WorldWideScience

Sample records for 200-zp-1 operable unit

  1. FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT FOR THE 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-07-18

    The Hanford Site, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), encompasses approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. In 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas of the Hanford Site on the 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300, 'National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan' National Contingency Plan [NCPD], Appendix B, 'National Priorities List' (NPL), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Areas NPL sites consist of the 200 West and 200 East Areas (Figure 1-1). The 200 Areas contain waste management facilities, inactive irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities, and the 200 North Area (formerly used for interim storage and staging of irradiated fuel). Several waste sites in the 600 Area, located near the 200 Areas, also are included in the 200 Areas NPL site. The 200 Areas NPL site is in a region referred to as the 'Central Plateau' and consists of approximately 700 waste sites, excluding sites assigned to the tank farm waste management areas (WMAs). The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) consists of the groundwater located under the northern portion of the 200 West Area. Waste sources that contributed to the 200-ZP-1 OU included cribs and trenches that received liquid and/or solid waste in the past from the Z Plant and T Plant aggregate areas, WMA-T, WMA-TX/TY, and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). This feasibility study (FS) for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater OU was prepared in accordance with the requirements of CERCLA decision documents. These decision documents are part of the Administrative Record for the selection of remedial actions for each waste site and present the selected remedial actions that are chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

  2. FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT FOR THE 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-07-18

    The Hanford Site, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), encompasses approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. In 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas of the Hanford Site on the 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300, 'National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan' National Contingency Plan [NCPD], Appendix B, 'National Priorities List' (NPL), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Areas NPL sites consist of the 200 West and 200 East Areas (Figure 1-1). The 200 Areas contain waste management facilities, inactive irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities, and the 200 North Area (formerly used for interim storage and staging of irradiated fuel). Several waste sites in the 600 Area, located near the 200 Areas, also are included in the 200 Areas NPL site. The 200 Areas NPL site is in a region referred to as the 'Central Plateau' and consists of approximately 700 waste sites, excluding sites assigned to the tank farm waste management areas (WMAs). The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) consists of the groundwater located under the northern portion of the 200 West Area. Waste sources that contributed to the 200-ZP-1 OU included cribs and trenches that received liquid and/or solid waste in the past from the Z Plant and T Plant aggregate areas, WMA-T, WMA-TX/TY, and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). This feasibility study (FS) for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater OU was prepared in accordance with the requirements of CERCLA decision documents. These decision documents are part of the Administrative Record for the selection of remedial actions for each waste site and present the selected remedial actions that are chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

  3. Large-Scale Pumping Test Recommendations for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.

    2010-09-08

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently assessing aquifer characterization needs to optimize pump-and-treat remedial strategies (e.g., extraction well pumping rates, pumping schedule/design) in the 200-ZP-1 operable unit (OU), and in particular for the immediate area of the 241 TX-TY Tank Farm. Specifically, CHPRC is focusing on hydrologic characterization opportunities that may be available for newly constructed and planned ZP-1 extraction wells. These new extraction wells will be used to further refine the 3-dimensional subsurface contaminant distribution within this area and will be used in concert with other existing pump-and-treat wells to remediate the existing carbon tetrachloride contaminant plume. Currently, 14 extraction wells are actively used in the Interim Record of Decision ZP-1 pump-and-treat system for the purpose of remediating the existing carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater within this general area. As many as 20 new extraction wells and 17 injection wells may be installed to support final pump-and-treat operations within the OU area. It should be noted that although the report specifically refers to the 200-ZP-1 OU, the large-scale test recommendations are also applicable to the adjacent 200-UP-1 OU area. This is because of the similar hydrogeologic conditions exhibited within these two adjoining OU locations.

  4. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  5. Field Test Report: Preliminary Aquifer Test Characterization Results for Well 299-W15-225: Supporting Phase I of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2009-09-23

    This report examines the hydrologic test results for both local vertical profile characterization and large-scale hydrologic tests associated with a new extraction well (well 299-W15-225) that was constructed during FY2009 for inclusion within the future 200-West Area Groundwater Treatment System that is scheduled to go on-line at the end of FY2011. To facilitate the analysis of the large-scale hydrologic test performed at newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225 (C7017; also referred to as EW-1 in some planning documents), the existing 200-ZP-1 interim pump-and-treat system was completely shut-down ~1 month before the performance of the large-scale hydrologic test. Specifically, this report 1) applies recently developed methods for removing barometric pressure fluctuations from well water-level measurements to enhance the detection of hydrologic test and pump-and-treat system effects at selected monitor wells, 2) analyzes the barometric-corrected well water-level responses for a preliminary determination of large-scale hydraulic properties, and 3) provides an assessment of the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225. The hydrologic characterization approach presented in this report is expected to have universal application for meeting the characterization needs at other remedial action sites located within unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  6. DESCRIPTION OF MODELING ANALYSES IN SUPPORT OF THE 200-ZP-1 REMEDIAL DESIGN/REMEDIAL ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VONGARGEN BH

    2009-11-03

    The Feasibility Study/or the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (DOE/RL-2007-28) and the Proposed Plan/or Remediation of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (DOE/RL-2007-33) describe the use of groundwater pump-and-treat technology for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) as part of an expanded groundwater remedy. During fiscal year 2008 (FY08), a groundwater flow and contaminant transport (flow and transport) model was developed to support remedy design decisions at the 200-ZP-1 OU. This model was developed because the size and influence of the proposed 200-ZP-1 groundwater pump-and-treat remedy will have a larger areal extent than the current interim remedy, and modeling is required to provide estimates of influent concentrations and contaminant mass removal rates to support the design of the aboveground treatment train. The 200 West Area Pre-Conceptual Design/or Final Extraction/Injection Well Network: Modeling Analyses (DOE/RL-2008-56) documents the development of the first version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS model of the Hanford Site's Central Plateau, as well as the initial application of that model to simulate a potential well field for the 200-ZP-1 remedy (considering only the contaminants carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99). This document focuses on the use of the flow and transport model to identify suitable extraction and injection well locations as part of the 200 West Area 200-ZP-1 Pump-and-Treat Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOEIRL-2008-78). Currently, the model has been developed to the extent necessary to provide approximate results and to lay a foundation for the design basis concentrations that are required in support of the remedial design/remediation action (RD/RA) work plan. The discussion in this document includes the following: (1) Assignment of flow and transport parameters for the model; (2) Definition of initial conditions for the transport model for each simulated contaminant of concern (COC) (i.e., carbon

  7. TREATABILITY TEST FOR REMOVING TECHNETIUM-99 FROM 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; TORTOSO AC; ELLIOTT WS; BYRNES ME

    2007-11-29

    The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) is one of two groundwater OUs located within the 200 West groundwater aggregate area of the Hanford Site. The primary risk-driving contaminants within the 200-ZP-1 OU include carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99 (Tc-99). A pump-and-treat system for this OU was initially installed in 1995 to control the 0.002 kg/m{sup 3} (2000 {micro}g/L) contour of the carbon tetrachloride plume. Carbon tetrachloride is removed from groundwater with the assistance of an air-stripping tower. Ten extraction wells and three injection wells operate at a combined rate of approximately 0.017m{sup 3}/s (17.03 L/s). In 2005, groundwater from two of the extraction wells (299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44) began to show concentrations greater than twice the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of Tc-99 (33,309 beq/m{sup 3} or 900 pCi/L). The Tc-99 groundwater concentrations from all ten of the extraction wells when mixed were more than one-half of the MCL and were slowly increasing. If concentrations continued to rise and the water remained untreated for Tc-99, there was concern that the water re-injected into the aquifer could exceed the MCL standard. Multiple treatment technologies were reviewed for selectively removing Tc-99 from the groundwater. Of the treatment technologies, only ion exchange was determined to be highly selective, commercially available, and relatively low in cost. Through research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the ion-exchange resin Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E was found to successfully remove Tc-99 from groundwater, even in the presence of competing anions. For this and other reasons, Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E ion exchange resin was selected for treatability testing. The treatability test required installing resin columns on the discharge lines from extraction wells 299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44. Preliminary test results have concluded that the Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E resin is effective at removing Tc-99 from groundwater to

  8. Analysis of the Hydrologic Response Associated with Shutdown and Restart of the 200-ZP-1 Pump-and-Treat System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2000-09-08

    A number of programs have been implemented on the Hanford Site that utilize the pumping and treatment of contaminated groundwater as part of their remediation strategy. Often the treated water is reinjected into the aquifer at injection well sites. The implementation of remedial pump and treat systems, however, results in hydraulic pressure responses, both areally and vertically (i.e., with depth) within the pumped aquifer. The area within the aquifer affected by the pump and treat system (i.e., radius of influence) is commonly estimated based on detecting associated water-level responses within surrounding monitor wells. Natural external stresses, such as barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These temporal barometric effects may significantly mask water-level responses within more distant wells that are only slightly affected (< 0.10 m) by the test system. External stress effects, therefore, can lead to erroneous indications of the radius of influence of the imposed pump and treat system remediation activities and can greatly diminish the ability to analyze the associated well responses for hydraulic property characterization. When these extraneous influences are significant, adjustments or removal of the barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydrologic assessment. This report examines possible hydrologic effects of pump and treat remediation actions and provides a detailed analysis of water-level measurements for selected 200-ZP-1 pump and treat system monitor wells during the recent Y2K shutdown (December 1999) and restart activity (January 2000). The general findings presented in this report have universal application for unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  9. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING ALTERNATIVES TO USING GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TO TREAT 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER AND 200-PW-1 SOIL VAPOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME, KALMAR JA

    2007-11-26

    This document presents a detailed evaluation of selected alternative treatment options to granular activated carbon (GAC) for removing carbon tetrachloride generated from the groundwater pump-and-treat system at the 200-ZP-I Operable Unit (OU) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation of alternative treatment options to GAC is also applicable to the vadose zone soil vapor extraction (SVE) system at the 200-PW-l OU, which is also located in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area.

  10. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  11. Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    best demonstrated value for small (< AA size) lithium - thionyl - chloride batteries (Halpert 1993). Equation (2-3) shows that the solar power...However, this energy den- sity this is only ~ 3 times larger than the demonstrated performance of the best lithium batteries , and the fuel cells are...Units 13 2.2.2 ASIC Capability 15 2.2.3 Power and Size 17 2.2.4 Cost 19 2.3 Power Sources 20 2.3.1 Batteries 21 2.3.2 Solar Augmentation

  12. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  13. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  14. The United States Military and Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    stated that, "The wave of the future will be putting together task forces that will be able to respond to crisis management or humanitarian...examine three options for the military’s role in humanitaria operations at home and abroad. Option 1: Virtually Eliminate Anv Military Role This is the...humanitarian aid in almost any crisis .36 The military resists the creation of specially designated units because such specialization reduces the

  15. NIC atomic operation unit with caching and bandwidth mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    A network interface controller atomic operation unit and a network interface control method comprising, in an atomic operation unit of a network interface controller, using a write-through cache and employing a rate-limiting functional unit.

  16. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  17. Accelerating the Fourier split operator method via graphics processing units

    CERN Document Server

    Bauke, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Current generations of graphics processing units have turned into highly parallel devices with general computing capabilities. Thus, graphics processing units may be utilized, for example, to solve time dependent partial differential equations by the Fourier split operator method. In this contribution, we demonstrate that graphics processing units are capable to calculate fast Fourier transforms much more efficiently than traditional central processing units. Thus, graphics processing units render efficient implementations of the Fourier split operator method possible. Performance gains of more than an order of magnitude as compared to implementations for traditional central processing units are reached in the solution of the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and the time dependent Dirac equation.

  18. Analysis on Operation Reliability of Generating Units in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the data on operation reliability indices and relevant analyses toward China's conventional power generating units in 2009. The units brought into the statistical analysis include 100-MW or above thermal generating units, 40-MW or above hydro generating units, and all nuclear generating units. The reliability indices embodied include utilization hours, times and hours of scheduled outages, times and hours of unscheduled outages, equivalent forced outage rate and equivalent availability factor.

  19. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant scale that can be projected onto future Spaceport architectures...

  20. Infantry Small-Unit Mountain Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    example, may cause unit personnel to overlook suspicious signs of enemy personnel or activity, or could lead to a slip and fall down a steep...and ice makes traction less stable, increasing the risk of injury from slips and falls. A slip near a steep mountain slope can quickly turn fatal if...risk contact frostbite, especially if the temperature is below 0 °F. Soldiers should change socks once per day at a minimum. If this is not possible

  1. Security-constrained unit commitment with flexible operating modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo

    The electricity industry throughout the world, which has long been dominated by vertically integrated utilities, is facing enormous challenges. To enhance the competition in electricity industry, vertically integrated utilities are evolving into a distributed and competitive industry in which market forces drive the price of electricity and possibly reduce the net cost of supplying electrical loads through increased competition. To excel in the competition, generation companies (GENCOs) will acquire additional generating units with flexible operating capability which allows a timely response to the continuous changes in power system conditions. This dissertation considers the short-term scheduling of generating units with flexible modes of operation in security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC). Among the units considered in this study are combined cycle units, fuel switching/blending units, photovoltaic/battery system, pumped-storage units, and cascaded hydro units. The proposed security-constrained unit commitment solution will include a detailed model of transmission system which could impact the short-term scheduling of units with flexible operation modes.

  2. Crushed Stone Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  3. Sand and Gravel Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  4. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  5. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  6. Influence of sulfur physical properties in Claus unit operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of la Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The Claus process is an efficient way of removing H{sub 2}S from acid gas streams and it has been widely practiced in industries such as natural gas processing, oil refining and metal smelting. Increasingly strict pollution control regulations require maximum sulfur recovery and high stream factor from the Claus units in order to minimize sulfur-containing effluents. As has been widely reported Claus unit's damages mainly occur during start up and shutdown. These operations involve scheduled warm-up and cool-down of the unit, usually burning refinery fuel-gas, which if not properly made can produce severe pipe and equipment plugging as well as catalyst deactivation. Sulfur products remaining in the unit during a shutdown period can produce dramatic unit corrosion episodes diminishing sulfur recovery unit stream factor. In the present paper some guidelines are given based on sulfur physical properties singularities which help to improve start-up/shut-down procedures. (orig.)

  7. Analysis on Operation Reliability of Generating Units in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Xiaowen; Chu Xue

    2007-01-01

    @@ The weighted average equivalent availability factor of thermal power units in 2005 was 92.34%, an increase of 0.64 percentage points as compared to that in 2004. The average equivalent availability factor in 2005 was 92.22%, a decrease of 0.95 percentage points as compared to that in 2004. The nationwide operation reliability of generating units in 2005 was analyzed completely in this paper.

  8. Analysis on Isolation Condenser Operation by Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident resulted in the core damage in three reactors and the release of considerable amount of radioactive material to the environment, not to mention significant social impact and anti-nuclear atmosphere all around the world. This paper provides a review of the findings related to shift operators' operation of the isolation condenser in Unit 1 to examine shift operators' response to the situation. Based on the review of the findings, a situation assessment model was developed to analyze shift operators' understanding on whether core cooling was successfully performed in Unit 1 through the operation of isolation condenser. It was found that lack of information could be one of the main causes for the failure in core cooling by the IC in Unit 1. It is also recommended that the differences in the mathematical model for the situation assessment and that of the real operator need to be further investigated.

  9. Eurodish-Continuous Operation, System Improvement and Reference Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, T.; Schiel, W.; Heller, P.; Reinalter, W.; Gineste, J. M.; Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G.

    2006-07-01

    The 10 kWel Dish/Stirling system EuroDish was enhanced. Newly developed and improved components like the ceramic cavity insulation and the control system are described as well as a novel assembly method for the concentrator and a number of improvements and new features of the control software. Country Reference Units were built in Spain, France and Germany and are continuously operated. Operation experiences and performance data are presented. (Author)

  10. Adaptation of Professional Skills in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Deniz; Rende, Sevinc; Baysal, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the design of three consecutive unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses that retain the academic rigor of the course while incorporating skills essential for professional careers, such as ability to propose ideas, develop practical solutions, participate in teamwork, meet deadlines, establish communication between technical support…

  11. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  12. Refining United States Policy on Offensive Cyber Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    address state- sponsored cyber threats with a very different set of tools ranging from diplomacy to kinetic strikes. Categorizing attacks by actor will...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY REFINING UNITED STATES POLICY ON OFFENSIVE CYBER OPERATIONS by Max...to offensive cyber warfare, specifically cyber exploitation and cyber attack. Current domestic and international policies lack mechanisms to

  13. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  14. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  15. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  16. Stability Analysis for Operation of DG Units in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multifunction control strategy for the stable operation of Distributed Generation (DG) units during grid integration. The proposed control model is based on Direct Lyapunov Control (DLC) theory and provides a stable region for the appropriate operation of DG units during grid...... integration. Using DLC technique in DG technology can provide the continuous injection of maximum active power in fundamental frequency from the DG source to the grid, compensating all reactive power and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads through the integration of DG link into the grid....... Application of this concept can guarantee to reduce the stress on the grid during the energy demand peak. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and performance of the proposed DLC technique in DG technology....

  17. Development and operation of 1 MW wind power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seleznev, I.; Lavrov, V. [Machine-building Design Bureau, (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Development of wind power units (WPUs), which operate on renewable wind power, as well as combined power sources including WPUs, have an important national economic significance in the Russian Federation, particularly in the areas of construction and operation of nuclear power plants, hydro-electric stations and other traditional power plants. Development of WPUs of high power level is a complicated task, and the solution requires investigations in the areas of experimental design, technology, and the organization of industrial production. Initially, the problem of the development of large diameter propellers, power electric equipment, reducers and drive mechanisms, automatic control devices, and control and diagnostic system need to be solved. This report covers the basic results and directions of the work of the Machine-building Design Bureau `Raduga` in the field of wind power engineering as well as the basic performance of the units. (author). 7 figs.

  18. [Operational units for health risk management (patient safety)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Hernández, A; Claveria Fontán, A; García Urbaneja, M; López Barba, J

    2008-12-01

    In 1995 INSALUD began to develop performance measures in the field of risk management, and following transfer of powers to the regions, these led to the development of operational units in individual healthcare centres. These units, which consist of a group of health professionals, including managers, aim to identify, evaluate, analyse and deal with health risks, to enhance patient safety. Their organisational structure can vary in accordance with the needs, resources and philosophy of each individual organisation. This paper presents the experience of the risk management units developed in four Spanish regions: Madrid, the Basque Country, Galicia and INGESA (Ceuta and Melilla). It also includes reflections on assessment of their impact and on their future role in improving safety in healthcare services.

  19. Analysis of viral clearance unit operations for monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesegaes, George; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Demonstration of viral clearance is a critical step in assuring the safety of biotechnology products. We generated a viral clearance database that contains product information, unit operation process parameters, and viral clearance data from monoclonal antibody and antibody-related regulatory submissions to FDA. Here we present a broad overview of the database and resulting analyses. We report that the diversity of model viruses tested expands as products transition to late-phase. We also present averages and ranges of viral clearance results by Protein A and ion exchange chromatography steps, low pH chemical inactivation, and virus filtration, focusing on retro- and parvoviruses. For most unit operations, an average log reduction value (LRV, a measure of clearance power) for retrovirus of >4 log(10) were measured. Cases where clearance data fell outside of the anticipated range (i.e., outliers) were rationally explained. Lastly, a historical analysis did not find evidence of any improvement trend in viral clearance over time. The data collectively suggest that many unit operations in general can reliably clear viruses.

  20. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  1. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at http://www.ofcm.gov/p35-nvaopa/pdf/FCM-P35-2007-NVAOPA.pdf. While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  2. Method and apparatus for operating an improved thermocline storage unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for operating a thermocline storage unit in which an insulated barrier member is provided substantially at the interface region between the hot and cold liquids in the storage tank. The barrier member physically and thermally separates the hot and cold liquids substantially preventing any diffusing or mixing between them and substantially preventing any heat transfer therebetween. The barrier member follows the rise and fall of the interface region between the liquids as the tank is charged and discharged. Two methods of maintaining it in the interface region are disclosed. With the structure and operation of the present invention and in particular the significant reduction in diffusing or mixing between the hot and cold liquids as well as the significant reduction in the thermal heat transfer between them, the performance of the storage tank is improved. More specifically, the stability of the interface region or thermocline is enhanced and the thickness of the thermocline is reduced producing a corresponding increase in the steepness of the temperature gradient across the thermocline and a more efficiently operating thermocline storage unit.

  3. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  4. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jean Holdren

    2007-05-29

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision.

  5. CTS (Hermes): United States experiments and operations summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoughe, P. L.; Hunczak, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite, launched in January 1976 and embodying the highest power transmitter in a communications satellite, was considered. As a joint program between the U.S. and Canada, close coordination of the two countries was necessitated since the management and control of experiments were done in real time. Criteria used by NASA for acceptance of the United States experiments are noted and acceptance procedures are discussed. The category for each accepted experiment is given. The modus operandi employed for the U.S. experiments in the areas of management, coordination, liaison, and real time operation are described. Some of the highlights associated with satellite utilization are given.

  6. Toward a warfighter's associate: eliminating the operator control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Hobart R.; Pacis, Estrellina B.; Kogut, Greg; Farrington, Nathan M.; Khurana, S.

    2004-12-01

    In addition to the challenges of equipping a mobile robot with the appropriate sensors, actuators, and processing electronics necessary to perform some useful function, there coexists the equally important challenge of effectively controlling the system"s desired actions. This need is particularly critical if the intent is to operate in conjunction with human forces in a military application, as any low-level distractions can seriously reduce a warfighter"s chances of survival in hostile environments. Historically there can be seen a definitive trend towards making the robot smarter in order to reduce the control burden on the operator, and while much progress has been made in laboratory prototypes, all equipment deployed in theatre to date has been strictly teleoperated. There exists a definite tradeoff between the value added by the robot, in terms of how it contributes to the performance of the mission, and the loss of effectiveness associated with the operator control unit. From a command-and-control perspective, the ultimate goal would be to eliminate the need for a separate robot controller altogether, since it represents an unwanted burden and potential liability from the operator"s perspective. This paper introduces the long-term concept of a supervised autonomous Warfighter"s Associate, which employs a natural-language interface for communication with (and oversight by) its human counterpart. More realistic near-term solutions to achieve intermediate success are then presented, along with actual results to date. The primary application discussed is military, but the concept also applies to law enforcement, space exploration, and search-and-rescue scenarios.

  7. 77 FR 62247 - Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... recommended owners and operators of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) follow Marine Technology Society... draft guidance from the Marine Technology Society (MTS) DP Committee for Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...] Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units Operating...

  8. Particle Emissions from District Heating Units Operating on Solid Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierzbicka, Aneta [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology

    2005-06-01

    With the increasing interest in the use of biofuels for heat and energy generation there is a growing concern about emissions from their combustion. It has been shown that biofuel furnaces emit relatively high quantities of particulate matter in comparison to natural gas and light fuel oil furnaces. Majority of the emitted particulates are smaller than 10 {mu}m with high contribution of fine (<2.5 {mu}m) and submicron (<1 {mu}m) particles. These fine particles tend to be the most troublesome: in ambient air they have been associated with adverse health effects. Submicron particles are difficult to capture in the available particle removal technologies. The aim of this study was to characterise particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels, namely sawdust. pellets and forest residues. Boilers were of moving grate type. with the maximum thermal output between 1 and 1.5 MW. The measurements were done after multi cyclones, the only particle removal devices installed, therefore the direct emissions to ambient air were characterised. Influence of type of the fuel and operation load on particle emissions was investigated. Furthermore, collection efficiencies of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and flue gas condenser, used particle separation devices in 6 MW unit, were investigated. It has been shown that in all cases large amounts of fuel particles containing heavy metals are being emitted to the atmosphere, even though the studied district heating units meet the current mass concentration emission limit requirements. Total number concentration of emitted particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 5 {mu}m ranged from 3 to 8x10{sup 7} particles/cm{sub n}{sup 3} with the slightly higher values from combustion of forest residues. Both mass and total number concentrations were dominated by submicron particles contribution. Elements determined by Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) analysis (Z>12) contributed to 21-34 % of

  9. Is fumigation enough for air conditioning units in operation theatres and Intensive care units?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anasua Deb

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strict asepsis is necessary in operating theatres (OT and intensive care units (ICU as the patients undergo invasive procedures. The filters of contaminated air conditioning (AC units provide a niche for proliferation of fungi and production of fungal spores. Methods: The routine procedure for maintenance of sterile atmosphere in our hospital, i.e. fumigation and mopping walls with disinfectants often fail to address these fungal spores of the AC filters. We therefore carried out a surveillance of the ACs in ICUs and OTs to find the level of contamination with fungal spores and also to improvise on intervention strategies to tackle the problem. Over 3 months period, 34 ACs from 7 OTs and 2 ICUs were screened by taking 2 swabs from each AC which were then tested for the presence of fungal spores as per standard methods. Results: The contamination rate was 88.2% before fumigation and 76.9% after fumigation. The fungal spore contamination rate was reduced to 20% (1 out of 5 ACs after servicing of the ACs was done. Aspergillus spp. was the most common fungal isolate. Conclusion: Based on the observations, we recommend regular servicing of the ACs as well as wet mopping of the ducts with sporicidal solution at regular intervals. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1583-1589

  10. FOCU:S--future operator control unit: soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Karan, Cem; Young, Stuart H.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing the Soldier-robot interface aspect, CISD has begun development on a unique dismounted controller called the Future Operator Control Unit: Soldier (FOCU:S) that is based on an Apple iPod Touch. The iPod Touch's small form factor, unique touch-screen input device, and the presence of general purpose computing applications such as a web browser combine to give this device the potential to be a disruptive technology. Setting CISD's implementation apart from other similar iPod or iPhone-based devices is the ARL software that allows multiple robotic platforms to be controlled from a single OCU. The FOCU:S uses the same Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI) that all other assets in the ARL robotic control system use, enabling automated asset discovery on any type of network. Further, a custom ad hoc routing implementation allows the FOCU:S to communicate with the ARL ad hoc communications system and enables it to extend the range of the network. This paper will briefly describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide short descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss FOCU:S specific software developed for the iPod Touch, including unique capabilities enabled by the device's unique hardware.

  11. A Delphi Study of Additive Manufacturing Applicability for United States Air Force Civil Engineer Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    A DELPHI STUDY OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING APPLICABILITY FOR UNITED STATES AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER CONTINGENCY...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-161 A DELPHI STUDY OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING APPLICABILITY FOR UNITED STATES... ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING APPLICABILITY FOR UNITED STATES AIR FORCE CIVIL ENGINEER CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS Seth N. Poulsen, BS Captain, USAF

  12. The Future of Information Operations in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    as Marketing Marketing tools and concepts could generate support for coalition military operations just as an advertiser promoting a commercial...military, the advanced application of marketing tools to leverage humanitarian assistance and public affairs within an Information Operations plan

  13. United States Special Operations Command Professional Military Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and Policy, and Theater Security Decision Making. The Joint Maritime Operations syllabus states: The Joint Maritime Operations course is an in-depth...Decision Making. As reflected in the course’s syllabus , the goal for this course is designed to engage intermediate-level military officers and U.S...19 “The Joint Military Operations Department Syllabus and Study Guide for Joint Maritime Operations Course,” Naval Staff College, accessed

  14. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  15. Operational air quality forecast guidance for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Lee, Pius; Tong, Daniel; Pan, Li; McQueen, Jeff; Huang, Jinaping; Djalalova, Irina; Wilczak, James; Huang, Ho-Chun; Wang, Jun; Stein, Ariel; Upadhayay, Sikchya

    2016-04-01

    NOAA provides operational air quality predictions for ozone and wildfire smoke over the United States (U.S.) and predictions of airborne dust over the contiguous 48 states at http://airquality.weather.gov. These predictions are produced using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Model for Air Quality (CMAQ) and NOAA's HYSPLIT model (Stein et al., 2015) with meteorological inputs from the North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM). The current efforts focus on improving test predictions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from CMAQ. Emission inputs for ozone and PM2.5 predictions include inventory information from the U.S. EPA and recently added contributions of particulate matter from intermittent wildfires and windblown dust that rely on near real-time information. Current testing includes refinement of the vertical grid structure in CMAQ and inclusion of contributions of dust transport from global sources into the U.S. domain using the NEMS Global Aerosol Capability (NGAC). The addition of wildfire smoke and dust contributions in CMAQ reduced model underestimation of PM2.5 in summertime. Wintertime overestimation of PM2.5 was reduced by suppressing emissions of soil particles when the terrain is covered by snow or ice. Nevertheless, seasonal biases and biases in the diurnal cycle of PM2.5 are still substantial. Therefore, a new bias correction procedure based on an analog ensemble approach was introduced (Djalalova et al., 2015). It virtually eliminates biases in monthly means or in the diurnal cycle, but it also reduces day-to-day variability in PM2.5 predictions. Refinements to the bias correction procedure are being developed. Upgrades for the representation of wildfire smoke emissions within the domain and from global sources are in testing. Another area of active development includes approaches to scale emission inventories for nitrogen oxides in order to reproduce recent changes observed by the AirNow surface monitoring network and by

  16. Toeplitz Operators on Dirichlet-Type Space of Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a function u in L2Bn, dV which is unbounded on any neighborhood of each boundary point of Bn such that Toeplitz operator Tu is a Schatten p-class 0operator on Dirichlet-type space DBn, dV. Then, we discuss some algebraic properties of Toeplitz operators with radial symbols on the Dirichlet-type space DBn, dV. We determine when the product of two Toeplitz operators with radial symbols is a Toeplitz operator. We investigate the zero-product problem for several Toeplitz operators with radial symbols. Furthermore, the corresponding commuting problem of Toeplitz operators whose symbols are of the form ξku is studied, where k ∈ Zn, ξ ∈ ∂Bn, and u is a radial function.

  17. Toeplitz Operators with Quasihomogeneous Symbols on the Bergman Space of the Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    symbols on the Bergman space of the unit ball equals a Toeplitz operator with quasihomogeneous symbols. We also characterize finite-rank semicommutators or commutators of two Toeplitz operators with quasihomogeneous symbols.

  18. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement.

  19. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at...

  20. Analysis Methods and Models for Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    methods are called for. TNO report I TNO-DV 2006 A228 9 /22 Efect Figure I Effect Based Operations framework. In practice, Figure 1 is useful when trying to...11, 111, IV, V Re-establishing communications Transport support (drivers, vehicles) Support to crowd and Riot Control (CRC) operations Support to... communicate opponent opponent intel gewonnen Verkennings- Reconnaissance Waarnemen terrein Observe terrain Inlichtingen over Gathered intel on patrouille

  1. 101st Sustainment Brigade Supports Operation United Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    for Disease Control and Preven- tion, and state health offi cials. Th e S–6 determined a way to give TF Lifeliner the ability to conduct mission...force planned and rehearsed multi- ple redeployment courses of action, branch plans, and sequels. Original - ly, smaller units were scheduled to

  2. Microchannel apparatus comprising plural microchannels and methods of conducting unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

    2009-03-10

    Microchannel apparatus comprising a header and plural flow microchannels is described in which orifices connect the header and the flow microchannels. The orifices constrict flow. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of each of the orifices to the cross-sectional area of the flow microchannels connected to the orifices is between 0.0005 and 0.1. Also described is microchannel apparatus for conducting unit operations in which a device comprises two arrays of microchannels, and a unit operation is conducted on a fluid as it passes through the first set of microchannels and into a header where a second unit operation is performed, and then the fluid stream passes into the second array of microchannels where the first unit operation is again performed. Methods of conducting unit operations in the apparatuses are also described.

  3. An Innovative Method for Dynamic Characterization of Fan FilterUnit Operation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-12-21

    Fan filter units (FFU) are widely used to deliver re-circulated air while providing filtration control of particle concentration in controlled environments such as cleanrooms, minienvironments, and operating rooms in hospitals. The objective of this paper is to document an innovative method for characterizing operation and control of an individual fan filter unit within its operable conditions. Built upon the draft laboratory method previously published [1] , this paper presents an updated method including a testing procedure to characterize dynamic operation of fan filter units, i.e., steady-state operation conditions determined by varied control schemes, airflow rates, and pressure differential across the units. The parameters for dynamic characterization include total electric power demand, total pressure efficiency, airflow rate, pressure differential across fan filter units, and airflow uniformity.

  4. Proposed Continental Operations Range. United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    Fallon, Battle Motutain, Francis Peak, and Cedar City. Other COR non-participating ertities to be linked to COR Central to promote cooperation in...qualities worth retain’ng: friendliness, and toleration of privacy. "So it is a valid fear that some of thebe valued traditions will be lost with the...by sheep during the winter months from November 1 to April 30. (;razing units In the Battle Mountain Grazing district of the BL, in the northern part

  5. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Captain Matthew Paul and Sergeant Jose Adorno , Task Force 2-7 IN mortar platoon, walked down the road the unit had used earlier to enter the airport...than 10 seconds later, the ground rumbled with the sound of approaching armor once again, and Captain Paul and Sergeant Adorno turned to move out of...road; Sergeant Adorno sprinted off to the right. Winding through the trees and bushes screening Four Corners, he was back with the mortar platoon in

  6. Parallel Operation Characteristics Analysis of Sewage Source Heat Pump Units in Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄兆意; 张承虎; 王海燕; 孙德兴

    2010-01-01

    Sewage source heat pump unit operates under partial load most of the time, and study on the law of coefficient of performance (COP) of the unit varying with load ratio can provide basis for the heat pump units running in high efficiency. A mathematical model determining COP, evaporation temperature and condensation temperature of a single unit was proposed. Under the condition of uniform load distribution, the model was established according to different ways of bearing partial load with the same type multi...

  7. United Nations Operations: Who Should be in Charge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Cold War; Panama, Iraq, and the New World Order, in RIGHT V. MIGHT, supra note 16, at 109, 128; and HANS KELSON, THE LAW OF THE UNITED NATIONS 928...interpretation would also appear to resolve Kelsen’s dilemma (see KELSEN , supra note 35, at 935) with respect to the Korean conflict. Kelsen argues the Security...and Scheffer, supra note 35, at 131. 45. See D. J. HARRIS, CASES AND MATERIAL ON INTERNATIONAL LAW 681 (4th ed. 1991); KELSEN , supra note 35, at 756

  8. Biota of the 300-FF-1 operable unit. [Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Fitzner, R.E.; Brandt, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes Task 5a-2 of the Phase I Remedial Investigation -- Operable Unit Characterization of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The ultimate goal of Phase I is to determine the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment from releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit. The purpose of Task 5a-2 was to determine what species inhabit the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit and how they use the unit. The focus is on those species listed as endangered or threatened, those that are economically important, or those that constitute significant components of the human food chain. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Operational Encirclements: Can the United States Military Decisively Follow Through?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    friction that trickles down onto the battlefield. The European theatre during World War II was no different. The failure of American, and British...American and their Allied partners would continue to experience the ill-effects of it right up until the end of the war in the European theatre ...on Friday 27 March 2009 about Operation Anaconda. I used some information from our conversation. The following is verbatim from my monograph, "A

  10. The United States Army Operating Concept, 2016-2028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    retrograde operations. f. Theater armies may also include a medical command for deployment support that provides health services to Army and other...tenets of jus in bello ,120 discrimination (between combatants and noncombatants), and proportionality in the use of force,121 measured against the...Barracks, PA, 19. (Used with permission.) 119 Biddle, 9. 120 Jus in bello , translated as justice in war, are agreements defining limits on acceptable

  11. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality.

  12. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  13. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  14. Routine Operation of the Envirodish Unit at the Engineering School of the University of Seville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Perez, M. A.; Ruiz Hernandez, V.; Garcia Granados, F. J.; Lillo Bravo, I.

    2006-07-01

    A 10 kWe Parabolic Dish Stirling engine system was installed at the Seville Engineering School in early 2004. This system is one of the Country Reference Units of the EnviroDish project, consisting in the installation and operation of several such units, based on the EuroDish system, in different countries aimed to gathering reliable O and M data that help to improve and fine-tune the technology. The Seville Country Reference Unit is connected to the grid under the Special Regime for power generation, which establishes credits to power generation based on renewable energy sources. The Seville Country Reference Unit has been in operation since March 2004, accumulating 1671 operation hours and 7.8 MWh of electricity production until August 2005. This paper summarizes the results of 18 months operation, with emphasis on O and M aspects and lessons learned during this period. (Author)

  15. United States Special Operations Command Strategic Issues for the Long War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    for USSOCOM’s campaign plan. UNITED STATES SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND STRATEGIC ISSUES FOR THE LONG WAR World order is more fundamental and primordial ... Soup to Nuts: Understanding the Elements of the Strategy The United States is a big, lumbering, pluralistic, affluent, liberal, democratic

  16. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-07-19

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities fro the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003.

  17. Effect of RCIC Operating Conditions on the Accident Scenario in Fukushima Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted by using MELCOR 1.8.6. Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR in this study, and best estimate scenario with considering RCIC operating conditions was presented. Researches on the boiling water reactor (BWR) plant with reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system have been conducted. Research on the RCIC operation in Fukushima unit 2 was also conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. MELCOR analysis of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was conducted in the report and energy balance in wetwell was described by considering RCIC operation. However, the effect of RCIC operation condition on the accident scenario has not been studied. The operating conditions of RCIC system affect the pressures in wetwell and drywell, and the high pressure can make leakage path of fission product from PCV to reactor building. Thus it can be directly related with the amount of fission product which released to environment. In this study, severe accident on Fukushima unit 2 was analyzed considering the operating condition of RCIC system, and best estimated scenario was presented. In addition, the effect of RCIC turbine efficiency on the accident progression was examined. Energy balance in suppression chamber was also considered with discussion on the effect of torus room flooding level. It was found that the operating condition of RCIC turbine not only affects the variation of drywell pressure but also the amount of released fission products to environment. It was also confirmed that the RCIC turbine efficiency in the accident would be less than normal operating condition.

  18. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study (FS) examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred altemative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965-1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-:levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228 and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9 {times} 10{sup 5}.

  19. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-11

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

  20. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992.

  1. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  2. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer;

    2017-01-01

    different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit......An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in-situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform it is possible to compartmentalize......-automatically characterize ω-transaminases in a scaled-down packed-bed reactor (PBR) module, showing MPPA as a strong inhibitor. To overcome the inhibition, a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) ISPR concept was tested using scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner. Through the tested ISPR concept...

  3. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  4. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  5. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase I) Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Davison

    2007-07-31

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase I sites at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The 10 sites addressed in this report were defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for these 10 sites have been accomplished and are hereafter considered No Action or No Further Action sites.

  6. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  7. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit.

  8. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state.

  9. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to estimate compositions of materials in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in a remotely operated nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH provides estimates of the steady-state composition of materials residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimations, the results are determined for the cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent materials collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for materials previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple performance models to estimate material holdup and distribution within unit operations. In simulated run-testing, NUMATH typically produced estimates within 5% of the measured inventories for uranium and within 8% of the measured inventories for thorium during steady-state process operation.

  10. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-02

    The primary focus of this Process Development Unit operating program was to prepare for a confident move to the next scale of operation with a simplified and optimized process. The main purpose of these runs was the evaluation of the alternate commercial catalyst (F21/0E75-43) that had been identified in the laboratory under a different subtask of the program. If the catalyst proved superior to the previous catalyst, then the evaluation run would be continued into a 120-day life run. Also, minor changes were made to the Process Development Unit system to improve operations and reliability. The damaged reactor demister from a previous run was replaced, and a new demister was installed in the intermediate V/L separator. The internal heat exchanger was equipped with an expansion loop to relieve thermal stresses so operation at higher catalyst loadings and gas velocities would be possible. These aggressive conditions are important for improving process economics. (VC)

  11. Analysis of United States Marine Corps Operations in Support of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    unit (MEU), Bangladesh Cyclone Sidr, Operation Sea Angel II, Haiti earthquake 2010, Operation Unified Response, Great East Japan earthquake and...with respect to the conduct of HA/DR missions. We have collected data for the 2007 cyclone on the southwest coast of Bangladesh, the 2010 Haiti ...responded to the 2007 cyclone in Bangladesh, the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and the 2011 Japanese earthquake and subsequent tsunami, respectively. These

  12. Toeplitz Operators on the Weighted Bergman Space over the Two-Dimensional Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the known results on commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators with radial quasi-homogeneous symbols on the two-dimensional unit ball. Spherical coordinates previously used hid a possibility to detect an essentially wider class of symbols that can generate commutative Banach Toeplitz operator algebras. We characterize these new algebras describing their properties and, under a certain extra condition, construct the corresponding Gelfand theory.

  13. Design of optimal operating conditions of simulated moving bed adsorptive separation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storti, G. (Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)); Baciocchi, R.; Mazzotti, M.; Morbidelli, M. (Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica Applicata)

    1995-01-01

    The design of the optimal operating conditions for simulated moving bed (SMB) adsorptive separation units is considered. A procedure for the a priori selection of the operating conditions to achieve an assigned separation requirement is developed in the frame of equilibrium theory for the equivalent four section countercurrent unit, using a model where the adsorption equilibria are described through the constant selectivity stoichiometric model, while both mass transfer resistance and axial dispersion are neglected. The space of the operating parameters, i.e. the mass flow rate ratios m[sub j], is divided in regions with different separation regimes. Curves at constant outlets purity and recovery are drawn in the (m[sub 2],m[sub 3]) plane. The introduction of three performance parameters, desorbent requirement, adsorbent requirement, and productivity, allows the development of a procedure for the design of optimal operating conditions. This procedure is completed, accounting for the effect of the switching time on the separation performances, with a detailed model of the SMB unit, considering both axial dispersion and mass transfer resistance. This result constitutes a useful tool for determining the range of operating conditions to achieve an assigned separation requirement and then for selecting the optimal operating condition within this range.

  14. Predicting performance and situation awareness of robot operators in complex situations by unit task tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop field tests of human-robot operations in high-demand situations provide serious constraints with respect to costs and control. A set of relatively simple unit tasks might be used to do part of the testing and to establish a benchmark for human-robot performance and situation awaren

  15. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  16. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  17. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  18. China's first large-scale MA production unit operational in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Abrainchild of researchers of the CAS Institute of Coal Chemistry, a production unit capable of turning out 20,000 tons of maleic anhydride (MA) per year, the largest of its kind in China, has come into operation recently at the Shanxi Regent Taiming Chemical Co Ltd in Taiyuan, capital of north China's Shanxi Province.

  19. Orchard Business Management. Unit II. Management and Analysis of the Orchard Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, Shauna K.

    This guide is intended for use in providing in-depth formal classroom and on-site instruction in the principles of business and financial management as they apply to operating and managing orchards. Designed to be used with an accompanying Orchard Business Management Record Book, this unit is devoted to management and analysis of an orchard…

  20. Joint Forces Command - Operation United Assistance Case Study: Lessons and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    forces (RAF), and the global force management process to accomplish its mission. Operation United Assistance (OUA) provided a good laboratory in...nations, the international community, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in a global effort to provide assistance. OUA required the rapid...effective contract management procedures, market research, ethics, COR management, field ordering officer, and pay agent overview. The training

  1. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-02

    This report consists of Detailed Data Acquisition Sheets for Runs E-6 and E-7 for Task 2.2 of the Modification, Operation, and Support Studies of the Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit. (Task 2.2: Alternate Catalyst Run E-6 and Catalyst Activity Maintenance Run E-7).

  2. Geo-Environmental Change and the United States Military: How History Can Inform Future Arctic Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Command and General Staff College 731 McClellan Avenue Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027... AFB , along with support from Allied nations, is what the United States has available to support military operations in the ―eastern Arctic‖ area. 302

  3. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Golder Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  4. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses.

  5. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-10-08

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The {open_quotes}Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,{close_quotes} Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the {open_quotes}300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,{close_quotes} (DOE-RL 1993).

  6. Annual Summary Report Calendar Year 2000 for the 100-HR-3, 100-KR-4, and 100-NR-2 Operable Units and Pump-and-Treat Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. B. Mitchem

    2001-08-22

    This annual progress and performance evaluation report discusses the groundwater remedial actions in the 100 Area, including the interim actions at the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Operable Units, and also discusses the expedited response action in the 100-NR-2 operable unit.

  7. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  8. Performance study of a heat recovery tower with synthetic (polyurethane) flow channels to operate in a solar desalination unit

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Pinheiro Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Because of the lack of drinkable water in various semi-arid regions and the necessary use of renewable energies, the present work presents a performance study of a heat recovery tower to operate in a solar desalination unit for decentralized water production. The solar desalination unit has two parts: a heating unit and a desalination unit.This work presents the field results with a desalination tower with synthetic (polyurethane) flow channels. The tower operation consists of the heating ...

  9. An Automatic Uav Mapping System for Supporting un (united Nations) Field Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K.; Cheon, J. W.; Kim, H. Y.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    The United Nations (UN) has performed field operations worldwide such as peacekeeping or rescue missions. When such an operation is needed, the UN dispatches an operation team usually with a GIS (Geographic Information System) customized to a specific operation. The base maps for the GIS are generated mostly with satellite images which may not retain a high resolution and the current situation. To build an up-to-date high resolution map, we propose a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) based automatic mapping system, which can operate in a fully automatic way from the data acquisition of sensory data to the data processing for the generation of the geospatial products such as a mosaicked orthoimage of a target area. In this study, we analyse the requirements for UN field operations, suggest a UAV mapping system with an operation scenario, and investigate the applicability of the system. With the proposed system, we can construct a tailored GIS with up-to-date and high resolution base maps for a specific operation efficiently.

  10. An analysis of post-traumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William

    2014-06-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed.

  11. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-03-23

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year.

  12. EXTENDED CES(A)RO OPERATORS ON THE BLOCH SPACE IN THE UNIT BALL OF Cn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡璋剑

    2003-01-01

    The paper defines an extended Cesàro operator Tg with holomorphic symbolg in the unit ball B of Cn asWhere g(z)= ∑j=1∑n zj g/ zj is the radial derivative of g. In this paper, the author characterizes g for which Tg is bounded (or compact) on the Bloch spaceB and the little Blochspace B0.

  13. Influencing Tomorrow: A Study of Emerging Influence Techniques and Their Relevance to United States Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    adaptation of influence techniques to keep pace and exploit changing methods of communication. The internet, cellular communication, and social media has...is to achieve a massing of information in order to create a spike or trend and gain the attention of larger audiences. This technique is most...INFLUENCING TOMORROW: A STUDY OF EMERGING INFLUENCE TECHNIQUES AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO UNITED STATES INFORMATION OPERATIONS A

  14. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Amidon, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  15. Use of Special Operations Forces in United Nations Missions: a Method to Resolve Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Thinking, Managing Chaos and Complexity, 30. 6 new area of stability and has a higher degree of adaptability. Systems theory refers to them as Complex...the UN and NATO, and the current hegemon , the United States, remain aligned with main theories and principles of conducting Special Operations. The...The research uses the frameworks of complexity and systems theories . Additionally, this paper considers three case studies: the UN intervention in

  16. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations` suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  17. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of [sup 60]Co, [sup 90]Sr, and [sup 137]Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  18. Discrete Sampling Test Plan for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Mark D.

    2010-02-04

    The Discrete Groundwater Sampling Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on behalf of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company. The project is focused on delivering groundwater samples from proscribed horizons within select groundwater wells residing in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit (200-BP-5 OU) on the Hanford Site. This document provides the scope, schedule, methodology, and other details of the PNNL discrete sampling effort.

  19. The reliability analysis of a separated, dual fail operational redundant strapdown IMU. [inertial measurement unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, P.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology for quantitatively analyzing the reliability of redundant avionics systems, in general, and the dual, separated Redundant Strapdown Inertial Measurement Unit (RSDIMU), in particular, is presented. The RSDIMU is described and a candidate failure detection and isolation system presented. A Markov reliability model is employed. The operational states of the system are defined and the single-step state transition diagrams discussed. Graphical results, showing the impact of major system parameters on the reliability of the RSDIMU system, are presented and discussed.

  20. United States Army Counter Partisan Operations in Northern Virginia During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    partisan operations in the rugged West Virginia terrain. Crook kept his Soldiers busy, with drill up to four times a day, in order to eliminate...units. Army drill manuals of the mid-19th century did not provide guidance on the engagement of an enemy conducting irregular warfare. This prevented...increasing speed and decreasing the likelihood of their detection during daylight movement. Most importantly

  1. [Air conditioning units and warm air blankets in the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Piechowiak, Karolin; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays almost all operating rooms are equipped with air conditioning (AC units). Their main purpose is climatization, like ventilation, moisturizing, cooling and also the warming of the room in large buildings. In operating rooms they have an additional function in the prevention of infections, especially the avoidance of postoperative wound infections. This is achieved by special filtration systems and by the creation of specific air currents. Since hypothermia is known to be an unambiguous factor for the development of postoperative wound infections, patients are often actively warmed intraoperatively using warm air blankets (forced-air warming units). In such cases it is frequently discussed whether such warm air blankets affect the performance of AC units by changing the air currents or whether, in contrast, have exactly the opposite effect. However, it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that warm air blankets do not have any relevant effect on the functioning of AC units. Also there are no indications that their use increases the rate of postoperative wound infections. By preventing the patient from experiencing hypothermia, the rate of postoperative wound infections can even be decreased thereby.

  2. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  3. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  4. Enhanced teaching and student learning through a simulator-based course in chemical unit operations design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem, Nayef

    2016-07-01

    This paper illustrates a teaching technique used in computer applications in chemical engineering employed for designing various unit operation processes, where the students learn about unit operations by designing them. The aim of the course is not to teach design, but rather to teach the fundamentals and the function of unit operation processes through simulators. A case study presenting the teaching method was evaluated using student surveys and faculty assessments, which were designed to measure the quality and effectiveness of the teaching method. The results of the questionnaire conclusively demonstrate that this method is an extremely efficient way of teaching a simulator-based course. In addition to that, this teaching method can easily be generalised and used in other courses. A student's final mark is determined by a combination of in-class assessments conducted based on cooperative and peer learning, progress tests and a final exam. Results revealed that peer learning can improve the overall quality of student learning and enhance student understanding.

  5. Operational Evaluation of VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSan(tm) as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  6. Operation Evaluation of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSantm as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  7. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  8. Discrete phase model representation of particulate matter (PM) for simulating PM separation by hydrodynamic unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Joshua A; Sansalone, John J

    2009-11-01

    Modeling the separation of dilute particulate matter (PM) has been a topic of interest since the introduction of unit operations for clarification of rainfall-runoff. One consistent yet controversial issue is the representation of PM and PM separation mechanisms for treatment. While Newton's Law and surface overflow rate were utilized, many historical models represented PM as a lumped gravimetric index largely out of economy and lack of particle analysis methods. As a result such models did not provide information about particle fate in or through a unit operation. In this study, PM discrete phase modeling (DPM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are applied to model PM fate as a function of particle size and flow rate in two common types of hydrodynamic separator (HS) units. The study examines the discretization requirements (as a discretization number, DN) and errors for particle size distributions (PSDs) that range from the common heterodisperse to a monodisperse PSD. PSDs are categorized based on granulometric indices. Results focus on ensuring modeling accuracy while examining the role of size dispersivity and overall PM fineness on DN requirements. The fate of common heterodisperse PSDs is accurately predicted for a DN of 16, whereas a single particle size index, commonly the d(50m), is limited to monodisperse PSDs in order to achieve similar accuracy.

  9. Selection of Forklift Unit for Warehouse Operation by Applying Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Atanasković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research related to the choice of the criteria that can be used to perform an optimal selection of the forklift unit for warehouse operation. The analysis has been done with the aim of exploring the requirements and defining relevant criteria that are important when investment decision is made for forklift procurement, and based on the conducted research by applying multi-criteria analysis, to determine the appropriate parameters and their relative weights that form the input data and database for selection of the optimal handling unit. This paper presents an example of choosing the optimal forklift based on the selected criteria for the purpose of making the relevant investment decision.

  10. 78 FR 5167 - BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC003 BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues... Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States (BE-9). This mandatory survey is..., agents, or other representatives of foreign airline operators that transport passengers or freight...

  11. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  12. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This plan was prepared in support of the Phase II Remedial Design Report (DOE/OR/01-1449&D1) and in accordance with requirements under CERCLA to present the plan for best management practices to be followed during the remediation. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about spill prevention and control, water quality monitoring, good housekeeping practices, sediment and erosion control measures, and inspections and environmental compliance practices to be used during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit.

  13. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE`s preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public`s role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy.

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This work plan and attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-2 operable unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The 100 Area is one of four areas at the Hanford Site that are on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priorities List under CERCLA. The 100-BC-2 operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-B/C Area (Figure ES-1). Source operable units are those that contain facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The 100-BC-2 source operable unit contains waste sites that were formerly in the 100-BC-2, 100-BC-3, and 100-BC-4 operable units. Because of their size and geographic location, the waste sites from these two operable units were added to 100-BC-2. This allows for a more efficient and effective investigation of the remaining 100-B/C Reactor area waste sites. The investigative approach to waste sites associated with the 100-BC-2 operable unit are listed in Table ES-1. The waste sites fall into three general categories: high priority liquid waste disposal sites, low priority liquid waste disposal sites, and solid waste burial grounds. Several sites have been identified as candidates for conducting an IRM. Two sites have been identified as warranting additional limited field sampling. The two sites are the 116-C-2A pluto crib, and the 116-C-2C sand filter.

  15. Steering quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty under unital and nonunital noises via filtering operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai-Jun; Shi, Jia-Dong; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamic features of the entropic uncertainty for two incompatible measurements under local unital and nonunital channels. Herein, we choose Pauli operators σ _x and σ _z as a pair of observables of interest measuring on particle A, and the uncertainty can be predicted when particle A is entangled with quantum memory B. We explore the dynamics of the uncertainty for the measurement under local unitary (phase-damping) and nonunitary (amplitude-damping) channels, respectively. Remarkably, we derive the entropic uncertainty relation under three different kinds of measurements of Pauli-observable pair under various realistic noisy environments; it has been found that the entropic uncertainty has the same tendency of its evolution during the AD and PD channel when we choose σ _x and σ _y measurement. Besides, we find out that the entropic uncertainty will have an optimal value if one chooses σ _x and σ _z as the measurement incompatibility, comparing with others. Furthermore, in order to reduce the entropic uncertainty in noisy environment, we propose an effective strategy to steer the amount by means of implementing a filtering operation on the particle under the two types of channels, respectively. It turns out that this operation can greatly reduce the entropic uncertainty by modulation of the operation strength. Thus, our investigations might offer an insight into the dynamics and steering of the entropic uncertainty in an open system.

  16. Overview of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Power System Integration and Operation at Desert RATS 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; George, Pat; Gambrell, Ronnie; Chapman, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A habitat demonstration unit (HDU) was constructed at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and designed by a multicenter NASA team led out of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The HDU was subsequently utilized at the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) program held at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. This report describes the power system design, installation and operation for the HDU. The requirements for the power system were to provide 120 VAC, 28 VDC, and 120 VDC power to the various loads within the HDU. It also needed to be capable of providing power control and real-time operational data on the load's power consumption. The power system had to be capable of operating off of a 3 phase 480 VAC generator as well as 2 solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The system operated well during the 2 week Desert RATS campaign and met all of the main goals of the system. The power system is being further developed to meet the future needs of the HDU and options for this further development are discussed.

  17. Tracheotomy in Pediatric Patients: In Operating Room or Intensive Care Unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Kaygusuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The morbidity and mortality rates of tracheotomy are higher in the pediatric population because the incision is small and the trachea is more prone to surgical trauma. Tracheotomy procedure is mostly performed in operating room in most institutions. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of tracheotomy procedures between intensive care unit (ICU and operating room (OR in terms of pitfalls, complications and family preferences. Materials and Methods: In between June 2012 and July 2013, at a single institution, 39 patients were prospectively analyzed for age, gender, primary pathology, tracheotomy indications, location of operation, the duration of family consent, perioperative complications and presence of decanulation. Results: Male/female ratio was 20/19. Mean age was 49.9±52.5 (4-204 months. Tracheotomy procedure was performed in OR in 19 patients (45% and in ICU in 20 (54.5% patients. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of complications (OR-48.7%, ICU-51.3%. The time of informed consent was significantly shorter in ICU patients. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in terms of safety for tracheotomy procedure in ICU or OR. Parents give approval to a bedside invasive procedure faster. The words ‘Surgery’ and ‘Operating room’ can easily confuse the parents, extend the duration for endolaryngeal intubation, and increase the cost and labour loss.

  18. Light weight portable operator control unit using an Android-enabled mobile phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    There have been large gains in the field of robotics, both in hardware sophistication and technical capabilities. However, as more capable robots have been developed and introduced to battlefield environments, the problem of interfacing with human controllers has proven to be challenging. Particularly in the field of military applications, controller requirements can be stringent and can range from size and power consumption, to durability and cost. Traditional operator control units (OCUs) tend to resemble laptop personal computers (PCs), as these devices are mobile and have ample computing power. However, laptop PCs are bulky and have greater power requirements. To approach this problem, a light weight, inexpensive controller was created based on a mobile phone running the Android operating system. It was designed to control an iRobot Packbot through the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) in-house Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI). The hardware capabilities of the mobile phone, such as Wi- Fi communications, touch screen interface, and the flexibility of the Android operating system, made it a compelling platform. The Android based OCU offers a more portable package and can be easily carried by a soldier along with normal gear requirements. In addition, the one hand operation of the Android OCU allows for the Soldier to keep an unoccupied hand for greater flexibility. To validate the Android OCU as a capable controller, experimental data was collected evaluating use of the controller and a traditional, tablet PC based OCU. Initial analysis suggests that the Android OCU performed positively in qualitative data collected from participants.

  19. Phase I and II feasibility study report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this Phase I/II feasibility study is to assemble and screen a list of alternatives for remediation of the 300-FF-5 operable site on the Hanford Reservation. This screening is based on information gathered in the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) and on currently available information on remediation technologies. The alternatives remaining after screening provide a range of response actions for remediation. In addition, key data needs are identified for collection during a Phase II RI (if necessary). This Phase I/II FS represents a primary document as defined by the Tri-Party Agreement, but will be followed by a Phase III FS that will further develop the alternatives and provide a detailed evaluation of them. The following remedial action objectives were identified for the 300-FF-5 operable unit: Limit current human exposure to contaminated groundwater in the unit; Limit discharge of contaminated groundwater to the Columbia River; Reduce contaminant concentrations in groundwater below acceptable levels by the year 2018.

  20. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  1. Explicit isospectral flows associated to the AKNS operator on the unit interval. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Laurent

    2012-10-01

    Explicit flows associated to any tangent vector fields on any isospectral manifold for the AKNS operator acting in L2 × L2 on the unit interval are written down. The manifolds are of infinite dimension (and infinite codimension). The flows are called isospectral and also are Hamiltonian flows. It is proven that they may be explicitly expressed in terms of regularized determinants of infinite matrix-valued functions with entries depending only on the spectral data at the starting point of the flow. The tangent vector fields are decomposed as ∑ξkTk where ξ ∈ ℓ2 and the Tk ∈ L2 × L2 form a particular basis of the tangent vector spaces of the infinite dimensional manifold. The paper here is a continuation of Amour ["Explicit isospectral flows for the AKNS operator on the unit interval," Inverse Probl. 25, 095008 (2009)], 10.1088/0266-5611/25/9/095008 where, except for a finite number, all the components of the sequence ξ are zero in order to obtain an explicit expression for the isospectral flows. The regularized determinants induce counter-terms allowing for the consideration of finite quantities when the sequences ξ run all over ℓ2.

  2. Do different populations of Aphanius dispar in Southern Iran form Operational Taxonomic Units (OUTs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Teimori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the exact fundamental relations of morphological differentiation among isolated populations of animal species is generally difficult. Usually changes in morphology are resulted from adaptation to different environmental conditions (ecoplasticity or represent an expression of genetic differences and/or gene pool pauperization, and in most instances, however, changes in morphology are the result of the interplay between environmental factors and genetic plasticity. In this study, the morphology and molecular phylogenies of common tooth-carp populations (Aphanius dispar were studied in three basins in Southern part of Iran to discuss an important aspect relate to the question whether morphologically differentiated populations of a single species function as Operational Taxonomic Units. All morphological analyses were revealed significant and strong morphological differentiation between the populations that corresponds well with their zoogeography and their molecular phylogeny in geographically isolated basins. Therefore, it can be concluded that when the interaction between gene flow among populations and natural selection is resulted owing to a long evolutionary history, then the observed morphological differences can be functioned as different Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs in subspecies or even species levels. In addition, biological characteristics of the A. dispar, its high tolerance, geological and ecological conditions in Southern Iran are the main factors that increase chance of reproductive isolation and genetic diversity in this region.

  3. Interprofessional rhetoric and operational realities: an ethnographic study of rounds in four intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Gropper, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Morning interprofessional rounds (MIRs) are used in critical care medicine to improve team-based care and patient outcomes. Given existing evidence of conflict between and dissatisfaction among rounds participants, this study sought to better understand how the operational realities of care delivery in the intensive care unit (ICU) impact the success of MIRs. We conducted a year-long comparative ethnographic study of interprofessional collaboration and patient and family involvement in four ICUs in tertiary academic hospitals in two American cities. The study included 576 h of observation of team interactions, 47 shadowing sessions and 40 clinician interviews. In line with best practices in ethnographic research, data collection and analysis were done iteratively using the constant comparative method. Member check was conducted regularly throughout the project. MIRs were implemented on all units with the explicit goals of improving team-based and patient-centered care. Operational conditions on the units, despite interprofessional commitment and engagement, appeared to thwart ICU teams from achieving these goals. Specifically, time constraints, struggles over space, and conflicts between MIRs' educational and care-plan-development functions all prevented teams from achieving collaboration and patient-involvement. Moreover, physicians' de facto control of rounds often meant that they resembled medical rounds (their historical predecessors), and sidelined other providers' contributions. This study suggests that the MIRs model, as presently practiced, might not be well suited to the provision of team-based, patient-centered care. In the interest of interprofessional collaboration, of the optimization of clinicians' time, of high-quality medical education and of patient-centered care, further research on interprofessional rounds models is needed.

  4. Record of Decision for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County, Commerce City, Colorado.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County (east of...

  5. 75 FR 21678 - STP Nuclear Operating Company South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2 Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Related to Operation of South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2.'' There will be no change to radioactive... quantity of non- radiological effluents. No changes to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination...

  6. A Formula for the Units to Satisfy an Operation's Desired Rate of Return in CVP Analysis--A Conceptual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Johann A.; Leese, Wallace R.

    2016-01-01

    A common formula presented in many managerial- and cost-accounting textbooks makes possible the determination of the quantity of units which must be produced and sold to generate a desired dollar-amount of operating income. This article addresses the question "What formula can be used to determine the quantity of units needed to yield a…

  7. The United Nations Standing Force a Qualitative Analysis of Strategic and Operational Options for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Council, has done .ch community...But, as much as the United Nations has done, it can do much more." Chaiaiing Times As the Bob Dylan song goes, "The...to our nation’s defense well into the twenty-first century. When Bob Dylan’s song was popular, it was also relevant. At that time, the United States

  8. Technical work plan for Surface Impoundments Operable Unit engineering support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a comprehensive work plan which, when utilized as a data collection guide for field activities, will provide the necessary information required to complete a report on geotechnical properties of the sediments contained in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Detailed guidance is provided for the following activities: collection of samples from the impoundments; compressive strength testing of the raw sediments; compressive strength testing of the structurally modified (lime and cement additives) sediments; testing for sediment physical properties and settling rates; testing for sediment dewatering characteristics; testing for radiation activity during the field work; testing for polymer additions that may enhance settling. The work plan additionally provides guidance and examples for the preparation of documents necessary to establish readiness for safe and satisfactory performance of the field activities. An outline for the format requested for a report of these data is also provided.

  9. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... unit toincrease the overall energy conversion efficiency.The dynamic model of the plant is coupled with a one-dimensional model of the once-through boilerfed by the exhaust thermal power of the gas turbine. The heat exchanger model uses a distributedcross-flow physical topology and local correlations...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  10. Clinical microbiology in the intensive care unit: Strategic and operational characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients admitted in intensive care units (ICUs. The application of the principles and the practice of Clinical Microbiology for ICU patients can significantly improve clinical outcome. The present article is aimed at summarising the strategic and operational characteristics of this unique field where medical microbiology attempts to venture into the domain of direct clinical care of critically ill patients. The close and strategic partnership between clinical microbiologists and intensive care specialists, which is essential for this model of patient care have been emphasized. The article includes discussions on a variety of common clinical-microbiological problems faced in the ICUs such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, blood stream infections, skin and soft tissue infection, UTI, infection control, besides antibiotic management.

  11. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer Pilot Study Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A pilot study is being conducted to support the approval of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) pre-Hanford orchard lands. Based on comments received by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology, the pilot study will evaluate the use of field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry measurements for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of past use of lead arsenate pesticide residue in the OU. The work will be performed in the field during the summer of 2014, and assist in the planning for the characterization activities in the RI/FS.

  12. Thermo-physical performance prediction of the KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit for liquid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, J. H.; Notardonato, W. U.; Karng, S. W.; Oh, I.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) researchers have been working on enhanced and modernized cryogenic liquid propellant handling techniques to reduce life cycle costs of propellant management system for the unique KSC application. The KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit (GODU) for liquid hydrogen (LH2) plans to demonstrate integrated refrigeration, zero-loss flexible term storage of LH2, and densified hydrogen handling techniques. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has partnered with the KSC researchers to develop thermal performance prediction model of the GODU for LH2. The model includes integrated refrigeration cooling performance, thermal losses in the tank and distribution lines, transient system characteristics during chilling and loading, and long term steady-state propellant storage. This paper will discuss recent experimental data of the GODU for LH2 system and modeling results.

  13. Designing User Interfaces for Smart-Applications for Operating Rooms and Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsmüller, Martin Christof; Haar, Maral; Schulz, Hannes; Herczeg, Michael

    Today’s physicians and nurses working in operating rooms and intensive care units have to deal with an ever increasing amount of data. More and more medical devices are delivering information, which has to be perceived and interpreted in regard to patient status and the necessity to adjust therapy. The combination of high information load and insufficient usability creates a severe challenge for the health personnel with respect to proper monitoring of these devices respective to acknowledging alarms and timely reaction to critical incidents. Smart Applications are a new kind of decision support systems that incorporate medical expertise in order to help health personnel in regard to diagnosis and therapy. By means of a User Centered Design process of two Smart Applications (anaesthesia monitor display, diagnosis display), we illustrate which approach should be followed and which processes and methods have been successfully applied in fostering the design of usable medical devices.

  14. Evaluation of the operational efficiency of pacifying police units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rosa Dias de Jesus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pacification Police Unit (UPP is a new model for public security and policing, aimed at ensuring local security and, above all, reduce, or even, extinguish violent crime linked to drug trafficking, and approach people and police. The purpose of this article is measuring the operational efficiency of all UPPs installed in the state of Rio de Janeiro by the beginning of 2011 by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. For this, it was used the CCR model – input-oriented – developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes, which allows an objective assessment of the overall efficiency, identifying the sources of inefficiencies and the needed targets to achieve the efficiency in each UPP. The results converge to a reduction of the amount of policemen in all communities out of the efficiency frontier.

  15. Performance of ESPs operating downstream from spray-drying desulphurisation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollero, P.; Canadas, L.; Salvador, L. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industrials, Sevilla (Spain)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes data from a Spray Dryer/ESP pilot plant located at the Los Barrios Coal Power Plant (Cadiz, Spain). A series of tests has been conducted to evaluate the performance of an existing ESP operating downstream from a spray dryer in a retrofit application. A factorial design of experiments with two SO{sub 2} levels, two flyash load levels, three Ca/S ratios and three sulfur removal efficiencies, was run during a six-month experimental programme. A global and a field-by-field analysis of the performance of the pilot ESP has shown that the desulphurisation unit enhances ESP efficiency and reduces the emission level. No evidence of electrical dust reentrainment has been found.

  16. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  17. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

  18. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer Pilot Study Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-07-15

    A pilot study is being conducted to support the approval of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) pre-Hanford orchard lands. Based on comments received by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology, the pilot study will evaluate the use of field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry measurements for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of past use of lead arsenate pesticide residue in the OU. The work will be performed in the field during the summer of 2014, and assist in the planning for the characterization activities in the RI/FS.

  19. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended... workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, a subsidiary of...

  20. 77 FR 50541 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... COMMISSION STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to... of STP Nuclear Operating Company (the licensee) to withdraw its application dated June 2, 2011 (ADAMS... ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please contact the NRC's Public Document...

  1. 78 FR 45987 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to... COLs were issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe... Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please contact the NRC's Public Document Room (PDR) reference staff...

  2. 78 FR 45989 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to... COLs were issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe..., select ``ADAMS Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web-based ADAMS Search.'' For problems...

  3. Operation planning studies for the integration of the 60 Hz Itaipu units in the Brazilian interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipp, H.J.; Oliveira, J.C.C. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, L.R.A. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mendonca, W.C.; Marchi, R.D. [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil); Botelho, M.J. [ELETROSUL, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This paper describes the operation planning studies necessary to interconnect the first two 60 Hz generator units of the Itaipu power plant to the Brazilian interconnected system. The criteria, main problems identified and operative solutions encountered are presented in this paper. 10 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. China's first home-made large ethylene unit put into operation in Daqing%China's first home-made large ethylene unit put into operation in Daqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On October 5, the newly built 600kt/a ethylene unit at Daqing Petrochemical, a key part of the company's 1.2Mt/a ethylene expansion/upgrading project, turned out qualified products, indicating the successful industrialization of the packaged technology for China's first home-made large ethylene unit. This enables China to be independent from importing technologies for ethylene production which lasted for halfa century.

  5. Ecological consistency of SSU rRNA-based operational taxonomic units at a global scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S B Schmidt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs, usually defined as clusters of similar 16S/18S rRNA sequences, are the most widely used basic diversity units in large-scale characterizations of microbial communities. However, it remains unclear how well the various proposed OTU clustering algorithms approximate 'true' microbial taxa. Here, we explore the ecological consistency of OTUs--based on the assumption that, like true microbial taxa, they should show measurable habitat preferences (niche conservatism. In a global and comprehensive survey of available microbial sequence data, we systematically parse sequence annotations to obtain broad ecological descriptions of sampling sites. Based on these, we observe that sequence-based microbial OTUs generally show high levels of ecological consistency. However, different OTU clustering methods result in marked differences in the strength of this signal. Assuming that ecological consistency can serve as an objective external benchmark for cluster quality, we conclude that hierarchical complete linkage clustering, which provided the most ecologically consistent partitions, should be the default choice for OTU clustering. To our knowledge, this is the first approach to assess cluster quality using an external, biologically meaningful parameter as a benchmark, on a global scale.

  6. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced.

  7. Can a stepwise steady flow computational fluid dynamics model reproduce unsteady particulate matter separation for common unit operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathapati, Subbu-Srikanth; Sansalone, John J

    2011-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is emerging as a model for resolving the fate of particulate matter (PM) by unit operations subject to rainfall-runoff loadings. However, compared to steady flow CFD models, there are greater computational requirements for unsteady hydrodynamics and PM loading models. Therefore this study examines if integrating a stepwise steady flow CFD model can reproduce PM separation by common unit operations loaded by unsteady flow and PM loadings, thereby reducing computational effort. Utilizing monitored unit operation data from unsteady events as a metric, this study compares the two CFD modeling approaches for a hydrodynamic separator (HS), a primary clarifier (PC) tank, and a volumetric clarifying filtration system (VCF). Results indicate that while unsteady CFD models reproduce PM separation of each unit operation, stepwise steady CFD models result in significant deviation for HS and PC models as compared to monitored data; overestimating the physical size requirements of each unit required to reproduce monitored PM separation results. In contrast, the stepwise steady flow approach reproduces PM separation by the VCF, a combined gravitational sedimentation and media filtration unit operation that provides attenuation of turbulent energy and flow velocity.

  8. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gorton, Alicia M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Pino, Christian; Martinez, Dominique M.; Rana, Komal; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-20

    Prior to the acquisition of land by the U.S. Department of War in February 1943 and the creation of the Hanford Site, the land along the Columbia River was home to over 1000 people. Farming and orchard operations by both homesteaders and commercial organizations were prevalent. Orchard activities and the associated application of lead arsenate pesticide ceased in 1943, when residents were moved from the Hanford Site at the beginning of the Manhattan Project. Today, the residues from historical application of lead arsenate pesticide persist in some locations on the Hanford Site. In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology established the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The pre-Hanford orchard lands identified as the 100-OL-1 OU are located south of the Columbia River and east of the present-day Vernita Bridge, and extend southeast to the former Hanford townsite. The discontinuous orchard lands within 100-OL-1 OU are approximately 20 km2 (5000 ac). A pilot study was conducted to support the approval of the remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 OU. This pilot study evaluated the use of a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of lead arsenate pesticide residues in the OU. The objectives of the pilot study included evaluating a field portable XRF analyzer as the analytical method for decision making, estimating the nature and extent of lead and arsenic in surface soils in four decision units, evaluating the results for the purpose of optimizing the sampling approach implemented in the remedial investigation, and collecting information to improve the cost estimate and planning the cultural resources review for sampling activities in the remedial investigation. Based on

  9. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  11. Remedial design work plan for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This remedial action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing contaminated floodplain soil. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (1992). In accordance with the FFA, a remedial investigation (RI) (DOE 1994a) and a feasibility study (DOE 1994b) were conducted to assess contamination of the Lower EFPC and propose remediation alternatives. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative by the feasibility study was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Following the remedial investigation/feasibility study, and also in accordance with the FFA, a proposed plan was prepared to more fully describe the proposed remedy.

  12. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L. [and others

    1994-06-01

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT.

  13. Some assembly required: constructing the elementary units of store-operated Ca2+ entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minnie M; Luik, Riina M; Lewis, Richard S

    2007-08-01

    The means by which Ca(2+) store depletion evokes the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs) in the plasma membrane of excitable and non-excitable cells has been a longstanding mystery. Indirect evidence has supported local interactions between the ER and SOCs as well as long-range interactions mediated through a diffusible activator. The recent molecular identification of the ER Ca(2+) sensor (STIM1) and a subunit of the CRAC channel (Orai1), a prototypic SOC, has now made it possible to visualize directly the sequence of events that links store depletion to CRAC channel opening. Following store depletion, STIM1 moves from locations throughout the ER to accumulate in ER subregions positioned within 10-25nm of the plasma membrane. Simultaneously, Orai1 gathers at discrete sites in the plasma membrane directly opposite STIM1, resulting in local CRAC channel activation. These new studies define the elementary units of store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and reveal an unprecedented mechanism for channel activation in which the stimulus brings a channel and its activator/sensor together for interaction across apposed membrane compartments. We discuss the implications of this choreographic mechanism with regard to Ca(2+) dynamics, specificity of Ca(2+) signaling, and the existence of a specialized ER subset dedicated to the control of the CRAC channel.

  14. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  15. POTENTIAL USE OF ACTIVATED CARBON TO RECOVER TC-99 FROM 200 WEST AREA GROUNDWATER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO MORE EXPENSIVE RESINS HANFORD SITE RICHLAND WASNINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME; ROSSI AJ; TORTOSO AC

    2009-12-03

    Recent treatability testing performed on groundwater at the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has shown that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E resin very effectively removes Tc-99 from groundwater. However, this resin is expensive and cannot be regenerated. In an effort to find a less expensive method for removing Tc-99 from the groundwater, a literature search was performed. The results indicated that activated carbon may be used to recover technetium (as pertechnetate, TCO{sub 4}{sup -}) from groundwater. Oak Ridge National Laboratory used activated carbon in both batch adsorption and column leaching studies. The adsorption study concluded that activated carbon absorbs TCO{sub 4}{sup -} selectively and effectively over a wide range of pH values and from various dilute electrolyte solutions (< 0.01 molarity). The column leaching studies confirmed a high adsorption capacity and selectivity of activated carbon for TCO{sub 4}{sup -}. Since activated carbon is much less expensive than Purolite A530E resin, it has been determined that a more extensive literature search is warranted to determine if recent studies have reached similar conclusions, and, if so, pilot testing of 200-ZP-1 groundwater wi11 likely be implemented. It is possible that less expensive, activated carbon canisters could be used as pre-filters to remove Tc-99, followed by the use of the more expensive Purolite A530E resin as a polishing step.

  16. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested for many researchers and network operators. Using Electrical Vehicles (PEVs and wind power for energy production is one of the newest proposed methods for replacing fossil fuels.One of the effective strategies for analyzing of the effects of Vehicle 2 Grid (V2G and wind power in optimal operation of generation is running of SCUC for power systems that are equipped with V2G and wind power resources. In this paper, game theory method is employed for deterministic solution of day-ahead unit commitment with considering security constraints in the simultaneous presence of V2G and wind power units. This problem for two scenarios of grid-controlled mode and consumer-controlled mode in three different days with light, medium and heavy load profiles is analyzed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the presence of V2G and wind power for decreasing of generation cost and improving operation indices of power systems.

  17. Commissioning and quality assurances of the Intrabeam Intra-Operative radiotherapy unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Muralidhar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The authors report comprehensive commissioning and quality assurance (QA procedures for Intrabeam, Intra-Operative radiotherapy (IORT unit. The Intrabeam system miniature X-ray source is a 50 kV and 40 µA unit. Methods: The authors’ tests include measurements of output, beam deflection, isotropy, kVp and mAs measurements, quality index, isodose, reproducibility, linearity, depth dose verification, and 3D dose distribution. IC ionization chamber and the UNIDOSE dosimeter were used for the output commissioning. Probe adjuster/ionization chamber holder (PAICH was used to check the mechanical straightness of the probe. For radiation tests, NACP parallel plate chamber, Standard Imaging electrometer, 30 × 30 × 30 cm3 IAEA water phantom, solid water slabs, EDR-2 Films with RIT software, and ionization based survey meters were used. Unfors Xi platinum edition kVp meter was used to measure the kVp and mAs. Results: In mechanical QA test, X-Beam position (-0.09 mm, Y-Beam position (0.01 mm, and radial position (0.11 mm errors were within the tolerance level. Isotropy test with PDA, survey meter, ion chamber, and film measurements also produced results within the specifications. Output measurements with PAICH and external chamber measurements were matched. Beam quality, linearity, and reproducibility values were ascertained at 50KV and 40 µA and found to be within limits. Isodose, 3D dose distribution, transverse, and horizontal profiles showed the good isotropy of the source. Conclusion: The authors’ methodology provides comprehensive commissioning and calibration procedures for the Intrabeam system.

  18. 5-year operation experience with the 1.8 K refrigeration units of the LHC cryogenic system

    CERN Document Server

    Ferlin, G; Claudet, S; Pezzetti, M

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is in operation at CERN. The LHC superconducting magnets distributed over eight sectors of 3.3-km long are cooled at 1.9 K in pressurized superfluid helium. The nominal operating temperature of 1.9 K is produced by eight 1.8-K refrigeration units based on centrifugal cold compressors (3 or 4 stages depending to the vendor) combined with warm volumetric screw compressors with sub-atmospheric suction. After about 5 years of continuous operation, we will present the results concerning the availability for the final user of these refrigeration units and the impact of the design choice on the recovery time after a system trip. We will also present the individual results for each rotating machinery in terms of failure origin and of Mean Time between Failure (MTBF), as well as the consolidations and upgrades applied to these refrigeration units.

  19. GROUDWATER REMEDIATION AT THE 100-HR-3 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA - 11507

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMOOT JL; BIEBESHEIMER FH; ELUSKIE JA; SPILIOTOPOULOS A; TONKIN MJ; SIMPKIN T

    2011-01-12

    The 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site underlies three former plutonium production reactors and the associated infrastructure at the 100-D and 100-H Areas. The primary contaminant of concern at the site is hexavalent chromium; the secondary contaminants are strontium-90, technetium-99, tritium, uranium, and nitrate. The hexavalent chromium plume is the largest plume of its type in the state of Washington, covering an area of approximately 7 km{sup 2} (2.7 mi{sup 2}) with concentrations greater than 20 {micro}g/L. Concentrations range from 60,000 {micro}g/L near the former dichromate transfer station in the 100-D Area to large areas of 20 to 100 {micro}g/L across much of the plume area. Pump-and-treat operations began in 1997 and continued into 2010 at a limited scale of approximately 200 gal/min. Remediation of groundwater has been fairly successful in reaching remedial action objectives (RAOs) of 20 {micro}g/L over a limited region at the 100-H, but less effective at 100-D. In 2000, an in situ, permeable reactive barrier was installed downgradient of the hotspot in 100-D as a second remedy. The RAOs are still being exceeded over a large portion of the area. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company was awarded the remediation contract for groundwater in 2008 and initiated a remedial process optimization study consisting of modeling and technical studies intended to enhance the remediation. As a result of the study, 1,400 gal/min of expanded treatment capacity are being implemented. These new systems are designed to meet 2012 and 2020 target milestones for protection of the Columbia River and cleanup of the groundwater plumes.

  20. Data validation report for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, third round groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, J.M.

    1994-03-31

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-FR-3 operable Unit Third Round Groundwater sampling investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of 51 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The report is broken down into sections for each chemical analysis and radiochemical analysis type. Each section addresses the data package completeness, holding time adherence, instrument calibration and tuning acceptability, blank results, accuracy, precision, system performance, as well as the compound identification and quantitation. In addition, each section has an overall assessment and summary for the data packages reviewed for the particular chemical/radiochemical analyses. Detailed backup information is provided to the reader by SDG No. and sample number. For each data package, a matrix of chemical analyses per sample number is presented, as well as data qualification summaries.

  1. An operational evaluation of the Community Oral Rehydration Units in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, B M; Jacoby, E R

    1994-12-01

    Since 1984, in Latin America donor agencies and national governments have extensively supported the implementation of the Community Oral Rehydration Units (CORUs) in an attempt to increase the access to oral rehydration therapy and improve the case management of diarrhoea at the community level. This study surveyed 40 CORUs in two regions of Peru to assess their operation, the number of patients with diarrhoea attended, and the knowledge of volunteers in charge. The results show that CORUs were mainly implemented close to existing health centres; the median of case load was 2.0 patients in the preceding month; and the volunteers' knowledge of case management was principally deficient in the diagnosis of hydration status, dietary management and in preventive measures. This lack of knowledge was replicated by professionals at the supervising health centres. Despite the fact that CORUs have been functioning for around four years, they exhibit numerous deficiencies which prevent them from fulfilling their objectives. A global review of the whole CORU strategy is called for.

  2. jMOTU and Taxonerator: turning DNA Barcode sequences into annotated operational taxonomic units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding and other DNA sequence-based techniques for investigating and estimating biodiversity require explicit methods for associating individual sequences with taxa, as it is at the taxon level that biodiversity is assessed. For many projects, the bioinformatic analyses required pose problems for laboratories whose prime expertise is not in bioinformatics. User-friendly tools are required for both clustering sequences into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU and for associating these MOTU with known organismal taxonomies. RESULTS: Here we present jMOTU, a Java program for the analysis of DNA barcode datasets that uses an explicit, determinate algorithm to define MOTU. We demonstrate its usefulness for both individual specimen-based Sanger sequencing surveys and bulk-environment metagenetic surveys using long-read next-generation sequencing data. jMOTU is driven through a graphical user interface, and can analyse tens of thousands of sequences in a short time on a desktop computer. A companion program, Taxonerator, that adds traditional taxonomic annotation to MOTU, is also presented. Clustering and taxonomic annotation data are stored in a relational database, and are thus amenable to subsequent data mining and web presentation. CONCLUSIONS: jMOTU efficiently and robustly identifies the molecular taxa present in survey datasets, and Taxonerator decorates the MOTU with putative identifications. jMOTU and Taxonerator are freely available from http://www.nematodes.org/.

  3. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  4. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  5. Symptoms of Psychological Distress and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in United States Air Force Drone Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Disorder in United States Air Force “ Drone ” Operators 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...referred to as “ drones .” Participants were assessed for self-reported sources of occupational stress, levels of clinical distress using the Outcome...providers are discussed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Stress, drone operator, PTSD, USAF 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  6. Methods to model particulate matter clarification of unit operations subject to unsteady loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, David; Sansalone, John J

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater, and also wastewater unit operations (UOs) to a much lower extent, are subject to unsteady hydrodynamic and particulate matter (PM) fluxes. Simulating fully transient clarification of hetero-disperse PM requires much greater computational expense compared to steady simulations. An alternative to fully unsteady methods are stepwise steady (SS) methods which use stepwise steady flow transport and fate to approximate unsteady PM clarification of a UO during transient hydraulic loadings such as rainfall-runoff. The rationale is reduced computational effort for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) compared to simulating continuous unsteadiness of such events. An implicit solution stepwise steady (IS(3)) method is one approach which builds upon previous SS methods. The IS(3) method computes steady flows that are representative of unsteady PM transport throughout an unsteady loading. This method departs from some previous SS methods that assume PM fate can be simulated with an instantaneous clarifier (basin) influent flowrate coupled with a PM input. In this study, various SS methods were tested for basins of varying size and residence time to examine PM fate. Differences between SS methods were a function of turnover fraction indicating the role of unsteady flowrates on PM transport for larger basins of longer residence times. The breakpoint turnover fraction was between two and three. The IS(3) method best approximated unsteady behavior of larger basins. These methods identified limitations when utilizing standard event-based loading analysis for larger basins. For basins with a turnover fraction less than two, the majority of effluent PM did not originate from the event-based flow; originating from previous event loadings or existing storage. Inter- and multiple event processes and interactions, that are dependent on this inflow turnover fraction, are not accounted for by single event-based inflow models. Results suggest the use of long-term continuous

  7. 300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-15

    Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ``green`` material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ``green`` soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction.

  8. Phase 1 and 2 feasibility study report for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) feasibility study (FS) presented in this document completes the FS process only through the first two study phases: Phase I, Remedial Alternatives Development, and Phase II, Remedial Alternatives Screening in accordance with CERCIA guidance for performing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) (EPA 1988a). This Phase I/II study provides a generalized view of workable remedial technologies as applied to the site contamination problems as a whole. Phase III, Detailed Analysis of Alternatives, will be performed at a later date to further evaluate screened alternatives based on the nine criteria in the CERCLA RI/FS guidance. The purpose of this Phase I/II FS is to develop and screen a range of alternatives for remediation of contamination present in the vadose zone of the 300-FF-1 OU. The scope of work for this Phase I/II FS includes five primary tasks: 1. Review existing documents and their associated data from relevant investigations and studies; 2. Establish remedial action objectives (RAO) and general response actions (GRA); 3. Identify applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) pertinent to all general response actions (including waste disposal); 4. Develop remedial alternatives (Phase I) applicable to the 300-FF-1 OU including identification and screening of technologies and process options, and assembly of remedial alternatives from representative technology types; 5. Screen alternatives (Phase II) developed in Phase I for implementability, effectiveness, and cost to identify those alternatives which warrant advancement to the detailed analysis phase (Phase III) of the FS.

  9. Pyrosequencing as a tool for the detection of Phytophthora species: error rate and risk of false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vettraino, A.M.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Tomassini, A.; Bruni, N.; Vannini, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of pyrosequencing for the description of Phytophthora communities in terms of taxa identification and risk of assignment for false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs). Methods and Results: Pyrosequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicons was u

  10. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of...) filed on December 20, 2012 on behalf of workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport...

  11. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2016-05-18

    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision for the site.

  12. 75 FR 67784 - STP Nuclear Operating Company South Texas Project Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Water Act Section 402(p) Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (TPDES) general permit for... surface water quality. BMPs would be ] described in a Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) that... COMMISSION STP Nuclear Operating Company South Texas Project Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and...

  13. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6 to18 months of age) in 20 states from 49 locations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize the potential recovery of...

  14. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  15. Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report for Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, Howard S.

    2010-04-10

    This annual report summarizes maintenance, monitoring, and inspection activities performed to implement the selected remedy for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Results from monitoring perched water and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center are also presented.

  16. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  17. Prevalence of roll-over protective structure (ROPS)-equipped tractors on Hispanic-operated farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John R

    2010-04-01

    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, but not enough tractors are equipped with them in the United States to reduce the rate of these deaths to levels seen in several European countries. Recent literature has defined the use of ROPS on US farms in general, but little is known about ROPS use on Hispanic farm operations. Data from a national survey for the calendar year 2003 were used to assess the prevalence of ROPS use on Hispanic-operated farms. Farm characteristics previously identified to be associated with low ROPS prevalence rates on other farming operations were examined for these Hispanic farming operations. The overall ROPS prevalence rate on Hispanic farms was 52.2%. Adjusted odds ratios of potential risk factors found that the region where the farm was located and the acreage of the farm appeared to be the most significant indicators of the prevalence of ROPS on Hispanic farms. In addition, the age of the farm operator, the farm status as a full- or part-time operation, and the type of farm operation were also important factors. These findings were similar to those seen for racial minority farms and the general farming population. These results can be used to target ROPS promotion programs for Hispanic farmers across the United States.

  18. Global Strategy Implementation at the Business Unit Level: Operational Capabilities and Administrative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall Roth; David M Schweiger; Allen J Morrison

    1991-01-01

    The study examines the impact of internationally strategy on organizational design and the influence of the organizational design on effectiveness at the business unit level. The empirical findings are based on survey responses from eighty-two business units competing in global industries. The findings are supportive of the contingency notion which suggests that business unit effectiveness is a function of the fit between the international strategy and the organizational design.© 1991 JIBS. J...

  19. Operative and technological management of super-large united power grids: lessons of major world's blackouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkis, K.; Kreslins, V.; Mutule, A.

    2014-02-01

    Power system (PS) blackouts still persist worldwide, evidencing that the existing protective structures need to be improved. The discussed requirements and criteria to be met for joint synchronous operation of large and super-large united PSs should be based on close co-ordination of operative and technological management of all PSs involved in order to ensure secure and stable electricity supply and minimise or avoid the threat of a total PS blackout. The authors analyse the July 2012 India blackout - the largest power outage in history, which affected over 620 million people, i.e. half of India's population and spread across its 22 states. The analysis is of a general character, being applicable also to similar blackouts that have occurred in Europe and worldwide since 2003. The authors summarise and develop the main principles and methods of operative and technological management aimed at preventing total blackouts in large and super-large PSs. Neskatoties uz sasniegumiem elektroenerģētikas jomā un energosistēmu nepārtrauktu modernizāciju, pasaulē regulāri notiek sabrukumu avārijas. Rakstā apskatīti lielu un superlielu energosistēmu apvienību savstarpējas sinhronas darbības nodrošinājuma prasības un kritēriji, kas pamatojas uz operatīvās un tehnoloģiskās vadības ciešu koordināciju starp energosistēmām. Savstarpējas sinhronas darbības nodrošinājuma prasībām un kritērijiem ir izšķiroša nozīme, lai panāktu elektroapgādes drošumu un stabilitāti katrā energosistēmā, kas darbojas apvienotas energosistēmas sastāvā. Šo prasību un kritēriju ievērošana sekmē totālo avāriju izcelšanās iespēju samazināšanu un to novēršanu. Indijas 2012.gada totālo avāriju un citu analogo avāriju Eiropā un Amerikā analīze un izvērtējums laika posmā no 2003.gada, deva iespēju apkopot un izstrādāt lielu un superlielu energosistēmu operatīvās un tehnoloģiskās vadības principus un metodoloģiju, lai novērstu vai

  20. Assessment of the feasibility of an improvement programme enabling operation of units 3 and 4 of Kozloduy nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amri, A.; Aronov, J.; Bonino, F.; Cortes, P.; Gorbatchev, A.; Kanev, K.; Mattei, J.M.; Milhem, J.L.; Rollinger, F.; Sabotinov, L.; Samier, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR). Inst. de Protection et de Securete Nucleaire (IPSN)

    2001-07-01

    Since ten years, different western assessments have been made of the safety of VVER 440/230 units, including those of the KOZLODUY Nuclear Power Plant located in Bulgaria. Concerning the latter, reference can be made to the work of an European Consortium (GRS/Germany, IPSN/France, AEA/England, AVN/ Belgium), in 1992 and 1993, during examination of restart conditions for Units 1 and 2. The objective of these assessments was the improvement of the overall level of safety with a view to maintain these units in service with satisfactory safety level for a limited period. The work identified their main deficiencies. At the present time, all the modifications decided upon for Units 1 and 2 of the KOZLODUY Nuclear Power Plant in 1992 and 1993 have been adopted and implemented for Units 3 and 4. In 1999, considering that these units would probably not be definitively shutdown before about ten years, IPSN decided to perform an internal assessment of the feasibility of an improvement programme enabling continued operation of units 3 and 4 of KOZLODUY Nuclear Power Plant during this delay. (orig.)

  1. Record of Decision for Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater, Operable Unit 3-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-16

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact to groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank farm soil and groundwater at INTEC. The response action selected in this ROD is necessary to protect the public health, welfare, or the environment from actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Such a release or threat of release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment. The remedial actions selected in this ROD are designed to reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment to acceptable levels. In addition, DOE-ID, EPA, and DEQ (the Agencies) have determined that no action is necessary under CERCLA to protect public health, welfare, or the environment at 16 sites located outside the tank farm boundary. The purposes of the selected remedy are to (1) contain contaminated soil as the radionuclides decay in place, (2) isolate current and future workers and biological receptors from contact with contaminated soil, and (3) restore the portion of Snake River Plain Aquifer contaminated by INTEC releases to Idaho Ground Water Quality

  2. BIOTIC INTEGRITY OF STREAMS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATOR OPERABLE UNITS, 1996 TO 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M; Susan Dyer, S

    2004-11-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been divided into six Integrator Operable Units (IOUs) that correspond to the watersheds of the five major streams on the SRS (Upper Three Runs, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs) and the portions of the Savannah River and Savannah River Swamp associated with the SRS. The streams are the primary integrators within each IOU because they potentially receive, through surface or subsurface drainage, soluble contaminants from all waste sites within their watersheds. If these contaminants reach biologically significant levels, they would be expected to effect the numbers, types, and health of stream organisms. In this study, biological sampling was conducted within each IOU as a measure of the cumulative ecological effects of the waste sites within the IOUs. The use of information from biological sampling to assess environmental quality is often termed bioassessment. The IOU bioassessment program included 38 sites in SRS streams and nine sites in the Savannah River. Sampling was conducted in 1996 to 1998, 2000, and 2003. Four bioassessment methods were used to evaluate ecological conditions in the IOU streams: the Index of Biotic Integrity, the Fish Health Assessment Index, measurement of fish tissue contaminant levels, and two benthic macroinvertebrate indices. The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is an EPA supported method based on comparison of ecologically important and sensitive fish assemblage variables between potentially disturbed and reference (i.e., undisturbed) sites. It is designed to assess the ability of a stream to support a self-sustaining biological community and ecological processes typical of undisturbed, natural conditions. Since many types of contaminants can bioaccumulate, fish tissue contaminant data were used to determine the types of chemicals fish were exposed to and their relative magnitudes among IOUs. The Fish Health Assessment Index (HAI) is an EPA supported method for assessing

  3. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter application report for Teledyne Wah Chang Albany Operable Unit Number One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; O' Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the application of the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter (PBTSF) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory's Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program as applied to remediation activities conducted at the Teledyne Wah Chang Albany (TWCA) Superfund Site, Operable Unit One. The remedial action at the TWCA Operable Unit One consisted of solidification, excavation, transportation, and monocell disposal of the contents of two sludge ponds contaminated with various inorganic and organic compounds. Inorganic compounds included low levels of uranium and radium isotopes, as well zirconium, hafnium, chromium, mercury, and nickel. Organic compounds included methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, and hexachlorobenzene. Remediation began in June 1991, and was completed in November 1991. The TWCA Operable Unit One configuration option consisted of 15 functional subelements. Data were gathered on these subelements and end-to-end system operation to calculate numerical values for 28 system performance measures. These were then used to calculate a system performance score. An assessment was made of the availability and definitional clarity of these performance measures, applicability of PBTSF utility functions, and rollup methodology. The PBTSF scoring function worked well, with few problems noted in data gathering, utility function normalization, and scoring calculation. The application of this process to an actual in situ treatment and excavation technical process option clarified the specific terms and bounds of the performance score functions, and identified one problem associated with the definition of system boundary.

  4. Analysis of United States Marine Corps operations in support of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief

    OpenAIRE

    Gastrock, Jared R.; Iturriaga, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In order to improve the effectiveness of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) response to future international humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) missions, an analysis of the demands created by such disasters as well as the capabilities of the USMC is necessary. This research focuses on the primary response organization within the USMC, the Marine expeditionary unit (MEU),and those resources available to the MEU to condu...

  5. United States Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Environmental Compliance Handbook. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Environment, Safety & Health Division (ESHD) of the Nevada Operations Office has prepared this Environmental Compliance Handbook for all users of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) facilities. The Handbook gives an overview of the important environmental laws and regulations that apply to the activities conducted by the Nevada Operations Office and other users of DOE/NV facilities in Nevada.

  6. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-28

    The LPMEOH process was conceived and patented by Chem Systems Inc. in 1975. Initial research and studies on the process focused on two distinct modes of operation. The first was a liquid fluidized mode with relatively large catalyst pellets suspended in a fluidizing liquid, and the second was an entrained (slurry) mode with fine catalyst particles slurried in an inert liquid. The development of both operating modes progressed in parallel from bench scale reactors, through an intermediate scale lab PDU, and then to the LaPorte PDU in 1984. The slurry mode of operation was ultimately chosen as the operating mode of choice due to its superior performance.

  7. Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.

    2009-03-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.

  8. Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Operators in the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    and clinical interviews utilizing the Clinician Administered Psychological Survey to determine the nature of the respondents’ stressful military...diagnostic criteria. Two squadrons of RPA operators (pilots and sensor operators) were sampled (N=85). No current cases of PTSD due to remote warfare were...interviews utilizing the Clinician Administered Psychological Survey to determine the nature of the respondents’ stressful military experiences

  9. Implementation of Networking-by-Touch to Small Unit, Network-Enabled Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Operations Center NPS Naval Postgraduate School NSW Naval Special Operations NTT Nippon Telephone and Telegraph NVG Night Vision Goggle ...Consisting of a Matrix of Vibrating Elements Inside a Multi-Ply Garment Covering the Helicopter Pilot’s Torso [From [60...displays disrupt night vision adaptation [61]. Tactile cues are also highly effective for directional warning and attention allocation by communicating the

  10. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  11. Construction and operation of the flue gas desulphurization plant at Altbach/Deizisau power station, unit no. 5. Experience from commissioning and initial operating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.; Necker, P.; Strauss, J.; Hemming, H.; Landgraf, E.

    1987-04-01

    Since take-over the flue gas desulphurization plant has easily maintained the required level of desulphurisation. Caking-on and incrustation are substantially avoided. By redesigning the gypsum drying process an easily storable gypsum which can be used both in the gypsum and cement industry is produced. According to experience gained to date it is expected that the flue gas desulphurisation plant will not impair the availability of the power plant unit taking into account statutory regulations. In overall terms the plant has satisfactorily fulfilled the expectations of the operator.

  12. Cost-Optimal Operation of Energy Storage Units: Benefits of a Problem-Specific Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Siemer, Lars; Kleinhans, David

    2015-01-01

    The integration of large shares of electricity produced by non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES) leads to an increasingly volatile energy generation side, with temporary local overproduction. The application of energy storage units has the potential to use this excess electricity from RES efficiently and to prevent curtailment. The objective of this work is to calculate cost-optimal charging strategies for energy storage units used as buffers. For this purpose, a new mathematical optimization method is presented that is applicable to general storage-related problems. Due to a tremendous gain in efficiency of this method compared with standard solvers and proven optimality, calculations of complex problems as well as a high-resolution sensitivity analysis of multiple system combinations are feasible within a very short time. As an example technology, Power-to-Heat converters used in combination with thermal storage units are investigated in detail and optimal system configurations, including storage ...

  13. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.

  14. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE), Operable Unit 1, Fernald, Hamilton and Butler Counties, OH, March 1, 1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 of the FEMP site in Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Operable Unit 1 consists of Waste Pits 1 through 6, the Burn Pit, the Clearwell, and associated environmental media (excluding groundwater).

  15. 75 FR 3943 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    .... NPF-68 and NPF-81, issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), for... contained in 10 CFR 73.55 by the March 31, 2010, implementation deadline. SNC has proposed an alternate...

  16. COMPACT DIFFERENCES OF COMPOSITION OPERATORS ON HOLOMORPHIC FUNCTION SPACES IN THE UNIT BALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Liangying; Ouyang Caiheng

    2011-01-01

    We find a lower bound for the essential norm of the difference of two composition operators acting on H2(BN) or A28(BN) (s > -1).This result plays an important role in proving a necessary and sufficient condition for the difference of linear fractional composition operators to be compact,which answers a question posed by MacCluer and Weir in 2005.

  17. An Investigation Into the Feasibility of Merging Three Technical Processing Operations Into One Central Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert W., Jr.

    Three contiguous schools in the upper midwest--a teacher's training college and a private four-year college in one state, and a land-grant university in another--were studied to see if their libraries could merge one of their major divisions--technical services--into a single administrative unit. Potential benefits from such a merger were felt to…

  18. Closing the Door Behind You: How the United States Army Conducts Logistical Withdrawals after Lengthy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    complicating this process was a similar use of identified excess to ship to other countries units, such as Thailand. The Keystone architecture was...2006, Sunni extremists attacked a mosque in Samarra, one of the holiest sites in Shiite Islam. This action initiated a spiraling level of violence

  19. Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase 3: Biomass Process Development Unit (PDU) construction and initial operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, J. J.; Hooverman, R. H.

    1981-12-01

    The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. Siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor, the ash dump system, the PDU support equipment, control and information management, and shakedown runs are described.

  20. The Implications of Network-Centric Warfare for United States and Multinational Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    31. Rear Admiral D. Mayo, Bandwidth Baseline Assesment Memo, <http://copernicus.hq.navy.mil/crwg98/briefs/brownbag_bam.pdf>, p. 22. 14... smoke signals or drums, or carefully selected commercial technology? The United States experience in Somalia and the Russian experience in

  1. LeanERP® Mobile Platform Solution for Planning, Visualization and Execution of Business Operations in MSME Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr . Jayakumar Karuppusamy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and development of a solution framework for a LeanERP® interactive application for use with mobile handheld devices, which enables profile based activity logging, planning and execution of tasks, information sharing, collaboration and decision support aligned with the enterprise operations. The design leverages intelligence with the use of cognitive approaches, classifier systems and a data driven approach for adaptive profiling and configuration of software behavior. The solution is well suited for MSME units as the architecture is designed on the basis of a SOA for rapid adaptation and deployment for a given cluster and presents an engaging role centric GUI with multiple widgets and tabs for dynamic visualization of information relating to enterprise operations with trails and traceability of process flows, events, activities, analysis and cost estimates. The solution integrates mechanisms, data structures, algorithms and associated computational models that enable presentation of performance characteristics, predictions and appropriate options for decisions relating to various operations

  2. Oxy-fired boiler unit and method of operating the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Xinsheng; Zhang, Jundong; Joshi, Abhinaya; McCombe, James A.; Levasseur, Armand A.

    2016-12-06

    An oxy-combustion boiler unit is disclosed which includes a furnace for combusting fuel and for emitting flue gas resulting from combustion. The furnace has first, second and third combustion zones, and an air separation unit for separating oxygen gas from air and providing a first portion of the separated oxygen to a first oxidant flow, a second portion to a second oxidant flow, and a third portion of the separated oxygen gas to the first, second, and third zones of the furnace. A controller can cause the separated oxygen gas to be distributed so that the first and second oxygen flows have a desired oxygen content, and so that the first, second, and third zones of the furnace receive a desired amount of oxygen based on a combustion zone stoichiometry control.

  3. A study on scattered dose in operation room by C-arm unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sung Min; Oh, Jung Hwan; Kim, Sung Chul [Gachon Gil College, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-15

    This paper studied a C-arm's exposure condition and measured scatter rays by thickness and distance. This study reached the following conclusion. Approximately exposure dose for a patient using fluoroscopy is as follows: Mostly, an operating room was not shielding by lead and operator put on only apron without thyroid and facial part protection. 0.5 mmPb equivalent's apron shielded about 99% of scattered rays at 60 cm from x-ray tube. Scattered rays are depended on distance and thickness so operators are should be careful when using fluoroscopy by C-arm and if possible use high frequency equipment that has a large output.

  4. Operational characteristics of tractors driven by children on farms in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlenga, B; Pickett, W; Berg, R L; Murphy, D

    2004-01-01

    Farm tractors are an important source of traumatic injury for children on farms. There is, however, no documentation about the age and size of tractors that children are operating and little information about the frequency with which rollover protective structures (ROPS) are used. This study described tractors that children on farms in the U.S. and Canada were operating by age, horsepower, and the presence of ROPS, according to the age and gender of the farm children involved. As a sub-analysis of data compiled during a randomized controlled trial, a descriptive analysis was completed on work exposure data collected by telephone interview. Of the 1,113 children involved in the trial, 522 (47%) were reported to perform at least one job that involved the operation of a farm tractor, and 408 (36.7%) were operating tractors of at least 20 horsepower. The majority of these children were male. There was a wide range of ages and sizes of tractors operated. However, the majority of tractors were between 20 and 70 horsepower and manufactured after 1970. Nearly one-half of the tractors were equipped with ROPS, and these tended to be newer and larger tractors. This analysis provides new data about the broad range of tractors driven by farm children in the U.S. and Canada. The findings point to a need to re-examine the reliance on a single voluntary standard to mitigate the hazard of tractor rollovers and the need for an enhanced safety policy requiring all tractors operated by children be equipped with ROPS.

  5. 14 CFR 11.83 - How can I operate under an exemption outside the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Organization (ICAO). If it would not, but we still believe it would be in the public interest to allow you to do so, we will file a difference with ICAO. However, a foreign country still may not allow you to operate in that country without meeting the ICAO standard....

  6. Accomplishing Shipyard Work for the United States Navy: Institutions, Systems and Operations. Volume 3. Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    operations research, advanced energy sources and propulsion technologies, nuclear physics, marine biology , maritime law, and ship financing. The...ductivity and reducing its production costs. 17 ()Determine whether -the industry c~ i achieve by FY 17 alevel of productivity that will allow reduction

  7. 40 CFR 63.1104 - Process vents from continuous unit operations: applicability assessment procedures and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vent. (iv) Design analysis based on accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process... be monitored to ensure the process vent is operated in conformance with its design or process and... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process vents from continuous...

  8. Domestic Contingency Operations: A New Role for the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-04

    The addition of operations other than war to military lexicology greatly assists to define the role of the Army in support of domestic missions but...transportation, linguists , and health services directly translate to the domestic environment. This critical skills are essential for disaster

  9. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  10. Symptoms of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in United States Air Force "drone" operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Prince, Lillian; Goodman, Tanya; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie N; Thompson, William

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study is to repeat a survey administered in 2010 to assess for changes in mental health among United States Air Force aircrew operating Predator/Reaper remotely piloted aircraft, also commonly referred to as "drones." Participants were assessed for self-reported sources of occupational stress, levels of clinical distress using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. A total of 1,094 aircrew responded to the web-based survey composed of the commercially available standardized instruments mentioned above. The survey also contained nonstandardized items asking participants to report the main sources of their occupational stress, as well as questions addressing demographics and work-related characteristics. The estimated response rate to the survey was 49%. Study results reveal the most problematic self-reported stressors are operational: low manning, extra duties/administrative tasks, rotating shift work, and long hours. The results also reveal 10.72% of operators self-reported experiencing high levels of distress and 1.57% reported high levels of PTSD symptomology. The results are lower than findings from the 2010 survey and from soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Implications of the study and recommendations for United States Air Force line leadership and mental health providers are discussed.

  11. Virus removal retention challenge tests performed at lab scale and pilot scale during operation of membrane units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, H; Machinal, C; Labaye, Ivan; Schrotter, J C

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the virus retention capabilities of UF units during operation is essential for the operators of drinking water treatment facilities in order to guarantee an efficient and stable removal of viruses through time. In previous studies, an effective method (MS2-phage challenge tests) was developed by the Water Research Center of Veolia Environnement for the measurement of the virus retention rates (Log Removal Rate, LRV) of commercially available hollow fiber membranes at lab scale. In the present work, the protocol for monitoring membrane performance was transferred from lab scale to pilot scale. Membrane performances were evaluated during pilot trial and compared to the results obtained at lab scale with fibers taken from the pilot plant modules. PFU culture method was compared to RT-PCR method for the calculation of LRV in both cases. Preliminary tests at lab scale showed that both methods can be used interchangeably. For tests conducted on virgin membrane, a good consistency was observed between lab and pilot scale results with the two analytical methods used. This work intends to show that a reliable determination of the membranes performances based on RT-PCR analytical method can be achieved during the operation of the UF units.

  12. Evaluation of incidence and severity of postoperative hypoxemia in neurosurgical patients during transportation from operation theater to surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care unit, Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Mir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Postoperative hypoxemia during transportation from operation theater to intensive care unit is common among neurosurgical patients. Methadology: Arterial oxygen saturation (Spo2 and arterial blood gas analysis was performed postoperatively before and after shifting a group of sixty patients with ASA I and ASA II status undergoing various elective neurosurgical procedures under general anesthesia at Sheri-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Srinagar , Kashmir. Statistical analysis: The data was analyzed using SPSS version 13. The chi-square test was used for categorical variables and student’s t test was used for continuous variables with normal distribution. The data was collected, compiled and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The values were expressed as mean±SD and a p value <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: SpO2 before and after transporting the patients to SICU in group I was 98.90±0.45 and 86.70±3.85 respectively, whereas in group II, the SpO2 values were 98.80±0.52 and 93.95±3.99 respectively. In group III the mean SpO2 before and after transportation was 97.60±1.96 and 83.95±8.64 respectively. The difference in SpO2 in all the three groups before and after transportation was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: We recommend supplemental oxygen administration in all neurosurgical patients during transportation from operation theater to intensive care unit.

  13. [Vaccination against hepatitis B: 3 years' experience at the Latium Operative Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, L; Mattioli, R; Ensoli, G; Albertoni, F; Duchini, B; Ungaro, P; Corsi, T

    1989-01-01

    A campaign against hepatitis B was launched in 1985 in Latium Region, Italy, aimed at hospital workers, newborns of HBsAg positive mothers, hemodialysis patients, thalassemics and hemophiliacs. Subsequently, since the beginning of 1987 other at risk categories were included, namely households of HBsAg positive carriers, subjects with accidental exposure to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) (i.e exposure to street syringes), health care personnel working outside the hospital setting such as dentists, private clinics and laboratory workers, etc. A protocol was defined by the Regional Epidemiologic Unit (Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale) in order to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety af the two plasma-derived (pd) vaccines registered in Italy, MSD and Pasteur, in field conditions. Subjects belonging to these at risk categories were distributed among 21 hospital based vaccination units, to which the two vaccines were randomly allocated. Subjects were considered eligible for vaccination if they were HBsAg negative and Anti-HBs negative or Anti-HBs positive at low titer i.e. less than 20 milli-International units per milliliter. Subjects with insulin dependent diabetes, chronic liver disease or known hypersensitivity to vaccine components were also excluded. Antibody response was checked at six months since the beginning of the vaccination, i.e. after two doses of the MSD and three doses of Pasteur vaccine and expressed in miU/ml by use of Hollinger formula. Pre-vaccination screening, vaccination and post-vaccination anti-HBs testing were offered free of charge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Integration of Snow Data from Remote Sensing into Operational Streamflow Forecasting in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, S.; Painter, T. H.; Miller, W. P.; Andreadis, K.

    2014-12-01

    The small watershed ecosystem as a unit of experimental manipulation and analysis has been a hallmark of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest for 60 years. Water and nutrient budgets of headwater catchments have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of the response of forested ecosystems to disturbances such as air pollution and land management. A limitation in the practice of this approach is that point-scale measurements are compiled to create catchment scale estimates of fluxes and stores, thus losing process information that could be gained from spatial patterns that depend on position along hydrologic or biogeochemical pathways. Beginning in 2007, high frequency measurements of water table fluctuation, made possible by inexpensive sensor technology, highlighted the previously underappreciated role of groundwater in these steep headwater catchments. Hydropedologic units (HPUs), identified by morphological differences in soil profiles, and reflecting distinct groundwater regimes, were defined and arranged along a generalized toposequence to describe a conceptual model which partitions spatial variation into predictable, repeatable landscape units. Stratification of point scale measurements of soil and water quality elucidates spatial patterns of variation and allows identification of hot spots, or zones of the catchment where certain processes prevail. Specific HPUs are associated with high rates of dissolved organic matter production, nitrification, denitrification and delivery of mineral weathering products to the surface. Moving beyond the small watershed, contrasting spatial patterns in surface water chemistry at the basin scale suggest differing prevalence of various HPUs among headwater catchments. Comparison of water quality patterns with HPU distribution allows identification of catchment properties responsible for regulation of water quality at the point to the catchment to the basin scales.

  15. [Utilization of technological resources within the framework of operation of a Mobile Mental Health Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoni, D; Sarantidis, D; Katsadoros, K

    2016-01-01

    Telepsychiatry was introduced in the early 1950's for the provision of mental health services from a distance. In 1990 the progress made in telecommunications technologies caused a significant expansion in telepsychiatry services. It can refer to store and forward technologies, interactive technologies, remote monitoring technologies and it is applied to contribute to the lift of restrictions placed on providing mental health services. Restrictions may exist due to geographic isolation, lack of specialized services, high cost of moving patients etc. The positive cost-benefit analysis and the reliability of diagnosis and efficacy of interventions through telepsychiatry have been documented in various research papers referring to a wide range of contexts such as prisons, remote areas, general and psychiatric hospitals. Since 2003 the Mobile Mental Health Unit of South- Eastern (SE) Cyclades has been using videoconferencing in order to provide mental health services in thirteen islands. This area shares many of the characteristics of remote areas such as residential dispersion, lack of mental health services and frequent lack of access to services in urban centers. Telepsychiatry in conjunction with physical presence of professionals was launched by the Mobile Mental Health Unit in order to provide assistance to the evaluation of patients, to therapeutic interventions, to medicine prescription, to crisis intervention, to psychoeducation of patients and their families and to the implementation of educational and administrative activities . The use of existing technology in combination with the development of human resources has enabled continuity of care, crisis intervention and avoidance of involuntary hospitalization for a significant number of persons. Moreover, it has improved cooperation and coordination between the interdisciplinary team and local authorities and agencies. When professionals located in different parts are collaborating via telepsychiatry it is

  16. Remedial Action Report for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2007-08-15

    This Phase III remedial action report addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility STF-02 Gun Range at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Phase I, consisting of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operble Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory Site-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring, was addressed in a previous report. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance.

  17. Modeling and Control of Low Voltage Flexible Units for Enhanced Operation of Distribution Feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboni, Pietro; Hu, Weihao; Chaudhary, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Battery (EVB) is proposed for providing primary regulation in grid connected mode and for hierarchically manage an islanded LV distribution feeder. The unit models are described and a novel EVB model directly based on manufacturer’s data is proposed and evaluated comparing its performances with Sim......PowerSystems library block. Moreover a voltage dependant power term is applied to the Voltage-Source Converter (VSC) control scheme of the EVB for improving the performances of the islanded feeder. The control is tested in case of under frequency and consequent load shedding occurring at the residential feeder...

  18. Borehole Data Package for Nine CY 2006 Polyphosphate Treatability Testing Wells, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bruce A.

    2007-04-12

    Nine new CERCLA groundwater monitoring wells were installed in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit in calendar year 2006 to fulfill commitments for the EM-20 funded polyphosphate treatability test. Nine new performance monitoring wells were drilled into the uppermost unconfined aquifer, to the Hanford formation - Ringold Formation contact boundary, and completed within the permeable Hanford fm. unit 1 gravel-dominated sequence. The overall objective of the polyphosphate treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat 300 Area uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. The objective of this work was to install the performance monitoring network surrounding the existing treatability injection well C5000 (399-1-23) in support of the implementation of a field scale demonstration of the polyphosphate technology.

  19. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  20. The Optimized Operation of Gas Turbine Combined Heat and Power Units Oriented for the Grid-Connected Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shu; Ge, Xiaolin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, according to various grid-connected demands, the optimization scheduling models of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units are established with three scheduling modes, which are tracking the total generation scheduling mode, tracking steady output scheduling mode and tracking peaking curve scheduling mode. In order to reduce the solution difficulty, based on the principles of modern algebraic integers, linearizing techniques are developed to handle complex nonlinear constrains of the variable conditions, and the optimized operation problem of CHP units is converted into a mixed-integer linear programming problem. Finally, with specific examples, the 96 points day ahead, heat and power supply plans of the systems are optimized. The results show that, the proposed models and methods can develop appropriate coordination heat and power optimization programs according to different grid-connected control.

  1. Isolation and quarantine during pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in NSW: the operational experience of public health units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Philippa L; Sheppeard, Vicky; Staff, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    During the DELAY and CONTAIN phases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in NSW, public health units needed to rapidly surge operations to manage the 3070 potential cases and 1894 contacts notified to them. The Incident Control System, NetEpi (the web-based multi-user access database), training to up-skill surge staff, and electronic communication were all integral to the outbreak response. Ongoing identification and training of surge staff would assist a timely and effective response to future large scale outbreaks. Investing and incorporating information technology tools into routine public health unit business to assist with communication, outbreak management and reporting will improve familiarity and capability within the network to respond to public health emergencies.

  2. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  3. Unit operations for gas-liquid mass transfer in reduced gravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Allen, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Basic scaling rules are derived for converting Earth-based designs of mass transfer equipment into designs for a reduced gravity environment. Three types of gas-liquid mass transfer operations are considered: bubble columns, spray towers, and packed columns. Application of the scaling rules reveals that the height of a bubble column in lunar- and Mars-based operations would be lower than terrestrial designs by factors of 0.64 and 0.79 respectively. The reduced gravity columns would have greater cross-sectional areas, however, by factors of 2.4 and 1.6 for lunar and Martian settings. Similar results were obtained for spray towers. In contract, packed column height was found to be nearly independent of gravity.

  4. Shielding considerations for an operating room based intraoperative electron radiotherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M D; Almond, P R; Boyer, A L; Ochran, T G; Madigan, W; Rich, T A; Dally, E B

    1990-05-01

    The leakage radiation characteristics of a dedicated intraoperative radiotherapy linear accelerator have been measured on a machine designed to minimize the shielding required to allow it to be placed in an operating room suite. The scattering foil design was optimized to produce a flat beam for the field sizes employed while generating minimal bremsstrahlung contamination over the available energy range. More lead shielding was used in the treatment head than is used in conventional accelerators. A small amount of borated polyethylene shielding was also employed since neutron production was present at measurable levels. The room shielding installed in the operating room was demonstrated to be adequate to treat at least 20 patients each month to an average dose of 20 Gy. The worst case exposure was found to be 73% maximum permissible exposure. Administrative control was required for adjoining areas when calibrations and maintenance were performed.

  5. Scalable Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) to Enhance Situational Awareness in Distributed Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    use, reliable, intuitive, and possess the ability to be upgraded and expanded. As the smartphone has reimagined the way business works, so this...operate with other devices already in place. Interoperability must replace proprietary technologies. Finally, the size and weight of the devices...ability to look around him and compare what he sees with his eyes to the overhead imagery he can view on a tablet . The ability to deliver information

  6. Apollo’s Warriors: United States Air Force Special Operations during the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    in South Vietnam, three at were made to Honduras, the Dominican Republic, Hurlburt Field, and one each in Panama and West Guatemala, Peru ...MCAO program. Force Military Civic Action Officer (MCAO) To the casual social observer, the ingredients for program conducted in Thailand received...Agent Orange issue. described Agent Orange as so powerful that The 12th Special Operations Squadron ( redes - "within two days [it] could topple a

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T. [eds.; Musicki, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144.

  8. Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2007-05-09

    This report provides a status of the progress made in Fiscal Year 2006 on tasks identified in the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan. Major accomplishments include: (1) groundwater sampling and review of the groundwater monitoring data, (2) installation of a Sitewide groundwater-level monitoring network, (3) update of the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan of Operable Unit 10-08, (4) re-evaluation of the risk at Site TSF-08, (5) progress on the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model.

  9. An Analysis of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in United States Air Force Drone Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-17

    the assessment, and variability of combat exposure. Otto and Webber (2013) noted that the incidence of mental health problems among USAF drone operators...to complete a demographics and occupational questionnaire composed of several items that assessed gender, age range, rank range, marital status...18–25 222 20.48 26–30 363 33.49 31–34 182 16.79 35–39 150 13.84 40+ 165 15.22 Missing 2 ə MAJCOM AFSOC 140 12.92 ANG 217 20.02 ACC 727 67.07 Rank

  10. Organizational structure and operation of defense/aerospace information centers in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, H. E.; Lushina, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    U.S. Government aerospace and defense information centers are addressed. DTIC and NASA are described in terms of their history, operational authority, information services provided, user community, sources of information collected, efforts under way to improve services, and external agreements regarding the exchange of documents and/or data bases. Contents show how DTIC and NASA provide aerospace/defense information services in support of U.S. research and development efforts. In a general introduction, the importance of scientific and technical information and the need for information centers to acquire, handle, and disseminate it are stressed.

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  12. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF Hispanic Veterans—A Review Using the PRISMA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa D. Arriola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an “alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.” TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI.

  14. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  15. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo;

    2015-01-01

    for single- and two-phase heat transfer coefficients.The results indicate that severe load changes (0.4–1.0 MWs-1) can lead to exceedance of thetemperature limit of fluid decomposition for a period of 10 min. Ramp rates lower than 0.3MWs-1 areacceptable considering the stability of the electric grid......This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  16. Impact of computerized information systems on workload in operating room and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, R J

    2009-03-01

    The number of operating rooms and intensive care departments equipped with a clinical information system (CIS) is rapidly expanding. Amongst the putative advantages of such an installation, reduction in workload for the clinician is one of the most appealing. The scarce studies looking at workload variations associated with the implementation of a CIS, only focus on direct workload discarding indirect changes in workload. Descriptions of the various methods to quantify workload are provided. The hypothesis that a third generation CIS can reduce documentation time for ICU nurses and increase time they spend on patient care, is supported by recent literature. Though it seems obvious to extrapolate these advantages of a CIS to the anesthesiology department or physicians in the intensive care, studies examining this assumption are scarce.

  17. Predictability of Operant Behavior of Rats by Prefrontal Multiple Unit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sei-Etsu; Akema, Tatsuo; Izaki, Yoshinori

    To investigate the possibility of a brain computer interface (BCI) constructed using activities of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we analyzed PFC multiple unit activities (MUAs) during a delayed reinforcement (DRF) lever press task in rats. In the DRF task, each trial consisted of two lever press responses (R1, R2): R1 as the trial initiation, R2 as a pre-conditioned response to a stimulus (buzzer) for a reward. Between R1 and the buzzer, rats were required to inhibit the lever press (waiting phase). The trial was evaluated as incorrect if rats pressed the lever during the waiting phase. Results show that the mean firing rate (MFR) was significantly lower around the time of R1 compared with the pre-trial time in correct trials, although no significant changes were found in incorrect trials. From a neuroengineering perspective, the MFR of each single trial was calculated. Most correct trials showed decreasing MFR around the time of R1. The PFC MUA might be useful for BCI.

  18. [Ethics consultation unit in nephrology (UCEN): review of 10 years of operation in the Grenoble area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizi Balzan, Jocelyne; Moreaud, Olivier; Palacin, Pedro; Truche, Anne-Sophie; Zaoui, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    The existence of an ethics consultation unit in nephrology (UCEN) gives to the nephrologist the collegiality required to meet the difficulties of therapeutic choice on a legislative level, particularly in indications of stop dialysis. The discussion conducted, outside the emergency, is guided by a tool for reflexion that details successive steps necessary to the identification of elements required for decision-making. Thanks to complementary skills provided by the participants and training acquired, the UCEN can approach other ethic issues encountered during practice such as contrindication for a kidney transplantation or maintenance of conservative treatment, or performing invasive procedures on patients refusing transfusion. Propositions are not always relevant due to opposition or ambivalence of some patients, their relatives, an external or disagreements between teams or a mismatch between the technical and the patient's condition. These non-conformities decrypted always have an explanation, sometimes they are understood and accepted by the teams, and sometimes they became source of regrets when they extend life in very poor conditions. The UCEN, if it does not solve every single point, remains a place and a time of sharing that face difficult situations, help the nephrologist positioning himself on maintaining treatments that were first to avoid and prevent the realization of unreasonable acts and accept their limits.

  19. Mapping the solid-state properties of crystalline lysozyme during pharmaceutical unit-operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Grimsey, Ian M; Forbes, Robert T

    2015-10-10

    Bulk crystallisation of protein therapeutic molecules towards their controlled drug delivery is of interest to the biopharmaceutical industry. The complexity of biotherapeutic molecules is likely to lead to complex material properties of crystals in the solid state and to complex transitions. This complexity is explored using batch crystallised lysozyme as a model. The effects of drying and milling on the solid-state transformations of lysozyme crystals were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), FT-Raman, and enzymatic assay. XRPD was used to characterise crystallinity and these data supported those of crystalline lysozyme which gave a distinctive DSC thermogram. The apparent denaturation temperature (Tm) of the amorphous lysozyme was ∼201 °C, while the Tm of the crystalline form was ∼187 °C. Raman spectra supported a more α-helix rich structure of crystalline lysozyme. This structure is consistent with reduced cooperative unit sizes compared to the amorphous lysozyme and is consistent with a reduction in the Tm of the crystalline form. Evidence was obtained that milling also induced denaturation in the solid-state, with the denatured lysozyme showing no thermal transition. The denaturation of the crystalline lysozyme occurred mainly through its amorphous form. Interestingly, the mechanical denaturation of lysozyme did not affect its biological activity on dissolution. Lysozyme crystals on drying did not become amorphous, while milling-time played a crucial role in the crystalline-amorphous-denatured transformations of lysozyme crystals. DSC is shown to be a key tool to monitor quantitatively these transformations.

  20. Microorganisms in confined habitats: Microbial monitoring and control of intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room, product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms, or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 – and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g. microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  1. Microorganisms in Confined Habitats: Microbial Monitoring and Control of Intensive Care Units, Operating Rooms, Cleanrooms and the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maximilian; Mahnert, Alexander; Koskinen, Kaisa; Pausan, Manuela R; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Krause, Robert; Perras, Alexandra K; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Berg, Gabriele; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS) are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room), product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms), or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 - and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g., microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic) resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  2. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  3. Evaluation and Screening of Remedial Technologies for Uranium at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmons, Michael J.

    2007-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is presently conducting a re-evaluation of remedies addressing persistent dissolved uranium concentrations in the upper aquifer under the 300 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This work is being conducted as a Phase III feasibility study for the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy. As part of the feasibility study process, a comprehensive inventory of candidate remedial technologies was conducted by PNNL. This report documents the identification and screening of candidate technologies. The screening evaluation was conducted in accordance with guidance and processes specified by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations associated with implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process.

  4. [The implementation of an independent and differentiated pain management SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) for the interdisciplinary intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Hansjörg; Wulf, Hinnerk; Vassiliou, Timon

    2013-03-01

    Up to the present day, pain management in the ICU (Intensive Care Units) is a unresolved clinical problem due to patient heterogeneity with complex variation in etiopathology and treatment of the underlying diseases. Therefore, therapeutic strategies in terms of standard operating procedure (SOP) are a necessary to improve the pain management for intensive care patients. Common guidelines for analgosedation are often inadequate to reflect the clinical situation. In particular, for an ICU setting without permanent presence of a physician a missing pain management SOP resulting in delayed pain therapy caused by a therapeutic uncertainty of the nurse staff. In addition to our pre-existing SOP for analgosedation we implemented a pain management SOP for our interdisciplinary, anaesthesiologic ICU. A exploratory survey among the nurse staff was conducted to assess the efficacy of the SOP. The results of the evaluation after a 6 month follow-up indicated a faster onset of pain management and good acceptance by the nursing staff.

  5. Limited Field Investigation Report for Uranium Contamination in the 300 Area, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bruce A.; Brown, Christopher F.; Um, Wooyong; Nimmons, Michael J.; Peterson, Robert E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Spane, Frank A.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2007-11-01

    Four new CERCLA groundwater monitoring wells were installed in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit in FY 2006 to fulfill commitments for well installations proposed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-24-57. Wells were installed to collect data to determine the distribution of process uranium and other contaminants of potential concern in groundwater. These data will also support uranium contaminant transport simulations and the wells will supplement the water quality monitoring network for the 300-FF-5 OU. This report supplies the information obtained during drilling, characterization, and installation of the new groundwater monitoring wells. This document also provides a compilation of hydrogeologic, geochemical, and well construction information obtained during drilling, well development, and sample collection/analysis activities.

  6. Assassination in the United States: an operational study of recent assassins, attackers, and near-lethal approachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, R A; Vossekuil, B

    1999-03-01

    This study is the first operational exploration of the thinking and behavior of all 83 persons known to have attacked, or approached to attack, a prominent public official or public figure in the United States since 1949. In addition to data about each attack or near-attack and each subject's demographic and background characteristics, information was gathered about each subject's ideas and actions in the days and weeks before their attacks or near-lethal approaches. Questions were examined about each subject's movement from the idea of attack to actual attack, motives, selection of targets, planning, communication of threat and intent, symptoms of mental illness, and significant life experiences. In every case, the attack or near-attack was the end result of an understandable, and often discernible, process of thinking and action. Implications for protectors, investigators, and researchers are discussed.

  7. Planning intensive care unit design using computer simulation modeling: optimizing integration of clinical, operational, and architectural requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼHara, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Nurses have increasingly been regarded as critical members of the planning team as architects recognize their knowledge and value. But the nurses' role as knowledge experts can be expanded to leading efforts to integrate the clinical, operational, and architectural expertise through simulation modeling. Simulation modeling allows for the optimal merge of multifactorial data to understand the current state of the intensive care unit and predict future states. Nurses can champion the simulation modeling process and reap the benefits of a cost-effective way to test new designs, processes, staffing models, and future programming trends prior to implementation. Simulation modeling is an evidence-based planning approach, a standard, for integrating the sciences with real client data, to offer solutions for improving patient care.

  8. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  9. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  10. Operational Use of the US Army Reserve in Foreign Disaster Relief to Support the United States Government’s Strategic Use of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    in military operations over the last two decades are foundational for the USAR’s institutional agility and flexibility. Reservists are also...Assistance and Disaster Response A Monograph by MAJ Kelly J. Pajak United States Army Reserve School of Advanced Military ...PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Operational Arts Studies Fellowship, Advanced Military

  11. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  12. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  13. The modelling of dynamic chemical state of paper machine unit operations; Dynaamisen kemiallisen tilan mallintaminen paperikoneen yksikkoeoperaatioissa - MPKT 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylen, J.P.; Jutila, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The chemical state of paper mass is considered to be a key factor to the smooth operation of the paper machine. There are simulators that have been developed either for dynamic energy and mass balances or for static chemical phenomena, but the combination of these is not a straight forward task. Control Engineering Laboratory of Helsinki University of Technology has studied the paper machine wet end phenomena with the emphasis on pH-modelling. VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) Process Physics has used thermodynamical modelling successfully in e.g. Bleaching processes. In this research the different approaches are combined in order to get reliable dynamical models and modelling procedures for various unit operations. A flexible pilot process will be constructed and different materials will be processed starting from simple inorganic substances (e.g. Calcium carbonate and distilled water) working towards more complex masses (thick pulp with process waters and various reagents). The pilot process is well instrumented with ion selective electrodes, total calcium analysator and all basic measurements. (orig.)

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  15. Ten years maintaining MACAO-VLTI units in operation in the Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, F.; Hudepohl, G.

    2016-07-01

    More than 10 years have already passed since the first Multiple Application Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) facilities got the first light in UT2 the 18th of April, 2003, in the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal Observatory. The achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is normally limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. However, with Adaptive Optics (AO) techniques, this major drawback can be overcome so that the telescope produces images that are as sharp as theoretically possible, i.e., as if they were taken from space. [1] The intention of this document is summarize in few pages some highlights related with the activities needed to keep MACAO units in operation. Some statistics of problems based in Action Remedy tool is included, showing how through these years the number of problems has been reduced, even when there are still some unsolved ones. Some lessons have been learned and there are others one to learn. Corrective and predictive maintenance performed are shown too like the current measurements, transfer functions measurements, thermography pictures, health checks measuring interaction matrix and flat vectors to detect dead APDs or short circuits in the DM, etc. Some forced interventions are included as well like the removal of the cabinets from Coude rooms to avoid that acoustic noise and vibrations perturb the operations, the deformable mirrors reached by cooling leaks and a mirror that got rusty are shown too. Well knowledge of the system, good interaction between different disciplines groups to perform corrective and preventive maintenance seems to be key aspects of keeping it under control and operative during all these years leading to this good result.

  16. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  17. An Analysis of the Twenty-Nine Capabilities of the Marine Corps Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Hostage Recovery ITG Initial Terminal Guidance JEO JTF Enabling Operations JTF Join Task Force JTT Joint/Combined Training/Instruction Team LAR Light...Limited Expeditionary Airfield Operations (EAO). 27. Show of Force Operations (SOFO). 28. JTF Enabling Operations ( JEO ). 29. Sniping Operations (SNO...Relief (HA/DR) Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Airfield/Port Seizure (APS) Show of Force Operations (SOFO) JTF Enabling Operations ( JEO

  18. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WAC/DQO AND UNIT OPERATIONS FOR THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.; Adamson, D.; Bannochie, C.; Cozzi, A.; Eibling, R.; Hay, M.; Hansen, E.; Herman, D.; Martino, C.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.; Poirier, M.; Reboul, S.; Stone, M.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; White, T.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-05-16

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently transitioning its emphasis from a design and construction phase toward start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements related to actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program to be implemented to support the WTP. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS), based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested the utilization of subject matter experts from SRNL to support a technology exchange to perform a review of the WTP waste qualification program, discuss the general qualification approach at SRS, and to identify critical lessons learned through the support of DWPF's sludge batch qualification efforts. As part of Phase 1, SRNL subject matter experts in critical technical and/or process areas reviewed specific WTP waste qualification information. The Phase 1 review was a collaborative, interactive, and iterative process between the two organizations. WTP provided specific analytical procedures, descriptions of equipment, and general documentation as baseline review material. SRNL subject matter experts reviewed the information and, as appropriate, requested follow-up information or clarification to specific areas of interest. This process resulted in multiple teleconferences with key technical contacts from both organizations resolving technical issues that lead to the results presented in this report. This report provides the results of SRNL's Phase 1 review of the WAC-DQO waste acceptance criteria and processability parameters, and the specific unit operations which are required to support WTP waste qualification efforts. The review resulted in SRNL providing concurrence, alternative methods, or gap

  19. Downstream process synthesis for biochemical production of butanol, ethanol, and acetone from grains: generation of optimal and near-optimal flowsheets with conventional operating units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiahong; Fan, L T; Seib, Paul; Friedler, Ferenc; Bertok, Botond

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing butanol, ethanol, and acetone through grain fermentation has been attracting increasing research interest. In the production of these chemicals from fermentation, the cost of product recovery constitutes the major portion of the total production cost. Developing cost-effective flowsheets for the downstream processing is, therefore, crucial to enhancing the economic viability of this manufacturing method. The present work is concerned with the synthesis of such a process that minimizes the cost of the downstream processing. At the outset, a wide variety of processing equipment and unit operations, i.e., operating units, is selected for possible inclusion in the process. Subsequently, the exactly defined superstructure with minimal complexity, termed maximal structure, is constructed from these operating units with the rigorous and highly efficient graph-theoretic method for process synthesis based on process graphs (P-graphs). Finally, the optimal and near-optimal flowsheets in terms of cost are identified.

  20. Structured expert elicitation about Listeria monocytogenes cross-contamination in the environment of retail deli operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Oliver, Haley F; Kohl, Larry R; Hollingsworth, Jill; Wells, Martin T; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is among the foodborne pathogens with the highest death toll in the United States. Ready-to-eat foods contaminated at retail are an important source of infection. Environmental sites in retail deli operations can be contaminated. However, commonly contaminated sites are unlikely to come into direct contact with food and the public health relevance of environmental contamination has remained unclear. To identify environmental sites that may pose a considerable cross-contamination risk, to elucidate potential transmission pathways, and to identify knowledge gaps, we performed a structured expert elicitation of 41 experts from state regulatory agencies and the food retail industry with practical experience in retail deli operations. Following the "Delphi" method, the elicitation was performed in three consecutive steps: questionnaire, review and discussion of results, second questionnaire. Hands and gloves were identified as important potential contamination sources. However, bacterial transfers to and from hands or gloves represented a major data gap. Experts agreed about transfer probabilities from cutting boards, scales, deli cases, and deli preparation sinks to product, and about transfer probabilities from floor drains, walk-in cooler floors, and knife racks to food contact surfaces. Comparison of experts' opinions to observational data revealed a tendency among experts with certain demographic characteristics and professional opinions to overestimate prevalence. Experts' votes clearly clustered into separate groups not defined by place of employment, even though industry experts may have been somewhat overrepresented in one cluster. Overall, our study demonstrates the value and caveats of expert elicitation to identify data gaps and prioritize research efforts.

  1. Operation Summary of the Urea Low Pressure Hydrolysis Unit%尿素低压水解装置运行小结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯培运

    2013-01-01

      介绍该厂自行设计的低压水解系统工艺流程,技术特点,装置投运后的情况,以及产生的经济效益。%  The urea low pressure hydrolysis unit technological process is designed by the technical staffs of the plant . This paper desbcribes the process flow , technical characteristics , unit operation and economic benefits .

  2. Remedial investigation work plan for the Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan has been developed as part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the GWOU RI Work Plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide the ORNL GWOU RI. The Work Plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It Is important to note that the RI Work Plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. The RI will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This Work Plan outlines the overall strategy for the RI and defines tasks which are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  3. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    On December 21, 1989, the EPA placed the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the National Priorities List (NPL). On January 1, 1992, a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the DOE Field Office in Oak Ridge (DOE-OR), EPA Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) went into effect. This FFA establishes the procedural framework and schedule by which DOE-OR will develop, coordinate, implement and monitor environmental restoration activities on the ORR in accordance with applicable federal and state environmental regulations. The DOE-OR Environmental Restoration Program for the ORR addresses the remediation of areas both within and outside the ORR boundaries. This sampling and analysis plan focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the ORR and its associated floodplain. Both EFPC and its floodplain have been contaminated by releases from the Y-12 Plant since the mid-1950s. Because the EFPC site-designated as an ORR operable unit (OU) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is included on the NPL, its remediation must follow the specific procedures mandated by CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act in 1986.

  4. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-09-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density. The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.

  5. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2006-06-01

    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  6. Analysis of the Capabilities Supporting Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations of the Indonesian Navy (TNI AL) and the United States Marine Corps Marine Expeditionary Unit (USMC MEU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NEO Non-combatant Evacuation Operation NIPR Non-secure Internet Protocol Router NMCB Navy Mobile Construction Battalion NGO Non-Governmental...Integration SAR Search and Rescue SATCOM Satellite Communication SIPR Secure Internet Protocol Router SOC Special Operation Capable SOP Standard...partnerships capability building, counter- piracy , search and rescue, and bilateral and multilateral confidence-building” (Bower et al., 2015, p. 35

  7. Design, construction, operation and evaluation of a prototype anthracite culm combustion boiler unit. Facility test plan: startup and shakedown, parametric studies and long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This proposed performance study is to be performed in the anthracite culm prototype boiler located at Paxinos, Pennsylvania. The boiler is designed to produce 23,400 lb/hr of steam of 200 psig. Effects of operating variables on combustion efficiency, sulfur retention, erosion and corrosion will be analyzed during the runs. The boiler will be operated to determine its technical, economic and environmental performance and to project the viability of it for commercial operation. After the initial testing, the boiler performance will be evaluated over the long term operation.

  8. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.; Frans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with ongoing natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the U.S. Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The U.S. Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. This report presents groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data collected at Operable Unit 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey during June 20-22, 2011, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. In 2011, groundwater samples were collected from 13 wells and 9 piezometers. Samples from all wells and piezometers were analyzed for redox sensitive constituents and dissolved gases, and samples from 5 of 13 wells and all piezometers also were analyzed for chlorinated volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of redox sensitive constituents measured in 2011 were consistent with previous years, with dissolved oxygen concentrations all at 0.4 milligram per liter or less; little to no detectable nitrate; abundant dissolved manganese, iron, and methane; and commonly detected sulfide. The reductive declorination byproducts - methane, ethane, and ethene - were either not detected in samples collected from the upgradient wells in the landfill and the upper aquifer beneath the northern phytoremediation plantation or were detected at concentrations less than those measured in 2010. Chlorinated volatile organic compound concentrations in 2011 at most piezometers

  9. Examination of Performance Management Targets in Case of an International Corporation’s Eastern Hungarian Operating Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemeth Zoltan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the social and economic changes, the human is already the main resource which determines the successfulness of corporations. The expertise in managing the human resources is a key factor of competitiveness therefore it has become a strategic question. Primary aim of the treatise is to outline the most important principles, targets and peculiarities of performance management system, which is a central element of human resource management, as well as its interconnectedness with the individual performance evaluation and human resource development through the mirror of one of today’s biggest Hungarian economic corporations. We aimed to explore, by means of document analysis as well as methods of case study and interview, how the targets of performance management are used for increasing the economic productivity, preserving the competitiveness, retaining and enhancing the satisfaction of workers. It can be stated that the PM system was continuously improved in case of the organization examined because the corporate goals and the expected performances were adjusted to the changing market demands over time but, at the same time the goal of differentiation has remained unchanged. Each worker evaluates his/her performance individually, the base of which is the extent of contribution to the corporate results. Based on the results, it can overall be stated that such a well-functioning performance management system is applied in the operating unit of the corporation examined which is strongly supported by the organizational culture and which contributes to the joint fulfilment of personal as well as organizational goals.

  10. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  14. Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

  15. Tanker Airlift Control Elements (TALCEs) and Contingency Response Units (CRUs): Does Air Force Operational Doctrine Need to Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    VERSUS STRUCTURE................................................................................................................. 6 TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS...this paper. Transaction Cost Economics When new units are created, it is assumed that there was a good reason, although sometimes that reason is...AMC TALCE units, people wonder why the CRG was created with embedded MAF support capabilities. One concept of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE

  16. OptiClust, an Improved Method for Assigning Amplicon-Based Sequence Data to Operational Taxonomic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Assignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) is a computational bottleneck in the process of analyzing microbial communities. Although this has been an active area of research, it has been difficult to overcome the time and memory demands while improving the quality of the OTU assignments. Here, we developed a new OTU assignment algorithm that iteratively reassigns sequences to new OTUs to optimize the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), a measure of the quality of OTU assignments. To assess the new algorithm, OptiClust, we compared it to 10 other algorithms using 16S rRNA gene sequences from two simulated and four natural communities. Using the OptiClust algorithm, the MCC values averaged 15.2 and 16.5% higher than the OTUs generated when we used the average neighbor and distance-based greedy clustering with VSEARCH, respectively. Furthermore, on average, OptiClust was 94.6 times faster than the average neighbor algorithm and just as fast as distance-based greedy clustering with VSEARCH. An empirical analysis of the efficiency of the algorithms showed that the time and memory required to perform the algorithm scaled quadratically with the number of unique sequences in the data set. The significant improvement in the quality of the OTU assignments over previously existing methods will significantly enhance downstream analysis by limiting the splitting of similar sequences into separate OTUs and merging of dissimilar sequences into the same OTU. The development of the OptiClust algorithm represents a significant advance that is likely to have numerous other applications. IMPORTANCE The analysis of microbial communities from diverse environments using 16S rRNA gene sequencing has expanded our knowledge of the biogeography of microorganisms. An important step in this analysis is the assignment of sequences into taxonomic groups based on their similarity to sequences in a database or based on their similarity to each other

  17. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  18. Operational control and diagnostics of the equipment by the parameters of the electric drive power supply by the example of deep well pump units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishlyannikov, D. I.; Vasilyeva, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the vast majority of Russian oil wells use oil well pumping units (OPU), equipped with a mechanical drive – a balancing pumping unit. The significant lifetime of balancing pumping units used in oil fields of Russia amounts to full or close to full resource generation and to a high accident rate of the mechanical drive rod of OPU. Reduced material costs for operation and maintenance of OPU may be provided by the rejection of the system of preventive maintenance and service during the transition to the actual technical condition. The article analyzes the statistics of the most frequent crash balancing pumping units of OPU and their causes. The prospect of applying the method of instrument control parameters is proved, and the technical condition of the OPU is assessed based on the analysis of the magnitude and the nature of changes in load drive motors, determined by the recording of the instantaneous values of power consumption. The authors consider the construction and operation of the programmable controller ‘AKD-SK’ manufactured by JSC R&D company ‘ROS’ (Perm). Fundamentals of vattmetrogramm analysis of OPU drive motors are stated, and the character of displaying key defects of submersible pumps and balanced beam unit is described.

  19. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April.1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), and Supplement No. 16 (September 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea county, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. In this supplement, NRC examines the significant problems of construction quality and quality assurance effectiveness that led TVA to withdraw its certification in 1985 that Watts Bar Unit I was ready to load fuel. Also discussed are the extensive corrective actions performed by TVA according to its nuclear performance plans and other supplemental programs, and NRC`s extensive oversight to determine whether the Watts Bar Unit 1 construction quality and TVA`s operational readiness and quality assurance effectiveness are adequate for a low-power operating license to be issued. SSER 17 does not address Watts Bar Unit 2, except for the systems which are necessary to support Unit 1 operation.

  20. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter application report for Teledyne Wah Chang Albany Operable Unit Number One. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; O`Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the application of the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter (PBTSF) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory`s Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program as applied to remediation activities conducted at the Teledyne Wah Chang Albany (TWCA) Superfund Site, Operable Unit One. The remedial action at the TWCA Operable Unit One consisted of solidification, excavation, transportation, and monocell disposal of the contents of two sludge ponds contaminated with various inorganic and organic compounds. Inorganic compounds included low levels of uranium and radium isotopes, as well zirconium, hafnium, chromium, mercury, and nickel. Organic compounds included methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, and hexachlorobenzene. Remediation began in June 1991, and was completed in November 1991. The TWCA Operable Unit One configuration option consisted of 15 functional subelements. Data were gathered on these subelements and end-to-end system operation to calculate numerical values for 28 system performance measures. These were then used to calculate a system performance score. An assessment was made of the availability and definitional clarity of these performance measures, applicability of PBTSF utility functions, and rollup methodology. The PBTSF scoring function worked well, with few problems noted in data gathering, utility function normalization, and scoring calculation. The application of this process to an actual in situ treatment and excavation technical process option clarified the specific terms and bounds of the performance score functions, and identified one problem associated with the definition of system boundary.

  1. Sinkronisasi Waktu Kerja antara Operator Supply Part dan Mainline di Unit Produksi PT.TMMIN (Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellisa Kusuma Dewi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam dunia manufaktur waktu line stop adalah masalah yang besar karena akan mengganggu kapasitas produksi. Data waktu line stop yang disebabkan oleh keterlambatan operator pada bulan April - October 2012 menampilkan bahwa 51.39% terjadi di area supply part. Masalah ini terjadi karena belum ada SOP yang mengatur antara supply part dengan mainline dalam hal pengiriman small part, dan tidak ada visualisasi waktu kerja operator supply part yang sinkron dengan operator mainline. Solusi yang ditawarkan adalah dengan menyinkronisasi waktu kerja antara operator supply part dan mainline, dengan cara menambahkan sinyal informasi mengenai waktu kerja operator di area supply part dalam bentuk indikator lampu berbasis PLC. Informasi ini berupa sinyal waktu kerja operator yaitu :start cycle, working process, middle cycle, warning start dan line stop. Setelah adanya penambahan sinyal informasi untuk operator supply part, sinkronisasi waktu kerja operator berhasil dilakukan sesuai standar kerja operator dan sinkron dengan waktu kerja operator mainline yaitu selama 88 detik.Waktu line stop dalam dua bulan terakhir berkurang sebesar 1080 detik dan 1170 detik.

  2. Ozone monitoring in the UK (United Kingdom): A review of 1978/8. Data from monitoring sites operated by Warren Spring Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, J.S.; Broughton, G.F.; Dando, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    A new national air-quality monitoring network has been established for the Department of the Environment. Its purpose is to determine rural baseline concentrations of ozone and other pollutants throughout the United Kingdom. The report describes the background to the establishment of the network, together with its present structure and instrumentation. A series of data analyses are presented and discussed, with the intention of providing a broad and preliminary overview of ozone observations at WSL-operated monitoring sites throughout the first full year of network operation. Average and peak levels of ozone during 1987/8 are quantified, seasonal and diurnal variations are determined, and high pollution periods are examined.

  3. Report for Batch Leach Analyses on Sediments at 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, Boreholes C7790, C7791, and C7792

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    This is a data report for CHPRC for the 100-FR-3 operable unit. Between August 15, 2010 and December 2, 2010 sediment samples were received from the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 325 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  4. Progress Toward Cleanup of Operable Unit 1 Groundwater at the US DOE Mound, Ohio, Site: Success of a Phase-Combined Remedy – 15310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [U.S. Department of Energy, Harrison, OH (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Cato, Rebecca [Stoller Newport News Nuclear Inc., Weldon Spring, MS (United States); Looney, Brian [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Huntsman, Brent [Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) soil and groundwater have been affected by volatile organic compounds (VOC) Present groundwater remedy is collection, treatment, and disposal (pump and treat [P&T]) Several combinations of technologies were used to address soil and groundwater contamination Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is a viable alternative Majority of source term has been excavated VOC concentrations in groundwater have decreased Attenuation mechanisms have been observed in the subsurface at OU-1

  5. Intelligent support system online for the operation of fossil fuel units; Sistema inteligente de ayuda en linea para la operacion de unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero R, Agustin; Suarez C, Dionisio A; Sanchez L, Jose Alfredo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present a support system online for the operation (SAO) of fossil fuel units, having as objective to support the operator of fossil fuel units when handling guidelines and essential information to carry out the starting and shutdown in a safe and efficient way, reducing the consumption of the useful life of the steam generator and the turbine, as well as the operational cost. Here are presented the intelligent systems for the support of the operation and are described the main characteristics in the dominion of application for the support system, its architecture and functionality, as well as the results obtained in the system assessment performed with the aid of total reach simulator of a fossil fuel unit and a pilot unit. [Spanish] Es motivo de esta publicacion, la presentacion de un sistema de ayuda en linea para la operacion (SAO) de unidades termoelectricas que tiene como objetivo asistir al operador de una unidad termoelectrica con guias de manejo e informacion esencial para llevar a cabo el arranque o paro en forma segura y eficiente, reducir el consumo de vida util del generador de vapor y la turbina, asi como el costo de operacion. Aqui se presentan los sistemas inteligentes de ayuda a la operacion y se describen las caracteristicas principales del dominio de aplicacion para el sistema de ayuda, su arquitectura y funcionalidad, asi como los resultados obtenidos de la evaluacion del sistema realizada con la ayuda de un simulador de alcance total de una unidad termoelectrica y una unidad piloto.

  6. McClellan Air Force Base operable unit B, two-phase extraction system demonstration test, work implementation plan for McClellan AFB, California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-03

    This document is an integrated demonstration and work plan that presents the technical approach for design, implementation, and testing of two-phase extraction as compared with pump and treat technology in Operable Unit B, investigative cluster IC1 at the McClellan Air Force Base. This work is being coordinated with Clean Sites under a cooperative agreement with EPA's Technology Innovation Office and Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program.

  7. Optimization and operation of RNG-unit for production of reformed natural gas integrated with standard CHP unit; Optimering og drift af RNG-enhed til produktion af reformeret naturgas integreret med standard kraftvarmeenhed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soegaard, C.; Schramm, J.

    2004-02-01

    A steam reforming unit has been developed during this project. The unit converts natural gas into reformed natural gas (RNG), which contain hydrogen. The RNG is combusted in an SI engine, which produces power and heat. Hydrogen was supposed to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and increase the combustion efficiency. An efficient control strategy has been developed, and the plant has been operating automatically without problems for more than one week. An increase in power efficiency of 0,5% was achieved, but almost no reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. However, the engine was unable to operate at excess air ratios beyond 2, where 10% reduction in unburned hydrocarbon emissions was seen. It is believed that larger plants, which operates with more excess air, will demonstrate more reduction in unburned hydrocarbons with RNG. An increase in compression ratio with RNG over NG is possible since the engine operates more stable on RNG. This could further improve power efficiency with 2-3%. The payback time for the plant was calculated to be 81 years without the effect from increased compression ratio. This does not support implementation of the plant in practice. (au)

  8. Microbial evaluation of dental units waterlines at the department of operative dentistry, Tehran university of medical sciences in the year 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memarian M.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: According to infection possibility in high risk patients, assessment of microbial contamination in water sources utilized at medico-dental units has become a recent concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbial contamination in dental units waterlines at the department of operative dentistry, Tehran university of medical sciences in the year 2006. "nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, six dental units in the department of operative dentistry were selected to assess microbial contamination in water sources. Samples were taken on Saturdays (the first working day in a week and in the midweek, 64 and 16 hours respectively after turning the units off. Moreover, for investigating the effect of flushing, sampling was done at 30, 60, 90 and 120 seconds after flushing and were taken from three parts of each unit including air/water syringe, turbine handpiece and also cup filler water. Samples were transported in closed sterile containers to microbiology laboratory of the school pharmacy. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance. "nResults: E.coli was isolated from contaminated samples. Contamination decreased by flushing. In midweek after 90 seconds flushing, water contamination disappeared. On Saturdays 2 minutes flushing decreased contamination to lower that 200 cfu/ml (the rate recommended by ADA. Samples taken from turbine handpieces showed significantly higher contamination rate compared to air/water syringe and cup filler water (p<0.001. "nConclusion: According to the results of this study, dental units waterlines showed bacterial contamination which was eliminated after 120 seconds of flushing.

  9. 环氧乙烷精制单元生产优化%The operation problems and optimization measures for purification unit of EO plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏庆; 王鸿生; 梁宏伟; 李晓光

    2013-01-01

    介绍了吉林石化乙二醇厂乙二醇装置增设环氧乙烷精制单元项目后的优化运行情况,包括项目运行中的工艺运行优化、对运行存在问题的管线改造和停车清洗置换方案优化情况.通过对该单元的持续运行优化,极大提高了单元运行的综合效益.%This article introduces the situation on glycol plant joint production ethylene oxide(EO) project implementation unit,including operation and optimization of process operation,pipeline reform to solve the problem,the clean and replace program optimization.Late through the project implementation and operation optimization,we ensure that the unit running smoothly,greatly improve the comprehensive benefits of the unit running.

  10. The experience in the Cernavoda Unit 1 operation - a stimulating argument for future nuclear power development in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, I. [S.N. Nuclearelectrica, S.A., Romanian Nuclear Power Company (Romania); Bucur, I. [CNE - PROD, Cernavoda Unit 1 (Romania); Galeriu, A.C. [FCN, Pitesti, Nuclear Fuel Plant (Romania); Budan, O. [S.N. Nuclearelectrica, S.A., Romanian Nuclear Power Company (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    The Romanian nuclear program has been developed based on the option for CANDU type reactors. At the beginning, this program was unrealistically conceived and its management was inappropriate. The program was reconsidered in 1990 and the management policy and organization structure were also adapted accordingly. The paper presents, in the first part, the actual organization structure, adapted for the execution of the current and future activities, related to the nuclear power program. The performance achieved by Cernavoda Unit 1 constitutes the main part of the paper. The performances described demonstrate that the Cernavoda Unit 1 is a success and the Romania's electricity needs are satisfied in a proportion of about 12% by the nuclear power. The paper also presents a general view on Cernavoda Unit 2 perspectives. The essential conclusion of the paper is that the continuation of the nuclear program appears to be a logical option, generally accepted in Romania, limited only by financial restraints. (author)

  11. Wolf Management Operational Plan Game Management Unit 15A Northern Portion of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this operational plan is to establish a wolf management strategy for the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge that will be jointly implemented by the Fish...

  12. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  13. 75 FR 9620 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ....0 Background Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), is the holder of Renewed... SNC letter dated November 6, 2009, as supplemented November 20, 2009, the licensee is required to...

  14. 75 FR 3761 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    .... DPR-57 and NPF-5, issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), for....55 by the March 31, 2010, deadline. SNC has proposed an alternate full compliance implementation...

  15. 75 FR 9622 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ...; Exemption 1.0 Background Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), is the holder of... specified in the SNC letter dated November 6, 2009, as supplemented November 20, 2009, the licensee...

  16. 75 FR 76052 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    .... Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (FNP). The licenses provide, among other things, that the facility is... consistent with the approach set forth by the Commission as discussed in the June 4, 2009, letter. FNP... regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 73.55 for the FNP, as issued on March 27, 2009. 4.0 Conclusion for Part...

  17. 78 FR 28245 - In the Matter of Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Nuclear Plant (FNP), Units 1 and 2, in accordance with conditions specified therein. The facility is... investigation, the NRC issued a letter to FNP dated January 9, 2013, which documented an apparent violation that occurred during calendar years 2010 and 2011. Specifically, FNP Technical Specification 5.4.1.a,...

  18. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  19. Development of high-performance and low-noise axial-flow fan units in their local operating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Seung; Ha, Min Ho; Cheong, Cheol Ung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon [LG Electronics Inc., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of an axial-flow fan unit are improved by modifying its housing structure without changing the fan blade. The target axial-flow fan system is used to lower temperature of a compressor and a condenser in the machine room of a household refrigerator which has relatively high system resistance due to complex layout of structures inside it. First, the performance of the fan system is experimentally characterized by measuring its volume flow rate versus static pressure using a fan performance tester satisfying the AMCA (Air Movement and Control Association) regulation, AMCA 210-07. The detailed structure of flow driven by the fan is numerically investigated using a virtual fan performance tester based on computational fluid dynamics techniques. The prediction result reveals possible loss due to radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow downstream of the fan. The length of the fan housing is chosen as a design parameter for improving the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of the fan unit by reducing the identified radial and tangential velocity components. Three fan units with different housing lengths longer than the original are analyzed using the virtual fan performance tester. The results confirm the improved aerodynamic performance of the proposed three designs. The flow field driven by the proposed fan unit is closely examined to find the causes for the observed performance improvements, which ensures that the radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow are reduced. Finally, the improved performance of the proposed fan systems is validated by comparing the P-Q and efficiency curves measured using the fan performance tester. The noise emission from the household refrigerator is also found to be lessened when the new fan units are installed.

  20. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-08-14

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in

  1. To Implement Energy Efficient of Integer Unit by Higher Voltage Flip Flop Based on Minimum operating Dual Supply Voltage Techinque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Subhashini,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the most energy-efficient operation, this brief presents a circuit design technique for separating the power supply voltage (VDD of flip-flops (FFs from that of combinational circuits, called the higher voltage FF (HVFF. Although VDD scaling can reduce the energy, the minimum operating voltage (VDDmin of FFs prevents the operation at the optimum supply voltage that minimizes the energy, because the VDDmin of FFs is higher than the optimum supply voltage. In HVFF, the VDD of combinational logic gates is reduced below the VDDmin of FFs while keeping the VDD of FFs at their VDDmin. This makes it possible to minimize the energy without power and delay penalties at the nominal supply voltage (1.2 V as well as without FF topological difications. A four bit alu is designed in these paper by using dual supply voltage usig DSCH.

  2. Legacy in the Sand: The United States Army Armament, Munitions and Chemical Command in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-21

    each inbound Scud. Yet at the time of deployment, the United States Army did not have a single Patriot missile capable of knocking down a Scud, or any...Yet the questions are moot. The Patriot missile did exist, and did have the capability of intercepting inbound missiles. That such capacities existed at... Logstics Assistance Division. And to ensure that the form was properly prepared and thus avoid any delays in processing, AMCCOM personnel devoted

  3. Variables in the Guatemalan Operational Environment That Affect Guatemalan Decision Makers Concerning Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    America and the United States in the Eighties, (Panteon Books, 1983), p. 182. 39. Richard R. Fagan and Olga Pellicer , The Future of Central America...Grove Press, Inc., 1983), p. 307. -97- ~ *.4q;~ *~ ~ ~ 9. .~9.... 9 49. Richard R. Fagan and Olga Pellicer , The Future of Central America: Policy...Westview Press, 1983), p. 133. 51. Richard R. Fagan and Olga Pellicer , The Future of Central America: Policy Choices for the U.S. and Mexico

  4. Spectrum of colorectal surgery operations performed in a single paediatric surgery unit in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo A. Lawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal surgery is a budding subspecialty of paediatric surgery and typifies the advances in the management of surgical conditions in children. The colorectal burden in resource poor settings, though reported to be challenging, remains undocumented. The aim of the present study was to review the typical operative paediatric colorectal caseload in a single centre in sub-Saharan Africa. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the operative records of the division was conducted between 2009 and 2013. Data were obtained on the demography, diagnosis, procedure performed and type of anaesthesia used; entered into a computer using SPSS (IBM Corp; Armonk, NY and analysed. Results: A total of 120 colorectal operations were performed in 90 patients with age ranging from 1 to 13 years. The major diagnoses were anorectal malformations (64.4% and Hirschsprung disease (HD (31.1%. The most often performed operations were colostomy (45.0%, posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (17.5% and pull through (17.5%. The number of colorectal operations performed each year ranged from 12 in 2009 to 36 in 2012. A higher proportion of patients with anorectal malformations (46.6% presented within the neonatal period compared with those with HD (17.9%, P = 0.005. The age at definitive surgery was less in patients with anorectal malformations compared to patients with HD (P = 0.003. Conclusions: Congenital malformations represent the bulk of the caseload in paediatric colorectal surgery in sub-Saharan Africa and patients typically present late; although patients with anorectal malformations present and are operated upon significantly earlier than those with HD.

  5. Development and application of paraffin removal unit in pump detection operation%检泵清蜡装置的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单朝新; 赵明凯

    2001-01-01

    Wax removal is very important work in pump detection operation. Regular wax removal technology has many disadvantages. It can' t meet the requirements of operation progress and limitation period at present. Through research on the law and properties of oil well wax precipitation in Thha Oilfield, tight paraffin removal units of sucker rod and tubing are developed. The paraffin removal units has many advantages,such as high thermal efficiency, short expend time, low labour strength and unpollution etc.. By field practice and application of the paraffin removal units, better results are got.%清蜡是检泵作业中一项重要工作,常规清蜡工艺过程存在诸多弊端,越来越不适应日益提高的作业进度和时效的要求。通过对吐哈油田油井结蜡规律及结蜡特性的研究,结合生产实际,开发出的抽油杆密闭清蜡装置和油管立柱清蜡装置,具有热效率高、耗时短、劳动强度低、不污染、占地面积小等优点。通过现场的实施与应用,取得了良好的效果。

  6. Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: a boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Swaminathan, Gopalaraman; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil-water emulsification process and solid-liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2-5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In

  7. Real-time Cooperative Behavior for Tactical Mobile Robot Teams: Skills Impact Study for Tactical Mobile Robot Operational Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    viewpoint – the worlds can mix in almost any proportion, and a TMR OCU rep- resents such a mix. Most existing COTS wearable technology does not address...of using AR technology to facilitate the operation of a TMR OCU, but it does not address the ef- fectiveness of wearable technology for

  8. 75 FR 61219 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; River Bend Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ..., one Mechanical Maintenance/Radwaste Operator and one Electrical Maintenance/Instrumentation and... Mechanical Maintenance personnel. Mechanical Maintenance personnel will receive training in basic electrical... Maintenance personnel in basic electrical and I&C tasks, the NRC staff believes that adequate...

  9. 78 FR 37591 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 2, LLC, Issuance of Director...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ..., including work sponsored by the NRC at the Sandia National Laboratory's Surtsey test facility, where PARs... thermal hydrogen recombiners because the PAR system could have unintended ignitions in the event of a... electrically powered hydrogen thermal recombiners, control-room operators would have the option of...

  10. Psychomotor Vigilance Performance Predicted by Epworth Sleepiness Scale Scores in an Operational Setting with the United States Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SHATTUCK and PANAG IOT I S MATSANGAS Operations Research Department, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA Keywords fatigue, fitness-for-duty...actigraphic devices and were instructed to take the PVT four times per day, before and after standing for each of two daily watch periods. They were also

  11. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 5 Table 5 to... all instances when monitoring data are not collected—PR. d,e If a base absorbent is used, report all pH values that are below the minimum operating values. If an acid absorbent is used, report all...

  12. 75 FR 69137 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., issued to Southern Nuclear Company (SNC, the licensee), for operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant.... ] Environmental Assessment Identification of the Proposed Action The proposed action would allow SNC to use GNF... that SNC can use GNF-Ziron as an advanced alloy for fuel rod cladding and other assembly...

  13. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  14. Use and Production of Digital Information and Knowledge in Technical University Education - Co-operation of Faculty and Support Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaarina Kairamo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly changing educational landscape is of increasing importance in university teaching. Universities in Finland are responsible for research and education based on research. Traditionally information and support services related to using and producing knowledge, support research, and education has mostly been seen purely from the students´ perspective. Teaching in universities is still a hidden individual activity, and, as such, challenges the support units to reach and interact with the academic community. This paper will review the aspects influencing the use and production of digital information and knowledge in technical university education; examples illustrating the experiences will be given.

  15. 空分装置安全运行性能的提升与优化%Safety Operation Performance Improvement and Optimization of Air Separation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉

    2013-01-01

    从已发生的故障以及存在的安全隐患出发,对可能出现的故障原因进行综合分析,通过设备换型、技术升级等方法对空分装置进行了改进。改造后的效果显著,有效地保障了制氧机组的安全运行及人身安全。%To the faults and the potential safety problems in operation of an air separation unit ,this paper analyzes the possible causes of fault after a comprehensive analysis ,through upgrading the equipment and technical method ,the air separation unit is improved . The remarkable effect has been got ,and the effective protection of the oxygen manufacture equipment and personal safety has been achieved .

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forester, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  17. DOE KSU EV Site Operator Program. [United States Department of Energy (DOE) Kansas State University (KSU) Electric Vehicle (EV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the DOE Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric of hybrid vehicle technology. This will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four(4) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort station wagons. This quarter's report describes ongoing public relations activities and meetings as well as presenting performance data for the electric vehicles. (GHH)

  18. Application of improved technologies for ensuring high quality in safety, maintenance and operation activities of units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy - a successful project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naydenov, N. [Kozloduy NPP Units 5 and 6 Modernization Program, Kozloduy (Bulgaria); Hoch, G. [Kozloduy NPP Units 5 and 6 Modernization Program, AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Krasnocharov, A. [Kozloduy NPP Units 5 and 6 Modernization Program, Dept. Manager, Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

    2007-07-01

    The Units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) became operative in 1987 and 1991, respectively. These units, consisting of a VVER-1000/320 type reactor, have design characteristics, basically elaborated in accordance with Russian rules and standards in force at the time of the design. In order to reach a full compliance with the international safety standards that evolved over the last two decades KNPP decided to introduce the Kozloduy Units 5 and 6 Modernization Program to upgrade the plant, with the main objective to bring the installation to a safety level compatible with current international practices. The Program comprises 212 individual modifications aimed at enhancing safety, reliability and operational conditions of both units. Some of the measures implemented are as follows: -) the replacement of the thermal insulation of equipment and pipelines in the containment, -) the replacement of the turbine condenser tube bundles with stainless steel tubes, -) the replacement of the in-core monitoring system, -) the implementation of new gas fire extinguishing system for the electronic cabinets, -) the implementation of protective measures and the enhancement of the supports of the main steam and feed water lines, -) the installation of a filtered ventilation system, -) the upgrading of the electrical equipment, and -) the installation of new technologies and equipment for facility status monitoring and preventive detection. The installation of the above mentioned systems is not only a change in design but is a long and complicated process that involves the achievement of thorough analysis of design condition and of the integration on new equipment in existing configuration. The Report draws special attention to the value of the experience gained upon the management and implementation of such large-scale and complex designs in the nuclear field.

  19. Autonomous-agent based simulation of anti-submarine warfare operations with the goal of protecting a high value unit

    OpenAIRE

    Akbori, Fahrettin

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The Anti-Submarine Warfare screen design simulation is a program that provides a model for operations in anti-submarine warfare (ASW). The purpose of the program is to aid ASW commanders, allowing them to configure an ASW screen, including the sonar policy, convoy speed, and the number of ships, to gain insight into how these and other factors beyond their control, such as water conditions, impact ASW effectiveness. It is also designed to...

  20. Weighted composition operators from F(p, q, s) spaces to Bers-type spaces in the unit ball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Xiao-fen

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the boundedness and compactness of the weighted compo-sition operators from the F(p, q, s) spaces, including Hardy space, Bergman space, Q~p space,BMOA space, Besov space and α-Bloch space, to Bers-type spaces H_ν~∞( or little Bets-type spaces H_(ν,0)~∞ ), where ν is normal.

  1. Inverse spectral results for Schr\\"odinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in L^P spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    We consider the Schr\\"odinger operator on $[0,1]$ with potential in $L^1$. We prove that two potentials already known on $[a,1]$ ($a\\in(0,{1/2}]$) and having their difference in $L^p$ are equal if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently large. The result here is to write down explicitly this number in terms of $p$ (and $a$) showing the role of $p$.

  2. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    practice with preaching. Daniel A. Pinnell COL, U.S. Army Director Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute iv v ABOUT THE AUTHOR WHITNEY...International Code of Conduct for Private Security Providers, complemented by case studies of private firm initiatives and successes in combating human...activities. Case Study I: The International Code of Conduct for Private Security Providers In 2008, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the

  3. The influence of typical ways of operating and air-handling unit on the sensory pollution load from used bag filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysen, M.; Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel;

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether the sensory pollution emitted from a bag filter that had been used for 3 months in a suburban area in Denmark was influenced by different ways of operating the air-handling unit (AHU). Samples of the used filter were pre-conditioned to simulate thr...... the airflow outside working hours would significantly increase the sensory pollution emitted by a used bag filter immediately after the AHU is turned on, in comparison with continuous airflow through the AHU (P...

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): McClellan Air Force Base, Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit, Sacramento, CA, May 11, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Interim Record of Decision (ROD) presents the interim remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit (Groundwater OU) at the McClellan Air Force Base (McClellan AFB) Superfund site in Sacramento, California. The Groundwater OU addresses all of the VOC-contaminated groundwater at McClellan AFB. The Groundwater OU remedy is designed to prevent the spread of contamination that is already in the groundwater by containing groundwater with concentrations greater than maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). The remedy is also designed to remove to the maximum extent practicable the mass of contamination that lies in that volume of the groundwater.

  5. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  6. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit.

  7. From operations to cognitive tools: new unit of analysis and emergence of the inference-making child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO ESCOBAR MELO

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the passage between the analysis unit used by Piaget in his theory of thinkingoperations, going from the in-action-theories from Inhelder, to the cognitive-scientific tools inside themark of recognizing that the young child uses in a spontaneous way an improving rationality in thecontext of solving problems in an architecture half-end. It stands out the way how questions andepistemic archetypes change in the children studies, unblocking the cognition of a partial and fracturedlook that shadowed it, not letting show out his real functioning, action coordination and the constructionof audacious representations. One resorts is to investigative the landmarks of the Ginebra schooland its later followers post-Inhelderians. The child is thought as a subject that makes inferences whenhe recognizes incongruence and uncongenial completing and improving the reality that his culturalcontext builds.

  8. Aquatic impacts from operation of three midwestern nuclear power stations: Fort Calhoun station, Unit No. 1 environmental appraisal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shamy, F.

    1981-10-01

    Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1, is located on the west bank of the Missouri River in Washington County, Nebraska. The station, a nuclear powered generating facility producing 475 net megawatts, utilizes a once-through cooling design. The station influences the aquatic biota of the Missouri River vicinity in several ways. The heated discharges of the station were found to have no significant impacts to fish, periphyton, and benthic macroinvertebrates. Minor effects to phytoplankton were noted in warm summer months at the point of discharge. An estimated 227,900,000 fish larvae were entrained annually from the river's ichthyoplankton community, the majority identified as freshwater drum. Fort Calhoun Station impinged an estimated 170,882 fish annually, large numbers of which were freshwater drum and gizzard shad with potential losses to channel and flathead catfish. The station was shown to have little impact on the zooplankton community.

  9. Operational experience of a 300-MW lignite-fired utility unit: environmental performance after retrofiitting of a low pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanetsakunvatana, Vicharn; Arkornsakul, P.

    2010-09-15

    The experimental data on major emissions from a 300-MW lignite-fired boiler operating under different fuel LHVs and turbine rotors are discussed. The thermal efficiency was quantified based on the heat loss method. The PM and CO2 emission rates were predicted. Specific emissions were quantified for the boiler of interest. The SO2, PM and NOx emission concentrations in flue gas were found lower than the respective emission standard. The CO2 emissions have also declined 4.65% in 2009, compared to 2008 and before. The clean development mechanism complied with UNFCCC methodology is adopted in this study responding to the global changes.

  10. Operational Simulation Tools and Long Term Strategic Planning for High Penetrations of PV in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuohy, Aidan [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Smith, Jeff [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rylander, Matt [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Singhvi, Vikas [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Coley, Steven [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Roark, Jeff [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lannoye, Eamonn [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pilbrick, Charles Russ [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rudkevich, Alex [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hansen, Cliff [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Increasing levels of distributed and utility scale Solar Photovoltaics (PV) will have an impact on many utility functions, including distribution system operations, bulk system performance, business models and scheduling of generation. In this project, EPRI worked with Southern Company Services and its affiliates and the Tennessee Valley Authority to assist these utilities in their strategic planning efforts for integrating PV, based on modeling, simulation and analysis using a set of innovative tools. Advanced production simulation models were used to investigate operating reserve requirements. To leverage existing work and datasets, this last task was carried out on the California system. Overall, the project resulted in providing useful information to both of the utilities involved and through the final reports and interactions during the project. The results from this project can be used to inform the industry about new and improved methodologies for understanding solar PV penetration, and will influence ongoing and future research. This report summarizes each of the topics investigated over the 2.5-year project period.

  11. The NRC staff evaluation of shutdown and low-power operation at nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, G.M.; Caruso, M.A. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's recent evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants are summarized in this paper. The NRC staff's evaluation was initiated following their investigation of the loss during shutdown of all vital alternating current power on March 20, 1990, at the Alvin W. Vogtle nuclear plant. The objective of the evaluation has been to assess risk broadly during shutdown, refueling, and startup, addressing not only issues raised by the Vogtle event, but also a number of other shutdown-related issues that had been identified by foreign regulatory organizations as well as the NRC and any new issues uncovered in the evaluation process. The key issues concerning shutdown risk identified in the integration process described earlier and subsequently addressed by the staff include the following: (1) outage planning and control; (2) stress on personnel and programs; (3) the need to improve training and procedures; (4) technical specifications; and (5) PWR safety during midloop operation. Other technical topics identified for further study by the staff included loss of RHR, containment capability, rapid boron dilution, fire protection, instrumentation, emergency core cooling system recirculation capability, effect of PWR upper internals, on-site emergency planning, fuel handling and heavy loads, potential for draining the BWR reactor vessel, reporting requirements for shutdown events, and need to strengthen inspection program.

  12. When a business isn’t a business: law and the political in the history of the United Kingdom’s co-operative movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Mulqueen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary efforts to develop and promote co-operatives and the social economy confront a tension in the competing and often conflicting aims to achieve commercial sustainability in a capitalist market while also promoting social transformation. Through a review of the historical experience of institutionalization in the Co-operative Movement in the United Kingdom, this article attempts to generate insights into these tensions. Despite being seen as unpolitical, co-operatives can be understood as political at the level of re-shaping sociality through co-operative practice. Although the similarity between co-operatives and joint-stock companies produces ambiguities within the movement, this does not in itself detract from the co-operative project. It is argued that the codification of co-operatives in law as bodies corporate constitutes the closure of the political aspect of co-operation and reinforces and gives consequence to the misconception of co-operatives as primarily commercial entities. Los esfuerzos por desarrollar y promover las cooperativas y la economía social se enfrentan a un conflicto entre los objetivos contrapuestos de lograr la sostenibilidad comercial en un mercado capitalista, a la vez que se promueve una transformación de la sociedad. Realizando una revisión de la experiencia histórica de la institucionalización del movimiento cooperativista en el Reino Unido, este artículo pretende analizar estas tensiones. A pesar de ser apolíticas, las cooperativas se pueden entender como un elemento político por su intento de reformular la sociedad. Aunque la similitud entre cooperativas y sociedades anónimas produce ambigüedades dentro del movimiento cooperativista, esto no va, por sí mismo, en detrimento del proyecto de cooperación. Se argumenta que, al contemplar en la legislación a las cooperativas como personas jurídicas, se acaba con el aspecto político de las cooperativas. A su vez, esto refuerza y termina con la

  13. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODs) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regimes, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This remedial investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the feasibility study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  14. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime`s, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  15. Process Selection and Operation of 400 kt/a Urea Unit%400kt/a尿素装置工艺选择及运行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同福; 宋子兴; 窦义兵

    2012-01-01

    A comparison is made of two urea units based on carbon dioxide stripping and aqueous solution total recycle processes with respect to their main parameters, operation data and production cost. The results of the comparison show that the urea unit based on carbon dioxide stripping process is better than the aqueous solution total recycle process in terms of operation stability and consumption figures per ton of urea although the investment for the former is higher.%对2套分别采用二氧化碳汽提法和水溶液全循环法工艺技术的尿素装置的主要参数、运行数据和生产成本进行了对比.比较结果表明:二氧化碳汽提法尿素装置除了投资稍高外,无论运行稳定性还是吨尿素消耗都优于水溶液全循环法工艺.

  16. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  17. Bidirectional control of a one-dimensional robotic actuator by operant conditioning of a single unit in rat motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Jean eArduin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient neuroprosthetic devices has become a major challenge for the long-term goal of restoring autonomy to motor-impaired patients. One approach for brain control of actuators consists in decoding the activity pattern obtained by simultaneously recording large neuronal ensembles in order to predict in real-time the subject’s intention, and move the prosthesis accordingly. An alternative way is to assign the output of one or a few neurons by operant conditioning to control the prosthesis with rules defined by the experimenter, and rely on the functional adaptation of these neurons during learning to reach the desired behavioral outcome. Here, several motor cortex neurons were recorded simultaneously in head-fixed awake rats and were conditioned, one at a time, to modulate their firing rate up and down in order to control the speed and direction of a one-dimensional actuator carrying a water bottle. The goal was to maintain the bottle in front of the rat’s mouth, allowing it to drink. After learning, all conditioned neurons modulated their firing rate, effectively controlling the bottle position so that the drinking time was increased relative to chance. The mean firing rate averaged over all bottle trajectories depended non-linearly on position, so that the mouth position operated as an attractor. Some modifications of mean firing rate were observed in the surrounding neurons, but to a lesser extent. Notably, the conditioned neuron reacted faster and led to a better control than surrounding neurons, as calculated by using the activity of those neurons to generate simulated bottle trajectories. Our study demonstrates the feasibility, even in the rodent, of using a motor cortex neuron to control a prosthesis in real-time bidirectionally. The learning process includes modifications of the activity of neighboring cortical neurons, while the conditioned neuron selectively leads the activity patterns associated with the prosthesis

  18. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available Quality by design (QbD concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs. Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC, amount of water added (AWA, and stirring speed (SS were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  19. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  20. Wireless sensor and data transmission needs and technologies for patient monitoring in the operating room and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksuniemi, M; Sorvoja, H; Alasaarela, E; Myllyla, R

    2005-01-01

    In the intensive care unit, or during anesthesia, patients are attached to monitors by cables. These cables obstruct nursing staff and hinder the patients from moving freely in the hospital. However, rapidly developing wireless technologies are expected to solve these problems. To this end, this study revealed problem areas in current patient monitoring and established the most important medical parameters to monitor. In addition, usable wireless techniques for short-range data transmission were explored and currently employed wireless applications in the hospital environment were studied. The most important parameters measured of the patient include blood pressures, electrocardiography, respiration rate, heart rate and temperature. Currently used wireless techniques in hospitals are based on the WMTS and WLAN standards. There are no viable solutions for short-range data transmission from patient sensors to patient monitors, but potentially usable techniques in the future are based on the WPAN standards. These techniques include Bluetooth, ZigBee and UWB. Other suitable techniques might be based on capacitive or inductive coupling. The establishing of wireless techniques depends on ensuring the reliability of data transmission, eliminating disturbance by other wireless devices, ensuring patient data security and patient safety, and lowering the power consumption and price.

  1. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP&S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP&S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP&S configuration are given.

  2. An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract

  3. Developing a Signature Based Safeguards Approach for the Electrorefiner and Salt Cleanup Unit Operations in Pyroprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Chantell Lynne-Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Traditional nuclear materials accounting does not work well for safeguards when applied to pyroprocessing. Alternate methods such as Signature Based Safeguards (SBS) are being investigated. The goal of SBS is real-time/near-real-time detection of anomalous events in the pyroprocessing facility as they could indicate loss of special nuclear material. In high-throughput reprocessing facilities, metric tons of separated material are processed that must be accounted for. Even with very low uncertainties of accountancy measurements (<0.1%) the uncertainty of the material balances is still greater than the desired level. Novel contributions of this work are as follows: (1) significant enhancement of SBS development for the salt cleanup process by creating a new gas sparging process model, selecting sensors to monitor normal operation, identifying safeguards-significant off-normal scenarios, and simulating those off-normal events and generating sensor output; (2) further enhancement of SBS development for the electrorefiner by simulating off-normal events caused by changes in salt concentration and identifying which conditions lead to Pu and Cm not tracking throughout the rest of the system; and (3) new contribution in applying statistical techniques to analyze the signatures gained from these two models to help draw real-time conclusions on anomalous events.

  4. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Phase IV Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of areas with the potential for UXO at the Idaho National Laboratory. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. Five areas within the Naval Proving Ground that are known to contain UXO include the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, the Mass Detonation Area, the Experimental Field Station, The Rail Car Explosion Area, and the Land Mine Fuze Burn Area. The Phase IV remedial action will be concentrated in these five areas. For other areas, such as the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range, ordnance has largely consisted of sand-filled practice bombs that do not pose an explosion risk. Ordnance encountered in these areas will be addressed under the Phase I Operations and Maintenance Plan that allows for the recovery and disposal of ordnance that poses an imminent risk to human health or the environment.

  5. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of a prototype culm combustion boiler/heater unit. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 21, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed on the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler/Heater Unit, Phase I - Engineering Design and Analysis, Phase II - Prototype Plant Construction and Phase III - Start-Up and Operation during the period October 1, 1981 through December 31, 1981. The objectives of the program as well as the technical progress and problem areas encountered during the reporting period are presented. Seven shakedown tests were run. Start-up and shakedown testing was completed. Four parametric tests were run. Performance data are presented with the exception of boiler efficiency which will be reported once chemical analyses are completed. Total boiler operation time through the end of this quarter - 1225 h, 50 min; operating time on culm and culm/limestone - 682 h, 43 min. Inspection revealed no problems with boiler tube wear. Sulfur capture greater than 94% was demonstrated (design is 88%). A turndown of better than 4 to 1 was shown (design is 2.5 to 1). Computer control of most of the loops has been successful and manual control was also demonstrated.

  6. Reciclagem de fios e cabos elétricos - cabo paralelo Recycling of parallel wires using unit operations of mineral processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishene Christie Pinheiro Bezerra de Araújo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O descarte de produtos eletro-eletrônicos vem crescendo anualmente. Por esse motivo, necessita-se de reciclagem para que se evite o desperdício de recursos naturais não-renováveis. O objetivo desse trabalho é estudar a reciclagem dos cabos tipo cordão paralelo através de operações unitárias de tratamento de minérios. As seguintes operações unitárias foram testadas: moagem, separação granulométrica, separação em meio denso, separação eletrostática, atrição, bateamento e elutriação. Ao final desses processos, observou-se que as operações utilizadas obtiveram concentrados de cobre com baixo grau de contaminação. Observou-se que todas as técnicas precisam de uma outra técnica para complementá-las. Concluiu-se, ainda, que a moagem em moinho de facas com grelha de 3mm é necessária para se conseguir a total liberação dos materiais.The composition and discharge of eletro-electronic products is increasing year after year. To avoid the loss of non-renewable mineral resources and energy, the establishment of a recycling loop for such products is necessary. The goal of this work is to study the recycling of parallel wires using unit operations of mineral processing. The following unit operations were used: grinding, size separation, sink-and-float, electrostatic separation, scrubbing, panning and elutriation. One can observe a low contamination grade in the obtained copper. However, in all cases, a two step flow sheet must be used to completely separate plastics from copper. One can conclude that the total liberation of materials during grinding was reached when the final particle sizes were inferior to 3mm.

  7. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    water depths (20 m - 200 m) is available. Mobil drilling units are in great demand around the world and will have to be brought in from other areas along with skilled manpower. Our highest estimates indicate 50 platforms, 800 producing wells, 1,100 km of pipeline, and 5 onshore terminals may be needed. The time frame for production, using our high estimates (5% probability) for the undiscovered recoverable resources, could include 4-5 years for significant development, 6-7 years until production commences, and 18 years until peak production.

  8. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Carson River Mercury Site, operable unit 1, Lyon, Storey and Churchill County, NV, March 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) of the Carson River Mercury Site (CRMS) which is located in Lyon, Storey and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The selected remedy for the five residential yards is to excavate contaminated surface soil (estimated to go to a depth of approximately 2 feet below ground surface), dispose of the soil at the RCRA municipal landfill if the soils do not exceed the TCLP standards, and restore the excavated areas. If it is determined that all or part of the excavated soil exceeds the TCLP standards, then the excavated soil will either be treated and disposed of at a RCRA municipal landfill or disposed of at the RCRA hazardous waste landfill.

  9. Claus工艺硫磺回收装置优化改造%Optimization for operation of Claus sulfur recovery unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀军; 王高兴

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of modification for sulfur recovery unit to reduce energy consumption with the help of CRC two-stage Claus process designed by Jiangsu Chengyi. The improvement of liquid sulfur sealing and replacement of abundant industry wind from blower have received good results in operation.%结合江苏晟宜设计CRC两段法超优Claus回收工艺对二期硫回收装置运行中出现问题进行改造优化,以达到节能降耗目的;特别利用管网富余工业风代替鼓风机及液硫封设计缺陷的改造,取得了很好运行效果.

  10. [Integration of a psychologist into Nephrology-Dialysis-Hypertension Operative Unit: from needs evaluation to the definition of an intervention model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, Ratti Maria; Delli Zotti, Giulia Bruna; Spotti, Donatella; Sarno, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and the dialytic treatment cause a significant psychological impact on patients, their families and on the medical-nursing staff too. The psychological aspects linked to the chronic condition of Kidney Disease generate the need to integrated a psychologist into the healthcare team of the Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension Operative Unit, in order to offer a specific and professional support to the patient during the different stages of the disease, to their caregivers and to the medical team. The aim of this collaboration project between Nephrology and Psychology is to create a global and integrated healthcare model. It does not give attention simply to the physical dimension of patients affected by CKD, but also to the emotional-affective, cognitive and social dimensions and to the health environment.

  11. Report for Batch Leach Analyses on Sediments at 100-KR-4 Operable Unit, Boreholes C7684, C7688, and C7695

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    This is a data report for sediment samples received by CHPRC from the 100-KR-4 OU. Between December 17, 2010 and February 17, 2011 sediment samples were received from 100-KR-4 Operable Unit for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  12. A Design for VLIW Microprocessor Based on Minium Operation Unit%基于最小操作单元的VLIW微处理器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昭顺; 王许书; 王俊宇

    2001-01-01

    in this paper, we presented a new method called granularity analysis method which can analyze developing history of microprocessor architecture, and predicted developing trend of microprocessor architecture with this method. After we presented a new architecture called Minium Operating Unit-Based (MOUB), we also designed and implement a microprocessor model of MOUB.%提出一种微处理器体系结构发展的分析方法一粒度分析方法,并用这种方法分析了微处理器体系结构的发展趋势.在此基础上提出基于最小操作单元MOUUB微处理器体系结构的设计思想,并设计实现了一个这种结构的微处理器模型.

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    In June 1982, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff (NRC staff or staff) issued a Safety Evaluation Report, NUREG-0847, regarding the application by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA or the applicant) for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Each of the following sections and appendices of this supplement is numbered the same as the section or appendix of the SER that is being updated, and the discussions are supplementary to, and not in lieu of, the discussion in the SER, unless otherwise noted. Accordingly, Appendix A continues the chronology of the safety review. Appendix E lists principal contributors to this supplement. Appendix FF is added in this supplement. The other appendices are not changed by this supplement.

  14. Optimal Start-Up and Operation Policy for an Ultrafiltration Membrane Unit in Whey Separation The work presented here is generated by the Institute for Sustainable Process Technology (ISPT) project IMPROVISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahadir Saltik, M.; Özkan, Leyla; Jacobs, Marc; Padt, van der Albert

    2016-01-01

    Membrane filtration systems are preferred unit operations in industrial applications due to their mild operating conditions. However the performance of a membrane stack drops over time because of the membrane fouling. This decrease is overcomed by introducing clean membrane stacks. The associated

  15. Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from

  16. OPERATION ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF NAPHTHA NON-HYDROUPGRANDING UNIT%非临氢石脑油改质装置运行分析与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺家培; 郑海

    2011-01-01

    The operation status of the 350 kt/a naphtha non-hydroupgranding unit in SINOPEC Qingdao Refining & Chemical Company was introduced and analyzed with using various feedstocks. It was found that when the price of naphtha was cheaper than that of gasoline, the economic effect of the unit was significant. Optimization of the catalyst regeneration process was carried out to shorten the coke burning time of the catalyst. Results showed that the coke burning time of a single reactor could be shortened 96-120 h by revamping, resulting in a 7. 1% increase of production capacity, and the energy consumption of the unit reduced 1 906-2 859 GJ/a.%介绍了中国石化青岛炼油化工有限责任公司350 kt/a石脑油改质装置的运行概况,对不同原料工况下运行情况进行了分析对比,在石脑油价格比汽油低时,石脑油改质装置的经济效益明显.同时针对催化剂再生过程中烧焦时间长的问题,对烧焦流程进行了优化,使单列改质反应器催化剂烧焦的时间缩短96~120 h,装置生产负荷提高了7.1%,能耗降低了1 906~2 859 GJ/a.

  17. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

    2011-12-15

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  18. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  19. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  20. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  1. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OU`s). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  4. Effective measures to guarantee long-term operation of TMP unit%保证TMP装置长周期运行的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马曾文; 张军; 王少良

    2011-01-01

    介绍新型重油催化裂解多产丙烯( TMP)装置长周期生产过程中,出现的主风分布管磨损、大小放火炬阀故障、两机操作系统故障、气压机管线腐蚀等问题.采取了以下改造措施:主风分布管外壁焊锚固钉衬刚玉,提高主风分布管抗冲刷能力,延长使用寿命;更换大小放火炬阀、气压机入口阀;两机操作系统改为DCS,机组自保系统灵活稳定;沉降器增加防焦格栅,挡住脱落的焦块、衬里等杂物;防焦蒸汽环改造,防止油气在拱顶结焦;气压机管线改造,延长其硫化物应力腐蚀破裂时间.为装置长周期生产提供了保障.%In the long-term operation of TMP unit for maximized propylene production from heavy oil catalytic cracking, the wearing of main air distributor tubes, failure of large and small flare valves, trouble in air blower and gas compressor trains and corrosion in pipelines of gas compressors have been experienced. To solve these problems, the following measures have been taken; The external wall of main air distributor tubes are lined with anchored corindon to improve anti-corrosion performance of the tubes and extend the service life; Large and small flare valves and gas compressor inlet valves are replaced; DCS system is applied for the control of air blowers and gas compressors for stable and reliable operation; The grids are installed in the settler to hold back the fallen coke and lining, etc; Anti-coking rings are revamped to prevent coking of oil vapor in the arch section; Pipelines of gas compressors are revamped to delay the development of sulfide stress corrosion cracking ( SSCC) . Therefore, good conditions have been provided for the long-term operation of the unit.

  5. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-09-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent site is located in the southeastern portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 27, 2002. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1997). A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report (DOE/NV, 1999), samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 (DOE/NV, 2000) and 2001 (DOE/NV, 2001) revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, data results from 2000 and later were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2002 consisted of the following: (1) Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2). (2) Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay [CEA] and Standard Nutrient Panel [SNP]). (3) Site inspection to evaluate the condition of the fencing and signs. (4) Preparation and submittal of the Post-Closure Monitoring Report.

  6. 收获机组作业时间分析与建模%Analysis and Modeling of Operation Time Items and Times Utilization Rate of Harvest Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔金友; 韩兆桢; 李传磊; 陈海涛; 衣佳忠; 姜岩; 黄超; 张东光

    2016-01-01

    收获作业是粮食生产过程关键环节之一,选择适宜的收获机械适时完成收获作业是粮食丰产丰收的重要保障,因此提高农业收获机组效率已成为收获作业的重要组成部分。依据收获机组实际作业测得数据进行分析,明确了典型联合收获机作业时间项目构成,建立了纯作业、转弯、卸粮等各个时间项目的数学计算模型。针对3种卸粮方式—单侧卸粮、双侧卸粮、满箱卸粮分别建立数学模型,对3种不同的卸粮方式时间利用率进行了分析比较,同时选择约翰迪尔9660进行试验研究。%Harvesting operation is one of the key links in the process of grain production, choosing the appropriate har-vesting machine to finish the harvest is an important guarantee for the harvest of grain yield, so it is important to improve the efficiency of agricultural harvest unit.According to the data model analysis of the actual operation of the harvester, the typical combines harvest machine operation time is defined, and the mathematical model of the operation, turning and unloading is established.For three kinds of unloading ways:unilateral unloading , bilateral unloading grain, trunkful un-loading grain mathematical models are established respectively, for three different unloading grain pattern time utilization rate through the analysis and comparison, and John Deere 9660 was studied.

  7. Wetland survey of the X-10 Bethel Valley and Melton Valley groundwater operable units at Oak Ridge National Labortory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A.

    1996-03-01

    Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, (May 24, 1977) requires that federal agencies avoid, to the extent possible, adverse impacts associated with the destruction and modification of wetlands and that they avoid direct and indirect support of wetlands development when there is a practicable alternative. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations for Compliance with Floodplains and Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements (Subpart B, 10 CFR 1022.11), surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in both the Melton Valley and the Bethel Valley Groundwater Operable Units (GWOU) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. As required by the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1992, wetlands were identified using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual (Army Corps of Engineers, 1987). Wetlands were identified during field surveys that examined and documented vegetation, soils, and hydrologic evidence. Most of the wetland boundary locations and wetland sizes are approximate. Boundaries of wetlands in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and on the former proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source in the upper Melton Branch watershed were located by civil survey during previous wetland surveys; thus, the boundary locations and areal sizes in these areas are accurate. The wetlands were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin et al. (1979) for wetland and deepwater habitats of the United States. A total of 215 individual wetland areas ranging in size from 0.002 ha to 9.97 ha were identified in the Bethel Valley and Melton Valley GWOUs. The wetlands are classified as palustrine forested broad-leaved deciduous (PFO1), palustrine scrub-shrub broad-leaved deciduous (PSS1), and palustrine persistent emergent (PEM1).

  8. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnitz, R.J. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, P.R. [PRD Consulting (United States); Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf), and the other at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1). Both the Sandia and Brookhaven projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults---so-called ``internal initiators.`` This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling outage conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Grand Gulf. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human effort rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Grand Gulf have been adopted here, so that the results of the study can be as comparable as possible. Both the Sandia study and this study examine only one shutdown plant operating state (POS) at Grand Gulf, namely POS 5 representing cold shutdown during a refueling outage. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POS 5. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency for earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 5 is found to be quite low in absolute terms, less than 10{sup {minus}7}/year.

  9. 催化重整装置提高安稳运行方案探讨%Discussion on improving safe and stable operation scheme of catalytic reforming Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾振柱

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic reforming unit has been running for 50 years,the aging phenomenon of some equipment in this unit was severe. Many problems exited during equipment management,maintenance and operation. In this paper,problems existed in operation was analyzed,strategy and method for solving equipment problem were put forward,which ensured safe and stable operation of equipment in the Unit.%某催化重整装置已经运行了50 a,装置中的部分设备老化现象严重。在设备管理、维护、运行过程中出现了诸多问题,文中提出了解决设备问题的策略及方法,确保了装置设备安稳运行。

  10. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  11. Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Heat and Mass Transfer to Operation Mode Switching of a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs. In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange membrane is generated to investigate transient responses in the process of operation mode switching from fuel cell (FC to electrolysis cell (EC. Various heat generation mechanisms, including Joule heat, reaction heat, and the heat attributed to activation polarizations, have been considered in the transient model coupled with electrochemical reaction and mass transfer in porous electrodes. The polarization curves of the steady-state models are validated by experimental data in the literatures. Numerical results reveal that current density, gas mass fractions, and temperature suddenly change with the sudden change of operating voltage in the mode switching process. The response time of temperature is longer than that of current density and gas mass fractions. In both FC and EC modes, the cell temperature and gradient of gas mass fraction in the oxygen side are larger than that in the hydrogen side. The temperature difference of the entire cell is less than 1.5 K. The highest temperature appears at oxygen-side catalyst layer under the FC mode and at membrane under a more stable EC mode. The cell is exothermic all the time. These dynamic responses and phenomena have important implications for heat analysis and provide proven guidelines for the improvement of URFCs mode switching.

  12. 3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study Work Plan and addenda for Operable Unit 4-12: Central Facilities Area Landfills II and III at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, K.N.; Stormberg, G.J.; Porro, I.; Sondrup, A.J.; McCormick, S.H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is divided into two main sections -- the Work Plan and the addenda. The Work Plan describes the regulatory history and physical setting of Operable Unit 4-12, previous sampling activities, and data. It also identifies a preliminary conceptual model, preliminary remedial action alternatives, and preliminary applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. In addition, the Work Plan discusses data gaps and data quality objectives for proposed remedial investigation activities. Also included are tasks identified for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and a schedule of RI/FS activities. The addenda include details of the proposed field activities (Field Sampling Plan), anticipated quality assurance activities (Quality Assurance Project Plan), policies and procedures to protect RI/FS workers and the environment during field investigations (Health and Safety Plan), and policies, procedures, and activities that the Department of Energy will use to involve the public in the decision-making process concerning CFA Landfills II and III RI/FS activities (Community Relations Plan).

  14. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Andersen Air Force Base, Operable Unit 3 (MARBO Annex), Yigo, Guam, June 16, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This decision document, a Record of Decision (ROD), presents the selected remedial actions for soil and groundwater at the Marianas/Bonnis Command (MARBO) Annex Operable Unit (OU) at Andersen Air Force Base (AFB), Guam. No risk was found at Waste Pile 5 and the War Dog Borrow Pit, so no further action is planned for these two sites. Current risks associated with soil exceed acceptable risk levels at Waste Pile 6, Waste Pile 7, Landfill 29, and the MARBO Laundry. Based on alternatives evaluated in the OU 3 Focused FS the US Air Force, the USEPA, and Guam have selected Soil Removal (Alternative OU3-D) as the remedy for three of the sites, and Soil Cover (Alternative OU3-C) for one of the sites. Based on alternatives evaluated in the OU-2 Focused FS, the USAF, the USEPA, and the Guam EPA have selected Natural Attenuation with Wellhead Treatment (Alternative G-2) as the remedy for the TCE and PCE contaminated groundwater beneath the MARBO Annex.

  15. Waste Management Plan for the Remedial Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) supplements the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Project WMP and defines the criteria and methods to be used for managing and characterizing waste generated during activities associated with the RI of 23 wells near the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF). These wells are within the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 area of contamination (AOC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Field activities for the limited RI of Operable Unit (OU) 3 of WAG 10 will involve sampling and measurement of various environmental media (e.g., liquids and gases). Many of these activities will occur in areas known to be contaminated with radioactive materials or hazardous chemical substances, and it is anticipated that contaminated solid and liquid wastes and noncontaminated wastes will be generated as a result of these activities. On a project-wide basis, handling of these waste materials will be accomplished in accordance with the RI/FS Project WMP and the procedures referenced throughout the plan.

  16. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), and Supplement No. 14 (December 1994) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER.

  17. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  18. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  19. Data management implementation plan for the site characterization of the Waste Area Grouping 1 Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, T.S.; Nickle, E.B.

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization. This project is not mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); therefore, no formalized meetings for data quality objective (DQO) development were held. Internally, DQOs were generated by the project team based on the end uses of the data to be collected. The 150-acre WAG 1 is contained within the ORNL security area. It includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative facilities. The goal of the WAG 1 Groundwater Site Characterization is to provide the necessary data on the nature and extent of groundwater contamination with an acceptable level of uncertainty to support the selection of remedial alternatives and to identify additional data needs for future actions. Primary objectives for the site characterization are: (1) To identify and characterize contaminant migration pathways based on the collection of groundwater data; (2) to identify sources of groundwater contamination and evaluate remedial actions which could be implemented to control or eliminate these sources; and (3) To conduct groundwater monitoring in support of other OUs in WAG 1 and the ORNL Groundwater OU.

  20. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-08-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning site is located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (Figure 1). This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 23, 2001. Because of questionable representativeness and precision of the results, the site was resampled on June 12, 2001. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the December 1997 Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1997). If after six years the rate of degradation appears to be so slow that the greatest concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) present at the site would not decay within 30 years of the site closure, the site will be reevaluated with consideration to enriching the impacted soil at the site to enhance the degradation process. A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report, samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in TPH concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, the data results from 2000 were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2001 consisted of the following: Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2); Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay

  1. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  2. Operation and maintenance engineering support of the Angra Unit 1 in Brasil; Presentacion de servicios de operacion y mantenimiento en la unidad 1 de la Central Nuclear de Angra (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castanos, E.

    2001-07-01

    Iberinco has developed during the last four years a major task in regards to the Operation and Maintenance of the Angra unit 1 plant in Brasil, by means of being awarded in the 1996 international licitation for the following activities. Operation and Maintenance engineering support - Material Procurement - Refuelling services In this article the most relevant activities performed during this period are shown as well as the organisation in charge to carry them out. (Author)

  3. Nuclear Operations Application to Environmental Restoration at Corrective Action Unit 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, at the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Cabble (NSO), Mark Krauss and Patrick Matthews (N-I)

    2011-03-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office has responsibility for environmental restoration at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site). This includes remediation at locations where past testing activities have resulted in the release of plutonium to the environment. One of the current remediation efforts involves a site where an underground subcritical nuclear safety test was conducted in 1964. The underground test was vented through a steel pipe to the surface in a closed system where gas samples were obtained. The piping downstream of the gas-sampling apparatus was routed belowground to a location where it was allowed to vent into an existing radioactively contaminated borehole. The length of the pipe above the ground surface is approximately 200 meters. This pipe remained in place until remediation efforts began in 2007, at which time internal plutonium contamination was discovered. Following this discovery, an assessment was conducted to determine the quantity of plutonium present in the pipe. This site has been identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites. The quantity of plutonium identified at CAU 547 exceeded the Hazard Category 3 threshold but was below the Hazard Category 2 threshold specified in DOE Standard DOE-STD-1027-92. This CAU, therefore, was initially categorized as a Hazard Category 3 environmental restoration site. A contaminated facility or site that is initially categorized as Hazard Category 3, however, may be downgraded to below Hazard Category 3 if it can be demonstrated through further analysis that the form of the material and the energy available for release support reducing the hazard category. This is an important consideration when performing hazard categorization of environmental restoration sites because energy sources available for release of material are generally fewer at an environmental restoration site

  4. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  5. Exploration and Practice on Teaching of Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering%化工单元操作课程教学探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兆琴; 韩承辉; 程婷

    2011-01-01

    根据环境监测与治理技术专业的特点及学生学习中存在的问题,对化工单元操作课程的教学工作进行探索,发现结合专业行业背景对化工单元操作教学内容整合,形成由基础理论与实践训练项目组成的模块化教学,将理论知识贯穿于学习情境和实践项目中,配合工程实际案例和多媒体教学,有利于学生对知识的理解掌握及实践动手能力的增强,同时在教学过程中注重培养学生的经济观念和工程观念,使学生树立工程意识。%The teaching of unit operation of chemical engineering was explored according the characteristics of the environmental monitoring and treatment technology major and problems the students had during study.It was helpful for students to master the theoretical knowledge and practical skills by teaching as modules and combining with engineering cases and multimedia teaching.During the teaching,the modules were composed of knowledge items and practice items,theoretical knowledge must be run through all practice items and engineering cases.Moreover,it was very important to pay attention to developing the student's economic and engineering conception and make the student set up the engineering sense in this course.

  6. 飞机变压整流器并联运行均衡性研究%Research of balance on transformer rectifier units in parallel operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝世勇; 战祥新

    2016-01-01

    To the problem of unbalanced load current in aircraft DC power supply system for the transformer rectifier units with many sets of parallel power supply mode, this article through the analysis of the power supply characteristics of transformer rectifier, with rectifier power supply in parallel balance as the center, and the circuit analysis method, studied the aircraft transformer rectifier parallel operation conditions and the load distribution rule. Finally with transformer rectifier with two kinds of parameters as an example, the influence of load distribution of the parameter range is analyzed. The analysis results show that the adjustment cannot be achieved merely by filter more transformer rectifier power balance, and automatic balancing circuit must be regulated.%针对飞机直流电源系统中变压整流器多采用多台并联供电方式,负载电流不平衡的问题,本文通过分析变压整流器的供电特性,以变压整流器并联供电均衡性为中心,采用电路分析方法,研究了飞机变压整流器并联运行条件和负载分配规律。最后以变压整流器两类参数不等时的影响为例,分析了参数不等时的负载分配情形。分析结果表明:仅靠滤波器调节无法实现多台变压整流器的供电均衡,必须加自动均衡电路进行调节。

  7. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  8. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose

    2005-01-01

    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  9. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 2, Part 1C: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for plant operational State 5 during a refueling outage, Main report (Sections 11--14)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Darby, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yakle, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as it operates in the Low Power and Shutdown Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. The report documents the methodology used during the analysis, describes the results from the application of the methodology, and compares the results with the results from two full power analyses performed on Grand Gulf.

  10. 40 CFR 257.5 - Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 261.5. Non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that meet the requirements of... permit program for 40 CFR part 257, subpart B and 40 CFR part 258 regulated facilities. Uppermost...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Manure application to agricultural lands from confined animal feeding operations by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean livestock manure application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006....

  12. Design, evaluation and recommedation effort relating to the modification of a residential 3-ton absorption cycle cooling unit for operation with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, R. H.; Anderson, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The possible use of solar energy powered absorption units to provide cooling and heating of residential buildings is studied. Both, the ammonia-water and the water-lithium bromide cycles, are considered. It is shown that the air cooled ammonia water unit does not meet the criteria for COP and pump power on the cooling cycle and the heat obtained from it acting as a heat pump is at too low a temperature. If the ammonia machine is water cooled it will meet the design criteria for cooling but can not supply the heating needs. The water cooled lithium bromide unit meets the specified performance for cooling with appreciably lower generator temperatures and without a mechanical solution pump. It is recommeded that in the demonstration project a direct expansion lithium bromide unit be used for cooling and an auxiliary duct coil using the solar heated water be employed for heating.

  13. The United States Special Operations Command Civil Military Engagement Program - A Model for Military-Interagency Low Cost / Small Footprint Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-02

    with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ( UNHCR ) and other international and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to...infrastructure. By the end of 2012 the United Nations High Commission for Refugees ( UNHCR ) estimated the number of Syrians in Jordan at 140,000. CMSE...good governance programs at the local level; 4) The Refugee Support Program assisted refugee relocation; 5) The PSYOP Program provided support for

  14. The United States Army Aviation Center and Fort Rucker during Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM. Addendum to the 1991 Annual Command History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    transcript of an oral briefing conducted June 17, 1991, for BG Konitzer , subj: DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM, Oral Interview File, Aviation Branch History...housing reserve units, Mr. Bill Lee , noted "•lhe [1st Aviation Brigade], who controlled these two units, had allowed the individuals to leave their...call went out! The DENTACs from Fort Lee , Fort Meade, Fort Jackson, Fort Gordon, Fort Benning, and the area dental laboratory at Fort Gordon soon

  15. The potential impact of explicit Basel II operational risk capital charges on the competitive environment of processing banks in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick de Fontnouvelle; Victoria Garrity; Scott Chu; Rosengren, Eric S.

    2005-01-01

    Basel II replaces Basel I’s implicit capital charge on operational risk with an explicit charge. Certain U.S. banks concentrated in processing-related business lines – which have significant operational risk – could thus face an increase in overall minimum regulatory capital requirements. Some have argued that, as a result, these so-called “processing banks” would be disadvantaged vis-à-vis competitors not subject to regulatory capital requirements for operational risk. This paper evaluates t...

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 2, Part 3: Internal Events Appendices I and J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakle, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Darby, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitehead, D.; Staple, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report provides supporting documentation for various tasks associated with the performance of the probablistic risk assessment for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage at Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as documented in Volume 2, Part 1 of NUREG/CR-6143.

  17. Technology Survey to Support Revision to the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200­-SW­-2 Operable Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nimmons, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-09-01

    A survey of technologies was conducted to provide information for a Data Quality Objectives process being conducted to support revision of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-SW-2 Operable Unit. The technology survey considered remediation and characterization technologies. This effort was conducted to address, in part, comments on the previous version of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 200-SW-2 Operable Unit as documented in 200­SW­1 and 200­SW­2 Collaborative Workshops-Agreement, Completion Matrix, and Supporting Documentation. By providing a thorough survey of remediation and characterization options, this report is intended to enable the subsequent data quality objectives and work plan revision processes to consider the full range of potential alternatives for planning of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study activities.

  18. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendices F-H, Volume 2, Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  20. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  1. A Compilation of Boiling Water Reactor Operational Experience for the United Kingdom's Office for Nuclear Regulation's Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Generic Design Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liao, Huafei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    United States nuclear power plant Licensee Event Reports (LERs), submitted to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under law as required by 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73 were evaluated for reliance to the United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Executive – Office for Nuclear Regulation’s (ONR) general design assessment of the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) design. An NRC compendium of LERs, compiled by Idaho National Laboratory over the time period January 1, 2000 through March 31, 2014, were sorted by BWR safety system and sorted into two categories: those events leading to a SCRAM, and those events which constituted a safety system failure. The LERs were then evaluated as to the relevance of the operational experience to the ABWR design.

  2. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  3. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  4. 基于制造网格的石化装置运维管理系统设计研究%Design research of operation management system of petrochemical units based on manufacturing grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小梅; 李力生; 熊峰

    2011-01-01

    The current operation service to the petrochemical industry is gradually shifting from the traditional focus on technical capabilities and emergency response to the "all-weather, multi-disciplinary" and "one-stop"service.In order to accommodate this trend,by extracting the characteristics of a variety of petrochemical units, integrated device operation mode is formed for the domestic large and complex petrochemical, industry unitsAn operation management system of petrochemical units based on manufacturing grid is designed.In this system,advanced manufacturing grid technology is integrated in the off-line monitoring and intelligent equipment maintenance technology.The distributed resource management platform based on manufacturing grid is built to realize the resource management effectively/Three subsystems of preventive maintenance, emergency response,equipment management,are designed based on the distributed resource management platform based on manufacturing grid.High quality and reliable operation services are solidified into this system by a standard operation process of petrochemical units.The system is developed and implemented in petrochemical units of shanghai gaoqiao petrochemical corporation to achieve the purposes of stable operation,reduce energy consumption and pollution emissions.%当前石化行业运维服务正逐步从传统的注重专业技术能力和应急响应向“全天候、多专业”的“一站式”服务转换发展.为了顺应这一趋势,通过提取多种石化生产装置设施的特点,以先进的制造网格技术集成在离线监测技术和智能设备维护技术等,实现针对国内石化行业大型复杂装置设施形成集成化的运维模式,并通过预防性维护、应急响应、设备管理三个子系统的协同一体化运维管理,将优质可靠的运维服务固化成具有标准流程的基于制造网格的石化装置运维管理系统中.该系统在上海高桥石化公司的实施,使企业达

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis.

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices E (Sections E.1--E.8). Volume 2, Part 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. The authors recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful.

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report.

  8. Toeplitz Operators with L1 Symbols on Weighted Bergman Spaces of the Unit Ball%单位球的加权Bergman空间上具有L1符号的Toeplitz算子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何莉; 曹广福; 何忠华

    2013-01-01

    讨论了单位球的加权Bergman空间Aρ(Bn,dVα)(1<p<∞)上具有L1(Bn)符号的Toeplitz算子,利用单位球上Toeplitz算子的Berezin变换,等价刻画了Apα(Bn,dVα)上具有L1(Bn)符号的Toeplitz算子的有界性和紧性,推广了Agbor对L2a(D,dA)上具有L1(D)符号的Toeplitz算子的有界性和紧性等价刻画的结论.%We investigate the boundedness and compactness of Toeplitz operators with L1 symbols on weighted Bergman spaces of the unit ball Apα(Bn,dVα) (1 < p < ∞). We describe the boundedness and compactness of Toeplitz operators with L1 symbols on Apα(Bn,dVα) equivalently by using the Berezin transform of the Toeplitz operators, and promote the conclusion given by Agbor about the boundedness and compactness of Toeplitz operators with L1 symbols on Bergman space of the unit disk L2a(D).

  9. 40 CFR 62.14535 - When must I comply with this subpart if I plan to continue operation of my CISWI unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule... complete retrofit construction of control devices, as specified in the final control plan, so that, if the... incorporate all process changes and complete retrofit construction of control devices, as specified in...

  10. Impact of Battalion and Smaller African-American Combat Units on Integration of the U.S. Army in the European Theater of Operations During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    force. World War II was no exception as the Saar Basin Offensive, Battle of the Bulge and the subsequent Ruhr Campaign necessitated a call up from all...be led.207 The Saar Basin Offensive, Battle of the Bulge and subsequent Rhine Campaign proved to the Army and the United States the patriotic spirit...

  11. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risk during mid-loop operations. Main report. Volume 6. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1 which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis including internal fire and flood was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6.

  12. Design, construction, operation and evaluation of a prototype culm combustion boiler/heater unit. Technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed on the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler/Heater Unit, Phase I - Engineering Design and Analysis and Limited Phase II - Prototype Plant Construction during the period October 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. The objectives of the program as well as the technical progress and problem areas encountered are presented. Progress on the components and system engineering studies is described. The Preliminary Design of Prototype Unit Topical Report was submitted. Final design activity is continuing and the progress on drawing preparation and advanced procurement activity is discussed. Based on authorization for a limited amount of Phase II activity, initial Purchase Orders were released authorizing preparation of certified drawings for fabricated equipment required to support the Phase I final design activity. The Purchase Order for site clearance and installation of boiler foundations was awarded and ground breaking ceremonies were held at the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler site in Paxinos, Pennsylvania, on December 7, 1979.

  13. An Analysis of Contracting Actions by United States Based Department of Defense Organizations to Support Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Personal Interviews . . . . .... 36 Use of the Delphi Method . . . . . .... 37 Discussion of Investigative Questions . . . 39 Investigative Questions...the end of Desert Storm. Prior to Desert Shield the two manufacturers of injectors for atropine, a nerve agent antidote, were producing 60,000 units...two-stage approach was the formal phase, in which the Delphi technique was determined to be appropriate (Emory and Cooper, 1991:149). The data was

  14. Joint Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-17

    Unified Task Force (UNITAF) Somalia was formed with forces from France, Italy, Canada, Belgium, Egypt , Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and the United States...military presence, open-source intelligence ( OSINT ) may be the best immediately available information to prepare US forces to operate in a foreign...country. OSINT from radio broadcasts, newspapers, and periodicals often provide tip-offs for HUMINT and other intelligence and information collection

  15. Marketing CE approved off-the-shelf FC-operated power backup units for the telecom industry at competitive prices : a continuing success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, P. [Dantherm Power, Skive (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    Dantherm Power receives a steady supply of fuel cell stacks packed on pallets at its factory in Denmark. Once unpacked, they go to an assembly line to be integrated into power modules designed for telecom- and IT network-base-stations around the world. The CE approved units are designed and tested to meet current telecom standards. Customers can purchase the off-the-shelf units at competitive prices. Dantherm Power has brought fuel-cell technology beyond the research and development stage. Since 2005, the company has sold backup units providing uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to the telecom industry on standard commercial terms. Their fuel cell-based-solutions have proven to be successful. The company began in 2003 as a research and development project within Dantherm Air Handling A/S. Development was driven by the idea that a UPS-system based on hydrogen and fuel-cell-technology may be better solution than traditional battery and diesel driven backup for many of the company's existing clients.

  16. Regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977-August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlin, J.M.; Christ, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O' Dea, P.; Rao, C.R.; Swanberg, C.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts by the Core and State Teams in data acquisition, electric and non-electric economic studies, development of computer support functions and operations, and preparation of geothermal development scenarios are described. Team reports for the states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah are included in the appendices along with a summary of the state scenarios. (MHR)

  17. Regional operation research program for development of geothermal energy in the southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlin, J.M; Christ, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O' Dea, P.; Rao, C.R.; Swanberg, C.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from June 1977 to August 1978. The efforts by the Core and State Teams in data acquisition, electric and non-electric economic studies, development of computer support functions and operations, and preparation of geothermal development scenarios are described.

  18. Determination of the operating point and the enthalpy per unit surface of a cold battery with icy water and a double heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dieng1 ,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cold battery is a heat exchanger between two fluids, air (secondary fluid and iced water (primary fluid.The cold battery is composed of two heat exchangers in series, one of which is made up of flat-plate in galvanized steel serving as a reservoir for the iced water and the other one a copper shelland-tube exchanger with aluminum cooling blades. The two heat exchangers are connected to a pipe of the same diameter. These pipes will permit the transit of the icy water coming from the flat-plate heat exchanger by gravitation towards the tubes of the second exchanger [1]. The good operation of this cold battery depends on the knowledge of its operating point. We are proposing a technique of determination of the operating point by using one of the two fluids (water or air and the efficiencies [2, 3].The Knowledge of that operating point will enable us, through experimental means, determine the mean surface temperatureand then determine the mean surface enthalpy from the specific heat capacity at saturation obtained from the linearization of the entrance and exit air temperatures on the saturation curves.

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W. [ed.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L. [and others

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  20. Surgical smoke - a health hazard in the operating theatre: a study to quantify exposure and a survey of the use of smoke extractor systems in UK plastic surgery units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D S; O'Neill, J K; Powell, R J; Oliver, D W

    2012-07-01

    Surgeons and operating theatre personnel are routinely exposed to the surgical smoke plume generated through thermal tissue destruction. This represents a significant chemical and biological hazard and has been shown to be as mutagenic as cigarette smoke. It has previously been reported that ablation of 1 g of tissue produces a smoke plume with an equivalent mutagenicity to six unfiltered cigarettes. We studied six human and 78 porcine tissue samples to find the mass of tissue ablated during 5 min of monopolar diathermy. The total daily duration of diathermy use in a plastic surgery theatre was electronically recorded over a two-month period. On average the smoke produced daily was equivalent to 27-30 cigarettes. Our survey of smoke extractor use in UK plastic surgery units revealed that only 66% of units had these devices available. The Health and Safety Executive recommend specialist smoke extractor use, however they are not universally utilised. Surgical smoke inhalation is an occupational hazard in the operating department. Our study provides data to quantify this exposure. We hope this evidence can be used together with current legislation to make the use of surgical smoke extractors mandatory to protect all personnel in the operating theatre.

  1. Utah Southwest Regional Geothermal Development Operations Research Project. Appendix 10 of regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the Southeast United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Stanley; Wagstaff, Lyle W.

    1979-01-01

    The Southwest Regional Geothermal Operations/Research project was initiated to investigate geothermal development in the five states within the region: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. Although the region changed during the first year to include Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming, the project objectives and procedures remained unchanged. The project was funded by the DOE/DGE and the Four Corners Regional Commission with participation by the New Mexico Energy Resources Board. The study was coordinated by the New Mexico Energy Institute at New Mexico State University, acting through a 'Core Team'. A 'state' team, assigned by the states, conducted the project within each state. This report details most of the findings of the first year's efforts by the Utah Operations/Research team. It is a conscientious effort to report the findings and activities of the Utah team, either explicitly or by reference. The results are neither comprehensive nor final, and should be regarded as preliminary efforts to much of what the Operations/Research project was envisioned to accomplish. In some cases the report is probably too detailed, in other cases too vague; hopefully, however, the material in the report, combined with the Appendices, will be able to serve as source material for others interested in geothermal development in Utah.

  2. Exploring of Wireless Technology to Provide Information Sharing Among Military, United Nations and Civilian Organizations During Complex Humanitarian Emergencies and Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    million people to IT. [Ref 61] (5) UNDP Latin America IT Initiative (PERU). In 1992, UNDP set up Programa Nacional de Informatica y Comunicaciones ...make decisions for which they were clearly ill prepared. [Ref 21] On reported occasions during the crisis , troops operating in one region that had...the crisis even as the killings were broadcast on camera worldwide. The investigating commission concluded that long before the conflict started

  3. Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Stage 3. McClellan Air Force Base. Operable Unit B. Preliminary Assessment Summary Report. Volume 3. Appendices C, D & E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Types of materials handled: PCBs Acids Bases Radionucleides Specific chemicals handled: ammonium hydroxide hydrochloric acid nitric acid potassium...on the ground at PRL 30, which includes Building 631. Period of operation: 1960 to 1980 Types of materials handled: Radionucleides "Solvents Specific... radionucleides were handled or disposed. The following sites should be considered for radioactivity screening as part of future remedial investigations: o Site

  4. Design, construction, operation and evaluation of a Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler/Heater Unit. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed on the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler/Heater Unit, Phase I - Engineering Design and Analysis and Limited Phase II - Prototype Plant Construction during the period October 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979. The objectives of the program as well as the technical progress and problem areas encountered during the reporting period are presented. Progress on the components and system engineering studies is described. The Preliminary Design of Prototype Unit Topical Report was submitted during this reporting period. Final design activity is continuing and the progress on drawing preparation and advanced procurement activity is discussed. Based on authorization for a limited amount of Phase II activity, initial purchase orders were released authorizing preparation of certified drawings for fabricated equipment required to support the Phase I final design activity. The Purchase Order for site clearance and installation of boiler foundations was awarded during this reporting period and ground breaking ceremonies were held at the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler site in Paxinos, Pennsylvania on December 7, 1979.

  5. Hydroelectric Generating Units Operation Simulation Based on Virtual Reality Technology%基于虚拟现实技术的水轮发电机组运行仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新颖; 乐毅; 陈洪; 肖志怀

    2016-01-01

    With a variety of large and extra-size hydropower generating units brought into production ,trained and professional opera-tors in hydropower station are becoming increasingly scarce .Meanwhile ,the safe and stable operation of hydroelectric generating u-nits ,which has a significant influence on the safety and stability of power systems ,sets a higher requirement for operators and main-tainers of hydroelectric generating units .Three-dimensional visualization operation simulation training is the new mode of modern training system .The structure and function of the operation simulation training system of hydroelectric generating units are de-signed ,and research on the training system is conducted .By using 3ds Max ,the key models of devices are built and the 3d anima-tions according to the process and operation of the start-up and closing down of turbines are conducted .Simulation and interactive de-velopment are made on Virtual Reality Platform (VRP) ,so as to transform hydroelectric generating units from actual three-dimen-sional space to virtual reality space ,which improves trainees''perceptual cognition and enhances the training effect .The actual opera-tion proves the effectiveness of the system .%随着各种大型、特大型水轮发电机组的陆续投产 ,大量训练有素而且专业技术过硬的水轮发电机组运行和检修人员越显稀缺.同时 ,水轮发电机组的安全稳定运行对保证电力系统的安全性和稳定性具有重大的影响力 ,也对水轮发电机组的运行和维护等相关技术人员素质提出了更高的要求.三维可视化运行仿真培训是现代培训体制的全新模式.设计了水轮发电机组运行仿真系统结构功能 ,开展水轮发电机组运行仿真培训系统研究.利用3ds M ax建立水电站的关键设备模型 ,结合水轮机开停机流程及操作 ,制作相应的三维动画.利用虚拟现实平台(VRP)进行后期仿真、交互开发 ,实现了水轮发电机组由

  6. 深水动力定位钻完井作业的风险管理探述%Risk Management of Deepwater Drilling and Completion Operations Using DP Drilling Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇; 谢彬

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cause of deepwater horizon blowout accident and the risk of position loss during drilling and completion operation using the concept of well integrity double barriers. A risk management framework is also proposed for the management of deepwater drilling and completion operations using DP drilling units.%运用井口完整性双安全屏障的概念分析了深海地平线号井喷事故的原因和动力定位平台在动力定位模式下进行钻完井作业时由移位引起的井喷风险,并就动力定位钻完井作业的风险管理提出相关的建议.

  7. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of a prototype culm-combustion boiler/heater unit. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed on the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler/Heater Unit, Phase I - Engineering Design and Analysis and Phase II - Prototype Plant Construction during the period October 1, 1980 through December 31, 1980. The objectives of the program as well as the technical progress and problem areas encountered during the reporting period are presented. The final detail design effort was completed and the final design report submitted. Progress on procurement activity authorized by full Phase II release on March 20, 1980, is discussed. Following approval by DOE, a purchase order was placed with the Norflor Construction Corporation for the prototype plant construction which began in November. Construction of the access roadway installation of the electric power, sewer and water lines was completed during this reporting period. Boiler construction continued.

  8. Long Period Operation Discuss on Coker Gasoline Hydrogenation Unit%焦化汽油加氢装置长周期运行探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宇峰

    2012-01-01

    Since the reactor pressure difference drop,coker gasoline hydrogenation unit Influence of long period of stable production device.The paper analyzed cause of reactor pressure difference drop,on extending the running cycle measures carried on the thorough discussion.%焦化汽油加氢装置由于反应器压差上升,影响了装置长周期的稳定生产,文章分析了引起本装置催化剂床层压差上升的原因,并对延长装置运转周期的措施进行深入的探讨。

  9. Post-cold war United Nations peacekeeping operations: a review of the case for a hybrid level 2+ medical treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ralph Jay

    2015-01-01

    Post-Cold War, UN peacekeeping operations (UN PKOs) have become larger, more mobile, multi-faceted and conducted over vast areas of remote, rugged, and harsh geography. They have been increasingly involved in dangerous areas with ill-defined boundaries, simmering internecine armed conflict, and disregard on the part of some local parties for peacekeepers' security and role. Yet progressively there have been expectations of financial restraint and austerity. Additionally, UN PKOs have become more "robust," that is, engaged in preemptive, assertive operations. A statistically positive and significant relationship exists between missions' size, complexity, remoteness, and aggressive tenor and a higher probability of trauma or death, especially as a result of hostile actions or disease. Therefore, in the interest of "force protection" and optimizing operations, a key component of UN PKOs is health care and medical treatment. The expectation is that UN PKO medical support must conform to the general intent and structure of current UN PKOs to become more streamlined, portable, mobile, compartmentalized, and specialized, but also more varied and complex to address the medical aspects of these missions cost-efficiently. This article contends that establishing a hybrid level 2-a level 2 with level 3 modules and components (i.e., level 2+)-is a viable course of action when considering trends in the medical aspects of Post-Cold War UN PKOs. A level 2 medical treatment facility has the potential to provide needed forward mobile medical treatment, especially trauma care, for extended, complex, large-scale, and comprehensive UN PKOs. This is particularly the case for missions that include humanitarian outreach, preventive medicine, and psychiatry. The level 2 treatment facility is flexible enough to expand into a hybrid level 2+ with augmentation of modules based on changes in mission requirements and variation in medical aspects.

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the US Department of Energy`s Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The glass melter would thermally treat mixed waste (hazardous waste contaminated with radioactive constituents largely tritium, Pu-238, and/or Th-230) that was generated at the Mound Plant and is now in storage, by stabilizing the waste in glass blocks. Depending on the radiation level of the waste, the glass melter may operate for 1 to 6 years. Two onsite alternatives and seven offsite alternatives were considered. This environmental assessment indicates that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA, and therefore the finding of no significant impact is made, obviating the need for an environmental impact statement.

  11. Products of extended Cesro operator and composition operator from Bergman space to Besov space on the unit ball%单位球上 Bergman 空间到 Besov 空间的广义 Cesro 算子与复合算子的乘积

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐笑敏

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we study the boundedness and compactness of the integral type operator,which is a kind of the products of extended Cesro operator and composition operator on the unit ball of ℂn ,from Bergman space to Besov space in terms of Carleson measure.%给定单位球上的全纯函数 g 和单位球上的全纯自映射φ,以 Tφ,g 表示由广义 Cesro 算子与复合算子的乘积来定义的一类积分算子。本文利用 Carleson 测度,刻画了单位球上从 Bergman 空间到 Besov空间的积分算子 Tφ,g 的有界性和紧性。

  12. Idiopathic brood disease syndrome and queen events as precursors of colony mortality in migratory beekeeping operations in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Tarpy, David R; Lengerich, Eugene J; Pettis, Jeffery S

    2013-02-01

    Using standard epidemiological methods, this study set out to quantify the risk associated with exposure to easily diagnosed factors on colony mortality and morbidity in three migratory beekeeping operations. Fifty-six percent of all colonies monitored during the 10-month period died. The relative risk (RR) that a colony would die over the short term (∼50 days) was appreciably increased in colonies diagnosed with Idiopathic Brood Disease Syndrome (IBDS), a condition where brood of different ages appear molten on the bottom of cells (RR=3.2), or with a "queen event" (e.g., evidence of queen replacement or failure; RR=3.1). We also found that several risk factors-including the incidence of a poor brood pattern, chalkbood (CB), deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and exceeding the threshold of 5 Varroa mites per 100 bees-were differentially expressed in different beekeeping operations. Further, we found that a diagnosis of several factors were significantly more or less likely to be associated with a simultaneous diagnosis of another risk factor. These finding support the growing consensus that the causes of colony mortality are multiple and interrelated.

  13. Separation of recombinant apolipoprotein A-I(Milano) modified forms and aggregates in an industrial ion-exchange chromatography unit operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Alan K; Suda, Eric J; Herberg, John T; Thomas, Kristin E; Shell, Robert E; Gustafson, Mark E; Ho, Sa V

    2008-09-12

    We have shown how protein self-association impacts the ion-exchange separation of modified forms and aggregates for apolipoprotein A-I(Milano). It is well known that reversible self-association of a protein can lead to chromatographic band broadening, peak splitting, merging, fronting, and tailing. To mitigate these effects, urea or an organic modifier can be added to the chromatography buffers to shift the equilibrium distribution of the target molecule to the dissociated form. A first generation process that did not utilize urea resulted in low yield and low purity as it was not possible to separate protein aggregates. A second generation process run in the presence of 6M urea resulted in high purity and high yield, but throughput was limited due to low resin binding capacity when the protein was completely denatured. A third generation process achieved high purity, high yield, and high throughput by shifting the urea concentration during the process to continually operate in the optimal window for maximum loading and selectivity. Key to these systematic process improvements was the rational understanding of the interplay of urea concentration and ion-exchange chromatographic behavior. Results from pilot and industrial scale operations are presented, demonstrating the suitability of the techniques described in this work for the large scale manufacture of recombinant therapeutic proteins.

  14. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal floods during mid-loop operations. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The major objective of the Surry internal flood analysis was to provide an improved understanding of the core damage scenarios arising from internal flood-related events. The mean core damage frequency of the Surry plant due to internal flood events during mid-loop operations is 4.8E-06 per year, and the 5th and 95th percentiles are 2.2E-07 and 1.8E-05 per year, respectively. Some limited sensitivity calculations were performed on three plant improvement options. The most significant result involves modifications of intake-level structure on the canal, which reduced core damage frequency contribution from floods in mid-loop by about 75%.

  15. 200 MW供热机组双机单塔运行的节能分析%Energy Saving Analysis of 200 MW Heating Unit Double Machine Double Tower Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建新; 李文林

    2016-01-01

    Ningxia Electric Power Investment Group in Xixia thermal power plant 200MW unit in winter heating condition, change the mode of operation of the cooling tower by the twin towers switched to single tower operation, reduce the auxiliary power consumption rate, reduce the difference of the condenser end, reducing the cooling tower of water supply, to avoid the cooling Tower of a large number of ice, water consumption decreased significantly, to achieve the purpose of energy saving unit.%宁夏电力投资集团西夏热电厂200MW供热机组在冬季采暖工况下,改变冷却塔的运行方式由双塔切换至单塔运行,降低了厂用电率,减小了凝汽器的端差,降低了冷却塔的补水量,避免了冷却塔的大量结冰,水耗明显降低,达到机组节能目的。

  16. Analysis Report of Crude Distillation Unit Electric Desalting Equipment Operation%常减压蒸馏装置电脱盐成套设备运行分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡泽干; 黄丽

    2012-01-01

    介绍了以加工海洋油设计的、国内最大的常减压蒸馏装置电脱盐装置的实际运行情况,通过对成套电脱盐设备的运行情况进行分析,该电脱盐成套设备能够完全满足对脱盐原油含盐量不大于3 mg/L、含水量不大于0.2%和排水含油量不大于150 mg/kg等工艺要求。%Foring the design of the processing of marine oil,the largest crude distillation unit desalination unit operation was introduced through the operation of the complete desalination equipment to analyze the desalination equipment to fully meet the right desalination The salt content of crude oil was not greater than 3 mg/L,water content was not more than 0.2% and drain the oil content was not more than 150 mg/kg.

  17. Strategies for Stabilizing Nitrogenous Compounds in ECLSS Wastewater: Top-Down System Design and Unit Operation Selection with Focus on Bio-Regenerative Processes for Short and Long Term Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin M.

    2011-01-01

    Water recycling and eventual nutrient recovery is crucial for surviving in or past low earth orbit. New approaches and syste.m architecture considerations need to be addressed to meet current and future system requirements. This paper proposes a flexible system architecture that breaks down pretreatment , steps into discrete areas where multiple unit operations can be considered. An overview focusing on the urea and ammonia conversion steps allows an analysis on each process's strengths and weaknesses and synergy with upstream and downstream processing. Process technologies to be covered include chemical pretreatment, biological urea hydrolysis, chemical urea hydrolysis, combined nitrification-denitrification, nitrate nitrification, anammox denitrification, and regenerative ammonia absorption through struvite formation. Biological processes are considered mainly for their ability to both maximize water recovery and to produce nutrients for future plant systems. Unit operations can be considered for traditional equivalent system mass requirements in the near term or what they can provide downstream in the form of usable chemicals or nutrients for the long term closed-loop ecological control and life support system. Optimally this would allow a system to meet the former but to support the latter without major modification.

  18. 活性炭油气回收装置运行分析%Analysis of Oil Gas Recovery Unit Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩栋樑; 丁波

    2015-01-01

    油品在储存和运输过程中,经常会有一部分液态轻烃组分汽化而进入大气中,不仅会造成一定的油品数量的损失和质量的下降,还会带来安全隐患和环境污染,因此对产生的油气进行回收显得十分重要,通过对浙江地区多座油库现役油气回收装置的分析,给出了影响其回收效果的主要因素,提出了一些措施,以提高装置的回收效率和安全性。%There is usually a part of the light hydrocarbon liquid components vaporize into the atmosphere in the process of oil storage and transportation, which will not only cause some loss of oil quantity and quality decline, but also cause a security risk and environmental pollution. Therefore, recycling oil vapor is very important. Through the analysis of the oil gas recovery unit in the depot showed the main factors affecting the recovery effect, and some measures to improve the recovery efficiency and safety of the device were put forward.

  19. Final environmental impact statement for the construction and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation to store the Three Mile Island Unit 2 spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Docket Number 72-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) fuel debris at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL). US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to design, construct, and operate at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The TMI-2 fuel debris would be removed from wet storage, transported to the ISFSI, and placed in storage modules on a concrete basemat. As part of its overall spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program, the US DOE has prepared a final programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) that provides an overview of the spent fuel management proposed for INEEL, including the construction and operation of the TMI-2 ISFSI. In addition, DOE-ID has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to describe the environmental impacts associated with the stabilization of the storage pool and the construction/operation of the ISFSI at the ICPP. As provided in NRC`s NEPA procedures, a FEIS of another Federal agency may be adopted in whole or in part in accordance with the procedures outlined in 40 CFR 1506.3 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Under 40 CFR 1506.3(b), if the actions covered by the original EIS and the proposed action are substantially the same, the agency adopting another agency`s statement is not required to recirculate it except as a final statement. The NRC has determined that its proposed action is substantially the same as actions considered in DOE`s environmental documents referenced above and, therefore, has elected to adopt the DOE documents as the NRC FEIS.

  20. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975. [AEC health and safety during first 32 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury. (CH)

  1. Evaluation of adjusted central venous blood gases versus arterial blood gases of patients in post-operative paediatric cardiac surgical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen G Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Central venous catheters are in situ in most of the intensive care unit (ICU patients, which may be an alternative for determining acid-base status and can reduce complications from prolonged arterial cannulation. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability between adjusted central venous blood gas (aVBG and arterial blood gas (ABG samples for pH, partial pressure of carbon-di-oxide (pCO2, bicarbonate (HCO3−, base excess (BE and lactates in paediatric cardiac surgical ICU. Methods: We applied blood gas adjustment rule, that is aVBG pH = venous blood gas (VBG pH +0.05, aVBG CO2 = VBG pCO2 - 5 mm Hg from the prior studies. In this study, we validated this relationship with simultaneous arterial and central venous blood obtained from 30 patients with four blood sample pairs each in paediatric cardiac surgical ICU patients. Results: There was a strong correlation (R i.e., Pearson's correlation between ABG and aVBG for pH = 0.9544, pCO2 = 0.8738, lactate = 0.9741, HCO3− = 0.9650 and BE = 0.9778. Intraclass correlation co-efficients (ICCs for agreement improved after applying the adjustment rule to venous pH (0.7505 to 0.9454 and pCO2 (0.4354 to 0.741. Bland Altman showed bias (and limits of agreement for pH: 0.008 (−0.04 to + 0.057, pCO2: −3.52 (–9.68 to +2.65, lactate: −0.10 (−0.51 to +0.30, HCO3−: −2.3 (–5.11 to +0.50 and BE: −0.80 (−3.09 to +1.49. Conclusion: ABG and aVBG samples showed strong correlation, acceptable mean differences and improved agreement (high ICC after adjusting the VBG. Hence, it can be promising to use trend values of VBG instead of ABG in conjunction with a correction factor under stable haemodynamic conditions.

  2. Effect of regulating valve configuration mode on unit operation efficiency%高压调节阀配置方式对机组运行经济性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 常东锋; 蒋辉; 黄嘉驷; 李欣; 李钊; 王勇

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between regulating valve configuration mode and inlet steam pressure of the tur-bine was discussed.Taking a supercritical and a subcritical 600 MW unit as the examples,the operation ef-ficiencies of the two units under different regulating valve configuration modes were calculated in detail. The difference of heat rate changing rule between the above two units in constant pressure operation mode and sliding pressure operation mode of the sequence valve was pointed out.Moreover,with different num-bers of the regulating stage nozzle controlled by each high pressure valve,the variation rule of heat rate in different regulating value configuration modes and the configuration principle were put forward.Also,the effect of overlap degree was quantitatively analyzed.The results show that,configuration mode of the regu-lating valve has significant influence on the unit's efficiency.For the unit with four high pressure regulating valves,if the regulating valve was opened early,with every 2% increase in the pressure loss,the unit heat rate increases by about 1 3 kJ/(kW.h)to 1 5 kJ/(kW.h)in two-valve-point,only about 5 kJ/(kW.h)to 6 kJ/(kW.h)in three-valve-point and a slight little in-less-than-two-valve-point.%论述了高压调节阀配置方式与汽轮机进汽压力的关系,以600 MW机组为例,计算得出了亚临界机组与超临界机组在不同调节阀配置方式下的经济性,以及在顺序阀定压与滑压运行方式下热耗率的变化规律,给出了各调节阀所控制的调节级喷嘴数不等时,各调节阀配置方式下机组热耗率的变化规律及调节阀配置原则,并对重叠度对机组运行经济性的影响进行了定量分析.结果表明:不同调节阀配置方式对机组运行经济性影响明显,对于配置4个调节阀的机组,2阀点时,提前开启调节阀压损每增大2%,机组热耗率增加约13~15 kJ/(kW.h);3阀点时,机组热耗率仅增加约5~6 kJ/(kW.h);2阀点下,超临界机组热耗率增加略小.

  3. Liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) with Aliquat® 336 from HCl media in microfluidic devices: Combination of micro-unit operations and online ICP-MS determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellé, Gwendolyne; Mariet, Clarisse; Cote, Gérard

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of radionuclides is carried out according to operating protocols which include a series of chemical operations such as separation/purification steps and therefore is usually time-consuming, complex and difficult to put in place in a hostile environment (gloves box). In the present work, the liquid-liquid extraction of uranium in HCl media by Aliquat® 336 was performed in microsystem to demonstrate the potential of miniaturization in radiochemistry compared to classical protocols (decrease in volumes, analysis time, radiations received and feasibility of automation). Through the investigation of the influence of different parameters (flow rates, length of the microchannel, specific interfacial area), it was shown that the same performances of liquid-liquid extraction can be obtained in microsystem and in batch. Then, the coupling of different micro-unit operations for continuous process was performed to highlight the advantages of the miniaturized analytical techniques. The online ICP-MS determination of uranium(VI) was successfully coupled with the stripping of the latter from pre-loaded organic phases in microsystem, which constitutes a proof of concept and a first step towards a global analytical process with continuous flow.

  4. Analysis of operation costs of thermal power units with different denitration methods%火电机组不同脱硝方式下的运行费用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍秋宝; 田亮; 赵亮宇; 刘吉臻

    2012-01-01

    “十二五”期间,我国对火力发电机组NOx排放量提出了更高的约束性指标,目前火电厂的应对方式主要包括缴纳罚款、燃烧优化和建设脱硝设备等.依据《排污费征收标准管理办法》计算排污罚款;依据最新《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》、国内典型机组在燃烧优化花费以及脱硝设备运行费用等方面的统计数据,在机组不同运行工况导致不同NOx排放浓度情况下,计算典型600 MW机组的年烟气及NOx排放量,对比无减排措施、燃烧优化、SCR脱硝以及燃烧优化与SCR结合应用情况下的花费.计算结果表明,目前情况下火电机组实施燃烧优化是最经济的减排NOx方式.%During the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, China has put forward higher restriction on thermal power units about NOxemissions. At present, the main methods adopted by power plants include paying the penalty, combustion optimization and constructing denitration facilities and so on. Emission penalties are calculated according to the Management Method of Collection Standard for Emission Penalty. According to the newest Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Thermal Power Plants and statistical data including costs of combustion optimization and operation costs of denitration facilities in domestic typical units, flue gas and NOx emissions of typical 600 MW unit is calculate under different NOx emission concentrations in different operation conditions. Comparision is made among costs of no NOx removal measure, combustion optimization, denitration by SCR and combination of combustion optimization and SCR. The calculation results show that, at the moment, combustion optimization is the most economical way for thermal power units to adopt to reduct NOxemissions.

  5. Regulation Mechanism Design of Minimum Operating Mode of Cogeneration Unit Based on Game Theory%基于博弈论的热电联产机组最小运行方式监管制度设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 许海铭; 张灵凌; 李庚银

    2012-01-01

    As generation management separating from power grid, some cogeneration units frequently misrepresented the minimum operating mode in order to maximize their benefit. It was put forward to reinforce the electric power regulation and design relevant principles of management according to economic theories. A mixed strategy model was set up considering the regulator and cogeneration unit as both sides of game, taking the base tactic that whether the regulator audit and the cogeneration unit misrepresent,. According to the Nash equilibrium of the model, four principles to suppress the misrepresenting of the cogeneration unit through aggravate punishment were proposed. The specific punishing function was designed to vary directly with the excess income, and to vary exponentially with penalty degree and information disclosure. Proved by the example, the designed principles of management could effectually suppress the misrepresenting of the cogeneration unit.%厂网分开后,热电厂为追求利益最大化,有虚报抬高机组最小运行方式的内生冲动。依据经济学理论,进行制度设计,加强对热电厂的专业监管,十分必要。该文将监管部门与热电厂作为博弈的双方,以监管部门对热电联产机组最小运行方式审核还是不审核、热电厂上报最小运行方式违规还是不违规为基本策略,建立一个混合策略博弈模型。针对模型的纳什均衡解,提出加大惩罚抑制电厂违规的4个原则,设计了与电厂额外收益成正比、与电厂违规程度和违规次数呈指数关系的惩罚费用函数。算例验证所设计的机制能够较好抑制热电厂的违规行为。

  6. Crushed Stone Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  7. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  8. 2.2Mt/a蜡油加氢装置第一周期运行分析%Analysis of 1st operation cycle of a 2.2 MM TPY wax oil hydrotreating unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雄; 田喜磊; 刘志博; 贺黎明

    2012-01-01

    介绍中国石油化工股份有限公司洛阳分公司2.2 Mt/a蜡油加氢装置第一周期运行情况.该装置采用抚顺石油化工研究院研制的新型FF-18( Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3)催化剂,保护剂为FZC-100,FZC-102B,FZC-103,FZC-204.在装置处理量235 ~ 275 t/h下,反应器床层径向温差最大2.1℃,最小0.2℃,说明径向温度分布均匀、温差小、催化剂装填均匀、床层内的沟流效应很小.在反应器入口温度365℃,系统压力10.72 MPa下,催化剂在使用周期末期,反应器入口温度只比初期设计温度高8℃,而负荷率在104%情况下,平均脱硫率在80%以上,精制蜡油平均硫质量分数为0.138%,低于产品指标值(小于0.16%),说明新型催化剂FF-18相对活性仍然较高,稳定性较好.%The first operation cycle of a 2.2 wax oil hydrotreating unit in SINOPEC Luoyang Company is introduced. In this unit, the new FF-18 (Ni-Mo/y-Al2O3) catalyst and FZC-100, FZC-102B, FZC-103 and FZC-104 guard catalysts developed by SINOPEC Fushun Research Institute of Petroleum and Petrochemicals have been applied. When the unit was operating at a capacity of 235-275 t/h, the maximum radial temperature difference in reactor bed was 2. 1 ℃ and minimum temperature difference was 0. 2 ℃, which indicated that the radial temperature distribution was uniform and temperature difference was small. The catalyst loading was uniform and there was little catalyst channel. Under the conditions of 365 ℃ reactor inlet temperature and 10.72 MPa operating pressure, the EOR temperature of the catalyst was only 8 ℃ higher than that of SOR. When the unit was operating at 104% of the design capacity, the average sulfur removal rate was over 80% and sulfur in refined wax oil was 0. 138 w% which was lower than the product specifications (lower than 0. 16 w%. All these demonstrate that the FF-18 catalyst is high in activity and stable in performance.

  9. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  10. 汽泵乏汽供热改造对机组安全运行的影响%Analysis on the Influence of Waste-heat-absorbing Feed Pump Turbine Transformation on Safe Operation of Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 白志刚; 梁健康

    2014-01-01

    介绍了某电厂的汽动给水泵乏汽吸收式热泵机组系统,对该厂的给水泵汽轮机乏汽至主机凝汽器蝶阀进行流量计算,分析蝶阀特性,利用汽动给水泵排汽中间容积特性分析得出热泵机组故障后蝶阀动作时间与汽动给水泵排汽压力的关系,并制定合理的控制逻辑为机组的安全运行提供指导。%Waste-heat-absorbing heat pump unit of steam feed pump in a power plant was introduced. The exhausted steam flow rate between feed water pump turbine and butterfly valve of condenser was calculated. Based on the analysis of butterfly valve feature and steam volume feature,the relationship between the action time of butterfly valve and the discharge pressure of water feed pump was concluded. Besides,reasonable control logic was formulated to provide guidance for safe operation of unit.

  11. 150kt/a硝基高塔复合肥装置运行总结%Sum-Up of Operation of Nitro-Compound Fertilizer Production Unit with High Prilling Tower of 150 kt/a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅桂; 张吉刚; 冯明毅

    2011-01-01

    介绍了硝基高塔复合肥生产装置的工艺流程、高塔造粒生产复合肥的优点、生产中存在的问题及防范措施.经过近2年的运行,通过不断总结完善,目前硝基高塔复合肥生产装置已实现安全、长周期、稳定运行,对产品结构调整发挥了积极的作用.%A brief account is given of the nitre-compound fertilizer production unit with the high prilling tower, its production process, advantages in compound fertilizer production with a high prilling tower, problems in production and counter measures. After nearly 2 years of operation, with constant summing up and improvement and perfection, the unit has now realized safe, long-period, stable running, and played a positive role in the adjustment of product mix.

  12. 高含硫天然气脱硫装置操作条件的优化%Optimization of Operating Conditions of High-Sulfur Gas Sweetening Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱奎; 吴基荣; 雷文权; 梁建伟; 邱正阳; 何柏

    2013-01-01

    Process simulation and operating condition optimization for high-sulfur natural gas sweetening were conducted by using Aspen Plus simulation software.A steady state optimization model was established aiming at the annual profit of a sweetening unit with its main operating conditions as the variables and the concentrations of H2S and CO2 in the treated gas as the constraints.The simulation results show that the order of the operating condition impact on the purification efficiency is as follows:solution circulation rate>absorber tray number>absorber pressure>absorber temperature.The constitution of energy consumption in the process is steam 66.36%,cooler 25.53 % and pump 8.11%.Main factors affecting the annual profit of the sweetening unit are the treated gas flowrate and operating costs.Considering the effect of the solution circulation rate,absorber tray number and absorber pressure,relatively low absorber pressure and appropriate absorber tray number should be adopted in the process.The annual profit of the sweetening unit and annual operating costs are 1.01 billion Yuan and 23 million Yuan respectively under the optimized conditions of absorber tray number 14,absorber pressure 6 MPa and solution circulation rate 23.26 Mmol/h.%采用Aspen Plus流程模拟软件对高含硫天然气脱硫工艺流程进行了模拟和操作条件优化,以脱硫装置年利润为优化目标,主要操作条件为决策变量,净化气中H2S和CO2含量为约束条件,建立稳态优化模型.模拟结果表明,操作条件对脱硫净化效果影响由强至弱顺序为溶液循环量>吸收塔板数>吸收塔压力>吸收塔温度;脱硫装置能耗构成中蒸汽占6.36%,冷却器能耗占25.53%,机泵类电力能耗占8.11%;影响脱硫装置年利润的主要因素是净化气流量和操作费用,受溶液循环量、吸收塔塔板数和吸收塔压力影响,宜采用相对低的吸收塔压力和适当的吸收塔塔

  13. 手术室护士分组岗位管理的实践与实施效果评价%Practice and effect evaluation of post management of nurses taking nursing group as a unit in operation room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔雅清; 董巧云; 周娇

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To implement post management of nurses taking nursing group as a unit in operation room so as to strengthen the scientific management of nurses and mobilize the enthusiasm of nurses in operation room and to finally improve the scientific nursing man-agement in operation room. Methods:The post management of nurses taking nursing group as a unit was carried out,including post setting, manpower allocation,training and performance evaluation. Results:The quality of nursing care and satisfaction of nurses and doctors in op-eration room were significantly improved after the implementation of post management(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion:The post management of nurses taking nursing group as a unit in operation room can not only improve the quality of nursing care,but also increase the enthusiasm and enhance self discipline of nurses so as to encourage the nurses to provide safe,high quality and satisfactory nursing care for patients.%目的:对手术室护士进行分组岗位管理,以期加强手术室护士队伍的科学管理,稳定和发展手术室护士队伍,调动手术室护士工作积极性,提高手术室护理科学管理水平。方法:以我院护士岗位管理实施为切入点,对手术室全体护士进行分组岗位管理,在岗位设置、人力配置、护士培训、绩效考核等方面进行科学实践与探索。结果:实施分组岗位管理后,有效提高了手术室护理质量,手术室护士及医生对分组岗位管理的满意度明显提高(P ﹤0.05)。结论:手术室实行护士分组岗位管理,不仅可以提高手术室专科护理质量,而且可以增加护士工作积极性和自律性,激励护士服务临床一线,更好地为患者和临床医生提供安全、优质、满意的护理服务。

  14. Investigation of a P-96 heat-recovery boiler used as part of the PGU-450T power unit at the Kaliningrad TETs-2 cogeneration station in the course of perfecting the starting and shutdown operations and during running with base loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepaev, P. A.; Shtan', T. P.; Glusker, B. N.; Pashnin, L. V.; Konovalov, P. S.

    2007-09-01

    Results from operational tests carried out on the pilot P-96 heat-recovery boiler of the PGU-450T power unit at the Kaliningrad TETs-2 cogeneration station are presented. Technologies of starting and shutting down the boiler from different thermal states and peculiarities of its operating conditions in the load controlled range are considered. Specific features pertinent to the operation of a horizontal heat-recovery boiler with natural circulation of working medium in the evaporation heating surfaces are established.

  15. 英国流域水务民营化运作机制及其启示%Operation Mechanism and Enlightenment of River Basin Water Privatization in the United Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘水林; 黎元生

    2016-01-01

    Featured UK water governance is to establish a watershed as a unit of vertical governance mechanisms, based on inde-pendent co-regulatory mechanisms for the protection of decentralization, cooperation mechanisms fully privatized water supply as the core, and market-based mechanisms as a means of regulating the operation of the mechanism. The successful experience of British river basin water privatization operation mechanism has an important significance in China’ s overall planning, management of water re-sources market and promoting PPP cooperation model, setting reasonable water price, and bringing about harmonious development be-tween human and water.%英国水务治理的运作机制是以流域为单元的垂直治理机制为基础,独立协同的分权监管机制为保障,完全私有化的水务合作机制为核心,市场化机制为调节手段。英国流域水务民营化运作机制的成功经验,对于我国统筹规划管理水资源市场、推进PPP合作模式以及科学合理地制定水价、实现人水和谐发展等具有重要的借鉴意义。

  16. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, and D-Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 2 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  17. Results of a monitoring program of continuous water levels and physical water properties at the Operable Unit 1 area of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire, water years 2000-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    The Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift (MSGD) aquifer, in south-central New Hampshire, is an important source of industrial, commercial, and domestic water. The MSGD aquifer was also an important source of drinking water for the town of Milford until it was found to contain high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Savage and Keyes municipal-supply wells in the early 1980s. A VOC plume was found to cover part of the southwestern half of the MSGD aquifer. In September 1984, the site was designated a Superfund site, called the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site. The primary source area of contaminants was a former tool manufacturing facility (called the OK Tool facility, and now called the Operable Unit 1 (OU1) area) that disposed of solvents at the surface and in the subsurface. The facility was closed in 1987 and removed in 1998. A low-permeability containment barrier wall was constructed and installed in the overburden (MSGD aquifer) in 1998 to encapsulate the highest concentrations of VOCs, and a pump-and-treat remediation facility was also added. Remedial operations of extraction and injection wells started in May 1999. A network of water-level monitoring sites was implemented in water year 2000 (October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000) in the OU1 area to help assess the effectiveness of remedial operations to mitigate the VOC plume, and to evaluate the effect of the barrier wall and remedial operations on the hydraulic connections across the barrier and between the overburden and underlying bedrock. Remedial extraction and injections wells inside and outside the barrier help isolate ground-water flow inside the barrier and the further spreading of VOCs. This report summarizes both continuous and selected periodic manual measurements of water level and physical water properties (specific conductance and water temperature) for 10 monitoring locations during water years 2000-03. Additional periodic manual measurements of water levels were

  18. Technical preparation of a 300 kWel biomass gasification plant. Report for the project: Simplification, system and operation optimization of staged gasification unit for CHP production (the Castor unit in Graested); Teknisk forberedelse af 300 kWel bioforgasningsanlaeg. En Delrapport til projektet: Forenkling, system- og driftsoptimering af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg til kraftvarmeproduktion (Castor anlaegget i Graested)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.

    2009-09-15

    In 2003/04 BioSynergi Proces ApS built a complete approx. 450 kWth Open Core staged gasification unit as a development / demonstration plant. The plant uses wet wood chips as fuel for generating electricity and heat. The facility, known as the Castor plant, is connected to the heat supply network in Graested District Heating. The daily operation is handled by BioSynergi Process. The cogeneration system, that the Castor plant represents, is the basis for this completed project. For technical preparation of the planned future up scaling of the cogeneration system, a test of the function of the gas generator core (reactor core) was performed in this sub-project. It is the central component of the total cogeneration system, and it is also the one who has the greatest influence on the overall gasification process. The experiments have demonstrated that the stage gasification principle, which is in operation at the Castor plant, is also possible to have in operation with the desired process steps in the tested reactor core with four times more capacity. Finalization of the total gas generator in the range of 300 kWel is now being developed in a new project. The simplified experiments, that were possible to perform with the outdoor setup of the reactor core, were, however, not suited to qualitative assessments of the gasification process. (ln)

  19. Visualization of a pharmaceutical unit operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Rantanen, Jukka; Luukkonen, Pirjo

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of process engineering and manufacturing sciences enable a new level of process understanding. However, extracting this understanding from increasing amounts of information is challenging. The aim of this study was to create a process vector from a model process d...

  20. Junior Leader Training Development in Operational Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not...CO) to company -grade officers, may face e eral training development challenges such as: requirements to develop training outside of their areas of...91A: M-1 Abrams Tank Sy tern Maintainer (l) llB : Infantryman (3) 13D: Field Artillery Automated Tactical Data Systems Specialist (2) 15P

  1. Metric System Resource Units = Unidades de Trabajo del Sistema Metrico Decimal. K-12. Project C.A.M.B.I.O., Changing Attitudes towards Metrics for Bilingual Instruction & Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Josefina; Almendares, Simon

    Four resource units are included in this document. For each, general objectives on knowledge and concepts, skills, and attitudes are given; content is outlined; and some suggestions for initiating the unit are listed. The first unit, on measuring length, provides six lesson plans, to teach about the meter, the smaller units of the meter, units…

  2. Finite dimensional quotients of commutative operator algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Ralf

    1997-01-01

    The matrix normed structure of the unitization of a (non-selfadjoint) operator algebra is determined by that of the original operator algebra. This yields a classification up to completely isometric isomorphism of two-dimensional unital operator algebras. This allows to define invariant distances on the spectrum of commutative operator algebras analogous to the Caratheodory distance for complex manifolds. Moreover, unitizations of two-dimensional operator algebras with zero multiplication pro...

  3. 干气制氢装置低负荷运行时的操作优化%Operation optimization for hydrogen generation unit from dry gas at low load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 常永胜

    2012-01-01

    The situation of low load operation of 15 000 m3/h hydrogen generation unit in Qingdao Petrochemical Company was introduced, and the optimized measures on operation parameters and operation method proposed. The prominent problem at low load operation was the heterogeneous distribution and bias flow of medium in reformer tubes. For this reason, measures were adopted including reducing the space velocity and inlet temperature in hydroge-nator, improving the water to carbon ratio in reformer and increasing the hydrogen level added to enhancethe medium flow rate and carry away the excess heat in reformer tubes. In addition, the hydrogen content in the desorbed gas from pressure swing adsorption ( PSA ) should be controlled effectively, the water from middle - temperature shift gas needed to be e-mitted in time, the rising or dropping of load should be kept at a narrow range.%介绍了中国石化青岛石化公司15 000 m3/h干气制氢装置低负荷运行的生产情况,并从操作参数、操作方式等方面提出了一些优化措施.低负荷运行最突出的问题就是转化炉管内介质分布不均匀,容易形成偏流.须采取降低加氢反应器空速和入口温度,提高转化炉水碳比,加大配氢量等措施,以增加转化炉管内介质流量,带走炉管内过多的热量.另外,还应有效控制变压吸附(PSA)解吸气中的氢气含量,适时对中变气进行切水操作,保持生产负荷提降量平稳.

  4. 高强度间歇训练对特战队员有氧能力的影响%Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on aerobic capacity of special force operation unit members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凯琳; 王凌; 张敏

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HUT) on the aerobic capacity of special force operation unit members and to support the theory and practice for target-oriented training execution.[Method]a 8-week HUT training (3~5 times per week) was performed to 30 male special force operation unit members. The indexes of physical function and endurance before and after the training were detected and quantitatively analyzed.[Results]The measurement indexes after training include: quiet pulse(65.22 ± 5.25)n/min, vital capacity(4 553.3 ± 524.33) ml, vo2max(50.75 ± 4.53) ml(kg·min)-1, pull-up (16.55 ± 5.27) n, push-up (70.62 ± 10.56) n/min, 5 000 m run (1230.16 ± 77.21)s, and the changes are superior to pre-trainfng(P < 0.01).[Conclusion]Changes of the measurement indexes reflect that the aerobic capacity has been optimized after training. HUT has performed effect on improving the aerobic capacity of special force operation unit member.%[目的]研究高强度间歇训练(high-intensity intermittent training,HIIT)对特战队员有氧能力的影响,为有针对性地实施训练提供理论依据和实践支持.[方法]对30名男性特战队员实施8周(3~5次/周)HIIT训练,检测训练前后的身体机能和耐力素质指标,对检测结果进行统计分析.[结果]训练后测试指标分别为:安静脉搏(65.22±5.25)次/min、肺活量(4553.3±524.33)ml、VO2max(50.75±4.53) ml·(kg· min)-1、引体向上(16.55±5.27)次、俯卧撑(70.62±10.56)次/min、5000m跑(1230.16±77.21)s,各指标均有显著性改变(P<0.01).[结论]训练后测试指标的变化能够反映机体的有氧运动能力趋于优化,HIIT训练对提高特战队员的有氧能力有显著效果.

  5. Application of Macro-oil Ignition Technology in the Combustion Operation of 320 MW Unit Boiler%微油点火技术在320MW机组锅炉燃烧运行中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛小超; 王华

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the working principle of the micro oil ignition technology , and describes the process of ignition in detail according to application of the technology in the combustion operation of 2 ×320MW unit boiler in Anqing Wanjiang Power Generation Company .The analysis of economic benefits shows that micro oil ignition technology , as a new fuel saving technology of the thermal power plant boiler start-up and low load stable combustion , has good energy saving effect which can greatly reduce the cost of power generation and bring considerable economic benefits .%本文介绍了微油点火技术的工作原理,并针对该技术在安庆皖江发电公司2×320 MW机组锅炉燃烧运行的应用情况,详细介绍了点火启动的运行过程。通过经济效益分析表明,作为火电厂锅炉启动及低负荷稳燃的新型节油技术,微油点火技术良好的节能效果,能大大降低发电成本,带来可观的经济收益。

  6. Wastewater treatment plant in Buholz, Lucerne: operational optimisation of a combined heat and power unit, remote heating for RUAG Aerospace; ARA Buholz, 6000 Luzern. Betriebsoptimierung BHKW. Fernwaermeleitung RUAG Aerospace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, R.

    2004-07-01

    This preliminary report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the use of sewage gas generated at central Switzerland's largest wastewater treatment and sludge incineration plant. Experience gained with the previously used combined heat and power (CHP) unit and the use of gas in a heating boiler is looked at. Operational experience gained after the implementation of a first set of measures is commented on. The optimisation measures taken are discussed and the use of waste heat to provide energy for a nearby facility of the RUAG Aerospace company is described. The report also describes a catalyzer system installed in a second phase of the project to clean the waste gas from the sludge incineration plant. Also, the system used for the preparation of the sewage gas to make it suitable for injection into the local natural gas mains is described. The results of measurements made on the success of the project are presented and commented on and the ecological profits of the plant are discussed.

  7. The Practice and Reflection of Organizing Undergraduates on the Competition of Unit Operation Experiments%组织学生参加化工原理课程竞赛的体会和思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张香兰; 曹俊雅; 雷泽; 刘泽; 王启宝

    2011-01-01

    本文简单介绍了2010年北京地区普通高等学校巴斯夫杯化工原理课程竞赛的程序,详细介绍了参加竞赛对我校学生动手能力、团队合作精神、特别是相关课程学习兴趣的影响。参赛也发现了我校学生在本课程的学习和实验环节中存在提高的空间。%This paper briefly introduces the competition procedure of unit operation experiments at Beijing Universities in 2010.It analyzes the effect of this competition on improving students' practical capability,teamwork cooperation,especially on promoting their interest in this course in detail.Meanwhile,based on the students' performance in the competition,opportunities for teaching and practicing are observed.

  8. Addendum to the remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This addendum to the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was prepared in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for reporting the results of a site characterization for public review. This addendum is a supplement to a document that was previously issued in January 1995 and that provided the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the results of the 1993 investigation performed at OU 2. The January 1995 D2 version of the RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 included information on risk assessments that have evaluated impacts to human health and the environment. Information provided in the document formed the basis for the development of the Feasibility Study Report. This addendum includes revisions to four chapters of information that were a part of the document issued in January 1995. Specifically, it includes revisions to Chaps. 2, 3, 4, and 9. Volume 1 of this document is not being reissued in its entirety as a D3 version because only the four chapters just mentioned have been affected by requested changes. Note also that Volume 2 of this RI Report on Bear Creek Valley OU 2 is not being reissued in conjunction with Volume 1 of this document because there have been no changes requested or made to the previously issued version of Volume 2 of this document.

  9. The allocation of hydroelectric units in the short term planning of the operation of electrical power systems; La asignacion de unidades hidroelectricas en la planeacion de corto plazo de la operacion de los sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Casillas, Manuel Eduardo

    1986-05-01

    A method is presented to find an approximated solution to the allocation problem of hydroelectric units. The problem consists in determining, for each one of the intervals the planned period, which hydroelectric units will be in operation and how much they will generate, so that the production cost of thermoelectric energy is minimum. The solution must satisfy certain operation policies, and restrictions of physical origin and safety. The modeling of the system elements is very detailed, for example, are considered: the not-linear dependency of the generating units with respect to the cost and the net height, the effects of the discharge level and the losses in conducts, and the relation volume storage against level in the dams. Mathematically, the problem is of non-linear programming, with continuous and discreet variables; in addition, if it is of large scale: in a real case, as de one that appears here, the problem has 16600 continuous variables, 8400 binary variables, and 51000 restrictions. The method exploits the problem structure and the modeled elements characteristics. It obtains a solution in reasonable computing time, and provides a lower elevation to the value of the optimal solution, which allows to judge the quality of the obtained solution. The algorithm was programmed for a VAX 11/780. Problems with a size as the one described are solved in 30 CPU minutes. The value of the obtained solutions, when 35% of the produced energy is hydroelectric, is typically 4% away from its respective inferior elevations. [Spanish] Se presenta un metodo para encontrar una solucion aproximada al problema de asignacion de unidades hidroelectricas. El problema consiste en determinar, para cada uno de los intervalos del periodo de planeacion, cuales unidades hidroelectricas estaran en operacion y cuanto generaran, para que el costo de produccion de energia termoelectrica sea minimo. La solucion debe satisfacer ciertas politicas de operacion y restricciones de origen fisico

  10. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while th...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  11. COMPOSITION OPERATORS ON HARDY-ORLICZ SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lifang; Cao Guangfu; Wang Xiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Properties of composition operators induced by analytic self-maps on the unit disk of the complex plane in Hardy-Orlicz spaces are discussed. Results are concerned about boundedness, invertibility, compactness, Fredholm operators and spectra of composition operators.

  12. Analysis of operation of coker LPG sweetening unit and optimization%焦化液化石油气脱硫醇装置运行状况分析及其优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆华

    2011-01-01

    介绍了中国石油化工股份有限公司茂名分公司焦化液化石油气脱硫醇装置技术应用及初次开工情况,针对装置初次开工运行后存在的问题进行了分析,对于首次开工装置存在的碱液气化能力不足、碱液氧化再生系统工艺流程设计不科学,以及再生后碱液二硫化物分离不理想等问题提出了整改方案,并对工艺操作进行了优化调整.整改及优化后,装置一年来的运行结果表明,再生碱液质量稳定可控,在焦化装置劣质渣油原料比例较低情况下液化石油气脱硫醇效果好,碱渣排放量较常规工艺减少80%以上.在满足脱硫要求的前提下,碱液使用周期延长,经济与环保效益明显.同时也找出了焦化装置劣质渣油原料比例较高时,装置脱硫醇系统运行效果不理想,净化液化石油气总硫出厂指标高的原因.%The application of coker LPG sweetening technology in the commercial unit in SINOPEC Maoming Company and the initial start-up are described. The problems in the initial start-up and after operation are studied. The correction and improvement options are proposed for inadequate alkaline liquid oxidation capacity, improper design of alkaline liquid regeneration process and unsatisfactory separation of bi-sulfide inregenerated alkaline, etc, and the process operation is optimized. One year' s operation after correction and improvement shows that, the regenerated alkaline quality is under control, the sweetening results are good at a lower percentage of residue oil in delayed coker feed, and caustic sludge disposal is reduced by over 80% as compared with conventional process. The operation life of alkaline liquid is greatly extended, and economic and environmental benefits are apparent. The root causes of unsatisfactory operation of sweetening system.and the total sulfur of sweetened LPG higher than specifications of civil LPG when there is a higher percentage of low-quality residue in coker

  13. Theater Special Operations Commands Realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    D. Teske Mr. William C. Fleser United States Special Operations Command 7701 Tampa Point Boulevard MacDill Air Force Base, Florida 33621 Point...of Contact Ken D. Teske United States Special Operations Command 7701 Tampa Point Boulevard MacDill Air Force Base, Florida 33621 (757) 510...Theater Special Operations Commands Realignment Mr. Michael D. Tisdel Mr. Ken D. Teske Mr. William C. Fleser 19th ICCRTS 17 June 2014 Paper ID

  14. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  15. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  16. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  17. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  18. Hierarchical Control for Optimised Operation of a Gas Plant At Mobil Oil La commande hiérarchique pour une conduite optimisée d'unité de gas plant (Mobil Oil française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbi O.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the interest and the benefit of hierarchical control through a typical example as applied to a gas plant. After a description of the hierarchical control principles, the plant is presented to highlight the interest of such an approach. The implemented control architecture consists of regular controllers and two Model Based Predictive Control algorithms (MONOREG and IDCOM-HIECON whose capabilities were helpful in this application. The implementation of these algorithms follows several steps which make use of the corresponding CAD tools. The performance is evaluated in different operating conditions, once the designed controllers are installed on the process computer. En s'appuyant sur une application exemplaire, cet article décrit l'intérêt et l'apport de la commande hiérarchique dans la conduite optimisée d'une unité. Après une description des principes de la hiérarchisation, la présentation de l'atelier gas plantmet en évidence l'intérêt d'une telle approche. L'architecture de commande fait intervenir des régulations classiques et deux algorithmes de commande prédictive mono et multivariable (MONOREG et IDCOM-HIECON dont les fonctionnalités sont mises à profit dans l'application. La mise en oeuvre de ces algorithmes comprend plusieurs étapes qui exploitent les outils de CAO associés. Après implantation dans le calculateur du site, les performances sont évaluées dans les différents modes opératoires.

  19. Portable Operating Condition Analyzer of Oil Pumping Unit Based on STC MCU%基于 STC 单片机的抽油机便携式工况分析仪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金玉; 侯士波; 刘淄航; 林雨晴

    2016-01-01

    以 STC12C5A 系列单片机为核心设计了一个抽油机便携式工况分析仪,给出了硬件电路设计和软件设计。分析仪通过电压和电流互感器采集抽油机电参数,通过红外光电反射式传感器采集抽油机电机转速,将采集到的数据通过曲线的形式在液晶屏显示并保存到分析仪的存储器上。同时分析仪通过计算给出平衡调整建议。此外,分析仪还可以通过串口与 PC 实现数据通信,把采集到的数据传输到上位机上。%Having STC12C5A microcontroller cored to design a portable operating condition analyzer of pum-ping unit was implemented,including the design of its hardware circuit and softwares.This analyzer collects pumping unit’s electrical parameters through voltage transformer and current transformer and acquires the mo-tor speed by optical encoder and infrared sensor;the collected data can be displayed on LCD screen in the form of curves and then be saved to the analyzer;meanwhile,this analyzer can give balance adjustment sug-gestions after calculation and communication with PC via serial port so that the data can be transferred to the host computer for browsing and printing conveniently.

  20. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.