WorldWideScience

Sample records for 200-bp-5 operable unit

  1. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  2. Discrete Sampling Test Plan for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Mark D.

    2010-02-04

    The Discrete Groundwater Sampling Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on behalf of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company. The project is focused on delivering groundwater samples from proscribed horizons within select groundwater wells residing in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit (200-BP-5 OU) on the Hanford Site. This document provides the scope, schedule, methodology, and other details of the PNNL discrete sampling effort.

  3. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are {sup 99}Tc and {sup 60}Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239/240}Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes.

  4. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  5. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  6. Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    best demonstrated value for small (< AA size) lithium - thionyl - chloride batteries (Halpert 1993). Equation (2-3) shows that the solar power...However, this energy den- sity this is only ~ 3 times larger than the demonstrated performance of the best lithium batteries , and the fuel cells are...Units 13 2.2.2 ASIC Capability 15 2.2.3 Power and Size 17 2.2.4 Cost 19 2.3 Power Sources 20 2.3.1 Batteries 21 2.3.2 Solar Augmentation

  7. Unit Operations for the Food Industry: Equilibrium Processes & Mechanical Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Unit operations are an area of engineering that is at the same time very fascinating and most essential for the industry in general and the food industry in particular. This book was prepared in a way to achieve simultaneously the academic and practical perspectives. It is organized into two parts: the unit operations based on equilibrium processes and the mechanical operations. Each topic starts with a presentation of the fundamental concepts and principles, followed by a discussion of ...

  8. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  9. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  10. The United States Military and Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    stated that, "The wave of the future will be putting together task forces that will be able to respond to crisis management or humanitarian...examine three options for the military’s role in humanitaria operations at home and abroad. Option 1: Virtually Eliminate Anv Military Role This is the...humanitarian aid in almost any crisis .36 The military resists the creation of specially designated units because such specialization reduces the

  11. NIC atomic operation unit with caching and bandwidth mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    A network interface controller atomic operation unit and a network interface control method comprising, in an atomic operation unit of a network interface controller, using a write-through cache and employing a rate-limiting functional unit.

  12. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that is...

  13. Accelerating the Fourier split operator method via graphics processing units

    CERN Document Server

    Bauke, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Current generations of graphics processing units have turned into highly parallel devices with general computing capabilities. Thus, graphics processing units may be utilized, for example, to solve time dependent partial differential equations by the Fourier split operator method. In this contribution, we demonstrate that graphics processing units are capable to calculate fast Fourier transforms much more efficiently than traditional central processing units. Thus, graphics processing units render efficient implementations of the Fourier split operator method possible. Performance gains of more than an order of magnitude as compared to implementations for traditional central processing units are reached in the solution of the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and the time dependent Dirac equation.

  14. UNITED STATES SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES IN AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    and Nathan Rickard ,”Operation Serval: French Intervention in Mali,” Air Operations Division, Defence Science & Technology Organisation, http...www.cfr.org/nigeria/boko-haram/p25739. 56 James J. F. Forest, Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram in Nigeria, Joint Special Operations University...Best Practices.” Joint Forces Quarterly, Issue 50, 3d Quarter 2008. 30 Forest, James J. F. Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram in

  15. Analysis on Operation Reliability of Generating Units in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the data on operation reliability indices and relevant analyses toward China's conventional power generating units in 2009. The units brought into the statistical analysis include 100-MW or above thermal generating units, 40-MW or above hydro generating units, and all nuclear generating units. The reliability indices embodied include utilization hours, times and hours of scheduled outages, times and hours of unscheduled outages, equivalent forced outage rate and equivalent availability factor.

  16. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant scale that can be projected onto future Spaceport architectures...

  17. Analysis of Serbian Military Riverine Units Capability for Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radojevic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.

  18. Military Implications of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    maintenance of law and order, protecting the delivery of humanitarian assistance, the denial of an air space and the guarantee of rights of passage . In...involve the coordinated presence of warships and combat aircraft in the disputed region. Operations to guarantee rights of passage may be mounted to ensure

  19. Study on safety operation for large hydroelectric generator unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z. G.; Cui, T.; Zhou, L. J.; Zhi, F. L.; Wang, Z. W.

    2012-11-01

    Hydroelectric generator unit is a complex mechanical system which is composed of hydraulic turbine and electric generator. Rotary system is supported by the bearing bracket and the reinforced concrete structures, and vibration problem can't be avoided in the process of operating. Many large-scale hydroelectric units have been damaged because of the vibration problem in recent years. As the increase of the hydraulic turbine unit capacity and water head, the safe operation of hydraulic turbine has become a focus research in many countries. The operating characteristics of the hydraulic turbine have obvious differences at different working conditions. Based on the combination of field measurement and theoretical calculation, this paper shows a deep research on the safe operation of a large-scale Francis turbine unit. Firstly, the measurements of vibration, swing, pressure fluctuation and noise were carried out at 4 different heads. And also the relationships between vibrations and pressure fluctuations at different heads and working conditions were analysed deeply. Then the scientific prediction of safe operation for the unit at high head were done based on the CFD numerical calculation. Finally, this paper shows the division of the operating zone for the hydroelectric unit. According to the experimental results (vibrations, swings, pressure fluctuations and noise) as well as the theoretical results, the operating zone of the unit has been divided into three sections: prohibited operating zone, transition operating zone and safe operating zone. After this research was applied in the hydropower station, the security and economic efficiency of unit increased greatly, and enormous economic benefits and social benefits have been obtained.

  20. Security-constrained unit commitment with flexible operating modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo

    The electricity industry throughout the world, which has long been dominated by vertically integrated utilities, is facing enormous challenges. To enhance the competition in electricity industry, vertically integrated utilities are evolving into a distributed and competitive industry in which market forces drive the price of electricity and possibly reduce the net cost of supplying electrical loads through increased competition. To excel in the competition, generation companies (GENCOs) will acquire additional generating units with flexible operating capability which allows a timely response to the continuous changes in power system conditions. This dissertation considers the short-term scheduling of generating units with flexible modes of operation in security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC). Among the units considered in this study are combined cycle units, fuel switching/blending units, photovoltaic/battery system, pumped-storage units, and cascaded hydro units. The proposed security-constrained unit commitment solution will include a detailed model of transmission system which could impact the short-term scheduling of units with flexible operation modes.

  1. Sand and Gravel Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  2. Crushed Stone Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  3. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  4. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  5. Influence of sulfur physical properties in Claus unit operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of la Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The Claus process is an efficient way of removing H{sub 2}S from acid gas streams and it has been widely practiced in industries such as natural gas processing, oil refining and metal smelting. Increasingly strict pollution control regulations require maximum sulfur recovery and high stream factor from the Claus units in order to minimize sulfur-containing effluents. As has been widely reported Claus unit's damages mainly occur during start up and shutdown. These operations involve scheduled warm-up and cool-down of the unit, usually burning refinery fuel-gas, which if not properly made can produce severe pipe and equipment plugging as well as catalyst deactivation. Sulfur products remaining in the unit during a shutdown period can produce dramatic unit corrosion episodes diminishing sulfur recovery unit stream factor. In the present paper some guidelines are given based on sulfur physical properties singularities which help to improve start-up/shut-down procedures. (orig.)

  6. Analysis on Isolation Condenser Operation by Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident resulted in the core damage in three reactors and the release of considerable amount of radioactive material to the environment, not to mention significant social impact and anti-nuclear atmosphere all around the world. This paper provides a review of the findings related to shift operators' operation of the isolation condenser in Unit 1 to examine shift operators' response to the situation. Based on the review of the findings, a situation assessment model was developed to analyze shift operators' understanding on whether core cooling was successfully performed in Unit 1 through the operation of isolation condenser. It was found that lack of information could be one of the main causes for the failure in core cooling by the IC in Unit 1. It is also recommended that the differences in the mathematical model for the situation assessment and that of the real operator need to be further investigated.

  7. Analysis on Operation Reliability of Generating Units in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Xiaowen; Chu Xue

    2007-01-01

    @@ The weighted average equivalent availability factor of thermal power units in 2005 was 92.34%, an increase of 0.64 percentage points as compared to that in 2004. The average equivalent availability factor in 2005 was 92.22%, a decrease of 0.95 percentage points as compared to that in 2004. The nationwide operation reliability of generating units in 2005 was analyzed completely in this paper.

  8. Eurodish-Continuous Operation, System Improvement and Reference Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, T.; Schiel, W.; Heller, P.; Reinalter, W.; Gineste, J. M.; Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G.

    2006-07-01

    The 10 kWel Dish/Stirling system EuroDish was enhanced. Newly developed and improved components like the ceramic cavity insulation and the control system are described as well as a novel assembly method for the concentrator and a number of improvements and new features of the control software. Country Reference Units were built in Spain, France and Germany and are continuously operated. Operation experiences and performance data are presented. (Author)

  9. 77 FR 62247 - Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...] Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units Operating on... voluntary guidance titled ``Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance''. The notice recommended owners and operators of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) follow Marine Technology...

  10. Refining United States Policy on Offensive Cyber Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    address state- sponsored cyber threats with a very different set of tools ranging from diplomacy to kinetic strikes. Categorizing attacks by actor will...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY REFINING UNITED STATES POLICY ON OFFENSIVE CYBER OPERATIONS by Max...to offensive cyber warfare, specifically cyber exploitation and cyber attack. Current domestic and international policies lack mechanisms to

  11. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  12. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  13. Biomass publications of the forest operations research unit: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Renee Ayala; [Compilers

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Operations Unit of the Southern Research Station has been studying biomass-related topics since 1977. This CD aids the reader by organizing these publications in one easy-to-use CD. This CD is comprised of an executive summary, two bibliographies, individual publications (in PDF format), and a keyword listing. The types of publications included on this CD...

  14. Adaptation of Professional Skills in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Deniz; Rende, Sevinc; Baysal, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the design of three consecutive unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses that retain the academic rigor of the course while incorporating skills essential for professional careers, such as ability to propose ideas, develop practical solutions, participate in teamwork, meet deadlines, establish communication between technical support…

  15. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  16. Measures of coherence-generating power for quantum unital operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Styliaris, Georgios; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    Given an orthonormal basis B in a d -dimensional Hilbert space and a unital quantum operation E acting on it, one can define a nonlinear mapping that associates with E a d ×d real-valued matrix that we call the coherence matrix of E with respect to B . This is the Gram matrix of the coherent part of the basis projections of B under E . We show that one can use this coherence matrix to define vast families of measures of the coherence-generating power (CGP) of the operation. These measures have a natural geometrical interpretation as separation of E from the set of incoherent unital operations. The probabilistic approach to CGP discussed in P. Zanardi et al. [Phys. Rev. A 95, 052306 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.052306] can be reformulated and generalized, introducing, alongside the coherence matrix, another d ×d real-valued matrix, the simplex correlation matrix. This matrix describes the relevant statistical correlations in the input ensemble of incoherent states. Contracting these two matrices, one finds CGP measures associated with the process of preparing the given incoherent ensemble and processing it with the chosen unital operation. Finally, in the unitary case, we discuss how these concepts can be made compatible with an underlying tensor product structure by defining families of CGP measures that are additive.

  17. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  18. Stability Analysis for Operation of DG Units in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multifunction control strategy for the stable operation of Distributed Generation (DG) units during grid integration. The proposed control model is based on Direct Lyapunov Control (DLC) theory and provides a stable region for the appropriate operation of DG units during grid...... integration. Using DLC technique in DG technology can provide the continuous injection of maximum active power in fundamental frequency from the DG source to the grid, compensating all reactive power and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads through the integration of DG link into the grid....... Application of this concept can guarantee to reduce the stress on the grid during the energy demand peak. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and performance of the proposed DLC technique in DG technology....

  19. Development and operation of 1 MW wind power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seleznev, I.; Lavrov, V. [Machine-building Design Bureau, (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Development of wind power units (WPUs), which operate on renewable wind power, as well as combined power sources including WPUs, have an important national economic significance in the Russian Federation, particularly in the areas of construction and operation of nuclear power plants, hydro-electric stations and other traditional power plants. Development of WPUs of high power level is a complicated task, and the solution requires investigations in the areas of experimental design, technology, and the organization of industrial production. Initially, the problem of the development of large diameter propellers, power electric equipment, reducers and drive mechanisms, automatic control devices, and control and diagnostic system need to be solved. This report covers the basic results and directions of the work of the Machine-building Design Bureau `Raduga` in the field of wind power engineering as well as the basic performance of the units. (author). 7 figs.

  20. [Operational units for health risk management (patient safety)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Hernández, A; Claveria Fontán, A; García Urbaneja, M; López Barba, J

    2008-12-01

    In 1995 INSALUD began to develop performance measures in the field of risk management, and following transfer of powers to the regions, these led to the development of operational units in individual healthcare centres. These units, which consist of a group of health professionals, including managers, aim to identify, evaluate, analyse and deal with health risks, to enhance patient safety. Their organisational structure can vary in accordance with the needs, resources and philosophy of each individual organisation. This paper presents the experience of the risk management units developed in four Spanish regions: Madrid, the Basque Country, Galicia and INGESA (Ceuta and Melilla). It also includes reflections on assessment of their impact and on their future role in improving safety in healthcare services.

  1. Analysis of viral clearance unit operations for monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesegaes, George; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Demonstration of viral clearance is a critical step in assuring the safety of biotechnology products. We generated a viral clearance database that contains product information, unit operation process parameters, and viral clearance data from monoclonal antibody and antibody-related regulatory submissions to FDA. Here we present a broad overview of the database and resulting analyses. We report that the diversity of model viruses tested expands as products transition to late-phase. We also present averages and ranges of viral clearance results by Protein A and ion exchange chromatography steps, low pH chemical inactivation, and virus filtration, focusing on retro- and parvoviruses. For most unit operations, an average log reduction value (LRV, a measure of clearance power) for retrovirus of >4 log(10) were measured. Cases where clearance data fell outside of the anticipated range (i.e., outliers) were rationally explained. Lastly, a historical analysis did not find evidence of any improvement trend in viral clearance over time. The data collectively suggest that many unit operations in general can reliably clear viruses.

  2. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  3. Method and apparatus for operating an improved thermocline storage unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for operating a thermocline storage unit in which an insulated barrier member is provided substantially at the interface region between the hot and cold liquids in the storage tank. The barrier member physically and thermally separates the hot and cold liquids substantially preventing any diffusing or mixing between them and substantially preventing any heat transfer therebetween. The barrier member follows the rise and fall of the interface region between the liquids as the tank is charged and discharged. Two methods of maintaining it in the interface region are disclosed. With the structure and operation of the present invention and in particular the significant reduction in diffusing or mixing between the hot and cold liquids as well as the significant reduction in the thermal heat transfer between them, the performance of the storage tank is improved. More specifically, the stability of the interface region or thermocline is enhanced and the thickness of the thermocline is reduced producing a corresponding increase in the steepness of the temperature gradient across the thermocline and a more efficiently operating thermocline storage unit.

  4. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at http://www.ofcm.gov/p35-nvaopa/pdf/FCM-P35-2007-NVAOPA.pdf. While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  5. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  6. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jean Holdren

    2007-05-29

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision.

  7. CTS (Hermes): United States experiments and operations summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoughe, P. L.; Hunczak, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite, launched in January 1976 and embodying the highest power transmitter in a communications satellite, was considered. As a joint program between the U.S. and Canada, close coordination of the two countries was necessitated since the management and control of experiments were done in real time. Criteria used by NASA for acceptance of the United States experiments are noted and acceptance procedures are discussed. The category for each accepted experiment is given. The modus operandi employed for the U.S. experiments in the areas of management, coordination, liaison, and real time operation are described. Some of the highlights associated with satellite utilization are given.

  8. Toward a warfighter's associate: eliminating the operator control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Hobart R.; Pacis, Estrellina B.; Kogut, Greg; Farrington, Nathan M.; Khurana, S.

    2004-12-01

    In addition to the challenges of equipping a mobile robot with the appropriate sensors, actuators, and processing electronics necessary to perform some useful function, there coexists the equally important challenge of effectively controlling the system"s desired actions. This need is particularly critical if the intent is to operate in conjunction with human forces in a military application, as any low-level distractions can seriously reduce a warfighter"s chances of survival in hostile environments. Historically there can be seen a definitive trend towards making the robot smarter in order to reduce the control burden on the operator, and while much progress has been made in laboratory prototypes, all equipment deployed in theatre to date has been strictly teleoperated. There exists a definite tradeoff between the value added by the robot, in terms of how it contributes to the performance of the mission, and the loss of effectiveness associated with the operator control unit. From a command-and-control perspective, the ultimate goal would be to eliminate the need for a separate robot controller altogether, since it represents an unwanted burden and potential liability from the operator"s perspective. This paper introduces the long-term concept of a supervised autonomous Warfighter"s Associate, which employs a natural-language interface for communication with (and oversight by) its human counterpart. More realistic near-term solutions to achieve intermediate success are then presented, along with actual results to date. The primary application discussed is military, but the concept also applies to law enforcement, space exploration, and search-and-rescue scenarios.

  9. Ensuring Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Ensuring Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force A Monograph by Maj Stephen P. Joca United...States Air Force School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2017 Approved...Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force Approved by: __________________________________, Monograph

  10. Particle Emissions from District Heating Units Operating on Solid Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierzbicka, Aneta [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology

    2005-06-01

    With the increasing interest in the use of biofuels for heat and energy generation there is a growing concern about emissions from their combustion. It has been shown that biofuel furnaces emit relatively high quantities of particulate matter in comparison to natural gas and light fuel oil furnaces. Majority of the emitted particulates are smaller than 10 {mu}m with high contribution of fine (<2.5 {mu}m) and submicron (<1 {mu}m) particles. These fine particles tend to be the most troublesome: in ambient air they have been associated with adverse health effects. Submicron particles are difficult to capture in the available particle removal technologies. The aim of this study was to characterise particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels, namely sawdust. pellets and forest residues. Boilers were of moving grate type. with the maximum thermal output between 1 and 1.5 MW. The measurements were done after multi cyclones, the only particle removal devices installed, therefore the direct emissions to ambient air were characterised. Influence of type of the fuel and operation load on particle emissions was investigated. Furthermore, collection efficiencies of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and flue gas condenser, used particle separation devices in 6 MW unit, were investigated. It has been shown that in all cases large amounts of fuel particles containing heavy metals are being emitted to the atmosphere, even though the studied district heating units meet the current mass concentration emission limit requirements. Total number concentration of emitted particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 5 {mu}m ranged from 3 to 8x10{sup 7} particles/cm{sub n}{sup 3} with the slightly higher values from combustion of forest residues. Both mass and total number concentrations were dominated by submicron particles contribution. Elements determined by Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) analysis (Z>12) contributed to 21-34 % of

  11. Fatality trends in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, 1948-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, B; Burnham, G M

    2000-08-02

    The rising number of deaths among United Nations (UN) peacekeeping forces after the Cold War has made some troop-contributing countries hesitant to participate in peacekeeping operations. While the number and scale of missions have increased, no data have demonstrated a parallel increase in risks to peacekeepers. To determine the association of characteristics of UN peacekeeping operations with risks and mortality rates among UN peacekeeping forces in both the Cold War and post-Cold War periods. Descriptive analysis of 1559 personnel deaths during 49 UN peacekeeping missions from 1948-1998 based on the casualty database maintained by Department of Peacekeeping Operations, UN Headquarters. Number and percentage of deaths by circumstance, total crude death rate, and crude death rate and relative risk of death by circumstance (hostile acts, unintentional violence, and illness or other causes) and time period (Cold War vs post-Cold War), geographic region, and nature of peacekeeping response; and regression analysis of mission variables (strength, duration, and humanitarian mandate) associated with total number of deaths. More deaths have occurred among UN peacekeeping forces in the past decade alone than in the previous 40 years of UN peacekeeping (807 vs 752), but crude death rates did not differ significantly by time period (Cold War vs post-Cold War, 21.8 vs 21. 2 deaths per 10,000 person-years; P =.58), level of peacekeeping response, or for geographic regions other than East Europe and Central America, where rates were lower (PCold War (relative risk [RR] 1. 51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.88), while rates for deaths caused by unintentional violence decreased (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0. 94) but remain high, particularly in the Middle East and Asia (RR, 1. 39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.69). Regression analysis showed a significant association between number of deaths and the strength (PCold War rather than increased RR of death. Post-Cold War peacekeeping personnel

  12. Operations research in intensive care unit management: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Fügener, Andreas; Schoenfelder, Jan; Brunner, Jens O

    2016-08-12

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is a crucial and expensive resource largely affected by uncertainty and variability. Insufficient ICU capacity causes many negative effects not only in the ICU itself, but also in other connected departments along the patient care path. Operations research/management science (OR/MS) plays an important role in identifying ways to manage ICU capacities efficiently and in ensuring desired levels of service quality. As a consequence, numerous papers on the topic exist. The goal of this paper is to provide the first structured literature review on how OR/MS may support ICU management. We start our review by illustrating the important role the ICU plays in the hospital patient flow. Then we focus on the ICU management problem (single department management problem) and classify the literature from multiple angles, including decision horizons, problem settings, and modeling and solution techniques. Based on the classification logic, research gaps and opportunities are highlighted, e.g., combining bed capacity planning and personnel scheduling, modeling uncertainty with non-homogenous distribution functions, and exploring more efficient solution approaches.

  13. FOCU:S--future operator control unit: soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Karan, Cem; Young, Stuart H.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing the Soldier-robot interface aspect, CISD has begun development on a unique dismounted controller called the Future Operator Control Unit: Soldier (FOCU:S) that is based on an Apple iPod Touch. The iPod Touch's small form factor, unique touch-screen input device, and the presence of general purpose computing applications such as a web browser combine to give this device the potential to be a disruptive technology. Setting CISD's implementation apart from other similar iPod or iPhone-based devices is the ARL software that allows multiple robotic platforms to be controlled from a single OCU. The FOCU:S uses the same Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI) that all other assets in the ARL robotic control system use, enabling automated asset discovery on any type of network. Further, a custom ad hoc routing implementation allows the FOCU:S to communicate with the ARL ad hoc communications system and enables it to extend the range of the network. This paper will briefly describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide short descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss FOCU:S specific software developed for the iPod Touch, including unique capabilities enabled by the device's unique hardware.

  14. Is fumigation enough for air conditioning units in operation theatres and Intensive care units?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anasua Deb

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strict asepsis is necessary in operating theatres (OT and intensive care units (ICU as the patients undergo invasive procedures. The filters of contaminated air conditioning (AC units provide a niche for proliferation of fungi and production of fungal spores. Methods: The routine procedure for maintenance of sterile atmosphere in our hospital, i.e. fumigation and mopping walls with disinfectants often fail to address these fungal spores of the AC filters. We therefore carried out a surveillance of the ACs in ICUs and OTs to find the level of contamination with fungal spores and also to improvise on intervention strategies to tackle the problem. Over 3 months period, 34 ACs from 7 OTs and 2 ICUs were screened by taking 2 swabs from each AC which were then tested for the presence of fungal spores as per standard methods. Results: The contamination rate was 88.2% before fumigation and 76.9% after fumigation. The fungal spore contamination rate was reduced to 20% (1 out of 5 ACs after servicing of the ACs was done. Aspergillus spp. was the most common fungal isolate. Conclusion: Based on the observations, we recommend regular servicing of the ACs as well as wet mopping of the ducts with sporicidal solution at regular intervals. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1583-1589

  15. The Future of Information Operations in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    as Marketing Marketing tools and concepts could generate support for coalition military operations just as an advertiser promoting a commercial...military, the advanced application of marketing tools to leverage humanitarian assistance and public affairs within an Information Operations plan

  16. Influencing Tomorrow: A Study of Emerging Influence Techniques and Their Relevance to United States Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    groups and governmental institutions; the possibility of economic loss directed at entrepreneurs; or the prospect of United States undue influence or... INFLUENCING TOMORROW: A STUDY OF EMERGING INFLUENCE TECHNIQUES AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO UNITED STATES INFORMATION OPERATIONS A...

  17. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  18. Operational air quality forecast guidance for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Lee, Pius; Tong, Daniel; Pan, Li; McQueen, Jeff; Huang, Jinaping; Djalalova, Irina; Wilczak, James; Huang, Ho-Chun; Wang, Jun; Stein, Ariel; Upadhayay, Sikchya

    2016-04-01

    NOAA provides operational air quality predictions for ozone and wildfire smoke over the United States (U.S.) and predictions of airborne dust over the contiguous 48 states at http://airquality.weather.gov. These predictions are produced using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Model for Air Quality (CMAQ) and NOAA's HYSPLIT model (Stein et al., 2015) with meteorological inputs from the North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM). The current efforts focus on improving test predictions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from CMAQ. Emission inputs for ozone and PM2.5 predictions include inventory information from the U.S. EPA and recently added contributions of particulate matter from intermittent wildfires and windblown dust that rely on near real-time information. Current testing includes refinement of the vertical grid structure in CMAQ and inclusion of contributions of dust transport from global sources into the U.S. domain using the NEMS Global Aerosol Capability (NGAC). The addition of wildfire smoke and dust contributions in CMAQ reduced model underestimation of PM2.5 in summertime. Wintertime overestimation of PM2.5 was reduced by suppressing emissions of soil particles when the terrain is covered by snow or ice. Nevertheless, seasonal biases and biases in the diurnal cycle of PM2.5 are still substantial. Therefore, a new bias correction procedure based on an analog ensemble approach was introduced (Djalalova et al., 2015). It virtually eliminates biases in monthly means or in the diurnal cycle, but it also reduces day-to-day variability in PM2.5 predictions. Refinements to the bias correction procedure are being developed. Upgrades for the representation of wildfire smoke emissions within the domain and from global sources are in testing. Another area of active development includes approaches to scale emission inventories for nitrogen oxides in order to reproduce recent changes observed by the AirNow surface monitoring network and by

  19. Toeplitz Operators on Dirichlet-Type Space of Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a function u in L2Bn, dV which is unbounded on any neighborhood of each boundary point of Bn such that Toeplitz operator Tu is a Schatten p-class 0operator on Dirichlet-type space DBn, dV. Then, we discuss some algebraic properties of Toeplitz operators with radial symbols on the Dirichlet-type space DBn, dV. We determine when the product of two Toeplitz operators with radial symbols is a Toeplitz operator. We investigate the zero-product problem for several Toeplitz operators with radial symbols. Furthermore, the corresponding commuting problem of Toeplitz operators whose symbols are of the form ξku is studied, where k ∈ Zn, ξ ∈ ∂Bn, and u is a radial function.

  20. Toeplitz Operators with Quasihomogeneous Symbols on the Bergman Space of the Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    symbols on the Bergman space of the unit ball equals a Toeplitz operator with quasihomogeneous symbols. We also characterize finite-rank semicommutators or commutators of two Toeplitz operators with quasihomogeneous symbols.

  1. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement.

  2. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at...

  3. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating... Operating License No. DPR-72 for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3), located in...

  4. Analysis Methods and Models for Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    methods are called for. TNO report I TNO-DV 2006 A228 9 /22 Efect Figure I Effect Based Operations framework. In practice, Figure 1 is useful when trying to...11, 111, IV, V Re-establishing communications Transport support (drivers, vehicles) Support to crowd and Riot Control (CRC) operations Support to... communicate opponent opponent intel gewonnen Verkennings- Reconnaissance Waarnemen terrein Observe terrain Inlichtingen over Gathered intel on patrouille

  5. An Innovative Method for Dynamic Characterization of Fan FilterUnit Operation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-12-21

    Fan filter units (FFU) are widely used to deliver re-circulated air while providing filtration control of particle concentration in controlled environments such as cleanrooms, minienvironments, and operating rooms in hospitals. The objective of this paper is to document an innovative method for characterizing operation and control of an individual fan filter unit within its operable conditions. Built upon the draft laboratory method previously published [1] , this paper presents an updated method including a testing procedure to characterize dynamic operation of fan filter units, i.e., steady-state operation conditions determined by varied control schemes, airflow rates, and pressure differential across the units. The parameters for dynamic characterization include total electric power demand, total pressure efficiency, airflow rate, pressure differential across fan filter units, and airflow uniformity.

  6. Microchannel apparatus comprising plural microchannels and methods of conducting unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

    2009-03-10

    Microchannel apparatus comprising a header and plural flow microchannels is described in which orifices connect the header and the flow microchannels. The orifices constrict flow. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of each of the orifices to the cross-sectional area of the flow microchannels connected to the orifices is between 0.0005 and 0.1. Also described is microchannel apparatus for conducting unit operations in which a device comprises two arrays of microchannels, and a unit operation is conducted on a fluid as it passes through the first set of microchannels and into a header where a second unit operation is performed, and then the fluid stream passes into the second array of microchannels where the first unit operation is again performed. Methods of conducting unit operations in the apparatuses are also described.

  7. Proposed Continental Operations Range. United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    Fallon, Battle Motutain, Francis Peak, and Cedar City. Other COR non-participating ertities to be linked to COR Central to promote cooperation in...qualities worth retain’ng: friendliness, and toleration of privacy. "So it is a valid fear that some of thebe valued traditions will be lost with the...by sheep during the winter months from November 1 to April 30. (;razing units In the Battle Mountain Grazing district of the BL, in the northern part

  8. United States Air Force Role in Mass Atrocity Response Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    through the lens of their own perspective. They cannot view the world objectively because of their own preconceptions : history, prejudices, ideology...initial stages of the genocide. Similarly, the RC-135’s ability to detect and locate those stations would provide the perfect target for strikes having...all levels. Air Force unit exercises would integrate air power, focusing on those specific tasks required in a MARO. These training exercises , in

  9. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Captain Matthew Paul and Sergeant Jose Adorno , Task Force 2-7 IN mortar platoon, walked down the road the unit had used earlier to enter the airport...than 10 seconds later, the ground rumbled with the sound of approaching armor once again, and Captain Paul and Sergeant Adorno turned to move out of...road; Sergeant Adorno sprinted off to the right. Winding through the trees and bushes screening Four Corners, he was back with the mortar platoon in

  10. Parallel Operation Characteristics Analysis of Sewage Source Heat Pump Units in Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄兆意; 张承虎; 王海燕; 孙德兴

    2010-01-01

    Sewage source heat pump unit operates under partial load most of the time, and study on the law of coefficient of performance (COP) of the unit varying with load ratio can provide basis for the heat pump units running in high efficiency. A mathematical model determining COP, evaporation temperature and condensation temperature of a single unit was proposed. Under the condition of uniform load distribution, the model was established according to different ways of bearing partial load with the same type multi...

  11. United Nations Operations: Who Should be in Charge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Cold War; Panama, Iraq, and the New World Order, in RIGHT V. MIGHT, supra note 16, at 109, 128; and HANS KELSON, THE LAW OF THE UNITED NATIONS 928...interpretation would also appear to resolve Kelsen’s dilemma (see KELSEN , supra note 35, at 935) with respect to the Korean conflict. Kelsen argues the Security...and Scheffer, supra note 35, at 131. 45. See D. J. HARRIS, CASES AND MATERIAL ON INTERNATIONAL LAW 681 (4th ed. 1991); KELSEN , supra note 35, at 756

  12. Selecting Foreign Languages for United States Army Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    Portugal 170,000,000 7 RUSSIAN [RUS] Russia 170,000,000 8 JAPANESE [JPN] Japan 125,000,000 9 GERMAN, STANDARD [GER] Germany 98,000,000 10 CHINESE, WU...took place (Birtle 2004, Ch 2). Operations in Mexico, Cuba, Russia , and the Philippines are examples of US expeditionary forces deployed to areas...Department of the Army civilians, and retirees. The programs available are free of charge and are for either beginners or people seeking to increase or

  13. Operational Encirclements: Can the United States Military Decisively Follow Through?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    friction that trickles down onto the battlefield. The European theatre during World War II was no different. The failure of American, and British...American and their Allied partners would continue to experience the ill-effects of it right up until the end of the war in the European theatre ...on Friday 27 March 2009 about Operation Anaconda. I used some information from our conversation. The following is verbatim from my monograph, "A

  14. The United States Army Operating Concept, 2016-2028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    retrograde operations. f. Theater armies may also include a medical command for deployment support that provides health services to Army and other...tenets of jus in bello ,120 discrimination (between combatants and noncombatants), and proportionality in the use of force,121 measured against the...Barracks, PA, 19. (Used with permission.) 119 Biddle, 9. 120 Jus in bello , translated as justice in war, are agreements defining limits on acceptable

  15. Tactical Unit Data and Decision Requirements for Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    decision requirements useful in urban operations. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or...Building Function Verify mosque and identify possi- ble schools or meeting places Identify types of cinema (stage/theatre) or other similar nearby...Determine mosque and residen- tial floor plans Interior layout of cinema and high-rises Layout of power control facilities Improved Dismounted & Mounted

  16. Biota of the 300-FF-1 operable unit. [Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Fitzner, R.E.; Brandt, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes Task 5a-2 of the Phase I Remedial Investigation -- Operable Unit Characterization of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The ultimate goal of Phase I is to determine the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment from releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit. The purpose of Task 5a-2 was to determine what species inhabit the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit and how they use the unit. The focus is on those species listed as endangered or threatened, those that are economically important, or those that constitute significant components of the human food chain. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality.

  18. Hospital markup and operation outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Faiz; Ejaz, Aslam; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-07-01

    Although the price hospitals charge for operations has broad financial implications, hospital pricing is not subject to regulation. We sought to characterize national variation in hospital price markup for major cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal operations and to evaluate perioperative outcomes of hospitals relative to hospital price markup. All hospitals in which a patient underwent a cardiothoracic or gastrointestinal procedure were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2012. Markup ratios (ratio of charges to costs) for the total cost of hospitalization were compared across hospitals. Risk-adjusted morbidity, failure-to-rescue, and mortality were calculated using multivariable, hierarchical logistic regression. Among the 3,498 hospitals identified, markup ratios ranged from 0.5-12.2, with a median markup ratio of 2.8 (interquartile range 2.7-3.9). For the 888 hospitals with extreme markup (greatest markup ratio quartile: markup ratio >3.9), the median markup ratio was 4.9 (interquartile range 4.3-6.0), with 10% of these hospitals billing more than 7 times the Medicare-allowable costs (markup ratio ≥7.25). Extreme markup hospitals were more often large (46.3% vs 33.8%, P markup ratio compared with 19.3% (n = 452) and 6.8% (n = 35) of nonprofit and government hospitals, respectively. Perioperative morbidity (32.7% vs 26.4%, P markup hospitals. There is wide variation in hospital markup for cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal procedures, with approximately a quarter of hospital charges being 4 times greater than the actual cost of hospitalization. Hospitals with an extreme markup had greater perioperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  20. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  1. Routine Operation of the Envirodish Unit at the Engineering School of the University of Seville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Perez, M. A.; Ruiz Hernandez, V.; Garcia Granados, F. J.; Lillo Bravo, I.

    2006-07-01

    A 10 kWe Parabolic Dish Stirling engine system was installed at the Seville Engineering School in early 2004. This system is one of the Country Reference Units of the EnviroDish project, consisting in the installation and operation of several such units, based on the EuroDish system, in different countries aimed to gathering reliable O and M data that help to improve and fine-tune the technology. The Seville Country Reference Unit is connected to the grid under the Special Regime for power generation, which establishes credits to power generation based on renewable energy sources. The Seville Country Reference Unit has been in operation since March 2004, accumulating 1671 operation hours and 7.8 MWh of electricity production until August 2005. This paper summarizes the results of 18 months operation, with emphasis on O and M aspects and lessons learned during this period. (Author)

  2. Technology used to operate the 300-MW power unit topped with a GTE-110 gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezinets, P. A.; Doverman, G. I.

    2010-09-01

    Results obtained from mathematical simulation of operations for starting the 300-MW power unit topped with a GTE-110 gas turbine installed at the GRES-24 district power station of OAO OGK-6 wholesale power-generating company are described. It is shown that operations on speeding up the steam turbine from a cold state to its idle running mode can be carried out solely by using the heat of exhaust gases from the gas turbine unit without supplying fuel to the boiler.

  3. Modification of Elementary Operational Linear Chains in Compositional Control Unit with Code Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander, A.; Larysa, A.; Aleksander, N.

    2009-01-01

    The new design method for compositional microprogram control units with code sharing and elementarization of operational linear chains is proposed. The method targets on reduction in the number of LUT-elements in the combinational part of control unit. Some additional control microinstructions containing codes of the classes of pseudoequivalent chains are used for operational linear chains modification. Proposed method is illustrated by an example. Most desirable GSA characteristics for using...

  4. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-07-19

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities fro the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003.

  5. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-07-19

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities fro the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003.

  6. 76 FR 66051 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2010 United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2010 United States Special Operations Command... 2330a of Title 10 United States Code as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal..., Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Office of Strategic Sourcing (DPAP/SS) will make available to...

  7. 77 FR 38274 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2011 United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2011 United States Special Operations Command... 2330a of Title 10, United States Code as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal... Acquisition Policy, Office of Strategic Sourcing (DPAP/SS) will make available to the public the first...

  8. United States Special Operations Command Strategic Issues for the Long War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    for USSOCOM’s campaign plan. UNITED STATES SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND STRATEGIC ISSUES FOR THE LONG WAR World order is more fundamental and primordial ... Soup to Nuts: Understanding the Elements of the Strategy The United States is a big, lumbering, pluralistic, affluent, liberal, democratic

  9. Effect of RCIC Operating Conditions on the Accident Scenario in Fukushima Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted by using MELCOR 1.8.6. Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR in this study, and best estimate scenario with considering RCIC operating conditions was presented. Researches on the boiling water reactor (BWR) plant with reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system have been conducted. Research on the RCIC operation in Fukushima unit 2 was also conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. MELCOR analysis of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was conducted in the report and energy balance in wetwell was described by considering RCIC operation. However, the effect of RCIC operation condition on the accident scenario has not been studied. The operating conditions of RCIC system affect the pressures in wetwell and drywell, and the high pressure can make leakage path of fission product from PCV to reactor building. Thus it can be directly related with the amount of fission product which released to environment. In this study, severe accident on Fukushima unit 2 was analyzed considering the operating condition of RCIC system, and best estimated scenario was presented. In addition, the effect of RCIC turbine efficiency on the accident progression was examined. Energy balance in suppression chamber was also considered with discussion on the effect of torus room flooding level. It was found that the operating condition of RCIC turbine not only affects the variation of drywell pressure but also the amount of released fission products to environment. It was also confirmed that the RCIC turbine efficiency in the accident would be less than normal operating condition.

  10. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study (FS) examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred altemative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965-1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-:levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228 and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9 {times} 10{sup 5}.

  11. Development and Use of a Web Site with Multimedia Contents as a Complement to Traditional Unit Operations Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Cristian; Muller, Mauricio; Sapag-Hagar, Jaime; Valenzuela, Fernando; Basualto, Carlos; Abugoch, Lilian

    2005-01-01

    The Unit Operations Laboratory offers 2 courses in unit operations. One is a 2-semester course for chemistry and food engineering students that is more demanding because it considers more unit operations and places more emphasis on solving exercises. The other is a 1-semester course for chemistry and pharmacy students that considers fewer unit…

  12. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-11

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

  13. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992.

  14. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  15. Man-hour Estimation Model based on Standard Operation Unit for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhenggeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In flexible manufacturing system, the estimation of man-hour is a difficult problem because of its production-diversity. To explore a more effective method, this paper tried to estimate man-hour from the perspective of operation`s character by establishing standard operation unit (SOU in this paper. A method of parameterizing the SOU is proposed, and a new man-hour estimation model is established on the basis of SOU. At last, this paper verified the effectiveness of this method by the operation of large-scale welding parts.

  16. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in-situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform it is possible to compartmentalize...... different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit......-automatically characterize ω-transaminases in a scaled-down packed-bed reactor (PBR) module, showing MPPA as a strong inhibitor. To overcome the inhibition, a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) ISPR concept was tested using scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner. Through the tested ISPR concept...

  17. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase I) Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Davison

    2007-07-31

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase I sites at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The 10 sites addressed in this report were defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for these 10 sites have been accomplished and are hereafter considered No Action or No Further Action sites.

  18. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  19. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  20. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  1. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit.

  2. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state.

  3. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to estimate compositions of materials in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in a remotely operated nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH provides estimates of the steady-state composition of materials residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimations, the results are determined for the cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent materials collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for materials previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple performance models to estimate material holdup and distribution within unit operations. In simulated run-testing, NUMATH typically produced estimates within 5% of the measured inventories for uranium and within 8% of the measured inventories for thorium during steady-state process operation.

  4. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-02

    The primary focus of this Process Development Unit operating program was to prepare for a confident move to the next scale of operation with a simplified and optimized process. The main purpose of these runs was the evaluation of the alternate commercial catalyst (F21/0E75-43) that had been identified in the laboratory under a different subtask of the program. If the catalyst proved superior to the previous catalyst, then the evaluation run would be continued into a 120-day life run. Also, minor changes were made to the Process Development Unit system to improve operations and reliability. The damaged reactor demister from a previous run was replaced, and a new demister was installed in the intermediate V/L separator. The internal heat exchanger was equipped with an expansion loop to relieve thermal stresses so operation at higher catalyst loadings and gas velocities would be possible. These aggressive conditions are important for improving process economics. (VC)

  5. Toeplitz Operators on the Weighted Bergman Space over the Two-Dimensional Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the known results on commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators with radial quasi-homogeneous symbols on the two-dimensional unit ball. Spherical coordinates previously used hid a possibility to detect an essentially wider class of symbols that can generate commutative Banach Toeplitz operator algebras. We characterize these new algebras describing their properties and, under a certain extra condition, construct the corresponding Gelfand theory.

  6. Analysis of United States Marine Corps Operations in Support of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    unit (MEU), Bangladesh Cyclone Sidr, Operation Sea Angel II, Haiti earthquake 2010, Operation Unified Response, Great East Japan earthquake and...with respect to the conduct of HA/DR missions. We have collected data for the 2007 cyclone on the southwest coast of Bangladesh, the 2010 Haiti ...responded to the 2007 cyclone in Bangladesh, the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and the 2011 Japanese earthquake and subsequent tsunami, respectively. These

  7. Mortality on grower/finisher-only swine operations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For 53 grower/finisher-only swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, mortality among finisher pigs ranged from 0 to 12.0% over a 6-month period. Twenty-six (49.1% had 2% mortality. Nine (17.0% operations experienced >4% mortality. Fisher's exact test revealed that operations with all-in all-out management were significantly more likely to have 1 grower/finisher pig came from another source. Larger operations (where >900 pigs entered the grower/finisher phase practiced all-in, all-out management more frequently than smaller operations, and had a lower mean percent mortality than smaller operations. Diagnosis of Salmonella in finisher pigs performed at a laboratory or by a veterinarian in the 12 months prior to interview was associated with both increased percent mortality and increased percent mortality per day.

  8. Design of optimal operating conditions of simulated moving bed adsorptive separation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storti, G. (Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)); Baciocchi, R.; Mazzotti, M.; Morbidelli, M. (Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica Applicata)

    1995-01-01

    The design of the optimal operating conditions for simulated moving bed (SMB) adsorptive separation units is considered. A procedure for the a priori selection of the operating conditions to achieve an assigned separation requirement is developed in the frame of equilibrium theory for the equivalent four section countercurrent unit, using a model where the adsorption equilibria are described through the constant selectivity stoichiometric model, while both mass transfer resistance and axial dispersion are neglected. The space of the operating parameters, i.e. the mass flow rate ratios m[sub j], is divided in regions with different separation regimes. Curves at constant outlets purity and recovery are drawn in the (m[sub 2],m[sub 3]) plane. The introduction of three performance parameters, desorbent requirement, adsorbent requirement, and productivity, allows the development of a procedure for the design of optimal operating conditions. This procedure is completed, accounting for the effect of the switching time on the separation performances, with a detailed model of the SMB unit, considering both axial dispersion and mass transfer resistance. This result constitutes a useful tool for determining the range of operating conditions to achieve an assigned separation requirement and then for selecting the optimal operating condition within this range.

  9. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  10. Orchard Business Management. Unit II. Management and Analysis of the Orchard Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, Shauna K.

    This guide is intended for use in providing in-depth formal classroom and on-site instruction in the principles of business and financial management as they apply to operating and managing orchards. Designed to be used with an accompanying Orchard Business Management Record Book, this unit is devoted to management and analysis of an orchard…

  11. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  12. China's first large-scale MA production unit operational in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Abrainchild of researchers of the CAS Institute of Coal Chemistry, a production unit capable of turning out 20,000 tons of maleic anhydride (MA) per year, the largest of its kind in China, has come into operation recently at the Shanxi Regent Taiming Chemical Co Ltd in Taiyuan, capital of north China's Shanxi Province.

  13. Predicting performance and situation awareness of robot operators in complex situations by unit task tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop field tests of human-robot operations in high-demand situations provide serious constraints with respect to costs and control. A set of relatively simple unit tasks might be used to do part of the testing and to establish a benchmark for human-robot performance and situation awaren

  14. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-02

    This report consists of Detailed Data Acquisition Sheets for Runs E-6 and E-7 for Task 2.2 of the Modification, Operation, and Support Studies of the Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit. (Task 2.2: Alternate Catalyst Run E-6 and Catalyst Activity Maintenance Run E-7).

  15. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  16. Orchard Business Management. Unit II. Management and Analysis of the Orchard Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, Shauna K.

    This guide is intended for use in providing in-depth formal classroom and on-site instruction in the principles of business and financial management as they apply to operating and managing orchards. Designed to be used with an accompanying Orchard Business Management Record Book, this unit is devoted to management and analysis of an orchard…

  17. Predicting performance and situation awareness of robot operators in complex situations by unit task tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop field tests of human-robot operations in high-demand situations provide serious constraints with respect to costs and control. A set of relatively simple unit tasks might be used to do part of the testing and to establish a benchmark for human-robot performance and situation awaren

  18. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  19. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Golder Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  20. Annual Summary Report Calendar Year 2000 for the 100-HR-3, 100-KR-4, and 100-NR-2 Operable Units and Pump-and-Treat Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. B. Mitchem

    2001-08-22

    This annual progress and performance evaluation report discusses the groundwater remedial actions in the 100 Area, including the interim actions at the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Operable Units, and also discusses the expedited response action in the 100-NR-2 operable unit.

  1. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses.

  2. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-10-08

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The {open_quotes}Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,{close_quotes} Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the {open_quotes}300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,{close_quotes} (DOE-RL 1993).

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  4. Performance study of a heat recovery tower with synthetic (polyurethane) flow channels to operate in a solar desalination unit

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Pinheiro Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Because of the lack of drinkable water in various semi-arid regions and the necessary use of renewable energies, the present work presents a performance study of a heat recovery tower to operate in a solar desalination unit for decentralized water production. The solar desalination unit has two parts: a heating unit and a desalination unit.This work presents the field results with a desalination tower with synthetic (polyurethane) flow channels. The tower operation consists of the heating ...

  5. An Automatic Uav Mapping System for Supporting un (united Nations) Field Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K.; Cheon, J. W.; Kim, H. Y.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    The United Nations (UN) has performed field operations worldwide such as peacekeeping or rescue missions. When such an operation is needed, the UN dispatches an operation team usually with a GIS (Geographic Information System) customized to a specific operation. The base maps for the GIS are generated mostly with satellite images which may not retain a high resolution and the current situation. To build an up-to-date high resolution map, we propose a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) based automatic mapping system, which can operate in a fully automatic way from the data acquisition of sensory data to the data processing for the generation of the geospatial products such as a mosaicked orthoimage of a target area. In this study, we analyse the requirements for UN field operations, suggest a UAV mapping system with an operation scenario, and investigate the applicability of the system. With the proposed system, we can construct a tailored GIS with up-to-date and high resolution base maps for a specific operation efficiently.

  6. An analysis of post-traumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William

    2014-06-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed.

  7. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    Background The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Materials and methods Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. Results The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. Discussion These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement. PMID:22044958

  8. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-03-23

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year.

  9. The reliability analysis of a separated, dual fail operational redundant strapdown IMU. [inertial measurement unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, P.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology for quantitatively analyzing the reliability of redundant avionics systems, in general, and the dual, separated Redundant Strapdown Inertial Measurement Unit (RSDIMU), in particular, is presented. The RSDIMU is described and a candidate failure detection and isolation system presented. A Markov reliability model is employed. The operational states of the system are defined and the single-step state transition diagrams discussed. Graphical results, showing the impact of major system parameters on the reliability of the RSDIMU system, are presented and discussed.

  10. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations` suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  11. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of [sup 60]Co, [sup 90]Sr, and [sup 137]Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  12. EXTENDED CES(A)RO OPERATORS ON THE BLOCH SPACE IN THE UNIT BALL OF Cn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡璋剑

    2003-01-01

    The paper defines an extended Cesàro operator Tg with holomorphic symbolg in the unit ball B of Cn asWhere g(z)= ∑j=1∑n zj g/ zj is the radial derivative of g. In this paper, the author characterizes g for which Tg is bounded (or compact) on the Bloch spaceB and the little Blochspace B0.

  13. Contaminant Attenuation and Transport Characterization of 200-DV-1 Operable Unit Sediment Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moran, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M.V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resch, Charles T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gartman, Brandy N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nims, Megan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saunders, Danielle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baum, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Christiansen, Beren B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tyrrell, Kimberly J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Striluk, Miranda L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify contaminant attenuation processes and associated contaminant transport parameters that are needed to evaluate transport of contaminants through the vadose zone to the groundwater. The laboratory study information, in conjunction with transport analyses, can be used as input to evaluate the feasibility of Monitored Natural Attenuation and other remedies for the 200-DV-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site.

  14. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit, fifth round groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Kearney (A.T.), Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-01-20

    The data from the chemical analysis of 68 samples from the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit Third Quarter 1993 Groundwater Sampling Investigation and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at the site. Sample analysis included inorganics and general chemical parameters. Fifty three samples were validated for radiochemical parameters.

  15. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Amidon, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  16. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  17. Enhanced teaching and student learning through a simulator-based course in chemical unit operations design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem, Nayef

    2016-07-01

    This paper illustrates a teaching technique used in computer applications in chemical engineering employed for designing various unit operation processes, where the students learn about unit operations by designing them. The aim of the course is not to teach design, but rather to teach the fundamentals and the function of unit operation processes through simulators. A case study presenting the teaching method was evaluated using student surveys and faculty assessments, which were designed to measure the quality and effectiveness of the teaching method. The results of the questionnaire conclusively demonstrate that this method is an extremely efficient way of teaching a simulator-based course. In addition to that, this teaching method can easily be generalised and used in other courses. A student's final mark is determined by a combination of in-class assessments conducted based on cooperative and peer learning, progress tests and a final exam. Results revealed that peer learning can improve the overall quality of student learning and enhance student understanding.

  18. [Air conditioning units and warm air blankets in the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Piechowiak, Karolin; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays almost all operating rooms are equipped with air conditioning (AC units). Their main purpose is climatization, like ventilation, moisturizing, cooling and also the warming of the room in large buildings. In operating rooms they have an additional function in the prevention of infections, especially the avoidance of postoperative wound infections. This is achieved by special filtration systems and by the creation of specific air currents. Since hypothermia is known to be an unambiguous factor for the development of postoperative wound infections, patients are often actively warmed intraoperatively using warm air blankets (forced-air warming units). In such cases it is frequently discussed whether such warm air blankets affect the performance of AC units by changing the air currents or whether, in contrast, have exactly the opposite effect. However, it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that warm air blankets do not have any relevant effect on the functioning of AC units. Also there are no indications that their use increases the rate of postoperative wound infections. By preventing the patient from experiencing hypothermia, the rate of postoperative wound infections can even be decreased thereby. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  20. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagi Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3′′, instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  1. 40 CFR 60.1200 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1200 Section 60.1200 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1200 What are the operating practice...

  2. Operational Evaluation of VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSan(tm) as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  3. Operation Evaluation of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSantm as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  4. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  5. Discrete phase model representation of particulate matter (PM) for simulating PM separation by hydrodynamic unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Joshua A; Sansalone, John J

    2009-11-01

    Modeling the separation of dilute particulate matter (PM) has been a topic of interest since the introduction of unit operations for clarification of rainfall-runoff. One consistent yet controversial issue is the representation of PM and PM separation mechanisms for treatment. While Newton's Law and surface overflow rate were utilized, many historical models represented PM as a lumped gravimetric index largely out of economy and lack of particle analysis methods. As a result such models did not provide information about particle fate in or through a unit operation. In this study, PM discrete phase modeling (DPM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are applied to model PM fate as a function of particle size and flow rate in two common types of hydrodynamic separator (HS) units. The study examines the discretization requirements (as a discretization number, DN) and errors for particle size distributions (PSDs) that range from the common heterodisperse to a monodisperse PSD. PSDs are categorized based on granulometric indices. Results focus on ensuring modeling accuracy while examining the role of size dispersivity and overall PM fineness on DN requirements. The fate of common heterodisperse PSDs is accurately predicted for a DN of 16, whereas a single particle size index, commonly the d(50m), is limited to monodisperse PSDs in order to achieve similar accuracy.

  6. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  7. Multiobjective Optimization of a Counterrotating Type Pump-Turbine Unit Operated at Turbine Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A multiobjective optimization for improving the turbine output and efficiency of a counterrotating type pump-turbine unit operated at turbine mode was carried out in this work. The blade geometry of both the runners was optimized using a hybrid multiobjective evolutionary algorithm coupled with a surrogate model. Three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear stress transport turbulence model were discretized by finite volume approximations and solved on hexahedral grids to analyze the flow in the pump-turbine unit. As major hydrodynamic performance parameters, the turbine output and efficiency were selected as objective functions with two design variables related to the hub profiles of both the runner blades. These objectives were numerically assessed at twelve design points selected by Latin hypercube sampling in the design space. Response surface approximation models for the objectives were constructed based on the objective function values at the design points. A fast nondominated sorting genetic algorithm for the local search coupled with the response surface approximation models was applied to determine the global Pareto-optimal solutions. The trade-off between the two objectives was determined and described with respect to the Pareto-optimal solutions. The results of this work showed that the turbine outputs and efficiencies of optimized pump-turbine units were simultaneously improved in comparison to the reference unit.

  8. 78 FR 5167 - BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC003 BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues... Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States (BE-9). This mandatory survey is..., agents, or other representatives of foreign airline operators that transport passengers or freight and...

  9. Selection of Forklift Unit for Warehouse Operation by Applying Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Atanasković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research related to the choice of the criteria that can be used to perform an optimal selection of the forklift unit for warehouse operation. The analysis has been done with the aim of exploring the requirements and defining relevant criteria that are important when investment decision is made for forklift procurement, and based on the conducted research by applying multi-criteria analysis, to determine the appropriate parameters and their relative weights that form the input data and database for selection of the optimal handling unit. This paper presents an example of choosing the optimal forklift based on the selected criteria for the purpose of making the relevant investment decision.

  10. Cooling unit for a superconducting power cable. Two years successful operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Friedhelm [Messer Group GmbH, Krefeld (Germany); Kutz, Thomas [Messer Industriegase GmbH, Bad Soden (Germany); Stemmle, Mark [Nexans Deutschland GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Kugel, Torsten [Westnetz GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because nitrogen becomes solid at 63 K (-210 C). To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS power cable. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014.

  11. Cooling unit for the AmpaCity project - One year successful operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Friedhelm; Kutz, Thomas; Stemmle, Mark; Kugel, Torsten

    2016-12-01

    High temperature super conductors (HTS) can efficiently be cooled with liquid nitrogen down to a temperature of 64 K (-209 °C). Lower temperatures are not practical, because at 63 K (-210 °C) nitrogen becomes solid. To achieve this temperature level the coolant has to be vaporized below atmospheric pressure. Messer has developed a cooling unit with an adequate vacuum subcooler, a liquid nitrogen circulation system, and a storage vessel for cooling an HTS-power cable. Liquid nitrogen is circulated through the superconducting cable to take out the heat, and afterward it is pumped through the subcooler to be recooled. In the circulation system liquid nitrogen is used as a dielectric fluid and as a heat transfer medium. It stays always liquid (subcooled) and does not vaporize. On the secondary side of the subcooler liquid nitrogen from the storage vessel is used as refrigerant. It is vaporized under a pressure of 150 mbar to achieve the desired low temperatures. The cooling unit was delivered in 2013 for the German AmpaCity project of RWE Deutschland AG, Nexans and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Within this project RWE and Nexans installed the worldwide longest superconducting power cable in the city of Essen, Germany. The cooling unit cools a 10 kV concentric HTS cable (40 MV A) with a length of 1000 m. The cable is in operation since March 10th, 2014. After more than one year of practical operation many important figures from cable and cooling unit are available. These figures are discussed and a total energy balance is shown to compare liquid nitrogen cooling with alternative mechanical cooling systems.

  12. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE`s preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public`s role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy.

  13. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  14. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This plan was prepared in support of the Phase II Remedial Design Report (DOE/OR/01-1449&D1) and in accordance with requirements under CERCLA to present the plan for best management practices to be followed during the remediation. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about spill prevention and control, water quality monitoring, good housekeeping practices, sediment and erosion control measures, and inspections and environmental compliance practices to be used during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit.

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-BC-2 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This work plan and attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-BC-2 operable unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The 100 Area is one of four areas at the Hanford Site that are on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priorities List under CERCLA. The 100-BC-2 operable unit is one of two source operable units in the 100-B/C Area (Figure ES-1). Source operable units are those that contain facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of hazardous substance contamination. The 100-BC-2 source operable unit contains waste sites that were formerly in the 100-BC-2, 100-BC-3, and 100-BC-4 operable units. Because of their size and geographic location, the waste sites from these two operable units were added to 100-BC-2. This allows for a more efficient and effective investigation of the remaining 100-B/C Reactor area waste sites. The investigative approach to waste sites associated with the 100-BC-2 operable unit are listed in Table ES-1. The waste sites fall into three general categories: high priority liquid waste disposal sites, low priority liquid waste disposal sites, and solid waste burial grounds. Several sites have been identified as candidates for conducting an IRM. Two sites have been identified as warranting additional limited field sampling. The two sites are the 116-C-2A pluto crib, and the 116-C-2C sand filter.

  16. Logistics measurement and performance for United States-Mexican operations under NAFTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, S.E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Smith, S.R. [Brigham Young Univ., Laie, HI (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An empirical study utilizing a survey methodology was undertaken to explore the issues surrounding logistics performance under the recently enacted North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The study surveyed 524 senior level managers directly responsible for their strategic business units` operations involving Mexican production sharing. The study focused on what role Mexican production facilities take in the production process, relative technology level, planning activities, final destination of products, and what level of logistics performance was required to successfully operate. Some of the findings suggest a need to reevaluate current strategies to incorporate logistics support systems. Many benefits of true integration may have been overlooked since logistics was given a secondary position when strategies were formulated. Excessive tranportation and distribution costs may be lowered if logistics is given a higher emphasis in corporate decision making.

  17. Maintenance and operation of a hydroelectric unit of energy in a power system using virtual reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Sousa, Marcos Paulo Alves [Federal University of Para, Faculty of Engineering Computing, Augusto Correa Street, No. 1, Belem, Para (Brazil); Emilio Goeldi Museum, Service Data Processing Department, Perimetral Avenue No. 1901, Belem, Para (Brazil); Filho, Manoel Ribeiro; Nunes, Marcus Vinicius Alves; Lopes, Andrey da Costa [Federal University of Para, Faculty of Engineering Computing, Augusto Correa Street, No. 1, Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents a new approach to training for hydroelectric unit of energy (HUE) by using virtual reality Non-immersive techniques. The software offers two modules of training: maintenance and operation. The first module, maintenance, uses the learning approach based on practice and offers different training levels, divided into three modes: automatic, guided, and exploratory, in which these modes are accessed according to the acquired degree of knowledge by the trainee in relation to maintenance procedures. The second module, allows the trainee to visualize the operation of HUE during a certain event as the electromechanical dynamics of the turbine-generator assemblage in the virtual world by the visualization of several requisite conditions before the startup-shutdown procedure of HUE. (author)

  18. Overview of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Power System Integration and Operation at Desert RATS 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; George, Pat; Gambrell, Ronnie; Chapman, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A habitat demonstration unit (HDU) was constructed at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and designed by a multicenter NASA team led out of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The HDU was subsequently utilized at the 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) program held at the Black Point Lava Flow in Arizona. This report describes the power system design, installation and operation for the HDU. The requirements for the power system were to provide 120 VAC, 28 VDC, and 120 VDC power to the various loads within the HDU. It also needed to be capable of providing power control and real-time operational data on the load's power consumption. The power system had to be capable of operating off of a 3 phase 480 VAC generator as well as 2 solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The system operated well during the 2 week Desert RATS campaign and met all of the main goals of the system. The power system is being further developed to meet the future needs of the HDU and options for this further development are discussed.

  19. Light weight portable operator control unit using an Android-enabled mobile phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    There have been large gains in the field of robotics, both in hardware sophistication and technical capabilities. However, as more capable robots have been developed and introduced to battlefield environments, the problem of interfacing with human controllers has proven to be challenging. Particularly in the field of military applications, controller requirements can be stringent and can range from size and power consumption, to durability and cost. Traditional operator control units (OCUs) tend to resemble laptop personal computers (PCs), as these devices are mobile and have ample computing power. However, laptop PCs are bulky and have greater power requirements. To approach this problem, a light weight, inexpensive controller was created based on a mobile phone running the Android operating system. It was designed to control an iRobot Packbot through the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) in-house Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI). The hardware capabilities of the mobile phone, such as Wi- Fi communications, touch screen interface, and the flexibility of the Android operating system, made it a compelling platform. The Android based OCU offers a more portable package and can be easily carried by a soldier along with normal gear requirements. In addition, the one hand operation of the Android OCU allows for the Soldier to keep an unoccupied hand for greater flexibility. To validate the Android OCU as a capable controller, experimental data was collected evaluating use of the controller and a traditional, tablet PC based OCU. Initial analysis suggests that the Android OCU performed positively in qualitative data collected from participants.

  20. Tracheotomy in Pediatric Patients: In Operating Room or Intensive Care Unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Kaygusuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The morbidity and mortality rates of tracheotomy are higher in the pediatric population because the incision is small and the trachea is more prone to surgical trauma. Tracheotomy procedure is mostly performed in operating room in most institutions. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of tracheotomy procedures between intensive care unit (ICU and operating room (OR in terms of pitfalls, complications and family preferences. Materials and Methods: In between June 2012 and July 2013, at a single institution, 39 patients were prospectively analyzed for age, gender, primary pathology, tracheotomy indications, location of operation, the duration of family consent, perioperative complications and presence of decanulation. Results: Male/female ratio was 20/19. Mean age was 49.9±52.5 (4-204 months. Tracheotomy procedure was performed in OR in 19 patients (45% and in ICU in 20 (54.5% patients. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of complications (OR-48.7%, ICU-51.3%. The time of informed consent was significantly shorter in ICU patients. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in terms of safety for tracheotomy procedure in ICU or OR. Parents give approval to a bedside invasive procedure faster. The words ‘Surgery’ and ‘Operating room’ can easily confuse the parents, extend the duration for endolaryngeal intubation, and increase the cost and labour loss.

  1. Steering quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty under unital and nonunital noises via filtering operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ai-Jun; Shi, Jia-Dong; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamic features of the entropic uncertainty for two incompatible measurements under local unital and nonunital channels. Herein, we choose Pauli operators σ _x and σ _z as a pair of observables of interest measuring on particle A, and the uncertainty can be predicted when particle A is entangled with quantum memory B. We explore the dynamics of the uncertainty for the measurement under local unitary (phase-damping) and nonunitary (amplitude-damping) channels, respectively. Remarkably, we derive the entropic uncertainty relation under three different kinds of measurements of Pauli-observable pair under various realistic noisy environments; it has been found that the entropic uncertainty has the same tendency of its evolution during the AD and PD channel when we choose σ _x and σ _y measurement. Besides, we find out that the entropic uncertainty will have an optimal value if one chooses σ _x and σ _z as the measurement incompatibility, comparing with others. Furthermore, in order to reduce the entropic uncertainty in noisy environment, we propose an effective strategy to steer the amount by means of implementing a filtering operation on the particle under the two types of channels, respectively. It turns out that this operation can greatly reduce the entropic uncertainty by modulation of the operation strength. Thus, our investigations might offer an insight into the dynamics and steering of the entropic uncertainty in an open system.

  2. Do different populations of Aphanius dispar in Southern Iran form Operational Taxonomic Units (OUTs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Teimori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering the exact fundamental relations of morphological differentiation among isolated populations of animal species is generally difficult. Usually changes in morphology are resulted from adaptation to different environmental conditions (ecoplasticity or represent an expression of genetic differences and/or gene pool pauperization, and in most instances, however, changes in morphology are the result of the interplay between environmental factors and genetic plasticity. In this study, the morphology and molecular phylogenies of common tooth-carp populations (Aphanius dispar were studied in three basins in Southern part of Iran to discuss an important aspect relate to the question whether morphologically differentiated populations of a single species function as Operational Taxonomic Units. All morphological analyses were revealed significant and strong morphological differentiation between the populations that corresponds well with their zoogeography and their molecular phylogeny in geographically isolated basins. Therefore, it can be concluded that when the interaction between gene flow among populations and natural selection is resulted owing to a long evolutionary history, then the observed morphological differences can be functioned as different Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs in subspecies or even species levels. In addition, biological characteristics of the A. dispar, its high tolerance, geological and ecological conditions in Southern Iran are the main factors that increase chance of reproductive isolation and genetic diversity in this region.

  3. Explicit isospectral flows associated to the AKNS operator on the unit interval. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Laurent

    2012-10-01

    Explicit flows associated to any tangent vector fields on any isospectral manifold for the AKNS operator acting in L2 × L2 on the unit interval are written down. The manifolds are of infinite dimension (and infinite codimension). The flows are called isospectral and also are Hamiltonian flows. It is proven that they may be explicitly expressed in terms of regularized determinants of infinite matrix-valued functions with entries depending only on the spectral data at the starting point of the flow. The tangent vector fields are decomposed as ∑ξkTk where ξ ∈ ℓ2 and the Tk ∈ L2 × L2 form a particular basis of the tangent vector spaces of the infinite dimensional manifold. The paper here is a continuation of Amour ["Explicit isospectral flows for the AKNS operator on the unit interval," Inverse Probl. 25, 095008 (2009)], 10.1088/0266-5611/25/9/095008 where, except for a finite number, all the components of the sequence ξ are zero in order to obtain an explicit expression for the isospectral flows. The regularized determinants induce counter-terms allowing for the consideration of finite quantities when the sequences ξ run all over ℓ2.

  4. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  5. Phase I and II feasibility study report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this Phase I/II feasibility study is to assemble and screen a list of alternatives for remediation of the 300-FF-5 operable site on the Hanford Reservation. This screening is based on information gathered in the Phase I Remedial Investigation (RI) and on currently available information on remediation technologies. The alternatives remaining after screening provide a range of response actions for remediation. In addition, key data needs are identified for collection during a Phase II RI (if necessary). This Phase I/II FS represents a primary document as defined by the Tri-Party Agreement, but will be followed by a Phase III FS that will further develop the alternatives and provide a detailed evaluation of them. The following remedial action objectives were identified for the 300-FF-5 operable unit: Limit current human exposure to contaminated groundwater in the unit; Limit discharge of contaminated groundwater to the Columbia River; Reduce contaminant concentrations in groundwater below acceptable levels by the year 2018.

  6. Interprofessional rhetoric and operational realities: an ethnographic study of rounds in four intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Gropper, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Morning interprofessional rounds (MIRs) are used in critical care medicine to improve team-based care and patient outcomes. Given existing evidence of conflict between and dissatisfaction among rounds participants, this study sought to better understand how the operational realities of care delivery in the intensive care unit (ICU) impact the success of MIRs. We conducted a year-long comparative ethnographic study of interprofessional collaboration and patient and family involvement in four ICUs in tertiary academic hospitals in two American cities. The study included 576 h of observation of team interactions, 47 shadowing sessions and 40 clinician interviews. In line with best practices in ethnographic research, data collection and analysis were done iteratively using the constant comparative method. Member check was conducted regularly throughout the project. MIRs were implemented on all units with the explicit goals of improving team-based and patient-centered care. Operational conditions on the units, despite interprofessional commitment and engagement, appeared to thwart ICU teams from achieving these goals. Specifically, time constraints, struggles over space, and conflicts between MIRs' educational and care-plan-development functions all prevented teams from achieving collaboration and patient-involvement. Moreover, physicians' de facto control of rounds often meant that they resembled medical rounds (their historical predecessors), and sidelined other providers' contributions. This study suggests that the MIRs model, as presently practiced, might not be well suited to the provision of team-based, patient-centered care. In the interest of interprofessional collaboration, of the optimization of clinicians' time, of high-quality medical education and of patient-centered care, further research on interprofessional rounds models is needed.

  7. Record of Decision for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County, Commerce City, Colorado.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) On-Post Operable Unit in southern Adams County (east of...

  8. A descriptive survey of management and operations at selected sports medicine centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, D

    1996-11-01

    No uniform guidelines for operations or accreditation standards for sports medicine center were available and, at the time of this study, little information on the management and operation of sports medicine centers was available in the literature. The purpose of the study was to determine the management structure and function of selected sports medicine centers in the United States. Questionnaires were mailed to 200 randomly selected centers throughout the United State from a directory of sports medicine centers published in Physician and Sportsmedicine (1992) to gather descriptive information on eight areas, including 1) general background, 2) staffing, 3) services, facilities, and equipment, 4) billing, collections, and revenue, 5) clientele, caseloads, and referrals, 6) ownership and financing, 7) school and club outreach contracts, and 8) marketing strategies and future trends. A total of 71 surveys (35.5%) were returned in the allotted time frame. Data were analyzed using ranges, means, medians, modes, and percentages. Results yielded several conclusions about sports medicine centers. Nearly all (93%) of the centers employed physical therapists; physical therapists were clinical directors at 70.2% of centers; orthopaedists were most often medical directors; rehabilitation was the most frequently offered service (93%); physical therapy produced the highest revenue; sports injuries accounted for a mean 34.5% of patients, who were mostly recreational or high school athletes between 13-60 years of age; primary shareholders were most often physical therapists or physicians; most were involved in outreach services for schools; marketing strategies primarily involved communication with referral sources; and managed care was identified most frequently as a trend affecting the future of sports medicine centers. Findings identified common aspects of sports medicine centers and may assist in establishing guidelines for operations or accreditation of sports medicine

  9. Operational Ensemble River Forecasting in the United States and Australia: Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, T. C.

    2012-04-01

    Operational river forecasts have been long produced to support water resources management in the United States and Australia. These forecasts cover a range of timescales from flash flooding (e.g. minutes to hours ahead) to seasonal (e.g. months ahead) and are generated by a range of statistical (e.g. regression-based) and dynamical (e.g. rainfall-runoff) model based techniques. Forecast uncertainty is commonly estimated operationally by using an ensemble of future precipitation scenarios and/or a measure of historical model error. Retrospective ensemble forecasting and the use of reforecasts for bias-adjustment and post-processing have become popular research topics and a few successful demonstration projects exist in both countries. Practical methods of post-processing, such as ensemble dressing, have been used to improve the probabilistic reliability of forecasts. The translation of predictions of probability distributions of streamflow into temporally and spatially consistent ensemble hydrographs remains an area for further development. However, probabilistic forecast communication and use remains a stumbling block for many. Furthermore, ensemble generation and post-processing typically require completely automated systems, making it difficult for humans to contribute their expertise to the forecasting process. This talk draws on ten years of experience as an operational forecaster with the US Department of Agriculture and as a developer of short-term flood forecasting systems to support the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

  10. A Formula for the Units to Satisfy an Operation's Desired Rate of Return in CVP Analysis--A Conceptual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Johann A.; Leese, Wallace R.

    2016-01-01

    A common formula presented in many managerial- and cost-accounting textbooks makes possible the determination of the quantity of units which must be produced and sold to generate a desired dollar-amount of operating income. This article addresses the question "What formula can be used to determine the quantity of units needed to yield a…

  11. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to Subpart PPP of Part 63... Subpart PPP of Part 63—Process Vents From Continuous Unit Operations—Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1690 Section 60.1690 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1690 What...

  13. The United Nations Standing Force a Qualitative Analysis of Strategic and Operational Options for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Council, has done .ch community...But, as much as the United Nations has done, it can do much more." Chaiaiing Times As the Bob Dylan song goes, "The...to our nation’s defense well into the twenty-first century. When Bob Dylan’s song was popular, it was also relevant. At that time, the United States

  14. Evaluation of the operational efficiency of pacifying police units in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rosa Dias de Jesus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pacification Police Unit (UPP is a new model for public security and policing, aimed at ensuring local security and, above all, reduce, or even, extinguish violent crime linked to drug trafficking, and approach people and police. The purpose of this article is measuring the operational efficiency of all UPPs installed in the state of Rio de Janeiro by the beginning of 2011 by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. For this, it was used the CCR model – input-oriented – developed by Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes, which allows an objective assessment of the overall efficiency, identifying the sources of inefficiencies and the needed targets to achieve the efficiency in each UPP. The results converge to a reduction of the amount of policemen in all communities out of the efficiency frontier.

  15. Technical work plan for Surface Impoundments Operable Unit engineering support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document provides a comprehensive work plan which, when utilized as a data collection guide for field activities, will provide the necessary information required to complete a report on geotechnical properties of the sediments contained in the Surface Impoundments Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Detailed guidance is provided for the following activities: collection of samples from the impoundments; compressive strength testing of the raw sediments; compressive strength testing of the structurally modified (lime and cement additives) sediments; testing for sediment physical properties and settling rates; testing for sediment dewatering characteristics; testing for radiation activity during the field work; testing for polymer additions that may enhance settling. The work plan additionally provides guidance and examples for the preparation of documents necessary to establish readiness for safe and satisfactory performance of the field activities. An outline for the format requested for a report of these data is also provided.

  16. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer Pilot Study Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A pilot study is being conducted to support the approval of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) pre-Hanford orchard lands. Based on comments received by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology, the pilot study will evaluate the use of field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry measurements for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of past use of lead arsenate pesticide residue in the OU. The work will be performed in the field during the summer of 2014, and assist in the planning for the characterization activities in the RI/FS.

  17. Eielson Air Force Base operable unit 2 and other areas record of decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Smith, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial actions and no action decisions for Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), Alaska, chosen in accordance with state and federal regulations. This document also presents the decision that no further action is required for 21 other source areas at Eielson AFB. This decision is based on the administrative record file for this site. OU2 addresses sites contaminated by leaks and spills of fuels. Soils contaminated with petroleum products occur at or near the source of contamination. Contaminated subsurface soil and groundwater occur in plumes on the top of a shallow groundwater table that fluctuates seasonally. These sites pose a risk to human health and the environment because of ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with contaminated groundwater. The purpose of this response is to prevent current or future exposure to the contaminated groundwater, to reduce further contaminant migration into the groundwater, and to remediate groundwater.

  18. Designing User Interfaces for Smart-Applications for Operating Rooms and Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsmüller, Martin Christof; Haar, Maral; Schulz, Hannes; Herczeg, Michael

    Today’s physicians and nurses working in operating rooms and intensive care units have to deal with an ever increasing amount of data. More and more medical devices are delivering information, which has to be perceived and interpreted in regard to patient status and the necessity to adjust therapy. The combination of high information load and insufficient usability creates a severe challenge for the health personnel with respect to proper monitoring of these devices respective to acknowledging alarms and timely reaction to critical incidents. Smart Applications are a new kind of decision support systems that incorporate medical expertise in order to help health personnel in regard to diagnosis and therapy. By means of a User Centered Design process of two Smart Applications (anaesthesia monitor display, diagnosis display), we illustrate which approach should be followed and which processes and methods have been successfully applied in fostering the design of usable medical devices.

  19. Performance of ESPs operating downstream from spray-drying desulphurisation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollero, P.; Canadas, L.; Salvador, L. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industrials, Sevilla (Spain)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes data from a Spray Dryer/ESP pilot plant located at the Los Barrios Coal Power Plant (Cadiz, Spain). A series of tests has been conducted to evaluate the performance of an existing ESP operating downstream from a spray dryer in a retrofit application. A factorial design of experiments with two SO{sub 2} levels, two flyash load levels, three Ca/S ratios and three sulfur removal efficiencies, was run during a six-month experimental programme. A global and a field-by-field analysis of the performance of the pilot ESP has shown that the desulphurisation unit enhances ESP efficiency and reduces the emission level. No evidence of electrical dust reentrainment has been found.

  20. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... unit toincrease the overall energy conversion efficiency.The dynamic model of the plant is coupled with a one-dimensional model of the once-through boilerfed by the exhaust thermal power of the gas turbine. The heat exchanger model uses a distributedcross-flow physical topology and local correlations...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  1. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  2. Thermo-physical performance prediction of the KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit for liquid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, J. H.; Notardonato, W. U.; Karng, S. W.; Oh, I.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) researchers have been working on enhanced and modernized cryogenic liquid propellant handling techniques to reduce life cycle costs of propellant management system for the unique KSC application. The KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit (GODU) for liquid hydrogen (LH2) plans to demonstrate integrated refrigeration, zero-loss flexible term storage of LH2, and densified hydrogen handling techniques. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has partnered with the KSC researchers to develop thermal performance prediction model of the GODU for LH2. The model includes integrated refrigeration cooling performance, thermal losses in the tank and distribution lines, transient system characteristics during chilling and loading, and long term steady-state propellant storage. This paper will discuss recent experimental data of the GODU for LH2 system and modeling results.

  3. Experience of operation of the gas turbine units in Russky Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibikov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the heat and power supply system based on the distributed cogeneration and created as part of the APEC Summit and development of the southern Far East is considered. A brief review of the experience of operating the gas turbine units of the Co-generation plant in the Russky Island is given. The output of the heat energy over 2015 reached 142.228 thousands Gcal which is larger than that in 2014 by 18.8 %. The specific reference fuel consumption for electric supply was 272.4 g/(kW*h while for heat supply – 195.8 kg/Gcal. In spite of partial load of the stations with regard to electric and heat energy (volumes of consumptions by the connected consumers is less than designed loads, the indices of reference fuel consumption suggest the efficiency of the generation equipment of co-generation plant.

  4. 77 FR 50541 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... COMMISSION STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to... of STP Nuclear Operating Company (the licensee) to withdraw its application dated June 2, 2011 (ADAMS... ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please contact the NRC's Public Document...

  5. 78 FR 45987 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to... COLs were issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe... Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please contact the NRC's Public Document Room (PDR) reference staff...

  6. 78 FR 45989 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to... COLs were issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe..., select ``ADAMS Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web-based ADAMS Search.'' For problems...

  7. Operation planning studies for the integration of the 60 Hz Itaipu units in the Brazilian interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipp, H.J.; Oliveira, J.C.C. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, L.R.A. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mendonca, W.C.; Marchi, R.D. [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil); Botelho, M.J. [ELETROSUL, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This paper describes the operation planning studies necessary to interconnect the first two 60 Hz generator units of the Itaipu power plant to the Brazilian interconnected system. The criteria, main problems identified and operative solutions encountered are presented in this paper. 10 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended... workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, a subsidiary of...

  9. Ecological consistency of SSU rRNA-based operational taxonomic units at a global scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S B Schmidt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs, usually defined as clusters of similar 16S/18S rRNA sequences, are the most widely used basic diversity units in large-scale characterizations of microbial communities. However, it remains unclear how well the various proposed OTU clustering algorithms approximate 'true' microbial taxa. Here, we explore the ecological consistency of OTUs--based on the assumption that, like true microbial taxa, they should show measurable habitat preferences (niche conservatism. In a global and comprehensive survey of available microbial sequence data, we systematically parse sequence annotations to obtain broad ecological descriptions of sampling sites. Based on these, we observe that sequence-based microbial OTUs generally show high levels of ecological consistency. However, different OTU clustering methods result in marked differences in the strength of this signal. Assuming that ecological consistency can serve as an objective external benchmark for cluster quality, we conclude that hierarchical complete linkage clustering, which provided the most ecologically consistent partitions, should be the default choice for OTU clustering. To our knowledge, this is the first approach to assess cluster quality using an external, biologically meaningful parameter as a benchmark, on a global scale.

  10. Simulation of operational processes in hospital emergency units as lean healthcare tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Macedo Gomes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Lean philosophy is gaining importance due to a competitive environment, which increases the need to reduce costs. Lean practices and tools have been applied to manufacturing, services, supply chain, startups and, the next frontier is healthcare. Most lean techniques can be easily adapted to health organizations. Therefore, this paper intends to summarize Lean practices and tools that are already being applied in health organizations. Among the numerous techniques and lean tools used, this research highlights the Simulation. Therefore, in order to understand the use of Simulation as a Lean Healthcare tool, this research aims to analyze, through the simulation technique, the operational dynamics of the service process of a fictitious hospital emergency unit. Initially a systematic review of the literature on the practices and tools of Lean Healthcare was carried out, in order to identify the main techniques practiced. The research highlighted Simulation as the sixth most cited tool in the literature. Subsequently, a simulation of a service model of an emergency unit was performed through the Arena software. As a main result, it can be highlighted that the attendants of the built model presented a degree of idleness, thus, they are able to atend a greater demand. As a last conclusion, it was verified that the emergency room is the process with longer service time and greater overload.

  11. Emergy Evaluation of Dwelling Operation in Five Housing Units of Montreal Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Enrique Vega-Azamar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of cities and the environmental implications of high resource utilization by the domestic sector are growing concerns related to urban regions. Well-informed urban planning decision-making is an essential tool to help in the task and, for that, an important point to consider is the influence of parameters like residential density and housing typology on the intensity of resource utilization. Emergy synthesis, a life-cycle energy analysis methodological approach that considers the interaction of natural and human-made flows, was used to evaluate the environmental support for dwelling operational stage in five typical present-day housing units on the island of Montreal. As expected, resource utilization, measured as total emergy used, was positively correlated to housing unit size both with respect to number of occupants and dwelling size. Results suggest that variables affecting notably the intensity of resource utilization are per household income and per dweller habitable space and, while a higher income increased per capita emergy in all cases, increasing space availability per resident did not result in a decrease of empower density after 50 m2/person. Future work should consider lower and higher densities and analyses at the scale of blocks, neighborhoods and urban planning zones.

  12. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced.

  13. Can a stepwise steady flow computational fluid dynamics model reproduce unsteady particulate matter separation for common unit operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathapati, Subbu-Srikanth; Sansalone, John J

    2011-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is emerging as a model for resolving the fate of particulate matter (PM) by unit operations subject to rainfall-runoff loadings. However, compared to steady flow CFD models, there are greater computational requirements for unsteady hydrodynamics and PM loading models. Therefore this study examines if integrating a stepwise steady flow CFD model can reproduce PM separation by common unit operations loaded by unsteady flow and PM loadings, thereby reducing computational effort. Utilizing monitored unit operation data from unsteady events as a metric, this study compares the two CFD modeling approaches for a hydrodynamic separator (HS), a primary clarifier (PC) tank, and a volumetric clarifying filtration system (VCF). Results indicate that while unsteady CFD models reproduce PM separation of each unit operation, stepwise steady CFD models result in significant deviation for HS and PC models as compared to monitored data; overestimating the physical size requirements of each unit required to reproduce monitored PM separation results. In contrast, the stepwise steady flow approach reproduces PM separation by the VCF, a combined gravitational sedimentation and media filtration unit operation that provides attenuation of turbulent energy and flow velocity.

  14. China's first home-made large ethylene unit put into operation in Daqing%China's first home-made large ethylene unit put into operation in Daqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On October 5, the newly built 600kt/a ethylene unit at Daqing Petrochemical, a key part of the company's 1.2Mt/a ethylene expansion/upgrading project, turned out qualified products, indicating the successful industrialization of the packaged technology for China's first home-made large ethylene unit. This enables China to be independent from importing technologies for ethylene production which lasted for halfa century.

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  16. Some assembly required: constructing the elementary units of store-operated Ca2+ entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minnie M; Luik, Riina M; Lewis, Richard S

    2007-08-01

    The means by which Ca(2+) store depletion evokes the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs) in the plasma membrane of excitable and non-excitable cells has been a longstanding mystery. Indirect evidence has supported local interactions between the ER and SOCs as well as long-range interactions mediated through a diffusible activator. The recent molecular identification of the ER Ca(2+) sensor (STIM1) and a subunit of the CRAC channel (Orai1), a prototypic SOC, has now made it possible to visualize directly the sequence of events that links store depletion to CRAC channel opening. Following store depletion, STIM1 moves from locations throughout the ER to accumulate in ER subregions positioned within 10-25nm of the plasma membrane. Simultaneously, Orai1 gathers at discrete sites in the plasma membrane directly opposite STIM1, resulting in local CRAC channel activation. These new studies define the elementary units of store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and reveal an unprecedented mechanism for channel activation in which the stimulus brings a channel and its activator/sensor together for interaction across apposed membrane compartments. We discuss the implications of this choreographic mechanism with regard to Ca(2+) dynamics, specificity of Ca(2+) signaling, and the existence of a specialized ER subset dedicated to the control of the CRAC channel.

  17. Remedial design work plan for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This remedial action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing contaminated floodplain soil. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (1992). In accordance with the FFA, a remedial investigation (RI) (DOE 1994a) and a feasibility study (DOE 1994b) were conducted to assess contamination of the Lower EFPC and propose remediation alternatives. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative by the feasibility study was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Following the remedial investigation/feasibility study, and also in accordance with the FFA, a proposed plan was prepared to more fully describe the proposed remedy.

  18. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L. [and others

    1994-06-01

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT.

  19. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  20. Large-Scale Pumping Test Recommendations for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.

    2010-09-08

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently assessing aquifer characterization needs to optimize pump-and-treat remedial strategies (e.g., extraction well pumping rates, pumping schedule/design) in the 200-ZP-1 operable unit (OU), and in particular for the immediate area of the 241 TX-TY Tank Farm. Specifically, CHPRC is focusing on hydrologic characterization opportunities that may be available for newly constructed and planned ZP-1 extraction wells. These new extraction wells will be used to further refine the 3-dimensional subsurface contaminant distribution within this area and will be used in concert with other existing pump-and-treat wells to remediate the existing carbon tetrachloride contaminant plume. Currently, 14 extraction wells are actively used in the Interim Record of Decision ZP-1 pump-and-treat system for the purpose of remediating the existing carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater within this general area. As many as 20 new extraction wells and 17 injection wells may be installed to support final pump-and-treat operations within the OU area. It should be noted that although the report specifically refers to the 200-ZP-1 OU, the large-scale test recommendations are also applicable to the adjacent 200-UP-1 OU area. This is because of the similar hydrogeologic conditions exhibited within these two adjoining OU locations.

  1. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gorton, Alicia M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Pino, Christian; Martinez, Dominique M.; Rana, Komal; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-20

    Prior to the acquisition of land by the U.S. Department of War in February 1943 and the creation of the Hanford Site, the land along the Columbia River was home to over 1000 people. Farming and orchard operations by both homesteaders and commercial organizations were prevalent. Orchard activities and the associated application of lead arsenate pesticide ceased in 1943, when residents were moved from the Hanford Site at the beginning of the Manhattan Project. Today, the residues from historical application of lead arsenate pesticide persist in some locations on the Hanford Site. In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology established the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The pre-Hanford orchard lands identified as the 100-OL-1 OU are located south of the Columbia River and east of the present-day Vernita Bridge, and extend southeast to the former Hanford townsite. The discontinuous orchard lands within 100-OL-1 OU are approximately 20 km2 (5000 ac). A pilot study was conducted to support the approval of the remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 OU. This pilot study evaluated the use of a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of lead arsenate pesticide residues in the OU. The objectives of the pilot study included evaluating a field portable XRF analyzer as the analytical method for decision making, estimating the nature and extent of lead and arsenic in surface soils in four decision units, evaluating the results for the purpose of optimizing the sampling approach implemented in the remedial investigation, and collecting information to improve the cost estimate and planning the cultural resources review for sampling activities in the remedial investigation. Based on

  2. Impact of selection of cord blood units from the United States and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Thomas; Boo, Michael; Balabanova, Snejana; Fischer, Yvonne; Nicoloso, Grazia; Foeken, Lydia; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Passweg, Jakob; Tichelli, Andre; Kindler, Vincent; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Price, Thomas; Regan, Donna; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Schwabe, Rudolf

    2013-02-01

    Over the last 2 decades, cord blood (CB) has become an important source of blood stem cells. Clinical experience has shown that CB is a viable source for blood stem cells in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation. Studies of CB units (CBUs) stored and ordered from the US (National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) and Swiss (Swiss Blood Stem Cells (SBSQ)) CB registries were conducted to assess whether these CBUs met the needs of transplantation patients, as evidenced by units being selected for transplantation. These data were compared to international banking and selection data (Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide (BMDW), World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA)). Further analysis was conducted on whether current CB banking practices were economically viable given the units being selected from the registries for transplant. It should be mentioned that our analysis focused on usage, deliberately omitting any information about clinical outcomes of CB transplantation. A disproportionate number of units with high total nucleated cell (TNC) counts are selected, compared to the distribution of units by TNC available. Therefore, the decision to use a low threshold for banking purposes cannot be supported by economic analysis and may limit the economic viability of future public CB banking. We suggest significantly raising the TNC level used to determine a bankable unit. A level of 125 × 10(7) TNCs, maybe even 150 × 10(7) TNCs, might be a viable banking threshold. This would improve the return on inventory investments while meeting transplantation needs based on current selection criteria.

  3. Monticello Mill Tailings Site, Operable Unit lll, Annual Groundwater Report, May 2015 Through April 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report provides the annual analysis of water quality restoration progress, cumulative through April 2016, for Operable Unit (OU) III, surface water and groundwater, of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Monticello Mill Tailings Site (MMTS). The MMTS is a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act National Priorities List site located in and near the city of Monticello, San Juan County, Utah. MMTS comprises the 110-acre site of a former uranium- and vanadium-ore-processing mill (mill site) and 1700 acres of surrounding private and municipal property. Milling operations generated 2.5 million cubic yards of waste (tailings) from 1942 to 1960. The tailings were impounded at four locations on the mill site. Inorganic constituents in the tailings drained from the impoundments to contaminate local surface water (Montezuma Creek) and groundwater in the underlying alluvial aquifer. Mill tailings dispersed by wind and water also contaminated properties surrounding and downstream of the mill site. Remedial actions to remove and isolate radiologically contaminated soil, sediment, and debris from the former mill site, Operable Unit I (OU I), and surrounding properties (OU II) were completed in 1999 with the encapsulation of the wastes in an engineered repository located on DOE property 1 mile south of the former mill site. This effectively removed the primary source of groundwater contamination; however, contamination of groundwater and surface water remains within OU III at levels that exceed water quality protection standards. Uranium is the primary contaminant of concern (COC). LM implemented monitored natural attenuation with institutional controls as the OU III remedy in 2004. Because groundwater restoration proceeded more slowly than expected and did not meet performance criteria established in the OU III Record of Decision (June 2004), LM implemented a contingency action in 2009 by an Explanation of

  4. Typhoid perforation: Post-operative Intensive Care Unit care and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaila Oyegbade Akinwale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Typhoid perforation ileitis is a serious complication of typhoid fever, a common and unfortunate health problem in a resource-poor country like Nigeria. Following bowel perforation, treatment is usually by simple closure or bowel resection and anastomosis after adequate aggressive fluid resuscitation and electrolyte correction. Postoperatively, some of these patients do require management in Intensive Care Unit (ICU on account of sepsis or septic shock and to improve survival. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective observational study in which 67 consecutive patients who had exploratory laparotomy for typhoid perforation between August 2009 and October 2012 in the main operating theatre of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, were studied. The attending anaesthetists had the freedom of choosing the appropriate anaesthetic drugs depending on the patients' clinical condition. The reason for admission into the ICU, the types of organ support required and outcomes were recorded. Results: Twenty-five patients (37.3% out of 67 required critical care. Reasons for admission among others included poor respiratory effort, hypotension, septic shock and delayed recovery from anaesthesia. Twenty-one patients (84% required mechanical ventilation with a mean duration of 2.14 days (range 1–5 days. Fourteen patients required ionotropic support and the length of ICU stay ranged from 1 to 15 days (mean 4.32 days. Nineteen patients (76% were successfully managed and discharged to the ward while 24% (6 patients mortality rate was recorded. Conclusion: This study showed high rate of post-operative ICU admission in patients with typhoid perforation with a high demand for critical care involving mechanical ventilation and ionotropic support. In centres that manage patients presenting with typhoid ileitis and perforation, post-operative critical care should be available.

  5. Typhoid perforation: Post-operative Intensive Care Unit care and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwale, Mukaila Oyegbade; Sanusi, Arinola A; Adebayo, Oluwaseun K

    2016-01-01

    Typhoid perforation ileitis is a serious complication of typhoid fever, a common and unfortunate health problem in a resource-poor country like Nigeria. Following bowel perforation, treatment is usually by simple closure or bowel resection and anastomosis after adequate aggressive fluid resuscitation and electrolyte correction. Postoperatively, some of these patients do require management in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) on account of sepsis or septic shock and to improve survival. This is a prospective observational study in which 67 consecutive patients who had exploratory laparotomy for typhoid perforation between August 2009 and October 2012 in the main operating theatre of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, were studied. The attending anaesthetists had the freedom of choosing the appropriate anaesthetic drugs depending on the patients' clinical condition. The reason for admission into the ICU, the types of organ support required and outcomes were recorded. Twenty-five patients (37.3%) out of 67 required critical care. Reasons for admission among others included poor respiratory effort, hypotension, septic shock and delayed recovery from anaesthesia. Twenty-one patients (84%) required mechanical ventilation with a mean duration of 2.14 days (range 1-5 days). Fourteen patients required ionotropic support and the length of ICU stay ranged from 1 to 15 days (mean 4.32 days). Nineteen patients (76%) were successfully managed and discharged to the ward while 24% (6 patients) mortality rate was recorded. This study showed high rate of post-operative ICU admission in patients with typhoid perforation with a high demand for critical care involving mechanical ventilation and ionotropic support. In centres that manage patients presenting with typhoid ileitis and perforation, post-operative critical care should be available.

  6. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  7. FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT FOR THE 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-07-18

    The Hanford Site, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), encompasses approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. In 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas of the Hanford Site on the 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300, 'National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan' National Contingency Plan [NCPD], Appendix B, 'National Priorities List' (NPL), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Areas NPL sites consist of the 200 West and 200 East Areas (Figure 1-1). The 200 Areas contain waste management facilities, inactive irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities, and the 200 North Area (formerly used for interim storage and staging of irradiated fuel). Several waste sites in the 600 Area, located near the 200 Areas, also are included in the 200 Areas NPL site. The 200 Areas NPL site is in a region referred to as the 'Central Plateau' and consists of approximately 700 waste sites, excluding sites assigned to the tank farm waste management areas (WMAs). The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) consists of the groundwater located under the northern portion of the 200 West Area. Waste sources that contributed to the 200-ZP-1 OU included cribs and trenches that received liquid and/or solid waste in the past from the Z Plant and T Plant aggregate areas, WMA-T, WMA-TX/TY, and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). This feasibility study (FS) for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater OU was prepared in accordance with the requirements of CERCLA decision documents. These decision documents are part of the Administrative Record for the selection of remedial actions for each waste site and present the selected remedial actions that are chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

  8. FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT FOR THE 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER OPERABLE UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-07-18

    The Hanford Site, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), encompasses approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) in the Columbia Basin of south-central Washington State. In 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas of the Hanford Site on the 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300, 'National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan' National Contingency Plan [NCPD], Appendix B, 'National Priorities List' (NPL), pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The 200 Areas NPL sites consist of the 200 West and 200 East Areas (Figure 1-1). The 200 Areas contain waste management facilities, inactive irradiated fuel reprocessing facilities, and the 200 North Area (formerly used for interim storage and staging of irradiated fuel). Several waste sites in the 600 Area, located near the 200 Areas, also are included in the 200 Areas NPL site. The 200 Areas NPL site is in a region referred to as the 'Central Plateau' and consists of approximately 700 waste sites, excluding sites assigned to the tank farm waste management areas (WMAs). The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) consists of the groundwater located under the northern portion of the 200 West Area. Waste sources that contributed to the 200-ZP-1 OU included cribs and trenches that received liquid and/or solid waste in the past from the Z Plant and T Plant aggregate areas, WMA-T, WMA-TX/TY, and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). This feasibility study (FS) for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater OU was prepared in accordance with the requirements of CERCLA decision documents. These decision documents are part of the Administrative Record for the selection of remedial actions for each waste site and present the selected remedial actions that are chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986

  9. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested for many researchers and network operators. Using Electrical Vehicles (PEVs and wind power for energy production is one of the newest proposed methods for replacing fossil fuels.One of the effective strategies for analyzing of the effects of Vehicle 2 Grid (V2G and wind power in optimal operation of generation is running of SCUC for power systems that are equipped with V2G and wind power resources. In this paper, game theory method is employed for deterministic solution of day-ahead unit commitment with considering security constraints in the simultaneous presence of V2G and wind power units. This problem for two scenarios of grid-controlled mode and consumer-controlled mode in three different days with light, medium and heavy load profiles is analyzed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the presence of V2G and wind power for decreasing of generation cost and improving operation indices of power systems.

  10. Commissioning and quality assurances of the Intrabeam Intra-Operative radiotherapy unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KR Muralidhar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The authors report comprehensive commissioning and quality assurance (QA procedures for Intrabeam, Intra-Operative radiotherapy (IORT unit. The Intrabeam system miniature X-ray source is a 50 kV and 40 µA unit. Methods: The authors’ tests include measurements of output, beam deflection, isotropy, kVp and mAs measurements, quality index, isodose, reproducibility, linearity, depth dose verification, and 3D dose distribution. IC ionization chamber and the UNIDOSE dosimeter were used for the output commissioning. Probe adjuster/ionization chamber holder (PAICH was used to check the mechanical straightness of the probe. For radiation tests, NACP parallel plate chamber, Standard Imaging electrometer, 30 × 30 × 30 cm3 IAEA water phantom, solid water slabs, EDR-2 Films with RIT software, and ionization based survey meters were used. Unfors Xi platinum edition kVp meter was used to measure the kVp and mAs. Results: In mechanical QA test, X-Beam position (-0.09 mm, Y-Beam position (0.01 mm, and radial position (0.11 mm errors were within the tolerance level. Isotropy test with PDA, survey meter, ion chamber, and film measurements also produced results within the specifications. Output measurements with PAICH and external chamber measurements were matched. Beam quality, linearity, and reproducibility values were ascertained at 50KV and 40 µA and found to be within limits. Isodose, 3D dose distribution, transverse, and horizontal profiles showed the good isotropy of the source. Conclusion: The authors’ methodology provides comprehensive commissioning and calibration procedures for the Intrabeam system.

  11. Very prolonged stay in the intensive care unit after cardiac operations: early results and late survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Shuli; Bitran, Daniel; Fink, Daniel; Tauber, Rachel; Merin, Ofer

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay is a surrogate for advanced morbidity or perioperative complications, and resource utilization may become an issue. It is our policy to continue full life support in the ICU, even for patients with a seemingly grim outlook. We examined the effect of duration of ICU stay on early outcomes and late survival. Between 1993 and 2011, 6,385 patients were admitted to the ICU after cardiac surgery. Patients were grouped according to length of stay in the ICU: group 1, 2 days or less (n = 4,631; 73%); group 2, 3 to 14 days (n = 1,423; 22%); group 3, more than 14 days (n = 331; 5%). Length of stay in ICU for group 3 patients was 38 ± 24 days (range, 15 to 160; median 31). Clinical profile and outcomes were compared between groups. Patients requiring prolonged ICU stay were older, underwent more complex surgery, had greater comorbidity, and a higher predicted operative mortality (p < 0.0001). They had a higher incidence of adverse events and increased mortality (p < 0.0001). Of the 331 group 3 patients, 60% were discharged: survival of these patients at 1, 3, and 5 years was 78%, 65%, and 52%, respectively. Operative mortality as well as late survival of discharged patients was proportional to duration of ICU stay. Current technology enables keeping sick patients alive for extended periods of time. Nearly two thirds of patients requiring prolonged ICU leave hospital, and of these, 50% attain 5-year survival. These data support offering full and continued support even for patients requiring very prolonged ICU stay. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. GROUDWATER REMEDIATION AT THE 100-HR-3 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA - 11507

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMOOT JL; BIEBESHEIMER FH; ELUSKIE JA; SPILIOTOPOULOS A; TONKIN MJ; SIMPKIN T

    2011-01-12

    The 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site underlies three former plutonium production reactors and the associated infrastructure at the 100-D and 100-H Areas. The primary contaminant of concern at the site is hexavalent chromium; the secondary contaminants are strontium-90, technetium-99, tritium, uranium, and nitrate. The hexavalent chromium plume is the largest plume of its type in the state of Washington, covering an area of approximately 7 km{sup 2} (2.7 mi{sup 2}) with concentrations greater than 20 {micro}g/L. Concentrations range from 60,000 {micro}g/L near the former dichromate transfer station in the 100-D Area to large areas of 20 to 100 {micro}g/L across much of the plume area. Pump-and-treat operations began in 1997 and continued into 2010 at a limited scale of approximately 200 gal/min. Remediation of groundwater has been fairly successful in reaching remedial action objectives (RAOs) of 20 {micro}g/L over a limited region at the 100-H, but less effective at 100-D. In 2000, an in situ, permeable reactive barrier was installed downgradient of the hotspot in 100-D as a second remedy. The RAOs are still being exceeded over a large portion of the area. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company was awarded the remediation contract for groundwater in 2008 and initiated a remedial process optimization study consisting of modeling and technical studies intended to enhance the remediation. As a result of the study, 1,400 gal/min of expanded treatment capacity are being implemented. These new systems are designed to meet 2012 and 2020 target milestones for protection of the Columbia River and cleanup of the groundwater plumes.

  13. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  14. 5-year operation experience with the 1.8 K refrigeration units of the LHC cryogenic system

    CERN Document Server

    Ferlin, G; Claudet, S; Pezzetti, M

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is in operation at CERN. The LHC superconducting magnets distributed over eight sectors of 3.3-km long are cooled at 1.9 K in pressurized superfluid helium. The nominal operating temperature of 1.9 K is produced by eight 1.8-K refrigeration units based on centrifugal cold compressors (3 or 4 stages depending to the vendor) combined with warm volumetric screw compressors with sub-atmospheric suction. After about 5 years of continuous operation, we will present the results concerning the availability for the final user of these refrigeration units and the impact of the design choice on the recovery time after a system trip. We will also present the individual results for each rotating machinery in terms of failure origin and of Mean Time between Failure (MTBF), as well as the consolidations and upgrades applied to these refrigeration units.

  15. Operation of the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit installed in the power stabilizing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, T.; Honda, H.; Kasahara, R.; Miyaji, T.

    2014-03-01

    This serial research intends to put a unique power stabilization system with a pumped storage into practical use. The pumped storage is equipped with a counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit whose operating mode can be shifted instantaneously in response to the fluctuation of power from renewable resources. This paper verifies that the system is reasonably effective to stabilize the fluctuating power. It is necessary to quickly increase the rotational speed when the operation is shifted from the turbine to the pumping modes, because the unit cannot pump-up water from a lower reservoir at a slow rotational speed while keeping gross/geodetic head constant. The maximum hydraulic efficiency at the turbine mode is close to the efficiency of the counter-rotating type hydroelectric unit designed exclusively for the turbine mode. The system is also provided for a pilot plant to be operated in the field.

  16. Data validation report for the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, third round groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, J.M.

    1994-03-31

    Westinghouse-Hanford has requested that a minimum of 20% of the total number of Sample Delivery Groups be validated for the 100-FR-3 operable Unit Third Round Groundwater sampling investigation. Therefore, the data from the chemical analysis of 51 samples from this sampling event and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site. The report is broken down into sections for each chemical analysis and radiochemical analysis type. Each section addresses the data package completeness, holding time adherence, instrument calibration and tuning acceptability, blank results, accuracy, precision, system performance, as well as the compound identification and quantitation. In addition, each section has an overall assessment and summary for the data packages reviewed for the particular chemical/radiochemical analyses. Detailed backup information is provided to the reader by SDG No. and sample number. For each data package, a matrix of chemical analyses per sample number is presented, as well as data qualification summaries.

  17. jMOTU and Taxonerator: turning DNA Barcode sequences into annotated operational taxonomic units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding and other DNA sequence-based techniques for investigating and estimating biodiversity require explicit methods for associating individual sequences with taxa, as it is at the taxon level that biodiversity is assessed. For many projects, the bioinformatic analyses required pose problems for laboratories whose prime expertise is not in bioinformatics. User-friendly tools are required for both clustering sequences into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU and for associating these MOTU with known organismal taxonomies. RESULTS: Here we present jMOTU, a Java program for the analysis of DNA barcode datasets that uses an explicit, determinate algorithm to define MOTU. We demonstrate its usefulness for both individual specimen-based Sanger sequencing surveys and bulk-environment metagenetic surveys using long-read next-generation sequencing data. jMOTU is driven through a graphical user interface, and can analyse tens of thousands of sequences in a short time on a desktop computer. A companion program, Taxonerator, that adds traditional taxonomic annotation to MOTU, is also presented. Clustering and taxonomic annotation data are stored in a relational database, and are thus amenable to subsequent data mining and web presentation. CONCLUSIONS: jMOTU efficiently and robustly identifies the molecular taxa present in survey datasets, and Taxonerator decorates the MOTU with putative identifications. jMOTU and Taxonerator are freely available from http://www.nematodes.org/.

  18. An operational evaluation of the Community Oral Rehydration Units in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, B M; Jacoby, E R

    1994-12-01

    Since 1984, in Latin America donor agencies and national governments have extensively supported the implementation of the Community Oral Rehydration Units (CORUs) in an attempt to increase the access to oral rehydration therapy and improve the case management of diarrhoea at the community level. This study surveyed 40 CORUs in two regions of Peru to assess their operation, the number of patients with diarrhoea attended, and the knowledge of volunteers in charge. The results show that CORUs were mainly implemented close to existing health centres; the median of case load was 2.0 patients in the preceding month; and the volunteers' knowledge of case management was principally deficient in the diagnosis of hydration status, dietary management and in preventive measures. This lack of knowledge was replicated by professionals at the supervising health centres. Despite the fact that CORUs have been functioning for around four years, they exhibit numerous deficiencies which prevent them from fulfilling their objectives. A global review of the whole CORU strategy is called for.

  19. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  20. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  1. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  2. Micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine for heating and their real operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čierny, Jaroslav; Patsch, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This article was deal with micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine. We watched problematic of real working Stirling engine. The article also contain hookup of unit constructed at University of Zilina.

  3. 300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-15

    Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ``green`` material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ``green`` soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction.

  4. Methods to model particulate matter clarification of unit operations subject to unsteady loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, David; Sansalone, John J

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater, and also wastewater unit operations (UOs) to a much lower extent, are subject to unsteady hydrodynamic and particulate matter (PM) fluxes. Simulating fully transient clarification of hetero-disperse PM requires much greater computational expense compared to steady simulations. An alternative to fully unsteady methods are stepwise steady (SS) methods which use stepwise steady flow transport and fate to approximate unsteady PM clarification of a UO during transient hydraulic loadings such as rainfall-runoff. The rationale is reduced computational effort for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) compared to simulating continuous unsteadiness of such events. An implicit solution stepwise steady (IS(3)) method is one approach which builds upon previous SS methods. The IS(3) method computes steady flows that are representative of unsteady PM transport throughout an unsteady loading. This method departs from some previous SS methods that assume PM fate can be simulated with an instantaneous clarifier (basin) influent flowrate coupled with a PM input. In this study, various SS methods were tested for basins of varying size and residence time to examine PM fate. Differences between SS methods were a function of turnover fraction indicating the role of unsteady flowrates on PM transport for larger basins of longer residence times. The breakpoint turnover fraction was between two and three. The IS(3) method best approximated unsteady behavior of larger basins. These methods identified limitations when utilizing standard event-based loading analysis for larger basins. For basins with a turnover fraction less than two, the majority of effluent PM did not originate from the event-based flow; originating from previous event loadings or existing storage. Inter- and multiple event processes and interactions, that are dependent on this inflow turnover fraction, are not accounted for by single event-based inflow models. Results suggest the use of long-term continuous

  5. Phase 1 and 2 feasibility study report for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) feasibility study (FS) presented in this document completes the FS process only through the first two study phases: Phase I, Remedial Alternatives Development, and Phase II, Remedial Alternatives Screening in accordance with CERCIA guidance for performing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) (EPA 1988a). This Phase I/II study provides a generalized view of workable remedial technologies as applied to the site contamination problems as a whole. Phase III, Detailed Analysis of Alternatives, will be performed at a later date to further evaluate screened alternatives based on the nine criteria in the CERCLA RI/FS guidance. The purpose of this Phase I/II FS is to develop and screen a range of alternatives for remediation of contamination present in the vadose zone of the 300-FF-1 OU. The scope of work for this Phase I/II FS includes five primary tasks: 1. Review existing documents and their associated data from relevant investigations and studies; 2. Establish remedial action objectives (RAO) and general response actions (GRA); 3. Identify applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) pertinent to all general response actions (including waste disposal); 4. Develop remedial alternatives (Phase I) applicable to the 300-FF-1 OU including identification and screening of technologies and process options, and assembly of remedial alternatives from representative technology types; 5. Screen alternatives (Phase II) developed in Phase I for implementability, effectiveness, and cost to identify those alternatives which warrant advancement to the detailed analysis phase (Phase III) of the FS.

  6. Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report for Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, Howard S.

    2010-04-10

    This annual report summarizes maintenance, monitoring, and inspection activities performed to implement the selected remedy for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-14, Tank Farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Results from monitoring perched water and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center are also presented.

  7. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  8. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  9. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, July 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2016-05-18

    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision for the site.

  10. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6 to18 months of age) in 20 states from 49 locations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize the potential recovery of...

  11. Pyrosequencing as a tool for the detection of Phytophthora species: error rate and risk of false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vettraino, A.M.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Tomassini, A.; Bruni, N.; Vannini, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of pyrosequencing for the description of Phytophthora communities in terms of taxa identification and risk of assignment for false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs). Methods and Results: Pyrosequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicons was u

  12. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of...) filed on December 20, 2012 on behalf of workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport...

  13. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  14. Prevalence of roll-over protective structure (ROPS)-equipped tractors on Hispanic-operated farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John R

    2010-04-01

    Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) are known to prevent tractor overturn deaths, but not enough tractors are equipped with them in the United States to reduce the rate of these deaths to levels seen in several European countries. Recent literature has defined the use of ROPS on US farms in general, but little is known about ROPS use on Hispanic farm operations. Data from a national survey for the calendar year 2003 were used to assess the prevalence of ROPS use on Hispanic-operated farms. Farm characteristics previously identified to be associated with low ROPS prevalence rates on other farming operations were examined for these Hispanic farming operations. The overall ROPS prevalence rate on Hispanic farms was 52.2%. Adjusted odds ratios of potential risk factors found that the region where the farm was located and the acreage of the farm appeared to be the most significant indicators of the prevalence of ROPS on Hispanic farms. In addition, the age of the farm operator, the farm status as a full- or part-time operation, and the type of farm operation were also important factors. These findings were similar to those seen for racial minority farms and the general farming population. These results can be used to target ROPS promotion programs for Hispanic farmers across the United States.

  15. Operative and technological management of super-large united power grids: lessons of major world's blackouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkis, K.; Kreslins, V.; Mutule, A.

    2014-02-01

    Power system (PS) blackouts still persist worldwide, evidencing that the existing protective structures need to be improved. The discussed requirements and criteria to be met for joint synchronous operation of large and super-large united PSs should be based on close co-ordination of operative and technological management of all PSs involved in order to ensure secure and stable electricity supply and minimise or avoid the threat of a total PS blackout. The authors analyse the July 2012 India blackout - the largest power outage in history, which affected over 620 million people, i.e. half of India's population and spread across its 22 states. The analysis is of a general character, being applicable also to similar blackouts that have occurred in Europe and worldwide since 2003. The authors summarise and develop the main principles and methods of operative and technological management aimed at preventing total blackouts in large and super-large PSs. Neskatoties uz sasniegumiem elektroenerģētikas jomā un energosistēmu nepārtrauktu modernizāciju, pasaulē regulāri notiek sabrukumu avārijas. Rakstā apskatīti lielu un superlielu energosistēmu apvienību savstarpējas sinhronas darbības nodrošinājuma prasības un kritēriji, kas pamatojas uz operatīvās un tehnoloģiskās vadības ciešu koordināciju starp energosistēmām. Savstarpējas sinhronas darbības nodrošinājuma prasībām un kritērijiem ir izšķiroša nozīme, lai panāktu elektroapgādes drošumu un stabilitāti katrā energosistēmā, kas darbojas apvienotas energosistēmas sastāvā. Šo prasību un kritēriju ievērošana sekmē totālo avāriju izcelšanās iespēju samazināšanu un to novēršanu. Indijas 2012.gada totālo avāriju un citu analogo avāriju Eiropā un Amerikā analīze un izvērtējums laika posmā no 2003.gada, deva iespēju apkopot un izstrādāt lielu un superlielu energosistēmu operatīvās un tehnoloģiskās vadības principus un metodoloģiju, lai novērstu vai

  16. Global Strategy Implementation at the Business Unit Level: Operational Capabilities and Administrative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall Roth; David M Schweiger; Allen J Morrison

    1991-01-01

    The study examines the impact of internationally strategy on organizational design and the influence of the organizational design on effectiveness at the business unit level. The empirical findings are based on survey responses from eighty-two business units competing in global industries. The findings are supportive of the contingency notion which suggests that business unit effectiveness is a function of the fit between the international strategy and the organizational design.© 1991 JIBS. J...

  17. Global Strategy Implementation at the Business Unit Level: Operational Capabilities and Administrative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall Roth; David M Schweiger; Allen J Morrison

    1991-01-01

    The study examines the impact of internationally strategy on organizational design and the influence of the organizational design on effectiveness at the business unit level. The empirical findings are based on survey responses from eighty-two business units competing in global industries. The findings are supportive of the contingency notion which suggests that business unit effectiveness is a function of the fit between the international strategy and the organizational design.© 1991 JIBS. J...

  18. Assessment of the feasibility of an improvement programme enabling operation of units 3 and 4 of Kozloduy nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amri, A.; Aronov, J.; Bonino, F.; Cortes, P.; Gorbatchev, A.; Kanev, K.; Mattei, J.M.; Milhem, J.L.; Rollinger, F.; Sabotinov, L.; Samier, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR). Inst. de Protection et de Securete Nucleaire (IPSN)

    2001-07-01

    Since ten years, different western assessments have been made of the safety of VVER 440/230 units, including those of the KOZLODUY Nuclear Power Plant located in Bulgaria. Concerning the latter, reference can be made to the work of an European Consortium (GRS/Germany, IPSN/France, AEA/England, AVN/ Belgium), in 1992 and 1993, during examination of restart conditions for Units 1 and 2. The objective of these assessments was the improvement of the overall level of safety with a view to maintain these units in service with satisfactory safety level for a limited period. The work identified their main deficiencies. At the present time, all the modifications decided upon for Units 1 and 2 of the KOZLODUY Nuclear Power Plant in 1992 and 1993 have been adopted and implemented for Units 3 and 4. In 1999, considering that these units would probably not be definitively shutdown before about ten years, IPSN decided to perform an internal assessment of the feasibility of an improvement programme enabling continued operation of units 3 and 4 of KOZLODUY Nuclear Power Plant during this delay. (orig.)

  19. Record of Decision for Tank Farm Soil and INTEC Groundwater, Operable Unit 3-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. S. Cahn

    2007-05-16

    This decision document presents the selected remedy for Operable Unit (OU) 3-14 tank farm soil and groundwater at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. The tank farm was initially evaluated in the OU 3-13 Record of Decision (ROD), and it was determined that additional information was needed to make a final decision. Additional information has been obtained on the nature and extent of contamination in the tank farm and on the impact to groundwater. The selected remedy was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) (42 USC 9601 et seq.), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-499) and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR 300). The selected remedy is intended to be the final action for tank farm soil and groundwater at INTEC. The response action selected in this ROD is necessary to protect the public health, welfare, or the environment from actual or threatened releases of hazardous substances into the environment. Such a release or threat of release may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health, welfare, or the environment. The remedial actions selected in this ROD are designed to reduce the potential threats to human health and the environment to acceptable levels. In addition, DOE-ID, EPA, and DEQ (the Agencies) have determined that no action is necessary under CERCLA to protect public health, welfare, or the environment at 16 sites located outside the tank farm boundary. The purposes of the selected remedy are to (1) contain contaminated soil as the radionuclides decay in place, (2) isolate current and future workers and biological receptors from contact with contaminated soil, and (3) restore the portion of Snake River Plain Aquifer contaminated by INTEC releases to Idaho Ground Water Quality

  20. BIOTIC INTEGRITY OF STREAMS IN THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATOR OPERABLE UNITS, 1996 TO 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M; Susan Dyer, S

    2004-11-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been divided into six Integrator Operable Units (IOUs) that correspond to the watersheds of the five major streams on the SRS (Upper Three Runs, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs) and the portions of the Savannah River and Savannah River Swamp associated with the SRS. The streams are the primary integrators within each IOU because they potentially receive, through surface or subsurface drainage, soluble contaminants from all waste sites within their watersheds. If these contaminants reach biologically significant levels, they would be expected to effect the numbers, types, and health of stream organisms. In this study, biological sampling was conducted within each IOU as a measure of the cumulative ecological effects of the waste sites within the IOUs. The use of information from biological sampling to assess environmental quality is often termed bioassessment. The IOU bioassessment program included 38 sites in SRS streams and nine sites in the Savannah River. Sampling was conducted in 1996 to 1998, 2000, and 2003. Four bioassessment methods were used to evaluate ecological conditions in the IOU streams: the Index of Biotic Integrity, the Fish Health Assessment Index, measurement of fish tissue contaminant levels, and two benthic macroinvertebrate indices. The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) is an EPA supported method based on comparison of ecologically important and sensitive fish assemblage variables between potentially disturbed and reference (i.e., undisturbed) sites. It is designed to assess the ability of a stream to support a self-sustaining biological community and ecological processes typical of undisturbed, natural conditions. Since many types of contaminants can bioaccumulate, fish tissue contaminant data were used to determine the types of chemicals fish were exposed to and their relative magnitudes among IOUs. The Fish Health Assessment Index (HAI) is an EPA supported method for assessing

  1. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter application report for Teledyne Wah Chang Albany Operable Unit Number One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; O' Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the application of the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter (PBTSF) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory's Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program as applied to remediation activities conducted at the Teledyne Wah Chang Albany (TWCA) Superfund Site, Operable Unit One. The remedial action at the TWCA Operable Unit One consisted of solidification, excavation, transportation, and monocell disposal of the contents of two sludge ponds contaminated with various inorganic and organic compounds. Inorganic compounds included low levels of uranium and radium isotopes, as well zirconium, hafnium, chromium, mercury, and nickel. Organic compounds included methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, and hexachlorobenzene. Remediation began in June 1991, and was completed in November 1991. The TWCA Operable Unit One configuration option consisted of 15 functional subelements. Data were gathered on these subelements and end-to-end system operation to calculate numerical values for 28 system performance measures. These were then used to calculate a system performance score. An assessment was made of the availability and definitional clarity of these performance measures, applicability of PBTSF utility functions, and rollup methodology. The PBTSF scoring function worked well, with few problems noted in data gathering, utility function normalization, and scoring calculation. The application of this process to an actual in situ treatment and excavation technical process option clarified the specific terms and bounds of the performance score functions, and identified one problem associated with the definition of system boundary.

  2. United States Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Environmental Compliance Handbook. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Environment, Safety & Health Division (ESHD) of the Nevada Operations Office has prepared this Environmental Compliance Handbook for all users of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) facilities. The Handbook gives an overview of the important environmental laws and regulations that apply to the activities conducted by the Nevada Operations Office and other users of DOE/NV facilities in Nevada.

  3. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte Process Development Unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-28

    The LPMEOH process was conceived and patented by Chem Systems Inc. in 1975. Initial research and studies on the process focused on two distinct modes of operation. The first was a liquid fluidized mode with relatively large catalyst pellets suspended in a fluidizing liquid, and the second was an entrained (slurry) mode with fine catalyst particles slurried in an inert liquid. The development of both operating modes progressed in parallel from bench scale reactors, through an intermediate scale lab PDU, and then to the LaPorte PDU in 1984. The slurry mode of operation was ultimately chosen as the operating mode of choice due to its superior performance.

  4. Analysis of United States Marine Corps operations in support of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief

    OpenAIRE

    Gastrock, Jared R.; Iturriaga, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In order to improve the effectiveness of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) response to future international humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) missions, an analysis of the demands created by such disasters as well as the capabilities of the USMC is necessary. This research focuses on the primary response organization within the USMC, the Marine expeditionary unit (MEU),and those resources available to the MEU to condu...

  5. Modern technologies for rendering information support to cogeneration steam turbine units in their design and operation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Chubarov, A. A.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2013-08-01

    Application of modern information technologies in different stages of the lifecycle of cogeneration turbines is considered as one of possible ways for improving their competitiveness. Specific features relating to rendering information support for steam turbine units during the periods of their design and operation, which are the main stages of their life cycle, are presented. Three-dimension modeling, adaptive, and parametric design technologies are applied in the equipment design stages. Information support technologies developed by the authors are applied during the operation stage. Information is integrated by using a product lifecycle management (PLM) system.

  6. Construction and operation of the flue gas desulphurization plant at Altbach/Deizisau power station, unit no. 5. Experience from commissioning and initial operating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.; Necker, P.; Strauss, J.; Hemming, H.; Landgraf, E.

    1987-04-01

    Since take-over the flue gas desulphurization plant has easily maintained the required level of desulphurisation. Caking-on and incrustation are substantially avoided. By redesigning the gypsum drying process an easily storable gypsum which can be used both in the gypsum and cement industry is produced. According to experience gained to date it is expected that the flue gas desulphurisation plant will not impair the availability of the power plant unit taking into account statutory regulations. In overall terms the plant has satisfactorily fulfilled the expectations of the operator.

  7. Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.

    2009-03-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.

  8. Baseline risk assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. Cleanup of the site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU), consisting of the Weldon Spring quarry and its surrounding area, is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, DOE is conducting a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to determine the proper response to address various contaminated media that constitute the QROU. Specifically, the operable unit consists of the following areas and media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and the bulk waste; groundwater underlying the quarry and surrounding area; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including surface water and sediment at Femme Osage Slough, Little Femme Osage Creek, and Femme Osage Creek. An initial evaluation of conditions at the quarry area identified remaining data requirements needed to support the conceptual site exposure and hydrogeological models. These data requirements are discussed in the RI/FS work plan issued in January 1994. Soil contamination located at a property adjacent to the quarry, referred to as Vicinity Property 9 (VP9), was originally part of the scope of the QROU, as discussed in the work plan. However, a decision was subsequently made to remediate this vicinity property as part of cleanup activities for the chemical plant operable unit, as provided for in the Record of Decision (ROD). Remediation of VP9 was completed in early 1996. Hence, this baseline risk assessment (BRA) does not address VP9.

  9. KC-46A Formal Training Unit (FTU) and First Main Operating Base (MOB 1) Beddown EIS. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    support a1rcraft operations and pHot and personnel training • ht UMI O~f’t EIS, the USAF ldet~titJ.s AltUS AF8 as the PTI~ fened A#etnAtfv• for liH! FTV...Frequency, commonly perceived as pitch, is the number of times per second the sound causes air molecules to oscillate . Frequency is measured in units of

  10. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.

  11. Cost-Optimal Operation of Energy Storage Units: Benefits of a Problem-Specific Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Siemer, Lars; Kleinhans, David

    2015-01-01

    The integration of large shares of electricity produced by non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES) leads to an increasingly volatile energy generation side, with temporary local overproduction. The application of energy storage units has the potential to use this excess electricity from RES efficiently and to prevent curtailment. The objective of this work is to calculate cost-optimal charging strategies for energy storage units used as buffers. For this purpose, a new mathematical optimization method is presented that is applicable to general storage-related problems. Due to a tremendous gain in efficiency of this method compared with standard solvers and proven optimality, calculations of complex problems as well as a high-resolution sensitivity analysis of multiple system combinations are feasible within a very short time. As an example technology, Power-to-Heat converters used in combination with thermal storage units are investigated in detail and optimal system configurations, including storage ...

  12. 75 FR 3943 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    .... NPF-68 and NPF-81, issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), for... contained in 10 CFR 73.55 by the March 31, 2010, implementation deadline. SNC has proposed an alternate...

  13. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE), Operable Unit 1, Fernald, Hamilton and Butler Counties, OH, March 1, 1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 of the FEMP site in Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Operable Unit 1 consists of Waste Pits 1 through 6, the Burn Pit, the Clearwell, and associated environmental media (excluding groundwater).

  14. COMPACT DIFFERENCES OF COMPOSITION OPERATORS ON HOLOMORPHIC FUNCTION SPACES IN THE UNIT BALL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Liangying; Ouyang Caiheng

    2011-01-01

    We find a lower bound for the essential norm of the difference of two composition operators acting on H2(BN) or A28(BN) (s > -1).This result plays an important role in proving a necessary and sufficient condition for the difference of linear fractional composition operators to be compact,which answers a question posed by MacCluer and Weir in 2005.

  15. Use of Special Operations Forces in United Nations Missions: a Method to Resolve Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    mission. The aggressive approach the unit adopted for clearing the city of Goma and the surrounding areas from rebels required accurate intelligence...the city of Goma . The ability of soldiers from the Special Forces Company to access remote areas, coordinate aviation attacks, and conduct surgical

  16. Closing the Door Behind You: How the United States Army Conducts Logistical Withdrawals after Lengthy Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    complicating this process was a similar use of identified excess to ship to other countries units, such as Thailand. The Keystone architecture was...2006, Sunni extremists attacked a mosque in Samarra, one of the holiest sites in Shiite Islam. This action initiated a spiraling level of violence

  17. A Delphi Study of Additive Manufacturing Applicability for United States Air Force Civil Engineer Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    research examines the possibilities for the integration of additive manufacturing (AM) machines in United States Air Force civil engineer (CE...popularity in many applications. One of these developing applications is the use of additive manufacturing machines for the production of supplies in...capability is the inclusion of additive manufacturing (AM) machines in certain CE UTCs. Additive manufacturing is the process of constructing

  18. Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase 3: Biomass Process Development Unit (PDU) construction and initial operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, J. J.; Hooverman, R. H.

    1981-12-01

    The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. Siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor, the ash dump system, the PDU support equipment, control and information management, and shakedown runs are described.

  19. An Investigation Into the Feasibility of Merging Three Technical Processing Operations Into One Central Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert W., Jr.

    Three contiguous schools in the upper midwest--a teacher's training college and a private four-year college in one state, and a land-grant university in another--were studied to see if their libraries could merge one of their major divisions--technical services--into a single administrative unit. Potential benefits from such a merger were felt to…

  20. The Implications of Network-Centric Warfare for United States and Multinational Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    31. Rear Admiral D. Mayo, Bandwidth Baseline Assesment Memo, <http://copernicus.hq.navy.mil/crwg98/briefs/brownbag_bam.pdf>, p. 22. 14... smoke signals or drums, or carefully selected commercial technology? The United States experience in Somalia and the Russian experience in

  1. Factors That Influence Human Behavior And Negatively Affect Energy Consumption In USMC Ground Units During Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Boston: Prentice Hall Bulanow, Peter, Paul Tabler, and Shawn Charchan. 2011. Expeditionary Energy Assessment: Environmental Control Unit Alternatives...U.S. ARMY Rapid Equipping Force. Kotter, John P., and Leonard Schlesinger. 2008. “Choosing Strategies for Change.” Harvard Business Review 86.7

  2. Economic Viability of Pumped-Storage Power Plants Equipped with Ternary Units and Considering Hydraulic Short-Circuit Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazarra, Manuel; Pérez-Díaz, Juan I.; García-González, Javier

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses the economic viability of pumped-storage hydropower plants equipped with ternary units and considering hydraulic short-circuit operation. The analysed plant is assumed to participate in the day-ahead energy market and in the secondary regulation service of the Spanish power system. A deterministic day-ahead energy and reserve scheduling model is used to estimate the maximum theoretical income of the plant assuming perfect information of the next day prices and the residual demand curves of the secondary regulation reserve market. Results show that the pay-back periods with and without the hydraulic short-circuit operation are significantly lower than their expected lifetime and that the pay-back periods can be reduced with the inclusion of the hydraulic short-circuit operation.

  3. LeanERP® Mobile Platform Solution for Planning, Visualization and Execution of Business Operations in MSME Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr . Jayakumar Karuppusamy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and development of a solution framework for a LeanERP® interactive application for use with mobile handheld devices, which enables profile based activity logging, planning and execution of tasks, information sharing, collaboration and decision support aligned with the enterprise operations. The design leverages intelligence with the use of cognitive approaches, classifier systems and a data driven approach for adaptive profiling and configuration of software behavior. The solution is well suited for MSME units as the architecture is designed on the basis of a SOA for rapid adaptation and deployment for a given cluster and presents an engaging role centric GUI with multiple widgets and tabs for dynamic visualization of information relating to enterprise operations with trails and traceability of process flows, events, activities, analysis and cost estimates. The solution integrates mechanisms, data structures, algorithms and associated computational models that enable presentation of performance characteristics, predictions and appropriate options for decisions relating to various operations

  4. A study on scattered dose in operation room by C-arm unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sung Min; Oh, Jung Hwan; Kim, Sung Chul [Gachon Gil College, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-15

    This paper studied a C-arm's exposure condition and measured scatter rays by thickness and distance. This study reached the following conclusion. Approximately exposure dose for a patient using fluoroscopy is as follows: Mostly, an operating room was not shielding by lead and operator put on only apron without thyroid and facial part protection. 0.5 mmPb equivalent's apron shielded about 99% of scattered rays at 60 cm from x-ray tube. Scattered rays are depended on distance and thickness so operators are should be careful when using fluoroscopy by C-arm and if possible use high frequency equipment that has a large output.

  5. Operational characteristics of tractors driven by children on farms in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlenga, B; Pickett, W; Berg, R L; Murphy, D

    2004-01-01

    Farm tractors are an important source of traumatic injury for children on farms. There is, however, no documentation about the age and size of tractors that children are operating and little information about the frequency with which rollover protective structures (ROPS) are used. This study described tractors that children on farms in the U.S. and Canada were operating by age, horsepower, and the presence of ROPS, according to the age and gender of the farm children involved. As a sub-analysis of data compiled during a randomized controlled trial, a descriptive analysis was completed on work exposure data collected by telephone interview. Of the 1,113 children involved in the trial, 522 (47%) were reported to perform at least one job that involved the operation of a farm tractor, and 408 (36.7%) were operating tractors of at least 20 horsepower. The majority of these children were male. There was a wide range of ages and sizes of tractors operated. However, the majority of tractors were between 20 and 70 horsepower and manufactured after 1970. Nearly one-half of the tractors were equipped with ROPS, and these tended to be newer and larger tractors. This analysis provides new data about the broad range of tractors driven by farm children in the U.S. and Canada. The findings point to a need to re-examine the reliance on a single voluntary standard to mitigate the hazard of tractor rollovers and the need for an enhanced safety policy requiring all tractors operated by children be equipped with ROPS.

  6. Oxy-fired boiler unit and method of operating the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Xinsheng; Zhang, Jundong; Joshi, Abhinaya; McCombe, James A.; Levasseur, Armand A.

    2016-12-06

    An oxy-combustion boiler unit is disclosed which includes a furnace for combusting fuel and for emitting flue gas resulting from combustion. The furnace has first, second and third combustion zones, and an air separation unit for separating oxygen gas from air and providing a first portion of the separated oxygen to a first oxidant flow, a second portion to a second oxidant flow, and a third portion of the separated oxygen gas to the first, second, and third zones of the furnace. A controller can cause the separated oxygen gas to be distributed so that the first and second oxygen flows have a desired oxygen content, and so that the first, second, and third zones of the furnace receive a desired amount of oxygen based on a combustion zone stoichiometry control.

  7. Preparing General Purpose Forces in the United States and British Armies for Counterinsurgent Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    commander whose book Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife, was widely read by military leaders serving in Afghanistan and Iraq. Dr. Nagl also...sustainment training for units while deployed to Malaya.23 Arthur Campbell , a company commander in the Suffolk Regiment who served in Malaya in the early 1950s...Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam, comparing the Malayan Emergency and Vietnam War is akin to

  8. Domestic Contingency Operations: A New Role for the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-04

    The addition of operations other than war to military lexicology greatly assists to define the role of the Army in support of domestic missions but...transportation, linguists , and health services directly translate to the domestic environment. This critical skills are essential for disaster

  9. Accomplishing Shipyard Work for the United States Navy: Institutions, Systems and Operations. Volume 3. Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    operations research, advanced energy sources and propulsion technologies, nuclear physics, marine biology , maritime law, and ship financing. The...ductivity and reducing its production costs. 17 ()Determine whether -the industry c~ i achieve by FY 17 alevel of productivity that will allow reduction

  10. 40 CFR 63.1104 - Process vents from continuous unit operations: applicability assessment procedures and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vent. (iv) Design analysis based on accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process... be monitored to ensure the process vent is operated in conformance with its design or process and... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process vents from continuous...

  11. 75 FR 39707 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... health physics or chemistry duties required as a member of the onsite emergency response organization's...). Other references include: NUREG-0654, ``Criteria for Preparation of and Evaluation of Radiological..., maintenance, health physics, chemistry and security to maintain the safe and secure operation of the facility...

  12. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  13. Success in an Introductory Operations Research Course: A Case Study at the United Arab Emirates University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Darwish Abdulrahman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of a number of factors such as high school major, high school score, gender, Stat105, Maths I, Maths II grades, and grade point average (GPA) on students' academic performance in an introductory operations research (OR) course at the department of Business Administration--College of…

  14. 14 CFR 11.83 - How can I operate under an exemption outside the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Organization (ICAO). If it would not, but we still believe it would be in the public interest to allow you to do so, we will file a difference with ICAO. However, a foreign country still may not allow you to operate in that country without meeting the ICAO standard....

  15. Virus removal retention challenge tests performed at lab scale and pilot scale during operation of membrane units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, H; Machinal, C; Labaye, Ivan; Schrotter, J C

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the virus retention capabilities of UF units during operation is essential for the operators of drinking water treatment facilities in order to guarantee an efficient and stable removal of viruses through time. In previous studies, an effective method (MS2-phage challenge tests) was developed by the Water Research Center of Veolia Environnement for the measurement of the virus retention rates (Log Removal Rate, LRV) of commercially available hollow fiber membranes at lab scale. In the present work, the protocol for monitoring membrane performance was transferred from lab scale to pilot scale. Membrane performances were evaluated during pilot trial and compared to the results obtained at lab scale with fibers taken from the pilot plant modules. PFU culture method was compared to RT-PCR method for the calculation of LRV in both cases. Preliminary tests at lab scale showed that both methods can be used interchangeably. For tests conducted on virgin membrane, a good consistency was observed between lab and pilot scale results with the two analytical methods used. This work intends to show that a reliable determination of the membranes performances based on RT-PCR analytical method can be achieved during the operation of the UF units.

  16. Symptoms of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder in United States Air Force "drone" operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne L; McDonald, Kent D; Prince, Lillian; Goodman, Tanya; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie N; Thompson, William

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study is to repeat a survey administered in 2010 to assess for changes in mental health among United States Air Force aircrew operating Predator/Reaper remotely piloted aircraft, also commonly referred to as "drones." Participants were assessed for self-reported sources of occupational stress, levels of clinical distress using the Outcome Questionnaire-45.2, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. A total of 1,094 aircrew responded to the web-based survey composed of the commercially available standardized instruments mentioned above. The survey also contained nonstandardized items asking participants to report the main sources of their occupational stress, as well as questions addressing demographics and work-related characteristics. The estimated response rate to the survey was 49%. Study results reveal the most problematic self-reported stressors are operational: low manning, extra duties/administrative tasks, rotating shift work, and long hours. The results also reveal 10.72% of operators self-reported experiencing high levels of distress and 1.57% reported high levels of PTSD symptomology. The results are lower than findings from the 2010 survey and from soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Implications of the study and recommendations for United States Air Force line leadership and mental health providers are discussed.

  17. Integration of Snow Data from Remote Sensing into Operational Streamflow Forecasting in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, S.; Painter, T. H.; Miller, W. P.; Andreadis, K.

    2014-12-01

    The small watershed ecosystem as a unit of experimental manipulation and analysis has been a hallmark of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest for 60 years. Water and nutrient budgets of headwater catchments have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of the response of forested ecosystems to disturbances such as air pollution and land management. A limitation in the practice of this approach is that point-scale measurements are compiled to create catchment scale estimates of fluxes and stores, thus losing process information that could be gained from spatial patterns that depend on position along hydrologic or biogeochemical pathways. Beginning in 2007, high frequency measurements of water table fluctuation, made possible by inexpensive sensor technology, highlighted the previously underappreciated role of groundwater in these steep headwater catchments. Hydropedologic units (HPUs), identified by morphological differences in soil profiles, and reflecting distinct groundwater regimes, were defined and arranged along a generalized toposequence to describe a conceptual model which partitions spatial variation into predictable, repeatable landscape units. Stratification of point scale measurements of soil and water quality elucidates spatial patterns of variation and allows identification of hot spots, or zones of the catchment where certain processes prevail. Specific HPUs are associated with high rates of dissolved organic matter production, nitrification, denitrification and delivery of mineral weathering products to the surface. Moving beyond the small watershed, contrasting spatial patterns in surface water chemistry at the basin scale suggest differing prevalence of various HPUs among headwater catchments. Comparison of water quality patterns with HPU distribution allows identification of catchment properties responsible for regulation of water quality at the point to the catchment to the basin scales.

  18. [Vaccination against hepatitis B: 3 years' experience at the Latium Operative Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, L; Mattioli, R; Ensoli, G; Albertoni, F; Duchini, B; Ungaro, P; Corsi, T

    1989-01-01

    A campaign against hepatitis B was launched in 1985 in Latium Region, Italy, aimed at hospital workers, newborns of HBsAg positive mothers, hemodialysis patients, thalassemics and hemophiliacs. Subsequently, since the beginning of 1987 other at risk categories were included, namely households of HBsAg positive carriers, subjects with accidental exposure to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) (i.e exposure to street syringes), health care personnel working outside the hospital setting such as dentists, private clinics and laboratory workers, etc. A protocol was defined by the Regional Epidemiologic Unit (Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale) in order to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety af the two plasma-derived (pd) vaccines registered in Italy, MSD and Pasteur, in field conditions. Subjects belonging to these at risk categories were distributed among 21 hospital based vaccination units, to which the two vaccines were randomly allocated. Subjects were considered eligible for vaccination if they were HBsAg negative and Anti-HBs negative or Anti-HBs positive at low titer i.e. less than 20 milli-International units per milliliter. Subjects with insulin dependent diabetes, chronic liver disease or known hypersensitivity to vaccine components were also excluded. Antibody response was checked at six months since the beginning of the vaccination, i.e. after two doses of the MSD and three doses of Pasteur vaccine and expressed in miU/ml by use of Hollinger formula. Pre-vaccination screening, vaccination and post-vaccination anti-HBs testing were offered free of charge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Remedial Action Report for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2007-08-15

    This Phase III remedial action report addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility STF-02 Gun Range at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Phase I, consisting of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operble Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory Site-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring, was addressed in a previous report. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance.

  20. [Utilization of technological resources within the framework of operation of a Mobile Mental Health Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoni, D; Sarantidis, D; Katsadoros, K

    2016-01-01

    Telepsychiatry was introduced in the early 1950's for the provision of mental health services from a distance. In 1990 the progress made in telecommunications technologies caused a significant expansion in telepsychiatry services. It can refer to store and forward technologies, interactive technologies, remote monitoring technologies and it is applied to contribute to the lift of restrictions placed on providing mental health services. Restrictions may exist due to geographic isolation, lack of specialized services, high cost of moving patients etc. The positive cost-benefit analysis and the reliability of diagnosis and efficacy of interventions through telepsychiatry have been documented in various research papers referring to a wide range of contexts such as prisons, remote areas, general and psychiatric hospitals. Since 2003 the Mobile Mental Health Unit of South- Eastern (SE) Cyclades has been using videoconferencing in order to provide mental health services in thirteen islands. This area shares many of the characteristics of remote areas such as residential dispersion, lack of mental health services and frequent lack of access to services in urban centers. Telepsychiatry in conjunction with physical presence of professionals was launched by the Mobile Mental Health Unit in order to provide assistance to the evaluation of patients, to therapeutic interventions, to medicine prescription, to crisis intervention, to psychoeducation of patients and their families and to the implementation of educational and administrative activities . The use of existing technology in combination with the development of human resources has enabled continuity of care, crisis intervention and avoidance of involuntary hospitalization for a significant number of persons. Moreover, it has improved cooperation and coordination between the interdisciplinary team and local authorities and agencies. When professionals located in different parts are collaborating via telepsychiatry it is

  1. 20 GHz Operation of an Asynchronous Wave-Pipelined RSFQ Arithmetic-Logic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Timur V.; Sahu, Anubhav; Kirichenko, Alex F.; Vernik, Igor V.; Dorojevets, Mikhail; Ayala, Christopher L.; Mukhanov, Oleg A.

    We have designed and tested at high frequency an RSFQ-based Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU), the critical component of an 8-bit RSFQ processor datapath. The ALU design is based on a Kogge-Stone adder and employs an asynchronous wave-pipelined approach scalable for wide datapath processors. The 8-bit ALU circuit was fabricated with HYPRES' standard 4.5 kA/cm2 process and consists of 7,950 Josephson junctions, including input and output interfaces. In this paper, we present chip design and high-speed test results for the 8-bit ALU circuit.

  2. Modeling and Control of Low Voltage Flexible Units for Enhanced Operation of Distribution Feeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboni, Pietro; Hu, Weihao; Chaudhary, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Battery (EVB) is proposed for providing primary regulation in grid connected mode and for hierarchically manage an islanded LV distribution feeder. The unit models are described and a novel EVB model directly based on manufacturer’s data is proposed and evaluated comparing its performances with Sim......PowerSystems library block. Moreover a voltage dependant power term is applied to the Voltage-Source Converter (VSC) control scheme of the EVB for improving the performances of the islanded feeder. The control is tested in case of under frequency and consequent load shedding occurring at the residential feeder...

  3. Shielding considerations for an operating room based intraoperative electron radiotherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M D; Almond, P R; Boyer, A L; Ochran, T G; Madigan, W; Rich, T A; Dally, E B

    1990-05-01

    The leakage radiation characteristics of a dedicated intraoperative radiotherapy linear accelerator have been measured on a machine designed to minimize the shielding required to allow it to be placed in an operating room suite. The scattering foil design was optimized to produce a flat beam for the field sizes employed while generating minimal bremsstrahlung contamination over the available energy range. More lead shielding was used in the treatment head than is used in conventional accelerators. A small amount of borated polyethylene shielding was also employed since neutron production was present at measurable levels. The room shielding installed in the operating room was demonstrated to be adequate to treat at least 20 patients each month to an average dose of 20 Gy. The worst case exposure was found to be 73% maximum permissible exposure. Administrative control was required for adjoining areas when calibrations and maintenance were performed.

  4. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  5. Unit operations for gas-liquid mass transfer in reduced gravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Allen, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Basic scaling rules are derived for converting Earth-based designs of mass transfer equipment into designs for a reduced gravity environment. Three types of gas-liquid mass transfer operations are considered: bubble columns, spray towers, and packed columns. Application of the scaling rules reveals that the height of a bubble column in lunar- and Mars-based operations would be lower than terrestrial designs by factors of 0.64 and 0.79 respectively. The reduced gravity columns would have greater cross-sectional areas, however, by factors of 2.4 and 1.6 for lunar and Martian settings. Similar results were obtained for spray towers. In contract, packed column height was found to be nearly independent of gravity.

  6. Final Environmental Review United States Air Force Operational Capability Enhancement in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    structures such as defensive 9 positions and the railway used to service the base in WWII remain scattered throughout the 10 installation. While...practices, and leveraged the DoD NOISEMAP suite of computer-based modeling tools. The 24 suite primarily includes BaseOps, NMAP, the Advanced Acoustic ...because there are no acoustic reference data for the RQ-31 4 in the models. The T-45 was selected as the surrogate for RQ-4 run-up operations because

  7. United States Air Force F-35A Operational Basing Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    15 nm offshore. Hill AFB, Utah – Situated near the Great Salt Lake and the UTTR, Hill AFB supports two operational squadrons of F-16s (48 aircraft...except over the Duck Valley Indian Reservation) and also allow flare use with seasonal and altitude restrictions. Supersonic flight is also authorized...possession, import, export, transport, selling, purchase, barter, or offering for sale purchase or barter, any migratory bird, their eggs , parts, and

  8. Scalable Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) to Enhance Situational Awareness in Distributed Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    on board holds only one program, and it is overwritten during the next upload. There are many different versions of boards that the company sells ...computing the algorithm is written in Python, a simple terminal programming language. At the top of that script was the integration to ROS and the rest of...pi-2-on- sale /. Accessed June 1, 2015. [25] Robotic Operating System (ROS) website (n.d.). ROS. [Online]. Available: http://www.ros.org/. Accessed

  9. Apollo’s Warriors: United States Air Force Special Operations during the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    in South Vietnam, three at were made to Honduras, the Dominican Republic, Hurlburt Field, and one each in Panama and West Guatemala, Peru ...MCAO program. Force Military Civic Action Officer (MCAO) To the casual social observer, the ingredients for program conducted in Thailand received...Agent Orange issue. described Agent Orange as so powerful that The 12th Special Operations Squadron ( redes - "within two days [it] could topple a

  10. The Optimized Operation of Gas Turbine Combined Heat and Power Units Oriented for the Grid-Connected Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shu; Ge, Xiaolin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, according to various grid-connected demands, the optimization scheduling models of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units are established with three scheduling modes, which are tracking the total generation scheduling mode, tracking steady output scheduling mode and tracking peaking curve scheduling mode. In order to reduce the solution difficulty, based on the principles of modern algebraic integers, linearizing techniques are developed to handle complex nonlinear constrains of the variable conditions, and the optimized operation problem of CHP units is converted into a mixed-integer linear programming problem. Finally, with specific examples, the 96 points day ahead, heat and power supply plans of the systems are optimized. The results show that, the proposed models and methods can develop appropriate coordination heat and power optimization programs according to different grid-connected control.

  11. Borehole Data Package for Nine CY 2006 Polyphosphate Treatability Testing Wells, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bruce A.

    2007-04-12

    Nine new CERCLA groundwater monitoring wells were installed in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit in calendar year 2006 to fulfill commitments for the EM-20 funded polyphosphate treatability test. Nine new performance monitoring wells were drilled into the uppermost unconfined aquifer, to the Hanford formation - Ringold Formation contact boundary, and completed within the permeable Hanford fm. unit 1 gravel-dominated sequence. The overall objective of the polyphosphate treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat 300 Area uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. The objective of this work was to install the performance monitoring network surrounding the existing treatability injection well C5000 (399-1-23) in support of the implementation of a field scale demonstration of the polyphosphate technology.

  12. Geological Factors Affecting Flow Spatial Continuity in Water Injection of Units Operating in the LGITJ–0102 Ore Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilver M. Soto-Loaiza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to identify the geological factors affecting the spatial continuity of the flow during the process of flank water injection in the units operating in the Lower Lagunilla Hydrocarbon Ore Body. This included the evaluation of the recovery factor, the petro-physic properties such as porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock type and quality in each flow unit. it was observed that the rock type of the geologic structure in the ore body is variable. The lowest values for the petro-physic properties were found in the southern area while a high variability of these parameters was observed in the northern and central areas. It was concluded that the northern area has a great potential for the development of new injection projects for petroleum recovery.

  13. THE FINANCING OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE TERRITORIAL UNITS IN THE WEST DEVELOPMENT REGION THROUGH THE REGIONAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME 2007 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Nicolae-Eugen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to be found methods to increase the competitiveness between the Romanian administrative-territorial units, under the current conditions of the economic crisis, by means of the existing economic levers successfully used within the European Union regions. The development regions of Romania do not have the statute of administrative units, but they represent territorial units large enough to constitute a good basis for the elaboration and implementation of regional development strategies, allowing an efficient use of the financial and human resources. The scope for which these development regions were created had in view the support granted for the larger communities in their action to settle the problems which go beyond the administrative borders and which surpass the financial possibilities of one county. In Romania, the communes, towns, municipalities and counties are defined as administrative-territorial units within which the local autonomy is exercised and the authorities of the local public administration are organized and operate. The local, communal, town, municipality and county councils, as deliberative authorities, and also the mayors and the presidents of county councils as executive authorities have the duties to solve the public matters of the community, acting as authorities of the Romanian public administration. In Romania, the local autonomy is only administrative and financial, having as objective the organization, operation, competencies and tasks, and also the management of the inland resources. The principle of the local financial autonomy implies the fact that the administrative-territorial units have the right to financial resources, which can be used by the authorities of the local public administration when exercising their tasks. According to the Law of the local public finances, the local budget incomes could be made also of the non-reimbursable funds granted by the European Union. Based on the

  14. Isolation and quarantine during pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in NSW: the operational experience of public health units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Philippa L; Sheppeard, Vicky; Staff, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    During the DELAY and CONTAIN phases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in NSW, public health units needed to rapidly surge operations to manage the 3070 potential cases and 1894 contacts notified to them. The Incident Control System, NetEpi (the web-based multi-user access database), training to up-skill surge staff, and electronic communication were all integral to the outbreak response. Ongoing identification and training of surge staff would assist a timely and effective response to future large scale outbreaks. Investing and incorporating information technology tools into routine public health unit business to assist with communication, outbreak management and reporting will improve familiarity and capability within the network to respond to public health emergencies.

  15. Evaluation of incidence and severity of postoperative hypoxemia in neurosurgical patients during transportation from operation theater to surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care unit, Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Mir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Postoperative hypoxemia during transportation from operation theater to intensive care unit is common among neurosurgical patients. Methadology: Arterial oxygen saturation (Spo2 and arterial blood gas analysis was performed postoperatively before and after shifting a group of sixty patients with ASA I and ASA II status undergoing various elective neurosurgical procedures under general anesthesia at Sheri-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Srinagar , Kashmir. Statistical analysis: The data was analyzed using SPSS version 13. The chi-square test was used for categorical variables and student’s t test was used for continuous variables with normal distribution. The data was collected, compiled and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The values were expressed as mean±SD and a p value <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: SpO2 before and after transporting the patients to SICU in group I was 98.90±0.45 and 86.70±3.85 respectively, whereas in group II, the SpO2 values were 98.80±0.52 and 93.95±3.99 respectively. In group III the mean SpO2 before and after transportation was 97.60±1.96 and 83.95±8.64 respectively. The difference in SpO2 in all the three groups before and after transportation was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: We recommend supplemental oxygen administration in all neurosurgical patients during transportation from operation theater to intensive care unit.

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T. [eds.; Musicki, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144.

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This volume is in support of the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the Oak Ridge Reservation (for more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities there). It addresses the quality assurance objectives for measuring the data, presents selected historical data, contains data from several discrete water characterization studies, provides data supporting the sediment characterization, and contains data related to several biota characterization studies.

  18. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  19. An Analysis of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in United States Air Force Drone Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-17

    the assessment, and variability of combat exposure. Otto and Webber (2013) noted that the incidence of mental health problems among USAF drone operators...to complete a demographics and occupational questionnaire composed of several items that assessed gender, age range, rank range, marital status...18–25 222 20.48 26–30 363 33.49 31–34 182 16.79 35–39 150 13.84 40+ 165 15.22 Missing 2 ə MAJCOM AFSOC 140 12.92 ANG 217 20.02 ACC 727 67.07 Rank

  20. Organizational structure and operation of defense/aerospace information centers in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, H. E.; Lushina, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    U.S. Government aerospace and defense information centers are addressed. DTIC and NASA are described in terms of their history, operational authority, information services provided, user community, sources of information collected, efforts under way to improve services, and external agreements regarding the exchange of documents and/or data bases. Contents show how DTIC and NASA provide aerospace/defense information services in support of U.S. research and development efforts. In a general introduction, the importance of scientific and technical information and the need for information centers to acquire, handle, and disseminate it are stressed.

  1. Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2007-05-09

    This report provides a status of the progress made in Fiscal Year 2006 on tasks identified in the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-08, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan. Major accomplishments include: (1) groundwater sampling and review of the groundwater monitoring data, (2) installation of a Sitewide groundwater-level monitoring network, (3) update of the Groundwater Monitoring and Field Sampling Plan of Operable Unit 10-08, (4) re-evaluation of the risk at Site TSF-08, (5) progress on the Operable Unit 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model.

  2. ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE FINAL GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, TEST AREA NORTH, OPERABLE UNIT 1-07B, FISCAL YEAR 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FORSYTHE, HOWARD S

    2010-04-14

    This Annual Report presents the data and evaluates the progress of the three-component remedy implemented for remediation of groundwater contamination at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Overall, each component is achieving progress toward the goal of total plume remediation. In situ bioremediation operations in the hot spot continue to operate as planned. Progress toward the remedy objectives is being made, as evidenced by continued reduction in the amount of accessible residual source and decreases in downgradient contaminant flux, with the exception of TAN-28. The injection strategy is maintaining effective anaerobic reductive dechlorination conditions, as evidenced by complete degradation of trichloroethene and ethene production in the biologically active wells. In the medial zone, the New Pump and Treat Facility operated in standby mode. Trichloroethene concentrations in the medial zone wells are significantly lower than the historically defined concentration range of 1,000 to 20,000 μg/L. The trichloroethene concentrations in TAN-33, TAN-36, and TAN-44 continue to be below 200 μg/L. Monitoring in the distal zone wells outside and downgradient of the plume boundary demonstrate that some plume expansion has occurred, but less than the amount allowed in the Record of Decision Amendment. Additional data need to be collected for wells in the monitored natural attenuation part of the plume to confirm that the monitored natural attenuation part of the remedy is proceeding as predicted in the modeling.

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Hispanic Veterans-A Review Using the PRISMA Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Vanessa D; Rozelle, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-12

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an "alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force." TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA) identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI.

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury in United States Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF Hispanic Veterans—A Review Using the PRISMA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa D. Arriola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is commonly defined by Menon et al. as an “alteration of the brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force.” TBI can be caused by penetrating trauma to the head in which the magnitude of the injury is dependent on the magnitude of the forces that are applied to the head. The consequences of TBI can range from minimal to severe disability and even death. The major objectives of this systematic review are to survey the current literature on Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF Hispanic veterans with TBI. To complete this analysis, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalysis (PRISMA identified 875 articles in common and retrieved a total of 34 articles that met the inclusion criteria, consisted of OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans, reported quantitative data, and were conducted with adult U.S. veterans living in the United States. Since TBI diagnosis was unclear in most articles, only five articles that used the VATBIST instrument were analyzed. The results suggested that there is a lack of research on OEF/OIF Hispanic veterans and Hispanic subgroups. Future studies need to be conducted to consider minority groups while analyzing data involving TBI.

  5. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo;

    2015-01-01

    for single- and two-phase heat transfer coefficients.The results indicate that severe load changes (0.4–1.0 MWs-1) can lead to exceedance of thetemperature limit of fluid decomposition for a period of 10 min. Ramp rates lower than 0.3MWs-1 areacceptable considering the stability of the electric grid......This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  6. Impact of computerized information systems on workload in operating room and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, R J

    2009-03-01

    The number of operating rooms and intensive care departments equipped with a clinical information system (CIS) is rapidly expanding. Amongst the putative advantages of such an installation, reduction in workload for the clinician is one of the most appealing. The scarce studies looking at workload variations associated with the implementation of a CIS, only focus on direct workload discarding indirect changes in workload. Descriptions of the various methods to quantify workload are provided. The hypothesis that a third generation CIS can reduce documentation time for ICU nurses and increase time they spend on patient care, is supported by recent literature. Though it seems obvious to extrapolate these advantages of a CIS to the anesthesiology department or physicians in the intensive care, studies examining this assumption are scarce.

  7. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  8. Trends in operative experience of pediatric surgical residents in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingeret, Abbey L; Stolar, Charles J H; Cowles, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the number of training programs in pediatric surgery occurred from 2003 through 2010. We sought to determine the effect of program expansion on case volume and distribution of operative experience. Public domain data on pediatric surgery resident summary statistics available from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) from July 2003 through June 2010 were analyzed. Total case volume as primary surgeon or teaching assistant, mean case volume per resident, standard deviation, mode, minimum, and maximum number of cases per resident were evaluated. Mean total cases per resident, minimally invasive laparoscopic and thoracoscopic cases, and requisite cases as defined by the ACGME categories of: tumor, important pediatric surgical, and neonatal cases were analyzed by a Cuzick Wilcoxon-type nonparametric trend statistic using a significance level of 0.05. Skew was assessed by Pearson coefficient with levels of -0.5 to 0.5 defining a parametric distribution. The number of pediatric surgical training residents increased by 42% during the years reported, from 24 to 34. No statistically significant difference was found in the mean number of total cases or requisite cases per resident. The mean volume of minimally invasive procedures increased significantly. Case volume per resident was non-parametrically distributed with increasing positive skew over time. The increase in number of pediatric surgical resident training positions has not adversely affected overall operative experience or exposure to highly specialized requisite cases, on average. The increasing positive skew of total and index cases, however, suggests that variability between programs in case exposure is increasing over time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Vertebrate Brain, Evidence of Its Modular Organization and Operating System: Insights into the Brain's Basic Units of Structure, Function, and Operation and How They Influence Neuronal Signaling and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, Morris H

    2011-01-01

    The human brain is a complex organ made up of neurons and several other cell types, and whose role is processing information for use in eliciting behaviors. However, the composition of its repeating cellular units for both structure and function are unresolved. Based on recent descriptions of the brain's physiological "operating system", a function of the tri-cellular metabolism of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) for supply of energy, and on the nature of "neuronal words and languages" for intercellular communication, insights into the brain's modular structural and functional units have been gained. In this article, it is proposed that the basic structural unit in brain is defined by its physiological operating system, and that it consists of a single neuron, and one or more astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular system endothelial cells. It is also proposed that the basic functional unit in the brain is defined by how neurons communicate, and consists of two neurons and their interconnecting dendritic-synaptic-dendritic field. Since a functional unit is composed of two neurons, it requires two structural units to form a functional unit. Thus, the brain can be envisioned as being made up of the three-dimensional stacking and intertwining of myriad structural units which results not only in its gross structure, but also in producing a uniform distribution of binary functional units. Since the physiological NAA-NAAG operating system for supply of energy is repeated in every structural unit, it is positioned to control global brain function.

  10. Predictability of Operant Behavior of Rats by Prefrontal Multiple Unit Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sei-Etsu; Akema, Tatsuo; Izaki, Yoshinori

    To investigate the possibility of a brain computer interface (BCI) constructed using activities of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), we analyzed PFC multiple unit activities (MUAs) during a delayed reinforcement (DRF) lever press task in rats. In the DRF task, each trial consisted of two lever press responses (R1, R2): R1 as the trial initiation, R2 as a pre-conditioned response to a stimulus (buzzer) for a reward. Between R1 and the buzzer, rats were required to inhibit the lever press (waiting phase). The trial was evaluated as incorrect if rats pressed the lever during the waiting phase. Results show that the mean firing rate (MFR) was significantly lower around the time of R1 compared with the pre-trial time in correct trials, although no significant changes were found in incorrect trials. From a neuroengineering perspective, the MFR of each single trial was calculated. Most correct trials showed decreasing MFR around the time of R1. The PFC MUA might be useful for BCI.

  11. Major Problems Related with Operation of Catalytic Reforming Units and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    @@ Currently the catalytic reforming units are playing an increasingly important role for gasoline quality upgrading, increased production of high add-value aromatic compounds and supply of cheap hydrogen resources. The high proportion of FCC gasoline in China' s automotive gasoline pool has led to a quite significant gap in gasoline quality as compared to the demand of World Fuel Charter and even to the new Chinese standards for unleaded automotive gasoline. According to the statistical data, the ratio of FCC naphtha in the gasoline pool is 35% in the US and 27% in EU, whereas that number is 75% in China's gasoline pool. The share of reformate and other high-quality gasoline components in the gasoline pool is 65% in the US and 73% in EU, whereas that number is merely 14% in China's gasoline pool along with a definite share of low-octane (straight-run) gasoline. Therefore, devoting major efforts to the development of catalytic reforming technology to increase the output of high-octane, lowolefin and low-sulfur reformer gasoline component is an effective avenue for gasoline quality upgrading along with increased production of high add-value aromatics and cheap hydrogen.

  12. [Ethics consultation unit in nephrology (UCEN): review of 10 years of operation in the Grenoble area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizi Balzan, Jocelyne; Moreaud, Olivier; Palacin, Pedro; Truche, Anne-Sophie; Zaoui, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    The existence of an ethics consultation unit in nephrology (UCEN) gives to the nephrologist the collegiality required to meet the difficulties of therapeutic choice on a legislative level, particularly in indications of stop dialysis. The discussion conducted, outside the emergency, is guided by a tool for reflexion that details successive steps necessary to the identification of elements required for decision-making. Thanks to complementary skills provided by the participants and training acquired, the UCEN can approach other ethic issues encountered during practice such as contrindication for a kidney transplantation or maintenance of conservative treatment, or performing invasive procedures on patients refusing transfusion. Propositions are not always relevant due to opposition or ambivalence of some patients, their relatives, an external or disagreements between teams or a mismatch between the technical and the patient's condition. These non-conformities decrypted always have an explanation, sometimes they are understood and accepted by the teams, and sometimes they became source of regrets when they extend life in very poor conditions. The UCEN, if it does not solve every single point, remains a place and a time of sharing that face difficult situations, help the nephrologist positioning himself on maintaining treatments that were first to avoid and prevent the realization of unreasonable acts and accept their limits.

  13. The price of surgery: markup of operative procedures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Faiz; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2017-02-01

    Despite cost containment efforts, the price for surgery is not subject to any regulations. We sought to characterize and compare variability in pricing for commonly performed major surgical procedures across the United States. Medicare claims corresponding to eight major surgical procedures (aortic aneurysm repair, aortic valvuloplasty, carotid endartectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, esophagectomy, pancreatectomy, liver resection, and colectomy) were identified using the Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File for 2013. For each procedure, total charges, Medicare-allowable costs, and total payments were recorded. A procedure-specific markup ratio (MR; ratio of total charges to Medicare-allowable costs) was calculated and compared between procedures and across states. Variation in MR was compared using a coefficient of variation (CoV). Among all providers, the median MR was 3.5 (interquartile range: 3.1-4.0). MR was noted to vary by procedure; ranging from 3.0 following colectomy to 6.0 following carotid endartectomy (P < 0.001). MR also varied for the same procedure; varying the least after liver resection (CoV = 0.24), while coronary artery bypass grafting pricing demonstrated the greatest variation in MR (CoV = 0.53). Compared with the national average, MR varied by 36% between states ranging from 1.8 to 13.0. Variation in MR was also noted within the same state varying by 15% within the state of Arkansas (CoV = 0.15) compared with 51% within the state of Wisconsin (CoV = 0.51). Significant variation was noted for the price of surgery by procedure as well as between and within different geographical regions. Greater scrutiny and transparency in the price of surgery is required to promote cost containment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping the solid-state properties of crystalline lysozyme during pharmaceutical unit-operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Grimsey, Ian M; Forbes, Robert T

    2015-10-10

    Bulk crystallisation of protein therapeutic molecules towards their controlled drug delivery is of interest to the biopharmaceutical industry. The complexity of biotherapeutic molecules is likely to lead to complex material properties of crystals in the solid state and to complex transitions. This complexity is explored using batch crystallised lysozyme as a model. The effects of drying and milling on the solid-state transformations of lysozyme crystals were monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), FT-Raman, and enzymatic assay. XRPD was used to characterise crystallinity and these data supported those of crystalline lysozyme which gave a distinctive DSC thermogram. The apparent denaturation temperature (Tm) of the amorphous lysozyme was ∼201 °C, while the Tm of the crystalline form was ∼187 °C. Raman spectra supported a more α-helix rich structure of crystalline lysozyme. This structure is consistent with reduced cooperative unit sizes compared to the amorphous lysozyme and is consistent with a reduction in the Tm of the crystalline form. Evidence was obtained that milling also induced denaturation in the solid-state, with the denatured lysozyme showing no thermal transition. The denaturation of the crystalline lysozyme occurred mainly through its amorphous form. Interestingly, the mechanical denaturation of lysozyme did not affect its biological activity on dissolution. Lysozyme crystals on drying did not become amorphous, while milling-time played a crucial role in the crystalline-amorphous-denatured transformations of lysozyme crystals. DSC is shown to be a key tool to monitor quantitatively these transformations.

  15. Microorganisms in Confined Habitats: Microbial Monitoring and Control of Intensive Care Units, Operating Rooms, Cleanrooms and the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maximilian; Mahnert, Alexander; Koskinen, Kaisa; Pausan, Manuela R; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Krause, Robert; Perras, Alexandra K; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Berg, Gabriele; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS) are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room), product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms), or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 - and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g., microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic) resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  16. Microorganisms in confined habitats: Microbial monitoring and control of intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are characterized by a specific microbial community, the indoor microbiome. Most indoor environments are connected to the natural environment by high ventilation, but some habitats are more confined: intensive care units, operating rooms, cleanrooms and the international space station (ISS are extraordinary living and working areas for humans, with a limited exchange with the environment. The purposes for confinement are different: a patient has to be protected from infections (intensive care unit, operating room, product quality has to be assured (cleanrooms, or confinement is necessary due to extreme, health-threatening outer conditions, as on the ISS. The ISS represents the most secluded man-made habitat, constantly inhabited by humans since November 2000 – and, inevitably, also by microorganisms. All of these man-made confined habitats need to be microbiologically monitored and controlled, by e.g. microbial cleaning and disinfection. However, these measures apply constant selective pressures, which support microbes with resistance capacities against antibiotics or chemical and physical stresses and thus facilitate the rise of survival specialists and multi-resistant strains. In this article, we summarize the available data on the microbiome of aforementioned confined habitats. By comparing the different operating, maintenance and monitoring procedures as well as microbial communities therein, we emphasize the importance to properly understand the effects of confinement on the microbial diversity, the possible risks represented by some of these microorganisms and by the evolution of (antibiotic resistances in such environments - and the need to reassess the current hygiene standards.

  17. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  18. Introduction of an acute surgical unit: comparison of performance indicators and outcomes for operative management of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, John F; Steele, M; Parker, D; Puhalla, H

    2014-08-01

    The Acute Surgical Unit (ASU) is a recent change in management of acute general surgical patients in hospitals worldwide. In contrast to traditional management of acute surgical presentations by a rotating on-call system, ASUs are shown to deliver improved efficiency and patient outcomes. This study investigated the impact of an ASU on operative management of appendicitis, the most common acute surgical presentation, by comparing performance indicators and patient outcomes prior to and after introduction of an ASU at the Gold Coast Hospital, Queensland, Australia. A retrospective study of patients admitted from the Emergency Department (ED) and who underwent emergency appendectomy from February 2010 to January 2011 (pre-ASU) and after introduction of the ASU from February 2011 to January 2012 (post-ASU). A total of 548 patients underwent appendectomy between February 2010 and January 2012, comprising 247 pre-ASU and 301 post-ASU patients. Significant improvements were demonstrated: reduced time to surgical review, fewer complications arising from operations commencing during ASU in-hours, and more appendectomies performed during the daytime attended by the consultant. There was no significant difference in total cost of admission or total admission length of stay. This study demonstrated that ASUs have potential to significantly improve the outcomes for operative management of acute appendicitis compared to the traditional on-call model. The impact of the ASU was limited by access to theaters and restricted ASU operation hours. Further investigation of site-specific determinants could be beneficial to optimize this new model of acute surgical care.

  19. Deployment and operation of a transportable burn intensive care unit in response to a burn multiple casualty incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Stack, Richard S; Carr, Shamus R; Broger, Kristine P; Crews, David M; Renz, Evan M; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2010-01-01

    In many hospitals, intensive care units (ICUs) operate at or above capacity on a daily basis. Multiple casualty incidents will create a sudden need for additional ICU beds and hospital planning for disaster response must anticipate the need for rapid ICU expansion. In this article, the authors describe the management of 6 patients who were burned in Guam and successfully transported a distance of 7,268 miles to San Antonio, TX, for tertiary burn center care. The mission required creation of a temporary burn ICU at Tripler Army Medical Center in Hawaii, approximately midway between the referring hospital and the receiving burn center. A method of creating a temporary burn center is described. Lessons learned, including the need to standardize equipment, and to cross-train and cross-credential medical personnel, are applicable to both military and civilian mass casualty management.

  20. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  1. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of Six 300-FF-2 Operable Unit Solid Waste Burial Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Ludowise

    2006-12-12

    This report provides the final hazard categorization (FHC) for the remediation of six solid waste disposal sites (referred to as burial grounds) located in the 300-FF-2 Operable Unit (OU) on the Hanford Site. These six sites (618-1, 618-2, 618-3, 618-7, 618-8, and 618-13 Burial Grounds) were determined to have a total radionuclide inventory (WCH 2005a, WCH 2005d, WCH 2005e and WCH 2006b) that exceeds the DOE-STD-1027 Category 3 threshold quantity (DOE 1997) and are the subject of this analysis. This FHC document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the FHC and commitments for the 300-FF-2 Burial Grounds Remediation Project.

  2. A control approach for the operation of DG units under variations of interfacing impedance in grid-connected mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseini, S. Kazem; Pouresmaeil, E.; Hosseinnia, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    converter is highly sensitive to the impacts of this impedance changes; then, DG unit cannot inject appropriate currents. To deal with the instability problem, a control method based on fractional order active sliding mode is proposed in this paper, which is less sensitive to variations of interfacing...... impedance. A fractional sliding surface, which demonstrates the desired dynamics of system is developed and then, the controller is designed in two phases as sliding and reaching phases to keep the control loop stable. Stability issues of the control method are discussed in details and the conditions...... in which the proposed model works in a stable operating mode is defined. The proposed control method takes a role to provide high quality power injection and ensures precise references tracking and fast response despite such uncertainties. Theoretical analyses and simulation results are established...

  3. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  4. Limited Field Investigation Report for Uranium Contamination in the 300 Area, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bruce A.; Brown, Christopher F.; Um, Wooyong; Nimmons, Michael J.; Peterson, Robert E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Spane, Frank A.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2007-11-01

    Four new CERCLA groundwater monitoring wells were installed in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit in FY 2006 to fulfill commitments for well installations proposed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-24-57. Wells were installed to collect data to determine the distribution of process uranium and other contaminants of potential concern in groundwater. These data will also support uranium contaminant transport simulations and the wells will supplement the water quality monitoring network for the 300-FF-5 OU. This report supplies the information obtained during drilling, characterization, and installation of the new groundwater monitoring wells. This document also provides a compilation of hydrogeologic, geochemical, and well construction information obtained during drilling, well development, and sample collection/analysis activities.

  5. Evaluation and Screening of Remedial Technologies for Uranium at the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmons, Michael J.

    2007-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is presently conducting a re-evaluation of remedies addressing persistent dissolved uranium concentrations in the upper aquifer under the 300 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This work is being conducted as a Phase III feasibility study for the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy. As part of the feasibility study process, a comprehensive inventory of candidate remedial technologies was conducted by PNNL. This report documents the identification and screening of candidate technologies. The screening evaluation was conducted in accordance with guidance and processes specified by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations associated with implementation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process.

  6. [The implementation of an independent and differentiated pain management SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) for the interdisciplinary intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Hansjörg; Wulf, Hinnerk; Vassiliou, Timon

    2013-03-01

    Up to the present day, pain management in the ICU (Intensive Care Units) is a unresolved clinical problem due to patient heterogeneity with complex variation in etiopathology and treatment of the underlying diseases. Therefore, therapeutic strategies in terms of standard operating procedure (SOP) are a necessary to improve the pain management for intensive care patients. Common guidelines for analgosedation are often inadequate to reflect the clinical situation. In particular, for an ICU setting without permanent presence of a physician a missing pain management SOP resulting in delayed pain therapy caused by a therapeutic uncertainty of the nurse staff. In addition to our pre-existing SOP for analgosedation we implemented a pain management SOP for our interdisciplinary, anaesthesiologic ICU. A exploratory survey among the nurse staff was conducted to assess the efficacy of the SOP. The results of the evaluation after a 6 month follow-up indicated a faster onset of pain management and good acceptance by the nursing staff.

  7. Assassination in the United States: an operational study of recent assassins, attackers, and near-lethal approachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, R A; Vossekuil, B

    1999-03-01

    This study is the first operational exploration of the thinking and behavior of all 83 persons known to have attacked, or approached to attack, a prominent public official or public figure in the United States since 1949. In addition to data about each attack or near-attack and each subject's demographic and background characteristics, information was gathered about each subject's ideas and actions in the days and weeks before their attacks or near-lethal approaches. Questions were examined about each subject's movement from the idea of attack to actual attack, motives, selection of targets, planning, communication of threat and intent, symptoms of mental illness, and significant life experiences. In every case, the attack or near-attack was the end result of an understandable, and often discernible, process of thinking and action. Implications for protectors, investigators, and researchers are discussed.

  8. Planning intensive care unit design using computer simulation modeling: optimizing integration of clinical, operational, and architectural requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼHara, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Nurses have increasingly been regarded as critical members of the planning team as architects recognize their knowledge and value. But the nurses' role as knowledge experts can be expanded to leading efforts to integrate the clinical, operational, and architectural expertise through simulation modeling. Simulation modeling allows for the optimal merge of multifactorial data to understand the current state of the intensive care unit and predict future states. Nurses can champion the simulation modeling process and reap the benefits of a cost-effective way to test new designs, processes, staffing models, and future programming trends prior to implementation. Simulation modeling is an evidence-based planning approach, a standard, for integrating the sciences with real client data, to offer solutions for improving patient care.

  9. Operational Use of the US Army Reserve in Foreign Disaster Relief to Support the United States Government’s Strategic Use of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    in military operations over the last two decades are foundational for the USAR’s institutional agility and flexibility. Reservists are also...Assistance and Disaster Response A Monograph by MAJ Kelly J. Pajak United States Army Reserve School of Advanced Military ...PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Operational Arts Studies Fellowship, Advanced Military

  10. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  11. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  12. The modelling of dynamic chemical state of paper machine unit operations; Dynaamisen kemiallisen tilan mallintaminen paperikoneen yksikkoeoperaatioissa - MPKT 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylen, J.P.; Jutila, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The chemical state of paper mass is considered to be a key factor to the smooth operation of the paper machine. There are simulators that have been developed either for dynamic energy and mass balances or for static chemical phenomena, but the combination of these is not a straight forward task. Control Engineering Laboratory of Helsinki University of Technology has studied the paper machine wet end phenomena with the emphasis on pH-modelling. VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) Process Physics has used thermodynamical modelling successfully in e.g. Bleaching processes. In this research the different approaches are combined in order to get reliable dynamical models and modelling procedures for various unit operations. A flexible pilot process will be constructed and different materials will be processed starting from simple inorganic substances (e.g. Calcium carbonate and distilled water) working towards more complex masses (thick pulp with process waters and various reagents). The pilot process is well instrumented with ion selective electrodes, total calcium analysator and all basic measurements. (orig.)

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1: Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  14. [Decision on the time for post-operative extubation of maxillofacial surgery patient in the intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel Balsera, E; Prieto Palomino, M A; Muñoz Bono, J; Arias Verdú, M D; Mora Ordóñez, J; Quesada García, G

    2009-03-01

    Evaluate moment of extubation in maxillofacial post-operative patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and analyze early complications during their stay. An observational and prospective study. Third level hospital ICU. All patients we underwent maxillofacial surgery and admitted to the ICU for immediate post-operative care from February 2007 to March 2008 were studied. Demographic and clinical data variables of the patients, anesthesic variables prior to surgery and mechanical ventilation and postoperative complications during their stay in the ICU were recorded. A total of 102 patients were collected during the study. Of these, 58 (55.8%) patients were extubated early (within the first 4 hours of admission). Global rate of complications was 12.5%. Length of mechanical ventilation was longer in patients who required cervical lymph node extraction (p = 0.0031). We found an association between complications and late extubation (p = 0.034; OR = 3.78; 95% CI, 1.16-12.31). The multivariant study showed that late extubation and surgery that required lymph node extraction are predictors of complications. In our series, late extubation and the need for cervical lymph node extraction were independent risk factors for complications in ICU. Although early extubation may be hazardous in some cases in the first hours, we have no consistent data to maintain mechanical ventilation longer than needed to recover from the anesthesia.

  15. Ten years maintaining MACAO-VLTI units in operation in the Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, F.; Hudepohl, G.

    2016-07-01

    More than 10 years have already passed since the first Multiple Application Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) facilities got the first light in UT2 the 18th of April, 2003, in the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal Observatory. The achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is normally limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. However, with Adaptive Optics (AO) techniques, this major drawback can be overcome so that the telescope produces images that are as sharp as theoretically possible, i.e., as if they were taken from space. [1] The intention of this document is summarize in few pages some highlights related with the activities needed to keep MACAO units in operation. Some statistics of problems based in Action Remedy tool is included, showing how through these years the number of problems has been reduced, even when there are still some unsolved ones. Some lessons have been learned and there are others one to learn. Corrective and predictive maintenance performed are shown too like the current measurements, transfer functions measurements, thermography pictures, health checks measuring interaction matrix and flat vectors to detect dead APDs or short circuits in the DM, etc. Some forced interventions are included as well like the removal of the cabinets from Coude rooms to avoid that acoustic noise and vibrations perturb the operations, the deformable mirrors reached by cooling leaks and a mirror that got rusty are shown too. Well knowledge of the system, good interaction between different disciplines groups to perform corrective and preventive maintenance seems to be key aspects of keeping it under control and operative during all these years leading to this good result.

  16. Analysis of Acceleration, Airspeed, and Gust-Velocity Data From a Four-Engine Transport Airplane Operating Over a Northwestern United States Alaska Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jerome N.; Copp, Martin R.

    1959-01-01

    Acceleration, airspeed, and altitude data obtained with an NACA VGH recorder from a four-engine commercial transport airplane operating over a northwestern United States-Alaska route were evaluated to determine the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of gust and maneuver accelerations., operating airspeeds, and gust velocities. The results obtained were then compared with the results previously reported in NACA Technical Note 3475 for two similar airplanes operating over transcontinental routes in the United States. No large variations in the gust experience for the three operations were noted. The results indicate that the gust-load experience of the present operation closely approximated that of the central transcontinental route in the United States with which it is compared and showed differences of about 4 to 1 when compared with that of the southern transcontinental route in the United States. In general, accelerations due to gusts occurred much more frequently than those due to operational maneuvers. At a measured normal-acceleration increment of 0.5g, accelerations due to gusts occurred roughly 35 times more frequently than those due to operational maneuvers.

  17. An Analysis of the Twenty-Nine Capabilities of the Marine Corps Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Hostage Recovery ITG Initial Terminal Guidance JEO JTF Enabling Operations JTF Join Task Force JTT Joint/Combined Training/Instruction Team LAR Light...Limited Expeditionary Airfield Operations (EAO). 27. Show of Force Operations (SOFO). 28. JTF Enabling Operations ( JEO ). 29. Sniping Operations (SNO...Relief (HA/DR) Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Airfield/Port Seizure (APS) Show of Force Operations (SOFO) JTF Enabling Operations ( JEO

  18. Vessel Operating Units (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for vessels that are greater than five net tons and have a current US Coast Guard documentation number. Beginning in1979, the NMFS...

  19. SRNL PHASE 1 ASSESSMENT OF THE WAC/DQO AND UNIT OPERATIONS FOR THE WTP WASTE QUALIFICATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.; Adamson, D.; Bannochie, C.; Cozzi, A.; Eibling, R.; Hay, M.; Hansen, E.; Herman, D.; Martino, C.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.; Poirier, M.; Reboul, S.; Stone, M.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; White, T.; Wilmarth, B.

    2012-05-16

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently transitioning its emphasis from a design and construction phase toward start-up and commissioning. With this transition, the WTP Project has initiated more detailed assessments of the requirements related to actual processing of the Hanford Site tank waste. One particular area of interest is the waste qualification program to be implemented to support the WTP. Given the successful implementation of similar waste qualification efforts at the Savannah River Site (SRS), based on critical technical support and guidance from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), WTP requested the utilization of subject matter experts from SRNL to support a technology exchange to perform a review of the WTP waste qualification program, discuss the general qualification approach at SRS, and to identify critical lessons learned through the support of DWPF's sludge batch qualification efforts. As part of Phase 1, SRNL subject matter experts in critical technical and/or process areas reviewed specific WTP waste qualification information. The Phase 1 review was a collaborative, interactive, and iterative process between the two organizations. WTP provided specific analytical procedures, descriptions of equipment, and general documentation as baseline review material. SRNL subject matter experts reviewed the information and, as appropriate, requested follow-up information or clarification to specific areas of interest. This process resulted in multiple teleconferences with key technical contacts from both organizations resolving technical issues that lead to the results presented in this report. This report provides the results of SRNL's Phase 1 review of the WAC-DQO waste acceptance criteria and processability parameters, and the specific unit operations which are required to support WTP waste qualification efforts. The review resulted in SRNL providing concurrence, alternative methods, or gap

  20. Structured expert elicitation about Listeria monocytogenes cross-contamination in the environment of retail deli operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Oliver, Haley F; Kohl, Larry R; Hollingsworth, Jill; Wells, Martin T; Wiedmann, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is among the foodborne pathogens with the highest death toll in the United States. Ready-to-eat foods contaminated at retail are an important source of infection. Environmental sites in retail deli operations can be contaminated. However, commonly contaminated sites are unlikely to come into direct contact with food and the public health relevance of environmental contamination has remained unclear. To identify environmental sites that may pose a considerable cross-contamination risk, to elucidate potential transmission pathways, and to identify knowledge gaps, we performed a structured expert elicitation of 41 experts from state regulatory agencies and the food retail industry with practical experience in retail deli operations. Following the "Delphi" method, the elicitation was performed in three consecutive steps: questionnaire, review and discussion of results, second questionnaire. Hands and gloves were identified as important potential contamination sources. However, bacterial transfers to and from hands or gloves represented a major data gap. Experts agreed about transfer probabilities from cutting boards, scales, deli cases, and deli preparation sinks to product, and about transfer probabilities from floor drains, walk-in cooler floors, and knife racks to food contact surfaces. Comparison of experts' opinions to observational data revealed a tendency among experts with certain demographic characteristics and professional opinions to overestimate prevalence. Experts' votes clearly clustered into separate groups not defined by place of employment, even though industry experts may have been somewhat overrepresented in one cluster. Overall, our study demonstrates the value and caveats of expert elicitation to identify data gaps and prioritize research efforts.

  1. Downstream process synthesis for biochemical production of butanol, ethanol, and acetone from grains: generation of optimal and near-optimal flowsheets with conventional operating units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiahong; Fan, L T; Seib, Paul; Friedler, Ferenc; Bertok, Botond

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing butanol, ethanol, and acetone through grain fermentation has been attracting increasing research interest. In the production of these chemicals from fermentation, the cost of product recovery constitutes the major portion of the total production cost. Developing cost-effective flowsheets for the downstream processing is, therefore, crucial to enhancing the economic viability of this manufacturing method. The present work is concerned with the synthesis of such a process that minimizes the cost of the downstream processing. At the outset, a wide variety of processing equipment and unit operations, i.e., operating units, is selected for possible inclusion in the process. Subsequently, the exactly defined superstructure with minimal complexity, termed maximal structure, is constructed from these operating units with the rigorous and highly efficient graph-theoretic method for process synthesis based on process graphs (P-graphs). Finally, the optimal and near-optimal flowsheets in terms of cost are identified.

  2. The relationship between in-hospital mortality, readmission into the intensive care nursing unit and/or operating theatre and nurse staffing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diya, Luwis; Van den Heede, Koen; Sermeus, Walter; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2012-05-01

      The aim of this article was to assess the relationship between (1) in-hospital mortality and/or (2) unplanned readmission to intensive care units or operating theatre and nurse staffing variables.   Adverse events are used as surrogates for patient safety in nurse staffing and patient safety research. A single adverse event cannot adequately capture the multi-dimensional attributes of patient safety; hence, there is a need to consider composite measures. Unplanned readmission into the postoperative Intensive Care nursing unit and/or operating Theatre and in-hospital mortality can be viewed as measures that incorporate the effects of several adverse events.   We conducted a Bayesian multilevel analysis on a subset of the 2003 Belgian Hospital Discharge and Nursing Minimum Data sets. The sample included 9054 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery or heart valve procedures from 28 Belgian acute hospitals. Two proxies of patient safety were considered, namely postoperative in-hospital mortality in the first postoperative intensive care unit and unplanned readmission into the intensive care and/or operating theatre (including mortality beyond the first postoperative intensive care unit) after the first-operative intensive care nursing unit.   There is an association between in-hospital mortality and/or unplanned readmissions and nurse staffing levels, but the relationship is moderated by volume and severity of illness respectively. In addition, the relationship differs between the two endpoints.   Higher nurse staffing levels on postoperative general nursing cardiac surgery units protected patients from unplanned readmission to intensive care units or operating theatre and in-hospital mortality. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Operation Summary of the Urea Low Pressure Hydrolysis Unit%尿素低压水解装置运行小结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯培运

    2013-01-01

      介绍该厂自行设计的低压水解系统工艺流程,技术特点,装置投运后的情况,以及产生的经济效益。%  The urea low pressure hydrolysis unit technological process is designed by the technical staffs of the plant . This paper desbcribes the process flow , technical characteristics , unit operation and economic benefits .

  4. Remedial investigation work plan for the Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan has been developed as part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the GWOU RI Work Plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide the ORNL GWOU RI. The Work Plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It Is important to note that the RI Work Plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. The RI will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This Work Plan outlines the overall strategy for the RI and defines tasks which are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  5. Aquatic invertebrate sampling at selected outfalls in Operable Unit 1082; Technical areas 9, 11, 16 and 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.

    1995-09-01

    The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory conducted preliminary aquatic sampling at outfalls within Operable Unit 1082 and nearby natural waterways. Eleven outfalls were sampled a total of eighteen times. Three natural waterways (upper Pajarito Canyon, Starmer`s Gulch, and Bulldog Spring) in the vicinity were sampled a total of six times. At most sites, EST recorded hydrological condition, physico-chemical parameters, wildlife uses, and vegetation. At each outfall with water and each natural waterway, EST collected an aquatic invertebrate sample which was analyzed by taxa composition, Wilhm`s biodiversity index, the community tolerance quotient (CTQ), and density. The physico-chemical parameters at most outfalls and natural waterways fell within the normal range of natural waters in the area. However, the outfalls are characterized by low biodiversity and severely stressed communities composed of a restricted number of taxa. The habitat at the other outfalls could probably support well-developed aquatic communities if sufficient water was available. At present, the hydrology at these outfalls is too slight and/or sporadic to support such a community in the foreseeable future. In contrast to the outfalls, the natural waterways of the area had greater densities of aquatic invertebrates, higher biodiversities, and lower CTQs.

  6. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    On December 21, 1989, the EPA placed the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the National Priorities List (NPL). On January 1, 1992, a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) between the DOE Field Office in Oak Ridge (DOE-OR), EPA Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) went into effect. This FFA establishes the procedural framework and schedule by which DOE-OR will develop, coordinate, implement and monitor environmental restoration activities on the ORR in accordance with applicable federal and state environmental regulations. The DOE-OR Environmental Restoration Program for the ORR addresses the remediation of areas both within and outside the ORR boundaries. This sampling and analysis plan focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the ORR and its associated floodplain. Both EFPC and its floodplain have been contaminated by releases from the Y-12 Plant since the mid-1950s. Because the EFPC site-designated as an ORR operable unit (OU) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is included on the NPL, its remediation must follow the specific procedures mandated by CERCLA, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act in 1986.

  7. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2006-06-01

    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  8. Design, construction, operation and evaluation of a prototype anthracite culm combustion boiler unit. Facility test plan: startup and shakedown, parametric studies and long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This proposed performance study is to be performed in the anthracite culm prototype boiler located at Paxinos, Pennsylvania. The boiler is designed to produce 23,400 lb/hr of steam of 200 psig. Effects of operating variables on combustion efficiency, sulfur retention, erosion and corrosion will be analyzed during the runs. The boiler will be operated to determine its technical, economic and environmental performance and to project the viability of it for commercial operation. After the initial testing, the boiler performance will be evaluated over the long term operation.

  9. Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Annual Groundwater Report May 2014 Through April 2015, October 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Jason [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Smith, Fred [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report provides the annual analysis of water quality restoration progress, cumulative through April 2015, for Operable Unit (OU) III, surface water and groundwater, of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management Monticello Mill Tailings Site (MMTS). The MMTS is a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act National Priorities List site located in and near the city of Monticello, San Juan County, Utah. MMTS comprises the 110-acre site of a former uranium- and vanadium-ore-processing mill (mill site) and 1,700 acres of surrounding private and municipal property. Milling operations generated 2.5 million cubic yards of waste (tailings) from 1942 to 1960. The tailings were impounded at four locations on the mill site. Inorganic constituents in the tailings drained from the impoundments to contaminate local surface water (Montezuma Creek) and groundwater in the underlying alluvial aquifer. Mill tailings dispersed by wind and water also contaminated properties surrounding and downstream of the mill site. Remedial actions to remove and isolate radiologically contaminated soil, sediment, and debris from the former mill site (OU I) and surrounding properties (OU II) were completed in 1999 with the encapsulation of the wastes in an engineered repository located on DOE property 1 mile south of the former mill site. Contamination of groundwater and surface water remains within OU III at levels that exceed water quality protection standards. Uranium is the primary contaminant of concern. LM implemented monitored natural attenuation with institutional controls as the OU III remedy in 2004. Because groundwater restoration proceeded more slowly than expected and did not meet performance criteria established in the OU III Record of Decision (June 2004), LM implemented a contingency action in 2009 by an Explanation of Significant Difference to include a pump-and-treat system using a single extraction well and treatment by zero

  10. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.; Frans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with ongoing natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the U.S. Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The U.S. Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. This report presents groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data collected at Operable Unit 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey during June 20-22, 2011, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. In 2011, groundwater samples were collected from 13 wells and 9 piezometers. Samples from all wells and piezometers were analyzed for redox sensitive constituents and dissolved gases, and samples from 5 of 13 wells and all piezometers also were analyzed for chlorinated volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of redox sensitive constituents measured in 2011 were consistent with previous years, with dissolved oxygen concentrations all at 0.4 milligram per liter or less; little to no detectable nitrate; abundant dissolved manganese, iron, and methane; and commonly detected sulfide. The reductive declorination byproducts - methane, ethane, and ethene - were either not detected in samples collected from the upgradient wells in the landfill and the upper aquifer beneath the northern phytoremediation plantation or were detected at concentrations less than those measured in 2010. Chlorinated volatile organic compound concentrations in 2011 at most piezometers

  11. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3. Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains Appendix E: Toxicity Information and Uncertainty Analysis, description of methods, from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  12. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1, main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit (CR/PC OU), an off-site OU associated with environmental restoration activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances into the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989 (54 FR 48184). Sites on this list must be investigated for possible remedial action, as required by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9601, et seq.). This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of this OU and the feasibility of potential remedial action alternatives. These studies are authorized by Sect. 117 of CERCLA and were conducted in accordance with the requirements of the National Contingency Plan (40 CFR Part 300). DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) have entered into a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), as authorized by Sect. 120 of CERCLA and Sects. 3008(h) and 6001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (42 U.S.C. 6901, et seq.). The purpose of this agreement is to ensure a coordinated and effective response for all environmental restoration activities occurring at the ORR. In addition to other responsibilities, the FFA parties mutually define the OU boundaries, set remediation priorities, establish remedial investigation priorities and strategies, and identify and select remedial actions. A copy of this FFA is available from the DOE Information Resource Center in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  13. Bioassay of estrogenicity and chemical analyses of estrogens in streams across the United States associated with livestock operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, David A.; Shappell, Nancy W.; Billey, L.O.; Bermudez, Dietrich S.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Evans, Nicola; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; Shipitalo, J.M.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Animal manures, used as a nitrogen source for crop production, are often associated with negative impacts on nutrient levels in surface water. The concentrations of estrogens in streams from these manures also are of concern due to potential endocrine disruption in aquatic species. Streams associated with livestock operations were sampled by discrete samples (n = 38) or by time-integrated polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS,n = 19). Samples were analyzed for estrogens by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MSM2) and estrogenic activity was assessed by three bioassays: Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES), T47D-KBluc Assay, MCF-7 Estrogenicity Screen (E-Screen). Samples were collected from 19 streams within small (∼1-30 km2) watersheds in 12 U.S. states representing a range of hydrogeologic conditions, dominated by: dairy (3), grazing beef (3), feedlot cattle (1); swine (5); poultry (3); and 4 areas where no livestock were raised or manure was applied. Water samples were consistently below the United Kingdom proposed Lowest Observable Effect Concentration for 17b-estradiol in fish (10 ng/L) in all watersheds, regardless of land use. Estrogenic activity was often higher in samples during runoff conditions following a period of manure application. Estrone was the most commonly detected estrogen (13 of 38 water samples, mean 1.9, maximum 8.3 ng/L). Because of the T47D-KBluc assay’s sensitivity towards estrone (1.4 times 17β-estradiol) it was the most sensitive method for detecting estrogens, followed by the E-Screen, GC-MS2, and YES. POCIS resulted in more frequent detections of estrogens than discrete water samples across all sites, even when applying the less-sensitive YES bioassay to the POCIS extracts.

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 1. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This is the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  15. Managing Postoperative Analgesic Failure: Tramadol Versus Morphine for Refractory Pain in the Post-Operative Recovery Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Kelly; Nolan, Aoife; Barnard, John; Tozer, Megan; Harris, David; Sleigh, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to discover whether co-analgesia with tramadol or additional morphine was more effective for patients who still had severe pain despite being given 10 mg intravenous morphine in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). All eligible patients were consented and recruited to the trial pre-operatively, but only a small subgroup – whose pain was not successfully controlled (pain score 6/10 or more) after receiving 10 mg of morphine in the PACU—were then randomized to enter the trial and receive, in a double blinded fashion, the analgesic study drug; which consisted of either a further 10 mg of morphine, or 100 mg of tramadol, titrated intravenously to control their pain. The groups were compared as to: the time to readiness for discharge, the patient’s pain scores over time, and the presence of side effects. There was no statistically significant difference in any of the outcomes measured. The time to readiness for discharge from PACU was 119 minutes in the morphine group and 120 minutes in the tramadol group. However in approximately half the cases who entered the trial (i.e., where pain had not been controlled with the pre-enrollment baseline 10 mg of morphine in PACU) neither a further 10 mg of morphine nor 100 mg of tramadol effectively relieved the patient’s pain. We found no difference between additional morphine and co-analgesia with tramadol in this study. Patients who don’t respond to reasonable doses of opioids in PACU are very likely to be unresponsive to further opioids, and other non-opioid analgesic techniques (such as regional anesthesia) should be considered early in this group of patients.

  16. Examination of Performance Management Targets in Case of an International Corporation’s Eastern Hungarian Operating Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemeth Zoltan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the social and economic changes, the human is already the main resource which determines the successfulness of corporations. The expertise in managing the human resources is a key factor of competitiveness therefore it has become a strategic question. Primary aim of the treatise is to outline the most important principles, targets and peculiarities of performance management system, which is a central element of human resource management, as well as its interconnectedness with the individual performance evaluation and human resource development through the mirror of one of today’s biggest Hungarian economic corporations. We aimed to explore, by means of document analysis as well as methods of case study and interview, how the targets of performance management are used for increasing the economic productivity, preserving the competitiveness, retaining and enhancing the satisfaction of workers. It can be stated that the PM system was continuously improved in case of the organization examined because the corporate goals and the expected performances were adjusted to the changing market demands over time but, at the same time the goal of differentiation has remained unchanged. Each worker evaluates his/her performance individually, the base of which is the extent of contribution to the corporate results. Based on the results, it can overall be stated that such a well-functioning performance management system is applied in the operating unit of the corporation examined which is strongly supported by the organizational culture and which contributes to the joint fulfilment of personal as well as organizational goals.

  17. Three operational taxonomic units of Eimeria are common in Nigerian chickens and may undermine effective molecular diagnosis of coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatau, Isa D; Lawal, Idris A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P; Nok, Andrew J

    2016-06-04

    Chicken is fast becoming the world's most consumed meat. As a consequence poultry health is more important now than ever before, with pathogens of chickens recognised as serious threats to food security. One such threat are Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which can cause the disease coccidiosis. Eimeria can compromise economic poultry production and chicken welfare, and have serious consequences for poor livestock keepers. Seven Eimeria species that infect chickens are recognised with a global enzootic distribution. More recently three cryptic Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUx, y and z) have been described in populations of Eimeria recovered from chickens in Australia. Two of the three OTUs have also been detected in sub-Saharan Africa, but their occurrence, pathology and the risk they pose is largely unknown. Nigeria has witnessed a dramatic expansion in poultry production and is now the largest poultry producer in Africa. Here, faecal samples collected from nine of 12 commercial chicken farms sampled in Kaduna state, Nigeria, were found to contain eimerian oocysts. After amplification by in vivo propagation all three cryptic OTU genotypes were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including OTUy for the first time outside of Australia. Comparison with a widely used, established Eimeria species-specific PCR assay revealed failure to detect the OTU genotypes. All three of the Eimeria OTU genotypes appear to be common in north-western Nigeria. The failure of a leading species-specific molecular assay to detect these genotypes indicates a risk of false negative Eimeria diagnosis when using molecular tools and suggests that the spatial occurrence of each OTU may be far wider than has been recognised. The risk posed by these novel genotypes is unknown, but it is clear that a better understanding of Eimeria occurrence is required together with the validation of effective diagnostics.

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 4. Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This section contains ecotoxicological profiles for the COPECs for the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The ecotoxicological information is presented for only those endpoints for which the chemicals are COPECs. The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  19. Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

  20. Tanker Airlift Control Elements (TALCEs) and Contingency Response Units (CRUs): Does Air Force Operational Doctrine Need to Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    VERSUS STRUCTURE................................................................................................................. 6 TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS...this paper. Transaction Cost Economics When new units are created, it is assumed that there was a good reason, although sometimes that reason is...AMC TALCE units, people wonder why the CRG was created with embedded MAF support capabilities. One concept of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE

  1. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  2. Analysis of the Capabilities Supporting Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations of the Indonesian Navy (TNI AL) and the United States Marine Corps Marine Expeditionary Unit (USMC MEU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    provides a cost effective means to protect the nation’s interest while maintaining a deterrent posture through global power projection. The United...Preemptive Deployment of Assets  Phased Deployment of Assets  Surge of Supplies and Services  Logistics Posture Disaster Lifecycle Response Phase...necessary shelter and hygienic resources 21 required to prevent the loss of life from exposure to the elements or unsanitary conditions. B. INDONESIAN

  3. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  4. Continuous glucose monitoring system in the operating room and intensive care unit: any difference according to measurement sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Eun; Park, Yang-Hyo; Kim, Hee-Soo; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2017-02-01

    Given the benefit of glucose control in the perioperative period, we evaluated the accuracy and performance of the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) depending on different measurement sites in the operating room (OR) and in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients over 18 years of age scheduled for elective surgery and ICU admission were enrolled prospectively. Two CGMS sensors were inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the proximal lateral thigh and the lateral abdomen. The rate of successful measurements from thigh and abdomen in the OR and in the ICU were calculated separately. Each CGMS values were compared with the time-matched arterial blood glucose measurements. CGMS values from both measurement sites were also compared. A total of 22 patients undergoing cardiac surgeries were studied. The rate of successful measurements was higher in the ICU (73.2 %) than in the OR (66.0 %) (P = 0.01); however, that from thigh (72.9 %) and from abdomen (58.7 %) showed statistically significant difference only in the OR (P = 0.04). The Pearson correlation coefficient of thigh and abdomen versus arterial values was 0.67 and 0.60, respectively (P < 0.001). In Clarke error grid analysis, 94.6 % (89.3 % in the OR and 96.1 % in the ICU) of values from thigh fell into clinically acceptable zones compared to 93.7 % (89.0 % in the OR and 95.4 % in the ICU) from abdomen. There were no statistically significant differences in the accuracy according to measurement sites. The CGMS showed high measurement failure rate, especially in the OR. In the OR, the rate of successful measurement was higher from thigh than from abdomen. The CGMS showed low accuracy compared to arterial reference values. Nevertheless, there was no difference in the accuracy of the CGMS between two measurement sites. Perioperative performance of the CGMS still needs to be improved considering relatively low successful measurement rates.

  5. OptiClust, an Improved Method for Assigning Amplicon-Based Sequence Data to Operational Taxonomic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L; Schloss, Patrick D

    2017-01-01

    Assignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) is a computational bottleneck in the process of analyzing microbial communities. Although this has been an active area of research, it has been difficult to overcome the time and memory demands while improving the quality of the OTU assignments. Here, we developed a new OTU assignment algorithm that iteratively reassigns sequences to new OTUs to optimize the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), a measure of the quality of OTU assignments. To assess the new algorithm, OptiClust, we compared it to 10 other algorithms using 16S rRNA gene sequences from two simulated and four natural communities. Using the OptiClust algorithm, the MCC values averaged 15.2 and 16.5% higher than the OTUs generated when we used the average neighbor and distance-based greedy clustering with VSEARCH, respectively. Furthermore, on average, OptiClust was 94.6 times faster than the average neighbor algorithm and just as fast as distance-based greedy clustering with VSEARCH. An empirical analysis of the efficiency of the algorithms showed that the time and memory required to perform the algorithm scaled quadratically with the number of unique sequences in the data set. The significant improvement in the quality of the OTU assignments over previously existing methods will significantly enhance downstream analysis by limiting the splitting of similar sequences into separate OTUs and merging of dissimilar sequences into the same OTU. The development of the OptiClust algorithm represents a significant advance that is likely to have numerous other applications. IMPORTANCE The analysis of microbial communities from diverse environments using 16S rRNA gene sequencing has expanded our knowledge of the biogeography of microorganisms. An important step in this analysis is the assignment of sequences into taxonomic groups based on their similarity to sequences in a database or based on their similarity to each other

  6. OptiClust, an Improved Method for Assigning Amplicon-Based Sequence Data to Operational Taxonomic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Assignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) is a computational bottleneck in the process of analyzing microbial communities. Although this has been an active area of research, it has been difficult to overcome the time and memory demands while improving the quality of the OTU assignments. Here, we developed a new OTU assignment algorithm that iteratively reassigns sequences to new OTUs to optimize the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), a measure of the quality of OTU assignments. To assess the new algorithm, OptiClust, we compared it to 10 other algorithms using 16S rRNA gene sequences from two simulated and four natural communities. Using the OptiClust algorithm, the MCC values averaged 15.2 and 16.5% higher than the OTUs generated when we used the average neighbor and distance-based greedy clustering with VSEARCH, respectively. Furthermore, on average, OptiClust was 94.6 times faster than the average neighbor algorithm and just as fast as distance-based greedy clustering with VSEARCH. An empirical analysis of the efficiency of the algorithms showed that the time and memory required to perform the algorithm scaled quadratically with the number of unique sequences in the data set. The significant improvement in the quality of the OTU assignments over previously existing methods will significantly enhance downstream analysis by limiting the splitting of similar sequences into separate OTUs and merging of dissimilar sequences into the same OTU. The development of the OptiClust algorithm represents a significant advance that is likely to have numerous other applications. IMPORTANCE The analysis of microbial communities from diverse environments using 16S rRNA gene sequencing has expanded our knowledge of the biogeography of microorganisms. An important step in this analysis is the assignment of sequences into taxonomic groups based on their similarity to sequences in a database or based on their similarity to each other

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April.1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), and Supplement No. 16 (September 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea county, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. In this supplement, NRC examines the significant problems of construction quality and quality assurance effectiveness that led TVA to withdraw its certification in 1985 that Watts Bar Unit I was ready to load fuel. Also discussed are the extensive corrective actions performed by TVA according to its nuclear performance plans and other supplemental programs, and NRC`s extensive oversight to determine whether the Watts Bar Unit 1 construction quality and TVA`s operational readiness and quality assurance effectiveness are adequate for a low-power operating license to be issued. SSER 17 does not address Watts Bar Unit 2, except for the systems which are necessary to support Unit 1 operation.

  8. Operational control and diagnostics of the equipment by the parameters of the electric drive power supply by the example of deep well pump units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishlyannikov, D. I.; Vasilyeva, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the vast majority of Russian oil wells use oil well pumping units (OPU), equipped with a mechanical drive - a balancing pumping unit. The significant lifetime of balancing pumping units used in oil fields of Russia amounts to full or close to full resource generation and to a high accident rate of the mechanical drive rod of OPU. Reduced material costs for operation and maintenance of OPU may be provided by the rejection of the system of preventive maintenance and service during the transition to the actual technical condition. The article analyzes the statistics of the most frequent crash balancing pumping units of OPU and their causes. The prospect of applying the method of instrument control parameters is proved, and the technical condition of the OPU is assessed based on the analysis of the magnitude and the nature of changes in load drive motors, determined by the recording of the instantaneous values of power consumption. The authors consider the construction and operation of the programmable controller ‘AKD-SK’ manufactured by JSC R&D company ‘ROS’ (Perm). Fundamentals of vattmetrogramm analysis of OPU drive motors are stated, and the character of displaying key defects of submersible pumps and balanced beam unit is described.

  9. Sinkronisasi Waktu Kerja antara Operator Supply Part dan Mainline di Unit Produksi PT.TMMIN (Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellisa Kusuma Dewi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam dunia manufaktur waktu line stop adalah masalah yang besar karena akan mengganggu kapasitas produksi. Data waktu line stop yang disebabkan oleh keterlambatan operator pada bulan April - October 2012 menampilkan bahwa 51.39% terjadi di area supply part. Masalah ini terjadi karena belum ada SOP yang mengatur antara supply part dengan mainline dalam hal pengiriman small part, dan tidak ada visualisasi waktu kerja operator supply part yang sinkron dengan operator mainline. Solusi yang ditawarkan adalah dengan menyinkronisasi waktu kerja antara operator supply part dan mainline, dengan cara menambahkan sinyal informasi mengenai waktu kerja operator di area supply part dalam bentuk indikator lampu berbasis PLC. Informasi ini berupa sinyal waktu kerja operator yaitu :start cycle, working process, middle cycle, warning start dan line stop. Setelah adanya penambahan sinyal informasi untuk operator supply part, sinkronisasi waktu kerja operator berhasil dilakukan sesuai standar kerja operator dan sinkron dengan waktu kerja operator mainline yaitu selama 88 detik.Waktu line stop dalam dua bulan terakhir berkurang sebesar 1080 detik dan 1170 detik.

  10. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter application report for Teledyne Wah Chang Albany Operable Unit Number One. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; O`Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report summarizes the application of the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter (PBTSF) developed for the Idaho National Laboratory`s Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program as applied to remediation activities conducted at the Teledyne Wah Chang Albany (TWCA) Superfund Site, Operable Unit One. The remedial action at the TWCA Operable Unit One consisted of solidification, excavation, transportation, and monocell disposal of the contents of two sludge ponds contaminated with various inorganic and organic compounds. Inorganic compounds included low levels of uranium and radium isotopes, as well zirconium, hafnium, chromium, mercury, and nickel. Organic compounds included methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethane, and hexachlorobenzene. Remediation began in June 1991, and was completed in November 1991. The TWCA Operable Unit One configuration option consisted of 15 functional subelements. Data were gathered on these subelements and end-to-end system operation to calculate numerical values for 28 system performance measures. These were then used to calculate a system performance score. An assessment was made of the availability and definitional clarity of these performance measures, applicability of PBTSF utility functions, and rollup methodology. The PBTSF scoring function worked well, with few problems noted in data gathering, utility function normalization, and scoring calculation. The application of this process to an actual in situ treatment and excavation technical process option clarified the specific terms and bounds of the performance score functions, and identified one problem associated with the definition of system boundary.

  11. The operating performance tests of power unit A1 in HPP 'Zvornik' in load-frequency control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojčić Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbine-governing system characteristics derived from testing hydropower unit A1 in HPP 'Zvornik' are presented. These tests give insights into the setup state and parameters of the governing system, as well as the qualitative analysis of load-frequency control response of the case study power unit within the power system of Serbia. Verification of relevant turbine-governing parameters was performed by direct application of appropriate standards and policies. The presented results can be used as a basis for the derivation of a turbine governor mathematical model and for a complete mathematical model of a hydropower unit as an element embedded in the power system.

  12. Ozone monitoring in the UK (United Kingdom): A review of 1978/8. Data from monitoring sites operated by Warren Spring Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, J.S.; Broughton, G.F.; Dando, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    A new national air-quality monitoring network has been established for the Department of the Environment. Its purpose is to determine rural baseline concentrations of ozone and other pollutants throughout the United Kingdom. The report describes the background to the establishment of the network, together with its present structure and instrumentation. A series of data analyses are presented and discussed, with the intention of providing a broad and preliminary overview of ozone observations at WSL-operated monitoring sites throughout the first full year of network operation. Average and peak levels of ozone during 1987/8 are quantified, seasonal and diurnal variations are determined, and high pollution periods are examined.

  13. Report for Batch Leach Analyses on Sediments at 100-FR-3 Operable Unit, Boreholes C7790, C7791, and C7792

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    This is a data report for CHPRC for the 100-FR-3 operable unit. Between August 15, 2010 and December 2, 2010 sediment samples were received from the 100-FR-3 Operable Unit for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 325 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  14. Hydrostratigraphic mapping of the Milford-Souhegan glacial drift aquifer, and effects of hydrostratigraphy on transport of PCE, Operable Unit 1, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2010-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in the Town of Milford, New Hampshire, was underlain by a 0.5-square mile plume (as mapped in 1994) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), most of which consisted of tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The plume occurs mostly within highly transmissive stratified-drift deposits but also extends into underlying till and bedrock. The plume has been divided into two areas called Operable Unit 1 (OU1), which contains the primary source area, and Operable Unit 2 (OU2), which is defined as the extended plume area outside of OU1. The OU1 remedial system includes a low-permeability barrier wall that encircles the highest detected concentrations of PCE and a series of injection and extraction wells to contain and remove contaminants. The barrier wall likely penetrates the full thickness of the sand and gravel; in many places, it also penetrates the full thickness of the underlying basal till and sits atop bedrock.From 1998 to 2004, PCE concentrations decreased by an average of 80 percent at most wells outside the barrier wall. However, inside the barrier, PCE concentrations greater than 10,000 micrograms per liter (μg/L) still exist (2008). The remediation of these areas of recalcitrant PCE presents challenges to successful remediation.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Region 1, is studying the solute transport of VOCs (primarily PCE) in contaminated groundwater in the unconsolidated sediments (overburden) of the Savage site and specifically assisting in the evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial operations in the OU1 area. As part of this effort, the USGS analyzed the subsurface stratigraphy to help understand hydrostratigraphic controls on remediation.A combination of lithologic, borehole natural gamma-ray and electromagnetic (EM) induction logging, and test drilling has identified 11 primary

  15. McClellan Air Force Base operable unit B, two-phase extraction system demonstration test, work implementation plan for McClellan AFB, California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-03

    This document is an integrated demonstration and work plan that presents the technical approach for design, implementation, and testing of two-phase extraction as compared with pump and treat technology in Operable Unit B, investigative cluster IC1 at the McClellan Air Force Base. This work is being coordinated with Clean Sites under a cooperative agreement with EPA's Technology Innovation Office and Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program.

  16. Progress Toward Cleanup of Operable Unit 1 Groundwater at the US DOE Mound, Ohio, Site: Success of a Phase-Combined Remedy – 15310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [U.S. Department of Energy, Harrison, OH (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Cato, Rebecca [Stoller Newport News Nuclear Inc., Weldon Spring, MS (United States); Looney, Brian [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Huntsman, Brent [Terran Corporation, Beavercreek, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) soil and groundwater have been affected by volatile organic compounds (VOC) Present groundwater remedy is collection, treatment, and disposal (pump and treat [P&T]) Several combinations of technologies were used to address soil and groundwater contamination Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) is a viable alternative Majority of source term has been excavated VOC concentrations in groundwater have decreased Attenuation mechanisms have been observed in the subsurface at OU-1

  17. Intelligent support system online for the operation of fossil fuel units; Sistema inteligente de ayuda en linea para la operacion de unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero R, Agustin; Suarez C, Dionisio A; Sanchez L, Jose Alfredo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this publication is to present a support system online for the operation (SAO) of fossil fuel units, having as objective to support the operator of fossil fuel units when handling guidelines and essential information to carry out the starting and shutdown in a safe and efficient way, reducing the consumption of the useful life of the steam generator and the turbine, as well as the operational cost. Here are presented the intelligent systems for the support of the operation and are described the main characteristics in the dominion of application for the support system, its architecture and functionality, as well as the results obtained in the system assessment performed with the aid of total reach simulator of a fossil fuel unit and a pilot unit. [Spanish] Es motivo de esta publicacion, la presentacion de un sistema de ayuda en linea para la operacion (SAO) de unidades termoelectricas que tiene como objetivo asistir al operador de una unidad termoelectrica con guias de manejo e informacion esencial para llevar a cabo el arranque o paro en forma segura y eficiente, reducir el consumo de vida util del generador de vapor y la turbina, asi como el costo de operacion. Aqui se presentan los sistemas inteligentes de ayuda a la operacion y se describen las caracteristicas principales del dominio de aplicacion para el sistema de ayuda, su arquitectura y funcionalidad, asi como los resultados obtenidos de la evaluacion del sistema realizada con la ayuda de un simulador de alcance total de una unidad termoelectrica y una unidad piloto.

  18. 环氧乙烷精制单元生产优化%The operation problems and optimization measures for purification unit of EO plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏庆; 王鸿生; 梁宏伟; 李晓光

    2013-01-01

    介绍了吉林石化乙二醇厂乙二醇装置增设环氧乙烷精制单元项目后的优化运行情况,包括项目运行中的工艺运行优化、对运行存在问题的管线改造和停车清洗置换方案优化情况.通过对该单元的持续运行优化,极大提高了单元运行的综合效益.%This article introduces the situation on glycol plant joint production ethylene oxide(EO) project implementation unit,including operation and optimization of process operation,pipeline reform to solve the problem,the clean and replace program optimization.Late through the project implementation and operation optimization,we ensure that the unit running smoothly,greatly improve the comprehensive benefits of the unit running.

  19. Microbial evaluation of dental units waterlines at the department of operative dentistry, Tehran university of medical sciences in the year 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memarian M.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: According to infection possibility in high risk patients, assessment of microbial contamination in water sources utilized at medico-dental units has become a recent concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbial contamination in dental units waterlines at the department of operative dentistry, Tehran university of medical sciences in the year 2006. "nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, six dental units in the department of operative dentistry were selected to assess microbial contamination in water sources. Samples were taken on Saturdays (the first working day in a week and in the midweek, 64 and 16 hours respectively after turning the units off. Moreover, for investigating the effect of flushing, sampling was done at 30, 60, 90 and 120 seconds after flushing and were taken from three parts of each unit including air/water syringe, turbine handpiece and also cup filler water. Samples were transported in closed sterile containers to microbiology laboratory of the school pharmacy. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance. "nResults: E.coli was isolated from contaminated samples. Contamination decreased by flushing. In midweek after 90 seconds flushing, water contamination disappeared. On Saturdays 2 minutes flushing decreased contamination to lower that 200 cfu/ml (the rate recommended by ADA. Samples taken from turbine handpieces showed significantly higher contamination rate compared to air/water syringe and cup filler water (p<0.001. "nConclusion: According to the results of this study, dental units waterlines showed bacterial contamination which was eliminated after 120 seconds of flushing.

  20. Optimization and operation of RNG-unit for production of reformed natural gas integrated with standard CHP unit; Optimering og drift af RNG-enhed til produktion af reformeret naturgas integreret med standard kraftvarmeenhed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soegaard, C.; Schramm, J.

    2004-02-01

    A steam reforming unit has been developed during this project. The unit converts natural gas into reformed natural gas (RNG), which contain hydrogen. The RNG is combusted in an SI engine, which produces power and heat. Hydrogen was supposed to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and increase the combustion efficiency. An efficient control strategy has been developed, and the plant has been operating automatically without problems for more than one week. An increase in power efficiency of 0,5% was achieved, but almost no reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. However, the engine was unable to operate at excess air ratios beyond 2, where 10% reduction in unburned hydrocarbon emissions was seen. It is believed that larger plants, which operates with more excess air, will demonstrate more reduction in unburned hydrocarbons with RNG. An increase in compression ratio with RNG over NG is possible since the engine operates more stable on RNG. This could further improve power efficiency with 2-3%. The payback time for the plant was calculated to be 81 years without the effect from increased compression ratio. This does not support implementation of the plant in practice. (au)

  1. The experience in the Cernavoda Unit 1 operation - a stimulating argument for future nuclear power development in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotaru, I. [S.N. Nuclearelectrica, S.A., Romanian Nuclear Power Company (Romania); Bucur, I. [CNE - PROD, Cernavoda Unit 1 (Romania); Galeriu, A.C. [FCN, Pitesti, Nuclear Fuel Plant (Romania); Budan, O. [S.N. Nuclearelectrica, S.A., Romanian Nuclear Power Company (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    The Romanian nuclear program has been developed based on the option for CANDU type reactors. At the beginning, this program was unrealistically conceived and its management was inappropriate. The program was reconsidered in 1990 and the management policy and organization structure were also adapted accordingly. The paper presents, in the first part, the actual organization structure, adapted for the execution of the current and future activities, related to the nuclear power program. The performance achieved by Cernavoda Unit 1 constitutes the main part of the paper. The performances described demonstrate that the Cernavoda Unit 1 is a success and the Romania's electricity needs are satisfied in a proportion of about 12% by the nuclear power. The paper also presents a general view on Cernavoda Unit 2 perspectives. The essential conclusion of the paper is that the continuation of the nuclear program appears to be a logical option, generally accepted in Romania, limited only by financial restraints. (author)

  2. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  3. Wolf Management Operational Plan Game Management Unit 15A Northern Portion of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this operational plan is to establish a wolf management strategy for the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge that will be jointly implemented by the Fish...

  4. 75 FR 9620 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ....0 Background Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), is the holder of Renewed... SNC letter dated November 6, 2009, as supplemented November 20, 2009, the licensee is required to...

  5. 75 FR 3761 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    .... DPR-57 and NPF-5, issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), for....55 by the March 31, 2010, deadline. SNC has proposed an alternate full compliance implementation...

  6. 75 FR 9622 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ...; Exemption 1.0 Background Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), is the holder of... specified in the SNC letter dated November 6, 2009, as supplemented November 20, 2009, the licensee...

  7. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  8. 75 FR 76052 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    .... Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (FNP). The licenses provide, among other things, that the facility is... consistent with the approach set forth by the Commission as discussed in the June 4, 2009, letter. FNP... regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 73.55 for the FNP, as issued on March 27, 2009. 4.0 Conclusion for Part...

  9. Development of high-performance and low-noise axial-flow fan units in their local operating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Seung; Ha, Min Ho; Cheong, Cheol Ung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon [LG Electronics Inc., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of an axial-flow fan unit are improved by modifying its housing structure without changing the fan blade. The target axial-flow fan system is used to lower temperature of a compressor and a condenser in the machine room of a household refrigerator which has relatively high system resistance due to complex layout of structures inside it. First, the performance of the fan system is experimentally characterized by measuring its volume flow rate versus static pressure using a fan performance tester satisfying the AMCA (Air Movement and Control Association) regulation, AMCA 210-07. The detailed structure of flow driven by the fan is numerically investigated using a virtual fan performance tester based on computational fluid dynamics techniques. The prediction result reveals possible loss due to radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow downstream of the fan. The length of the fan housing is chosen as a design parameter for improving the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of the fan unit by reducing the identified radial and tangential velocity components. Three fan units with different housing lengths longer than the original are analyzed using the virtual fan performance tester. The results confirm the improved aerodynamic performance of the proposed three designs. The flow field driven by the proposed fan unit is closely examined to find the causes for the observed performance improvements, which ensures that the radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow are reduced. Finally, the improved performance of the proposed fan systems is validated by comparing the P-Q and efficiency curves measured using the fan performance tester. The noise emission from the household refrigerator is also found to be lessened when the new fan units are installed.

  10. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-08-14

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in

  11. To Implement Energy Efficient of Integer Unit by Higher Voltage Flip Flop Based on Minimum operating Dual Supply Voltage Techinque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Subhashini,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the most energy-efficient operation, this brief presents a circuit design technique for separating the power supply voltage (VDD of flip-flops (FFs from that of combinational circuits, called the higher voltage FF (HVFF. Although VDD scaling can reduce the energy, the minimum operating voltage (VDDmin of FFs prevents the operation at the optimum supply voltage that minimizes the energy, because the VDDmin of FFs is higher than the optimum supply voltage. In HVFF, the VDD of combinational logic gates is reduced below the VDDmin of FFs while keeping the VDD of FFs at their VDDmin. This makes it possible to minimize the energy without power and delay penalties at the nominal supply voltage (1.2 V as well as without FF topological difications. A four bit alu is designed in these paper by using dual supply voltage usig DSCH.

  12. Simulator of a geotermoelectric unit for the training of operators; Simulador de una unidad geotermoelectrica para entrenamiento de operadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavira Mondragon, Jose Antonio; Lopez Aguilera, Diana Monica; Roldan Villasana, Edgardo Javier; Rodriguez Lozano, Saul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The use of simulators replica in real time for operators training has demonstrated to be one of the best forms to enable the personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). This article shows the basic characteristics of a simulator replica of the Cerro Prieto geotermoelectric power station of Baja California. It is expected that with this simulator 400 people between operators, shift superintendents and operation and maintenance auxiliary personnel become qualified. [Spanish] El uso de simuladores replica en tiempo real para entrenamiento de operadores de centrales generadoras ha demostrado ser una de las mejores formas de capacitar al personal de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Este articulo muestra las caracteristicas principales de un simulador replica de la central geotermoelectrica de Cerro Prieto Baja California. Se espera que con este simulador se capaciten 400 personas entre operadores, superintendentes de turno y auxiliares de operacion y mantenimiento.

  13. Spectrum of colorectal surgery operations performed in a single paediatric surgery unit in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo A. Lawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal surgery is a budding subspecialty of paediatric surgery and typifies the advances in the management of surgical conditions in children. The colorectal burden in resource poor settings, though reported to be challenging, remains undocumented. The aim of the present study was to review the typical operative paediatric colorectal caseload in a single centre in sub-Saharan Africa. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the operative records of the division was conducted between 2009 and 2013. Data were obtained on the demography, diagnosis, procedure performed and type of anaesthesia used; entered into a computer using SPSS (IBM Corp; Armonk, NY and analysed. Results: A total of 120 colorectal operations were performed in 90 patients with age ranging from 1 to 13 years. The major diagnoses were anorectal malformations (64.4% and Hirschsprung disease (HD (31.1%. The most often performed operations were colostomy (45.0%, posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (17.5% and pull through (17.5%. The number of colorectal operations performed each year ranged from 12 in 2009 to 36 in 2012. A higher proportion of patients with anorectal malformations (46.6% presented within the neonatal period compared with those with HD (17.9%, P = 0.005. The age at definitive surgery was less in patients with anorectal malformations compared to patients with HD (P = 0.003. Conclusions: Congenital malformations represent the bulk of the caseload in paediatric colorectal surgery in sub-Saharan Africa and patients typically present late; although patients with anorectal malformations present and are operated upon significantly earlier than those with HD.

  14. Variables in the Guatemalan Operational Environment That Affect Guatemalan Decision Makers Concerning Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    America and the United States in the Eighties, (Panteon Books, 1983), p. 182. 39. Richard R. Fagan and Olga Pellicer , The Future of Central America...Grove Press, Inc., 1983), p. 307. -97- ~ *.4q;~ *~ ~ ~ 9. .~9.... 9 49. Richard R. Fagan and Olga Pellicer , The Future of Central America: Policy...Westview Press, 1983), p. 133. 51. Richard R. Fagan and Olga Pellicer , The Future of Central America: Policy Choices for the U.S. and Mexico

  15. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    focused on sex trafficking . In recent years, there has been a pronounced shift to- wards labor trafficking . Legal guest workers are at risk of being...allegations of Trafficking in Persons (TIP)5. In 2002, the United States adopted a zero tolerance TIP policy regarding U.S. government employees and... trafficking and improving security and risk control through local engagement. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of government-led re

  16. Legacy in the Sand: The United States Army Armament, Munitions and Chemical Command in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-21

    each inbound Scud. Yet at the time of deployment, the United States Army did not have a single Patriot missile capable of knocking down a Scud, or any...Yet the questions are moot. The Patriot missile did exist, and did have the capability of intercepting inbound missiles. That such capacities existed at... Logstics Assistance Division. And to ensure that the form was properly prepared and thus avoid any delays in processing, AMCCOM personnel devoted

  17. A Standardized Domestic Common Operating Picture (COP) is Needed by the National Guard of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    of you. I hope someday you will understand why I chose this profession and why it is my passion. One of my favorite quotes is by Thomas Paine and sums... procrastinator , however, I am pleased to say if you put your mind to it, this project can be completed. Thanks to Dr. Shawn Cupp, my Homeland Security...Terms Used throughout the thesis, the following terms are key in understanding both the National Guard of the United States and systems and

  18. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Ppp of... - Process Vents From Batch Unit Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production Pt. 63, Subpt. PPP, Table 5 Table 5 to... all instances when monitoring data are not collected—PR. d,e If a base absorbent is used, report all pH values that are below the minimum operating values. If an acid absorbent is used, report all...

  19. 75 FR 61219 - Entergy Operations, Inc.; River Bend Station, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ..., one Mechanical Maintenance/Radwaste Operator and one Electrical Maintenance/Instrumentation and... Mechanical Maintenance personnel. Mechanical Maintenance personnel will receive training in basic electrical... Maintenance personnel in basic electrical and I&C tasks, the NRC staff believes that adequate...

  20. 78 FR 37591 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Indian Point Unit 2, LLC, Issuance of Director...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ..., including work sponsored by the NRC at the Sandia National Laboratory's Surtsey test facility, where PARs... thermal hydrogen recombiners because the PAR system could have unintended ignitions in the event of a... electrically powered hydrogen thermal recombiners, control-room operators would have the option of...

  1. Psychomotor Vigilance Performance Predicted by Epworth Sleepiness Scale Scores in an Operational Setting with the United States Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SHATTUCK and PANAG IOT I S MATSANGAS Operations Research Department, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA Keywords fatigue, fitness-for-duty...actigraphic devices and were instructed to take the PVT four times per day, before and after standing for each of two daily watch periods. They were also

  2. 75 FR 69137 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., issued to Southern Nuclear Company (SNC, the licensee), for operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant.... ] Environmental Assessment Identification of the Proposed Action The proposed action would allow SNC to use GNF... that SNC can use GNF-Ziron as an advanced alloy for fuel rod cladding and other assembly...

  3. Development and application of paraffin removal unit in pump detection operation%检泵清蜡装置的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单朝新; 赵明凯

    2001-01-01

    Wax removal is very important work in pump detection operation. Regular wax removal technology has many disadvantages. It can' t meet the requirements of operation progress and limitation period at present. Through research on the law and properties of oil well wax precipitation in Thha Oilfield, tight paraffin removal units of sucker rod and tubing are developed. The paraffin removal units has many advantages,such as high thermal efficiency, short expend time, low labour strength and unpollution etc.. By field practice and application of the paraffin removal units, better results are got.%清蜡是检泵作业中一项重要工作,常规清蜡工艺过程存在诸多弊端,越来越不适应日益提高的作业进度和时效的要求。通过对吐哈油田油井结蜡规律及结蜡特性的研究,结合生产实际,开发出的抽油杆密闭清蜡装置和油管立柱清蜡装置,具有热效率高、耗时短、劳动强度低、不污染、占地面积小等优点。通过现场的实施与应用,取得了良好的效果。

  4. Sono-leather technology with ultrasound: a boon for unit operations in leather processing - review of our research work at Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Swaminathan, Gopalaraman; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar; Ramasami, Thirumalachari

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound is a sound wave with a frequency above the human audible range of 16 Hz to 16 kHz. In recent years, numerous unit operations involving physical as well as chemical processes are reported to have been enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation. There have been benefits such as improvement in process efficiency, process time reduction, performing the processes under milder conditions and avoiding the use of some toxic chemicals to achieve cleaner processing. These could be a better way of augmentation for the processes as an advanced technique. The important point here is that ultrasonic irradiation is physical method activation rather than using chemical entities. Detailed studies have been made in the unit operations related to leather such as diffusion rate enhancement through porous leather matrix, cleaning, degreasing, tanning, dyeing, fatliquoring, oil-water emulsification process and solid-liquid tannin extraction from vegetable tanning materials as well as in precipitation reaction in wastewater treatment. The fundamental mechanism involved in these processes is ultrasonic cavitation in liquid media. In addition to this there also exist some process specific mechanisms for the enhancement of the processes. For instance, possible real-time reversible pore-size changes during ultrasound propagation through skin/leather matrix could be a reason for diffusion rate enhancement in leather processing as reported for the first time. Exhaustive scientific research work has been carried out in this area by our group working in Chemical Engineering Division of CLRI and most of these benefits have been proven with publications in valued peer-reviewed international journals. The overall results indicate that about 2-5-fold increase in the process efficiency due to ultrasound under the given process conditions for various unit operations with additional benefits. Scale-up studies are underway for converting these concepts in to a real viable larger scale operation. In

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forester, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  6. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  7. A heritability-based comparison of methods used to cluster 16S rRNA gene sequences into operational taxonomic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Jackson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A variety of methods are available to collapse 16S rRNA gene sequencing reads to the operational taxonomic units (OTUs used in microbiome analyses. A number of studies have aimed to compare the quality of the resulting OTUs. However, in the absence of a standard method to define and enumerate the different taxa within a microbial community, existing comparisons have been unable to compare the ability of clustering methods to generate units that accurately represent functional taxonomic segregation. We have previously demonstrated heritability of the microbiome and we propose this as a measure of each methods’ ability to generate OTUs representing biologically relevant units. Our approach assumes that OTUs that best represent the functional units interacting with the hosts’ properties will produce the highest heritability estimates. Using 1,750 unselected individuals from the TwinsUK cohort, we compared 11 approaches to OTU clustering in heritability analyses. We find that de novo clustering methods produce more heritable OTUs than reference based approaches, with VSEARCH and SUMACLUST performing well. We also show that differences resulting from each clustering method are minimal once reads are collapsed by taxonomic assignment, although sample diversity estimates are clearly influenced by OTU clustering approach. These results should help the selection of sequence clustering methods in future microbiome studies, particularly for studies of human host-microbiome interactions.

  8. Use and Production of Digital Information and Knowledge in Technical University Education - Co-operation of Faculty and Support Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kaarina Kairamo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly changing educational landscape is of increasing importance in university teaching. Universities in Finland are responsible for research and education based on research. Traditionally information and support services related to using and producing knowledge, support research, and education has mostly been seen purely from the students´ perspective. Teaching in universities is still a hidden individual activity, and, as such, challenges the support units to reach and interact with the academic community. This paper will review the aspects influencing the use and production of digital information and knowledge in technical university education; examples illustrating the experiences will be given.

  9. DOE KSU EV Site Operator Program. [United States Department of Energy (DOE) Kansas State University (KSU) Electric Vehicle (EV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the DOE Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric of hybrid vehicle technology. This will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four(4) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort station wagons. This quarter's report describes ongoing public relations activities and meetings as well as presenting performance data for the electric vehicles. (GHH)

  10. Autonomous-agent based simulation of anti-submarine warfare operations with the goal of protecting a high value unit

    OpenAIRE

    Akbori, Fahrettin

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The Anti-Submarine Warfare screen design simulation is a program that provides a model for operations in anti-submarine warfare (ASW). The purpose of the program is to aid ASW commanders, allowing them to configure an ASW screen, including the sonar policy, convoy speed, and the number of ships, to gain insight into how these and other factors beyond their control, such as water conditions, impact ASW effectiveness. It is also designed to...

  11. Inverse spectral results for Schr\\"odinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in L^P spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    We consider the Schr\\"odinger operator on $[0,1]$ with potential in $L^1$. We prove that two potentials already known on $[a,1]$ ($a\\in(0,{1/2}]$) and having their difference in $L^p$ are equal if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently large. The result here is to write down explicitly this number in terms of $p$ (and $a$) showing the role of $p$.

  12. Weighted composition operators from F(p, q, s) spaces to Bers-type spaces in the unit ball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Xiao-fen

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the boundedness and compactness of the weighted compo-sition operators from the F(p, q, s) spaces, including Hardy space, Bergman space, Q~p space,BMOA space, Besov space and α-Bloch space, to Bers-type spaces H_ν~∞( or little Bets-type spaces H_(ν,0)~∞ ), where ν is normal.

  13. 空分装置安全运行性能的提升与优化%Safety Operation Performance Improvement and Optimization of Air Separation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉

    2013-01-01

    从已发生的故障以及存在的安全隐患出发,对可能出现的故障原因进行综合分析,通过设备换型、技术升级等方法对空分装置进行了改进。改造后的效果显著,有效地保障了制氧机组的安全运行及人身安全。%To the faults and the potential safety problems in operation of an air separation unit ,this paper analyzes the possible causes of fault after a comprehensive analysis ,through upgrading the equipment and technical method ,the air separation unit is improved . The remarkable effect has been got ,and the effective protection of the oxygen manufacture equipment and personal safety has been achieved .

  14. Application of improved technologies for ensuring high quality in safety, maintenance and operation activities of units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy - a successful project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naydenov, N. [Kozloduy NPP Units 5 and 6 Modernization Program, Kozloduy (Bulgaria); Hoch, G. [Kozloduy NPP Units 5 and 6 Modernization Program, AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Krasnocharov, A. [Kozloduy NPP Units 5 and 6 Modernization Program, Dept. Manager, Kozloduy (Bulgaria)

    2007-07-01

    The Units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) became operative in 1987 and 1991, respectively. These units, consisting of a VVER-1000/320 type reactor, have design characteristics, basically elaborated in accordance with Russian rules and standards in force at the time of the design. In order to reach a full compliance with the international safety standards that evolved over the last two decades KNPP decided to introduce the Kozloduy Units 5 and 6 Modernization Program to upgrade the plant, with the main objective to bring the installation to a safety level compatible with current international practices. The Program comprises 212 individual modifications aimed at enhancing safety, reliability and operational conditions of both units. Some of the measures implemented are as follows: -) the replacement of the thermal insulation of equipment and pipelines in the containment, -) the replacement of the turbine condenser tube bundles with stainless steel tubes, -) the replacement of the in-core monitoring system, -) the implementation of new gas fire extinguishing system for the electronic cabinets, -) the implementation of protective measures and the enhancement of the supports of the main steam and feed water lines, -) the installation of a filtered ventilation system, -) the upgrading of the electrical equipment, and -) the installation of new technologies and equipment for facility status monitoring and preventive detection. The installation of the above mentioned systems is not only a change in design but is a long and complicated process that involves the achievement of thorough analysis of design condition and of the integration on new equipment in existing configuration. The Report draws special attention to the value of the experience gained upon the management and implementation of such large-scale and complex designs in the nuclear field.

  15. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): McClellan Air Force Base, Basewide Groundwater Operable Unit, Sacramento, CA, May 11, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Interim Record of Decision (ROD) presents the interim remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit (Groundwater OU) at the McClellan Air Force Base (McClellan AFB) Superfund site in Sacramento, California. The Groundwater OU addresses all of the VOC-contaminated groundwater at McClellan AFB. The Groundwater OU remedy is designed to prevent the spread of contamination that is already in the groundwater by containing groundwater with concentrations greater than maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). The remedy is also designed to remove to the maximum extent practicable the mass of contamination that lies in that volume of the groundwater.

  16. The influence of typical ways of operating and air-handling unit on the sensory pollution load from used bag filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mysen, M.; Clausen, Geo; Bekö, Gabriel;

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether the sensory pollution emitted from a bag filter that had been used for 3 months in a suburban area in Denmark was influenced by different ways of operating the air-handling unit (AHU). Samples of the used filter were pre-conditioned to simulate thr...... the airflow outside working hours would significantly increase the sensory pollution emitted by a used bag filter immediately after the AHU is turned on, in comparison with continuous airflow through the AHU (P...

  17. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  18. Sampling and analysis plan for the site characterization of the waste area Grouping 1 groundwater operable unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative buildings. Site operations have contaminated groundwater, principally with radiological contamination. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to a known extent. In addition, karst geology, numerous spills, and pipeline leaks, together with the long and varied history of activities at specific facilities at ORNL, complicate contaminant migration-pathway analysis and source identification. To evaluate the extent of contamination, site characterization activity will include semiannual and annual groundwater sampling, as well as monthly water level measurements (both manual and continuous) at WAG 1. This sampling and analysis plan provides the methods and procedures to conduct site characterization for the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation of the WAG 1 Groundwater Operable Unit.

  19. Operational experience of a 300-MW lignite-fired utility unit: environmental performance after retrofiitting of a low pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanetsakunvatana, Vicharn; Arkornsakul, P.

    2010-09-15

    The experimental data on major emissions from a 300-MW lignite-fired boiler operating under different fuel LHVs and turbine rotors are discussed. The thermal efficiency was quantified based on the heat loss method. The PM and CO2 emission rates were predicted. Specific emissions were quantified for the boiler of interest. The SO2, PM and NOx emission concentrations in flue gas were found lower than the respective emission standard. The CO2 emissions have also declined 4.65% in 2009, compared to 2008 and before. The clean development mechanism complied with UNFCCC methodology is adopted in this study responding to the global changes.

  20. Distribution of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (MRCoPS) in a surgical unit and cystotomy operation sites in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungwithaya, Punpichaya; Brikshavana, Pasakorn; Chanchaithong, Pattrarat; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2017-02-28

    This study aimed to investigate the spread of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (MRCoPS) among veterinary staff, hand-touch sites and surgical tissue during cystotomy operations on cats and dogs that were patients, and to analyze the genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates. Human and environmental samples were obtained from the nasal passageways of 12 surgeons and veterinary assistants and from 29 hand-touch sites of instruments in operative units and subjected to bacterial isolation and enumeration. Swab samples were collected in triplicate from 29 dogs and three cats at the site of incision, from the incision area, from the peritoneum during surgery and from the peritoneum before suture. MRCoPS were identified by mecA gene detection and characterized by their antibiogram profile, SCCmec type and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four staphylococci were isolated, derived from one veterinary assistant, 12 operating room floor areas and hand-touch sites, three dogs and one cat. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) was found on an electric clipper and rebreathing circuits in the operating room. Three dogs were positive for MRSP during surgery, and one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in a cat. All MRCoPS were resistant to doxycycline, erythromycin, clindamycin and enrofloxacin, but no patients developed surgical site infections. According to their genotypic patterns, the clones obtained from the environment and human sources differed from the animal clones. Despite intensive hygienic management, a variety of MRCoPS clones were present within the surgical unit and during surgery.

  1. Aquatic impacts from operation of three midwestern nuclear power stations: Fort Calhoun station, Unit No. 1 environmental appraisal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shamy, F.

    1981-10-01

    Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1, is located on the west bank of the Missouri River in Washington County, Nebraska. The station, a nuclear powered generating facility producing 475 net megawatts, utilizes a once-through cooling design. The station influences the aquatic biota of the Missouri River vicinity in several ways. The heated discharges of the station were found to have no significant impacts to fish, periphyton, and benthic macroinvertebrates. Minor effects to phytoplankton were noted in warm summer months at the point of discharge. An estimated 227,900,000 fish larvae were entrained annually from the river's ichthyoplankton community, the majority identified as freshwater drum. Fort Calhoun Station impinged an estimated 170,882 fish annually, large numbers of which were freshwater drum and gizzard shad with potential losses to channel and flathead catfish. The station was shown to have little impact on the zooplankton community.

  2. From operations to cognitive tools: new unit of analysis and emergence of the inference-making child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO ESCOBAR MELO

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the passage between the analysis unit used by Piaget in his theory of thinkingoperations, going from the in-action-theories from Inhelder, to the cognitive-scientific tools inside themark of recognizing that the young child uses in a spontaneous way an improving rationality in thecontext of solving problems in an architecture half-end. It stands out the way how questions andepistemic archetypes change in the children studies, unblocking the cognition of a partial and fracturedlook that shadowed it, not letting show out his real functioning, action coordination and the constructionof audacious representations. One resorts is to investigative the landmarks of the Ginebra schooland its later followers post-Inhelderians. The child is thought as a subject that makes inferences whenhe recognizes incongruence and uncongenial completing and improving the reality that his culturalcontext builds.

  3. Operational Simulation Tools and Long Term Strategic Planning for High Penetrations of PV in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuohy, Aidan [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Smith, Jeff [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rylander, Matt [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Singhvi, Vikas [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Coley, Steven [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Roark, Jeff [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lannoye, Eamonn [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pilbrick, Charles Russ [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rudkevich, Alex [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hansen, Cliff [Electric Power Research Institute, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Increasing levels of distributed and utility scale Solar Photovoltaics (PV) will have an impact on many utility functions, including distribution system operations, bulk system performance, business models and scheduling of generation. In this project, EPRI worked with Southern Company Services and its affiliates and the Tennessee Valley Authority to assist these utilities in their strategic planning efforts for integrating PV, based on modeling, simulation and analysis using a set of innovative tools. Advanced production simulation models were used to investigate operating reserve requirements. To leverage existing work and datasets, this last task was carried out on the California system. Overall, the project resulted in providing useful information to both of the utilities involved and through the final reports and interactions during the project. The results from this project can be used to inform the industry about new and improved methodologies for understanding solar PV penetration, and will influence ongoing and future research. This report summarizes each of the topics investigated over the 2.5-year project period.

  4. The NRC staff evaluation of shutdown and low-power operation at nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, G.M.; Caruso, M.A. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's recent evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants are summarized in this paper. The NRC staff's evaluation was initiated following their investigation of the loss during shutdown of all vital alternating current power on March 20, 1990, at the Alvin W. Vogtle nuclear plant. The objective of the evaluation has been to assess risk broadly during shutdown, refueling, and startup, addressing not only issues raised by the Vogtle event, but also a number of other shutdown-related issues that had been identified by foreign regulatory organizations as well as the NRC and any new issues uncovered in the evaluation process. The key issues concerning shutdown risk identified in the integration process described earlier and subsequently addressed by the staff include the following: (1) outage planning and control; (2) stress on personnel and programs; (3) the need to improve training and procedures; (4) technical specifications; and (5) PWR safety during midloop operation. Other technical topics identified for further study by the staff included loss of RHR, containment capability, rapid boron dilution, fire protection, instrumentation, emergency core cooling system recirculation capability, effect of PWR upper internals, on-site emergency planning, fuel handling and heavy loads, potential for draining the BWR reactor vessel, reporting requirements for shutdown events, and need to strengthen inspection program.

  5. When a business isn’t a business: law and the political in the history of the United Kingdom’s co-operative movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Mulqueen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary efforts to develop and promote co-operatives and the social economy confront a tension in the competing and often conflicting aims to achieve commercial sustainability in a capitalist market while also promoting social transformation. Through a review of the historical experience of institutionalization in the Co-operative Movement in the United Kingdom, this article attempts to generate insights into these tensions. Despite being seen as unpolitical, co-operatives can be understood as political at the level of re-shaping sociality through co-operative practice. Although the similarity between co-operatives and joint-stock companies produces ambiguities within the movement, this does not in itself detract from the co-operative project. It is argued that the codification of co-operatives in law as bodies corporate constitutes the closure of the political aspect of co-operation and reinforces and gives consequence to the misconception of co-operatives as primarily commercial entities. Los esfuerzos por desarrollar y promover las cooperativas y la economía social se enfrentan a un conflicto entre los objetivos contrapuestos de lograr la sostenibilidad comercial en un mercado capitalista, a la vez que se promueve una transformación de la sociedad. Realizando una revisión de la experiencia histórica de la institucionalización del movimiento cooperativista en el Reino Unido, este artículo pretende analizar estas tensiones. A pesar de ser apolíticas, las cooperativas se pueden entender como un elemento político por su intento de reformular la sociedad. Aunque la similitud entre cooperativas y sociedades anónimas produce ambigüedades dentro del movimiento cooperativista, esto no va, por sí mismo, en detrimento del proyecto de cooperación. Se argumenta que, al contemplar en la legislación a las cooperativas como personas jurídicas, se acaba con el aspecto político de las cooperativas. A su vez, esto refuerza y termina con la

  6. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODs) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regimes, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This remedial investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the feasibility study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  7. Remedial Investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 4 (shallow groundwater in Bear Creek Valley) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    To effectively evaluate the cumulative impact of releases from multiple sources of contamination, a structured approach has been adopted for Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) based on studies of the groundwater and surface water separate from studies of the sources. Based on the realization of the complexity of the hydrogeologic regime of the ORR, together with the fact that there are numerous sources contributing to groundwater contamination within a geographical area, it was agreed that more timely investigations, at perhaps less cost, could be achieved by separating the sources of contamination from the groundwater and surface water for investigation and remediation. The result will be more immediate attention [Records of Decision (RODS) for interim measures or removal actions] for the source Operable Units (OUs) while longer-term remediation investigations continue for the hydrogeologic regime`s, which are labeled as integrator OUs. This Remedial Investigation work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to the unit. Taking advantage of the historical data base and ongoing monitoring activities and applying the observational approach to focus data gathering activities will allow the Feasibility Study to evaluate all probable or likely alternatives.

  8. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  9. Process Selection and Operation of 400 kt/a Urea Unit%400kt/a尿素装置工艺选择及运行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同福; 宋子兴; 窦义兵

    2012-01-01

    A comparison is made of two urea units based on carbon dioxide stripping and aqueous solution total recycle processes with respect to their main parameters, operation data and production cost. The results of the comparison show that the urea unit based on carbon dioxide stripping process is better than the aqueous solution total recycle process in terms of operation stability and consumption figures per ton of urea although the investment for the former is higher.%对2套分别采用二氧化碳汽提法和水溶液全循环法工艺技术的尿素装置的主要参数、运行数据和生产成本进行了对比.比较结果表明:二氧化碳汽提法尿素装置除了投资稍高外,无论运行稳定性还是吨尿素消耗都优于水溶液全循环法工艺.

  10. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available Quality by design (QbD concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs. Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC, amount of water added (AWA, and stirring speed (SS were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  11. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  12. Bidirectional control of a one-dimensional robotic actuator by operant conditioning of a single unit in rat motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Jean eArduin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of efficient neuroprosthetic devices has become a major challenge for the long-term goal of restoring autonomy to motor-impaired patients. One approach for brain control of actuators consists in decoding the activity pattern obtained by simultaneously recording large neuronal ensembles in order to predict in real-time the subject’s intention, and move the prosthesis accordingly. An alternative way is to assign the output of one or a few neurons by operant conditioning to control the prosthesis with rules defined by the experimenter, and rely on the functional adaptation of these neurons during learning to reach the desired behavioral outcome. Here, several motor cortex neurons were recorded simultaneously in head-fixed awake rats and were conditioned, one at a time, to modulate their firing rate up and down in order to control the speed and direction of a one-dimensional actuator carrying a water bottle. The goal was to maintain the bottle in front of the rat’s mouth, allowing it to drink. After learning, all conditioned neurons modulated their firing rate, effectively controlling the bottle position so that the drinking time was increased relative to chance. The mean firing rate averaged over all bottle trajectories depended non-linearly on position, so that the mouth position operated as an attractor. Some modifications of mean firing rate were observed in the surrounding neurons, but to a lesser extent. Notably, the conditioned neuron reacted faster and led to a better control than surrounding neurons, as calculated by using the activity of those neurons to generate simulated bottle trajectories. Our study demonstrates the feasibility, even in the rodent, of using a motor cortex neuron to control a prosthesis in real-time bidirectionally. The learning process includes modifications of the activity of neighboring cortical neurons, while the conditioned neuron selectively leads the activity patterns associated with the prosthesis

  13. Wireless sensor and data transmission needs and technologies for patient monitoring in the operating room and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksuniemi, M; Sorvoja, H; Alasaarela, E; Myllyla, R

    2005-01-01

    In the intensive care unit, or during anesthesia, patients are attached to monitors by cables. These cables obstruct nursing staff and hinder the patients from moving freely in the hospital. However, rapidly developing wireless technologies are expected to solve these problems. To this end, this study revealed problem areas in current patient monitoring and established the most important medical parameters to monitor. In addition, usable wireless techniques for short-range data transmission were explored and currently employed wireless applications in the hospital environment were studied. The most important parameters measured of the patient include blood pressures, electrocardiography, respiration rate, heart rate and temperature. Currently used wireless techniques in hospitals are based on the WMTS and WLAN standards. There are no viable solutions for short-range data transmission from patient sensors to patient monitors, but potentially usable techniques in the future are based on the WPAN standards. These techniques include Bluetooth, ZigBee and UWB. Other suitable techniques might be based on capacitive or inductive coupling. The establishing of wireless techniques depends on ensuring the reliability of data transmission, eliminating disturbance by other wireless devices, ensuring patient data security and patient safety, and lowering the power consumption and price.

  14. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP&S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP&S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP&S configuration are given.

  15. An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract

  16. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Phase IV Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of areas with the potential for UXO at the Idaho National Laboratory. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. Five areas within the Naval Proving Ground that are known to contain UXO include the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, the Mass Detonation Area, the Experimental Field Station, The Rail Car Explosion Area, and the Land Mine Fuze Burn Area. The Phase IV remedial action will be concentrated in these five areas. For other areas, such as the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range, ordnance has largely consisted of sand-filled practice bombs that do not pose an explosion risk. Ordnance encountered in these areas will be addressed under the Phase I Operations and Maintenance Plan that allows for the recovery and disposal of ordnance that poses an imminent risk to human health or the environment.

  17. Developing a Signature Based Safeguards Approach for the Electrorefiner and Salt Cleanup Unit Operations in Pyroprocessing Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Chantell Lynne-Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Traditional nuclear materials accounting does not work well for safeguards when applied to pyroprocessing. Alternate methods such as Signature Based Safeguards (SBS) are being investigated. The goal of SBS is real-time/near-real-time detection of anomalous events in the pyroprocessing facility as they could indicate loss of special nuclear material. In high-throughput reprocessing facilities, metric tons of separated material are processed that must be accounted for. Even with very low uncertainties of accountancy measurements (<0.1%) the uncertainty of the material balances is still greater than the desired level. Novel contributions of this work are as follows: (1) significant enhancement of SBS development for the salt cleanup process by creating a new gas sparging process model, selecting sensors to monitor normal operation, identifying safeguards-significant off-normal scenarios, and simulating those off-normal events and generating sensor output; (2) further enhancement of SBS development for the electrorefiner by simulating off-normal events caused by changes in salt concentration and identifying which conditions lead to Pu and Cm not tracking throughout the rest of the system; and (3) new contribution in applying statistical techniques to analyze the signatures gained from these two models to help draw real-time conclusions on anomalous events.

  18. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of a prototype culm combustion boiler/heater unit. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 21, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed on the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler/Heater Unit, Phase I - Engineering Design and Analysis, Phase II - Prototype Plant Construction and Phase III - Start-Up and Operation during the period October 1, 1981 through December 31, 1981. The objectives of the program as well as the technical progress and problem areas encountered during the reporting period are presented. Seven shakedown tests were run. Start-up and shakedown testing was completed. Four parametric tests were run. Performance data are presented with the exception of boiler efficiency which will be reported once chemical analyses are completed. Total boiler operation time through the end of this quarter - 1225 h, 50 min; operating time on culm and culm/limestone - 682 h, 43 min. Inspection revealed no problems with boiler tube wear. Sulfur capture greater than 94% was demonstrated (design is 88%). A turndown of better than 4 to 1 was shown (design is 2.5 to 1). Computer control of most of the loops has been successful and manual control was also demonstrated.

  19. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Recovered from the Environment of a Swine Farrow-to-Finish Operation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Stull, Jason W; Mathys, Dimitria A; Bowman, Andrew S; Feicht, Sydnee M; Grooters, Susan V; Daniels, Joshua B; Wittum, Thomas E

    2017-02-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) present an urgent threat to public health. While use of carbapenem antimicrobials is restricted for food-producing animals, other β-lactams, such as ceftiofur, are used in livestock. This use may provide selection pressure favoring the amplification of carbapenem resistance, but this relationship has not been established. Previously unreported among U.S. livestock, plasmid-mediated CRE have been reported from livestock in Europe and Asia. In this study, environmental and fecal samples were collected from a 1,500-sow, U.S. farrow-to-finish operation during 4 visits over a 5-month period in 2015. Samples were screened using selective media for the presence of CRE, and the resulting carbapenemase-producing isolates were further characterized. Of 30 environmental samples collected from a nursery room on our initial visit, 2 (7%) samples yielded 3 isolates, 2 sequence type 218 (ST 218) Escherichia coli and 1 Proteus mirabilis, carrying the metallo-β-lactamase gene blaIMP-27 on IncQ1 plasmids. We recovered on our third visit 15 IMP-27-bearing isolates of multiple Enterobacteriaceae species from 11 of 24 (46%) environmental samples from 2 farrowing rooms. These isolates each also carried blaIMP-27 on IncQ1 plasmids. No CRE isolates were recovered from fecal swabs or samples in this study. As is common in U.S. swine production, piglets on this farm receive ceftiofur at birth, with males receiving a second dose at castration (≈day 6). This selection pressure may favor the dissemination of blaIMP-27-bearing Enterobacteriaceae in this farrowing barn. The absence of this selection pressure in the nursery and finisher barns likely resulted in the loss of the ecological niche needed for maintenance of this carbapenem resistance gene. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The area designated for possible oil and gas lease sale in Bureau of Land Management memorandum 3310 #43 (722) and referred to therein as part of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) contains about 98,000 square kilometres of the continental margin seaward of the 3 mile offshore limit and within the 600 metre isobath. The designated area, offshore of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, encompasses parts of three physiographic provinces: the Continental Shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake Plateau. The structural framework of the U.3. South Atlantic region is dominated by the Southeast Georgia Embayment --an east-plunging depression recessed into the Atlantic Coastal Plain and shelf between Cape Fear, North Carolina and Jacksonville, Florida. The embayment is bounded to the north by the Cape Fear Arch and to southeast by the Peninsular Arch. Refraction data indicate a minor basement(?) ridge beneath the outer shelf between 30? and 32?N at 80?W. Drill hole data also suggest a gentle fold or accretionary structure (reef?) off the east coast of Florida. Several other structural features have been identified by refraction and reflection techniques and drilling. These are the Yamacraw Uplift, Burton High, Stone Arch, and the Suwannee Channel. Gravity and magnetic anomalies within the area probably result from emplacement of magma bodies along linear features representing fundamental crustal boundaries. Of these anomalies, the most prominent, is a segment of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly which crosses the coast at Brunswick, Georgia. This anomaly has been interpreted as representing an ancient continental boundary where two formerly separate continental plates collided and were welded together. There may be as much as 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks in the Southeast Georgia Embayment out to the 600 m isobath. Basement rocks beneath the Southeast Georgia Embayment are expected to be similar to those exposed in the

  1. Reciclagem de fios e cabos elétricos - cabo paralelo Recycling of parallel wires using unit operations of mineral processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishene Christie Pinheiro Bezerra de Araújo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O descarte de produtos eletro-eletrônicos vem crescendo anualmente. Por esse motivo, necessita-se de reciclagem para que se evite o desperdício de recursos naturais não-renováveis. O objetivo desse trabalho é estudar a reciclagem dos cabos tipo cordão paralelo através de operações unitárias de tratamento de minérios. As seguintes operações unitárias foram testadas: moagem, separação granulométrica, separação em meio denso, separação eletrostática, atrição, bateamento e elutriação. Ao final desses processos, observou-se que as operações utilizadas obtiveram concentrados de cobre com baixo grau de contaminação. Observou-se que todas as técnicas precisam de uma outra técnica para complementá-las. Concluiu-se, ainda, que a moagem em moinho de facas com grelha de 3mm é necessária para se conseguir a total liberação dos materiais.The composition and discharge of eletro-electronic products is increasing year after year. To avoid the loss of non-renewable mineral resources and energy, the establishment of a recycling loop for such products is necessary. The goal of this work is to study the recycling of parallel wires using unit operations of mineral processing. The following unit operations were used: grinding, size separation, sink-and-float, electrostatic separation, scrubbing, panning and elutriation. One can observe a low contamination grade in the obtained copper. However, in all cases, a two step flow sheet must be used to completely separate plastics from copper. One can conclude that the total liberation of materials during grinding was reached when the final particle sizes were inferior to 3mm.

  2. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    water depths (20 m - 200 m) is available. Mobil drilling units are in great demand around the world and will have to be brought in from other areas along with skilled manpower. Our highest estimates indicate 50 platforms, 800 producing wells, 1,100 km of pipeline, and 5 onshore terminals may be needed. The time frame for production, using our high estimates (5% probability) for the undiscovered recoverable resources, could include 4-5 years for significant development, 6-7 years until production commences, and 18 years until peak production.

  3. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    In June 1982, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff (NRC staff or staff) issued a Safety Evaluation Report, NUREG-0847, regarding the application by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA or the applicant) for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Each of the following sections and appendices of this supplement is numbered the same as the section or appendix of the SER that is being updated, and the discussions are supplementary to, and not in lieu of, the discussion in the SER, unless otherwise noted. Accordingly, Appendix A continues the chronology of the safety review. Appendix E lists principal contributors to this supplement. Appendix FF is added in this supplement. The other appendices are not changed by this supplement.

  4. [Integration of a psychologist into Nephrology-Dialysis-Hypertension Operative Unit: from needs evaluation to the definition of an intervention model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, Ratti Maria; Delli Zotti, Giulia Bruna; Spotti, Donatella; Sarno, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and the dialytic treatment cause a significant psychological impact on patients, their families and on the medical-nursing staff too. The psychological aspects linked to the chronic condition of Kidney Disease generate the need to integrated a psychologist into the healthcare team of the Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension Operative Unit, in order to offer a specific and professional support to the patient during the different stages of the disease, to their caregivers and to the medical team. The aim of this collaboration project between Nephrology and Psychology is to create a global and integrated healthcare model. It does not give attention simply to the physical dimension of patients affected by CKD, but also to the emotional-affective, cognitive and social dimensions and to the health environment.

  5. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 9): Carson River Mercury Site, operable unit 1, Lyon, Storey and Churchill County, NV, March 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) of the Carson River Mercury Site (CRMS) which is located in Lyon, Storey and Churchill Counties, Nevada. The selected remedy for the five residential yards is to excavate contaminated surface soil (estimated to go to a depth of approximately 2 feet below ground surface), dispose of the soil at the RCRA municipal landfill if the soils do not exceed the TCLP standards, and restore the excavated areas. If it is determined that all or part of the excavated soil exceeds the TCLP standards, then the excavated soil will either be treated and disposed of at a RCRA municipal landfill or disposed of at the RCRA hazardous waste landfill.

  6. Claus工艺硫磺回收装置优化改造%Optimization for operation of Claus sulfur recovery unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀军; 王高兴

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of modification for sulfur recovery unit to reduce energy consumption with the help of CRC two-stage Claus process designed by Jiangsu Chengyi. The improvement of liquid sulfur sealing and replacement of abundant industry wind from blower have received good results in operation.%结合江苏晟宜设计CRC两段法超优Claus回收工艺对二期硫回收装置运行中出现问题进行改造优化,以达到节能降耗目的;特别利用管网富余工业风代替鼓风机及液硫封设计缺陷的改造,取得了很好运行效果.

  7. Report for Batch Leach Analyses on Sediments at 100-KR-4 Operable Unit, Boreholes C7684, C7688, and C7695

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    This is a data report for sediment samples received by CHPRC from the 100-KR-4 OU. Between December 17, 2010 and February 17, 2011 sediment samples were received from 100-KR-4 Operable Unit for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  8. A Design for VLIW Microprocessor Based on Minium Operation Unit%基于最小操作单元的VLIW微处理器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昭顺; 王许书; 王俊宇

    2001-01-01

    in this paper, we presented a new method called granularity analysis method which can analyze developing history of microprocessor architecture, and predicted developing trend of microprocessor architecture with this method. After we presented a new architecture called Minium Operating Unit-Based (MOUB), we also designed and implement a microprocessor model of MOUB.%提出一种微处理器体系结构发展的分析方法一粒度分析方法,并用这种方法分析了微处理器体系结构的发展趋势.在此基础上提出基于最小操作单元MOUUB微处理器体系结构的设计思想,并设计实现了一个这种结构的微处理器模型.

  9. Optimal Start-Up and Operation Policy for an Ultrafiltration Membrane Unit in Whey Separation The work presented here is generated by the Institute for Sustainable Process Technology (ISPT) project IMPROVISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahadir Saltik, M.; Özkan, Leyla; Jacobs, Marc; Padt, van der Albert

    2016-01-01

    Membrane filtration systems are preferred unit operations in industrial applications due to their mild operating conditions. However the performance of a membrane stack drops over time because of the membrane fouling. This decrease is overcomed by introducing clean membrane stacks. The associated

  10. Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from

  11. RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-28

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  12. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

    2011-12-15

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  13. OPERATION ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF NAPHTHA NON-HYDROUPGRANDING UNIT%非临氢石脑油改质装置运行分析与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺家培; 郑海

    2011-01-01

    The operation status of the 350 kt/a naphtha non-hydroupgranding unit in SINOPEC Qingdao Refining & Chemical Company was introduced and analyzed with using various feedstocks. It was found that when the price of naphtha was cheaper than that of gasoline, the economic effect of the unit was significant. Optimization of the catalyst regeneration process was carried out to shorten the coke burning time of the catalyst. Results showed that the coke burning time of a single reactor could be shortened 96-120 h by revamping, resulting in a 7. 1% increase of production capacity, and the energy consumption of the unit reduced 1 906-2 859 GJ/a.%介绍了中国石化青岛炼油化工有限责任公司350 kt/a石脑油改质装置的运行概况,对不同原料工况下运行情况进行了分析对比,在石脑油价格比汽油低时,石脑油改质装置的经济效益明显.同时针对催化剂再生过程中烧焦时间长的问题,对烧焦流程进行了优化,使单列改质反应器催化剂烧焦的时间缩短96~120 h,装置生产负荷提高了7.1%,能耗降低了1 906~2 859 GJ/a.

  14. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

  15. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  16. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 3: Appendixes E and F -- Risk assessment information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  17. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 3. Risk assessment information. Appendixes E, F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 3 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  18. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 2. Biota and representative concentrations of contaminants. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OU`s). This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  19. Remedial investigation/feasibility study of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek Operable Unit. Volume 5. Appendixes J, K, L, M, and N-other supporting information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the findings of an investigation into contamination of the Clinch River and Poplar Creek near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in eastern Tennessee. For more than 50 years, various hazardous and radioactive substances have been released to the environment as a result of operations and waste management activities at the ORR. In 1989, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL), established and maintained under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Under CERCLA, NPL sites must be investigated to determine the nature and extent of contamination at the site, assess the risk to human health and the environment posed by the site, and, if necessary, identify feasible remedial alternatives that could be used to clean the site and reduce risk. To facilitate the overall environmental restoration effort at the ORR, CERCLA activities are being implemented individually as distinct operable units (OUs). This document is Volume 5 of the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek OU.

  20. Effective measures to guarantee long-term operation of TMP unit%保证TMP装置长周期运行的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马曾文; 张军; 王少良

    2011-01-01

    介绍新型重油催化裂解多产丙烯( TMP)装置长周期生产过程中,出现的主风分布管磨损、大小放火炬阀故障、两机操作系统故障、气压机管线腐蚀等问题.采取了以下改造措施:主风分布管外壁焊锚固钉衬刚玉,提高主风分布管抗冲刷能力,延长使用寿命;更换大小放火炬阀、气压机入口阀;两机操作系统改为DCS,机组自保系统灵活稳定;沉降器增加防焦格栅,挡住脱落的焦块、衬里等杂物;防焦蒸汽环改造,防止油气在拱顶结焦;气压机管线改造,延长其硫化物应力腐蚀破裂时间.为装置长周期生产提供了保障.%In the long-term operation of TMP unit for maximized propylene production from heavy oil catalytic cracking, the wearing of main air distributor tubes, failure of large and small flare valves, trouble in air blower and gas compressor trains and corrosion in pipelines of gas compressors have been experienced. To solve these problems, the following measures have been taken; The external wall of main air distributor tubes are lined with anchored corindon to improve anti-corrosion performance of the tubes and extend the service life; Large and small flare valves and gas compressor inlet valves are replaced; DCS system is applied for the control of air blowers and gas compressors for stable and reliable operation; The grids are installed in the settler to hold back the fallen coke and lining, etc; Anti-coking rings are revamped to prevent coking of oil vapor in the arch section; Pipelines of gas compressors are revamped to delay the development of sulfide stress corrosion cracking ( SSCC) . Therefore, good conditions have been provided for the long-term operation of the unit.

  1. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-09-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent site is located in the southeastern portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site. This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 27, 2002. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Effluent, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 1997). A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report (DOE/NV, 1999), samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 (DOE/NV, 2000) and 2001 (DOE/NV, 2001) revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, data results from 2000 and later were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2002 consisted of the following: (1) Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2). (2) Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay [CEA] and Standard Nutrient Panel [SNP]). (3) Site inspection to evaluate the condition of the fencing and signs. (4) Preparation and submittal of the Post-Closure Monitoring Report.

  2. Effects of a remedial system and its operation on volatile organic compound-contaminated ground water, Operable Unit 1, Savage Municipal Well Superfund Site, Milford, New Hampshire, 1998-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2006-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in the Town of Milford, N.H., is underlain by a 0.5-square mile plume of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mostly tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The plume occurs mostly within a highly transmissive sand and gravel layer, but also extends into underlying till and bedrock. The plume has been divided into two areas called Operable Unit 1 (OU1), which contains the primary source area, and Operable Unit 2 (OU2), which is defined as the extended plume area. PCE concentrations in excess of 100,000 parts per billion (ppb) had been detected in the OU1 area in 1995, indicating a likely Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) source. In the fall of 1998, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) installed a remedial system in OU1 to contain and capture the dissolved VOC plume. The OU1 remedial system includes a low-permeability barrier wall that encircles the highest detected concentrations of PCE, and a series of injection and extraction wells to contain and remove contaminants. The barrier wall likely penetrates the full thickness of the sand and gravel; in most places, it also penetrates the full thickness of the underlying basal till and sits atop bedrock. Remedial injection and extraction wells have been operating since the spring of 1999 and include a series of interior (inside the barrier wall) injection and extractions wells and exterior (outside the barrier wall) injection and extraction wells. A recharge gallery outside the barrier wall receives the bulk of the treated water and reinjects it into the shallow aquifer. From 1998 to 2004, PCE concentrations decreased by an average of 80 percent at most wells outside the barrier wall. This decrease indicates (1) the barrier wall and interior extraction effectively contained high PCE concentrations inside the wall, (2) other sources of PCE did not appear to be outside of the wall, and (3) ambient ground

  3. 收获机组作业时间分析与建模%Analysis and Modeling of Operation Time Items and Times Utilization Rate of Harvest Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔金友; 韩兆桢; 李传磊; 陈海涛; 衣佳忠; 姜岩; 黄超; 张东光

    2016-01-01

    收获作业是粮食生产过程关键环节之一,选择适宜的收获机械适时完成收获作业是粮食丰产丰收的重要保障,因此提高农业收获机组效率已成为收获作业的重要组成部分。依据收获机组实际作业测得数据进行分析,明确了典型联合收获机作业时间项目构成,建立了纯作业、转弯、卸粮等各个时间项目的数学计算模型。针对3种卸粮方式—单侧卸粮、双侧卸粮、满箱卸粮分别建立数学模型,对3种不同的卸粮方式时间利用率进行了分析比较,同时选择约翰迪尔9660进行试验研究。%Harvesting operation is one of the key links in the process of grain production, choosing the appropriate har-vesting machine to finish the harvest is an important guarantee for the harvest of grain yield, so it is important to improve the efficiency of agricultural harvest unit.According to the data model analysis of the actual operation of the harvester, the typical combines harvest machine operation time is defined, and the mathematical model of the operation, turning and unloading is established.For three kinds of unloading ways:unilateral unloading , bilateral unloading grain, trunkful un-loading grain mathematical models are established respectively, for three different unloading grain pattern time utilization rate through the analysis and comparison, and John Deere 9660 was studied.

  4. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnitz, R.J. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, P.R. [PRD Consulting (United States); Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf), and the other at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1). Both the Sandia and Brookhaven projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults---so-called ``internal initiators.`` This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling outage conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Grand Gulf. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human effort rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Grand Gulf have been adopted here, so that the results of the study can be as comparable as possible. Both the Sandia study and this study examine only one shutdown plant operating state (POS) at Grand Gulf, namely POS 5 representing cold shutdown during a refueling outage. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POS 5. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency for earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 5 is found to be quite low in absolute terms, less than 10{sup {minus}7}/year.

  5. Wetland survey of the X-10 Bethel Valley and Melton Valley groundwater operable units at Oak Ridge National Labortory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A.

    1996-03-01

    Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, (May 24, 1977) requires that federal agencies avoid, to the extent possible, adverse impacts associated with the destruction and modification of wetlands and that they avoid direct and indirect support of wetlands development when there is a practicable alternative. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations for Compliance with Floodplains and Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements (Subpart B, 10 CFR 1022.11), surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in both the Melton Valley and the Bethel Valley Groundwater Operable Units (GWOU) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. As required by the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1992, wetlands were identified using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual (Army Corps of Engineers, 1987). Wetlands were identified during field surveys that examined and documented vegetation, soils, and hydrologic evidence. Most of the wetland boundary locations and wetland sizes are approximate. Boundaries of wetlands in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and on the former proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source in the upper Melton Branch watershed were located by civil survey during previous wetland surveys; thus, the boundary locations and areal sizes in these areas are accurate. The wetlands were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin et al. (1979) for wetland and deepwater habitats of the United States. A total of 215 individual wetland areas ranging in size from 0.002 ha to 9.97 ha were identified in the Bethel Valley and Melton Valley GWOUs. The wetlands are classified as palustrine forested broad-leaved deciduous (PFO1), palustrine scrub-shrub broad-leaved deciduous (PSS1), and palustrine persistent emergent (PEM1).

  6. Management, operational, animal health, and economic characteristics of large dairy herds in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evink, T L; Endres, M I

    2017-09-06

    Recent trends in dairy farm structure in the United States have included a decreasing number of farms, although farm size has increased, especially the share of milk production from very large herds (>2,500 cows). The objectives of this observational study were to describe common management practices; to characterize labor and operational structure; to measure some aspects of animal health, including lameness, hock lesions, mortality, and mastitis incidence; and to summarize cost of production on farms with more than 2,500 cows in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States. The study included 15 dairy farms in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and South Dakota. Farms were visited twice, once each year, and on-farm herd records were collected for those 2 yr. On-farm herd records were used to investigate mortality, culling, pregnancy rate, and clinical mastitis incidence. At least 1 high-producing pen of mature cows and 1 pen of fresh cows were scored for locomotion. Likewise, at least 1 pen of high-producing mature cows was scored for cleanliness and hock lesions. Median herd size was 3,975 cows (range = 2,606-13,266). Milk sold per employee was 1,120,745 kg and the number of cows per employee was 105. Eighty percent of the farms had Holstein cows, 13% had Jersey, and 7% had Jersey-Holstein crosses. All farms used artificial insemination as the sole form of breeding and 100% of the farms used hormonal synchronization or timed artificial insemination programs in their reproductive protocols; 21-d pregnancy rate was 21.7%. Median lameness prevalence was 18.3% and median severe lameness prevalence was 5.1%. Median hock lesion prevalence was 17.4% and median severe hock lesion prevalence was 1.9%; mortality rate was 7.4%. Clinical mastitis incidence was 62.5 cases per 100 cow-years. Feed costs accounted for approximately 53% of the total cost of producing milk, followed by labor at 11%, interest and depreciation expenses at 10%, and replacement costs at 9.5%. Herds in

  7. Individualistic impact of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolade, Mathew K

    2016-05-01

    The individualistic effect of unit operations of production, at household level, on some antinutritional factors in selected cowpea-based food products (moin-moin, akara, and gbegiri) was investigated. Four cowpea types (IT93K-452-1, IT95K-499s-35, IT97K-568-18, and market sample) were used for the study, whereas the three traditional food products were produced from each of the cowpea types, respectively. The results revealed that every unit operation involved in the production of moin-moin, akara or gbegiri contributed to the overall reduction of trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic acid (PA), and tannin; though at varying degrees. In the production of moin-moin, the major contributions to the overall reduction in TIA were from steaming (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The contributions to the overall reduction in PA were from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and steaming (7.8-14.0%), whereas that of tannin were from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), steaming (19.6-24.7%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). For akara production, the major contributions to TIA reduction were from deep frying (64.2-72.0%), second-stage soaking (9.7-11.9%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The PA reduction was from dehulling (34.0-40.4%), preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), and deep frying (9.6-15.9%), whereas that of tannin reduction was from dehulling (39.7-47.6%), deep frying (20.7-25.3%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%). In the production of gbegiri, the overall reduction in TIA was contributed from pressure cooking (79.0-84.8%), preliminary soaking (5.8-11.3%), and dehulling (9.4-10.2%). The reduction in PA was contributed by dehulling (34.0-40.4%), pressure cooking (24.7-35.0%), and preliminary soaking (15.4-21.0%), whereas the overall reduction in tannin content was similarly contributed by dehulling (39.7-47.6%), pressure cooking (29.8-34.4%), and preliminary soaking (9.8-15.9%).

  8. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  9. 3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    3 July 2007 - Ambassador A. Navarro Llanos, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bolivia to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing a Co-operation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics with CERN Director General R. Aymar.

  10. Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Heat and Mass Transfer to Operation Mode Switching of a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs. In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange membrane is generated to investigate transient responses in the process of operation mode switching from fuel cell (FC to electrolysis cell (EC. Various heat generation mechanisms, including Joule heat, reaction heat, and the heat attributed to activation polarizations, have been considered in the transient model coupled with electrochemical reaction and mass transfer in porous electrodes. The polarization curves of the steady-state models are validated by experimental data in the literatures. Numerical results reveal that current density, gas mass fractions, and temperature suddenly change with the sudden change of operating voltage in the mode switching process. The response time of temperature is longer than that of current density and gas mass fractions. In both FC and EC modes, the cell temperature and gradient of gas mass fraction in the oxygen side are larger than that in the hydrogen side. The temperature difference of the entire cell is less than 1.5 K. The highest temperature appears at oxygen-side catalyst layer under the FC mode and at membrane under a more stable EC mode. The cell is exothermic all the time. These dynamic responses and phenomena have important implications for heat analysis and provide proven guidelines for the improvement of URFCs mode switching.

  11. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  12. 催化重整装置提高安稳运行方案探讨%Discussion on improving safe and stable operation scheme of catalytic reforming Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾振柱

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic reforming unit has been running for 50 years,the aging phenomenon of some equipment in this unit was severe. Many problems exited during equipment management,maintenance and operation. In this paper,problems existed in operation was analyzed,strategy and method for solving equipment problem were put forward,which ensured safe and stable operation of equipment in the Unit.%某催化重整装置已经运行了50 a,装置中的部分设备老化现象严重。在设备管理、维护、运行过程中出现了诸多问题,文中提出了解决设备问题的策略及方法,确保了装置设备安稳运行。

  13. Investigation of The regularities of the process and development of method of management of technological line operation within the process of mass raw mate-rials supply in terms of dynamics of inbound traffic of unit trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Ігорівна Сізова

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale sinter plants at metallurgical enterprises incorporate highly productive transport-and-handling complexes (THC that receive and process mass iron-bearing raw materials. Such THCs as a rule include unloading facilities and freight railway station. The central part of the THC is a technological line that carries out operations of reception and unloading of unit trains with raw materials. The technological line consists of transport and freight modules. The latter plays a leading role and, in its turn, consists of rotary car dumpers and conveyor belts. This module represents a determinate system that carries out preparation and unloading operations. Its processing capacity is set in accordance with manufacturing capacity of the sinter plant. The research has shown that in existing operating conditions, which is characterized by “arrhythmia” of interaction between external transport operation and production, technological line of THC functions inefficiently. Thus, it secures just 18-20 % of instances of processing of inbound unit trains within set standard time. It was determined that duration of the cycle of processing of inbound unit train can play a role of regulator, under stochastic characteristics of intervals between inbound unit trains with raw materials on the one hand, and determined unloading system on the other hand. That is why evaluation of interdependence between these factors allows determination of duration of cycle of processing of inbound unit trains. Basing on the results of the study, the method of logistical management of the processing of inbound unit trains was offered. At the same time, real duration of processing of inbound unit train is taken as the regulated value. The regulation process implies regular evaluation and comparison of these values, and, taking into account different disturbances, decision-making concerning adaptation of functioning of technological line. According to the offered principles

  14. Post-Closure Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-08-01

    The Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning site is located in the southeast portion of the Area 12 Camp at the Nevada Test Site (Figure 1). This site is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Site (CAS) 12-19-01 and is the only CAS assigned to Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 339. Post-closure sampling and inspection of the site were completed on March 23, 2001. Because of questionable representativeness and precision of the results, the site was resampled on June 12, 2001. Post-closure monitoring activities were scheduled biennially (every two years) in the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the December 1997 Closure Report for CAU 339: Area 12 Fleet Operations Steam Cleaning Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1997). If after six years the rate of degradation appears to be so slow that the greatest concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) present at the site would not decay within 30 years of the site closure, the site will be reevaluated with consideration to enriching the impacted soil at the site to enhance the degradation process. A baseline for the site was established by sampling in 1997. Based on the recommendations from the 1999 post-closure monitoring report, samples were collected in 2000, earlier than originally proposed, because the 1999 sample results did not provide the expected decrease in TPH concentrations at the site. Sampling results from 2000 revealed favorable conditions for natural degradation at the CAU 339 site, but because of differing sample methods and heterogeneity of the soil, the data results from 2000 were not directly correlated with previous results. Post-closure monitoring activities for 2001 consisted of the following: Soil sample collection from three undisturbed plots (Plots A, B, and C, Figure 2); Sample analysis for TPH as oil and bio-characterization parameters (Comparative Enumeration Assay

  15. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  16. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  17. Waste Management Plan for the Remedial Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) supplements the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Project WMP and defines the criteria and methods to be used for managing and characterizing waste generated during activities associated with the RI of 23 wells near the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF). These wells are within the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 area of contamination (AOC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Field activities for the limited RI of Operable Unit (OU) 3 of WAG 10 will involve sampling and measurement of various environmental media (e.g., liquids and gases). Many of these activities will occur in areas known to be contaminated with radioactive materials or hazardous chemical substances, and it is anticipated that contaminated solid and liquid wastes and noncontaminated wastes will be generated as a result of these activities. On a project-wide basis, handling of these waste materials will be accomplished in accordance with the RI/FS Project WMP and the procedures referenced throughout the plan.

  18. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), and Supplement No. 14 (December 1994) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER.

  19. Remedial investigation/feasibility study Work Plan and addenda for Operable Unit 4-12: Central Facilities Area Landfills II and III at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, K.N.; Stormberg, G.J.; Porro, I.; Sondrup, A.J.; McCormick, S.H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is divided into two main sections -- the Work Plan and the addenda. The Work Plan describes the regulatory history and physical setting of Operable Unit 4-12, previous sampling activities, and data. It also identifies a preliminary conceptual model, preliminary remedial action alternatives, and preliminary applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. In addition, the Work Plan discusses data gaps and data quality objectives for proposed remedial investigation activities. Also included are tasks identified for the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and a schedule of RI/FS activities. The addenda include details of the proposed field activities (Field Sampling Plan), anticipated quality assurance activities (Quality Assurance Project Plan), policies and procedures to protect RI/FS workers and the environment during field investigations (Health and Safety Plan), and policies, procedures, and activities that the Department of Energy will use to involve the public in the decision-making process concerning CFA Landfills II and III RI/FS activities (Community Relations Plan).

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Andersen Air Force Base, Operable Unit 3 (MARBO Annex), Yigo, Guam, June 16, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This decision document, a Record of Decision (ROD), presents the selected remedial actions for soil and groundwater at the Marianas/Bonnis Command (MARBO) Annex Operable Unit (OU) at Andersen Air Force Base (AFB), Guam. No risk was found at Waste Pile 5 and the War Dog Borrow Pit, so no further action is planned for these two sites. Current risks associated with soil exceed acceptable risk levels at Waste Pile 6, Waste Pile 7, Landfill 29, and the MARBO Laundry. Based on alternatives evaluated in the OU 3 Focused FS the US Air Force, the USEPA, and Guam have selected Soil Removal (Alternative OU3-D) as the remedy for three of the sites, and Soil Cover (Alternative OU3-C) for one of the sites. Based on alternatives evaluated in the OU-2 Focused FS, the USAF, the USEPA, and the Guam EPA have selected Natural Attenuation with Wellhead Treatment (Alternative G-2) as the remedy for the TCE and PCE contaminated groundwater beneath the MARBO Annex.

  1. Data management implementation plan for the site characterization of the Waste Area Grouping 1 Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, T.S.; Nickle, E.B.

    1994-10-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization. This project is not mandated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); therefore, no formalized meetings for data quality objective (DQO) development were held. Internally, DQOs were generated by the project team based on the end uses of the data to be collected. The 150-acre WAG 1 is contained within the ORNL security area. It includes all of the former ORNL radioisotope research, production, and maintenance facilities; former waste management areas; and some former administrative facilities. The goal of the WAG 1 Groundwater Site Characterization is to provide the necessary data on the nature and extent of groundwater contamination with an acceptable level of uncertainty to support the selection of remedial alternatives and to identify additional data needs for future actions. Primary objectives for the site characterization are: (1) To identify and characterize contaminant migration pathways based on the collection of groundwater data; (2) to identify sources of groundwater contamination and evaluate remedial actions which could be implemented to control or eliminate these sources; and (3) To conduct groundwater monitoring in support of other OUs in WAG 1 and the ORNL Groundwater OU.

  2. Operation and maintenance engineering support of the Angra Unit 1 in Brasil; Presentacion de servicios de operacion y mantenimiento en la unidad 1 de la Central Nuclear de Angra (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castanos, E.

    2001-07-01

    Iberinco has developed during the last four years a major task in regards to the Operation and Maintenance of the Angra unit 1 plant in Brasil, by means of being awarded in the 1996 international licitation for the following activities. Operation and Maintenance engineering support - Material Procurement - Refuelling services In this article the most relevant activities performed during this period are shown as well as the organisation in charge to carry them out. (Author)

  3. Exploration and Practice on Teaching of Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering%化工单元操作课程教学探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兆琴; 韩承辉; 程婷

    2011-01-01

    根据环境监测与治理技术专业的特点及学生学习中存在的问题,对化工单元操作课程的教学工作进行探索,发现结合专业行业背景对化工单元操作教学内容整合,形成由基础理论与实践训练项目组成的模块化教学,将理论知识贯穿于学习情境和实践项目中,配合工程实际案例和多媒体教学,有利于学生对知识的理解掌握及实践动手能力的增强,同时在教学过程中注重培养学生的经济观念和工程观念,使学生树立工程意识。%The teaching of unit operation of chemical engineering was explored according the characteristics of the environmental monitoring and treatment technology major and problems the students had during study.It was helpful for students to master the theoretical knowledge and practical skills by teaching as modules and combining with engineering cases and multimedia teaching.During the teaching,the modules were composed of knowledge items and practice items,theoretical knowledge must be run through all practice items and engineering cases.Moreover,it was very important to pay attention to developing the student's economic and engineering conception and make the student set up the engineering sense in this course.

  4. 飞机变压整流器并联运行均衡性研究%Research of balance on transformer rectifier units in parallel operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝世勇; 战祥新

    2016-01-01

    To the problem of unbalanced load current in aircraft DC power supply system for the transformer rectifier units with many sets of parallel power supply mode, this article through the analysis of the power supply characteristics of transformer rectifier, with rectifier power supply in parallel balance as the center, and the circuit analysis method, studied the aircraft transformer rectifier parallel operation conditions and the load distribution rule. Finally with transformer rectifier with two kinds of parameters as an example, the influence of load distribution of the parameter range is analyzed. The analysis results show that the adjustment cannot be achieved merely by filter more transformer rectifier power balance, and automatic balancing circuit must be regulated.%针对飞机直流电源系统中变压整流器多采用多台并联供电方式,负载电流不平衡的问题,本文通过分析变压整流器的供电特性,以变压整流器并联供电均衡性为中心,采用电路分析方法,研究了飞机变压整流器并联运行条件和负载分配规律。最后以变压整流器两类参数不等时的影响为例,分析了参数不等时的负载分配情形。分析结果表明:仅靠滤波器调节无法实现多台变压整流器的供电均衡,必须加自动均衡电路进行调节。

  5. Nuclear Operations Application to Environmental Restoration at Corrective Action Unit 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, at the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Cabble (NSO), Mark Krauss and Patrick Matthews (N-I)

    2011-03-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office has responsibility for environmental restoration at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site). This includes remediation at locations where past testing activities have resulted in the release of plutonium to the environment. One of the current remediation efforts involves a site where an underground subcritical nuclear safety test was conducted in 1964. The underground test was vented through a steel pipe to the surface in a closed system where gas samples were obtained. The piping downstream of the gas-sampling apparatus was routed belowground to a location where it was allowed to vent into an existing radioactively contaminated borehole. The length of the pipe above the ground surface is approximately 200 meters. This pipe remained in place until remediation efforts began in 2007, at which time internal plutonium contamination was discovered. Following this discovery, an assessment was conducted to determine the quantity of plutonium present in the pipe. This site has been identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites. The quantity of plutonium identified at CAU 547 exceeded the Hazard Category 3 threshold but was below the Hazard Category 2 threshold specified in DOE Standard DOE-STD-1027-92. This CAU, therefore, was initially categorized as a Hazard Category 3 environmental restoration site. A contaminated facility or site that is initially categorized as Hazard Category 3, however, may be downgraded to below Hazard Category 3 if it can be demonstrated through further analysis that the form of the material and the energy available for release support reducing the hazard category. This is an important consideration when performing hazard categorization of environmental restoration sites because energy sources available for release of material are generally fewer at an environmental restoration site

  6. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the Clinch River/Poplar Creek operable unit. Volume 2. Appendixes A, B, C, D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains appendices A (water characterization), B (sediment characterization), C (biota Characterization), D (applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements) from the combined Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Report for the Clinch River/Poplar Crack (CR/PC) Operable Unit (OU). The CR/PC OU is located in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee and consists of the Clinch River and several of its embayments in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. These waters have received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. A remedial investigation has been conducted to determine the current nature and extent of any contamination and to assess the resulting risk to human health and the environment. The feasibility study evaluates remedial action alternatives to identify any that are feasible for implementation and that would effectively reduce risk. Historical studies had indicated that current problems would likely include {sup 137}Cs in sediment of the Clinch River, mercury in sediment and fish of Poplar Creek and PCBs and pesticides in fish from throughout the OU. Peak releases of mercury and {sup 137}Cs occurred over 35 years ago, and current releases are low. Past releases of PCBs from the ORR are poorly quantified, and current releases are difficult to quantify because levels are so low. The site characterization focused on contaminants in surface water, sediment, and biota. Contaminants in surface water were all found to be below Ambient Water Quality Criteria. Other findings included the following: elevated metals including cesium 137 and mercury in McCoy Branch sediments; PCBs and chlordane elevated in several fish species, presenting the only major human health risk, significant ecological risks in Poplar Creek but not in the Clinch River.

  7. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  8. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  9. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 2, Part 1C: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for plant operational State 5 during a refueling outage, Main report (Sections 11--14)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Darby, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yakle, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as it operates in the Low Power and Shutdown Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. The report documents the methodology used during the analysis, describes the results from the application of the methodology, and compares the results with the results from two full power analyses performed on Grand Gulf.

  10. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Assessing the mineral supplementation needs in pasture-based beef operations in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, L W

    2016-12-01

    Macro- and microminerals are required for all physiological processes in beef cattle. When mineral deficiencies occur in pasture-based production systems, a multitude of deficiency symptoms may occur, and most often, these deficiencies result in hidden losses to include reduced production potential, reduced immunity, and reproductive failure. More severe deficiencies will result in specific deficiency symptoms, depending on the specific mineral deficiency. In pasture-based beef operations, specific deficiency symptoms are seldom observed. Forage mineral supply is highly variable and dependent on the forage type, stage of forage growth, and soil fertility. Grazing cattle mineral requirements change throughout the production cycle. With the variability of forage mineral supply and the changing mineral requirements, care must be taken when developing mineral supplementation programs for grazing cattle. The macrominerals function in nerve transmission, bone development, and metabolism and as electrolytes. These are Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, and S. The microminerals function in various areas of metabolism, immune responsiveness, reproductive efficiency, and many other functions. These minerals are Zn, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Se, Mo, and Co. Of these macro- and microminerals, those that are important for supplementation to pasture-based cattle include Ca, P, Mg, Na, Cl, Zn, Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Co. However, the amounts to be supplemented will depend on the specific mineral requirements and the forage supply of the minerals. Consequently, the development of free-choice mineral supplementation programs is a moving target. Generally, this entangled mess is sorted by taking one mineral at a time into consideration. However, in doing so, one has to be cognizant of the many interactions that occur when changing intake of just 1 mineral in the supplement with respect to the amount supplied in the base forage. Often times, mineral nutrition problems of one or more minerals are created when

  11. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose

    2005-01-01

    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  12. Lack of utility of a decision support system to mitigate delays in admission from the operating room to the postanesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Dexter, Franklin; Rothman, Brian S; Minton, Betty Sue; Johnson, Diane; Sandberg, Warren S; Epstein, Richard H

    2013-12-01

    When the phase I postanesthesia care unit (PACU) is at capacity, completed cases need to be held in the operating room (OR), causing a "PACU delay." Statistical methods based on historical data can optimize PACU staffing to achieve the least possible labor cost at a given service level. A decision support process to alert PACU charge nurses that the PACU is at or near maximum census might be effective in lessening the incidence of delays and reducing over-utilized OR time, but only if alerts are timely (i.e., neither too late nor too early to act upon) and the PACU slot can be cleared quickly. We evaluated the maximum potential benefit of such a system, using assumptions deliberately biased toward showing utility. We extracted 3 years of electronic PACU data from a tertiary care medical center. At this hospital, PACU admissions were limited by neither inadequate PACU staffing nor insufficient PACU beds. We developed a model decision support system that simulated alerts to the PACU charge nurse. PACU census levels were reconstructed from the data at a 1-minute level of resolution and used to evaluate if subsequent delays would have been prevented by such alerts. The model assumed there was always a patient ready for discharge and an available hospital bed. The time from each alert until the maximum census was exceeded ("alert lead time") was determined. Alerts were judged to have utility if the alert lead time fell between various intervals from 15 or 30 minutes to 60, 75, or 90 minutes after triggering. In addition, utility for reducing over-utilized OR time was assessed using the model by determining if 2 patients arrived from 5 to 15 minutes of each other when the PACU census was at 1 patient less than the maximum census. At most, 23% of alerts arrived 30 to 60 minutes prior to the admission that resulted in the PACU exceeding the specified maximum capacity. When the notification window was extended to 15 to 90 minutes, the maximum utility was system to mitigate

  13. De novo clustering methods outperform reference-based methods for assigning 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Westcott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. 16S rRNA gene sequences are routinely assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs that are then used to analyze complex microbial communities. A number of methods have been employed to carry out the assignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences to OTUs leading to confusion over which method is optimal. A recent study suggested that a clustering method should be selected based on its ability to generate stable OTU assignments that do not change as additional sequences are added to the dataset. In contrast, we contend that the quality of the OTU assignments, the ability of the method to properly represent the distances between the sequences, is more important.Methods. Our analysis implemented six de novo clustering algorithms including the single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, abundance-based greedy clustering, distance-based greedy clustering, and Swarm and the open and closed-reference methods. Using two previously published datasets we used the Matthew’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC to assess the stability and quality of OTU assignments.Results. The stability of OTU assignments did not reflect the quality of the assignments. Depending on the dataset being analyzed, the average linkage and the distance and abundance-based greedy clustering methods generated OTUs that were more likely to represent the actual distances between sequences than the open and closed-reference methods. We also demonstrated that for the greedy algorithms VSEARCH produced assignments that were comparable to those produced by USEARCH making VSEARCH a viable free and open source alternative to USEARCH. Further interrogation of the reference-based methods indicated that when USEARCH or VSEARCH were used to identify the closest reference, the OTU assignments were sensitive to the order of the reference sequences because the reference sequences can be identical over the region being considered. More troubling was the observation that while both USEARCH and

  14. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  15. The potential impact of explicit Basel II operational risk capital charges on the competitive environment of processing banks in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick de Fontnouvelle; Victoria Garrity; Scott Chu; Rosengren, Eric S.

    2005-01-01

    Basel II replaces Basel I’s implicit capital charge on operational risk with an explicit charge. Certain U.S. banks concentrated in processing-related business lines – which have significant operational risk – could thus face an increase in overall minimum regulatory capital requirements. Some have argued that, as a result, these so-called “processing banks” would be disadvantaged vis-à-vis competitors not subject to regulatory capital requirements for operational risk. This paper evaluates t...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Manure application to agricultural lands from confined animal feeding operations by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean livestock manure application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands by 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006....

  17. Design, evaluation and recommedation effort relating to the modification of a residential 3-ton absorption cycle cooling unit for operation with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, R. H.; Anderson, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The possible use of solar energy powered absorption units to provide cooling and heating of residential buildings is studied. Both, the ammonia-water and the water-lithium bromide cycles, are considered. It is shown that the air cooled ammonia water unit does not meet the criteria for COP and pump power on the cooling cycle and the heat obtained from it acting as a heat pump is at too low a temperature. If the ammonia machine is water cooled it will meet the design criteria for cooling but can not supply the heating needs. The water cooled lithium bromide unit meets the specified performance for cooling with appreciably lower generator temperatures and without a mechanical solution pump. It is recommeded that in the demonstration project a direct expansion lithium bromide unit be used for cooling and an auxiliary duct coil using the solar heated water be employed for heating.

  18. 40 CFR 257.5 - Disposal standards for owners/operators of non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 261.5. Non-municipal non-hazardous waste disposal units that meet the requirements of... permit program for 40 CFR part 257, subpart B and 40 CFR part 258 regulated facilities. Uppermost...

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 2, Part 3: Internal Events Appendices I and J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakle, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Darby, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitehead, D.; Staple, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report provides supporting documentation for various tasks associated with the performance of the probablistic risk assessment for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage at Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as documented in Volume 2, Part 1 of NUREG/CR-6143.

  20. The United States Special Operations Command Civil Military Engagement Program - A Model for Military-Interagency Low Cost / Small Footprint Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-02

    with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ( UNHCR ) and other international and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to...infrastructure. By the end of 2012 the United Nations High Commission for Refugees ( UNHCR ) estimated the number of Syrians in Jordan at 140,000. CMSE...good governance programs at the local level; 4) The Refugee Support Program assisted refugee relocation; 5) The PSYOP Program provided support for