residues of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, and indoxacarb were found at levels ≥LOQ and their respective VFs were 7.12, 5.67, 5.28, and 2.40. PMID:27229457

  12. Book Reviews 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Barbara Ellman, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Contains reviews of 41 books on career management, job search strategies, entrepreneurship, the Internet job search, self-improvement; specific careers, women and careers, and career development e-business. Eight guides and workbooks are also reviewed. (JOW)

  13. Los movimientos sociales en la incipiente democracia mexicana: La huelga en la UNAM (1999-2000 y la marcha zapatista (2000-2001 Social Movements in the Incipient Mexican Democracy: The UNAM Strike (1999-2000 and the Zapatista March (2000-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Armando López Leyva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cuál ha sido el efecto del entorno político en los movimientos sociales a raíz de la instauración de la democracia en 1997? En este artículo se argumenta que los movimientos sociales aparecidos desde ese año no han aceptado las limitaciones establecidas por tal régimen, así hayan hecho uso de los recursos institucionales que les ofrece. Lo anterior se intentará ilustrar a partir del análisis, mediante la aplicación del modelo del proceso político (también conocido como estructura de las oportunidades políticas, de dos casos particulares: la huelga en la UNAM, emprendida por el Consejo General de Huelga (1999-2000, y la marcha indígena a la ciudad de México, llevada a cabo por el Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (2000-2001.What effect has the political environment had on social movements as a result of the establishment of democracy in 1997? This article argues that the social movements that have emerged since then have not accepted the limitationsimposed by this regime, despite using the institutional resources they have been offered. The author attempts to illustrate this through analysis, by applying the political process model (also known as the political opportunities structure to two particular cases: the UNAM strike, organized by the General Strike Council (1999-2000 and the indigenous march to Mexico City, led by the National Zapatista Liberation Army (2000-2001.

  14. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US EPA US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us You are here: EPA Home » Pesticides » Antimicrobial Pesticides Antimicrobial Pesticides News and Highlights Disinfection Hierarchy Workshop - October 7 ...

  15. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1....... Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing pendimethalin and methabenzthiazuron, among fungicides containing azaconazole, tolylfluanid, propamocarb and cyprodinil, and among insecticides containing amitraz, phosalone and diflubenzuron. Thus, the twelve analysed samples of these pesticides...

  16. Biological activities of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles: comparison between the cities of Teplice and Prague during the summer and winter seasons 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkova, Blanka; Cerna, Milena; Pastorkova, Anna; Jelinek, Richard; Benes, Ivan; Novak, Jiri; Sram, Radim J

    2003-04-09

    The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, appears today to be one of the most polluted residential areas in the country, whereas air pollution in the Northern Bohemia region (the former 'Black Triangle Region') has substantially decreased during the last decade, especially with respect to the gaseous pollutant SO{sub 2}. This study evaluated the biological activities of complex mixtures of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles (PM10) collected during the summer and winter seasons of 2000-2001 at three monitoring sites - Teplice (TP), Prague-Smichov (PRG-SM) (city centre) and Prague-Libus (PRG-LB) (suburban area). The following short-term in vitro assays with strikingly different endpoints were used: a bacterial mutagenicity test using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 and YG1041, an acellular assay (CT DNA) combined with {sup 32}P-postlabelling to evaluate DNA adduct-forming potency and the chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST). The results of the mutagenicity test with the YG1041 strain, the acellular genotoxicity (DNA adducts) and the embryotoxicity tests responded to the amount of eight carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysed in the EOM (dichloromethane extractable organic matter) samples tested. Nevertheless, the biological effects of the EOM did not differ between locations. The highest biological activity of the ambient air in terms of organic compounds associated with particles (per unit volume of air) was seen in the Prague city centre during both summer and winter seasons. At this location, B[a]P concentration ranged from 0.1 to 8.9 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 0.3 and 3.6 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively), 13 PAHs ranged from 11 to 343 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 52 and 160 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively). Generally, using in vitro tests, higher ambient air activity was found in the winter season as compared with the summer season at all three monitoring sites

  17. Results from the monitoring of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables on the Danish market 1998-99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Poulsen, Mette Erecius

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the Danish pesticide monitoring programme for fruit and vegetables was to check for compliance with the maximum residue levels in foods and to monitor the residue levels to assess the pesticide exposure of the Danish population. Sampling plans were designed based on previous...... findings and on food consumption data. Approximately 60% of the samples were selected on the basis of positive findings in samples from the previous 5 years. The remaining samples reflected the pattern of food consumption in Denmark. In addition, a rolling programme is maintained for commodities with a low...... consumption and no detected residues. Within each commodity, the sampling was random. Samples (n = 4150) of mainly fresh, conventionally grown fruit and vegetables were taken throughout the chain of suppliers including foodprocessing companies. Of the samples, 3% were frozen products and 2% were organically...

  18. Pesticide use in Vietnamese vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, P.V.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, Peter; Brink, van den P.J.; Huong, P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam has had varying success over the past decade with its pesticides policy. Some of the most toxic pesticides have been banned from the market. But while many countries have successfully decreased agricultural pesticide use per hectare, this has not (yet) happened in Vietnam. Due to insuffic

  19. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  20. Microbial pesticides [data requirements for environmental risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; Linders JBHJ; CSR

    1997-01-01

    The market for microbial pesticides is, though slowly, expanding. Therefore more research with these pesticides will be carried out in the near future, not only for agronomical and economical, but also for environmental reasons. As more chemical pesticides are going to be banned, microbial pesticid

  1. National program to fight against the climatic change 2000/2001; Programme national de lutte contre le changement climatique 2000/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Some great principles have given directions for this report. balance between internal measures and market mechanisms, the energy control and saving at production and consumption, the setting up of incentive economical tools, the necessity of a precise information about the consequences, in term of greenhouse gases emissions for any public or private investment decision. A big uncertainty assigns the interactions between the climate warming and its modifications. The policy duty is to take into account the scientific statements by implementing the caution principle. (N.C.)

  2. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegria, Henry [Chemistry Department, California Lutheran University, 60 West Olsen Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 (United States)]. E-mail: halegria@clunet.edu; Bidleman, Terry F. [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Meteorological Service of Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, ON L0L 1N0 (Canada); Figueroa, Miguel Salvador [Area de Biotecnologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University Autonoma de Chiapas, Carretera a Puerto, Madero Km. 2, Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use. - Elevated levels of several organochlorine pesticides were found in the ambient air of southern Mexico

  4. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  5. Pesticides and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Pesticides and Human Health Pesticides have a specific purpose ...

  6. Exame Nacional de Cursos: análise da relação entre conceitos, qualificação e dedicação docente nas escolas de Administração em 2000, 2001 e 2002 National Evaluation of Courses: an analysis of the relations between evaluations, qualifications and commitments of teachers in Administration schools of during 2000, 2001 and 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Cézar da Silva e Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca evidenciar a relação entre os conceitos obtidos pelas escolas de Administração no Exame Nacional de Cursos e seus respectivos perfis de qualificação e de dedicação docente em 2000, 2001 e 2002. Em seus resultados, descreve a distribuição das instituições de ensino a partir das variáveis "conceitos obtidos", "localização geográfica" e "categoria administrativa". Emprega, ainda, o método estatístico de análise de correspondência para ilustrar a associação entre conceitos "A" e elevados percentuais de professores com doutorado e dedicação exclusiva. Nas considerações finais, o trabalho aponta possíveis fatores impeditivos da melhoria dos índices de dedicação e qualificação docente (como o tempo demandado para a formação de doutores, a assimetria entre os sistemas de graduação e pós-graduação em Administração e a sistemática de remuneração por horas-aula e expõe limitações e oportunidades para novas pesquisas.An evaluation was made of the relations between the ratings obtained by the schools of Administration in the National Evaluation of Courses and the respective profiles of qualification and commitment of teachers in 2000, 2001 and 2002. Results describe the distribution of the educational institutions based upon the variables of rating achieved, geographic location and administrative category. Statistical correspondence analysis disclosed the association between the top rating "A' and the higher percentages related to professors with a doctorate title and full time commitment. The work concludes with factors that may hinder an improvement of teacher ratings for commitment and qualification. They include the time required for a doctorate title, the asymmetry between the systems of graduation and post graduation in Administration and the remuneration system for class hours as well as exposing the limitations and opportunities for research.

  7. 批发市场蔬菜农药残留调查及风险评估%Pesticide Residue Investigation and Risk Assessment of Vegetables from Vegetable Wholesale Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温雅君; 高景红; 李玲; 崔洁静

    2011-01-01

    [目的]调查北京市批发市场蔬菜的农药残留情况并进行风险评估.[方法]对北京市9个大型蔬菜批发市场6类蔬菜中的16种农药残留进行抽样检测.[结果]北京市蔬菜农药残留超标率全年呈先下降后上升的趋势;不同种类蔬菜的农药残留超标率依次为豆类>绿叶类>白菜类>茄果类>甘蓝类、瓜类;毒死蜱和克百威2种农药造成蔬菜农药残留超标的比例较高;全年的蔬菜农药安全指数均小于1,说明所检测的农药残留量没有安全风险.[结论]该研究为批发市场蔬菜质量安全监管提供了理论依据.%[Objective] The aim was to investigate and estimate risk of pesticide residue in vegetables from vegetable wholesale markets in Beijing. [Method] Sixteen pesticides residues in 6 kinds of vegetables from 9 large marketplaces in Beijing were detected by random sampling. [ Result] The results showed that over standard rate of pesticide residue tended to increase first then decrease. Over standard rate of pesticide residue in different kinds of vegetables was investigated as follows; legumes > leaf vegetables>Chinese cabbages>eggplants> cabbages and cucurbits. Pesticide residues over standard in vegetables were mainly caused by chlorpyrifos and carbofuran. Safety indexes of all pesticides were lower than 1 in each sample during a whole year,showing that pesticide residues were safe. [Conclusion] The paper provides a theoretical basis for supervising vegetable safety of vegetable wholesale markets.

  8. Energy from waste. State-of-the-art report. Statistics 1996-1999. Data 2000/2001. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the 4. edition of the report on waste to energy plants in the member countries of the ISWA Working Group on Thermal Treatment of Waste. This edition presents information on the plants by year 2000/2001 and includes operational data covering the years 1996-1999. The report is based on a questionnaire that was distributed to the waste to energy plants in the member countries in 2000. Only normal MSW incineration plants with a capacity of more than 15 tonnes/day or 10,000 tonnes/year are included, which means that special plants for hazardous waste, sludge, agricultural and hospital wastes are not included. Most, but not all, plants have answered a questionnaire, and this report is mainly based on the questionnaires received and the information provided by the questionnaires. In the first section the report presents a comparison of the situation of waste to energy in: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The statistics in this section present the number of plants, the national capacity and flue gas cleaning systems. The section also presents the amount of waste incinerated, the energy recovered and the residues generated in 1999 in the 14 countries. The second section presents the national data on the incineration plants. For the USA the figures are listed in the second part of the report. (BA)

  9. Pesticide Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides generally include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides that play an important role in maintaining worldwide food and fiber production by controlling weeds that compete for water and nutrients or by eliminating pests that reduce yields. In the future, the role of pesticides and fertili...

  10. Selected Reference Books of 2000/2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject categories of archives; literature; music; psychology; sociology; black studies; women's studies; history and area studies; and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  11. 2000-2001 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    2nd Term : 15 January to 30 March 2001 LECTURE SERIES       Experimentation in Space by M. Spiro, CEA, France 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Tracking at the LHC by K. Safarik, CERN-EP 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Issues in Arms Control by F. Calogero, Univ. Roma, It. 12. 13, 14, 15, 16 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Telecommunication for the future by R. Parker, CERN-IT 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Introduction to Cryogenic Engineering by J. G. Weisend, Stanford, USA 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 February 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 ­ 19, 20, 21 February, Council Chamber 22, 23 February Heavy Ion Physics at the CERN SPS by M. Gonin, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, F. 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 Recent Results on CP Violation and B Physics by P.F. Harrison, QMW, London, GB 26, 27, 28 February 1, 2 March 11:00-12:00 - Auditorium, bldg 500 ...

  12. World Development Report 2000/2001

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This report focuses on the dimensions of poverty, and how to create a better world, free of poverty. The analysis explores the nature, and evolution of poverty, and its causes, to present a framework for action. The opportunity for expanding poor people's assets is addressed, arguing that major reductions in human deprivation are indeed possible, that economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction, can be harnessed through economic integration, and technological change, dependent not only...

  13. The Administrator's Annual Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the Ship-Source Oil Pollution Fund (SOPF) describes the compensation regime of the Fund which may include claims for oil pollution damage; claims for costs and expenses of oil spill clean-up, including the cost of preventive measures; and claims for oil pollution damage and clean-up costs where the identity of the ship that caused the discharge cannot be established, the so-called 'mystery spills'. The main body of the report consists of descriptions of the status of oil pollution incidents brought to the attention of the Administrator. It does not include incidents which were settled directly with ship owners, hence not requiring intervention by the SOPF Administrator. The current status of recovery action by the Administrator against ship-owners is also discussed, along with the issue of port of refuge for damaged ships at sea; the continuing challenge for classification societies, and others in the marine industry to ensure construction, staffing and management of well-founded ships, so that they can be operated safely to preclude environmental damage; and international safety management principles and guidelines for the safe operation of ships and pollution prevention. Also discussed are various actions by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to review the effectiveness and impact of the ISM code to date, the IMO's timetable for the accelerated phasing out of single hull oil tankers, the differences in handling compensation for environmental damage under the CSA (Canada Shipping Act), the IOPC (International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund) regime, and the US OPA (Oil Pollution Act). SOPF's liabilities to the International Fund, and SOPF's outreach activities during the reporting period are also discussed. A financial summary is provided. Full financial statement is said to available on request. Seven appendices contain various relevant documentation, including summaries of the proceedings of the 1971 and 1992 IOPC Fund executive committee and assembly sessions, and a list of changes introduced by the 1992 protocols and European Community proposals for a COPE (Compensation for Oil Pollution in European Waters) regime

  14. Selected Reference Books, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works in these areas: periodical indexes; literature, including theater; religion; festivals; architecture; music; social sciences; women's studies; and history. Provides a brief roundup of new editions of standard works at the end. (AEF)

  15. Speak Out for Children, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David L., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document compiles the six issues of Volumes 15 and 16 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 2000 issue contains articles on Wisconsin's shared parenting law, the U.S. Senate's consideration of a fatherhood…

  16. Jiangsu Pesticide Research Institute Company Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jiangsu Pesticide Research Institute Company Ltd. was established on June 22, 2005, with the registered capital of RMB 40.4 million. Its business includes R&D, manufacture and market of agrochemicals.

  17. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any pest." Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Local Contacts Find local pesticide & pest control information Pesticide Information and Resources: Frequently Asked Questions: ...

  18. What Is a Pesticide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Basic Information about Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide products contain both "active" and "inert" ingredients: What is a Pesticide? A pesticide is any substance or mixture of ...

  19. A comparative study on the effectiviness of three different shampooes in treatment of head lice (pediculus capitis in primery school-children in Hamadan province, IRAN 2000-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Zahirnia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Head lice infestation caused by Pediculus capitis and its treatment is a worldwide and historical concern.Materials and methods: This study has been done with cooperation with the health’s deputy of medical sciences university in different cities of Hamadan province in 2000-2001. Screening was done in 120 girl’s elementary schools during which 7291 students were examined for head lice infestation. About 13.5% (975 of the girls were detected with head lice. The infested girls were divided into three treatment groups with three kinds of shampooes containing pediculicide and one control group with ordinary shampoo (placebo. In a randomized evaluator, blind clinical trial to compare pediculicidal and ovicidal effects of shampooes against head lice, the participants assigned to groups to use the shampooes based on manufacture’s instructions and followed up three weeks after treatment. Statistical analyses were done by X2 test and line logarithmic procedure. Results: The results show that cure rates (no live adult and nymph of lice were seen on physical re-examination of scalp(, at the end of the first week were 29,36, 34 and 15 percent for d-phenothrin 0.2%, lindane 1% , permethrin1% and placebo respectively. These cure rates for treatment shampooes showed significant differences when compared to placebo (0.0010.05. but at the end of the third week, the cure rates for the three mentioned shampooes were 88, 88 and 87 percent and also there is no statisticall differences in their efficacy. It should be noted that the results of ordinary shampoo is just for the first week after usage. Line logarithmic analysis of results shows that efficacy of different pediculicide shampoo (p value=0.58 in different times (p value=0.25 have no difference. but the cure rate of cases varied three weeks after treatment. (p value<0.0001. This shows the residual effect of pediculicides on new hatched nymphs.Conclusion: According to the results

  20. Obsolete pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  1. Strategic analysis of a semiconductor company’s migration into consumer markets

    OpenAIRE

    Itcush, Robert Larry

    2006-01-01

    SemiconInc is a Canadian fabless semiconductor company, who has been successful developing innovative, high-margin semiconductor devices for the telecom industry. The company was affected by the slowdown in telecom spending that followed the crash of the technology sector in 2000/2001, but has since recovered and is pursuing new areas for growth. The rapidly growing consumer electronics industry is one potential market that SemiconInc should explore, as SemiconInc’s core competencies in ...

  2. 绵阳市市售蔬菜有机磷农药残留检测结果分析%Detection of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetabies in markets of Mianyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文献英; 张代友; 吴晓红; 黄婷婷; 李晓涛; 唐果

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解绵阳市市售蔬菜有机磷农药残留情况.方法 全部样品按照GB/T5009.20-2003的方法进行6种有机磷农药的残留检测.结果 2009~2010共检测蔬菜138份,有机磷农药残留总超标率为37.68%,其中叶菜类、根茎类、瓜果蔬菜类和食用菌类超标率分别为51.85%、41.67%、28.13%和25%.不同种类蔬菜超标率差异有统计学意义(x2=8.68,P< 0.01).结论 绵阳市蔬菜中有机磷农药残留情况较为严重,应加强农药残留的监测工作,推广无公害水果蔬菜.%OBJECTIVE To research organophosphorus pesticide residues in the vegetables sold in markets of Mianyang. METHODS The method of GB/T5009.20-2003 was applied to determine the contents of seven organophosphorus pesticide in samples selected randomly. RESULTS The organophosphorus pesticide residues in 108 vegetable samples were monitered During 2009 to 2010, The total unqualified rate was 37.86%. While the unqualified rate of the leaf, The root-stem, the fruits vegetables and delicacies of mushroom was 51.85%, 41.67%, 28.13% and 25%, respectively. The unquality rated of all kinds of vegetables had a significant difference (χ2= 8.68, P< 0.01). CONCLUSION In Mianyang city, organophosphorus pesticide residues are relatively serious in vegetabies. It is necessary to strengthen the survellance of pesticide residuss and spread green nuisance-free vegetables.

  3. The Indigenous World, 2000/2001 = El mundo indigena, 2000/2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molbech, Anette, Ed.

    This annual publication (published separately in English and Spanish) examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 2000-01. Part 1 describes current situations and events in 11 world regions: the Arctic; North America; Mexico and Central America; South America; Australia and…

  4. 集贸市场蜚蠊侵害和抗药性调查及综合防制研究%Infestation and pesticide resistance of cockroaches in market and relevant comprehensive control measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽娟; 刘迪; 刘小泉; 刘俊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infestation and population distribution of cockroaches in the market and the pesticide resistance of Blattella germanica to provide a basis for comprehensive control measures. Methods The infestation of cockroaches was investigated by visual inspection; the density of cockroaches was measured by cockroach glue board; the pesticide resistance of B. Germanica was determined by residual film method. The pesticides to which the cockroaches were sensitive were used for comprehensive control. Results The infestation rate of cockroaches in the market was 86.67%, and the density was 4.19 cockroaches/board/night. The levels of resistance (folds) of 6. Germanica to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, propoxur, chlorpyrifos, dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate (DDVP), cypermethrin, permethrin, tetramethrin, and azamethiphos were 2.65, 3.82, 1.77, 3.51, 11.19, 5.21, 6.51, 12.00, and 2.11, respectively. The pesticides to which the cockroaches were sensitive and developed low resistance achieved a killing rate of 96.19%. Conclusion There is a high infestation rate of cockroaches in the market of Wuhan city, China. B. Germanica is the dominant species of the cockroaches and has developed high resistance to DDVP and tetramethrin. Comprehensive control measures, including environmental treatment and pesticide use, should be taken to control the density of cockroaches below a harmless level.%目的 了解集贸市场蜚蠊侵害情况、种群分布及德国小蠊的抗药性,为制定防制对策提供依据.方法 采用目测法调查蜚蠊侵害情况,用粘蟑板测定其密度,用药膜接触法测定抗药性,采用敏感和低抗的药物进行综合防制.结果 集贸市场蜚蠊侵害率为86.67%,密度为4.19只/(张·夜);德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、残杀威、毒死蜱、敌敌畏、氯氰菊酯、氯菊酯、胺菊酯、甲基吡(嗯)磷9种杀虫剂的抗药性分别为2.65、3.82、1.77、3.51、11.19、5.21、6.51

  5. Applying Pesticides Safely

    OpenAIRE

    Latimer, Joyce G.

    2009-01-01

    Proper use of pesticides is essential for your safety and for that of the environment. Pesticides must be used correctly to be effective. This publication reviews the key factors in the proper use of pesticides.

  6. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carriquiriborde, P.; Mirabella, P.; Waichman, A.; Solomon, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Maund, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the

  7. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

  8. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions. PMID:27367607

  9. Marketing marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  10. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  11. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  12. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  13. Rural Marketing in India –Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Abhisek Kumar Tripathi

    2012-01-01

    The rural market in Indian economy can be classified under two broad categories. These are the market for consumer goods that comprise of both durable and non-durable goods and the market for agricultural inputs that include fertilizers, pesticides, seeds Key words: rural marketing, marketing, challenges in rural marketing, rural marketing environment

  14. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  15. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede brand

  16. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

  17. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin......, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin...

  18. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  19. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change ... Pesticides The Basics Pesticides are substances we use to control or kill pests. Pests can be weeds, insects, rodents, or bacteria — anything we don’t want ...

  20. Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

  1. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  2. Pesticide Sector Performed Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lvxian

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Further output growth in the first half of 2007 According to data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the output of pesticides (usually refering to pure pesticide technical) in China was 856 thousand tons in the first half of 2007, an increase of 25.6% over the same period of 2006.

  3. Pesticider 2 i overfladevand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeland, B.; Kvamm, B. L.

    DMU har den 29. september 1999 afholdt en metodeafprøvning: Pesticider 2 i overfladevand. Der var tilmeldt 17 danske og udenlandske laboratorier i metodeafprøvningen. Prøvningen omfattede 32 pesticider i overfladevand fra en sjællandsk sø. Koncentrationsniveauet for hver komponent var på 0,025 - 0...

  4. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  5. Screening Pesticides for Neuropathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides are routinely screened in studies that follow specific guidelines for possible neuropathogenicity in laboratory animals. These tests will detect chemicals that are by themselves strong inducers of neuropathogenesis if the tested strain is susceptible relative to the time of administration and methodology of assessment. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is the only known human neurodegenerative disease associated with pesticides and the existing...

  6. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  7. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah; Archibold Buah-Kwofie; Dzifa Denutsui; Jacob Asomaning; Anita Osei Tutu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of present research study was to assess the concentration of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Kumasi and to generate awareness about the lethal effects of these pesticides on human beings as well as to estimate the potential health risks associated with the pesticide residue with regard to consumers. A total of 350 locally produced fruits and vegetables were purchased from six main markets in Kumasi and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with elec...

  8. Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

  9. PESTICIDES: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maksymiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  10. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a devastating impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas were completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, causing the native people who's number one food resource was salmon to rely entirely upon resident fish to replace lost fisheries resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses in the ''Blocked Area'' above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 as a resident fish substitution measure and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout. To achieve this quota the Colville Tribal Hatchery was scheduled to produce 174,000 fingerling rainbow trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 sub-yearling rainbow trout (15 grams/fish), 80,000 legal size rainbow trout (90 grams/fish), 196,000 fingerling brook trout (5 grams/fish), 330,000 subyearling brook trout (15 grams/fish) and 60,000 lahontan cutthroat trout (15 grams/fish) in 2001. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence /recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members as well as a successful non-member sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to provide a ''carry-over'' fishery. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be capable of contributing to the natural production component of the reservation fish populations. Contribution to the natural production component will be achieved by producing and releasing fish of sufficient quality and quantity for fish to survive to spawning maturity, to spawn naturally in existing and future available habitat (i.e. natural supplementation), while meeting other program objectives. In addition to the hatchery specific goals detailed above, hatchery personnel will actively participate in the Northwest Power Planning Council program, participate in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Foundation, Resident Fish Committee, and other associated committees and Ad Hoc groups that may be formed to address resident fish issues in the blocked area above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams.

  11. SPACE CHEMISTRY RESEARCHES IN CHINA DURING 2000-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two years, significant progress in space chemistry has been made in China. The research fields include meteorites, pre-solar materials, science researches of the moon, effects of the space debris on space environment, and heterogeneity of the Earth. Chinese Lunar Exploration Project Some studies are also dedicated to one important space mission "Chinese Lunar Exploration Project". In this paper, the main achievements are outlined, and some concepts and hypotheses are briefly revised.

  12. Responsible fisheries summary: 2000-2001 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The energy required to harvest fish from the sea is greater than that required for the production of any other primary food product. Increasing energy efficiency in the fishing industry makes sense, especially in light of the recent increases in fossil fuel prices and the increased concern expressed about greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, Fisheries and Oceans Canada collaborated with partners from the fishing industry, and with support provided by Natural Resources Canada, Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) to initiate several projects aimed at improving the energy efficiency of fishing gear and related components. During the period April 2000 to March 2001, five projects were completed and two more were initiated. The goals were the determination of the effectiveness of new gear prototypes and fishing techniques towards a reduction in energy consumption. Detailed experimental protocols, gear prototypes, flume tank testing, at-sea trials, analysis of results, and reporting to industry and stakeholders are some of the facets common to most of the projects. Potential fuel savings, in the range of 2,330,000 liters annually for the shrimp trawler fleet were identified by testing new composite trawl netting. Potential fuel savings of 850,000 liters in Silver Hake could be realized by using new small diameter high tenacity braided polyethylene twines in trawl netting, when compared to standard polyethylene. A reduction of approximately 13 per cent in fuel consumption per kilogram of fish harvested is possible, as demonstrated by the testing of new Triplex Trawl design, with three codends rather than one. Operational costs and fuel consumption are both reduced through the use of the new Millennium trawl design using small mesh size in forepart and body of trawl, as shown by the Greenland Halibut (Turbot) selectivity experiments. Meshing is reduced, as is the by-catch of small Turbot. Potential benefits of lighter weight materials of construction were displayed via the Shrimp Selectivity by-catch grid design using plastic covered stainless steel wire instead of traditional stainless steel. 3 tabs., 17 figs.

  13. Multiple-race mortality data for California, 2000-2001.

    OpenAIRE

    Heck, Katherine E.; Parker, Jennifer D.; McKendry, C. Jane

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine mortality rates and quality of race reporting for multiple-race individuals in California using the new multiple-race data available on the death certificate. METHODS: Death date were drawn from California vital statistics for 2000 and 2001. Denominator data were drawn from the 2000 census Modified Race Data Summary File. The authors calculated mortality rates and relative standard errors for multiple-race individuals as a whole and by county, and for the three largest ...

  14. Center for Geometrical Metrology Annual Report 2000-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bariani, Paolo

    are involved in it's daily operation. In particular, I would like to thank my colleagues here at the Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management (IPL) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and at the Institute for Product Development (IPU), as well as those external consultants who during...

  15. ANSTO Strategic Plan 2000/2001 - 2004/2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new five-year plan outlines strategies to prepare ANSTO for the opportunities provided by the replacement research reactor, building on the successes of its predecessor plan in reforming the organisation.The Strategic Plan focuses on the innovation process itself as a driver of future prosperity. It embodies the Commonwealth Government's emphasis on an outputs and outcomes framework to deliver results, and to further strengthen accountability in light of the significant research investment at ANSTO. A balanced Scorecard approach of driving strategic and business processes through four different perspectives will ensure the efficient achievement of relevant results. ANSTO is responsible for delivering specific scientific services and products to government, industry, academia and other research organisations. Activities are grouped into five externally focused core business areas.These are the areas through which ANSTO will develop new knowledge, deliver quality services, support business opportunities and ensure that nuclear science and technology and related capabilities provide an innovative impetus to benefit society. A separate internal stream provides support for organisational development. The challenge of the next five years is to streamline the innovation process to improve delivery of results. ANSTO is a knowledge-based organisation with the major strengths being its people, a multidisciplinary approach to its operation, and its facilities.Through a collaborative effort driven by this strategic plan, ANSTO will be able to deliver new and exciting outcomes that can be put into practice by participants and clients across Australia. ANSTO's strategic direction, as presented in this plan, is owned by the Board and staff

  16. Attacking Poverty. World Development Report, 2000/2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report seeks to expand the understanding of poverty and its causes and sets out actions to create to create a world free of poverty in all its dimensions. The report both builds on past thinking and strategy and substantially broadens and deepens what is judged to be necessary to meet the challenge of reducing poverty. It argues that major…

  17. Timing magma ascent at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Del Pozzo, A. L.; Cifuentes, G.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Bonifaz, R.; Correa, F.; Mendiola, I. F.

    2003-07-01

    Magnetic anomalies may be used to constrain magma ascent and are useful as precursors to eruptions especially when correlated with other geophysical and geochemical data. In this paper we present multiparameter data on the magnetics, dome morphology, geochemistry and seismicity associated with the December 2000-January 2001 eruptions, the largest of the recent eruptions at Popocatepetl Volcano. A 6-month data period was studied in order to evaluate the precursors and post-eruption processes. Several cycles of dome construction and destruction occurred from September 2000 through February 2001. In December, large amplitude tremor associated with a higher effusion rate resulted in the formation of a large dome which filled the crater to within about 50 m of the lowest part of the crater rim. Seismic activity in December was marked by many volcanotectonic earthquakes and both high frequency and harmonic tremor. On December 12 and 13, an increase in the tremor amplitude was followed by ash eruptions with 1.7-5-km-high columns. Tremor amplitude increased again on December 15 and oscillated for the next four days. Activity remained high until the end of the month. On January 22, an 18-km-high plume produced ash and pumice fall to the east as well as pyroclastic flows and mudflows which reached 6 km from the crater. The eruption left three concentric explosion pits, partially destroying the December dome. Mixing of a mafic olivine-bearing melt with a more evolved magma triggered the larger eruption on January 22 as can be seen from the higher MgO concentrations in some of the ejecta and the presence of a dark andesitic scoria with lower silica content and a white andesitic pumice with higher silica content. Precursory negative magnetic anomalies up to 5 nT (-3.2 nT, -5 nT, -2.9 nT) were associated with the ascent of the larger batches of magma which preceded the increases in seismicity, before the December 2000-January 22 VEI 3-4 eruptions. No significant increases in seismicity were observed prior to the January 22 eruption, except for a magnitude-2.4 earthquake on the day of the eruption. There was, however, a -0.8-nT magnetic anomaly which lasted from January 10 to 12 and possibly to January 17. Most of the magma ascended in three large batches and several smaller ones from October 22 through December 10. Short-lived crater domes with small volumes were formed at Popocatepetl in September-October and November 2000 and in March 2001. Even the smaller negative anomalies from September to February were associated with the ascent of several batches of magma. They preceded the increases observed in the seismicity and growth of a dome by several days.

  18. Lifting the ban on brothels : Prostitution in 2000-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    On October 1, 2000 the general ban on brothels in the Netherlands was lifted. The core of the legislation is that those forms of prostitution in which adult prostitutes are voluntarily engaged are no longer illegal. This report is the English translation of the first comprehensive, evaluative report

  19. Critical slowing down associated with regime shifts in the US housing market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, James Peng Lung; Cheong, Siew Siew Ann

    2014-02-01

    Complex systems are described by a large number of variables with strong and nonlinear interactions. Such systems frequently undergo regime shifts. Combining insights from bifurcation theory in nonlinear dynamics and the theory of critical transitions in statistical physics, we know that critical slowing down and critical fluctuations occur close to such regime shifts. In this paper, we show how universal precursors expected from such critical transitions can be used to forecast regime shifts in the US housing market. In the housing permit, volume of homes sold and percentage of homes sold for gain data, we detected strong early warning signals associated with a sequence of coupled regime shifts, starting from a Subprime Mortgage Loans transition in 2003-2004 and ending with the Subprime Crisis in 2007-2008. Weaker signals of critical slowing down were also detected in the US housing market data during the 1997-1998 Asian Financial Crisis and the 2000-2001 Technology Bubble Crisis. Backed by various macroeconomic data, we propose a scenario whereby hot money flowing back into the US during the Asian Financial Crisis fueled the Technology Bubble. When the Technology Bubble collapsed in 2000-2001, the hot money then flowed into the US housing market, triggering the Subprime Mortgage Loans transition in 2003-2004 and an ensuing sequence of transitions. We showed how this sequence of couple transitions unfolded in space and in time over the whole of US.

  20. Survey on pesticide residue in fruit and vegetable in a market of Wuhan City from 2009-2011 and the prevention measures%2009-2011年武汉市某市场果蔬农药残留状况调查及预防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈苏芳; 唐朗; 张光涛; 王宁; 丁情; 舒涛; 陈国元

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] To know the current situation and tendency of pesticide residue in market fruit and vegetable of Wuhan City, provide the basis for developing special and effective management and control measures, and guiding the self-protection of consumers. [ Methods ] Samples were collected from a market in Wuhan City in July from 2009-2011, and the levels of pesticide residue were detected by Anxinbao PR-3 fruit and vegetable pesticide residue apparatus. [Results] A total of 191 kinds of fruit and vegetable were detected from 2009-2011, and the total positive rate was 38.22%, which showed an increasing trend year by year. There was significant difference in detection rate of pesticide residue between fruit and vegetable (χ2 =5.68,P<0.05). [Conclusion]The pesticide residue in market fruit and vegetable of Wuhan Gty is serious. The related department should strengthen the management from the sources of production and sale, and carry out the education of pesticide residue hazards and preventive measures. Consumers can improve the self-protection by the methods of selection, exposure, peeling and so on, in order to prevent the pesticides hazards.%目的 了解武汉市售蔬菜、水果中农药残留现状及趋势,为政府有关部门制定针对性强的、有效的农药监管防治对策和为消费者自己的预防保护提供参考依据.方法 于2009-2011年每年7月从武汉市某市场采集样品,利用安鑫宝PR-3新型果蔬农药残留速测仪(以及配套的试纸)进行农药残留检测.结果 2009-2011年检测水果蔬菜共191种,总阳性率为38.22%.阳性率呈逐年递增趋势.水果类与蔬菜类农药检出率差异有统计学意义(x2=5.68,P<0.05).结论 武汉市农贸市场销售的蔬果中农药残留情况较为严重,建议政府有关部门从农药生产、销售源头加强管理,开展农药残留危害及其防范的宣传教育.消费者从挑选、暴晒、去皮等途径加强自我保护,防治农药危害身体健康.

  1. Factors associated with the decline in suicide by pesticide poisoning in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Eddleston, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Pesticide self-poisoning accounts for one-third of suicides worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a commonly used method. We investigated trends in pesticide suicide, and factors associated with such trends...... of the workforce involved in agriculture and unemployment. We compared pesticide products banned by the Taiwanese government with products that remained on the market and pesticides that accounted for the most poisoning deaths in Taiwan. Results. Age-standardised rates of pesticide suicide showed a 67% reduction...... from 7.7 per 100,000 (42% of all suicides) in 1987 to 2.5 per 100,000 (12% of all suicides) in 2010, in contrast to a 69% increase in suicide rates by other methods. Pesticide poisoning was the most commonly used method of suicide in 1987 but had become the third most common method by 2010...

  2. Assessing the environmental impact of changes in pesticide use on transgenic crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Two main traits that have been introduced into genetically modified crops that are currently on the market, viz., herbicide and insect resistance, likely affect pesticide use on these crops. Various surveys have been carried out, such as those of the USDAERS and NCFAP, comparing the pesticide use on genetically modified versus conventional crops. Environmental indicators for pesticides may aid in comparing the outcomes of such assays in terms of environmental impact. Previously we applied one...

  3. Swedish wind energy research program VKK, Annual report 2000/2001; Vindkraftsprogrammet VKK. Laegesrapport verksamhetsaaret 2000/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, S.E.

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results that have been achieved during the period July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001, the last year in the three-year period of the present research programme financed by the Swedish Energy Administration. The yearly budget amounts to 15.6 MSEK (about 1.5 MUSD)

  4. Method Development for Simultaneous Determination of 41 Pesticides in Rice Using LC-MS/MS Technique and Its Application for the Analysis of 60 Rice Samples Collected from Tehran Market

    OpenAIRE

    Shakouri, Attaollah; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Shojaee, Mohammad Hossein; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A multi-residue method for simultaneous determination of 41 LC-amenable pesticides in rice, belonging to different chemical classes has been developed in Iran by LC-MS/MS. For the first time the pesticides were analyzed simultaneously in a single run using positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) after extraction with slightly modified QuEChERS method. The calibration curve for each analyte was linear over the concentration range of 0.02–1.0 μg/g with a correla...

  5. Assessing the environmental impact of changes in pesticide use on transgenic crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Kuiper, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Two main traits that have been introduced into genetically modified crops that are currently on the market, viz., herbicide and insect resistance, likely affect pesticide use on these crops. Various surveys have been carried out, such as those of the USDAERS and NCFAP, comparing the pesticide use on

  6. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design....

  7. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  8. Pesticide Registration Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  9. Control of pesticides in certain countries of South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control of pesticides in some countries of South-East Asia, namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, is discussed. All these countries have implemented pesticide registration and control schemes. The information required to register pesticides and the details of pesticides labels in all the countries are somewhat similar to those provided in Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) guidelines. Certain pesticides are not registered because of their toxic properties, while others may be placed under severe handling and application restrictions. Advertising of pesticides is also controlled in these countries. The importance of licensing pesticide companies, and their post-registration activities, including enforcement of the law, monitoring of the environmental effects, control of the residue levels in food, and determination of the quality of the pesticides on the market, are highlighted. Wearing protective clothing that is suitable for applying pesticides in a temperature climate is not practical under tropical conditions. Records from hospital cases and surveys demonstrate that pesticide poisoning is a serious problem. Recognizing the problem, FAO issued a circular advising small farmers against using pesticides that fall into Class Ia or Ib of the World Health Organization hazard classification. FAO and the United Nations Environment Programme are implementing the prior informed consent (PIC) procedure. All the countries under discussion are participating in PIC and have prohibited the import of most of the pesticides currently subject to this procedure. The level of pesticide residues, particularly in vegetables, is of concern. It was found that a rather high proportion of pesticide products in Malaysia and Thailand did not comply with FAO specifications. Most countries do not appear to have the necessary resources to carry out analyses of an adequate number of formulation and residue samples, and representatives of FAO

  10. Method Development for Simultaneous Determination of 41 Pesticides in Rice Using LC-MS/MS Technique and Its Application for the Analysis of 60 Rice Samples Collected from Tehran Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Attaollah; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Shojaee, Mohammad Hossein; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A multi-residue method for simultaneous determination of 41 LC-amenable pesticides in rice, belonging to different chemical classes has been developed in Iran by LC-MS/MS. For the first time the pesticides were analyzed simultaneously in a single run using positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) after extraction with slightly modified QuEChERS method. The calibration curve for each analyte was linear over the concentration range of 0.02-1.0 μg/g with a correlation coefficient range between 0.993 and 0.999. The LOQ and LOD were .025 μg/g and 0.008 μg/g respectively, for all 41 pesticides and the mean recoveries obtained for three fortification levels (0.025, 0.08 and 0.250 μg/g) were 71-119% with satisfactory precision (RSDTCMTB, three permitted pesticides, cinosulfuron, triadimenol and tricyclazole, found in positive rice samples were below MRLs established by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI). PMID:25276193

  11. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  12. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES). The evaluation system for pesticides (ESPE) is divided in three parts: 1) emission of the pesticide ; 2) distribution over and within the different environmental compartments and c...

  13. Pesticide Movement in Response to Furrow Irrigation and Pesticide Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Richard C.; Hill, Robert W.; Deer, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Production of adequate supplies of food and fiber currently requires that pesticides be used to limit crop losses from insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests. The term pesticide refers to a large number ofchemical compounds. Pesticides include acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, nematicides, algicides, arboricides, zoocides, and many more.

  14. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  15. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  16. Pesticides and earthworms. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Pelosi, Céline; Barot, Sebastien; Capowiez, Yvan; Hedde, Mickaël; Vandenbulcke, Franck

    2014-01-01

    International audience Earthworms provide key soil functions that favour many positive ecosystem services. These services are important for agroecosystem sustainability but can be degraded by intensive cultural practices such as use of pesticides. Many literature reports have investigated the effect of pesticides on earthworms. Here, we review those reports to assess the relevance of the indicators of earthworm response to pesticides, to assess their sensitivity to pesticides, and to highl...

  17. Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI), established in 1963, is the first professional pesticide institute in China. After being approved by the Science & Technology Committee of PRC, it became the base for Shanghai Branch of National Pesticide R&D South center.

  18. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...... coumatetralyl and one out of four contained dicamba complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the examined samples contained OPEO, but one of the samples contained NPEO. On three products...

  19. An agent-based approach equipped with game theory. Strategic collaboration among learning agents during a dynamic market change in the California electricity crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An agent-based approach is a numerical (computer-intensive) method to explore the complex characteristics and dynamics of microeconomics. Using the agent-based approach, this study investigates the learning speed of traders and their strategic collaboration in a dynamic market change of electricity. An example of such a market change can be found in the California electricity crisis (2000-2001). This study incorporates the concept of partial reinforcement learning into trading agents and finds that they have two learning components: learning from a dynamic market change and learning from collaboration with other traders. The learning speed of traders becomes slow when a large fluctuation occurs in the power exchange market. The learning speed depends upon the type of traders, their learning capabilities and the fluctuation of market fundamentals. The degree of collaboration among traders gradually reduces during the electricity crisis. The strategic collaboration among traders is examined by a large simulator equipped with multiple learning capabilities. (author)

  20. An agent-based approach equipped with game theory. Strategic collaboration among learning agents during a dynamic market change in the California electricity crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki [Department of Management, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Department of Industrial and Information Management, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2010-09-15

    An agent-based approach is a numerical (computer-intensive) method to explore the complex characteristics and dynamics of microeconomics. Using the agent-based approach, this study investigates the learning speed of traders and their strategic collaboration in a dynamic market change of electricity. An example of such a market change can be found in the California electricity crisis (2000-2001). This study incorporates the concept of partial reinforcement learning into trading agents and finds that they have two learning components: learning from a dynamic market change and learning from collaboration with other traders. The learning speed of traders becomes slow when a large fluctuation occurs in the power exchange market. The learning speed depends upon the type of traders, their learning capabilities and the fluctuation of market fundamentals. The degree of collaboration among traders gradually reduces during the electricity crisis. The strategic collaboration among traders is examined by a large simulator equipped with multiple learning capabilities. (author)

  1. On the paradox of pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y. Charles; Yang, Yipeng

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of pesticides was observed experimentally, which says that pesticides may dramatically increase the population of a pest when the pest has a natural predator. Here we use a mathematical model to study the paradox. We find that the timing for the application of pesticides is crucial for the resurgence or non-resurgence of the pests. In particular, regularly applying pesticides is not a good idea as also observed in experiments. In fact, the best time to apply pesticides is when the...

  2. Reducing pesticide level in wine by selective filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempereur Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine Pesticide residues, even when below grape regulatory limit, are a concern for consumers and have an impact on the export potential of wine in certain markets. A consortium of European SMEs (www.adfimax.com has developed a product that reduces the level of mycotoxins and pesticides in wine while keeping all other wine parameter identical. The product is derived from renewable vegetable fiber. The production process includes both activation and micronisation. The usage recommendation is to substitute only the pre-coat, typically perlite, by the product at 1 or 1.5 kg⋅m−2 without changing the other layer (body feed typically kieselguhr. This paper describes the results of numerous industrial trials that were performed in France, Luxemburg, Germany and Spain. The impact of the product on the wine oenological characteristics was evaluated for different wine (white, red and rosé in different countries and for different grape variety (including Cabernet sauvignon, Merlot and Gamay. Results showed a reduction of the test wine pesticide level of 50% to 60% for all pesticides compared to the blank. Level of pesticide analyzed in the cake where extremely high at a level of a 1,000 times greater than the filtered wine showing the ability of the product to selectively capture the pesticides molecules.

  3. Kombinationseffekter af pesticider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Andersen, Helle Raun; Cedergreen, Nina;

    Resumé: Effekten af 101 tokomponentblandinger og 20 trekomponentblandinger bestående af 22 forskellige pesticider blev undersøgt i 7 forskellige testsystemer. Effekterne af blandingerne blev sammenholdt med pesticidernes virkningsmekanismer/virkemåder med henblik på at undersøge, om det med...

  4. Multiresidue Analysis of 86 Pesticides Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry: II-Nonleafy Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. EL-Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1057 samples of fresh vegetables from import and domestic production were analyzed (cold pepper, egg plant, carrot, cucumber, potato, hot pepper, cultivation tomato, squash, beans, okra, onions, cauliflower, and green house tomato. The aim of this study was to investigate pesticide residues in market foods in Riyadh, which have been collected from Riyadh Development Company (Al-Tamer Vegetables Market. Pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MSD. A multiresidue method was developed and described for simultaneous determination of 86 pesticides commonly used in crop protection. This method used to determine 86 pesticide residues with a broad range of physicochemical properties in fresh vegetables related to organophosphorus (OPP, organochlorines (OCP, pyrethroids, and carbamates mainly used in agriculture. Sample extract was cleaned up by using AOAC method. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 15.89% of the total samples (168 from 1057 samples, but 83.90% of the total samples (887 from 1057 samples has no residues or contained pesticide residues at or below MRL. The detected and most frequently found pesticide residues were permethrin (45 times and endosulfan (34 times followed by deltamethrin (27 times. The findings of this study pointed to the following recommendations: the need for a monitoring program for pesticide residues in imported food crops.

  5. Time trends in cancer risk and pesticide exposure, a long-term follow-up of Danish gardeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Eva Støttrup; Lander, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposure to petrochemical pesticides was high during the first 10-15 years after their introduction in the late 1940s, and, during these years, many cases of intoxication occurred. In the 1960s, the use and marketing of pesticides was regulated to reduce exposure to these substances...

  6. Study report on the market and price situation with natural fibers (Germany and European Union); Studie zur Markt- und Preissituation bei Naturfasern (Deutschland und EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karus, M.; Kaup, M.; Lohmeyer, D. [nova-Institut, Huerth (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The focus of the study is on the markets for short fibers for engineering applications and materials substitution in a variety of industrial branches, particularly in European countries. The study was intended to analyse existing and future markets and the economic situation of the producers, in order to derive information on future policy and framework conditions required for an appropriate development of the new markets in Europe in the light of international competition. The development will essentially depend on the reform of EU policy on aid from public funds, planned for 2000/2001. The extensive data compilation presented is based on inquiries among relevant enterprises and associations in EU member states by way of questionnaires or interviews. (orig./CB) [German] Die Studie konzentriert sich auf die Maerkte fuer technische Kurzfasern, die besonders in den neuen Flachs- und Hanflaendern in Europa von zentraler Bedeutung sind. Ziel der Studie war es, heutige und zukuenftige Maerkte und die oekonomische Situation der Produzenten zu analysieren, um anschliessend geeignete Rahmenbedingungen fuer eine sachgerechte Entwicklung der Maerkte abzuleiten. Diese wird wesentlich von der EU-Beihilfepolitik bestimmt werden, die fuer das Wirtschaftsjahr2000/2001 grundlegend reformiert werden soll. Die umfangreiche Datensammlung basiert auf Erhebungen bei relevanten Unternehmen und Verbaenden in der EU mittels Frageboegen und Interviews. (orig./CB)

  7. The electricity market 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    taxes. The price of electricity dropped between 1997 and 2000, but began rising again to all electricity customers during 2000 and 2001. During the same period, the network charges remained largely unchanged, while the tax on electricity increased substantially. This led to an increase in the total cost to domestic customers, whereas the cost to industrial customers, who are exempt from taxes, is lower. The reform has enabled customers to choose freely the supplier from whom they want to buy their electricity. An opinion poll shows that most customers know that they can choose their supplier, and 37 % have acted on this by changing to a different supplier or negotiating their electricity price. The market concentration has increased in recent years since the dominating companies in Nordic countries have bought shares in competing companies on the Nordic market. The power companies and electricity trading companies are being developed towards bigger and more integrated energy companies, with operations in several countries. In recent years, the former surplus generation capacity in Sweden has been reduced. The oil-fired condensing power stations that were previously used in Sweden as reserve capacity have been decommissioned, and the first reactor in Barsebaeck was shut down. Svenska Kraftnaet, the Swedish grid utility, purchased a power reserve before the winter of 2000/2001 in order to strengthen the power balance during consumption peaks. During the autumn of 2001, the Government also entrusted Svenska Kraftnaet with the task of safe-guarding electricity generation capacity during very cold weather. This was to be done by purchasing reserve power capacity. The assignment resulted in additional power generation capacity consisting of previously decommissioned power generation plants and companies that were prepared to reduce their power consumption voluntarily. The procurement of reserve capacity is a temporary transitional measure. In the Government assignment

  8. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  9. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  10. Pesticides in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañay, N; Rampoldi, O; Alvarez, C; Piastra, C; Heller, T; Viapiana, P; Korbut, S

    2004-01-01

    This is a review, from an independent and scientific point of view, of the different aspects involved in the issue of pesticides in Uruguay. In its preparation, the University, responsible official institutions, nongovenment environmental organizations, and independent experts have been consulted. As to the legal framework, the responsibilities of the institutions are described and evaluated. The earlier and current regulations for the registration and sale of pesticides are presented, as well as the available information on the active ingredients most used in Uruguay. Official control is evaluated in reference to pesticide residues in food, drinking water, and the environment and to final waste disposal. Maximum allowed residue limits and the responsibilities of the corresponding governmental institutions are presented. Emphasis is placed on the fact that there are no publicly available data. Several research programs are presented, mainly from academia, and usually are not completed due to lack of financial support. In the conclusions the most problematic aspects are pointed out, emphasizing the need to improve national regulations for the country to establish an effective system of control. The importance of financial support to achieve this control and to conduct interdisciplinary studies to determine the real situation is discussed. All compounds are listed in Table 19. PMID:14738198

  11. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the...

  12. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to...

  13. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection Agency,...

  14. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  15. Use of point-of-sale data to track usage patterns of residential pesticides: methodology development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chism Bill

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residential-use pesticides have been shown to be a major source of pesticide exposure to people in the United States. However, little is understood about the exposures to household pesticides and the resultant health effects. One reason that little is known about home-use pesticide exposure is the lack of comprehensive data on exposures to pesticides in the home. One method to help ascertain the amount of pesticides present in the home is use of point-of-sale data collected from marketing companies that track product sales to obtain the volume of pesticides sold for home-use. This provides a measure of volume of home-use pesticide. Methods We have constructed a searchable database containing sales data for home-use permethrin-containing pesticides sold by retail stores in the United States from January 1997 through December 2002 in an attempt to develop a tracking method for pesticide. This pilot project was conducted to determine if point-of-sale data would be effective in helping track the purchase of home-use permethrin containing pesticides and if it would stand as a good model for tracking sales of other home-use pesticides. Results There are several limitations associated with this tracking method, including the availability of sales data, market coverage, and geographic resolution. As a result, a fraction of sales data potentially available for reporting is represented in this database. However, the database is sensitive to the number and type of merchants reporting permethrin sales. Further, analysis of the sale of individual products included in the database indicates that year to year variability has a greater impact on reported permethrin sales than the amount sold by each type of merchant. Conclusion We conclude that, while nothing could completely replace a detailed exposure assessment to estimate exposures to home-use pesticides, a point-of-sale database is a useful tool in tracking the purchase of these types

  16. Levels of organophosphorus pesticides in medicinal plants commonly consumed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkhail Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinal plants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5 ng g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs proposed by the international organizations.

  17. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of S

  18. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Su

  19. Australian national residue survey – closing the loop on pesticide residue risk management for Australian grain

    OpenAIRE

    Reichstein, I.; Healy, K; James, A.; Murray, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia exports a major proportion of its agricultural production and is highly dependent on maintaining and developing access to, and competitiveness in, export markets. To preserve Australia’s status as a provider of high quality grain, the majority of Australian primary producers rely on pesticides to protect their crops from pests and diseases, particularly in post-harvest situations. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) supports Australian agriculture by...

  20. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  1. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  2. Model-based computer-aided design for controlled release of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Gani, Rafiqul; Bell, G.;

    2005-01-01

    In the field of controlled release technology for pesticides or active ingredients (AI), models that can predict its delivery during application are important for purposes of design and marketing of the pesticide product. Appropriate models for the controlled release of pesticides, if available, ...... extended models have been developed and implemented into a computer-aided system. The total model consisting of the property models embedded into the release models are then employed to study the release of different combinations of AIs and polymer-based microcapsules....

  3. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested

  4. Quality control of pesticide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  5. Using the Stock Market to Teach Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, David A.; Hearn, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    Students are interested in money. Personal finance is an important issue for most students, especially as they move into university education and take a greater control of their own finances. Many are also interested in stock markets and their ability to allow someone to make, and lose, large sums of money, with their interest fueled by the boom in technology-based stocks of 2000/2001 followed by their subsequent dramatic collapse and the publicizing of so-called "rogue-traders." There is also a much greater ownership of stocks by families following public offerings, stock-based savings products, and the ability to trade stocks online. Consequently, there has been a steady growth of finance and finance-related courses available within degree programs in response to the student demand, with many students motivated by the huge salaries commanded by those with a successful career in the financial sector. We report here details of a joint project between Charterhouse School and the University of Surrey designed to exploit the excitement of finance to teach elements of the high school (age 16-18) curriculum through modeling and simulation.

  6. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  7. Sprinkler irrigation-pesticide best management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjha, A. Y.; Peralta, R. C.; Hill, R. W.; Requena, A. M.; Deer, H. M.; Ehteshami, M.

    1992-01-01

    The relative reduction in potential groundwater contamination due to pesticides at several sites in Utah was determined by comparing alternative irrigation system designs, water management practices, and pesticides. Alternative sprinkler irrigation distribution coefficients were used to estimate irrigation application depths. The movement of pesticides through soils following sprinkler irrigations was simulated with a one-dimensional model. Pesticide contamination of groundwater can be reduce...

  8. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  9. Pesticide Productivity: Of Bugs and Biases

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, F. Bailey; Marra, Michele C.

    2003-01-01

    Pesticide productivity is both important and difficult to measure. Typically, pesticide marginal products are estimated without information on the pest pressure. Three theoretical models are developed which suggest absence of such information may cause an underestimation of pesticide productivity. Using application frequency variables as a proxy for pest populations, we show that pesticide marginal products are higher when pest pressure is accounted for.

  10. A survey on the safe and effective use of pesticides in cut flower production: the case of highlands of northern Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Stimamiglio, G.; Schiffers, Bruno; Ellis, W.

    1998-01-01

    To compete with the income gained from opium cultivation, cut flower growing has been introduced in the highlands of northem Thailand. High-value produce whose the physical appearance is essential to secure high market priees, cut flowers require intensive pesticide use. Farmer's practices in cut flower production raise, however, various problems related to pesticide overuse and misuse, leading to potential health hazards. To gain c1ear understanding of pesticide use practices and identify...

  11. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are

  12. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR FOOD SAFETY ATTRIBUTES IN FRESH APPLES: MARKET SEGMENTS, CONSUMER CHARACTERISTICS, AND MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    Past research has yielded conflicting results on consumer valuation of food safety characteristics. In this study, conjoint analysis is used to evaluate consumer responses to hypothetical apple products in a nationwide survey. Product characteristics include price, quality, pesticide use levels and the corresponding cancer risk, and type of government inspection. Consumers expressed a broad preference for reduced pesticide usage. Four market segments were identified corresponding to consumers...

  13. Health and environmental hazards of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyaniwura, T T

    1991-01-01

    The increase in world population and in demand for food and economic crops has put a pesticide burden on man and the environment. Pesticide residues from vector control and agricultural uses contaminate the terrestrial and aquatic surroundings and contribute to the pollution problem of the environment. Various human toxicoses have resulted from pesticide use. The major pathogenic pesticides are chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates. With careful and enlightened use, pesticide toxicity, to both man and the environment, could be significantly reduced.

  14. Health impact and damage cost assessment of pesticides in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-11-15

    Health impacts from pesticide use are of continuous concern in the European population, requiring a constant evaluation of European pesticide policy. However, health impacts have never been quantified accounting for specific crops contributing differently to overall human exposure as well as accounting for individual substances showing distinct environmental behavior and toxicity. We quantify health impacts and related damage costs from exposure to 133 pesticides applied in 24 European countries in 2003 adding up to almost 50% of the total pesticide mass applied in that year. Only 13 substances applied to 3 crop classes (grapes/vines, fruit trees, vegetables) contribute to 90% of the overall health impacts of about 2000 disability-adjusted life years in Europe per year corresponding to annual damage costs of 78 million Euro. Considering uncertainties along the full impact pathway mainly attributable to non-cancer dose-response relationships and residues in treated crops, we obtain an average burden of lifetime lost per person of 2.6 hours (95% confidence interval between 22 seconds and 45.3 days) or costs per person over lifetime of 12 Euro (95% confidence interval between 0.03 Euro and 5142 Euro), respectively. 33 of the 133 assessed substances accounting for 20% of health impacts in 2003 are now banned from the European market according to current legislation. The main limitation in assessing human health impacts from pesticides is related to the lack of systematic application data for all used substances. Since health impacts can be substantially influenced by the choice of pesticides, the need for more information about substance application becomes evident.

  15. 75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs is inviting nominations of qualified...

  16. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pcabhilash@gmail.com [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Nandita, E-mail: nanditasingh8@yahoo.co.in [Eco-Auditing Group, National Botanical Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  17. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  18. Pesticide reducing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars-Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Andersen, Martin;

    2005-01-01

    the cost and to calculate general economic and sectoral consequences. This CGE model is linked to an agricultural sector model calculating the optimal use of land, and the agricultural sector model is then linked to a biological agent based simulation model (ABM) calculating changes in the population......-mentioned models and tools. All three scenarios are constructed such that they result in the same welfare implication (measured by national consumption in the CGE model). The scenarios are: 1) pesticide taxes resulting in a 25 percent overall reduction; 2) use of unsprayed field margins, resulting in the same...... for improving bio-diversity and securing drinking water. That is, combining economic modeling with physical biological modeling and geological evaluation allows us to select unsprayed field margins as the most effective instrument. Sensitivity analysis conducted on bio-diversity suggest that this result...

  19. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  20. Current trends in pesticide usage in some Asian countries: Environmental implications and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trends in pesticide consumption in some Asian countries clearly indicate that pesticides are not only a critical input in pest management, mainly to increase crop production, but also for public health, recreation, forestry, etc. A study was made to collect information from nine countries in Asia; they are listed in order of their pesticide consumption: India, the Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. In 1985 the total pesticide consumption of these countries was approximately 1.1 million tonnes, 70% of which (or 0.75 million tonnes) were manufactured locally. Twenty-one technical materials were produced in eight countries (excluding Sri Lanka). The total pesticide market of all these countries was estimated at US $1189 million, of which 74.2% are shared by four countries: India (26%), the Republic of Korea (19.6%), Indonesia (16.8%) and Malaysia (11.8%). The most important crop in Asia is rice, and the main pests are stem borers and planthoppers. Other important pests occur in the following crops: cotton, rubber, oilpalm, tea, sugarcane, jute, bananas, pineapples and vegetables. The problems of pesticide use are: (1) the pesticide treadmill, the increasing pesticide application and the decreasing efficacy, and the unequal sharing of benefits and environmental risks among the various community groups; (2) the side effects on non-target organisms and the environment, and on public health and poisoning problems as well as contamination of resources and products; (3) the lack of appropriate information for those concerned with pesticide distribution and usage; and (4) legislation problems, violation of pesticide codes and enforcement problems. 13 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Carrying out Credit Management of the Pesticide Industry Well to Improve the Prestige The speech abstract of Luo Haizhang on pesticide industry conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Haizhang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The foundation and development of society credit management system is the requirement of market economy. Now more and more groups know the importance of industry credit management and enterprise credit management. Pesticide industry credit management can be done well by our common efforts.

  2. 77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... groups; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal...: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide industry and...

  3. Pesticide movement and water management

    OpenAIRE

    Ehteshami, Majid; Peralta, R C

    1989-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals are essential components of agricultural production systems in the United states. Pesticides control weeds, insects, and have had an important role in increasing agricultural productivity in the last 50 years, despite diminishing crop land acreage. The benefits of chemicals use options in agriculture must be balanced against potential contamination of surface water and ground water resources. This study shows the effect of water management practices on pesticide movemen...

  4. Pesticidal residues in animal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Adomaitis, V.A.; Reichel, W.L.

    1960-01-01

    Tests with penned starlings, rats, pheasants, and ducks indicated that each species differs in sensitivity to the various pesticides. Residues in tissues are proportional to the degree of exposure during area treatment and they are also found in animals shot six or more months after treatment. The presence of more than 20-30 ppm of DDT, 20 ppm of chlordan, and 6-20 ppm of heptachlor epoxide in quail tissues indicated that the birds had ingested lethal dosages of the pesticides.

  5. Use of pesticides in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Kazakhstan has 210 regional stations, 19 provincial stations and one co-ordinating government research and production station, all known as Republic Stations for Plant Protection. These stations have the following functions: they control pesticide use and development, and monitor pest populations; they inform and teach farmers the methods for controlling insect pests, diseases and weeds, and the rules for safe pesticide use; and they continually monitor the presence or spread of any adverse effects in order to make short and long term prognoses, which are then used to determine the pesticide requirements. The major functions of these government stations is to control the timely distribution of pesticides and their safe and timely application, so that regulations for their use can be monitored and control over technology maintained. The co-ordinating station evaluates all projects, provides documentation on the use and storage of pesticides, controls field trials carried out by foreign companies on the Republic's territory and regulates pesticide usage during campaigns against insect pests, diseases and weeds. The regional and district subdivisions of these government stations promote integrated pest management for protecting harvests. (author)

  6. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  7. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  8. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  9. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  10. Monitoring of pesticide residue in bovine milk from Nadia district, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aruna Kumari; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Monitoring of 210 bovine milk samples collected from local markets in the Nadia district of West Bengal during 2011 was performed. Samples were collected in summer and winter seasons. Analysis of pesticides was performed by using a multiresidue method validated in the laboratory. The quantification was performed using GC-ECD. Analysis revealed the presence of lindane in less than 1 % of milk samples. Endosulfan I and II were also detected and were found to exceed MRL recommended by Codex. Overall 1.90 % of the analyzed samples showed trace to measurable amount of pesticide residues. The monitored area provided pesticide residues data of milk, assisting in future scientific assessment on pesticide usage. PMID:23708263

  11. [Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts.

  12. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110 Microbial pesticides data requirements. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The following § 158.2120 through §...

  14. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing...

  15. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  16. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  17. A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neff Roni A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of excess pesticide residue that could enter the U.S. if exporters followed originating country requirements but not U.S. pesticide tolerances, for the top 20 imported produce items based on quantities imported and U.S. consumption levels. Pesticide health effects data are also shown. Results The model estimates that for the identified items, 120 439 kg of pesticides in excess of U.S. tolerances could potentially be imported to the U.S., in cases where U.S. regulations are more protective than those of originating countries. This figure is in addition to residues allowed on domestic produce. In the modeling, the top produce item, market, and pesticide of concern were oranges, Chile, and Zeta-Cypermethrin. Pesticides in this review are associated with health effects on 13 body systems, and some are associated with carcinogenic effects. Conclusions There is a critical information gap regarding pesticide residues on produce imported to the U.S. Without a more thorough sampling program, it is not possible accurately to characterize risks introduced by produce importation. The scenario presented herein relies on assumptions, and should be considered illustrative. The analysis highlights the need for additional investigation and resources for monitoring, enforcement, and other interventions, to improve import food safety and reduce pesticide exposures in originating countries.

  18. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  19. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... relationship between EPA-approved labels for pesticides registered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide... AGENCY Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for.... SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

  20. Collective action and allocation of decision rights in pesticide safety risk management: the case of tomato producer organizations in France

    OpenAIRE

    Codron, Jean Marie; Bouhsina, Zouhair; Bonnaud, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide safety management at the production/shipping level is a costly transaction between a farmer and a buyer. Within the safety-demanding global market, a frequent solution adopted to comply with end customer requirements is to allocate monitoring and decision rights to the shipper. Our paper aims to explain how and why farmers who are members of Producer Organizations (POs) allocate monitoring and decision rights to their managers to manage pesticide safety risks. It also distinguishes ...

  1. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  2. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  3. 76 FR 10026 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide... the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing...

  4. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F;

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  5. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  6. 75 FR 5077 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200... the FDA as a stabilizer in polymers used in producing, manufacturing, packaging, processing, and... Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. BILLING CODE 6560-50-S...

  7. Computer-aided and predictive models for design of controlled release of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suné, Nuria Muro; Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    In the field of pesticide controlled release technology, a computer based model that can predict the delivery of the Active Ingredient (AI) from fabricated units is important for purposes of product design and marketing. A model for the release of an M from a microcapsule device is presented...

  8. UNWANTED AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES: STATE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Centner, Terence J.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of pounds of unwanted pesticides have accumulated in barns throughout our country. The potential environmental and health risks posed by this situation has garnered public attention and governmental action. The federal government has revised its Universal Waste Rule so that it is easier to dispose of unwanted pesticides rather than simply banned pesticides. Nearly every state has initiated efforts to collect and dispose of accumulated pesticides in a safe manner. While the possession...

  9. Pesticides: Food and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are an integral part of modern agriculture, also in most developing countries. Although the annual average consumption of active ingredients in agriculture may be below 0.1 kg a.i./ha, most countries now consume more than 2 kg a.i./ha; some of the intensively cropped regions in South-East Asia are exposed to even higher amounts. Inherent contamination of the environment follows if rules and regulations are not strictly adhered to. The search for safer, less persistent and more specific pesticides and examination of the fate of applied pesticides in various regions of the world were the main themes of the symposium. Special emphasis was placed on the use of nuclear techniques, especially on labelled compounds in research. The Proceedings include all the papers and posters that were presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. 75 FR 76463 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  11. Pesticides in Schools: Reducing the Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Office of the Attorney General, Albany.

    This report presents findings of state-wide use of pesticides in New York public schools along with a description of the survey, information about the potential dangers of these chemicals, and the steps schools and communities can take to minimize pesticide use. Findings show that 87 percent of New York's schools use pesticides that contain…

  12. 75 FR 24695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  13. Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena (n=16, purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50% of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40–48%, 35–43%, and 30–45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85–90%, 80–91%, and 90–95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80–95% of some pesticides.

  14. Residue analysis of multi-class pesticides in watermelon by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Semin; Lee, Sung Joong; Kim, Hae Gyeong; Jeong, Won Young; Shim, Jae-Han; Abd El-Aty, A M; Jeong, Sung Woo; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Soo Taek; Shin, Sung Chul

    2010-03-01

    As watermelon is farmed primarily by protected and successive cultivation techniques, a number of pesticides are required for the control of pests and diseases. To evaluate the harmful effects of pesticides in watermelon and to guarantee consumers' safety, a rapid screening process for pesticides is required. A LC-MS/MS method was applied for the direct quantitation of 44 pesticide residues in watermelon. A Zorbax XDB-C(18) column was selected for analysis, with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient system of water and 5 mM methanolic ammonium formate. MS/MS experiments were performed in ESI positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring modes. The LOQs were in the range of 1-26 microg/kg, thereby indicating good sensitivity. Most of the recoveries ranged between 70-131% with RSDs watermelon samples. No pesticide residues were detected in any of the surveyed watermelons obtained from eight local markets in the Republic of Korea. Statistical analysis of the recoveries classified the 44 pesticides into nine groups and three overall categories. PMID:20175086

  15. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  16. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems. PMID:25003558

  17. Pesticides, People, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2005-01-01

    If a teacher were to ask his/her students what they do when they find ants or other insects in their homes, their most common response would probably be, "Get the bug spray!" Because students are not only being exposed to pesticides but are also developing patterns of behavior likely to continue throughout their lives. Discussions about…

  18. Chiral Synthons in Pesticide Syntheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The use of chiral synthons in the preparation of enantiomerically pure pesticides is described in this chapter. Several routes to chiral synthons based on asymmetric synthesis or on natural products are illustrated. Important sources of chiral building blocks are reviewed. Furthermore the implicatio

  19. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  20. Pesticide Residues, Results from the period 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette; Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Andersen, Jens Hinge;

    The present report presents the results from the 2004-2011 period of the monitoring programmes conducted by The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. The programmes included commodities of fruit, vegetable, cereals and animal origin using random sampling from food on the Danish market. Since...... the beginning of the 1960, Denmark has monitored fruit and vegetables for pesticides residues. For the periods 1993-1997 and 1998-2003, results were collated and the dietary exposure was calculated. In this report data for the analyses carried out in the period 2004-2011 are reported as well as the exposure...

  1. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  2. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  3. Marketing Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Svatoňová, Michala

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis touches the concept of marketing in the general, then is specially focused on the marketing communication and finally evaluates the situation of a selected international company Raytheon Professional Services with regard to implementation of marketing communication plan. Thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part is concerned about the theoretical background of marketing and marketing communication, marketing mix in order to gain the knowledge needed for set...

  4. Inbound Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hesoun, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  5. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  6. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for handlers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.230 Pesticide safety... of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter. (2) A handler who satisfies the...

  7. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  8. The use and disposal of household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  9. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  10. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  11. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  12. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Neverth......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure....... Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact...

  13. Managing Pesticide Risks for Non-Target Ecosystems with Pesticide Risk Indicators: a Multicriteria Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Travisi, Chiara Maria; NIJKAMP Peter; Vighi, Marco; Giacomelli, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In the search for effective pesticide risk management tools, the design of pesticide risk indicators is nowadays receiving increasing attention as a complement to more established regulatory strategies. In the present paper, we apply some recently developed pesticide risk indices and test their potential for management purposes. A pilot approach is proposed, which explores pesticide worst-case hazard scenarios at different space-time scales by means of a set of 5 ecotoxicological risk indices...

  14. Does obesity influence labour market outcomes among working-age adults? Evidence from Canadian longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larose, Samantha L; Kpelitse, Koffi A; Campbell, M Karen; Zaric, Gregory S; Sarma, Sisira

    2016-03-01

    Although a negative association between obesity and labour market outcomes is commonly reported in many studies, the causal nature of this relationship remains unclear. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the last six confidential master files (2000/2001-2010/2011) of the National Population Health Survey, we examine the association between obesity and employment participation and earnings among working-age adults in Canada. After controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, our results show that obesity is not significantly associated with employment participation but is associated with reduced hourly wage rate and annual income among women by about 4% and 4.5%, respectively. The corresponding results for men show that obesity is associated with about 2% reduction in wage rate and income, but significant at 10% level. However, after controlling for the potential reverse causality bias using the lagged measure of obesity, the effect of obesity on wage rate and income became positive or statistically non-significant. Our findings suggest that obesity is not causally associated with negative labour market outcomes among working-age men in Canada. For working-age women, we find limited evidence of negative labour market outcomes.

  15. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi, Van, P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their vegetable crops from pests and disease attacks, started using more pesticides. Pesticide use in agriculture has, therefore, increased astonishingly in recent decades which causes increasing anxiet...

  16. Monitoring of pesticides in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After establishing proper analytical methodology for multiple pesticide residues, cotton-growing areas of Multan Division of Pakistan were surveyed and 40 samples of human milk from cotton pickers were collected during two crop seasons. Screening of these samples showed 72.5% contamination with 19 different pesticides/metabolites. The most frequently occurring pesticides were DDT and its metabolites, dimethoate, cyhalothrin, monocrotophos, profenofos and quinalphos. (author)

  17. Free Trade, Pesticide Regulation and NAFTA Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Freshwater, David

    2003-01-01

    Pesticides are an important farm input both in terms of cost and in terms of their impact on crop yields and quality. With freer trade in agricultural output, differences in cost of production, yield and quality can have a large effect on competitiveness. Thus there is an increased demand by farmers in Canada and the United States for harmonization of pesticide regulations, and in particular for the option to import registered pesticides for their own use. Under NAFTA the three national gover...

  18. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Kefford, Ben J.; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused ...

  19. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Roig; Olivier Thomas; Aghleb Bartegi; Wissem Mnif; Aicha Bouaziz; Aziza Ibn Hadj Hassine

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several yea...

  20. AFFINITY OF THE ALLIGATOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FOR SERUM PESTICIDE CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top predators, like the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides. In a recently published study, several pesticides and pesticide metabolites not previously reported in alligator eggs wer...

  1. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  2. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K; ACT

    1994-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with

  3. 75 FR 74673 - Pesticides; Regulation To Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export; Notification to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 168 RIN 2070-AJ53 Pesticides; Regulation To Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export...(a) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). As described in the Agency's... specificity to existing labeling regulations for the export of unregistered pesticide products and...

  4. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  5. Canadian electricity exports and imports : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This energy market assessment (EMA) report focuses on recent trends in exports and imports of Canadian electricity and the associated revenue and pricing. It also outlines major developments in electricity markets in Canada and the United States in the past decade with reference to the implications of electricity trade for both consumers and the power industry. This guide comes at a time of market openings in Alberta and Ontario, and with recent increases in applications to the National Energy Board for electricity exports and international power lines. The first chapter presents an overview of current Canadian federal regulatory regime for electricity exports and restructuring of the electric power industry in Canada and the United States. The second chapter reviews electricity exports and imports from a national perspective. Provincial analyses were presented in the third chapter which also covered international interconnections, export and import trends, export and import pricing, implications for consumer prices, and factors affecting future trade. The final chapter presents some observations on each of these issues. It is noted that exports have fluctuated significantly from year to year due to specific events including the shutdown of nuclear power plants, high gas prices, and the California electricity crisis in 2000-2001. Canadian international electricity trade has continued to yield net revenues of $1 to $2 billion per year due to strong electricity export prices. The relationship between export and import prices varies from province to province. Canadian utilities have emphasized the need for more transmission to the U.S. to foster future trade and improve transmission reliability. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  7. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  8. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  9. Internet Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Trofymchuk, Dmytro

    2011-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  10. Marketing research

    OpenAIRE

    Wienerová, Alžběta

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis deals with marketing research of fair trade coffee market. Theoretical part is applied types of marketing research and characterization of theirs. It’s explained single steps of marketing research and activities which are practised in these. Final is chapter explained fiction of social responsible marketing. In practical part are information about fair trade certificate, about Starbucks and about purchase of coffee this corporate. After was maked research in on...

  11. Strategic Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    This chapter from The Library Marketing Toolkit focuses on marketing strategy. Marketing is more successful when it happens as part of a constantly-renewing cycle. The aim of this chapter is to demystify the process of strategic marketing, simplifying it into seven key stages with advice on how to implement each one. Particular emphasis is put on dividing your audience and potential audience into segments, and marketing different messages to each group. It includes case studies from Terr...

  12. Personnel marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Taubenhanslová, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis on Personnel Marketing deals with personnel marketing in the company Československá obchodní banka, a. s. (hereinafter ČSOB). The thesis is divided into two main parts theoretical and practical. The theoretical part of this thesis deals with characteristics of concepts especially from the field of human resources management, which are clearly divided according to personnel marketing point of view to external personnel marketing and internal personnel marketing. The pract...

  13. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  14. MARKET SEGMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Munaga Ramakrishna Mohan Rao

    2015-01-01

    Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad target market into subsets of consumers, businesses, or countries who have common needs and priorities, and then designing and implementing strategies to target them. Market segmentation strategies may be used to identify the target customers, and provide supporting data for positioning to achieve a marketing plan objective. Businesses may develop product differentiation strategies, or an undifferentiated approach, inv...

  15. Internal marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    This chapter from The Library Marketing Toolkit focuses on Internal stakeholders. They often hold the purse-strings to our libraries, so marketing successfully to them is absolutely essential. The first part of this chapter covers language, telling stories, using statistics, marketing upwards and communicating your message well. The second part covers marketing with internal stakeholders, such as a parent company within whose branding guidelines you must promote the library, or marketing as p...

  16. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Hejňáková, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's work is an exemplification applicability individual aspects of marketing planning Y company in the conclusion is drown a marketing plan up with advising action programs for year 2014. The theoretical part is defined by marketing and stadium of marketing planning using descriptive models and comparison technical literature. At the conclusion is drown a marketing plan up. The practical part is made on the base of gained information by semistructured interview with a m...

  17. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present research study was to assess the concentration of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Kumasi and to generate awareness about the lethal effects of these pesticides on human beings as well as to estimate the potential health risks associated with the pesticide residue with regard to consumers. A total of 350 locally produced fruits and vegetables were purchased from six main markets in Kumasi and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for organochlorine (gamma-HCH, methoxychlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, p,p’-DDE, p,p’-DDT and pyrethroid (permethrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin residues. The residual concentrations of selected pesticides in the various fruit and vegetable samples and the potential health risks associated with the exposure to these pesticides were also assessed. The results obtained showed that 37.5% of the fruit and vegetable samples analyzed contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides, 19.0% of the samples gave results with levels of insecticides residues above the MRL, while 43.5% of the samples showed results below the MRL. The analysis of health risk estimates revealed that none of the pesticides exceeded the reference dose in both fruit and vegetables except endrin which exceeded reference dose in vegetables, suggesting a great potential for systemic toxicity in children considered the most vulnerable population subgroup. Based on observations made in these studies, it is proposed that more extensive monitoring investigation covering all fruits and vegetables in all the ten regions of Ghana be carried out to find the exact position of pesticide residues.

  18. PESTICIDE USE AND HUMAN HEALTH IN NORTHWESTERN JAMAICA

    OpenAIRE

    Ncube, Ngqabutho; Bessler, Patricia; Jolly, Pauline E; Tint, Kyaw; Fogo, Christopher; Binns, Alvin; Jolly, Curtis M.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have detected high levels of pesticide residues in surface water and aquatic life in Jamaica and acute pesticide poisoning is believed to be widespread there. Despite efforts by the Jamaican government to create awareness of the dangers of pesticides and adopt safe a pesticide disposal method, many farmers still display poor pesticide handling and disposal practices. The objectives of this study were to 1) describe pesticide use by farmers in northwestern Jamaica including...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2081 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. 158.2081 Section 158.2081 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2081 Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides product chemistry data...

  1. 40 CFR 158.2173 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides toxicology data requirements table. 158.2173 Section 158.2173 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2173 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides toxicology data requirements table....

  2. 40 CFR 158.2174 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2174 Section 158.2174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2174 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides...

  3. The impact of pesticides use on surface water and groundwater: a case study in the Kadjebi District, Volta Region, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kadjebi district is predominantly made up of farming communities, hence, the major economic activities in the area are the cultivation of cocoa, ginger, maize, vegetables. The extensive use of organochlorines, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroids have raised concerns about potential adverse effect on human health and the environment. This study aims at assessing the impact of pesticide use on surface water and groundwater in the Kadjebi District of the Volta Region of Ghana. Results of the study revealed that about 92.6% of farmers used one or more pesticides obtained from agro-chemical shops, Cocoa Marketing Board, cooperative societies and relatives in labelled and unlabeled containers. Of these numbers, 62% admitted not having access to services of the extension officers on the use and application of pesticides, hence, believe that, the more the chemical applied the faster and better the result. 18% of the farmers reported positively to the use of protective gears to cover the whole body during pesticide application, 12% cover only the face while 45% do not use any protective gear. On the disposal of the pesticide containers, 51% indicated that, they re-use the containers for food and water storage after thoroughly washing with soap and water. The data obtained also showed a high risk of pesticide poisoning and occupational exposure, about 68% of the respondents reported clinical symptoms of pesticide poisoning such as nausea, headache, blurred vision, eye irritation, dizziness, vomiting and skin irritation. About 51% of water samples analyzed showed positive detections of pesticide residues while all sediments samples showed positive detections of pesticides residues varying from one to five different types of pesticides residues. The common pesticides residues found in the samples were Deltamethrine, Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Dieldrin, Fenvaerate, Lambda-cyhal, p,p’ DDT. Synthetic pyrethroids (72%) were the dominant residues detected. Deltamethrine

  4. Pesticide residues in passifloras crops in regions of high production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A. Bastidas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most bio-diverse countries in the world, Colombia boasts a wide diversity of highly palatable tropical fruits. Even though Colombian fruit production has primarily targeted the domestic market, several fruit species, such as passion fruit (PassifloraSpp, are steadily gaining ground in the broader international arena.  Production of these crops and respond to raising domestic and international demand, many Colombian small-scale farmers use pesticides for pest and disease control. Inadequate use of pesticides could possibly entail public health risks, environmental contamination and ultimately interfere with international trade. Surveys were carried out to passifloras producers of three spices of passiflora crops, yellow passion fruit, sweet passion fruit and purple passion fruit  from the largest producers municipalities in Colombia with the aim to know the integrate pest control and agricultural practices related with pesticides applied in the crops. Ramdomly sampling was realized and samples were analyzed by multiresidue analysis methodology validated in the laboratory and based on IAEA-QuEChERS method. With the results of survey and laboratory analysis it is showed the presence of pesticide residues that exceed maximum residue limits in some samples and the pesticides identified in the samples correspond to those used by farmers. It was found that the presence of residues is mainly due to the shortcomings in the proper use of agricultural practices related primarily to the implementation of agricultural products no registered for such crops.

  5. Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Cabbage with Minimized Pesticide Residues in Southern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustin Vidogbéna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage (Brassicaceae is one of the most frequently consumed exotic vegetables in Benin and also the most affected by insects. To meet growing food demand, farmers rely heavily on synthetic pesticides that are harmful for themselves, consumers and the environment. Integrated pest management has been proposed as the means to improve vegetable productivity and quality in many developing countries. One approach is to substitute pesticides with physical barriers to insects, like nets. Here, we assess consumers’ perceptions about cabbage and their purchasing behavior towards cabbage that was produced using these nets in two major cities in Benin. Results indicate that consumers are aware of the health risks associated with intensive use of pesticides but were not able to recognize the quality difference between cabbage produced under nets from those using pesticides. All consumers were willing to pay a price premium for cabbage with minimized pesticides residues compared with conventionally produced cabbage, the average premium being 38%. Women, older, highly educated consumers and those able to distinguish cabbage qualities were willing to pay the most. We suggest that farmers will obtain higher prices if their production of cabbage with preferred characteristics is accompanied by an improved marketing strategy.

  6. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  7. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  8. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick;

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced...... a voluntary code of conduct for the pesticide industry in an attempt to limit the harmful effects of pesticides. Unfortunately, a lack of adequate government resources in the developing world makes this code ineffective, and thousands of deaths continue today. WHO has recommended that access to highly toxic...... pesticides be restricted--where this has been done, suicide rates have fallen. Since an Essential Drugs List was established in 1977, use of a few essential drugs has rationalised drug use in many regions. An analogous Minimum Pesticides List would identify a restricted number of less dangerous pesticides...

  9. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm...... the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46%) or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%). CONCLUSION: Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity......; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment....

  10. 75 FR 6656 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of an application to register a new use for a pesticide... the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing...

  11. 78 FR 53682 - Tetrachlorvinphos; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Tetrachlorvinphos; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by converting them to permanent tolerances for the combined residues of the insecticide...-OPP-2011-0360, is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide...

  12. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... control management personnel prior to advertisement of the contract and procurement of services....

  13. Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@ developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

  14. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g -1 dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities...

  15. The impact of pesticides on male fertility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeleveld, N.; Bretveld, R.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Observations in several Western countries point toward a decline in semen quality which may be associated with exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors such as several frequently used pesticides. The scarce literature on the effects of pesticides on male fertility will be re

  16. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia;

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method: Q...

  17. Interaction of pesticides with natural organic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershaw, R. L.; Burcar, P.J.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1969-01-01

    Two examples of the interaction of pesticides with natural organic materials have been investigated. Sodium humate solubilizes DDT in water and humic acid strongly sorbs 2,4,5-T. These two types of interactions are indicative of the types that one would expect when any organic pesticide is applied to a natural soil-water system.

  18. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  19. Pesticide biotransformation and fate in heterogeneous environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects and relative impacts of environmental variables on the behaviour of pesticides, through the effect on pesticide-degrading microorganisms, was studied in a broad spectrum and covered the most relevant emission routes. It is shown that the effect of landscape geochemistry, which is a pre-s

  20. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural agricultural communit

  1. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddleston Michael

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. Methods The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. Results Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5% were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36. In 511 (76% cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside the house; among this group only eight patients obtained pesticides that were kept in a locked container. Ten percent (n = 67 of the patients used pesticides stored in the field while 14% (n = 91 purchased pesticides from shops within a few hours of the episode. The most common reasons for choosing the particular pesticide for self-harm were its easy accessibility (n = 311, 46% or its popularity as a suicide agent in their village (n = 290, 43%. Conclusion Three quarters of people who ingested pesticides in acts of self-harm used products that were available within the home or in close proximity; relatively few patients purchased the pesticide for the act. The study highlights the importance of reducing the accessibility of toxic pesticides in the domestic environment.

  2. Agricultural pesticides and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Samim; Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    The onset and course of puberty is under the control of the neuroendocrine system. Factors affecting the regulation of timing and order of this system's functions may alter the onset and course of puberty. Several environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) with significant influences on the normal course of puberty have been identified. Despite the numerous animal and human studies on EDs that may extensively affect human health, there are still several issues that need to be clarified. This chapter discusses the effects of pesticides, which constitute a significant portion of disruptors and have been increasingly used in agriculture, on precocious puberty.

  3. Social marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson-Maynard, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact and sustainability of relationships and exchanges that have been established between marketers and target audiences, in social marketing campaign activities designed to produce behavioural changes.

  4. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ There was no sign of recovery from the downturn of rare earth market.The overall rare earth market still presented slipping trend.There was no sufficient replenishment from NdFeB and phosphor producers.

  5. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese stock market showed signs of recovery and the new stock investors have been rushing in. Many people withdrew their insurance to invest in the stock market, as insurance watchdog statistics showed. Meanwhile, the Chinese trade surplus grew to

  6. Marketing divadla

    OpenAIRE

    MARŠÍKOVÁ, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theatre marketing. It is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part of the thesis focuses on knowledge in the field of theatre marketing, marketing mix, types of theatres and financing theatres. The practical part focuses on the amateur theatre association Comica Economica. The aim of the thesis is to analyse the theatre association Comica Economica from the point of marketing mix and, based on this analysis, questionnaire research and SWOT an...

  7. Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Spieglerová, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis titled “Marketing Research” is made up of two parts. The first being the theoretical part, which covers the basic knowledge about a market and how it can be marketed. It also focuses on the identification for the need for marketing research, whilst providing the information about targets and about the ways of implementing the research and its overall progress (preparation, analysis and interpretation of results). In this part there is also a description of the various types of...

  8. Postmoderne marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Urquizu, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis will challenge the traditional marketing perspective by adding a post-modern approach to marketing. Secondary an analysis of the post-modern consumer as well as the importance of neo tribalism in marketing will be described. Additionally the necessity of including countercultural segments and the importance of countercultures will be argued. Finally this thesis will examine which marketing method is the most useful when working with countercultures.

  9. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  10. Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorná, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with issues of marketing strategy of a company in chosen retail business. Its main aim is to suggest new advertising strategy of a company for the purpose of increasing awareness customers and marketability of products. On the grounds of consultations with the management of the company, analysis of current marketing strategy and results of market research I have fulfiled this task. In the theoretical part of this diploma thesis I deal with introduction to strat...

  11. Shopper marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Klímová, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    The "Shopper marketing" thesis measures and evaluates the effectiveness of shopper marketing activities during the Sochi 2014 Olympic Games. This thesis includes empirical research conducted in an FMCG environment. The research implemented in this work investigates the shopper marketing practises and their effectiveness in selected Czech stores. The conclusions and recommendations within this diploma thesis are based on the analysis of research results.

  12. Stock Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亚玲

    2005-01-01

    There are stock markets in large cities in many countries. Stock markets in Paris, London, Tokyo, Shanghai and New York are among the largest and most well-known. The stock market, also called stock exchange, is a place where people can buy or sell shares of a factory or company. And each share means certain ownership of a factory or company.

  13. Marketing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  14. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hottest financial market topic of the moment could be the subprime loan crisis in the United States. The crisis has stormed the U.S. stock market, dragging it to its biggest falls in a single trading day. Other markets, such as Japan’s, were also vul

  15. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHOVÁ, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  16. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...

  17. Marketization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Desig...

  18. Status report of seabird surveys at Horns Rev, 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report presents the results of three bird surveys conducted in the Horns Rev area during the second half of 2001. Due to poor weather conditions in December 2001, the last survey was, however, performed on 7 January 2002. The surveys are part of the base-line investigations of birds performed in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. The results of the surveys during August 2001 - January 2002 are presented together with the results obtained during the period August 2000 - April 2001, and are also compared to results obtained during the period August 1999 - April 2000. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 16 aerial surveys performed during August 1999 - January 2002, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, mainly occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common Scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of the Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Common scoters occurred in very high numbers in January 2002. This was probably related to increased immigration of birds from the inner Danish waters during a cold period in late December 2001. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affect less than 1% of the various species, except divers where 1.58% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 8-11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrated through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with a less pronounced variation in staging and wintering species (divers, herring gull, common scoter). (au)

  19. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANSTO's main activities and outputs during the year under review (1 July 2000- 30 June 2001) are presented in this report. Highlights include: the replacement research reactor project, to be completed in 2005, proceeded on schedule and within budget, a great deal of effort has been expended on the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the reactor, as well as the review of the detailed engineering design; the fifth shipment of spent fuel was made successfully, so that more than half of the spent fuel accumulated over the entire lifetime of HIFAR has now been shipped overseas; radiopharmaceutical sales reached $17.9 million, a $2 million increase over the previous year. Another milestone this year, not only for ANSTO but Australia as a whole, was the entry into force in January of an Integrated Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. ANSTO, together with the Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office have led the world on the implementation of integrated safeguards, and other countries are now following. In the health sector, ANSTO's reputation and capabilities continued to grow with Therapeutic Goods Administration approval for FDGenTM, a metabolic tracer used in the diagnosis of the staging of cancer in cardiac imaging and the imaging of certain neurological conditions. In the field of strategic research, the use of neutron scattering techniques to understand the structure of a range of materials from charcoal to polymers has yielded significant results. In response to funding challenges, the organisation increased external earnings, improved efficiencies and reduced expenditure on research and development. With regard to revenue, ANSTO generated $35.8 million (1999-2000, $32.2 million) from external services, representing 29.5% of total income, excluding capital use charge. With the aim of establishing an appropriate base for the future, ANSTO undertook an output pricing review with the Department of Finance. This review concluded that the price for operating the nuclear facilities and delivering nuclear expertise is appropriate, and that ANSTO's management and pricing are consistent with world's best practice. Government has agreed that ANSTO be supplemented for the increased costs associated with regulation, that backlog maintenance funding be provided for three years, and that there be no further cuts to ANSTO's research funding. Copyright (2001) Commonwealth of Australia

  20. Rapid change in agricultural policies : the BSE-crisis in Germany (2000-2001)

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Hellmuth

    2004-01-01

    "Today, 'governance' is regarded as the most effective tool to work on and to solve civil political conflicts between competing social claims (Grote/Mbikpi2001). This applies for the field of agricultural and rural problems, too (Berkes/Folke/Colding 1998; Lance/Gunderson/Holling 2001). Governance is considered to compensate the weaknesses of traditional forms of political-administrative interventions (state failure due to continuous functional differentiation and individualisa...

  1. Contaminants in Waterbirds, Grackles, and Swallows Nesting on the Lower Colorado River, Arizona, 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Levels and potential effects of organochlorine compounds and metals were assessed in 106 eggs representing nine avian species nesting at four lower Colorado River...

  2. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, Jed; Sexton, Amy D. (Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR)

    2001-01-01

    In 2000, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of these efforts is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. Six projects, two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and one property on the mainstem Walla Walla River were part of the exercise. Several thousand native plants as bare-root stock and cuttings were reintroduced to the sites and 18 acres of floodplain corridor was seeded with native grass seed. Pre and post-project monitoring efforts were included for all projects, incorporating methodologies from CTUIR's Draft Monitoring Plan.

  3. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Bulgaria (Moss Survey 2000-2001)

    CERN Document Server

    Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B; Gueleva, E; Yurukova, L; Ganeva, A; Mitrikov, M; Antonov, A; Srentz, A; Varbanov, Z; Batov, I V; Damov, K; Marinova, E; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Strelkova, L P

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin.

  4. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood River subbasin were initially devised based on various assumptions about (1) subbasin carrying capacity, (2) survival rates for selected life history stages, and (3) historic and current escapements of wild, natural, and hatchery stocks of anadromous salmonids to the Hood River subbasin. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife began funding a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) project in December 1991 to collect the quantitative biological information needed to (1) more accurately assess the validity of these assumptions and (2) evaluate the proposed hatchery supplementation component of the HRPP. Bonneville Power Administration assumed funding of the M&E project in August 1992. The M&E project was initially confined to sampling anadromous salmonids escaping to an adult trapping facility operated at Powerdale Dam; which is located at River Mile (RM) 4.5 on the mainstem of the Hood River. Stock specific life history and biological data was collected to (1) monitor subbasin spawner escapements and (2) collect pre-implementation data critical to evaluating the newly proposed HRPP's potential biological impact on indigenous populations of resident fish. The scope of the M&E project was expanded in 1994 to collect the data needed to quantify (1) subbasin smolt production and carrying capacity, (2) smolt to adult survival rates, and (3) the spatial distribution of indigenous populations of summer and winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon. A creel was incorporated into the M&E project in December 1996 to evaluate the HRPP with respect to its defined subbasin and spawner escapement objectives for Hood River stocks of wild and hatchery summer and winter steelhead and for natural and Deschutes stock hatchery spring chinook salmon. In 1996, the M&E project also began monitoring streamflow at various locations in the Hood River subbasin. Streamflow data will be used to correlate subbasin smolt production with summer streamflows. Data collected from 1991-1999 is reported in the following annual progress reports: Olsen et al. (1994), Olsen et al. (1995), Olsen and French (1996), Olsen et al. (1996), Olsen and French (1999), and Olsen and French (2000). The annual progress reports document information collected on (1) rearing densities of indigenous fish, (2) subbasin steelhead smolt production, (3) post-release survival of acclimated and direct released hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (4) smolt to adult anadromous salmonid survival rates, (5) jack and adult anadromous salmonid escapements and harvest, (6) spatial distribution of adult anadromous salmonid holding in the Hood River subbasin, (7) selected life history patterns and morphological and meristic characteristics of wild, natural, and hatchery resident and anadromous salmonids, and (8) summer streamflows.

  5. Contaminants in fish and birds of Watson Lake, Arizona 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A wood treatment facility located on Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe land near Prescott, Arizona released pentachlorophenol (PCP), arsenic, and chromium into the...

  6. National Agricultural Research Organisation. Fisheries Resources Research Institute Annual Report 2000/2001

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    It is now clear that fisheries resources are among the key assets contributing to the national development objective of poverty eradication through providing food, employment, income and export earnings. It was recently reported in the papers that monthly fish exports had increased by 23% and fetched about US$ 10 Million during the month of November 2001 alone. This value may be underestimated as it is based solely on recorded exports from fish processing factories numbering 12. A...

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Technical Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Donna

    2001-09-01

    Steigenvald Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, refuge) was established as a result of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) transferring ownership of the Stevenson tract located in the historic Steigerwald Lake site to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS, Service) for the mitigation of the fish and wildlife losses associated with the construction of a second powerhouse at the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River and relocation of the town of North Bonneville (Public Law 98-396). The construction project was completed in 1983 and resulted in the loss of approximately 577 acres of habitat on the Washington shore of the Columbia River (USFWS, 1982). The COE determined that acquisition and development of the Steigenvald Lake area, along with other on-site project management actions, would meet their legal obligation to mitigate for these impacts (USCOE, 1985). Mitigation requirements included restoration and enhancement of this property to increase overall habitat diversity and productivity. From 1994 to 1999, 317 acres of additional lands, consisting of four tracts of contiguous land, were added to the original refuge with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds provided through the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement. These tracts comprised Straub (191 acres), James (90 acres), Burlington Northern (27 acres), and Bliss (9 acres). Refer to Figure 1. Under this Agreement, BPA budgeted $2,730,000 to the Service for 'the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River or its tributaries' in the state of Washington (BPA, 1993). Lands acquired for mitigation resulting from BPA actions are evaluated using the habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the Federal Columbia River Power System Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (BPA, 1994). Steigenvald Lake NWR is located in southwest Washington (Clark County), within the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. Historically part of the Columbia River flood plain, the refuge area was disconnected from the river by a series of dikes constructed by the COE for flood control in 1966. An aerial photograph from 1948 portrays this area as an exceedingly complex mosaic of open water, wetlands, sloughs, willow and cottonwood stands, wet meadows, upland pastures, and agricultural fields, which once supported a large assemblage of fish and wildlife populations. Eliminating the threat of periodic inundation by the Columbia River allowed landowners to more completely convert the area into upland pasture and farmland through channelization and removal of standing water. Native pastures were 'improved' for grazing by the introduction of non-native fescues, orchard grass, ryegrass, and numerous clovers. Although efforts to drain the lake were not entirely successful, wetland values were still significantly reduced.

  8. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood River subbasin were initially devised based on various assumptions about (1) subbasin carrying capacity, (2) survival rates for selected life history stages, and (3) historic and current escapements of wild, natural, and hatchery stocks of anadromous salmonids to the Hood River subbasin. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife began funding a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) project in December 1991 to collect the quantitative biological information needed to (1) more accurately assess the validity of these assumptions and (2) evaluate the proposed hatchery supplementation component of the HRPP. Bonneville Power Administration assumed funding of the M&E project in August 1992. The M&E project was initially confined to sampling anadromous salmonids escaping to an adult trapping facility operated at Powerdale Dam; which is located at River Mile (RM) 4.5 on the mainstem of the Hood River. Stock specific life history and biological data was collected to (1) monitor subbasin spawner escapements and (2) collect pre-implementation data critical to evaluating the newly proposed HRPP's potential biological impact on indigenous populations of resident fish. The scope of the M&E project was expanded in 1994 to collect the data needed to quantify (1) subbasin smolt production and carrying capacity, (2) smolt to adult survival rates, and (3) the spatial distribution of indigenous populations of summer and winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon. A creel was incorporated into the M&E project in December 1996 to evaluate the HRPP with respect to its defined subbasin and spawner escapement objectives for Hood River stocks of wild and hatchery summer and winter steelhead and for natural and Deschutes stock hatchery spring chinook salmon. In 1996, the M&E project also began monitoring streamflow at various locations in the Hood River subbasin. Streamflow data will be used to correlate subbasin smolt production with summer streamflows. Data collected from 1991-1999 is reported in the following annual progress report

  9. The Implementation of the California Community Colleges Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This is the sixth report on the status and progress of the Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP), submitted by the California Community Colleges. In California, familiarity with and use of computers is fundamental to economic success. California is home to many of the major companies involved in creating the future of the…

  10. COMPOSITION OF THE JOINT ADVISORY DISCIPLINARY BOARD 2000/2001 EXERCICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Appointed by the Director-General Appointed by the Staff Association Members Achille Petrilli/as Michel Bonnet/ep 1st deputies Wisla Carena/ep Daniel Boimond/ps 2nd deputies Roland Garoby / ps Juan Diaz-Montoya/ac Messrs. Petrilli and Bonnet have drawn up the following list of staff members from among whom the Chairman of the Board may be chosen when required: Doris Burckhart/ep Patrick Geeraert/fi Margrit Burri/ep Bertrand Nicquevert/ep Nicole-Laurence Cremel/it Keith Potter/est Friedemann Eder/dsu Pedro Ribeiro/sl Laure esteveny/as Pierre Strubin/lhc

  11. Toy Action Guide [and] Media Violence and Children: A Call to Action! 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRUCE: Teachers Resisting Unhealthy Children's Entertainment, West Somerville, MA.

    Play is essential to children's healthy development and learning, and toys are the tools of children's play. Noting that parents are constantly faced with decisions about what toys to buy and what toys to avoid, this guide is intended to help parents promote their children's creative and constructive play by making informed choices about toys, and…

  12. Anomalous attenuation of extraordinary waves in ionosphere heating experiments experimental results of 2000-2001

    CERN Document Server

    Zabotin, N A; Kovalenko, E S; Frolov, V L; Komrakov, G P; Mityakov, N A; Sergeev, E N

    2001-01-01

    Multiple scattering from artificial random irregularities HF-induced in the ionosphere F region causes significant attenuation of both ordinary and extraordinary radio waves together with the conventional anomalous absorption of ordinary waves due to their conversion into the plasma waves. To study in detail features of this effect, purposeful measurements of the attenuation of weak probing waves of the extraordinary polarization have been performed at the Sura heating facility. Characteristic scale lengths of the involved irregularities are ~0.1-1 km across the geomagnetic field lines. To determine the spectral characteristics of these irregularities from the extraordinary probing wave attenuation measurements, a simple procedure of the inverse problem solving has been implemented and some conclusions about the artificial irregularity features have been drawn. Theory and details of experiments have been stated earlier. This paper reports results of two experimental campaigns carried out in August 2000 and Ju...

  13. Lack of Governance During 2000-2001 Economic Crises in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Demet ÇAK

    2015-01-01

    Governance covers the quality of institutions and their effectiveness in translating policy into successful implementation. There are different types of governance such as global governance, corporate governance, regulatory governance, public sector governance, etc., however, we mainly focus on public sector’s governance. In this article we will try to explain evaluation of policies the 2000 and 2001 economic crises in Turkey before and during the crisis by adding crises management policies i...

  14. Frog malformations at the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge complex 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2000 a nationwide survey of amphibian malformations was initiated. Because of its history of contamination with agricultural drainwater, the San Luis NWR Complex...

  15. 78 FR 64984 - Distribution of the 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ..., 1998) (1990-1992 Determination); 1993-1997 Librarian Order, 66 FR 66433. Relative marketplace value is... retransmission of broadcast television programs. See, e.g., 1993-1997 Librarian Order, 66 FR at 66445; 1987 Music...., 1993-1997 Librarian Order, 66 FR at 66447, actual measured viewing is significant to...

  16. Mission of evaluation about data and work plan elaboration 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this project is to learn through of isotopics studies about the underground dynamic water; it evaluates their disponibility and sustantibility, as well as the Raigon Aquifer strategy, use and protection.

  17. Factors Affecting the Recreational Fishery in Moses Lake, Washington, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Dave

    2003-02-04

    The Moses Lake Project (project No. 199502800) was first funded by Bonneville Power Administration during the FY 99. Work commenced and proceeded through September 2001 when questions arouse on the Scope of Work. Due to funding issues at the beginning of FY 2001 we were unable to secure monies to continue with our proposed scope of work. Consequently, the Moses Lake Project was reduced to one full-time employee. An extension of fifty thousand dollars was granted in which the project with one remaining member by October 2001 continued to operate. By December 2001 the NWPPC granted an additional 20K in spending to secure an advisor that could assist in providing a proposal that the ISRP would find amenable. By Jan 2002, the Moses Lake staff put Dr. David Bennett, from the University of Idaho on payroll. With the guidance of Dr. Bennett the Moses Lake project staff was successful in turning in a new version of the proposal and ultimately received funding by July of 2002. Consequently, the lack of manpower and time spent revising and resubmitting said proposal hampered progress. Consequently, this report covers work conducted on the original Scope of Work (SOW) to July 2002 and then follows the new and accepted SOW from July 2002 through September 2002. Work on the tasks within the newest proposal began prior to official acceptance so as not to loose the window of opportunity to collect data during the summer field season. As of July 2000 we moved forward and began the appropriate tasks outlined in our scope of work. Therefore, portions of the FY 2001 annual report address tasks outlined in the original (appendix 1, original FY2000 SOW) and newest scope(s) of work (Appendix 2, new FY 2000 SOW).

  18. Status report of seabird surveys at Horns Rev, 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Clausager, I.; Krag Petersen, I. [NERI, Dept. of Coastal Zone Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-07-01

    The present report presents the results of three bird surveys conducted in the Horns Rev area during the second half of 2001. Due to poor weather conditions in December 2001, the last survey was, however, performed on 7 January 2002. The surveys are part of the base-line investigations of birds performed in relation to the proposed construction of an offshore wind farm at Horns Rev in the Danish part of the North Sea ca 14 km southwest of Blaevandshuk. The results of the surveys during August 2001 - January 2002 are presented together with the results obtained during the period August 2000 - April 2001, and are also compared to results obtained during the period August 1999 - April 2000. Based on the distribution of the most abundant bird species recorded during 16 aerial surveys performed during August 1999 - January 2002, there were no indications that the wind farm area was of any particular importance to the birds' exploitation of the Horns Rev area. Fish-eating species like divers, gannet, terns, auks and gulls generally showed scattered and variable distributions, mainly occurring in the areas north and south of Horns Rev, and with low numbers on the reef proper and within the planned wind farm area. The distribution of benthic foraging species, eider and common Scoter, showed that they mainly exploited the coastal parts of the area off Blaevandshuk and Skallingen, although common scoter was found in relatively high numbers on the southeast slopes of the Horns Rev and within the wind farm area in the April 2001 survey. Common scoters occurred in very high numbers in January 2002. This was probably related to increased immigration of birds from the inner Danish waters during a cold period in late December 2001. Preference analyses of bird exploitation of the Horns Rev area showed that if the birds completely avoid the wind farm area after erection of the wind turbines, this will affect less than 1% of the various species, except divers where 1.58% will be affected. If the birds avoid the wind farm area and an adjacent 4 km zone (worst case scenario), it is estimated to affect 8-11% of the common scoter, 10% of the gannet, 7-9% of the divers, alcids and velvet scoter and 0-6% of the remaining species. The seasonal occurrence of the recorded species was fully comparable to the seasonal occurrence of these species recorded at Blaevandshuk since 1963. Year-to-year variation in abundance between the seasons August 1999 - April 2000 and August 2000 - April 2001 was mainly found in species that migrated through the Horns Rev area (terns, gannet, kittiwake), and with a less pronounced variation in staging and wintering species (divers, herring gull, common scoter). (au)

  19. COMPOSITION OF THE JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARDS 2000/2001 EXERCISE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Appointed by the Director-General  Appointed by the Staff Association Members Fréderick Bordry /sl Irene Seis/it 1st deputies Christian Fabjan/ep Jean-Claude Carlier/tis 2nd deputies Sue Foffano Morna Robillard/hr Mr Bordry and Mrs Seis have drawn up the following list of staff members from among whom the Chairman of the Board may be chosen when required: Christophe Delamare/est Guy Maurin/ep Maria Dimou/it Mats Moller/as Tobias Dobers/est Alasdair smith/ep Luc Durieu/ps Marilena Streit-Bianchi/tis Lennart Jirden/spl John Poole/sl Mediators [see Administrative Circular N° 6 (Rev. 1) entitled 'Review procedure'] will also be selected from this list of ten staff members.

  20. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2000-2001. Volume 1: Student Eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This handbook helps financial aid administrators determine students' eligibility for aid from the U.S. Department of Education's Student Financial Assistance (SFA) programs. An introduction describes information sources, conflicting information, fraud case referral, status change, electronic requirements, the application system, and recent…

  1. UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education Annual Report, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This biennial report highlights the major programs and activities organized, supported, and implemented by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Asian and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, based in Bangkok, Thailand, in the fields of education, science, social and human sciences, culture, and…

  2. Monitoring Monitoring Evolving Activity at Popocatepetl Volcano, Mexico, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-DelPozzo, A.; Aceves, F.; Bonifaz, R.; Humberto, S.

    2001-12-01

    After 6 years of small eruptions, activity at Mexico's 5,452m high Popocatepetl Volcano in central Mexico, peaked in the December 2000-January 2001 eruptions. Precursors included an important increase in seismicity as well as in magmatic components of spring water and small scale deformation which resulted in growth of a new crater dome from January 16 on. Evacuation of the towns nearest the volcano over Christmas was decided because of the possibility of pyroclastic flows. During the previous years, crater dome growth, contraction and explosive clearing has dominated the activity. The January 22 eruption produced an eruption column approximately 17km high with associated pyroclastic flows. Ejecta was composed of both basic and evolved scoria and pumice and dome lithics. A large proportion of the juvenile material was intermediate between these 2 endmenbers (59-63percent SiO2 and 3.5 to 5.5 MgO) consistent with a small basic pulse entering a more evolved larger batch of magma. The January eruption left a large pit which has been partially infilled by another crater dome this August 2001.

  3. Verbrauchereinstellungen zu Bioprodukten : Der Einfluß der BSE-Krise 2000/2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bruhn, Maike

    2003-01-01

    Ziel des vorliegenden Arbeitsberichtes ist es, anhand der langfristigen Analyse von Verbrauchereinstellungen und ?verhalten am Markt für Bioprodukte, den Einfluß der BSE-Fälle Ende 2000 in Deutschland auf die Nachfrage nach Bioprodukten abzuschätzen. Gerade im Zusammenhang mit der verstärkten Diskussion des ökologischen Landbaus und der angekündigten Agrarwende, ist die Frage von großem Interesse, ob der Verbraucher bereit ist, die ihm zugedachte Rolle zu übernehmen, einen Marktanteil von 20%...

  4. Credit Policies for Courses in Minnesota Colleges & Universities: International Baccalaureate, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, St. Paul.

    This guide is designed to help Minnesota high school students in their educational planning and to encourage colleges and universities to state clearly their policies in granting college credit for successful completion of Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate (IB) examinations in high school. The guide also represents certification…

  5. Annual report of the Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some scientific achievements and advisory activities of Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), during the year are highlighted, including: development of a standardised assessment protocol for estimating the levels of radiofrequency radiation as a function of distance from mobile phone base stations; advice to Australian Customs on high energy X-ray beam facilities; advice on the health risks of naturally occurring radioactivity in relation to emissions from the BHP Sinter Plant in Wollongong; participation in the National Repository Advisory Committee and National Store Advisory Committee dealing with radioactive waste management for Australia; several publications of work associated with assessment of exposures to ultraviolet radiation. Three personal UV dosimetry projects have been organised or commenced in collaboration with health-related organisations. The licensing of the existing nuclear installations at ANSTO was a major activity during the year. There were some difficulties in obtaining and making public sufficient information to allow adequate public comment on the proposals. In the case of the HIFAR facility, the ARPANSA licence was replacing a regulatory system administered by the former Nuclear Safety Bureau, but it was still a challenge to demonstrate through a safety evaluation report that it met the statutory conditions required for issuing a licence under the ARPANS Act and ARPANS Regulations. For the other nuclear facilities, they were being brought within a formal regulatory process for the first time. The licences now issued include additional conditions requiring the licence holder to provide improved documentation and justification of safety practices. One of the roles inherited by ARPANSA from the Nuclear Safety Bureau is the monitoring of the operations of the ANSTO nuclear plant. From its monitoring over the year, ARPANSA has concluded that overall ANSTO's nuclear plant continued to be operated safely during the year

  6. Contaminants in bighorn sheep on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Soils of abandoned mines on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR) are contaminated with arsenic, barium, mercury, manganese, lead, and zinc. Previous studies...

  7. Characteristics of districts in Pakistan with persistent transmission of wild poliovirus, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, S A; Mir, T; Bile, M K; Abdul Hafiz, R; Mounts, A W

    2004-01-01

    We sought to identify factors associated with being a reservoir district for wild poliovirus in Pakistan. Differences between reservoir and non-reservoir districts were identified using acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data, population census statistics and data from a survey of district health officials (DHOs). Of the 11 poliovirus reservoir districts identified, population density was significantly higher (median 550 persons/km2) than the non-reservoirs (median 175 persons/km2). DHOs from reservoir districts more often reported that planning was affected by refugees and they had more frequent DHO transfers compared with non-reservoir districts. Multivariate analysis confirmed that reservoirs more often had high population density and frequent DHO transfers. Assessment of district-level and management characteristics can supplement surveillance methods to further improve health programmes. PMID:16335650

  8. International Atomic Energy Agency publications. Publications catalogue 1986-1999. Supplement 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supplement to the IAEA Publications Catalogue lists all the sales publications issued from January 2000 to September 2001. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance are included. The supplement is divided into two parts. The first lists all publications by subject category in alphabetical order. The second part consists of indexes. All indexes list the page(s) on which the publication appears in the firs part. The keyword index lists all publications in alphabetical order as well as under keyword

  9. Aspergiloma Pulmonar en el Hospital de Apoyo Departamental de Ica - Perú. 2000 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Arce M

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available En el Perú, un gran porcentaje de la población que tiene lesiones cavitarias residuales puede albergar una bola fúngica conocida como aspergiloma. Objetivo: determinar los agentes etiológicos que causan los aspergilomas en estas personas y comparar la prueba diagnóstica de inmunodifusión frente al cultivo seriado de esputo. Materiales y métodos: se incluyó a pacientes atendidos en el Programa de Control de Tuberculosis del Hospital Regional de Ica (Ica, Perú que presentaron antecedentes de tuberculosis pulmonar y criterios clínico-radiológicos sospechosos de aspergilosis pulmonar. El diagnóstico de laboratorio se realizó mediante cultivos seriados y consecutivos de esputo en Agar Sabouraud Dextrosa (ASD con cloramfenicol y se detectó precipitinas aspergilares con la prueba de inmunodifusión (ID Resultados: se obtuvo un total de 20 pacientes, 70% de los pacientes (14/20 demostraron tener aspergiloma pulmonar. Los principales agentes etiológicos encontrados fueron Aspergillus fumigatus (50% y Aspergillus níger (14,5% La ID mostró 71% de sensibilidad (aumentando este valor a 82% al utilizar antígeno específico y 100% de especificidad. Conclusiones: Aspergillus fumigatus es el agente etiológico más frecuente en nuestro estudio y la prueba de inmunodifusión es útil como prueba diagnóstica de aspergiloma pulmonar. La prueba de inmunodifusión mejora su sensibilidad al emplear antígenos específicos, por lo que consideramos realizar estudios de elaboración de antígenos específicos de Aspergillus autóctonos para la prueba de ID. Es necesario continuar estudios de prevalencia y de métodos diagnósticos de esta enfermedad.

  10. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester, WA); Hardy, Ronald W. (University of Idaho, Hagerman Fish Culture Experiment Station, Hagerman, ID)

    2001-06-01

    It is not yet possible to define a feeding regimen for captively-reared stocks similar to their natural regimen that enhances the post-release fitness of juveniles and improves the reproductive performance of adults. In the natural environment, seasonal differences in food quality and quantity have profound effects on growth and 'wild' attributes, such as external coloration and fin quality. Formulating the right feeds for conservation fish held for long periods in captivity before release is more complicated than formulating diets for farm fish. Recent research in salmonid nutrition shows it is necessary to consider daily dietary protein intake and protein intake relative to total dietary energy level, rather than simply the levels of total dietary lipid.

  11. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  12. Guerilla marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Burkoňová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Thesis on the topic of „Guerilla Marketing“ deals with modern trends in the field of Marketing. The theoretical section of this thesis is focused on a literature review of Guerilla Marketing, where Guerilla Marketing trend is explained in detail and modern trends of Guerilla Marketing are described, inclusive practical examples. The practical section of the thesis deals with a company called RobZone Int. s.r.o. and the analysis of their corporate marketing mix. In order to acquire relev...

  13. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  14. An EPA Modeling Dashboard for Ecological Assessment of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA registers pesticides for use in the US and approves imported pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Before a pesticide can be registered, the EPA must assess whether the pesticide can be used without eing harmful to humans or pos...

  15. 33 CFR 274.7 - Authorization of pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorization of pesticide use... of pesticide use. (a) Programs approved in § 274.6(b) must be those as described on the pesticide label. Pesticide uses which are different from the registered use, require amendment of the...

  16. Pesticide usage pattern in tea ecosystem, their retrospects and alternative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusubramanian, G; Rahman, A; Sarmah, M; Ray, Somnath; Bora, S

    2008-11-01

    Tea is a perennial plantation crop grown under monoculture providing favorable conditions for a variety of pests. The concept of pest control has undergone a considerable change over the past few decades. In recent years there has been a greater dependence on the use of pesticides (7.35-16.75 kgha(-1)) with little importance laid on other safe control methods for the management of tea pests. Due to this practice, the tea pests showed a higher tolerance/ resistance status due to formation of greater amount of esterases, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, over reliance on pesticides end up with pesticide residue in made tea (DDT - 10.4-47.1%; endosulfan - 41.1-98.0%; dicofol- 0.0-82.4%; ethion - 0.0-36.2%; cypermethrin - 6.0- 45.1%). The growing concern about the pesticide residue in made tea, its toxicity hazards to consumers, the spiraling cost of pesticides and their application have necessitated a suitable planning which will ensure a safe, economic as well as effective pest management in tea. At present it is a global concern to minimize chemical residue in tea and European union and German law imposed stringent measures for the application of chemicals in tea and fixed MRL values at exporting countries like India. In order to regulate the situation of the Indian market at global level, central insecticide board and prevention of food adulteration regulation committee have reviewed the MRL position for tea and has recommended 10 insecticides, 5 acaricides, 9 herbicides and 5 fungicides for use in tea and issued the tea distribution and export control order 2005 which will help the country to limit the presence of undesirable substances in tea. This review attempts to provide the readers with a comprehensive account of pesticide use in North East in tea, surveillance report of the European community regarding the residue level in Assam and Darjeeling tea, recent amendments by international and national regulatory bodies, revised MRL values

  17. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides. PMID:25863029

  18. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  19. 76 FR 3885 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments... 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  20. 75 FR 65321 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... AGENCY Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA...

  1. 75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... AGENCY Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. DATES: Comments must... part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various food commodities. EPA has determined...

  2. Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends

  3. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Dioxins Endocrine Disruptors Reproductive Health Related Links Profile: Report on Carcinogens: Captafol Share This Page: Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase ...

  4. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Club ACMT Grand Rounds Medical Toxicology LLSA JMT Peer Reviewer Webinar Resident-Medical Student Webinars 2015 Fellows-in-Training Research Webinar Other Enduring Education PEHSU National Classroom Chemical Agents of Opportunity Webinars Podcasts Public Health ...

  5. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service.

  6. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In this study effects of pesticides on biological systems will be presented in genaral terms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000: 215-228

  7. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  8. Choosing Organic Pesticides over Synthetic Pesticides May Not Effectively Mitigate Environmental Risk in Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Christine A Bahlai; Yingen Xue; McCreary, Cara M.; Schaafsma, Arthur W.; Hallett, Rebecca H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selection of pesticides with small ecological footprints is a key factor in developing sustainable agricultural systems. Policy guiding the selection of pesticides often emphasizes natural products and organic-certified pesticides to increase sustainability, because of the prevailing public opinion that natural products are uniformly safer, and thus more environmentally friendly, than synthetic chemicals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the results of a study examining t...

  9. Semen quality and heavy metal and pesticides toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive function has deteriorated significantly in the past 50 years and this change could be related to an exposure to occupational and environmental pollutants and toxicants. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the negative impact of human exposure to heavy metals and pesticides on the male reproductive function. Most pesticides and heavy metals are considered reproductive toxicants and may adversely harm the male reproductive system due to their disrupting effect on the hypothalamus- pituitary gland-gonads axis or by directly affecting spermatogenesis, resulting in impaired semen quality. The negative effects of these compounds have been linked to the main sperm parameters (concentration, normal morphology and motility, semen volume and total sperm count and DNA sperm damage, as well as to changes in serum reproductive hormone levels. Some of these substances have already been banned, whereas others are still on the market. Stricter laws are needed to completely prevent exposure to these toxicants given their proven deleterious effect on male reproductive health.

  10. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, A.W. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.w.leach@imperial.ac.uk; Mumford, J.D. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.mumford@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-01-15

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient.

  11. Remediation of soil contaminated with pesticides by treatment with gamma radiation;Remediacao de solos contaminados com agrotoxicos pelo tratamento com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Janilson Silva

    2009-07-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern mainly by soil contamination. Nowadays, Brazil figures in third place among the leading world pesticide markets. An understanding of the processes that affect the transport and fate of pesticides is crucial to assess their potential for contamination of soil and groundwater, and to develop efficient and cost-effective site management and soil remediation strategies. Due to its impact on soil remediation has made sorption a major topic of research on soil-pesticide interactions. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the pesticides transferring from contaminated mixture of commercial polymeric packing of high-density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture to soil and their removal by gamma irradiation. Two soil samples of argyles compositions and media composition were exposed to a mixture of commercial polymeric packing contaminated with the pesticides methomyl, dimethoate, carbofuran, methidathion, triazine, thiophos, atrazine, ametryne, endosulfan, chloropyrifos, thriazophos and trifluralin. The pesticides leaching from packaging to soil was homogeneous considering a experimental research. The radiation treatment presented high efficiency on removal pesticides from both soil, but it depends on the physical-chemical characteristics of the contaminated soil. The higher efficiency was obtained in soils with higher organic material and humidity. The higher efficiency was obtained for the medium texture soil, with 20 kGy all present pesticides were removed in all layers. In the case of argyles texture soil, it was necessary a 30 kGy to remove the totality of present pesticides. (author)

  12. Trade marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  13. Event marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Quynh Trang

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze event-marketing activities of the small firm and propose new events. At first the theoretical part describes marketing and communication mix and then especially planning and development of event marketing campaign. Research data were collected by the method of survey to propose the new events. Randomly selected customers were asked to fill the questionnaire. Its results were integrated into the proposal of the new events. The interview was realized with the owner of...

  14. Theatre marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hajtol, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with problems of the marketing strategy in the theater sector. The main aim is to analyze, how theatres, which are very specific segment, access to the marketing and mainly to the communication mix. I deal with this issue in the theoretical part. In the practical part I analyze the concrete theater Comica Economica, which acts as an amateur student theater at the University of Economics. In this section I analyze the marketing and especially communication mix, of the theater....

  15. Power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry

  16. Online marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zrůst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate pay per click marketing as suitable marketing tool for promotion and distribution of a given product. The paper describes basic vocabulary related to PPC advertising, common metrics, tools used by online marketers, and logic of running PPC campaigns. The paper also tries to quantify impact of Internet on economies. The second part applies the theory to analysis of consumers' conversion path while searching online in common search engines where PPC marketi...

  17. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ridvan EKMEKCI; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  18. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Duc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  19. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  20. Affiliate marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Žlábek, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis focuses on the topic of online affiliate marketing from the perspective of an internet entrepreneur. In the first, theoretical part, it characterizes the affiliate marketing, describes different, significant affiliate solutions in the Czech market and opportunities for their implementations. In the second, practical part, it concentrates mainly on an affiliate program of a company called GameLeader, s.r.o. It analyses expectations of the business from the implementation...

  1. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:China’s financial markets remained stable in 2007, the central bank said,but the stock market stumbled on the heels of international market fluctuations.Food supplies were in short- age as the blizzard in southern provinces blocked transportation and destroyed farm produce.China Minmetals moved abroad to Canada for gold and copper,while the South Korean Lotte Shopping looked to China for the supermarket boom.

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The country was faced with heavy inflationary pressure as the CPI and PPI numbers both continued to run at a high growth rate.The government decided to enforce a tightened monetary policy and stock investors rushed to pull money out of the stock market and stash it in the banks.To save the stumbling stock market,QFIIs were allowed to triple their investments in China’s financial markets.

  3. Marketing Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Rigerová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Marketing communications is the main theme of this dissertation. Aim of dissertation is to describe and to analysis marketing and also communication instruments of company Berger Huck, s.r.o. Output of practical part will be used for advertising campaign project. In the first part is processed of theoretical solutions. Technical literature is source of materials for this part of dissertation. In the theoretic parts is briefly described history and progress of marketing, main substance, d...

  4. Marketing Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kozáková, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Marketing communication plays an important role in every competitive organization. It is an integral part of a successful sales and create a long-term relationships with customers and other public. This thesis consists of two parts. The theoretical part and a practical part. The theoretical part describes the concept of marketing mix and its components, there is also clarified the concept of communication, marketing communication and the five main components of the communication mix. An in...

  5. Services Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jägerová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the category of stars and their informational value for customers at the Four Season Hotel in Pankrác. The theoretical part describes a comparison with the literature, solutions marketing with a focus on the specifics of marketing mix and marketing services. It is then investigated using the marketing mix in practice in the above subjects in the form of structured observation in the natural environment of the hotel without the knowledge of the monitored perso...

  6. 78 FR 75262 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes is not... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION). ADDRESSES: The docket for this action, identified by docket identification (ID... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code...

  7. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  8. Pesticides in Wyoming Groundwater, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Taylor, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 296 wells during 1995-2006 as part of a baseline study of pesticides in Wyoming groundwater. In 2009, a previous report summarized the results of the baseline sampling and the statistical evaluation of the occurrence of pesticides in relation to selected natural and anthropogenic (human-related) characteristics. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, resampled a subset (52) of the 296 wells sampled during 1995-2006 baseline study in order to compare detected compounds and respective concentrations between the two sampling periods and to evaluate the detections of new compounds. The 52 wells were distributed similarly to sites used in the 1995-2006 baseline study with respect to geographic area and land use within the geographic area of interest. Because of the use of different types of reporting levels and variability in reporting-level values during both the 1995-2006 baseline study and the 2008-10 resampling study, analytical results received from the laboratory were recensored. Two levels of recensoring were used to compare pesticides—a compound-specific assessment level (CSAL) that differed by compound and a common assessment level (CAL) of 0.07 microgram per liter. The recensoring techniques and values used for both studies, with the exception of the pesticide 2,4-D methyl ester, were the same. Twenty-eight different pesticides were detected in samples from the 52 wells during the 2008-10 resampling study. Pesticide concentrations were compared with several U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories for finished (treated) water established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. All detected pesticides were measured at concentrations smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories where applicable (many pesticides did not have standards or advisories). One or more pesticides

  9. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  10. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  11. How Stereochemistry Considerations can Improve Pesticide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 30% of pesticides are chiral molecules and therefore exist as two or more stereoisomers, which can differ significantly in their toxicity, biodegradation, and persistence. Such differences can impact their relative safety to humans and environmental species. Enantiomers, mi...

  12. Management of pesticide residues in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zeng-long; DONG Feng-shou; XU Jun; LIU Xin-gang; ZHENG Yong-quan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviewed management of pesticide residues in China including laws and regulations, the supervision system, the standard system, and the quality and safety of agricultural products. The process of establishment and international-ization of standards for pesticide residues were also discussed. Results indicate that the progress of the management of pesticide residues has been steadily made in China. However, the folowing aspects which refer to updates to regulations, supervising efifciency, standard system, risk assessment, international cooperation and communication, should be further improved. China should draw lessons from international experience, and then establish its own management system, which focuses on pesticides controls by strictly folowing relevant laws and technical standards to ensure the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  13. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  14. Effects of Pesticides on Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ergul Belge Kurutas; Metin Kilinc

    2003-01-01

    The use of pesticid both in Turkey and other contries is widespread in order to combat against many pests which cause economical damages. However, pesticides in human pass through skin, respiratory or digestive systems and is metabolized by monooxygenase system dependent upon cytocrome P450 in liver. They also give rise to severe decreases cytochrome P450 and amount of "hem" enzyme activites of glucose-6-phosphatase, pyrophosphatase by stimulating lipid peroxidation on hepatic microsomes. In ...

  15. Comportement des pesticides ionisables dans les sols

    OpenAIRE

    Kah, Mélanie; Brown, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    Ionisable pesticides can be partially ionised within the range of natural soil pH and this strongly influences their reactivity in soils. This group includes important, worldwide contaminants of groundwater and surface waters. It is essential that their specific behaviour is recognised within risk assessment procedures. Experiments were carried out with ten pesticides (six acids and four bases) and nine arable soils (range in pH, texture and organic matter content) to advance the understandin...

  16. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mamane; Isabelle Baldi; Jean-François Tessier; Chantal Raherison; Ghislaine Bouvier

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspno...

  17. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  18. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  19. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

  20. Types of pesticides and determination of their residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pesticide is any material or component used to protect from pests. Its toxic effect is related to the chemical structure, which can be divided into 3 types : 1- Metal pesticides : Sulphur, cupper, zinc, mercury; 2- Vegetal pesticides : advanced and less toxic to the general health; 3- Synthetic organo pesticides : organo chlorine, organophosphorous, carbamate and pyrethroids. Pesticides in the soil undergo biological dissociation according to their concentration and chemical structure. High concentration of the pesticides in the soil may lead to fertility decrease due to destruction of micro-organisms by the pesticides. Many methods are used to analyze the residues of pesticides in plant or soil : 1- Chromatographic methods : Gas chromatography, gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography; 2- Spectroscopy methods : spectrophotometer and mass spectrometer; 3- Isotopic methods : based on tracers technique which is the most sensitive and accurate method and can estimate minor amounts of the pesticides. (author)

  1. Towards the field-scale experiments and numerical modeling of pesticides in tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, J.; Ray, C.; Sanda, M.; Vogel, T.; Green, R.; Loo, B.

    2004-12-01

    Intensive use of pesticides in agriculture inevitably poses an increased threat to groundwater. Recent findings of pesticide residues in selected drinking water wells in Hawaii brings further attention to this problem since the primary source for potable water in Hawaii is groundwater from basal or dike-confined aquifers. A challenging research project was carried out at the University of Hawaii to elucidate potential impacts of selected pesticides on groundwater and to understand pesticide behavior in tropical soils. The major outcome of the project will be a recommendation to the Hawaii Department of Agriculture whether to restrict or approve these pesticide products entering Hawaii's agricultural market. Three sites on Oahu, one on Maui, and one on Kauai were selected for field evaluation of leaching. The soil types on Oahu are Wahiawa Oxisol (Poamoho), Molokai Oxisol (Kunia), and Waialua Vertisol (Waimanalo). The soil at Kula, Maui is an andisol (loam of Kula series) and that at Mana, Kauai is a Vertisol of Malama series. Three herbicides (S-metolachlor, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl), one fungicide (trifloxystrobin), and one insecticide (imidacloprid) were used in our study. In addition, a commonly used herbicide (atrazine) and potassium bromide tracer were applied as reference chemicals. After spraying, the plots were covered with straw to decrease evaporation from bare soil surface and irrigated with aerial sprinklers for a period of 16 weeks. Disturbed soil samples from various depths were taken at regular intervals for pesticide analysis. Water flow dynamics was monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers installed at three depths. Weather data were acquired simultaneously. In-situ measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were done using a tension disc infiltrometer. Laboratory experiments of soil-water retention, as well as degradation, sorption, and column displacement experiments for the selected pesticides were conducted. Hence, comprehensive

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT:Along with the Chinese Government’s determination to crack down on insider trading, the mainland stock market has experienced more volatility recently with sharp ups and downs. Overall, however, the market is on a rising track. A sea change

  3. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines cl

  4. Developing markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet;

    2015-01-01

    , and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  5. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market Oct. 10~20 Price of Eu-rich and Yt-medium RE concentrate in domestic market rose to RMB $ 74,000/ton from RMB $72,000/ton. It was still on rising. Price of RE carbonate in Baotou was over RMB$10,000/ton due to the strict volume control of rare earth concentrate.

  6. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market Dec. 10-20 Price of Pr-Nd oxide and Pr-Nd mischrnetal kept on rising in domestic market recently due to the tight supply of RE carbonate. Short supply of ion adsorption clay in southern China did not affect the prices of dysprosium and terbium obviously.

  7. Market review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ RE Market June 10-20 Driven by price rising of Nd and Pr, domestic RE market was very active recently. It was thought that the price rising was led by the large demand of NdFeB magnet industry and tight supply of RE raw materials.

  8. MARKET WAICH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bullish Chinese stock market defied the fou r th interest rate hike of the year to reapa total market value of over 22 trillion yuan ($2.9 tril -lion) by August 22—its highest mark ever . Chineseindividual investors were allowed to buy over seas shar

  9. Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  10. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market May 10-20 Learned from Inner Mongolia Rare Earth Association,domestic rare earth market was in good situation driven by high demand. Price of neodymium rose strongly. Dysprosium oxide and terbium oxide still hovered at the higher price level. Price of europia remained stable.

  11. Nutrition marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  12. Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  13. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  14. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  15. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presented to the society’s actual characteristics. This can be achieved by using appropriate marketing tools and methods; however, the particularities of religion must be taken into account in order not to alter its religious values.

  16. Multiresidue levels of pesticides in selected fruits in Ghana; a preliminary study in the Yilo and Lower Manya Krobo Districts of the Eastern Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locally produced fruits (mango, pineapple and banana) were sampled and purchased from farms and markets with the Yilo and Lower Manya Krobo districts and analyzed for pesticide residues by gas chromatography equipped with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). In all, 80 samples made up of 40 mango samples and 20 samples each of pineapples and bananas were extracted and analyzed for mainly organochlorine residues (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, dieldein, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, endosulfan s, p, p'-DDE etc.) and synthetic pyrethroid residues (allethrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, etc.). Analysis indicates that about 88% of the mangoes sampled from the farms contained one or more of these pesticide residues. 75% and 65% of the pineapples and bananas respectively from farms and markets had one or more of the analyzed pesticide residues. The data revealed that about 6.2% of the fruit samples analyzed contained organochlorine pesticide residues of γ-HCH (0.013mg/kg and 0.038mg/kg respectively in mangoes and pineapples); δ-HCH [0.014mg/kg (mango) and 0.024mg/kg (pineapple)]; methoxychlor [0.027 mg/kg (mango) and 0.048mg/kg (pineapple)]. Synthetic pyrethoid residues of cyfluthrin [0.078mg/kg (mango) and 0.059 mg/kg (pineapple) and fenvalerate [0.025 mg/kg and 0.028 mg/kg respectively for mango and pineapple] were also found above their respective maximum residue limits (Table 4.8) whereas 78.2% of detected pesticide residues were below the MRLs. Nonetheless, the continuous consumption of these fruits with even the modest pesticide levels can result in accumulation that could result in deadly chronic effects. In assessing the consumers' perception of pesticide residues in fruits, about 69% of the respondents were aware of pesticide residues in fruits and the corresponding adverse effect on human health. Some have experienced pesticide poising after fruit consumption. Thus many wish pesticide usage in fruit and crop cultivation in general is curbed or

  17. Information, motivation and resources: the missing elements in agricultural pesticide policy implementation in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, B.T.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.; Simane, B.

    2015-01-01

    To promote pesticide governance that protects the environment and human health, Ethiopia has developed a legal framework for pesticide registration and control. However, in Ethiopia, pesticides are still registered, traded and used inappropriately. This research analyses how Ethiopia's pesticide pol

  18. 40 CFR 158.2084 - Experimental use permit biochemical pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides nontarget organisms and environmental fate data requirements table. 158.2084 Section 158.2084 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2084 Experimental use permit biochemical...

  19. The establishment and evaluation of near infrared universal model to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Mei Xiong; Xiang Zhong Song; Chang Zhou Chen; Hong Ping Lin; Guo Tang; Yue Huang; Jia Duan; Shun Geng Min

    2012-01-01

    A near infrared universal quantitative analysis model was established to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide EC (hikernalisation) by the PLS (partial least squares) algorithm,the model predictive ability was evaluated by the external inspection method.The model was established among samples containing the same active ingredient from five different companies,and the model determination coefficient R2 and RMSECV (root mean square error of cross validation) were 0.9997 and 0.0223,respectively,the relative error between predicted value and chemical value of the testing set samples was between -2.71% and 3.36%,which indicated that the method to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide EC by the established universal model can meet the need of pesticide market monitoring.

  20. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... of the Residential Exposure Joint Venture, L.L.C. This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-1) issued by the... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint Venture AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency is...

  1. 75 FR 33744 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... ``Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment'' (71 FR 47330... ``significant regulatory action'' under Executive Order 12866, entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR... (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), because it would not have substantial direct effects on the States,...

  2. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

  3. Spatial and temporal analysis of pesticides concentrations in surface water: Pesticides atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Zelfde, van 't M.; Tamis, W.L.M.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch water boards have a well-established program for monitoring pesticide contamination of surface waters. These monitoring data have been processed into a graphic format accessible online and designed to provide insight into pesticide presence in Dutch surface waters and trends over time: the Pes

  4. 76 FR 41246 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, Pesticide Registration Improvement Act Process Improvement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... concerned about the re-evaluation of registered pesticides and the information used to assess risks to...), agricultural workers and farmers; pesticide industry trade associations; environmental, consumer and farmworker... are available either in the electronic docket at http://www.regulations.gov , or, if only available...

  5. Marketing is Dead! Long Live Marketing!

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the lectures included: Why marketing? Citizen, Consumer, Customer (Behavior) Who is the Father of Marketing? Some Antecedents of Marketing When Did Marketing Start? The Contributors of Marketing Where Did Marketing Start? Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization The Role of the Chief Marketing Officer Four Different CEO Views of Marketing Reality – Truth – Challenge (Why Can’t We Make It?) The Strong and Steady Progress of Marketi...

  6. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacon Aura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the

  7. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models for predicting stream concentrations of multiple pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  8. Emission of pesticides into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den, Berg; Kubiak, R.; Benjey, W.G.; Majewski, M.S.; Yates, S.R.; Reeves, G.L.; Smelt, J.H.; Van Der Linden, A. M. A.

    1999-01-01

    During and after the application of a pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application, predominantly as spray particle drift, depends primarily on the application method (equipment and technique), the formulation and environmental conditions, whereas the emission after application depends primarily on the properties of the pesticide, soils, crops and environmental conditions. The fraction of the dosage that misses the target area may be high in some cases and more experimental data on this loss term are needed for various application types and weather conditions. Such data are necessary to test spray drift models, and for further model development and verification as well. Following application, the emission of soil fumigants and soil incorporated pesticides into the air can be measured and computed with reasonable accuracy, but further model development is needed to improve the reliability of the model predictions. For soil surface applied pesticides reliable measurement methods are available, but there is not yet a reliable model. Further model development is required which must be verified by field experiments. Few data are available on pesticide volatilization from plants and more field experiments are also needed to study the fate processes on the plants. Once this information is available, a model needs to be developed to predict the volatilization of pesticides from plants, which, again, should be verified with field measurements. For regional emission estimates, a link between data on the temporal and spatial pesticide use and a geographical information system for crops and soils with their characteristics is needed.

  9. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on Viral marketing, as a part of internet marketing communication i.e. iPromotion. It’s presented as a „niche” in the way of reaching the target group (audience) that rejects traditional forms of promotion. There’s an explanation of differences between various types of viral marketing as well as proposed possibilities of it’s applying into a practice including the rules of campaign execution. The primary data sources, necessary for the solution of investigated issue...

  10. VIRAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    OLENTSOVA Y. A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This project seeks to investigate how the company Gitz can create awareness towards their brand by using viral marketing. To do this we analyze which elements of viral marketing the company can use, to reach their goal. In order to utilize the selected tools of viral marketing best possible, we need to figure out the company’s customer segment and figure out how to reach that segment. This has been done with the use of Henrik Dahl’s Minerva-model that divides the population into f...

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government vows to control the real estate market after a year of robust growth.To diversify financial investment tools,the regulatory authorities approved the launch of stock index futures,and short selling and margin trading to allow investors to hedge against risks.China overtakes the United States to become the world’s biggest auto market in2009.The country is also expected to become the largest consumer market in the world by2020.Google threatens to halt its China operations if it cannot reach a censorship agreement with the government.

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s state-owned enterprises are focusing on the stalwarts of the domestic economy, including the oil, telecommunications and power industries. Although auto sales have seen a period of sluggish demand, luxury car imports have been increasing. Steel mills will drop their prices in the fourth quarter because of excessive sup- ply. China’s stock markets, once taking the global lead in share price increases, have become the worst performing markets in the world. Along with the declining stock markets, mainland-listed companies also saw their profits drop in the first half of this year.

  13. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ RE Market Mar.20~30 Affected by slight price falling of didymium oxide and didymium mischmetal,rare earth market was smooth recently.Price of most rare earth products was stable. Price of mixed rare earth carbonate increased from RMB$15,000~15,500/ton to RMB$16,000-16,500/ton in Baotou due to restriction of the product sales in spot market by main producers.Dealings are mostly done among long-term clients.Supply of rare earth carbonate was very tight.

  14. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese economy regains a solid footing as evidenced in August figures, though exports fail to deliver a needed turnaround. As one of the major driving forces, investments continued to pick up steam. When the stock and real estate markets become increasingly volatile, the gold market gains a chance to shine as a safe haven. Automakers are experiencing skyrocketing sales, but a few risks put their long-term prospects at stake. Chinese PC makers make a push into rural markets to gain an edge over foreign competitors.

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China vows to keep a stringent handle on the industrial overcapacity that is draining life from the economic revival. China Mobile pushes forward OPhone and its operating system in an aggressive push into the 3G market. As its tight grip over the market slips, the wireless titan cannot wait to regain lost ground. China’s manufacturing sector continues to pick up steam as evidenced by the climbing PMI. Soaring prices of pork and eggs reignite fears over inflation. The buoyant real estate market appears to be nearing a turning point as sales cool down.

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:Beijing has set a new mission to become an inter- nationally recognized financial center.The mainland stock market rally slowed down and met with heavy selling pressure from those who gained a big profit from the previous market slump.In accordance with market performance,listed companies readjusted their refinanc- ing schemes and cut refinancing prices.Agricultural Bank of China marched toward listing,though problems still exist.China Eastern Airlines denied rumors of recent negotiations with Singapore Airlines and vowed to concentrate on securing sound travel conditions before the Beijing Olympic Games.China Customs strengthened efforts to block illegal grain exports.

  17. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170 Experimental use permit data requirements—microbial pesticides. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1)...

  18. Challenges and opportunities of the bio-pesticides production by solid-state fermentation: filamentous fungi as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz Quiroz, Reynaldo; Roussos, Sevastianos; Hernández, Daniel; Rodríguez, Raúl; Castillo, Francisco; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, production and use of bio-pesticides have increasing and replacing some synthetic chemical pesticides applied to food commodities. In this review, biological control is focused as an alternative, to some synthetic chemical treatments that cause environmental, human health, and food quality risks. In addition, several phytopathogenic microorganisms have developed resistance to some of these synthetic chemicals and become more difficult to control. Worldwide, the bio-pesticides market is growing annually at a rate of 44% in North America, 20% in Europe and Oceania, 10% in Latin and South American countries and 6% in Asia. Use of agro-industrial wastes and solid-state fermentation (SSF) technology offers an alternative to bio-pesticide production with advantages versus conventional submerged fermentations, as reduced cost and energy consumption, low production of residual water and high stability products. In this review, recent data about state of art regarding bio-pesticides production under SSF on agroindustrial wastes will be discussed. SSF can be defined as a microbial process that generally occurs on solid material in the absence of free water. This material has the ability to absorb water with or without soluble nutrients, since the substrate must have water to support the microorganism's growth and metabolism. Changes in water content are analyzed in order to select the conditions for a future process, where water stress can be combined with the best spore production conditions, obtaining in this way an inexpensive biotechnological option for modern agriculture in developing countries. PMID:24494699

  19. UV-MALDI mass spectrometric quantitation of uracil based pesticides in fruit soft drinks along with matrix effects evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the development of the accurate and precise quantitative method for the determination of pesticides bromacil (1), terbacil (2), lenacil (3), butafenacil (4) and flupropacil (5) in fruit based soft drinks. Three different types of drinks are bought from market; huddled orange fruit drink (100%) (I), red-oranges (II) and multivitamin drink containing strawberry, orange, banana and maracuja (III). Samples were analyzed "with" and "without" pulp utilizing LC-ESI (or APCI) MS/MS, HPLC-ESI-(or APCI)-MS/MS and UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS methods. The effect of high complexity of the food matrix on the analysis was discussed. Study focuses on the advantages of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method compared to the traditionally involved GC alone or hybrid methods such as GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for quantification of pesticides in water and soft drinks. The developed method included the techniques performed for validation, calibration and standardization. The target pesticides are widely used for the treatment of citrus fruits and pineapples, but for soft drink products, there are still no clear regulations on pesticide residues limits. The matrix effects in the analysis of fruit drinks required implementation of the exact standard reference material corresponds to the variety of food matrices. This paper contributed to the broad analytical implementation of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method in the quality control and assessment programs for monitoring of pesticide contamination in fruit based sodas. PMID:24018142

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Starting July 1, the Chinese currency renminbi can be used as the settlement currency for cross-border trade, with pilot programs launched in some neighboring countries and regions. The global economic recession hasn’t dampened Chinese enthusiasm for luxury products, and the country is expected to be the second largest market for luxuries. Venezuela plans to ink another $4-billion oil-for-loan agreement with China, a win-win scenario that both sides would like to see. The automobile market is full of complexities. China has emerged as the largest auto market in the world, luring more foreign automakers to tap this vast territory. Coming in, Italian auto giant Fiat will partner with Guangdong Automobile to shrug off its misfortunes in the Chinese market in the past decade. Going out, Beijing Automobile is seeking to acquire the unwanted Opel brand from General Motors, but has come under harsh criticism from analysts.

  1. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese stock market is maturing more than ever before amid stricter supervision from supervisory agencies. China’s banking regulator will punish eight Chinese banks for negligence in overseeing several companies charged with the illicit use of bank

  2. Market Watch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    TO THE POINT:China’s yuan exchange rate regime reform has produced mixed results for the economy.House prices hold up in most Chinese cities,though clouds are already gathering over the markets.Thermal power genera

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ TO THE POINT: Chinese fund management companies spilled red ink in the first half of 2010 as the stock market turned bearish. The shipbuilding industry regains its lost ground but unsteady seas could capsize hopes for continued success.

  4. Photochemical Attenuation of Pesticides in Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T.; Arnold, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Prairie potholes are small, shallow, glacially-derived wetlands scattered across a vast region extending from Midwestern United States into south central Canada known as the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). They constitute one of the largest inland wetland systems on Earth and play a prominent role in sustaining the regional biodiversity and productivity. Throughout the PPR, historic and contemporary conversion of native prairie for agriculture resulted in a pronounced loss of potholes. Remaining potholes have become interspersed within a matrix of agricultural landscape and trap nonpoint source pollutants such as pesticides from adjacent farmland, which has raised concerns regarding negative impacts on the water quality of downstream water bodies. The fate and persistence of pesticides in potholes, however, remains largely unexplored. Prairie potholes are typically characterized by shallow depth (i.e., large photic zone) and high levels of dissolved organic matter (DOM), making them ideal for photochemical reactions. In this context, we collected pothole water samples from North Dakota to investigate the rates and mechanisms of sunlight-induced attenuation of pesticides. The photodegradation kinetics and pathways of sixteen pesticides in the pothole water were monitored under both simulated and natural sunlight. For most pesticides, photolysis accelerated in the pothole water relative to the buffer control, which pointed to the importance of photosensitized processes (i.e., indirect photolysis). Upon solar irradiation, a mixture of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs), such as carbonate radical, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and triplet-excited state DOM, formed in the pothole water. The major pathways through which pesticides degraded were inferred from the relative contribution attributable to specific PPRIs via quencher experiments. Different classes of pesticides exhibited contrasting photochemical behavior, but singlet oxygen and triplet

  5. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s manufacturing activities keep slowing down.The"big four"state-owned commercial banks have reaped juicy profits,though capital adequacy remains a concern.In striking contrast,the steelmakers are struggling to make ends meet as costs inflation erodes profit margins.The consumer market booms as usual during the May Day holiday.The search engine Baidu benefits from torrid traffic growth and a diversified market strategy.

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China raised its retail gasoline and diesel prices in re-sponse to surges in international crude oil prices. China Investment Corp.raised its stake in Morgan Stanley. China Eastern Airlines Corp. teamedup with Yunnan Province to reclaim its dominant position in the local mar-ket. The government provided details on its programs to replace autosand home appliances. The Shanghai A-share market hit a 10-month high,but with a muddy picture ahead.

  7. Entrepreneurial Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the youngest disciplines in the area of business administration. Hence, there is a special need for literature that can be used in teaching and that can serve as a basis for research. This article reviews five textbooks and three research-oriented books on entrepreneurial marketing, which is regarded as one of the key areas of entrepreneurship. As the review shows, there is no textbook that covers all relevant aspects of entrepreneurial marketing in sufficient bread...

  8. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ RE Market February 20-29 RE market became active recently.Price of most RE products began to rise promoted by tight supply of mixed RE carbonates and insufficient stockpile of spot merchandise in southern China.It was thought NdFeB producers would continue to replenish their stock in the following few weeks,which would consequently drive continuous price rise of partial RE products in March.

  9. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Inflation continues to stretch policymakers’ nerves as consumer prices continue running high. Import growth has outpaced export,a reflection of China’s trade rebalancing.Consumption and investments are holding up, putting a solid floor under the slowing economy.Woes of the U.S. economy have sent a shiver throughout the globe, including China’s stock markets. The gloomy auto market has shown signs of recovery.

  10. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    State-owned enterprises dominate the 2011 China top 500 list, igniting worries about the strength of private businesses. Chinese companies are accelerating the pace of global expansion. Initial public offerings of Chinese companies have shrunk as clouds gather over the outlook of global stock markets. Liang Wengen, a heavy machinery tycoon, tops the 2011 Hurun Rich List. The Boston Consulting Group expects China’s consumer lending market to triple by 2015.

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing industry shows signs of recovery as reflected by a rebounding PMI. The initial public offerings market withers due to less than favorable stock markets. Chinese shipbuilders reel from decreasing orders as external demands falter. The mobile payment industry bursts with vitality, though the security issue remains an acute concern. Foreign banks in China lag behind their local competitors in terms of profitability owing to limited ability to attract deposits.

  12. Compound specific isotope analysis of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Yao, Jun; Trebse, Polonca; Zhang, Ning; Richnow, Hans H

    2014-09-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, CSIA was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides: dichlorvos, omethoate and dimethoate. The linearity of the GC-C-IRMS system was tested for target pesticides and led to an acceptable isotope composition within the uncertainty of the instrument. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed method, the effect of the evaporation procedure on measured carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) values was studied and showed that concentration by evaporation of solvents had no significant isotope effect. The CSIA was then applied to investigate isotope fractionation of the hydrolysis and photolysis of selected pesticides. The carbon isotope fractionation of tested pesticides was quantified by the Rayleigh model, which revealed a bulk enrichment factor (ε) of -0.2±0.1‰ for hydrolysis of dichlorvos, -1.0±0.1‰ and -3.7±1.1‰ for hydrolysis and photolysis of dimethoate respectively. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to trace the transport and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment.

  13. 75 FR 62387 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...., to conditionally register the pesticide products Paladin Technical, Paladin, and Paladin EC... provisions of section 3(c)(7)(C) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),...

  14. Indicators to identify the source of pesticide contamination to groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorling, Lærke; Brüsch, Walter; Tuxen, Nina;

    In Denmark groundwater is synonym with drinking water. The mainstream Danish political approach favors prevention and action at source over advanced treatments of polluted groundwater. The main pollutants are nitrate and pesticides. Pesticides in groundwater can originate from either diffuse...

  15. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  16. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  17. [A model study of pesticide biodegradation in soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieganska, J

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the efficiency of microbial preparations to degrade pesticide residues in soil. A method to degrade pesticides DNOC and pendimethalin using Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter bacteria with a fertilizer is described.

  18. [Research on Identification and Determination of Pesticides in Apples Using Raman Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chen; Peng, Yan-kun; Li, Yong-yu; Dhakal, Sagar; Xu, Tian-feng; Guo, Lang-hua

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been thought to an efficient method for identification and determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. In the present research, a rapid and nondestructive method was proposed and testified based on self-developed Raman system for the identification and determination of deltamethrin and acetamiprid remaining in apple. The peaks of Raman spectra at 574 and 843 cm(-1) can be used to identify deltamethrin and acetamiprid, respectively, the characteristic peaks of deltamethrin and acetamiprid were still visible when the concentrations of the two pesticides were 0.78 and 0.15 mg · kg(-1) in apples samples, respectively. Calibration models of pesticide content were developed by partial least square (PLS) algorithm with different spectra pretreatment methods (Savitzky-Golay smoothing, first derivative transformation, second derivative transformation, baseline calibration, standard normal variable transformation). The baseline calibration methods by 8th order polynomial fitting gave the best results. For deltamethrin, the obtained prediction coefficient (Rp) value from PLS model for the results of prediction and gas chromatography measurement was 0.94; and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.55 mg · kg(-1). The values of Rp and RMSEP were respective 0.85 and 0.12 mg · kg(-1) for acetamiprid. According to the detect performance, applying Raman technology in the nondestructive determination of pesticide residuals in apples is feasible. In consideration of that it needs no pretreatment before spectra collection and causes no damage to sample, this technology can be used in detection department, fruit and vegetable processing enterprises, supermarket, and vegetable market. The result of this research is promising for development of industrially feasible technology for rapid, nondestructive and real time detection of different types of pesticide with its concentration in apples. This

  19. Market scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova Scotia's Energy Strategy is aimed at opening the electricity market to wholesale competition, allowing eligible wholesale customers (such as municipal distribution utilities) to buy their electricity from competitive sources. The Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC) is concerned that this will not promote long-term competition because these eligible customers form only a very small fraction (1.6 per cent) of the total electricity demand in the province. This report examines the possible extensions of competition beyond the minimum specified in the Energy Strategy. It also identifies approaches that the EMGC may consider, including other potential levels of competition and their associated issues. The report discussed the issue of implementing wholesale competition as it relates to unbundling of the transmission tariff from the cost of energy supply and from the cost of distribution in retail marketing. The stages of expanding the market scope were also described with reference to large industrial customers, medium industrial and large commercial customers, and small commercial and residential customers. The report states that it is unlikely that the transition to an open access transmission market will need to be reversed, as it is likely to be an essential component of any further development. The EMGC feels it could minimize future transition costs and promote future evolution of competition by recommending for an institutional and market structure that is compatible with a broader competitive market

  20. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  1. Market Development of Video Games : Video game markets and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This diploma work focus on analysing the markets and marketing of video game industry. After the research of this study, I found out that console game markets are growing dramatically in the recent years. On the other hand, PC game markets (excluding online game markets) are growing slowly due to the problem of illegal copies. So my study will then focus on the development of console game markets and marketing. A new concept called Three Parties is introduced in chapter 5 to help ...

  2. Pesticides, Chromosomal Aberrations, and Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Brian C. -H.; Blair, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    An excessive incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) has been reported among farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. Some pesticides exhibit immunotoxic and genotoxic activities. Individuals exposed to pesticides have also been found to have an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities including the t(14;18)(q32;q21), one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL. Two recent epidemiologic studies reported that the association between pesticide exposu...

  3. Procedures for Removal of Pesticides from the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, M.; Bilandžić, N.; Briški, F.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in food production, and it is believed that more than 1000 types of pesticides are in use. Organochlorines and organophosphorous pesticides are used in large quantities due to their efficacy and low cost. These persistent organic pollutants remain in the soil, silt, and sediment long after application, and enter into watercourses, finding their way directly into the food chain. Today, the following procedures are used to remove pesticides from polluted localities: l...

  4. Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment: Summary and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong; Schelar, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Widely used around the world, pesticides play an important role in protecting health, crops, and property. However, pesticides may also have detrimental effects on human health, with young children among the particularly vulnerable. Recent research suggests that even low levels of pesticide exposure can affect young children’s neurological and behavioral development. Evidence shows a link between pesticides and neonatal reflexes, psychomotor and mental development, and attention-deficit hyper...

  5. Risk Preferences and Pesticide Use by Cotton Farmers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Liu; JiKun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Despite insect-resistant Bt cotton has been lauded for its ability to reduce the use of pesticides, studies have shown that Chinese Bt cotton farmers continue to use excessive amounts of pesticides. Using results from a survey and an artefactual field experiment, we find that farmers who are more risk averse use greater quantities of pesticides. We also find that farmers who are more loss averse use lesser quantities of pesticides. This result is consistent with our conceptual framework and s...

  6. Parkinson’s disease risk from ambient exposure to pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anthony; Costello, Sadie; Cockburn, Myles; Zhang, Xinbo; Bronstein, Jeff ,; Ritz, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Due to the heavy and expanding agricultural use of neurotoxic pesticides suspected to affect dopaminergic neurons, it is imperative to closely examine the role of pesticides in the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We focus our investigation on pesticide use in California’s heavily agricultural central valley by utilizing a unique pesticide use reporting system. From 2001 to 2007, we enrolled 362 incident PD cases and 341 controls living in the Central Valley of Californ...

  7. Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Wolock, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate agricultural pesticide use in the drainage basins of streams that are studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Drainage basin pesticide use estimates were computed by intersecting digital maps of drainage basin boundaries with an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Data 1992 combined with estimates of 1992 agricultural pesticide use in each United States county. This report presents the methods used to quantify agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using a GIS and includes the estimates of atrazine use applied to row crops, small-grain crops, and fallow lands in 150 watersheds in the conterminous United States. Basin atrazine use estimates are presented to compare and analyze the results that were derived from 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution land cover and county pesticide use data, and drainage basin boundaries at various grid cell resolutions. Comparisons of the basin atrazine use estimates derived from watershed boundaries, county pesticide use, and land cover data sets at different resolutions, indicated that overall differences were minor. The largest potential for differences in basin pesticide use estimates between those derived from the 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 exists wherever there are abrupt agricultural land cover changes along the basin divide. Despite the limitations of the drainage basin pesticide use data described in this report, the basin estimates provide consistent and comparable indicators of agricultural pesticide application in surface-water drainage basins studied in the NAWQA Program.

  8. Toxicity Studies on "840 Biologic Pesticide"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    [Objective] "840 Biologic Pesticide" is a very effective biologic pesticide. It consists of Abamectin and celastrus angulatus. Toxicity study was aimed to provide scientific toxicological basis. [Methods] The acute toxicity test,Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were done. [Results] The acute toxicity of single dose of "840 Biologic Pesticide" showed that acute oral LD50 for female and male rats are 4 300 and 4 280 mg/kg,and for female and male mice are 2 330 and 5 110 mg/kg,respectively. The dermal LD50 was >2 000 mg/kg for female and male rats. The mutagenesis studies indicated that Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were negative. [Conclusion] Tested pesticidc belongs to low toticity grade.

  9. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Ţibulcă; Mirela Jimborean; Dan Sălăgean; Ariana Caraba

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  10. Do farmers internalise environmental spillovers of pesticides in production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Stefanou, S.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment and human health. An important question is whether the environmental spillovers of pesticides also affect the farmers’ production environme

  11. 29 CFR 1440.1 - Arbitration of pesticide data disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. 1440.1 Section 1440... ARBITRATION OF PESTICIDE DATA DISPUTES § 1440.1 Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. (a) Persons requesting... in writing to the appropriate American Arbitration Association Regional Office. Such requests...

  12. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and (

  13. Effects of pesticides aerial applications on rice quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerial application of pesticides has become an important research topic in recent years. This research investigated the effects of two types of commercial pesticides on the rice quality under low volume aerial application. It could provide guidance for the pesticide application and choose the right ...

  14. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.427 Pesticide residue standards. The maximum concentration of residues of the following pesticides allowed in flue-cured or burley tobacco, expressed...

  15. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, P O Box 321 Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedeadman59@gmail.com [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service. - Highlights: • Recent

  16. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service. - Highlights: • Recent

  17. Summary of Validation of Multi-Pesticide Methods for Various Pesticide Formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The validation of multi-pesticide methods applicable for various types of pesticide formulations is treated. In a worked-out practical example, i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, the theoretical considerations outlined in the General Guidance section are put into practice. GC conditions, selection of an internal standard and criteria for an acceptable repeatability of injections are outlined, followed by sample preparation, calibration, batch analysis and confirmation of results through comparison using different separation columns. Complete sets of data are displayed in tabular form for other pesticide active ingredients and real formulations. (author)

  18. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  19. Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Neice Müller Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

  20. Improved indicators and monitoring of pesticide use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Kudsk, Per;

      The goal for the new improved indicator, PestNaB (Pesticiders NaturBelastning), was to develop a valid indicator reflecting the potential risk for nature due to application of pesticides and based on available data set for Danish conditions. The focus is on risk in relation the nature close to......, and directly inside, the agricultural areas so this excludes the risk for contamination of groundwater and the human risk. Elements from existing indicators are combined in a way that can make optimal use of the available data, where the level of complexity is adjusted to fit the conditions of uncertainty...

  1. Effects of pesticides on crab cheliped regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costlow, J.D. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The mud crab cheliped regeneration bioassay has proven to be a sensitive and reliable bioassay in studies of the potential sublethal effects of pesticides, including teratogenesis, spontaneous autotomy, and duration of the various stages of development. The assay has also been demonstated to be a useful indication of mortality associated with the impact of these chemicals of anthropogenic origin during the megalopal and early postlarval stages of development. Four pesticides were tested here using the cheliped regeneration bioassay technique. Although carbofuran is approximately 5--6 times more toxic than methomyl, both compounds yield very similar results in terms of sublethal effects.

  2. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields – Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. - Highlights: • Field-results reveal shortcomings in the EU authorization procedure for pesticides. • The plough layer can be bypassed via preferential transport in e.g. wormholes. • Pesticides properties are decisive for leaching pattern on the sandy fields. • The hydrogeological settings control the leaching patterns on the loamy fields. • Pesticide detection frequency seems to be independent of the month of the year. - Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveals shortcomings in the European Union authorization procedure for pesticides

  3. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  4. Monitoring of pesticide residues in apples, lettuce and potato of the Slovene origin in the years 2001 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Baša Česnik, Helena; Gregorčič, Ana; VELIKONJA BOLTA, Špela; Kmecl, Veronika

    2006-01-01

    Abstract 404 samples of apples, lettuce and potato produced in the Republic of Slovenia were analysed for pesticide residues at the Agricultural Institute of Slovenia in the years 2001 to 2004. Surveillance sampling in eight agricultural production areas was performed at market producers at the harvesting of products or in storehouses, after the pre-harvest interval of plant protection products used. Samples exceeding the maximum residue levels were the following: 3 apple samples (...

  5. Heterogeneity Index of Trade and Actual Heterogeneity Index - the case of maximum residue levels (MRLs) for pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Burnquist, L.H.; Shutes, K.; Rau, M.L.; Souza, de, H.R.; DE Faria

    2011-01-01

    Non-tariff measures (NTMs) beyond traditional trade policy instruments define the requirements that importing countries imposed on foreign products. Due to differences across countries, requirements for supplying foreign markets can lead to trade costs and thus hamper international trade. In this paper, we introduce two regulatory heterogeneity indexes which are subsequently applied to the case maximum residue levels (MRLs) of pesticides. The Heterogeneity Index of Trade (HIT) reflects the re...

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    While the stock markets regain their momentum this year,China’s securities regulators have issued new rules for public list-ings of start-up enterprises.Chinese fund management firms had their most difficult year on record in 2008,losing a total of 1.5 trillion yuan($219 billion) because of the meltdowns in the domestic stock markets.The country’s central bank is sticking to its appropriately accommoda-tive monetary policy by refraining from withdrawing cash from the open market and issuing fewer central bank bills.The Export-Import Bank of China and the Inter-American Development Bank signed a trade financing agreement to boost bilateral trade.Wuhan Iron and Steel secured a deal to purchase a 19.9-percent stake in a Canadian miner.Chinese financial institutions now are allowed to borrow more foreign money to finance their trading activities.

  7. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chinese food prices, especially those of vegetables,have dropped for the eighth week in a row due to abundant supply inthe summer season. The inflation expectation was diminished slight-ly. The house market was caught in a predicament, in which the high prices were maintained,but with a limited number of buyers. Morgan Stanley planned to sell its property in Shanghai for the first time in five years,indicating its short position in the mainland property market.China Unicorn was also suffering a hard time, as its share prices in the New York, Hong Kong and the mainland stock markets plummeted after a major restructuring took place in the mainland telecom industry. China Merchants Bank was downgraded after it bought Hong Kona’s Wina Luna Bank for overseas expansion.

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s pledge to further reform the renminbi(yuan)exchange rate regime recently delivered a boost to Asian currencies and global stock markets.The central bank expanded its pilot program involving yuan settlement in foreign trade to include trade centers the world over.The National Audit Office revealed details about local government debts,raising concerns over a financial black hole.By setting up a stringent entrance threshold,China aims to clear up the crowded third-party payment industry.Financial pressure mounts on real estate developers,due to the recent housing market gloom. China will overtake Japan as the world’s second largest advertising market within five years.

  9. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China’s power consumption in the first half of 2009 fell 2.24 percent year on year. The National Bureau of Statistics explained the drop was due to power efficiency improvement in many energy-depleting sectors. The real estate market continues to burn hot, but a number of un- certainties lingered to quench the fire. Newly approved funds in July flew into markets to catch fading glows of the stock euphoria. The Aluminum Corp. of China Ltd. raised spot alumina prices by 4.35 percent, in a re- flection of the healing markets. Apple Inc. agreed with China Unicom to officially launch the iPhone handset on the Chinese mainland this autumn. By HU YUE

  10. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese stock market showed signs of cooling down after repeated warnings from the supervisory departments over mounting risks.But the market was expected to rebound as excessive liquidity remains a problem.The inflow of foreign direct investment and the large trade surplus pushed foreign exchange reserves to the highest in history by the end of September.In turn,the reserves added more pressure to liquidity.The Central Bank raised the reserve requirement ratio to its highest mark in history,but the latest move was defied by the market. There is good news for qualified foreign institutional investors (QFIIs): the securities watchdog said that the QFII quota might be tripled by the end of this year,which is long awaited by the QFIIs. By LIU YUNYUN

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After four days of breathtaking plunges, the Chinese stock market recovered to a period of steady growth thanks to encouragement from various government departments. The Chinese central bank will probably raise the interest rate in June after food prices increased dramatically in May. More good news for foreign banks. Early this month, the central bank allowed foreign banks to trade gold on the Chinese gold market and they are now able to issue bankcards in the country. Lenovo Group, China’s leading PC producer, is dedicated to exploring the rural market to boost its competitiveness. China Mobile will seek bidders to offer cell-phone handsets, a package worth 4-6 billion yuan.

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The global financial market turmoil has claimed a handful of financial giants and taken its toll on emerging markets,in-cluding China.The country’s sovereign wealth fund management company has been ill-fated since its establishment a year ago and has lost billions of dollars because of the U.S.financial institution de-bacle.Domestic mutual funds have lost about one third of their value since early this year and show no signs of recovery.The government asked state-owned enterprises to reduce their investments in vola-tile capital markets to avoid further losses at a time when financing is tight.The country’s trade surplus unexpectedly jumped in September,largely thanks to shrinking imports,although the level of exports re-mained stable from the previous month.By LIU YUNYUN

  13. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China widens the tax rebate program for Hainan Provinceto stimulate the island’s tourism industry.The banking sector fares well with profits surging last year.By imposing a higher resource tax on rare earth exploration,China tries to streamline the fragmented industry.The shipping giantCOSCO jumps back into the black thanks to buoyant market demands.The international consulting firm McKinsey&Co.expects China to replace Japan as the world’s top luxury goods market by 2015.

  14. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Foreign companies doing business in China are now seeing an end of an era, as favorable tax policies are dropped and they will compete against domestic companies on an equal footing. Chinese property developers loaded with money are making a drop in housing prices less likely in the short term. Analysts expect the sizzling auto market in China to cool in 2011 due to a matured market and the exit of stimulus measures. A batch of genetically modified corn imported from the United States was sent back to its origin after forbidden ingredients were found. China is speeding up its mapping business by setting up a geographic information industrial park in Beijing.

  15. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    RE Market Went Steadily by the End of November Rare earth market went steadily by the end of November Most of the producers believe there will not be much fluctuation in the price of rare earth products at the beginning of December. But in fact, prices of some rare earth oxides and metals, such as dysprosium oxide and Dy-Fe, are declining. Disclosed by major rare earth carbonate suppliers, factory price of RE carbonate maintained at But factory price of most plants was reduced to RMB One plant in Baotou eve...

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese Government adopted a package of mea-sures to rescue the tumbling mainland stock markets. It will let listed companies repurchase their shares in the open markets and require the government’s investment arm to increase its holdings in major listed domestic banks. But most notably,the government ditched the stock trading stamp tax charged to those who buy shares. Mainland steel prices are expected to drop in the fourth quarter when industry leader Baosteel cuts its prices in October and November. Chinese companies such as Sinosteel and China Oilfield Services are increasing their acqui-sitions of,and stakes,in foreign companies.

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The World Bank forecasts a rosy prospect for the Chinese economy,despite a moderate slowdown in growth.The real estate market continues to cool,with an increasing number of cities experiencing price declines.China’s state-owned enterprises face a bumpy road ahead,with their profits shrinking quickly.The shipping giant COSCO is swimming in red ink due to tepid demands and overcapacity.China is expected to replace the United States as the world’s top e-commerce market by 2015.

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In its latest attempt to calm the property fever, the government steps up controls over affordable houses. China’s service trade reported the first decline on a yearly basis since 2001. Chinese shippers report jawdropping losses for 2009 due to collapse of global shipping. China’s private airlines struggle in a market dominated by state-owned carriers. The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences lists Hong Kong as the most competitive city in China in 2009, with Shanghai and Shenzhen being the second and third. Stock market fluctuations caused fund management companies to spill red ink in the first quarter.

  19. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The IMF points to a promising outlook for the Chinese economy,though uncertainties still loom large.The auto market cools down,with March sales growing aminuscule 5.36 percent year on year.Chinese property developers have received a blow to their war chests,as sales plunge and borrowing costs climb.Chinese funds have experienced a dramatic drop in profits last year due to bearish stock markets.The country’s economic take-off fuels a wealth boom with the number of millionaires increasing.

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chinese exporters regain steam in a warm embrace of emerging markets.After a bumper year in 2009,fund managers are skeptical of what lies ahead for the stock market this year.On a broader scale,the Chinese economy remains a source of confidence for U.S.firms,as illustrated by a survey of the American Chamber of Commerce in China.Overcapacity remains a top priority on the government’s agenda.China’s top automaker SAIC Motor witnessed its net profit surge nine-fold last year.

  1. Digital Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Wind; Vijay Mahajan

    2002-01-01

    The digital revolution has shaken marketing to its core with consumers being offered greater price transparency and often even the chance to dictate the price. What does pricing mean in a world in which customers propose their own prices (as at priceline.com) or buyers and sellers haggle independently in auctions (as at e-Bay)? The most significant changes in the digital marketing show the emergence of 'cyber consumers', the cyber business-to-business world and the changing reality of an incr...

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China adds to its holdings of U.S. Treasury securities for the first time in three months. China’s auto market stages a significant comeback in August as vehicle sales grew 6.29 percent from July figures. The Anshan Iron & Steel Group Corp. concluded an agreement to invest in the United States, ending doubts about the feasibility of the deal. State -owned enterprises raked in juicy profits from January to August this year. China inches up on the global competitiveness ranking list. Global payment giant MasterCard Worldwide predicts China will replace the United States as the world’s top credit card market by 2020.

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the global economic downturn, the Chinese Government has loosened its monetary policy to boost national economic growth, after detecting falling inflationary pressure. It plans to initiate a value-added tax reform program on January 1 to reduce companies’ tax burdens. China’s property mar-ket cooled after a thriving year and grew only 1.6 percent in October year on year. The energy market also faced tremendous setbacks due to shrinking demand for power. China’s trade surplus, on the other hand, reported a record-high gain in October.

  4. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s Year of the Tiger is off to a roaring start, as indicated by the first-quarter macroeconomic figures released on April 15. The consumer price index maintained steady growth in the past few months, but volatility of the index is likely to increase as more residential factors are taken into account. Global appliance retailers look to take advantage of the growing Chinese consumer market, though they are far from a serious challenge to domestic rivals. Chinese Internet conglomerate Tencent expands internationally, betting on the thriving Russian market.

  5. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By ordering another interest rate hike,China attempts to combat runaway inflation.The manufacturing industry loses some steam as the PMI hits a five-month low in January 2011.The gold market is bursting with vitality as risk aversion comes to the fore amid inflationary fears.Chinese telecom equipment suppliers Huawei and ZTE reap juicy returns,with their 2010 revenues on a sharp rise.China’s job markets are bound for a rosy outlook this year with hiring activities picking up.

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The Chinese mainland and Taiwan officially started local currency exchange services just before they resumed direct flights and opened up the Taiwan tourism market to mainland visitors.A government report warned that China was overly dependent on foreign economies that transferred international inflation to it. The government raised the textile export tax rebate 2 percentage points to 13 percent to boost textile manufacturers’ competitiveness in overseas markets. China opened two exchanges so companies can trade their pollution discharge rights. The government also issued new rules regarding karaoke copyright fees.By LIU YUNYUN

  7. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As a supplement to this issue’s cover story, Market Watch takes a quick look at the rest of the industries that the Central Government seeks to revitalize. They include the light, petrochemical, nonferrous metal and logistics industries. The budget deficit this year is expected to hit an all-time high of 950 billion yuan ($140 billion) in the wake of massive tax cuts and increased government spending. In the first month of this year, the amount of loans issued by banks reached a record high in accordance with the government’s attempt to inject more liquidity into the markets.

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China’s foreign trade records monthly drop again, with February’s deficit reaching $7.3 billion. The feverish auto market is calming down, with February sales dropping 33.1 percent from a month ago. Chinese thermal power generators are facing serious head- winds as the coal price increases. Ernst & Young’s report shows China racing ahead of other countries in renewable energy investments. The U.S. coupon website Groupon.com extends its reach into China, but its prospects remain uncertain. Digital advertiser Focus Media is faring well thanks to a booming advertising market in China.

  9. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The mainland securities watchdog took on the task of rejuvenating the nation’s stumbling stock markets with further en- deavors.It approved two new qualified foreign institutional investors to invest in the mainland financial markets.The Ministry of Commerce made a clear statement that foreign-invested companies can be listed on the mainland.Hot money continues to flow into the country,ad- ding pressure to liquidity control.To date,most listed companies had issued their first quarter reports,showing profit growth rate slowdown. The oil giants Sinopec and PetroChina suffered from profit slump,due to policy reasons.

  10. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Signs of economic recovery are glimmering in China. The renminbi appreciated to a seven-month high against the U.S. dollar. Property sales in Beijing picked up in April. Meanwhile, on the mainland stock markets,China Eastern Airlines reported the biggest loss in 2008 of all listed companies and was warned about a possible delisting. Last year’s stock market slump took its toll on social security fund performance with its first loss in eight years. Internationally, China insisted on a 40-percent cut in iron ore prices, despite Australian miners’ strong opposition. The Chinese Government will send two investment and purchase teams to Europe in June.

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In line with the Central Government’s decision to carry out tightened monetary policy,China’s central bank launched two special depo- sits,encouraging banks to deposit more money into the central bank in order to curb liquidity.China’s state-owned investment firm is buying into Morgan Stanley’s shares to divert the country’s ballooning foreign reserves.Allowing foreign-invested companies to be listed in the mainland stock market could work as another measure to absorb the excessive money in circulation.Shanghai has established a financial arbitration court to resolve disputes arising from the booming financial market.

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    House prices continue heading north in most Chinese cities,defying government efforts to curb the property market fever. Chinese companies press ahead with outbound mergers and acquisitions, as they expand their footprint beyond China’s borders. China has boosted its holdings of the U.S. Treasury Securities for two consecutive months after previously shedding these assets. State-owned enterprises continue along a profitable path, with profits soaring in the first half of this year. China remains the world’s hottest initial public offering (IPO) market, despite a decrease in IPO cases in the first half.

  13. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s vehicle sales continue to pick up, putting the coun- try on track to retain its position as the world’s largest auto market this year. Chinese companies flock to U.S. stock markets in hope of hitting the jackpot with successful IPOs. China remains the largest foreign holder of U.S. Treasury securities, after adding $23.3 billion in October. State-owned enterprises harvest handsome profits. The newly established Guoxin Asset Management Co. will be engaged in accelerating state-owned assets restructuring. The aviation industry is getting back on the recovery track.

  14. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing activities continue to lose steam as the purchasing managers index drops for the third consecutive month. The U.S.retail giant Best Buy trims its China presence after struggling to survive amidcut-throat competition. But an increasing number of U.S. companies are still expanding into China to cash in on the vibrant market. The aluminum behemoth Chalco jumps back into the black due to growing prices of thelight metal. China’s leading portal website Sina makes a push into the online shopping market by acquiring a stake in an online apparel retailer.

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By allowing foreign investors greater access to Chinese equities,regulators try to firm up the fickle stock markets. China’s export woes show signs of healing,though uncertainties still loom large. Regardless of controversies swirling around the deal,the Sichuan heavy machinery maker Tengzhong agrees to buy the General Motors Co.’s Hummer brand. China’s auto market burns hot as September sales soared 77.88 percent year on year. Citibank China has recently opened its third lending company in China.

  16. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.;

    2009-01-01

    % of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides......Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...

  17. Kinetic Modelling of Pesticidal Degradation and Microbial Growth in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDUO-SEN; WANGZONG-SHENG; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses such models for the degradation kinetics of pesticides in soil as the model expressing the degradation rate as a function of two varables:the pesticide concentration and the number of pesticide degrading microorganisms,the model expressing the pesticide concentration as explicit or implicit function of time ,and the model exprssing the pesticide loss rate constants as functions of temperature,These models may interpret the degradation curves with an inflection point.A Kinetic model describing the growth processes of microbial populations in a closed system is reported as well.

  18. A mobile app for military operational entomology pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Yans, Matthew W; Hill, David W; Obenauer, Peter J; Hoffman, Eric R

    2014-09-01

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War-Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated more than 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treatments in 6 ecological regions against a range of mosquito, sand fly, and filth fly nuisance and disease-vector threats. To synthesize and operationalize these DWFP field and laboratory efficacy data we developed an interactive iOS and Android mobile software application, the Pesticide App, consisting of specific pesticide application guidance organized by environment and target insect vector species. PMID:25843102

  19. Public health pesticide use in California: a comparative summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Timothy S; Novak, Mark G; Kramer, Vicki L; Bronson, Larry R

    2010-09-01

    California pesticide use summary data and use reports from local vector control agencies were reviewed to document public health pesticide use patterns. During the 15-year period 1993-2007, public health pesticide use averaged 1.75 million lb (0.79 million kg) (AI), accounted for 99% of all reported public health pesticide use. Petroleum distillates, principally larviciding oils, accounted for 88% of public health pesticide use. Pyrethrins and naled, used as mosquito adulticides, increased substantially in recent years (post-2004), coinciding with increased West Nile virus control activities and availability of emergency funding. PMID:21033068

  20. Health impact from pesticide residues in a desert environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, James

    1998-01-01

    The amount and frequency of use of pesticides in vegetable farming have been shown to be high in the five farming areas in Al-Ain, UAE. The mean usage of all pesticides was high (6.81 g/m2) while the usage of organophosphorus pesticides (2.11 g/m2) was higher compared to the usage of all the other types of pesticides. A number of pesticides banned from use in the developed countries are still used in vegetable farming. The depletion of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity among...