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Sample records for 20-500 ev optical

  1. Luminescence excitation characteristics of Ca-, Na- and K-aluminosilicates (feldspars), in the stimulation range 20-500 eV: optical detection of XAS

    Poolton, N R J; Quinn, F M; Pantos, E; Andersen, C E; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Johnsen, O; Murray, A S

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the visible/UV luminescence from common feldspar crystals (NaAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 , KAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 and CaAl sub 2 Si sub 2 O sub 8) can be used to detect detailed L-edge and associated near-edge absorption structure of the main constituent atoms (Ca, K, Na, Al, Si), when exciting in the energy range 20-500 eV. Comparisons of the spectral features are drawn with similar measurements made on the associated materials SiO sub 2 , Al sub 2 O sub 3 and CaCO sub 3. The potential for using optically detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a method for identifying the luminescent components of mixed mineral samples is considered.

  2. Optical Oscillator Strengths of Hydrogen Bromide in the 4.5-20 eV Excitation Energy Region

    李文斌; 朱林繁; 刘小井; 苑震生; 孙建敏; 成华东; 徐克尊

    2004-01-01

    The absolute optical oscillator strength density spectrum of HBr in the valence shell energy region of 4.5-20 eV has been determined by a high-resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer. The optical oscillator strengths reported. It has been manifested clearly that the optical oscillator strengths of some transitions for the previous photoabsorption method are subject to severe line-saturation effects.

  3. Optical Oscillator Strengths of Hydrogen Chloride in the Energy Region of 5.5-20 eV

    李文斌; 朱林繁; 刘小井; 苑震生; 孙建敏; 成华东; 酒井康弘; 徐克尊

    2003-01-01

    Absolute optical oscillator strength density (OOSD) spectrum of HCl in the valence shell energy region of 5.5-20 eV has been determined by the high resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer (EELS). The optical oscillator strengths for the broad A1Ⅱ + 13∑+ dissociation peak and the discrete transitions of b3Ⅱ(v′=0),C1Ⅱ(v′ = 0, 1, 2) and M1Ⅱ(v′= 0) are reported.

  4. Optical constants of magnetron-sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV.

    Soufli, Regina; Aquila, Andrew L; Salmassi, Farhad; Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Gullikson, Eric M

    2008-09-01

    This work discusses the experimental determination of the optical constants (refractive index) of DC-magnetron-sputtered boron carbide films in the 30-770 eV photon energy range. Transmittance measurements of three boron carbide films with thicknesses of 54.2, 79.0, and 112.5 nm were performed for this purpose. These are believed to be the first published experimental data for the refractive index of boron carbide films in the photon energy range above 160 eV and for the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure regions around the boron K (188 eV), carbon K (284.2 eV), and oxygen K (543.1 eV) absorption edges. The density, composition, surface chemistry, and morphology of the films were also investigated using Rutherford backscattering, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and extreme ultraviolet reflectance measurements.

  5. Optical properties of bcc transition metals in the range 0-40 eV

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, PL; Carbone, F; van der Marel, D

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of bcc transition metals in the groups VB: V, Nb, and Ta, and VIB: paramagnetic Cr, Mo, and W. For this we use our formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of metals. The calculated dielectric a

  6. Optical properties of bcc transition metals in the range 0–40 eV

    Romaniello, P.; Boeij, P.L. de; Carbone, F.; Marel, D. van der

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of bcc transition metals in the groups VB: V, Nb, and Ta, and VIB: paramagnetic Cr, Mo, and W. For this we use our formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of metals. The calculated dielectric a

  7. Optical properties of sputtered hexagonal CdZnO films with band gap energies from 1.8 to 3.3 eV

    Ma Xiangyang; Chen Peiliang; Zhang Ruijie [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang Deren, E-mail: mseyang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-06-09

    Highlights: > Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films in a wide range of Cd contents were grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering, which is a simple and widely used method. > The optical band gap energies of Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films were tuned from {approx} 3.3 eV to {approx} 1.8 eV. > The ultraviolet irradiation enhanced photoluminescence from the Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films was observed. - Abstract: Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films in a wide range of Cd contents have been grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering. At x {<=} 0.66, the sputtered Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films are of single hexagonal phase. The optical band gap energies of the Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films decrease from {approx}3.3 eV at x = 0 to {approx}1.8 eV at x = 0.66. Correspondingly, the near-band-edge photoluminescence is tuned in a wide visible region from {approx}378 to 678 nm. Moreover, the ultraviolet irradiation enhanced PL from the Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films has been observed.

  8. Optical oscillator strength distribution of amino acids from 3 to 250 eV and examination of the Thomas Reiche Kuhn sum rule

    Kamohara, Masumi; Izumi, Yudai; Tanaka, Masafumi; Okamoto, Keiko; Tanaka, Masahito; Kaneko, Fusae; Kodama, Yoko; Koketsu, Toshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2008-10-01

    Absorption spectra of thin films of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), valine (Val), serine (Ser), leucine (Leu), phenylalanine (Phe) and methinine (Met) were measured in absolute values of absorption cross section σ( E) for the photon energy E from 3 to 250 eV. We translated σ( E) into the optical oscillator strength distribution df/dE and we examined the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule [Hirschfelder, J.O., Curtiss, C.F., Bird, R.B., 1954. Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids. Wiley, New York, p. 890]. We concluded that T-R-K sum rule was correctly applicable for such relatively large size of biomolecules.

  9. Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Gd22Fe78 Thin Films in the Photon Energy Range From 1.5 to 5.5 eV

    Eva Jesenská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical and magneto-optical properties of amorphous Gd22Fe78 (GdFe thin films prepared by direct current (DC sputtering on thermally oxidized substrates were characterized by the combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical spectroscopy in the photon energy range from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. Thin SiNx and Ru coatings were used to prevent the GdFe surface oxidation and contamination. Using advanced theoretical models spectral dependence of the complete permittivity tensor and spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient were deduced from experimental data. No significant changes in the optical properties upon different coatings were observed, indicating reliability of used analysis.

  10. The optical properties of a-C:H films between 1.5 and 10 eV and the effect of thermal annealing on the film character

    Logothetidis, S.; Petalas, J.; Ves, S.

    1996-01-01

    The optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films prepared with various techniques are studied with conventional and synchrotron-radiation spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and the pseudodielectric function of diamondlike and graphitelike films is presented in the energy region 1.5-10 eV. Characteristic features of the measured and the calculated electron-energy-loss (EEL) function are found to serve as useful criteria for the classification of such materials. The results and information obtained by SE are compared to those obtained by EEL and Raman spectroscopy techniques, which are the most widely used for this purpose. Thermal annealing experiments up to 675 °C with in situ monitoring of the reveal the undergoing structural changes in the material character from diamondlike into graphitelike during the annealing. The major modifications which turn the material into sp2-like are found to take place around and above 550 °C. The fundamental gap along with other optical parameters of the materials are compared to those of diamond and graphite and their shift with temperature is discussed and used to illustrate further the prevalence of the graphitic character during and after the annealing. Finally, the optimum growth parameters for the production of diamondlike material are discussed in the case of the glow-discharge and ion-beam deposited films.

  11. Enumeration Verification System (EVS)

    Social Security Administration — EVS is a batch application that processes for federal, state, local and foreign government agencies, private companies and internal SSA customers and systems. Each...

  12. Optical properties of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry between 0.75 and 6.24 eV

    Ralph B. James

    2000-01-07

    Optical properties of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te (CZT) were studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). Measurements made by VASE were performed on CZT and CdTe samples in air at room temperature at multiple angles of incidence. A parametric function model was employed in the VASE analysis to determine the dielectric functions {var_epsilon}={var_epsilon}{sub 1} + i{var_epsilon}{sub 2} in the range of 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A two-oscillator analytical model was used to describe the dielectric response of native oxides on CZT. Surface oxide optical properties and thickness on CZT were also determined in conjunction with the VASE measurement and analysis of a CdTe sample. Two samples of CZT of different oxide thicknesses were measured and their optical constants were coupled together in a multiple-sample, multiple-model VASE analysis to resolve correlations between fitting parameters. Effective medium approximation (EMA) was used to describe the optical properties of the CZT oxide with roughness. A Kramers-Kronig self-consistency check of the real and imaginary parts of the Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1} dielectric functions was performed over the energy range 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A five-Lorentz-oscillator model was employed to describe the dielectric response of CZT in the range of 1.6 to 6.24 eV. Intensity transmission measurements were made on the Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te and CdTe, showing the absorption energy band edges of {approximately} 1.58 and 1.46 eV, respectively.

  13. Optical properties of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry between 0.75 and 6.24 eV

    Yao, H.W.; Erickson, J.C. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Barber, H.B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); James, R.B.; Hermon, H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is a leading technological material for room-temperature gamma-ray and x-ray detectors. Optical properties of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te (CZT) were studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). Measurements made by VASE were performed on CZT and CdTe samples in air at room temperature at multiple angles of incidence. A parametric function model was employed in the VASE analysis to determine the dielectric functions {epsilon} = {epsilon}{sub 1} + i{epsilon}{sub 2} in the range of 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A two-oscillator analytical model was used to describe the dielectric response of native oxides on CZT. Surface oxide optical properties and thickness on CZT were also determined in conjunction with the VASE measurement and analysis of a CdTe sample. Two samples of CZT of different oxide thicknesses were measured and their optical constants were coupled together in a multiple-sample, multiple-model VASE analysis to resolve correlations between fitting parameters. Effective medium approximation was used to describe the optical properties of the CZT oxide with roughness. A Kramers-Kronig self-consistency check of the real and imaginary parts of the Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te dielectric functions was performed over the energy range 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A five-Lorentz-oscillator model was employed to describe the dielectric response of CZT in the range of 1.6 to 6.24 eV. Intensity transmission measurements were made on the Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te and CdTe, showing the absorption energy band edges of {approximately}1.58 and 1.46 eV, respectively.

  14. High-power, narrow-band, high-repetition-rate, 5.9 eV coherent light source using passive optical cavity for laser-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Omachi, J; Yoshioka, K; Kuwata-Gonokami, M

    2012-10-08

    We demonstrate a scheme for efficient generation of a 5.9 eV coherent light source with an average power of 23 mW, 0.34 meV linewidth, and 73 MHz repetition rate from a Ti: sapphire picosecond mode-locked laser with an output power of 1 W. Second-harmonic light is generated in a passive optical cavity by a BiB(3)O(6) crystal with a conversion efficiency as high as 67%. By focusing the second-harmonic light transmitted from the cavity into a β-BaB(2)O(4) crystal, we obtain fourth-harmonic light at 5.9 eV. This light source offers stable operation for at least a week. We discuss the suitability of the laser light source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy by comparing it with other sources (synchrotron radiation facilities and gas discharge lamp).

  15. Modeling of Electric Vehicles (EVs) for EV Grid Integration Study

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to successfully integrate EVs into power systems, it is necessary to develop a detailed EV model considering both the EV users’ driving requirements and the battery charging and discharging characteristics. A generic EV model was proposed which takes into account charging and discharging...

  16. Accurate Measurements of Dielectric and Optical Functions of Liquid Water and Liquid Benzene in the VUV Region (1-100 eV) Using Small-Angle Inelastic X-ray Scattering.

    Hayashi, Hisashi; Hiraoka, Nozomu

    2015-04-30

    Using a third-generation synchrotron source (the BL12XU beamline at SPring-8), inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectra of liquid water and liquid benzene were measured at energy losses of 1-100 eV with 0.24 eV resolution for small momentum transfers (q) of 0.23 and 0.32 au with ±0.06 au uncertainty for q. For both liquids, the IXS profiles at these values of q converged well after we corrected for multiple scattering, and these results confirmed the dipole approximation for q ≤ ∼0.3 au. Several dielectric and optical functions [including the optical oscillator strength distribution (OOS), the optical energy-loss function (OLF), the complex dielectric function, the complex index of refraction, and the reflectance] in the vacuum ultraviolet region were derived and tabulated from these small-angle (small q) IXS spectra. These new data were compared with previously obtained results, and this comparison demonstrated the strong reproducibility and accuracy of IXS spectroscopy. For both water and benzene, there was a notable similarity between the OOSs of the liquids and amorphous solids, and there was no evidence of plasmon excitation in the OLF. The static structure factor [S(q)] for q ≤ ∼0.3 au was also deduced and suggests that molecular models that include electron correlation effects can serve as a good approximation for the liquid S(q) values over the full range of q.

  17. Suramin inhibits EV71 infection.

    Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is one of the major causative reagents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections and leads to numerous dead cases. Although several inactivated whole-virus vaccines have entered in clinical trials, no antiviral agent has been provided for clinical therapy. In the present work, we screened our compound library and identified that suramin, which has been clinically used to treat variable diseases, could inhibit EV71 proliferation with an IC50 value of 40 μM. We further revealed that suramin could block the attachment of EV71 to host cells to regulate the early stage of EV71 infection, as well as affected other steps of EV71 life cycle. Our results are helpful to understand the mechanism for EV71 life cycle and provide a potential for the usage of an approved drug, suramin, as the antiviral against EV71 infection.

  18. Broadband multilayer mirror and diffractive optics for attosecond pulse shaping in the 280-500 eV photon energy range

    Schmidt J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirped broadband multilayer mirrors are key components to shape attosecond pulses in the XUV range. Compressing high harmonic pulses to their Fourier limit is the major goal for attosecond physics utilizing short pulse pump-probe experiments. Here, we report about the first implementation of multilayers and diffractive optics fulfilling these requirements in the “water-window” spectral range.

  19. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  20. EV Portfolio Management and Grid Impact Study

    Wu, Qiuwei; Jensen, Jakob Munch; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The EV portfolio management is to develop an EV charging management algorithm in order to determine EV charging schedules with the goal of utilizing renewalbe energy production for EV charging as much as possible and ensuring that EV energy requirements for driving needs are met. According...... is to determine the day‐ahead charging schedules of a fleet of EVs in order to minimize the EV charging cost with EV energy constraints taken into account. In order to investigate the benefits of the spot price based EV charging scenario, two more charging scenarios have been studied as well, i.e. plug...

  1. Markets Share Models for EVs

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Christensen, Linda

    of a logit choice model and based on the estimated parameters a simulation model is set up. The model will be available for assessing different scenarios and forecasts of the sales of EVs under different assumptions of prices of the cars, life-time of batteries, the operations costs, the driving range......-tion potential. The recent development has increased the knowledge of costs of stations and cars, but the knowledge of the market potential of EVs is still limited. In the traffic agreement of January 2009 electric vehicles were highlighted as part of the solution for future CO2 problems. Here, the target...... to the end of 2015. More ambitious greenhouse gas reductions are announced and EV’s may contrib-ute to such targets. However, no specific target has been set for the share of electric vehicles. In order to investigate the potential role of electric vehicles (EVs), DTU transport has construct-ed a small car...

  2. Instant LEGO Mindstorm EV3

    Garber, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A concise guide full of step-by-step recipes to teach you how to build and program an advanced robot.""Instant LEGO Mindstorm EV3"" is for both the adult tinkerer who has never touched LEGO before and the experienced LEGO engineer who has evolved from Mindstorm NXT to EV3. If you are interested in entering or advising students in robot competitions such as the FIRST LEGO League, the Wold Robot Olympiad, or RoboGames, then this book is a must for you. Even if you haven't purchased yo

  3. Kloostripäev Pirital

    2003-01-01

    15. VIII Pirita kloostris konverents "Birgitiinide kodust Pirita asumiks". Esinevad Toomas Abiline, Jaan Tamm, Robert Nerman, Krista Kodres. Fuajees näitus Albin Strutzkini materjalidest Tallinna linnamuuseumis, Pirita postkaartide väljapanek Viktor Kuigi kogust. Eksponeeritud Tiina Veisseriku ikoonid tekstiilil, Anatoli Ljutjuki sari "Süütult solvatute kirik" kloostrivaremetes. Päev lõpeb rockoratooriumiga "Naerusuine vabadus"

  4. Digitaliseerimise demopäev

    1999-01-01

    8. XI tarbekunstimuuseumis, 10. XI rahvusraamatukogus digitaliseerimise demopäev koostöös OÜ Art Digitali, Eesti Kultuuriministeeriumi, Tarbekunstimuuseumi ja Eesti Rahvusraamatukoguga. OÜ Art Digital (asutasid 1998. a. Rein Tammik, Mauri Gross) skaneeris 1999. a. suvel Eesti Kunstimuuseumis 2400 graafilist lehte ja maali. Eesti digikeskuse loomisest, ülesannetest

  5. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  6. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  7. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates.

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most

  8. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...... used to carry out case studies to illustrate the proposed EV charging schedule algorithm....

  9. Information on 'Shikoku EV Rally Festival 99' and analysis of participating EVs

    Miyashita, K. [Naruto Univ. of Education, Takashima (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    A 3 day rally was held in August 1999 in the city of Shikoku, Japan to bring electric vehicles (EVs) to the public's attention. A total of 39 EVs from 3 production series participated. This included 29 EVs converted from internal combustion engine vehicles, 5 prototype EVs and 2 hybrid electric vehicles. Thirty seven of the EVs used lead-acid batteries, one used nickel-metal hydride batteries and one used lithium-ion batteries. Each one was charged using one outlet of 3 phase 200 V, 1 phase 200 V or 1 phase 100 V at temporary charging facilities. The 340 km course ran through the city and in mountainous regions. The EVs were driven according to normal traffic rules. At the end of the rally, each EV was evaluated for their performance, hill climbing ability, and re-charging time. Several of the converted EVs drove for more than 50 km through mountainous regions using lead-acid batteries. It was determined that the poor range of EVs can be improved by an efficient daily re-charge. refs.

  10. 肠道病毒EV71

    2008-01-01

    肠道病毒EV71感染疾病是由肠道病毒EV71引起的传染病,多发生于婴幼儿,尤以3岁以下年龄组发病率最高,可引起手、足、口腔等部位的疱疹,个别患者可引起心肌炎、肺水肿、无菌性脑膜脑炎等并发症。

  11. EV Charging Analysis with High EV Penetration in the Nordic Region

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    This report covers the driving pattern analysis and the electric vehicle (EV) charging ananlysis of Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. The contents in the report are driving pattern analysis of the passenger cars and electrical charging load profiles of EVs based on the analyzed driving patterns...

  12. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children.

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics.

  13. In memory of E.V. Shcherbinin

    Editorial Board

    2004-09-01

    On August 3, 2004 died Eduard Vasilyevich Shcherbinin, an outstanding scientist, well known in the MHD world scientific community, Dr. hab. Phys., professor, the head of the Laboratory of Electrical Vortex Flows at the Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia, a member of the Advising Editorial Board of the Journal "MagnetoHydroDynamics". Just after graduation from the Leningrad Politechnical Institute (physics and mathematics faculty) in 1961, E.V. Shcherbinin joined the Institute of Physics and stayed there till his last days. He started his work as an engineer at the Institute of Physics, in 1966 he was awarded his first scientific degree of Candidate of Science, in 1977 he was awarded another scientific degree of Dr.Phys., in 1980 he became a professor of mathematics. Eduard Vasilyevich Shcherbinin has been awarded many prizes, among which are the prizes of the Presidium of the Latvian Academy of Sciences (1973, 1977, 1986) and the F.Tsander prize (1991). All his fruitful scientific activity was devoted to theoretical MHD fundamental problems and to practical application problems. E.V. Shcherbinin was the founder of a new branch in MHD - the so-called electrovortex flows, having direct relation to the optimization of many practical metallurgy processes such as aluminum reduction cells, induction channel furnaces, electric arc furnaces and electroslag re-melting of metals. E.V. Shcherbinin published 6 monographs, about 200 scientific papers, he has more than 40 patents. Alongside, E.V. Shcherbinin guided the scientific work of many post-graduates and gave lectures in mathematics for students. Under his guidance, 13 post-graduates have successfully prepared their theses in MHD. E.V. Shcherbinin was also active in organizing many international seminars and conferences and participating in them. Recently, E.V. Shcherbinin, being the head of the Laboratory of Electrical Vortex Flows has published the monograph "Theory of self-similar boundary layer in

  14. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  15. Tantsupäev toob auhinnad

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisel tantsupäeval, 29. apr., jõuab Kanuti Gildi saalis maailmaesietenduseni S. Pepeljajevi ja tema uue nimega trupi - teater APART - tantsulavastus "Uksed", millele järgneb Philip Morrise tantsuauhindade tseremoonia. Rahvusvahelist tantsupäeva tähistatakse maailmas 1982.a., päev on valitud prantsuse ballettmeistri J.-G. Noverre'i sünnikuupäeva järgi

  16. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares, Felipe E; Haislip, Joshua B; Reichart, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods. We obtain and analyze multi-band optical light curves and optical-near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning from -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results. A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light curve shape of $\\Delta m_{15}(B)=1.12 \\pm 0.02$ and a stretch s = $0.94 \\pm 0.01$ suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of $E(B - V) = 0.25 \\pm 0.05$ and a reddening law of $R_v = 1.54 \\pm 0.65$. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si II {\\lambda}6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high-velocity gradient SN, with a value of $164 \\pm 7$ km s$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocit...

  17. EVS25,Calls for Sustainable Mobility Revolution

    Yang Wei; Li Yinghong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Want to low your cost and save energy for your car,and also be environmentfriendly in nearby future? May you can find an answer in Zhenshen,Guangdong province,China,where the 25th world battery,hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicle symposium and exhibition (EVS25) will be held.The special event will last from November 5 to 9,2010,and is expected to attract 2000-2500 visitors,with an exhibition size of 30 thousand square meters,the largest in all the sessions held.

  18. Telescope search for a 3-eV to 8-eV axion

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Ressell, M. Ted; Turner, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Axions of mass 3-8 eV should have a cosmological abundance of about 50/cu cm and reside in rich clusters of galaxies. Their decays to two photons will produce a line at a wavelength of about 3100-8300 A. This effort has searched unsuccessfully for such a feature in the tergalactic light of three rich clusters, closing this 'window', and leaving open only the window from 10 to the -6th to 0.001 eV. This implies that if the axion exists, it likely comprises the dark matter. The present flux limits are of relevance to other relics whose decays produce monoenergetic photons.

  19. Radar Observations and the Shape of Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    Busch, Michael W; Benner, Lance A M; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D; Jao, Joseph S; Scheeres, Daniel J; Magri, Christopher; Nolan, Michael C; Howell, Ellen S; Taylor, Patrick A; Margot, Jean-Luc; Brisken, Walter

    2011-01-01

    We observed the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars and the Very Long Baseline Array during December 2008. EV5 rotates retrograde and its overall shape is a 400 /pm 50 m oblate spheroid. The most prominent surface feature is a ridge parallel to the asteroid's equator that is broken by a concavity 150 m in diameter. Otherwise the asteroid's surface is notably smooth on decameter scales. EV5's radar and optical albedos are consistent with either rocky or stony-iron composition. The equatorial ridge is similar to structure seen on the rubble-pile near-Earth asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4 and is consistent with YORP spin-up reconfiguring the asteroid in the past. We interpret the concavity as an impact crater. Shaking during the impact and later regolith redistribution may have erased smaller features, explaining the general lack of decameter-scale surface structure.

  20. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  1. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in ...

  2. System Architecture Design for Electric Vehicle (EV) Systems

    Xu, Zhao; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) system should fulfill the energy needs of EVs to meet the EV users’ driving requirements and enable the system service from EVs to support the power system operation with high penetration of renewable energy resources (RES) by providing necessary infrastructures. In order...... or aggregated control concept and market solutions. The information/communication level is comprised of information exchange and ICT infrastructure. The physical level consists of meters, network connections, charging facility and EVs. The details of the three levels have been discussed. The stakeholders...

  3. The origin of 2.7 eV luminescence and 5.2 eV excitation band in hafnium oxide

    Perevalov, T. V., E-mail: timson@isp.nsc.ru [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of SB RAS, 13 Lavrentieva Ave, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova St., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Aliev, V. Sh.; Gritsenko, V. A. [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of SB RAS, 13 Lavrentieva Ave, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Saraev, A. A. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis of SB RAS, 5 Lavrentieva Ave, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kaichev, V. V. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova St., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Boreskov Institute of Catalysis of SB RAS, 5 Lavrentieva Ave, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanova, E. V.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V. [Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute of RAS, 26 Politechnicheskaya St., 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-17

    The origin of a blue luminescence band at 2.7 eV and a luminescence excitation band at 5.2 eV of hafnia has been studied in stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric hafnium oxide films. Experimental and calculated results from the first principles valence band spectra showed that the stoichiometry violation leads to the formation of the peak density of states in the band gap caused by oxygen vacancies. Cathodoluminescence in the non-stoichiometric film exhibits a band at 2.65 eV that is excited at the energy of 5.2 eV. The optical absorption spectrum calculated for the cubic phase of HfO{sub 2} with oxygen vacancies shows a peak at 5.3 eV. Thus, it could be concluded that the blue luminescence band at 2.7 eV and HfO{sub x} excitation peak at 5.2 eV are due to oxygen vacancies. The thermal trap energy in hafnia was estimated.

  4. Proteomics analysis of EV71-infected cells reveals the involvement of host protein NEDD4L in EV71 replication.

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Han; Wang, Robert Yung-Liang; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-I; Kao, Li-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human enterovirus that has seriously affected the Asia-Pacific area for the past two decades. EV71 infection can result in mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina and may occasionally lead to severe neurological complications in children. However, the specific biological processes that become altered during EV71 infection remain unclear. To further explore host responses upon EV71 infection, we identified proteins differentially expressed in EV71-infected human glioblastoma SF268 cells using isobaric mass tag (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Network analysis of proteins altered in cells infected with EV71 revealed that the changed biological processes are related to protein and ion transport, regulation of protein degradation, and homeostatic processes. We confirmed that the levels of NEDD4L and PSMF1 were increased and reduced, respectively, in EV71-infected cells compared to mock-infected control cells. To determine the physiological relevance of our findings, we investigated the consequences of EV71 infection in cells with NEDD4L or PSMF1 depletion. We found that the depletion of NEDD4L significantly reduced the replication of EV71, whereas PSMF1 knockdown enhanced EV71 replication. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence of proteome-wide dysregulation by EV71 infection and suggest a novel role for the host protein NEDD4L in the replication of this virus.

  5. Crew coordination issues of EVS approaches

    Lorenz, Bernd; Korn, Bernd R.

    2004-08-01

    Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) are currently developed with the goal to alleviate restrictions in airspace and airport capacity in low visibility conditions. Existing EVS-systems are based on IR-sensors although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum. But the quality of MMW radar is rather poor compared to IR images. However, the analysis of radar images can be simplified dramatically when simple passive radar retro-reflectors are used to mark the runway. This presentation is the third in a series of studies investigating the use of such simple landing aids. In the first study the feasibility of the radar PAPI concept was determined; the second one provided first promising human performance results in a low-fidelity simulation. The present study examined pilot performance, workload, situation awareness, and crew coordination issues in a high-fidelity simulation of 'Radar-PAPI' visual aids supporting a precision straight-in landing in low visibility (CAT-II). Simulation scenarios were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator involving six two-pilot flight-deck crews. Pilots could derive visual cues to correct lateral glide-path deviations from 13 pairs of runway-marking corner reflectors. Vertical deviations were indicated by a set of six diplane reflectors using intensity-coding to provide the PAPI categories needed for the correction of vertical deviations. The study compared three display formats and associated crew coordination issues: (1) PF views a head-down B-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (2) PF views a head-down C-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (3) PF views through a head-up display (HUD) that displays primary flight guidance information and receives vertical and lateral guidance from PNF who views a head-down B-scope. PNF guidance is terminated upon PF

  6. Optics

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  7. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  8. Radar Observations and the Shape of 2008 EV5: Ridges and Craters on Near-Earth Asteroids

    Busch, Michael W.; Ostro, S. J.; Benner, L. A. M.; Scheeres, D. J.; Giorgini, J. D.; Brozovic, M.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Taylor, P. A.; Margot, J.; Magri, C.; Jao, J. S.; Brisken, W.

    2010-10-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 was discovered by the Mt. Lemmon Survey on March 4 2008, and approached to within 8.4 lunar distances in December 2008, when it was a very strong radar target. We observed EV5 with the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars and the Very Long Baseline Array, and previously described those observations and obtaining EV5's pole direction. We have now completed a detailed model of EV5's shape. The Arecibo delay-Doppler data provided 7.5-m spatial resolution, showing that EV5's overall shape is a 400 ± 50 m spheroid. The most prominent surface feature is a ridge parallel to the asteroid's equator that is broken by a concavity 150 m in diameter. Otherwise the asteroid's surface is shows few decameter-scale features and is notably smooth - our shape model has an average surface slope of <15º. EV5's radar and optical albedos are consistent with either rocky or stony-iron composition. EV5's ridge is similar to structure seen on the rubble-pile near-Earth asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4, and is consistent with YORP spin-up reconfiguring the asteroid during an episode of more rapid rotation. We interpret the concavity as an impact crater. Shaking during the impact should have erased smaller surface features and may explain the general lack of decameter-scale surface structure.

  9. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV Array

    Malene Møller Jørgensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles, 2013; 2: 10 has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment or purification prior to analysis.

  10. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array

    Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bæk, Rikke; Varming, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles......, 2013; 2: 10) has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes) for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment...

  11. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability...... from the driving time periods to show how many cars are available for charging and discharging in each time period. The obtained EV availability data are in one hour time periods and one quarter time periods for different study purposes. The EV availability data of one hour time period are to be used...

  12. Optics

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  13. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications.

  14. EV and HP Providing Ancillary Services in the Nordic Region

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    This report covers the analysis of the electric vehicle (EV) and heat pump (HP) providing ancillary services to the power system of the Nordic region including Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The analysis is to investigate the feasibility of EVs and HPs to serve as demand as frequency reserve...... (DFR) providers in the distribution power system in the four mentioned Nordic countries....

  15. Weighted (C)eby(s)ev-Ostrowski type inequalities

    Arif Rafiq; Nazir Ahmad Mir; Farooq Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    In account of the famous (C)eby(s)ev inequality, a rich theory has appeared in the literature. We establish some new weighted (C)eby(s)ev type integral inequalities. Our proofs are of independent interest and provide new estimates on these types of inequalities.

  16. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  17. Operation Strategy of EV Battery Charging and Swapping Station

    Zhuo Peng; Li Zhang; Ku-An Lu; Jun-Peng Hu; Si Liu

    2014-01-01

    An operation strategy of the electric vehicle (EV) battery charging and swapping station is proposed in the paper. The strategy is established based on comprehensively consideration of the EV charging behaviors and the possible mutual actions between battery charging and swapping. Three energy management strategies can be used in the station:charging period shifting, energy exchange between EVs, and energy supporting from surplus swapping batteries. Then an optimization model which minimizes the total energy management costs of the station is built. The Monte Carlo simulation is applied to analyze the characteristics of the EV battery charging load, and a heuristic algorithm is used to solve the strategy providing the relevant information of EVs and the battery charging and swapping station. The operation strategy can efficiently reduce battery charging during the high electricity price periods and make more reasonable use of the resources. Simulations prove the feasibility and rationality of the strategy.

  18. Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV

    Hofstetter, M; Schultze, M; Guggenmos, A; Gagnon, J; Yakovlev, V S; Krausz, F; Kleineberg, U [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aquila, A; Yang, S; Gullikson, E [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2-400, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Huth, M; Nickel, B [Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Schellingstrasse 4, 80799 Munich (Germany); Goulielmakis, E, E-mail: michael.hofstetter@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    A novel multilayer material system consisting of lanthanum and molybdenum nano-layers for both broadband and highly reflecting multilayer mirrors in the energy range between 80 and 130 eV is presented. The simulation and design of these multilayers were based on an improved set of optical constants, which were recorded by extreme ultraviolet (XUV)/soft-x-ray absorption measurements on freestanding lanthanum nano-films between 30 eV and 1.3 keV. Lanthanum-molybdenum (La/Mo) multilayer mirrors were produced by ion-beam sputtering and characterized through both x-ray and XUV reflectivity measurements. We demonstrate the ability to precisely simulate and realize aperiodic stacks. Their stability against ambient air conditions is demonstrated. Finally, the La/Mo mirrors were used in the generation of single attosecond pulses from high-harmonic cut-off spectra above 100 eV. Isolated 200 attosecond-long pulses were measured by XUV-pump/IR-probe streaking experiments and characterized using frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts (FROG/CRAB) analyses.

  19. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 infections by a novel antiviral peptide derived from EV-71 capsid protein VP1.

    Chee Wah Tan

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD. In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC(50 values ranging from 6-9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71.

  20. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  1. EV71疫苗研究进展%Progress in the research of EV71 vaccine

    蔡宏荣; 王蕾; 廖芸

    2009-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Since no effeetive antiviral agents are available,developing effective EV71 vaccines for prevention of HFMD has been the control measure of choice. Currently, the research of EV71 vaccines has made certain pro-gress,and various EV71 vaccines, including attenuated vccines, inactivated vaccine, VP1 subunit vaccine and DNA vaccine, are being developed. Although various EV71 vaccines have certain efficacy, the optimal vaccine needs to be identified by evaluating the safety and protective efficacy of various EV71 vaccines.%肠道病毒71型(enterovims 71,EV71)是手足口病的主要病原体,由于尚无治疗手足口病的有效抗病毒药,因此,开发预防手足口病的有效EV71疫苗成为所有控制措施的首选.目前,EV71疫苗研究已取得一定的进展,正在研发的疫苗包括减毒或灭活疫苗、VP1亚单位疫苗和DNA疫苗.虽然各种疫苗均具有一定的免疫效果,但最适疫苗的确认还需对各种疫苗的安全性和保护效力进行评估.

  2. EBSCO infopäev Tallinnas / Marika Meltsas

    Meltsas, Marika

    2008-01-01

    16. aprillil 2008 toimus Tallinnas EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) infopäev, kus maailma suurim elektrooniliste ja trükiajakirjade vahendaja tutvustas oma tooteid ja teenuseid Eesti raamatukogudele. Kommentaar korraldajalt Tiina Nurmilt

  3. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  4. Emakeelepäev Hamburgis / Liilika M. Allev

    Allev, Liilika M.

    2009-01-01

    23. nov. 2008 toimunud EV Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumi, Eesti Keele Instituudi ja EÜSLi HEA Seltsi traditsioonilisest emakeelepäevast, mille kavas oli sinatamine ja teietamine eestlastel ja eestivenelastel

  5. Immunological Evaluation and Comparison of Different EV71 Vaccine Candidates

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs, and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1 VP1 peptide (residues 211–225 formulated with Freund’s adjuvant (CFA/IFA elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer; (2 recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160; (3 individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3 formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4 the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640, but failed to neutralize CVA16. In contrast, rabbits antisera could cross-neutralize strongly against different genotypes of EV71 but weakly against CVA16, with average titers 1/6400 and 1/32, respectively. The VP1 amino acid sequence dissimilarity between CVA16 and EV71 could partially explain why mouse antibodies failed to cross-neutralize CVA16. Therefore, the best formulation for producing cost-effective HFMD vaccine is a combination of formalin-inactivated EV71 and CAV16 virions.

  6. Järjekordne keelepäev Hamburgis (Emakeelepäev Hamburgis) I-III / Liilika M. Allev

    Allev, Liilika M.

    2007-01-01

    Seekord oli keskseks teemaks lapse keeleareng, korraldajateks EV Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium, Eesti Keeleinstituut ja EÜSLi HEA Selts. Keelepoliitikast. Kuidas eesti laps rääkima hakkab? Kakskeelsuse omandamine

  7. Smart EV Energy Management System to Support Grid Services

    Wang, Bin

    Under smart grid scenarios, the advanced sensing and metering technologies have been applied to the legacy power grid to improve the system observability and the real-time situational awareness. Meanwhile, there is increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as renewable generations, electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage system (BESS), etc., being integrated into the power system. However, the integration of EVs, which can be modeled as controllable mobile energy devices, brings both challenges and opportunities to the grid planning and energy management, due to the intermittency of renewable generation, uncertainties of EV driver behaviors, etc. This dissertation aims to solve the real-time EV energy management problem in order to improve the overall grid efficiency, reliability and economics, using online and predictive optimization strategies. Most of the previous research on EV energy management strategies and algorithms are based on simplified models with unrealistic assumptions that the EV charging behaviors are perfectly known or following known distributions, such as the arriving time, leaving time and energy consumption values, etc. These approaches fail to obtain the optimal solutions in real-time because of the system uncertainties. Moreover, there is lack of data-driven strategy that performs online and predictive scheduling for EV charging behaviors under microgrid scenarios. Therefore, we develop an online predictive EV scheduling framework, considering uncertainties of renewable generation, building load and EV driver behaviors, etc., based on real-world data. A kernel-based estimator is developed to predict the charging session parameters in real-time with improved estimation accuracy. The efficacy of various optimization strategies that are supported by this framework, including valley-filling, cost reduction, event-based control, etc., has been demonstrated. In addition, the existing simulation-based approaches do

  8. First isolation of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 from Northern Brazil

    Lamarão Leticia Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 has been associated to cases of neurological disease in many countries including Brazil. This virus has now been reported from three of the five Brazilian regions. Our study relates the findings concerning to the first isolate of this virus in Northern region of Brazil. A 15-month old female patient, from the rural zone of the municipality of Santana do Araguaia in southern Pará state was admitted at the hospital with acute, flaccid, asymmetric and ascending motor deficiency, located in the right lower limb. Stools samples from this child were inoculated in RD cells and was isolated an EV-71. We plan to sequence our strain and compare it to other isolates in Brazil. Differences at the molecular level can explain why EV-71 strains circulating in other continents, such as Asia, appear to be more virulent.

  9. Demand power with EV charging schemes considering actual data

    Jun-Hyeok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eco-friendly energies have recently become a popular topic. Given this trend, we predict that a large number of electric vehicles (EVs will be widely used. However, EVs need to be connected to a power system for charging, thereby causing severe risks, such as rapid increase of demand power. Therefore, in this study, we analyze the effects of EV charging on demand power, which depend on different charging schemes, namely, dumb charging, off-peak charging, time-of-use (ToU price-based charging. For practical analysis, we conduct simulations by considering the actual power system and driving patterns in South Korea. Simulation results show that the ToU price-based charging scheme exhibits better performance in terms of demand power over the other charging schemes.

  10. Photoion alignment. Chemical signatures 200 eV above threshold

    Das, R.; Wu, C.; Mihill, A.G.; Poliakoff, E.D. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)); Wang, K.; McKoy, V. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1995-02-09

    We present results of experiment and theory for the alignment of CO[sup +](B[sup 2][Sigma][sup +]) and N[sub 2][sup +](B[sup 2][Sigma][sub n][sup +]) photoions over an extended energy range (0 [le] E[sub k] [le] 210 eV for CO and 0 [le] E[sub k] [le] 250 eV for N[sub 2]). The polarization of CO[sup +](B[sup 2][Sigma][sup [minus

  11. High efficiency multilayer gratings for monochromators in the energy range from 500 eV to 2500 eV

    Lagarde, B.; Choueikani, F.; Capitanio, B.; Ohresser, P.; Meltchakov, E.; Delmotte, F.; Krumrey, M.; Polack, F.

    2013-03-01

    Multilayer (ML) gratings have been prepared by coating shallow ion etched lamellar gratings with a Mo2C/B4C multilayer having a layer thickness close to the groove depth. It was shown that such a structure behaves as a 2D synthetic crystal and can reach very high efficiencies when the Bragg condition is satisfied. A ML coated grating has been characterized at the SOLEIL Metrology beamline between 700 and 1700 eV and a beamline of PTB at BESSY II between 1750 and 3500 eV. A peak diffraction efficiency of nearly 27 % was measured at 2200 eV. The measured efficiencies are well reproduced by numerical simulations made with the electromagnetic propagation code CARPEM, This grating will be used in the Deimos beamline at SOLEIL together with a matched multilayer mirror.

  12. Developing of the EV charging and parking shed of BIPV

    Wu Shaobo; Wei Chuanchuan; Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is an important application way of solar photovoltaic power. The electric vehicle (EV) charging and parking shed of BIPV is the regeneration energy intellectual integration demonstration application system collection of photovoltaic (PV) grid power,PV off-grid power,EV charging and parking shed,and any part of the functions and their combination will be engaged in practical application on demand. The paper describes the PV shed system structure and design in detail with the present of its actual photos. The shed is 50 m long and 5.5 m wide and capable of parking 18 cars. Under the control of system intellectual con-troller,the power produced by PV from sunlight will charge the parking EV car prior to charging the storage bat-tery,charging the storage battery prior to grid power,grid power at last,and charge the EV by utility grid when it is a cloudy or rainy day.

  13. Ponjat samogo sebja / Ze'ev Hanin ; interv. Josef Kats

    Hanin, Ze'ev

    2006-01-01

    Lääne tsivilisatsiooni katse seostada tähtsamad maailma poliitikasündmused Iisraeliga ei ole selle riigi süü ega teene, tegemist on euroopa tsivilisatsiooni sügava kriisiga - sellisel seisukohal on hiljuti Tallinna külastanud Bar-Ilani ülikooli õppejõud ja politoloog Ze'ev Hanin

  14. CONSISTENCY OF LS ESTIMATOR IN SIMPLE LINEAR EV REGRESSION MODELS

    Liu Jixue; Chen Xiru

    2005-01-01

    Consistency of LS estimate of simple linear EV model is studied. It is shown that under some common assumptions of the model, both weak and strong consistency of the estimate are equivalent but it is not so for quadratic-mean consistency.

  15. Naistepäev ikka hinnas / Ivar Jung

    Jung, Ivar

    2003-01-01

    Kunstihoone galeriis Ivika Kivi ja Dagmar Kase näituse "ID 2002" taustal 8. III toimunud Reet Varblase organiseeritud seminarist "Naised, ühiskond, ilu ja hügieen". Linnagaleriis lõpetas Meiu Mündi maalinäituse Oksana Titova tantsuetendus. 9. III Pärnus Taave Tuutma kureeritud tegevuskunstipäev

  16. Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Global EV Outlook represents the collective efforts of two years of primary data gathering and analysis from the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) and IEA. Key takeaways and insights include landscape analysis of electric vehicle (EV) stock/sales and charging station deployment. Existing policy initiatives are delineated and future opportunities highlighted in an ''Opportunity Matrix: Pathways to 2020''. Together EVI countries accounted for more than 90% of world EV stock at the end of 2012. Strong government support in EVI countries on both the supply and demand sides are contributing to rising market penetration. 12 out of 15 EVI countries offer financial support for vehicle purchases, and most employ a mix of financial and non-financial incentives (such as access to restricted highway lanes) to help drive adoption. The Global EV Outlook is a unique and data-rich overview of the state of electric vehicles today, and offers an understanding of the electric vehicle landscape to 2020.

  17. Refractive indices of zincblende structure {beta}-GaN(001) in the subband-gap region (0.7{endash}3.3 eV)

    Vidal, M.A.; Ramirez-Flores, G.; Navarro-Contreras, H.; Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Communicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Powell, R.C.; Greene, J.E. [Materials Science Department, Coordinated Science Laboratory, and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Refractive indices {ital n} and absorption coefficients {alpha} of epitaxial metastable zincblende structure {beta}-GaN(001) were determined over the subband-gap energy range between 0.8{endash}3.1 eV from an analysis of optical transmission spectra. {ital n} was found to vary from 2.25 to 0.8 eV (1.55 {mu}m) to 2.50 at 3.1 eV (0.4 {mu}m) with an energy {ital E} (eV) dependence that is well described by a Sellmeir-type dispersion relationship, {ital n}{sup 2}({ital E})=1+148/(38.3{minus}{ital E}{sup 2}). The refractive indices of {beta}-GaN are 3{percent}{endash}4{percent} smaller than previously reported values for hexagonal {alpha}-GaN. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Protective effect of enterovirus-71 (EV71) virus-like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model

    Cao, Lei; MAO, FENGFENG; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; MENG, QINGLING; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehen...

  19. Potential Analysis of Regulating Power from Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration in Denmark

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The potential analysis of having electric vehicles (EVs) provide regulating power has been implemented. The possible regulating power capacity from EVs and the economic return for EV users by providing regulating power are obtained. A spot price based charging schedule scenario has been used to do....... The activated regulating power and regulating power prices in the Denmark West System in 2010 have been used to calculate the economic return for EV users if all the regulating power is provided by EVs....

  20. Cascades from nu_E above 1020 eV

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2004-12-21

    At very high energies, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect reduces the cross sections for electron bremsstrahlung and photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production. The fractional electron energy loss and pair production cross sections drop as the energy increases. In contrast, the cross sections for photonuclear interactions grow with energy. In solids and liquids, at energies above 10{sup 20} eV, photonuclear reactions dominate, and showers that originate as photons or electrons quickly become hadronic showers. These electron-initiated hadronic showers are much shorter (due to the absence of the LPM effect), but wider than purely electromagnetic showers would be. This change in shape alters the spectrum of the electromagnetic and acoustic radiation emitted from the shower. These alterations have important implications for existing and planned searches for radiation from u{sub e} induced showers above 10{sup 20} eV, and some existing limits should be reevaluated.

  1. Archaeology management system based on EV-Globe

    Yang, Lin; Lu, Guo-nian; Pei, An-ping; Niu, Yu-gang; Luo, Tao

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, cultural relics were recorded in a 2D (2 dimensions) method such as paper maps, pictures, multi-media, micro-models and so on. This paper introduces the archaeology management system based on EV-Globe (Earth View-Globe - spatial information service platform on virtual 3D environment) for the cultural relics along the Eastern Route Project (ERP) of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD). Integrate the spatial and attribute data of the cultural relics along ERP of SNWD processed by SuperMap deskpro2005 with the relative basic geological data based on the platform of EV-Globe and develop a series of functions based on the SDK (Software Development Kit), and so the relics can be managed visually, at the same time the system may assist the archaeologists and some researchers in managing and studying the cultural relics. Some conception and conceiving of web and mobile version is put forward for next researching.

  2. Volatile Survival on Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    Pohl, Leos; Britt, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Asteroid 2008 EV5 is currently one of the possible targets of NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The objective of this mission is to recover a boulder from the surface of an asteroid. The selection of the final target requires understanding the physical characteristics of the asteroid such as the size-frequency distribution of boulders on the asteroid's surface, the presence of volatiles on the surface and below, the strength of the surface materials and the degree of their alteration. In our work, we focus on the second criterion, the possibility of volatiles presence on 2008 EV5. These can be expected to survive embedded within the crystal lattice of various phyllosilicates. The positive presence of volatiles on the surface of and inside the asteroid is important especially for ISRU hardware demonstrations. Spectral data suggest that 2008 EV5 is a member of CI chondrite group which is characterized by high phyllosilicate content (~70%) but there is also the possibility of it being a CR chondrite where the phyllosilicate content ranges significantly, from samples with negligible phyllosilicate content to samples with almost 70% phyllosilicate content. If the dynamical history of the asteroid brought it close enough to the Sun, the lattice of phyllosilicates could have disintegrated and released the volatiles (water) and the material could have dehydrated. The depth at which the dehydration might have taken place depends on the characteristic depth of heat wave penetration which in turn depends on material characteristics such as density, heat capacity and heat conductivity. These are in turn are closely linked to the porosity. The characteristic heat penetration depth also depends on orbital geometry and rotational and orbital periods. Besides the temperature itself, the dehydration is also affected by the duration of the crystal lattice breakup temperatures. We use thermal model in conjunction with available experimental data on the dehydration of clays and

  3. EV71 virus-like particles produced by co-expression of capsid proteins in yeast cells elicit humoral protective response against EV71 lethal challenge

    Wang, Xiaowen; Xiao, Xiangqian; Zhao, Miao; Wei LIU; Pang, Lin; Sun, Xin; Cen, Shan; Burton B Yang; Huang, Yuming; Sheng, Wang; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most common causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with severe neurological complications. There is a great need to develop prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection. Results EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) was produced in yeast expression system by the co-expression of four EV71 structural proteins VP1–VP4. Immunization with the recombinant VLPs elicited potent anti-EV71 antibody responses in adult mice and anti-VLP sera...

  4. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  5. Recombination in the evolution of enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus. However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C. In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5'UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses.

  6. Secondary Use of PHEV and EV Batteries: Opportunities & Challenges (Presentation)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Howell, D.

    2010-05-01

    NREL and partners will investigate the reuse of retired lithium ion batteries for plug-in hybrid, hybrid, and electric vehicles in order to reduce vehicle costs and emissions and curb our dependence on foreign oil. A workshop to solicit industry feedback on the process is planned. Analyses will be conducted, and aged batteries will be tested in two or three suitable second-use applications. The project is considering whether retired PHEV/EV batteries have value for other applications; if so, what are the barriers and how can they be overcome?

  7. Optimization of unipolar magnetic couplers for EV wireless power chargers

    Zeng, H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Chen, H. X.; Zhou, B.; Hei, T.

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve the coupling coefficient of EV wireless power chargers, it's important to optimize the magnetic couplers. To improve the coupling coefficient, the relationship between coupling coefficient and efficiency is derived, and the expression of coupling coefficient based on magnetic circuit is deduced, which provide the basis for optimizing the couplers. By 3D FEM simulation, the optimal core structure and coils are designed for unipolar circular couplers. Experiments are designed to verify the correctness of the optimization results, and compared with previous coupler, the transmission efficiency is improved and weight is reduced.

  8. Estimation in partial linear EV models with replicated observations

    CUI; Hengjian

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct the parameter estimators in the partial linear errors-in-variables (EV) models and explore their asymptotic properties. Unlike other related References, the assumption of known error covariance matrix is removed when the sample can be repeatedly drawn at each designed point from the model. The estimators of interested regression parameters, and the model error variance, as well as the nonparametric function, are constructed. Under some regular conditions, all of the estimators prove strongly consistent. Meanwhile, the asymptotic normality for the estimator of regression parameter is also presented. A simulation study is reported to illustrate our asymptotic results.

  9. "Iga päev..." : [luuletused] / Doris Kareva

    Kareva, Doris, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Tekst eesti ja inglise k. D. Kareva lühibiograafia eesti ja inglise k. lk. 175. Sisu: "Iga päev..." = "Every day..." ; "Ma nägin unes - Saatan kõneles..." = "I dream that I heard Satan speak..." ; "Viib sünnieelsest unest surmaunne..." = "Rainbow-coloured confusion bears us..." ; "Vaadeldes vikerkaarlevat maailma..." = "Viewing the rainbowing world..." ; "Ei jõua kirjutada puhtandit..." = "No time to write the final draft..." ; "Põletatud luuletused..." = ""Burnt poems..." ; Fraktalia ; Müsteerium 1-5 = Enigma 1-5 ; "Jumal juhtub..." = "God happens..." ; Moira 1-7 = Wishing well 1-7 ; Concerto strumenti e voce

  10. [Establishment of EV71 animal models with 2-week-old BALB/c mice].

    Wang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan

    2013-03-01

    Animal model is very important for anti-EV71 (enterovirus 71) drug and vaccine development. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse model is the main in vivo model used in China. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse is too small to perform antiviral experiment. And the route of administration and dosage capacity are also restricted. A strong virulence EV71 virus strain was selected after screening from five EV71 strains with 1-day-old suckling mice. A mouse-adapted EV71 strain with increased virulence in 12-day-old suckling mice, EV71-M5, was generated after five serial passages of the parental EV71 strain in mice. Virus titers of EV71 infected mice heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine, brain and muscle tissue were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. The virus used in this model is the first isolated EV71 strain in China. And 2-week-old suckling mice were used in this model. This is a supplement for the EV71 animal model in China. Establishment of this EV71 model will provide an attractive platform for anti-EV71 vaccine and drug development.

  11. EV71 Infection and Innate Antiviral Innate Immunity%EV71的感染和抗病毒天然免疫应答

    谢广成; 段招军

    2016-01-01

    EV71是儿童手足口病的主要病原体,部分感染儿童会出现疱疹性咽峡炎以及严重的肺水肿和/或脑干脑炎.近几年,EV71感染引起的疾病机制研究取得了诸多进展.本文针对目前EV71的敏感细胞、EV71感染激活的信号途径以及EV71感染活化的天然免疫应答或免疫逃逸机制研究进行综述,旨在为EV71抗病毒药物研制和免疫致病机理的研究提供思路.

  12. The approved pediatric drug suramin identified as a clinical candidate for the treatment of EV71 infection-suramin inhibits EV71 infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Ren, Peijun; Zou, Gang; Bailly, Benjamin; Xu, Shanshan; Zeng, Mei; Chen, Xinsheng; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Ying; Guillon, Patrice; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Buchy, Philippe; Li, Jian; von Itzstein, Mark; Li, Qihan; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe central nervous system infections, leading to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is an urgent unmet medical need for new pharmaceutical agents to control EV71 infections. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we found that the approved pediatric antiparasitic drug suramin blocked EV71 infectivity by a novel mechanism of action that involves binding of the naphtalentrisulonic acid group of suramin to the viral capsid. Moreover, we demonstrate that when suramin is used in vivo at doses equivalent to or lower than the highest dose already used in humans, it significantly decreased mortality in mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71 and peak viral load in adult rhesus monkeys. Thus, suramin inhibits EV71 infection by neutralizing virus particles prior to cell attachment. Consequently, these findings identify suramin as a clinical candidate for further development as a therapeutic or prophylactic treatment for severe EV71 infection.

  13. Protective effect of enterovirus‑71 (EV71) virus‑like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model.

    Cao, Lei; Mao, Fengfeng; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; Meng, Qingling; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-08-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine.

  14. Iir Hermeliin soovitab: etendus "Üks suvepäev"

    2011-01-01

    Tahkuna tuletornis 16. septembril esietendunud lavastusest "Üks suvepäev", mis kolib oktoobris Theatrumi teatrisaali. Lavastaja Lembit Peterson, tema kommentaarid. Näidendi "Üks suvepäev" autorist Jon Fossest

  15. The attractivity of Mendrisio as industrial area for EVs

    Piffaretti, M. [InfoVEL, Mendrisio (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    Located in the Italian speaking region of Switzerland, Mendrisio is in the Canton Ticino. The city of 300,000 people is served by two international airports, the Lugano-Agno 15 km away and the Milano-Malpensa 60 km away. Car manufacturers introduced their different alternative technologies in the area through the electric vehicle (EV) - Pilot and Demonstration Project. The country is neutral, and does not have protectionist policies in the area of car manufacturing, since the country does not have a national car manufacturer. The decision-makers and the population are open to new technologies, as demonstrated by the fact that 335 EVs are already in operation in the region. Infrastructure, in the form of charging stations, is already in place, as are tax exemptions and other financial incentives. Highly skilled workers, fluent in many languages abound and are supported by high schools and public research centers. The author briefly described a few selected initiatives that were implemented in the last few years.

  16. 重症手足口病EV71感染护理体会%Nursing Experience of HFMD Children with Severe EV71 Infection

    金利萍; 房彤; 芦玮玮

    2009-01-01

    目的:总结重症EV71感染患儿的护理经验.方法:时100多例重症EV71感染患儿的临床表现、救治措施及护理方法进行分析.结果:总结出重症手足口病EV71感染患儿各项护理要点.结论:重症EV71感染患儿的救治工作在配合护理措施后提高救治成功率.

  17. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines

    Qingyong Ng; Fang He; Jimmy Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with ...

  18. Allocation of Battery Production Impact between EVs and Battery Reuse Applications

    Furuseth, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Significant environmental impacts associated with electric vehicle (EV) Li-ion battery pack production has lead to a desire to explore the possibility of offsetting some of the environmental burdens associated with the battery pack production from the EV to a post-vehicle application. In this study, different battery characteristics were calculated in order to allocate environmental EV Li-ion battery pack production impacts between an EV and selected reuse applications. The battery characteri...

  19. Positron total cross sections for collisions with N2 and CO2 at 30-3000 eV

    Deheng Shi; Yufang Liu; Jinfeng Sun; Zunlue Zhi; Xiangdong Yang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections for positron scattering from N2 and CO2 over the incident energy range from 30 to 3000eV are calculated using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level.A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into account the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is employed to calculate the total cross section of positron-molecule scattering. The calculated total cross sections are in good agreement with those reported by experiments and other theories over a wide energy range.

  20. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to interference of ~1 eV sterile neutrino. The specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST) starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in searches for sterile neutrino mixed with electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST) we find the regions in model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle), which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  1. X-ray Flares of EV Lac: Statistics, Spectra, Diagnostics

    Huenemoerder, David P; Testa, Paola; Drake, Jeremy J; Osten, Rachel A; Reale, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    We study the spectral and temporal behavior of X-ray flares from the active M-dwarf EV Lac in 200 ks of exposure with the Chandra/HETGS. We derive flare parameters by fitting an empirical function which characterizes the amplitude, shape, and scale. The flares range from very short (<1 ks) to long (10 ks) duration events with a range of shapes and amplitudes for all durations. We extract spectra for composite flares to study their mean evolution and to compare flares of different lengths. Evolution of spectral features in the density-temperature plane shows probable sustained heating. The short flares are significantly hotter than the longer flares. We determined an upper limit to the Fe K fluorescent flux, the best fit value being close to what is expected for compact loops.

  2. Broadband multilayer soft X-ray mirrors for attosecond pulse formation at photon energies above 100 eV

    Hofstetter, Michael; Schuster, Joerg; Kleineberg, Ulf [LMU, Physik (Germany); Aquila, Andrew [CXRO (United States); Schulze, Martin; Fiess, Markus; Gouliemakis, Eleftherios; Krausz, Ferenc [MPQ (Germany); Huth, Martin [LMU, Chemie (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We report on the development, fabrication and application of multilayer mirrors as broadband soft-X-ray optical components for the formation of attosecond (1 asec=10{sup -18}s)pulses from high harmonic radiation. Until recently, attosecond physics was merely confined to the photon energy range below 100 eV due to the properties of Mo/Si multilayer and single isolated pulses of 80 asec pulse duration have been achieved. For many applications, e.g. in the characterization of the photoemission dynamics from solid surfaces or the characterization of ultrafast surface plasmon dynamics in metallic nanostructures by attosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, higher photon energies are desirable to address deeper bound electronic core states or to increase the kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectrons. Here, we introduce new aperiodic broad bandwidth multilayer systems based on lanthanum (e.g. LaMo, LaB{sub 4}CMo, LaB{sub 4}C, MoB{sub 4}C),for the 100-190 eV photon energy range. Multilayer properties like interface roughness, interlayer formation and reflectivity are discussed. Finally, first applications for spectral filtering of the HHG comb above 100 eV are presented.

  3. Construction Project Forecasting "Practical Use of EV Metrics"

    Reda Abbas Sabry

    2014-01-01

    During this professional research--Construction Project Forecasting (Practical Use of EV Metrics), which criticize earned value management as a most distinguished methodology for forecasting the project expected end dates and expecting budget at completion, the field for the research is construction field and specially the projects which content different phases without repetitive tasks. Forecasting for construction project is a complicated process need more than applying one equation only. As assuming that, project performance during finishing stage will be similar to project performance during concrete stage is totally wrong. The case study techniques have been used to prove an important idea and also to implement a suggested protocol which actually implemented and tested and it should be considered as a research finding. The project used in this case study is "Hurgadah Intemational Airport--New Terminal Building", while executing this complex construction projects with different stages the forecasting for the project end date and final end budget were completely not realistic. The above leads to questioning the next: "Is it true that using the earned value indexes for forecasting construction projects end date and final budget is the right way? And if not, what is the right process that should be used in order to reach acceptable forecasting method?" We implement the EV measurements by the normal technique and also implement in the same month the suggested protocol for forecasting, comparing the results proof the effectiveness of the suggested protocol. The findings prove that, the construction projects need special treatment when use the EVM for forecasting. The earned value indexes created to serve the projects which have repeated tasks or can say which got one stage only, like information technology (IT) projects as those projects depending on manpower productivity and also based on few different qualifications. On such type of projects

  4. RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication to accelerate the inhibition of the phosphorylation of AKT.

    Zhang, Fengfeng; Liu, Yongjuan; Chen, Xiong; Dong, Lanlan; Zhou, Bingfei; Cheng, Qingqing; Han, Song; Liu, Zhongchun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2015-03-20

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), occasionally leading to death. As a member of the RAS association domain family (RASSFs), RASSF4 plays important roles in cell death, tumor development and signal transduction. However, little is known about the relationship between RASSF4 and EV71. Our study reveals for the first time that RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication and then accelerates AKT phosphorylation inhibition in EV71-infected 293T cells, suggesting that RASSF4 may be a potential new target for designing therapeutic measures to prevent and control EV71 infection.

  5. Analysis on influencing factors of EV charging station planning based on AHP

    Yan, F.; Ma, X. F.

    2016-08-01

    As a new means of transport, electric vehicle (EV) is of great significance to alleviate the energy crisis. EV charging station planning has a far-reaching significance for the development of EV industry. This paper analyzes the impact factors of EV charging station planning, and then uses the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to carry on the further analysis to the influencing factors, finally it gets the weight of each influence factor, and provides the basis for the evaluation scheme of the planning of charging stations for EV.

  6. Delivery of human EV71 receptors by adeno-associated virus increases EV71 infection-induced local inflammation in adult mice.

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Chen, Chih-Yeh; Tao, Mi-Hua; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1) or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2) into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system.

  7. Detection of RNA of EV71 in hospital sewage%医院污水中EV71病毒核酸的检验

    王华洪; 白志永

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究医院污水EV71病毒核酸的检测方法,为手足口病控制提供依据.方法 用栽阳电荷的硅胶滤材吸附浓集污水中的EV71病毒,然后用RT-PCR和实时荧光PCR技术检测EV71病毒.结果 建立的栽阳电荷硅胶浓集方法能有效浓集医院污水中的EV71病毒,通过对6家医院的医院污水检测有2家检出EV71病毒核酸,所有检出EV71核酸的医院污水余氯都不符合国家卫生标准.结论 医院污水中含有EV71病毒核酸,提示其为环境中EV71病毒的重要污染源.因此需要加强医院污水消毒的监督检查.

  8. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines.

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections.

  9. EV71-infected CD14(+) cells modulate the immune activity of T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys.

    Wang, Jingjing; Pu, Jing; Huang, Hongtai; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Longding; Yang, Erxia; Zhou, Xiaofang; Ma, Na; Zhao, Hongling; Wang, Lichun; Xie, Zhenfeng; Tang, Donghong; Li, Qihan

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary studies of the major pathogen enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, have suggested that EV71 may be a major cause of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases. Currently, the role of the pathological changes induced by EV71 infection in the immunopathogenic response remains unclear. Our study focused on the interaction between this virus and immunocytes and indicated that this virus has the ability to replicate in CD14(+) cells. Furthermore, these EV71-infected CD14(+) cells have the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of T cells and to enhance the release of certain functional cytokines. An adaptive immune response induced by the back-transfusion of EV71-infected CD14(+) cells was observed in donor neonatal rhesus monkeys. Based on these observations, the proposed hypothesis is that CD14(+) cells infected by the EV71 virus might modulate the anti-EV71 adaptive immune response by inducing simultaneous T-cell activation.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Technologies for Quantifying Extracellular Vesicles (EVs in Clinical Cerebrospinal Fluids (CSF.

    Johnny C Akers

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs have emerged as a promising biomarker platform for glioblastoma patients. However, the optimal method for quantitative assessment of EVs in clinical bio-fluid remains a point of contention. Multiple high-resolution platforms for quantitative EV analysis have emerged, including methods grounded in diffraction measurement of Brownian motion (NTA, tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS, vesicle flow cytometry (VFC, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Here we compared quantitative EV assessment using cerebrospinal fluids derived from glioblastoma patients using these methods. For EVs 150 nm in diameter, NTA consistently detected lower number of EVs relative to TRPS. These results unveil the strength and pitfalls of each quantitative method alone for assessing EVs derived from clinical cerebrospinal fluids and suggest that thoughtful synthesis of multi-platform quantitation will be required to guide meaningful clinical investigations.

  11. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngolaryngeal mucosa in children

    Jingchang; Xue; Yaoming; Li; Xiaoyi; Xu; Jie; Yu; Hu; Yan; Huimin; Yan

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal Ig G antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 Ig G were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral Ig G mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  12. Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    Teemu Smura; Soile Blomqvist; Tytti Vuorinen; Olga Ivanova; Elena Samoilovich; Haider Al-Hello; Carita Savolainen-Kopra; Tapani Hovi; Merja Roivainen

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains ty...

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3)-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv).

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2014-01-01

    Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv), which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D). Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv.

    Carla Bianca Luena Victorio

    Full Text Available Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv, which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D. Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  15. Detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71)%肠道病毒71型(EV71)的检测

    张宪华

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨肠道病毒71型(EV71)的检测方法.方法 采用酶联免疫法(ELISA法)、免疫胶体金法(胶体金法)、荧光定量PCR法(PCR法)对1399例手足口病患儿的样本进行检测,并对检测结果进行卡方检验.结果 1399例手足口病患儿样本ELISA法、金标法、PCR法结果的阳性率分别为37.8%、36.0%、39.8%,三种方法检验结果 无显著性差异(x2=4.197,P>0.05).ELISA法与胶体金法及PCR法结果比较均无显著性差异(x2=0.959,P>0.05;x2=1.180,P>0.05);胶体金法与PCR法两者之间差异有统计学意义(x2=4.26,P<0.05).结论 这三种肠道病毒71型(EV71)检测方法无显著差异,但胶体金法方便快捷,PCR法精准,ELISA法可作为常规使用.

  16. Both ERK1 and ERK2 are required for enterovirus 71 (EV71) efficient replication.

    Zhu, Meng; Duan, Hao; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Yihong

    2015-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that MEK1, one of the two MEK isoforms in Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, is essential for successful EV71 propagation. However, the distinct function of ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms, the downstream kinases of MEKs, remains unclear in EV71 replication. In this study, specific ERK siRNAs and selective inhibitor U0126 were applied. Silencing specific ERK did not significantly impact on the EV71-caused biphasic activation of the other ERK isoform, suggesting the EV71-induced activations of ERK1 and ERK2 were non-discriminative and independent to one another. Knockdown of either ERK1 or ERK2 markedly impaired progeny EV71 propagation (both by more than 90%), progeny viral RNA amplification (either by about 30% to 40%) and protein synthesis (both by around 70%), indicating both ERK1 and ERK2 were critical and not interchangeable to EV71 propagation. Moreover, suppression of EV71 replication by inhibiting both early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation showed no significant difference from that of only blocking the late phase, supporting the late phase activation was more importantly responsible for EV71 life cycle. Taken together, this study for the first time identified both ERK1 and ERK2 were required for EV71 efficient replication and further verified the important role of MEK1-ERK1/2 in EV71 replication.

  17. Both ERK1 and ERK2 Are Required for Enterovirus 71 (EV71 Efficient Replication

    Meng Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that MEK1, one of the two MEK isoforms in Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, is essential for successful EV71 propagation. However, the distinct function of ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms, the downstream kinases of MEKs, remains unclear in EV71 replication. In this study, specific ERK siRNAs and selective inhibitor U0126 were applied. Silencing specific ERK did not significantly impact on the EV71-caused biphasic activation of the other ERK isoform, suggesting the EV71-induced activations of ERK1 and ERK2 were non-discriminative and independent to one another. Knockdown of either ERK1 or ERK2 markedly impaired progeny EV71 propagation (both by more than 90%, progeny viral RNA amplification (either by about 30% to 40% and protein synthesis (both by around 70%, indicating both ERK1 and ERK2 were critical and not interchangeable to EV71 propagation. Moreover, suppression of EV71 replication by inhibiting both early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation showed no significant difference from that of only blocking the late phase, supporting the late phase activation was more importantly responsible for EV71 life cycle. Taken together, this study for the first time identified both ERK1 and ERK2 were required for EV71 efficient replication and further verified the important role of MEK1-ERK1/2 in EV71 replication.

  18. Determinants of EV71 immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge in a mouse model.

    Chang, Junliang; Li, Jingliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanchen; Yang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Circulating enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health problem in the Asian-Pacific region. An EV71 vaccine for HFMD prevention is currently being developed. However, viral determinants that could influence the vaccine's efficacy have not been well characterized. In this study, we isolated and characterized several EV71 strains that are currently circulating in northern and southern China. We determined that VP1 variation is a major determinant of EV71 immunogenicity. A single amino acid variation in VP1 can lead to significant differences in the breadth and potency of immune responses against primary EV71 isolates as well as the sensitivity of EV71 to heterologous neutralizing antibody responses. We also identified EV71 strains that could induce potent immunogenic and cross-neutralizing antibody responses against diverse EV71 strains. Furthermore, these neutralizing antibodies could protect neonatal mice from lethal dose challenge with various circulating EV71 viruses. Our study provides useful information for EV71 vaccine development and evaluation.

  19. Consistency of modified MLE in EV model with replicated observations

    ZHANG; Sanguo

    2001-01-01

    [1]Kendall, M., Stuart, A., The Advanced Theory of Statistics, Vol. 2, New York: Charles Griffin, 1979.[2]Anderson, T. W., Estimating linear statistical relationships, Ann. Statist., 1984, 12: 1.[3]Cui Hengjian, Asymptotic normality of M-estimates in the EV model, Sys. Sci. and Math. Sci., 1997, 10(3): 225.[4]Madansky, A., The fitting of straight lines when both variables are subject to error, JASA, 1959, 54: 173.[5]Villegas, C., Maximum likelihood estimations of a linear functional relationship, Ann. Math. Statist., 1961, 32(4): 1048.[6]Stout, W. F., Almost Sure Convergence, New York: Academic Press, 1974.[7]Petrov, V. V., Sums of Independent Random Variables, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.[8]Lai, T. L., Robbins, H., Wei, C. Z., Strong consistency of least squares estimates in multiple regression, J. Multivariate Anal., 1979, 9: 343.[9]Chen Xiru, On limiting properties of U-statistics and von-Mises statistics, Scientia Sinica (in Chinese), 1980, (6): 522.

  20. cdma2000 1x EV-DO关键技术及网络部署%cdma2000 1x EV-DO Key Technologies and Network Deployment

    丁雷; 张忠平

    2005-01-01

    cdma2000 1x EV-DO是3G的主流技术之一,正成为人们关注和研究的一个焦点.本文首先简要介绍了cdma2000 1x EV-DO的一些关键技术,然后对EV-DO网络部署时需要考虑的一些重要问题进行了分析,并给出了一些实验的结果.

  1. Positron total cross sections for collisions with O2, H2O and CH4 in energy range from 30 to 3000eV

    Shi De-Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2005-01-01

    Total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections (TCSs) for the scattering of positrons by molecules O2, H2O and CH4 in the energy range from 30 to 3000eV are calculated using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom which takes into considerationthe overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule is firstly employed for the TCS calculation of positron-molecule scattering. TCSs are quantitatively compared with those obtained in experiments and other theorieswherever available, and good agreement is obtained in the energy range from 30 to 3000eV. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the modified complex optical model potential is completely suitable for the TCS calculations of the positron-molecule scattering.

  2. Electron impact total (elastic + inelastic) cross sections with simple molecules consisting of N & O atoms at 100- 1600 eV

    Jinfeng Sun(孙金锋); Deheng Shi(施德恒); Zunlue Zhu (朱遵略); Yufang Liu (刘玉芳)

    2003-01-01

    A model complex optical potential rewritten by the conception of bonded atom, which considers the overlapping effect of electron cloud, is employed to calculate the total (elastic + inelastic) cross sections with simple molecules (N2, O2, NO2, NO, N2O) consisting of N & O atoms over an incident energy range of 100 - 1600 Ev by the use of additivity rule at Roothaan-Hartree-Fock level. In the study, the complex optical potential composed of static, exchange, correlation polarization plus absorption contributions firstly uses bonded-atom conception. The qualitative results are compared with experimental data and other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained. The total cross sections of electronmolecule scattering above 100 Ev can be successfully calculated.

  3. Calculations of stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue.

    Tan, Zhenyu; Liu, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Systematic calculations are performed for determining the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue. The calculations are based on a dielectric model, including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction. The optical energy loss functions (OELF) are empirically evaluated, because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the 11 tissues under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by the f-sum rule expected from the dielectric response theory, and by calculation of the mean excitation energy. The calculated SPs are compared with those for PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate, a tissue equivalent material) and liquid water. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the results for the 11 human tissues over the energy range of 20 eV-20 keV, and are of importance in radiotherapy planning and for studies of various radiation effects on human tissues.

  4. Stopping power and mean free path for low-energy electrons in ten scintillators over energy range of 20-20,000 eV.

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan

    2012-01-01

    Systematic calculations of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20-20,000eV electrons in a group of 10 important scintillators have been carried out. The calculations are based on the dielectric model including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction and the optical energy loss functions (OELFs) are empirically evaluated because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the scintillators under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by both the f-sum rule and the calculation of mean ionization potential. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the first results for the 10 scintillators over the energy range of 20-20,000eV, and are of key importance for the investigation of liquid scintillation counting.

  5. EV City Casebook: A Look At The Global Electric Vehicle Movement

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) hold the potential of transforming the way the world moves. EVs can increase energy security by diversifying the fuel mix and decreasing dependence on petroleum, while also reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Just as important, EVs can unlock innovation and create new advanced industries that spur job growth and enhance economic prosperity. However, the mass deployment of EVs will require transportation systems capable of integrating and fostering this new technology. To accelerate this transition, cities and metropolitan regions around the world are creating EV-friendly ecosystems and building the foundation for widespread adoption. In recognition of the importance of urban areas in the introduction and scale-up of electric vehicles, the EV City Casebook presents informative case studies on city and regional EV deployment efforts around the world. These case studies are illustrative examples of how pioneering cities are preparing the ground for mass market EV deployment. They offer both qualitative and quantitative information on cities' EV goals, progress, policies, incentives, and lessons learned to date. The purpose of the EV City Casebook is to share experiences on EV demonstration and deployment, identify challenges and opportunities, and highlight best practices for creating thriving EV ecosystems. These studies seek to enhance understanding of the most effective policy measures to foster the uptake of electric vehicles in urban areas. The cities represented here are actively engaging in a variety of initiatives that share the goal of accelerating EV adoption. This publication is the result of an effort to coordinate those initiatives and provide a global perspective on the electric vehicle movement. This international knowledge-sharing network consists of the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI), a multi-government initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial; Project Get Ready, a Rocky Mountain Institute

  6. Electrodeposited CdTe{emdash}optical properties

    Rakhshani, A.E. [Physics Department, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969, Safat 13060 (Kuwait)

    1997-06-01

    For the measurement of optical constants, the electrodeposited films of CdTe were lifted off their opaque substrates and transferred onto glass slides using a transparent liquid adhesive. This technique proved to give results more reliable than those obtained on samples in which CdTe is deposited on CdS-coated conducting glass. The measured optical dispersion in the photon energy range of E{lt}1.5eV is in excellent agreement with that for the single crystal. The optical absorption coefficient was determined in the E{lt}3.5eV range and was compared with that for the single crystal. The results revealed two direct allowed transitions at 1.50 eV [{Gamma}{sub 8}valenceband(VB){r_arrow}{Gamma}{sub 6}conductionband(CB)] and 2.43 eV [{Gamma}{sub 7}(VB){r_arrow}{Gamma}{sub 6}(CB)] and three indirect allowed transitions at 1.27 eV [L{sub 4,5}(VB){r_arrow}{Gamma}{sub d}], 1.83 eV [L{sub 6}(VB){r_arrow}{Gamma}{sub d}], and 2.84 eV [{Gamma}{sub 8}(VB){r_arrow}L{sub 6}(CB)]. The 1.27 and the 1.83 eV transitions, which have not been reported previously and were not detected in single-crystal data, are attributed to the transitions to a grain-boundary-related defect energy band {Gamma}{sub d}, 0.65 eV above {Gamma}{sub 8} (VB). The indirect transitions at 1.83 and 2.84 eV are assisted by phonons having energies of 80 and 84 meV, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Electrodeposited CdTe—optical properties

    Rakhshani, A. E.

    1997-06-01

    For the measurement of optical constants, the electrodeposited films of CdTe were lifted off their opaque substrates and transferred onto glass slides using a transparent liquid adhesive. This technique proved to give results more reliable than those obtained on samples in which CdTe is deposited on CdS-coated conducting glass. The measured optical dispersion in the photon energy range of E<1.5 eV is in excellent agreement with that for the single crystal. The optical absorption coefficient was determined in the E<3.5 eV range and was compared with that for the single crystal. The results revealed two direct allowed transitions at 1.50 eV [Γ8 valence band(VB)→Γ6 conduction band(CB)] and 2.43 eV [Γ7(VB)→Γ6(CB)] and three indirect allowed transitions at 1.27 eV [L4,5(VB)→Γd], 1.83 eV [L6(VB)→Γd], and 2.84 eV [Γ8(VB)→L6(CB)]. The 1.27 and the 1.83 eV transitions, which have not been reported previously and were not detected in single-crystal data, are attributed to the transitions to a grain-boundary-related defect energy band Γd, 0.65 eV above Γ8 (VB). The indirect transitions at 1.83 and 2.84 eV are assisted by phonons having energies of 80 and 84 meV, respectively.

  8. 手足口病的元凶—EV71

    杨明巧

    2008-01-01

    什么是 EV71?最近时常有一些家长带着有一点发热、或身上起了几个皮疹的宝宝来到医院就诊,首先就询问医生:"我家宝宝是否感染了EV71?""EV71"确实已给家长心理上蒙上了阴影,造成了恐慌。那么,什么是 EV71呢?EV71是一种肠道病毒,虽然 EV71是肠道病毒,但是人感染

  9. Evolution of the cosmic ray anisotropy above 10^{14} eV

    Aglietta, M; Alessandro, B; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, F; Bergamasco, L; Bertaina, M; Bonino, R; Castellina, A; Chiavassa, A; Piazzoli, B D'Ettorre; Di Sciascio, G; Fulgione, W; Galeotti, P; Ghia, P L; Iacovacci, M; Mannocchi, G; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Saavedra, O; Stamerra, A; Trinchero, G C; Valchierotti, S; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C

    2009-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of the cosmic ray anisotropy are well established experimentally between 10^{11} eV and 10^{14} eV. The study of their evolution into the energy region 10^{14}-10^{16} eV can provide a significant tool for the understanding of the steepening ("knee") of the primary spectrum. In this letter we extend the EAS-TOP measurement performed at E_0 around 10^{14} eV, to higher energies by using the full data set (8 years of data taking). Results derived at about 10^{14} and 4x10^{14} eV are compared and discussed. Hints of increasing amplitude and change of phase above 10^{14} eV are reported. The significance of the observation for the understanding of cosmic ray propagation is discussed.

  10. Purification technology of hand -foot -and -mouth disease EV71 vaccine%手足口病EV71疫苗纯化的工艺

    蔺芳; 穆瑞瑞; 张俊; 张可

    2012-01-01

    @@%为提高肠道病毒71型(EV71)疫苗的纯化工艺,采用粗纯、4FF层析、离子交换层析、蔗糖密度梯度离心等方法进行疫苗的纯化.结果表明,粗纯的EV71浓缩液经4FF层析和蔗糖密度梯度离心,得到高纯度的EV71疫苗.新工艺提高了EV71的纯度,适用于规模化生产.

  11. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2010/2011; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2010/2011

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  12. The cosmic ray spectrum and composition measured by KASCADE-Grande between 10{sup 16} eV and 10{sup 18} eV

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Blümer, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cantoni, E. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-15

    The shape and composition of the primary spectrum of cosmic rays are key elements to understand the origin, acceleration and propagation of the Galactic cosmic rays. Besides the well known knee and ankle features, the recent results of KASCADE-Grande indicate that the measured energy spectrum exhibits also a less pronounced but still clear deviation from a single power law between the knee and the ankle, with a spectral hardening at 2 × 10{sup 16} eV and a steepening at 10{sup 17} eV. The average mass composition gets heavier after the knee till 10{sup 17} eV where a bending of the heavy component is observed. An indication of a hardening of the light component just above 10{sup 17} eV has been measured as well. In this paper the major results obtained so far by the KASCADE-Grande experiment are reviewed.

  13. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2009/2010; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2009/2010

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  14. The Development of cdma2000 1xEV-DO Technologies%cdma2000 1xEV-DO技术及发展

    裴小燕; 刘宝凤

    2003-01-01

    本文首先比较了cdma2000 1xEV-DO与cdma2000 1x的主要区别,对cdma2000 1xEV-DO中两种不同的系统架构(Phase Ⅰ和Phase Ⅱ)进行了介绍,并针对Phase Ⅰ描述了其A8/A9、A10/A11、A12、A13接口,然后给出了在cdma2000 1x的基础上建立1xEV-DO网络的变迁,对目前1xEV-DO的试验和商用情况、设备和终端的提供情况进行了介绍,最后对终端发展进行了展望.

  15. Development of A Quantitative ELISA Method for EV71 Antigen%EV71抗原ELISA定量检测方法的建立

    贾卉; 蔡芳; 高强; 张建三; 井申荣

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立EV71抗原双抗体夹心ELISA定量检测方法,用于EV71灭活疫苗生产过程中抗原含量的检测.方法 采用EV71全病毒免疫,制备抗EV71单克隆抗体及多克隆抗体,以抗EV71多克隆抗体作为包被抗体,经HRP标记的抗EV71单克隆抗体作为酶标抗体,建立双抗体夹心ELISA法,检测样品中EV71抗原含量,并对该方法进行验证及应用.结果 所建立的方法线性范围为5~80 U/ml,R~2=0.994,线性关系良好,定量限度为5 U/ml;检测不同浓度的EV71抗原内部参考品,回收率为88%~119.0%;变异系数均小于15%;与甲肝病毒收获液、乙脑病毒灭活液、H5N1流感病毒裂解疫苗原液、小牛血清、人白蛋白、Veto细胞、MEM培养基及CoxA16收获液均无交叉反应;检测EV71灭活疫苗原液纯化过程样品的抗原含量,能有效反映抗原纯化趋势;检测铝吸附疫苗成品解离后抗原含量,准确性较高.结论 已建立了EV71抗原双抗体夹心ELISA定量检测方法,该方法线性好,特异性强,灵敏度高,准确性及重复性良好,可用于EV71疫苗生产过程中及终产品的抗原定量检测.

  16. MicroRNA-23b inhibits enterovirus 71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein.

    Wen, Bai-ping; Dai, Hong-jian; Yang, Yue-huang; Zhuang, Yu; Sheng, Ru

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and effective antiviral agents and vaccines against this virus have, to date, not been available. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of RNAs with the function of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. It has been demonstrated that miRNAs play important roles in the complicated interaction network between virus and host, while few studies have explored the role of miRNAs in EV71 infection. A recent study showed that hsa-miR-23b was downregulated significantly in cell-infected viruses. To address this issue, biological software miRanda was first used to predict possible target sites of miR-23b at EV71 gene sequence, then to confirm it by luciferase assay. miR-23b mimics were transfected to verify its effects on infection of EV71. These results suggest that miR-23b and upregulation of miR-23b inhibited the replication of EV71 by targeting at EV71 3'UTR conserved sequence. Taken together, miR-23b could inhibit EV71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein. These results may enhance our understanding on the prevention and treatment of hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by EV71 infection.

  17. 基于EV-DO的VoIP QoS研究

    肖清华; 李静

    2009-01-01

    为了对基于EV-DO的VoIP QoS有一个定性的了解,文章首先给出了基于EV-DO的QoS架构,提供了EV-DO为VoIP定制的QoS参数,而后在此基础上阐述了在EV-DO网络中实现VoIP端到端的QoS保证的技术方式,对今后顺利实现VoIP应用有着很好的指导意义.

  18. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Annual report 1999/2000; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 1999/2000

    Schuette, A.

    2001-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. outlines the state of the art and the boundary conditions of energy plant utilisation. The organisational struture of the association and its research projects are presented. [German] Der Jahresbericht der Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. stellt Stand der Technik und Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Verwendung von Energiepflanzen dar. Die Organisation des Vereins sowie die gefoerderten Forschungsprojekte werden vorgestellt.

  19. cdma2000 1xEV-DO系统中的QoS%QoS in cdma2000 1xEV-DO System

    赵海波; 罗兴国; 唐晓梅

    2005-01-01

    本文首先介绍了cdma2000 1xEV-DO空中接口相关协议对QoS的支持,接着分别从无线接入网、核心网、骨干网三个方面讨论了1xEV-DO系统实现QoS的机制,最后指出了当前系统实现QoS面临的问题.

  20. cdma2000 1x EV-DO Rev.A的多流分组应用%MFPA of cdma2000 1x EV-DO Rev.A

    摩托罗拉公司

    2007-01-01

    cdma2000 1x EV-DO版本A(即release A)将是中国CDMA运营商的3G选择.为使用户能同时支持不同QoS的实时应用,EV-DO Rev.A的数据平面引入了多流分组应用.为配合MFPA的应用,分组数据业务节点(PDSN)亦须做相应的升级.

  1. 捕获ELISA法测定抗EV71-IgM抗体用于EV71感染早期诊断

    林裕龙; 温坤; 王压娣; 晋晶; 车小燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨捕获ELISA法测定抗肠道病毒71型(EV71) IgM抗体在EV71感染所致手足口病(HFMD)早期诊断中的价值.方法 以实时荧光RT-PCR检测89例临床初诊为HFMD患儿的粪便、疱疹液、咽拭子或肛拭子的肠道病毒RNA.用40例排除HFMD的5岁以下儿童血清为抗EV71-IgM抗体阴性对照,以捕获ELISA法检测患儿不同发病期血清中抗EV71 -IgM抗体.结果 经实时荧光RT-PCR检测,89例HFMD患儿粪便、疱疹液、咽拭子或肛拭子中EV71感染28例,柯萨奇病毒A16(CA16)感染43例,非EV71和CA16的肠道病毒感染14例,非肠道病毒感染4例.EV71感染者发病1~3d、4~6d及>6d的血清抗EV71 -IgM抗体阳性率分别为81.3%、100%和100%;CA16感染者分别为10.0%、26.4%和65.7%;非EV71和CA16的肠道病毒感染者及非肠道病毒感染者在发病1~3d和4~6d无1例阳性;阴性对照组无1例阳性.抗EV71-IgM抗体在EV71感染的早期(急性期)的诊断敏感性和特异性分别为81.3%和92.9%.结论 EV71感染者与CA16感染者血清抗EV71-IgM抗体在发病4d后存在较明显的交叉反应.抗EV71-IgM抗体可用作EV71感染早期诊断的血清学标志物.

  2. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    Rohrbaugh, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  3. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Mao, Qun-ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated.

  4. Immunogenicity studies of bivalent inactivated virions of EV71/CVA16 formulated with submicron emulsion systems.

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chong, Pele; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV) 71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg) emulsified in submicron particles was found (i) to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii) consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases.

  5. Discovery of gramine derivatives that inhibit the early stage of EV71 replication in vitro.

    Wei, Yanhong; Shi, Liqiao; Wang, Kaimei; Liu, Manli; Yang, Qingyu; Yang, Ziwen; Ke, Shaoyong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a notable causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, which is associated with an increased incidence of severe neurological disease and death, yet there is no specific treatment or vaccine for EV71 infections. In this study, the antiviral activity of gramine and 21 gramine derivatives against EV71 was investigated in cell-based assays. Eighteen derivatives displayed some degree of inhibitory effects against EV71, in that they could effectively inhibit virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs), but the anti-EV71 activity of the lead compound gramine was not observed. Studies on the preliminary modes of action showed that these compounds functioned by targeting the early stage of the EV71 lifecycle after viral entry, rather than inactivating the virus directly, inhibiting virus adsorption or affecting viral release from the cells. Among these derivatives, one (compound 4s) containing pyridine and benzothiazole units showed the most potency against EV71. Further studies demonstrated that derivative 4s could profoundly inhibit viral RNA replication, protein synthesis, and virus-induced apoptosis in RD cells. These results indicate that derivative 4s might be a feasible therapeutic agent against EV71 infection and that these gramine derivatives may provide promising lead scaffolds for the further design and synthesis of potential antiviral agents.

  6. Progress on the research and development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

    Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Li, Jing-Xin; Yao, Xin; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of diseases caused by EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific region. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, controlling EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on the research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccines. Thus far, five organizations have completed pre-clinical studies focused on the development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, including vaccine strain screening, process optimization, safety and immunogenicity evaluation, and are in different stages of clinical trials. Among these organizations, three companies in Mainland China [Beijing Vigoo Biological Co., Ltd. (Vigoo), Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (Sinovac) and Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CAMS)] have recently completed Phase III trials for the vaccines they developed. In addition, the other two vaccines, developed by National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) of Taiwan and Inviragen Pte., Ltd (Inviragen), of Singapore, have also completed Phase I clinical trials. Published clinical trial results indicate that the inactivated EV71 vaccines have good safety and immunogenicity in the target population (infants) and confer a relatively high rate of protection against EV71 infection-related diseases. The results of clinical trials suggest a promising future for the clinical use of EV71 vaccines. Here, we review and highlight the recent progress on the R&D of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

  7. Immunogenicity Studies of Bivalent Inactivated Virions of EV71/CVA16 Formulated with Submicron Emulsion Systems

    Chih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV 71 and coxsackievirus (CV A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg emulsified in submicron particles was found (i to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases.

  8. Catalytic Assessment: Understanding How MCQs and EVS Can Foster Deep Learning

    Draper, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    One technology for education whose adoption is currently expanding rapidly in UK higher education is that of electronic voting systems (EVS). As with all educational technology, whether learning benefits are achieved depends not on the technology but on whether an improved teaching method is introduced with it. EVS inherently relies on the…

  9. Sõlmornamendist, eriti muinaskäevõrudel ja setu naiste ülerõivastel / Mare Piho

    Piho, Mare, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    Artikli ajendiks sai 1972. aastal Setumaalt juhuleiuna saadud 11. sajandi käevõru. Käevõrul kujutaud plettornamenti on kasutatud setu naiste 19. sajandi keskpaiga - 20. sajandi riietelel. Sõlmest kui märgist ja selle tähendusest. Sõlmornamendist setu naiste pealisriietel. Sõlmornamendi järjepidevusest ja püsimisest

  10. Large Scale Deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Heat Pumps (HPs) in the Nordic Region

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Petersen, Pauli Fríðheim

    This report describes the study results of large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, focusing on the demand profiles with high peneration of EVs and HPs in 2050...

  11. Comparison of the LEGO Mindstorms NXT and EV3 Robotics Education Platforms

    Sherrard, Ann; Rhodes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The release of the latest LEGO Mindstorms EV3 robotics platform in September 2013 has provided a dilemma for many youth robotics leaders. There is a need to understand the differences in the Mindstorms NXT and EV3 in order to make future robotics purchases. In this article the differences are identified regarding software, hardware, sensors, the…

  12. [Inactivation of EV71 by Exposure to Heat and Ultraviolet Light].

    Xie, Jing; Li, Dandi; Xie, Guangcheng; Hu, Yaqian; Zhang, Qing; Kong, Xiangyu; Guo, Nijun; Li, Yuning; Duan, Zhaojun

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major agent of hand, foot and mouth disease that can cause a severe burden of disease to children. To identify an effective method for the control and prevention of EV71, we studied the effect of exposure to heat and ultraviolet (UV) light upon EV71 inactivation. We found that exposure to 50 degrees C could not inactivate the infectivity of EV71. However, exposure to 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C could inactivate EV71 effectively. EV71 could be inactivated after exposure to UV light at a distance between the sample and a lamp of 30 cm for 30 min or 60 min because viral genomic RNA was destroyed. However, fetal bovine serum (FBS) could attenuate the inactivation proffered by heat and UV light. Attenuation effects of FBS were correlated positively with FBS concentration. Hence, EV71 can be inactivated by exposure to heat and UV light, and our results could provide guidance on prevention of the spread of EV71.

  13. Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration on Medium Voltage (MV) Grids

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The impact study of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration on medium voltage (MV) grids was carried out to quantify the power component loading and voltage profile change in MV grids due to the extra demands from the EV charging. Three charging scenarios, dumb charging, time charging and fleet...

  14. EV Charging Analysis Based on the National Travel Surveys of the Nordic Area

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the charging demand profiles of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys of the Nordic area. The EV charging analysis is carried out considering different types of charging patterns which are dumb charging, timed charging and spot price based charging...

  15. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  16. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration.

  17. Optimization and control method for smart charging of EVs facilitated by Fleet operator

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Si, Chengyong

    2013-01-01

    challenges to the utility system operator; accordingly, smart charging of EVs is needed. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging of EVs found in the literature. The study is mainly executed from the control theory perspectives. Firstly, service dependent aggrega......Electric vehicles (EV) can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. As an important solution to balance the intermittent renewable energy re-sources, such as wind power and PVs, EVs can absorb...... and control of smart charging of EVs. Finally, the paper discusses and proposes future research directions in the area....

  18. A-periodic multilayer development for attosecond pulses in the 300-500 eV photon energy range

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Hofstetter, Michael; Kleineberg, Ulf [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Rauhut, Roman [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The development of ultrafast X-ray pulses in the sub-femtosecond time regime is a cutting edge technology for studying electron dynamics in atoms, molecules or solid surfaces/nanostructures by means of pump/probe electron spectroscopy. XUV elements as multilayer mirrors and thin metal filters are used to filter and shape attosecond bursts from high harmonic radiation. One near future goal is to extend the current technology to higher photon energies, reaching the water window range around 300-500 eV, where the in-vitro investigation of bio-materials on ultra-short time scales becomes possible. Following the ideas of nowadays experimental setups, both the spectral and the temporal resolution can be determined and guided by means of periodic and a-periodic multilayer mirrors, allowing for spectral and temporal soft X-ray pulse shaping. We will present first investigations of periodic and a-periodic multilayer XUV optics in that energy range of 300-400 eV and discuss their applications for filtering single attosecond pulses from High Harmonic radiation. Simulations and optimizations of various binary and ternary multilayer material systems as well as first experimental results achieved by Ion Beam Deposition and in-situ ellipsometry of the deposited nanolayers are demonstrated.

  19. A modification potential method for electron scattering total cross section calculations on several molecules at 30-5000eV

    施德恒; 孙金锋; 朱遵略; 刘玉芳

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule is employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering in such molecules as N2, NO, NO2, CH4, CF4, CF3H, C2H2 and C2H4 at 30-5000eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The quantitative total cross sections are compared with those obtained in experiments and other theories, wherever available, and good agreement is obtained at 30-5000eV. It is shown that the modified calculation results are much closer to the available experimental data than the unmodified ones at lower energies, especially below 500eV. Therefore, considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds in the complex optical model potential could be helpful for better calculation results about electron scattering total cross sections from molecules.

  20. Inherited MST1 deficiency underlies susceptibility to EV-HPV infections.

    Amandine Crequer

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV is characterized by persistent cutaneous lesions caused by a specific group of related human papillomavirus genotypes (EV-HPVs in otherwise healthy individuals. Autosomal recessive (AR EVER1 and EVER2 deficiencies account for two thirds of known cases of EV. AR RHOH deficiency has recently been described in two siblings with EV-HPV infections as well as other infectious and tumoral manifestations. We report here the whole-exome based discovery of AR MST1 deficiency in a 19-year-old patient with a T-cell deficiency associated with EV-HPV, bacterial and fungal infections. MST1 deficiency has recently been described in seven patients from three unrelated kindreds with profound T-cell deficiency and various viral and bacterial infections. The patient was also homozygous for a rare ERCC3 variation. Our findings broaden the clinical range of infections seen in MST1 deficiency and provide a new genetic etiology of susceptibility to EV-HPV infections. Together with the recent discovery of RHOH deficiency, they suggest that T cells are involved in the control of EV-HPVs, at least in some individuals.

  1. Taras Ševčenko in the Prose and Poetry of Vasyl’ Stus

    Alessandro Achilli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Ševčenko in the poetry of Vasyl’ Stus and Stus’s widespread stereotypical image as a reincarnation of Ševčenko in the 20th century have occupied an important role in both literary studies and popularization. In my article I reconsider this fundamental issue by discussing Stus’s reception of Ševčenko in his critical essays, his letters, and his poetry. My focus is on both Ševčenko’s presence as a ‘fictional character’ in some poems by Stus and the overall influence of Ševčenko’s poetry on Stus’s poetic writing. Moreover, Stus’s representation of Ševčenko is compared with other images of the 19th-century poet in modern Ukrainian poetry from the Avant-garde up to the Seventies. In the conclusion I point out how Ševčenko’s Romanticism should not be confused with Stus’s Modernism. The former should be seen as a part of the complex intertextual mechanism which lies at the heart of Stus’s poetry.

  2. DEIMOS: A beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350–2500 eV energy range

    Ohresser, P., E-mail: philippe.ohresser@synchrotron-soleil.fr; Otero, E.; Choueikani, F.; Chen, K.; Stanescu, S.; Deschamps, F.; Moreno, T.; Polack, F.; Lagarde, B.; Daguerre, J.-P.; Marteau, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Scheurer, F.; Joly, L.; Muller, B. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 UdS-CNRS, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Kappler, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 UdS-CNRS, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Bunau, O.; Sainctavit, Ph. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés, CNRS UMR 7590, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-01-15

    The DEIMOS (Dichroism Experimental Installation for Magneto-Optical Spectroscopy) beamline was part of the second phase of the beamline development at French Synchrotron SOLEIL (Source Optimisée de Lumière à Energie Intermédiaire du LURE) and opened to users in March 2011. It delivers polarized soft x-rays to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and x-ray linear dichroism in the energy range 350–2500 eV. The beamline has been optimized for stability and reproducibility in terms of photon flux and photon energy. The main end-station consists in a cryo-magnet with 2 split coils providing a 7 T magnetic field along the beam or 2 T perpendicular to the beam with a controllable temperature on the sample from 370 K down to 1.5 K.

  3. Thermoreflectance of the GaSsub(x)Sesub(1-x) mixed crystals between 3 and 9 eV

    Mancini, A.M.; Rizzo, A. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bari (Italy). Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia); Girlanda, R. (Messina Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Struttura della Materia); Guizzetti, G.; Nosenzo, L. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia (Italy). Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia); Doni, E. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy). Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura della Materia); Reguzzoni, E. (Politecnico di Torino (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Sperimental

    The thermoreflectance spectra between 3 and 9 eV have been measured for a series of GaSsub(x)Sesub(1-x) mixed crystals. The samples were single-crystal platelets grown from the vapour by the chemical-transport method. The measurements were performed with a nonpolarized light beam propagating approximately along the anisotropy crystal axis and the temperature was modulated around 65 K. Many structures in the reflectance spectra have been analysed in their dependence on the sulphur concentration in the mixed crystals. On this basis a detailed discussion of the optical spectra in GaS and in GaSe beyound the fundamental edge is given, and new information concerning the electronic energy levels is obtained both for these compounds and for InSe, which has an analogous crystal structure.

  4. 解读肠病毒EV71——针对阜阳肠病毒EV71流行的答疑

    王黎生

    2008-01-01

    @@ 新华社报道,阜阳市3月份以来发生小儿肠道病毒EV71疫情,数千儿童发病,22人经全力抢救无效死亡.消息传出,引起大众恐慌,咨询电话、短信不断:EV71到底是什么病毒?我们这里会不会发生?我们该怎么办?看来有必要做些答疑:

  5. 解读肠病毒EV71——针对阜阳肠病毒EV71流行的答疑

    王黎生

    2008-01-01

    新华社报道,阜阳市3月份以来发生小儿肠道病毒EV71疫情,数千儿童发病,22人经全力抢救无效死亡。消息传出,引起大众恐慌,咨询电话、短信不断:EV71到底是什么病毒?我们这里会不会发生?我们该怎么办?看来有必要做些答疑:

  6. Complete coding regions of the prototypes enterovirus B93 and C95: phylogenetic analyses of the P1 and P3 regions of EV-B and EV-C strains.

    Junttila, N; Lévêque, N; Magnius, L O; Kabue, J P; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Maslin, J; Lina, B; Norder, H

    2015-03-01

    Complete coding regions were sequenced for two new enterovirus genomes: EV-B93 previously identified by VP1 sequencing, derived from a child with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo; and EV-C95 from a French soldier with acute gastroenteritis in Djibouti. The EV-B93 P1 had more than 30% nucleotide divergence from other EV-B types, with highest similarity to E-15 and EV-B80. The P1 nucleotide sequence of EV-C95 was most similar, 71%, to CV-A21. Complete coding regions for the new enteroviruses were compared with those of 135 EV-B and 176 EV-C strains representing all types available in GenBank. When strains from the same outbreak or strains isolated during the same year in the same geographical region were excluded, 27 of the 58 EV-B, and 16 of the 23 EV-C types were represented by more than one sequence. However, for EV-B the P3 sequences formed three clades mainly according to origin or time of isolation, irrespective of type, while for EV-C the P3 sequences segregated mainly according to disease manifestation, with most strains causing paralysis, including polioviruses, forming one clade, and strains causing respiratory illness forming another. There was no intermixing of types between these two clades, apart from two EV-C96 strains. The EV-B P3 sequences had lower inter-clade and higher intra-clade variability as compared to the EV-C sequences, which may explain why inter-clade recombinations are more frequent in EV-B. Further analysis of more isolates may shed light on the role of recombinations in the evolution of EV-B in geographical context.

  7. Analysis of EV71 infection progression using triple-SILAC-based proteomics approach.

    Li, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Lei-Ke; Zhu, Xiu-Juan; Shang, Jun; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Ying; Guo, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of Picornaviridae, causes severe neurological and systemic illness in children. To better understand the virus-host cell interactions, we performed a triple-SILAC-based quantitative proteomics study monitoring host cell proteome changes after EV71 infection. Based on the quantitative data for more than 4100 proteins, ∼17% of the proteins were found as significantly changed (pEV71 replication. Further studies showed that CHCH2 served as a negative regulator of innate immune responses. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002483 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002483).

  8. Comparative analysis of EV isolation procedures for miRNAs detection in serum samples

    Zoraida Andreu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are emerging as potent non-invasive biomarkers. However, current methodologies are time consuming and difficult to translate to clinical practice. To analyse EV-encapsulated circulating miRNA, we searched for a quick, easy and economic method to enrich frozen human serum samples for EV. We compared the efficiency of several protocols and commercial kits to isolate EVs. Different methods based on precipitation, columns or filter systems were tested and compared with ultracentrifugation, which is the most classical protocol to isolate EVs. EV samples were assessed for purity and quantity by nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blot or cytometry against major EV protein markers. For biomarker validation, levels of a set of miRNAs were determined in EV fractions and compared with their levels in total serum. EVs isolated with precipitation-based methods were enriched for a subgroup of miRNAs that corresponded to miRNAs described to be encapsulated into EVs (miR-126, miR-30c and miR-143, while the detection of miR-21, miR-16-5p and miR-19a was very low compared with total serum. Our results point to precipitation using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a suitable method for an easy and cheap enrichment of serum EVs for miRNA analyses. The overall performance of PEG was very similar, or better than other commercial precipitating reagents, in both protein and miRNA yield, but in comparison to them PEG is much cheaper. Other methods presented poorer results, mostly when assessing miRNA by qPCR analyses. Using PEG precipitation in a longitudinal study with human samples, we demonstrated that miRNA could be assessed in frozen samples up to 8 years of storage. We report a method based on a cut-off value of mean of fold EV detection versus serum that provides an estimate of the degree of encapsulation of a given miRNA.

  9. Asymptotic Normality of LS Estimate in Simple Linear EV Regression Model

    Jixue LIU

    2006-01-01

    Though EV model is theoretically more appropriate for applications in which measurement errors exist, people are still more inclined to use the ordinary regression models and the traditional LS method owing to the difficulties of statistical inference and computation. So it is meaningful to study the performance of LS estimate in EV model.In this article we obtain general conditions guaranteeing the asymptotic normality of the estimates of regression coefficients in the linear EV model. It is noticeable that the result is in some way different from the corresponding result in the ordinary regression model.

  10. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  11. UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Annual report 2011/2012; UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Jahresbericht 2011/2012

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The report presents the organisational structure and activities of the UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V. (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). Above all, topical issues on business in the mineral oil and lubricant sector are discussed. There is an appendix containing data on the production and sales of petroleum products in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  12. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2011/2012; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2011/2012

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants in Germany. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented for the fiscal year 2011/2012.

  13. Fluoresence Detection of Cosmic Ray Air Showers Between 10 16 . 5 eV and 1019 eV with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE)

    Zundel, Zachary; Smith, Jeremy; Thomas, Stan; Abuzayyad, Tareq; Ivanov, Dmitri; Matthews, John; Jui, Charlie

    2014-03-01

    The Telescope Array Experiment has been observing cosmic ray air showers at energies above 1018 eV since 2008. TA operates three Fluorescence Detector (FD) sites, with telescopes that observe 3-31 deg in elevation. The FD sites are located at the periphery of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters covering 700 km2 , with 1.2 km spacing. The TA Collaboration has completed building a low-energy extension at its Middle drum FD site. Ten new telescopes currently observe between 33 and 51 degrees in elevation. A graded ground array of between 400 and 600m will be placed in front of the TALE FD. With these upgrades, the physics threshold of TA will be lowered to 10 16 . 5 eV. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) will explore the energy regime corresponding to that of the LHC in center-of-mass frame. This is also the range where the transition from galactic to extra- galactic cosmic ray flux is suspected to occur. We will give a brief overview of the physics, and report on the progress of TALE toward measuring the cosmic ray spectrum between 10 16 . 5 eV and 1019 eV.

  14. Total cross sections of electron collisions with S atoms; H{sub 2}S, OCS and SO{sub 2} molecules (E{sub i} {>=}50 eV)

    Joshipura, K.N. [Sardar Patel Univ., Vallabh Vidyanagar (India). Dept. of Physics; Vinodkumar, M. [V.P. and R.P.T.P. Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120 (Gujarat) (India)

    1997-07-01

    Collisions of intermediate to high energy electrons are considered with S-atoms as well as H{sub 2}S, OCS and SO{sub 2} molecules as targets. We employ e{sup -}-atom total cross sections calculated in the complex optical potential, to calculate e{sup -}-molecule total cross sections in a simple and a modified Additivity Rule. Our total (elastic + inelastic) cross sections above 50 eV, are reasonably well as compared to various experimental and theoretical data. The calculated inelastic cross sections serve as the upper limit of total ionization cross sections. Results are presented graphically from about 10 to 5000 eV. (orig.)

  15. Optimising production using the state-contingent approach versus the EV approach

    Rasmussen, Svend

    It is not clear whether the state-contingent approach to decision making under risk and uncertainty has the potential of providing better decisions than the well-known EV model based on an estimated stochastic production function and variance measures. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulation...... different types of utility functions, i.e. linear utility function, EV-utility function and a Cobb Douglas utility function based on state-contingent income measures. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out for various numbers of observations. Finally the results are compared to the true optimal choice...... of input, to identify the most efficient model; the EV-model or the model based on the state-contingent approach. The main result is that under certain conditions, the state-contingent approach performs better than the EV model....

  16. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  17. Threshold photoelectron studies of isoxazole over the energy range 9.9-30 eV

    Dampc, Marcin; Mielewska, Brygida [Department of Physics of Electronic Phenomena, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Siggel-King, Michele R.F. [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); King, George C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester University, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Mason, Nigel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Zubek, Mariusz, E-mail: mazub@mif.pg.gda.pl [Department of Physics of Electronic Phenomena, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland)

    2010-02-08

    The threshold photoelectron spectrum of the isoxazole molecule, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}NO has been measured over the photon energy range 9.9-30 eV with the use of synchrotron radiation. In the 9.9-10.8 eV range, corresponding to photoionization from the highest occupied molecular orbital 3a''({pi}{sub 3}), seven well resolved vibrational series have been observed and their modes are tentatively assigned. A strong adiabatic ionization, with an energy of 11.132 {+-} 0.003 eV corresponding to the 2a''({pi}{sub 2}) band, has also been observed. This is followed by a single vibrational series of the {nu}{sub C-H} stretching mode. Photoelectron bands in the energy region 13-30 eV have also been identified, some for the first time.

  18. ASYMPTOTIC NORMALITY OF PARAMETERS ESTIMATION IN EV MODEL WITH REPLICATED OBSERVATIONS

    张三国; 陈希孺

    2002-01-01

    This paper based on the essay [1], studies in case that replicated observations are available in some experimental points, the parameters estimation of one dimensional linear errors-in-variables (EV) models. Asymptotic normality is established.

  19. Inequalities of Čebyšev Type for Lipschitzian Functions in Banach Algebras

    Boldea Marius V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give some Čebyšev type norm inequalities for two Lipschitzian functions on Banach algebras. Some examples for power function, exponential and the resolvent functions are also provided

  20. Optimal Operation of EVs and HPs in the Nordic Power System

    Liu, Zhaoxi

    -fill" pattern to the grid when it is introduced into the day-ahead electricity market. A combined modeling of the EV and HP energy planning is proposed for both the energy plans in the day-ahead electricity market and the frequency reserve provision decisions in the ancillary service market. It is shown...... that both EVs and HPs can provide considerable frequency reserves to the power system along the day in the Nordic region. Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technologies which enable the EVs to discharge the batteries in the reserve operations can further utilize the capacity of the EVs and consequently increase...... the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and the fossil fuel consumption in the transportation and heating sectors but also as a potential approach to cope with the intermittency due to the further utilization of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Nordic region. With increasing amounts of RES in the power system...

  1. Analysis of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in human HFMD serum with an EV71 pseudovirus-based assay.

    Zhang, Huafei; An, Dong; Liu, Wei; Mao, Qunying; Jin, Jun; Xu, Lin; Sun, Shiyang; Jiang, Liping; Li, Xiaojun; Shao, Jie; Ma, Hongxia; Huang, Xueyong; Guo, Shijie; Chen, Haiying; Cheng, Tong; Yang, Lisheng; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, has recently become an important public health issue throughout the world. Serum neutralizing antibodies are major indicators of EV71 infection and protective immunity. However, the potential for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 genotypes and subgenotypes is unclear. Here we measured the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 of different genotypes or subgenotypes in sera collected from EV71-infected children and vaccine-inoculated children in a phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636245) using a new pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. Antibodies induced by EV71-C4a were cross-reactive for different EV71 genotypes, demonstrating that C4a is a good candidate strain for an EV71 vaccine. Our study also demonstrated that this new assay is practical for analyses of clinical samples from epidemiological and vaccine studies.

  2. 警惕肠道病毒EV71感染危害儿童

    谷峰

    2008-01-01

    @@ 肠道病毒EV71感染疾病是由肠道病毒EV71引起的一种传染病,一年四季都可发生,但多发生于4~9月份.该病是全球性传染病,世界大部分地区均有此病流行的报道.

  3. A modification potential method of calculating total cross sections of electrons scattering from complex molecules C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 at 100 eV-5000 eV

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Liu Yu-Fang; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is first employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level over the energy range from 100 eV to 5000 eV. The total cross sections are quantitatively compared with those obtained by experiments wherever available, and they are in good agreement with each other over a wide energy range. It is shown that the modified potential together with the additivity rule model is completely suitable for the calculation of total cross sections of electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 above 200 eV-300 eV.

  4. Total cross sections for electrons scattering from simple molecules containing the larger atom sulfur at 30-5000eV

    Shi De-Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng; Yang Xiang-Dong; Zhu Zun-Lue

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds, is employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from simple molecules (SO2, H2S, OCS, CS2 and SO3) containing the larger atom, sulfur, at 30-5000eV by using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The quantitative molecular total cross section results are compared with those obtained in experiments and other calculations wherever available, and good agreement is obtained. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom can give the results closer to the experiments than the one unmodified by it. So, the introduction of bonded-atom concept in complex optical model potential betters the accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electrons from the molecules containing the larger atom, sulfur.

  5. Establishment of EV71 animal models with 2-week-old BALB/c mice%应用2周龄BALB/c小鼠建立EV71动物模型

    王辉强; 蒋建东; 李玉环

    2013-01-01

    动物模型对于抗EV71药物和疫苗的研发非常重要.我国目前的EV 71小鼠模型大多采用1日龄乳鼠,因年龄太小进行抗病毒实验操作难度较大,给药途径和给药容量明显受限.在12~14日龄乳鼠上连续5代适应EV71毒株,成功建立了2周龄BALB/c小鼠的EV71模型,并且采用细胞病变(CPE)法滴定了小鼠心、肝、脾、肺、肾、小肠、脑和肌肉组织的EV 71病毒滴度.该模型采用的EV71病毒株是我国最早分离到的病毒株,动物采用的是2周龄的小鼠,对我国目前建立的EV71动物模型是个补充,可以更好地服务于我国抗EV71药物和疫苗的研发.%Animal model is very important for anti-EV71 (enterovirus 71) drug and vaccine development. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse model is the main in vivo model used in China. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse is too small to perform antiviral experiment. And the route of administration and dosage capacity are also restricted. A strong virulence EV71 virus strain was selected after screening from five EV71 strains with 1-day-old suckling mice. A mouse-adapted EV71 strain with increased virulence in 12-day-old suckling mice, EV71-M5, was generated after five serial passages of the parental EV71 strain in mice. Virus titers of EV71 infected mice heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine, brain and muscle tissue were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. The virus used in this model is the first isolated EV71 strain in China. And 2-week-old suckling mice were used in this model. This is a supplement for the EV71 animal model in China. Establishment of this EV71 model will provide an attractive platform for anti-EV71 vaccine and drug development.

  6. miR-27a suppresses EV71 replication by directly targeting EGFR.

    Zhang, Lianglu; Chen, Xiong; Shi, Yingying; Zhou, Bingfei; Du, Chen; Liu, Yongjuan; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, has broken out several times and was accompanied by neurological disease. microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs that are approximately 20 nucleotides long, play important roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including antiviral defense. However, the roles of miRNAs in EV71 replication and pathogenesis are not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-27a was significantly decreased in EV71-infected cells. Interestingly, the over-expression of miR-27a could inhibit EV71 replication, as measured by virus titration, qPCR, and Western blotting. We identified EGFR mRNA is a bona fide target of miR-27a by computational analysis and luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, miR-27a could decrease EGFR expression, as measured by qPCR and Western blotting. Moreover, the inhibition of EGFR expression by miR-27a decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, which facilitate EV71 replication. These results suggest that miR-27a may have antiviral activity against EV71 by inhibiting EGFR.

  7. Two models for changes of EV71 immunity in infants and young children.

    Tu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yongmei; Zhu, Fengcai; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been associated with outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in China. Susceptibility to EV71 is associated with age, but few studies have been accomplished to measure such a relationship. A better understanding of the connection between susceptibility and age is necessary to develop strategies for control of HFMD. In 2010, a survey of an epidemic of EV71 was conducted in a northern city of Jiangsu Province in China. Samples were tested serologically to identify the EV71 neutralizing antibody. Two different mathematical models have now been employed to describe how this antibody varied with age, and parameters in the model were estimated from survey data. Both models depicted the variations in EV71-neutralizing antibody. Seroprevalence was high for neonates but decreased to near zero at 5 months of age. Subsequently, the EV71 antibody levels increased and then remained stable after about 36 months. For models 1 and 2, values for the coefficient of determination (R(2)) were 0.9458 and 0.9576, and values for root mean square error (RMSE) were 0.0755 and 0.0752, respectively. Model 2, formulated from the characteristics of development of the immune system, was more reliable than model 1, formulated from survey data, because the impact of the survey on the structure of the model was removed. Moreover, model 2 provided the possibility to define the parameters in a biological sense.

  8. Hierarchical Agent-Based Integrated Modelling Approach for Microgrids with Adoption of EVs and HRES

    Peng Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large adoption of electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs, and the increasing of the loads shall bring significant challenges to the microgrid. The methodology to model microgrid with high EVs and HRESs penetrations is the key to EVs adoption assessment and optimized HRESs deployment. However, considering the complex interactions of the microgrid containing massive EVs and HRESs, any previous single modelling approaches are insufficient. Therefore in this paper, the methodology named Hierarchical Agent-based Integrated Modelling Approach (HAIMA is proposed. With the effective integration of the agent-based modelling with other advanced modelling approaches, the proposed approach theoretically contributes to a new microgrid model hierarchically constituted by microgrid management layer, component layer, and event layer. Then the HAIMA further links the key parameters and interconnects them to achieve the interactions of the whole model. Furthermore, HAIMA practically contributes to a comprehensive microgrid operation system, through which the assessment of the proposed model and the impact of the EVs adoption are achieved. Simulations show that the proposed HAIMA methodology will be beneficial for the microgrid study and EV’s operation assessment and shall be further utilized for the energy management, electricity consumption prediction, the EV scheduling control, and HRES deployment optimization.

  9. A novel finding for enterovirus virulence from the capsid protein VP1 of EV71 circulating in mainland China.

    Liu, Yongjuan; Fu, Chong; Wu, Suying; Chen, Xiong; Shi, Yingying; Zhou, Bingfei; Zhang, Lianglu; Zhang, Fengfeng; Wang, Zhihao; Zhang, Yingying; Fan, Chengpeng; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Wanhong; He, Xiaohua

    2014-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes various clinical manifestations in young children, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal. Different pathotypes of EV71 notably differ in virulence. Several virulence determinants of EV71 have been predicted. However, these reported virulence determinants could not be used to identify the EV71 strains of subgenotype C4, which mainly circulate in China. In this study, VP1 sequences of 37 EV71 strains from severe cases (SC-EV71) and 192 EV71 strains from mild cases (MC-EV71) in mainland China were analyzed to determine the potential virulence determinants in the capsid protein VP1 of EV71. Although most SC-EV71 strains belonged to subgenotype C4a, no specific genetic lineages in C4a were correlated with EV71 virulence. Interestingly, amino acid substitutions at nine positions (H22Q, P27S, N31S/D, E98K, E145G/Q, D164E, T240A/S, V249I, and A289T) were detected by aligning the VP1 sequences of the SC-EV71 and MC-EV71 strains. Moreover, both the constituent ratios of the conservative or mutated residues in the MC-EV71 and SC-EV71 strains and the changes in the VP1 3D structure resulting from these mutations confirmed that the conservative residues (22H, 249V, and 289A) and the mutated residues (27S, 31S/D, 98K, 145G/Q, 164E, and 240A/S) might be potential virulence determinants in VP1 of EV71. Furthermore, these results led to the hypothesis that VP1 acts as a sandwich switch for viral particle stabilization and cellular receptors attachment, and specific mutations in this protein can convert mild cases into severe cases. These findings highlight new opportunities for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  10. Total cross sections for scattering of electrons from O2,H2O,H2,O3, CO and CO2 at 100-2000eV

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Yang Xiang-Dong; Zhu Zun-Lue; Liu Yu-Fang

    2004-01-01

    A complex optical model potential rewritten by the concept of bonded atom, which considers the overlap of electron clouds, is employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering from several simple molecules (O2, H2O, H2, O3, CO and CO2) consisting of C, H and O atoms in an incident energy range of 100-2000eV by the use of the additivity rule at Hartree-Fock level. In the study, the complex optical potential composed of static, exchange,correlation polarization plus absorption contributions firstly uses the bonded-atom concept. The quantitative molecular total cross section results are compared with experimental data and with the other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained. It is shown that the additivity rule along with the complex optical model potential rewritten by the concept of bonded atom can be used successfully to calculate the total cross section of electron-molecule scattering above 100eV, whereas the rule together with the complex optical model potential not rewritten by the concept of bonded atom is only successfully used above 300-500eV. So, the introduction of the bonded-atom concept in the complex optical potential can improve the accuracy of the total cross section calculations.

  11. A new treatment for neurogenic inflammation caused by EV71 with CR2-targeted complement inhibitor

    Qiu Shaofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71, one of the most important neurotropic EVs, has caused death and long-term neurological sequelae in hundreds of thousands of young children in the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade. The neurological diseases are attributed to infection by EV71 inducing an extensive peripheral and central nervous system (CNS inflammatory response with abnormal cytokine production and lymphocyte depletion induced by EV71 infection. In the absence of specific antiviral agents or vaccines, an effective immunosuppressive strategy would be valuable to alleviate the severity of the local inflammation induced by EV71 infection. Presentation of the hypothesis The complement system plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response. Inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system results in a severe inflammatory reaction or numerous pathological injuries. Previous studies have revealed that EV71 infection can induce complement activation and an inflammatory response of the CNS. CR2-targeted complement inhibition has been proved to be a potential therapeutic strategy for many diseases, such as influenza virus-induced lung tissue injury, postischemic cerebral injury and spinal cord injury. In this paper, a mouse model is proposed to test whether a recombinant fusion protein consisting of CR2 and a region of Crry (CR2-Crry is able to specifically inhibit the local complement activation induced by EV71 infection, and to observe whether this treatment strategy can alleviate or even cure the neurogenic inflammation. Testing the hypothesis CR2-Crry is expressed in CHO cells, and its biological activity is determined by complement inhibition assays. 7-day-old ICR mice are inoculated intracranially with EV71 to duplicate the neurological symptoms. The mice are then divided into two groups, in one of which the mice are treated with CR2-Crry targeted complement inhibitor, and in the other with phosphate-buffered saline. A

  12. Identification of specific antigenic epitope at N-terminal segment of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) VP1 protein and characterization of its use in recombinant form for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection

    Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bingfu; Xu, Mingjie; Dai, Xing; Purdy, Michael A.; Meng, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiologic agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We sought to identify EV-71 specific antigens and develop serologic assays for acute-phase EV-71 infection. A series of truncated proteins within the N-terminal 100 amino acids (aa) of EV-71 VP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot (WB) analysis showed that positions around 11–21 aa contain EV-71-specific antigenic sites, whereas positions 1–5 and 51–100 contain epitopes shared with hum...

  13. 武汉地区2011年553例手足口病患儿EV71-IgMELISA法和EV71RNART-PCR法检测结果分析

    李虹泽; 项杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 对EV71-IgM ELISA法和EV71 RNA RT-PCR法检测肠道病毒71型进行比较.方法 采用EV71-IgM ELISA法和EV71 RNA RT-PCR法分别对553例手足口病临床确诊患儿的静脉血和咽拭标本进行检测.结果 EV71-IgM ELISA法阳性率35.62%(197例)高于EV71 RNA RT-PCR法阳性率18.63%(103例),差异存在统计学意义(χ2=39.56,P<0.001).EV71-IgM ELISA(-)且EV71 RNA RT-PCR(-)有329例,同时EV71-IgM ELISA(-)且EV71 RNA RT-PCR(+)有24例,进一步表明两种方法 结果 之间的差异存在统计学意义(χ2=63.11,P<0.001).结论 EV71-IgM ELISA法具有高敏感性,操作简单,成本低,适用范围广等优点.

  14. Total Cross Sections for Electron Scattering on Polyatomic Molecules (CH4, CO2,NO2, and N2O) at 10 ~ 3000 eV

    SUN Jin-Feng; XU Bin; LIU Yu-Fang; SHI De-Heng

    2005-01-01

    A new modified formulation of the Additivity Rule (AR) was proposed to calculate the total electron scattering cross sections for CH4, CO2, NO2, and N2O, considering the overlapping between atoms in molecules and the not fully transparency of the molecules. The present calculation covers the range of impact energy from 10 to 3000 eV. The results are compared with experimental data and other theories where available. The atoms are presented by spherical complex optical potential, which is composed of static, exchange, polarization, and absorption terms.

  15. Heavy carriers and non-Drude optical conductivity in MnSi

    Mena, FP; van der Marel, D; Damascelli, A; Fath, M; Menovsky, AA; Mydosh, JA

    2003-01-01

    The optical properties of the weakly helimagnetic metal MnSi have been determined in the photon energy range from 2 meV to 4.5 eV using the combination of grazing incidence reflectance at 80degrees (from 2 meV to 0.8 eV) and ellipsometry (from 0.8 to 4.5 eV). As the sample is cooled below 100 K, the

  16. Calculating Rayleigh scattering amplitudes from 100 eV to 10 MeV. [100 eV to 10 MeV

    Parker, J.C.; Reynaud, G.W.; Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    An attempt is made to explain how to calculate the contribution to elastic photon-atom scattering due to Rayleigh scattering (the scattering off bound electrons) in the photon energy range 100 eV less than or equal to W less than or equal to 10 MeV. All intermediate calculations are described, including the calculation of the potential, bound state wave functions, matrix elements, and final cross sections. 12 references. (JFP)

  17. Earth sciences within the project Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesy and geophysics; Le scienze della Terra nel progetto Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesia e geofisica

    Poretti, Giorgio [Trieste, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Matematiche

    1997-05-01

    Earth Sciences started the Ev-K2-CNR project in 1987 with the comparison between the heights of Mt. Everest and K2. Several gravimetric campaigns followed in the most difficult areas of the Himalayas. In 1991 a GPS network was established in Nepal for the determination of the Earth crust movements in the area. In 1992 a precise measurement of mount Everest was performed with classical and satellite technologies. Mount K2 was remeasured in Summer 1996.

  18. Predicting the optical gap of conjugated systems

    Botelho, Andre Leitao

    The adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model is developed in this work as a tool for in silico prediction of the optical gap of pi-conjugated systems for photovoltaic applications. Full transferability of the model ensures reliable predictive power - excellent agreement with 180 independent experimental data points covering virtually all existing conjugated system types with an accuracy exceeding the time-dependent density functional theory, one of the most accurate first-principles methods. Insights on the structure-property relation of conjugated systems obtained from the model lead to guiding rules for optical gap design: 1) fusing aromatic rings parallel to the conjugated path does not significantly lower the optical gap, 2) fusing rings perpendicularly lowers the optical gap of the monomer, but has a reduced benefit from polymerization, and 3) copolymers take advantage of the lower optical gap of perpendicular fused rings and benefit from further optical gap reduction through added parallel fused rings as electronic communicators. A copolymer of parallel and perpendicular benzodithiophenes, differing only in sulfur atom locations, is proposed as a candidate to achieve the optimal 1.2 eV donor optical gap for organic photovoltaics. For small-molecule organic photovoltaics, substituting the end pairs of carbon atoms on pentacene with sulfur atoms is predicted to lower the optical gap from 1.8 eV to 1.1 eV. Furthermore, the model offers an improvement of orders of magnitude in the computational efficiency over commonly used first-principles tools.

  19. Identification, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel anti-EV71 agents via cyclophilin A inhibition.

    Yan, Wenzhong; Qing, Jie; Mei, Hanbing; Nong, Junxiu; Huang, Jin; Zhu, Jin; Jiang, Hualiang; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Linqi; Li, Jian

    2015-12-15

    In this work, the relationship between cyclophilin A (CypA) and EV71 prompted us to screen a series of small molecular CypA inhibitors which were previously reported by our group. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were discovered as non-immunosuppressive anti-EV71 agents with an EC50 values of 1.07±0.17μM and 3.36±0.45μM in virus assay, respectively, which were desirably for the further study. The subsequent chemical modifications derived a novel class of molecules, among which compound 11 demonstrated the most potent anti-EV71 activity in virus assay (EC50=0.37±0.17μM), and low cytotoxicity (CC50>25μM). The following CypA enzyme inhibition studies indicated that there was not only the enzyme inhibition activity, undoubtedly important, functioning in the antiviral process, but also some unknown mechanisms worked in combination, and the further study is underway in our laboratory. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, compound 11 was probably the most potent small molecular anti-EV71 agent via CypA inhibitory mechanism to date. Consequently, our study provided a new potential small molecule for curing EV71 infection.

  20. Progress on the research and development of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Fan; Wang, Junzhi

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which can cause severe complications, have become one of the serious public health issues in the Western Pacific region and China. To date, a number of pharmaceutical companies and institutes have initiated the research and development of EV71 vaccines as a countermeasure. As is the case with innovative vaccine development, there are several critical bottlenecks in EV71 vaccine development that must be overcome before the clinical trials, including the selection of vaccine strain, standardization of the procedure for quantifying neutralizing antibody (NTAb) and antigen, establishment and application of a reference standard and biological standards, development of animal models for the evaluation of protective efficacy, and identification of the target patient population. To tackle these technical obstacles, researchers in Mainland of China have conducted a series of studies concerning the screening of vaccine strains and the establishment of criteria, biological standards and detection methods, thereby advancing EV71 vaccine development. This review summarizes recent worldwide progress on the quality control and evaluation of EV71 vaccines.

  1. The evolution of Vp1 gene in enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae, consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes. The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes. An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21, CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific 'signature' amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific 'signature' amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared.

  2. Construction and characterization of infectious cDNA clones of enterovirus 71(EV71)

    Ying-wei; Ma; Shu-bin; Hao; Le-le; Sun; Jing; Li; Qiao; Qiao; Feng; Gao; Li; Zhao; Xue-jie; Yu; Zhi-yu; Wang; Hong-ling; Wen

    2015-01-01

    Dear Editor,Enterovirus 71(EV71),a member of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae,is a single-stranded,positive-sense RNA virus that usually causes mild handfoot-mouth disease(HFMD)in children,with symptoms such as fever,diarrhea,and herpangina(Liu et al.,2013).However,certain strains of EV71 infection can cause severe neurological complications,such as SDLY107(Sun et al.,2014).EV71 is classified into three distinct genotypes(A–C);the B and C genotypes are further divided into B1–B5 and C1–C5 genotypes,respectively,based on

  3. Storage Application in Smart Grid with High PV and EV Penetration

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Yang, Guangya; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    grids with residential PVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The effect of EV home charging on EESS capacity in high PV penetration is also addressed. The results indicate that increasing the EV penetration in the network can decrease the EESS capacity need. This decrease is highest in situations with low PV......Rapid deployment of renewable energy sources (RES) and concerns regarding their impacts on power systems provide new opportunities for utilizing more electrical energy storage system (EESS) in power systems. Peak-shaving in high Photovoltaic (PV) penetration conditions and providing ancillary...... service in high load conditions are among the applications of EESS in distribution systems. In this paper, a new method is developed based on the voltage sensitivity analysis of the network in order to calculate the EESS capacity required for prevention of voltage rise and voltage drop in distribution...

  4. NANO-BATTERY TECHNOLOGY FOR EV-HEV PANEL: A PIONEERING STUDY

    Ataur Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global trends toward CO2 reduction and resource efficiency have significantly increased the importance of lightweight materials for automobile original equipment manufacturers (OEM. CO2 reduction is a fundamental driver for a more lightweight automobile. The introduction of Electrical Vehicles (EVs is one initiative towards this end. However EVs are currently facing several weaknesses: limited driving range, battery pack heaviness, lack of safety and thermal control, high cost, and overall limited efficiency. This study presents a panel-style nano-battery technology built into an EV with CuO filler solid polymer electrolyte (SPE sandwiched by carbon fiber (CF and lithium (Li plate. In addition to this, an aluminum laminated polypropylene film is used as the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC shield. The proposed battery body panel of the EV would reduce the car weight by about 20%, with a charge and discharge capacity of 1.5 kWh (10% of car total power requirement, and provide the heat insulation for the car which would save about 10% power consumption of the air conditioning system. Therefore, the EV would be benefited by 30% in terms of energy reduction by using the proposed body. Furthermore, the proposed body is considered environmental-friendly since it is recyclable for use in a new product. However, the main limiting factors of the SPE are its thermal behavior and moderate ionic conductivity at low temperatures. The SPE temperature is maintained by controlling the battery panel charging/discharge rate. It is expected that the proposed panel-style nano-battery use in an EV would save up to 6.00 kWh in battery energy, equivalent to 2.81 liters of petrol and prevent 3.081 kg of CO2 emission for a travel distance of 100 km. KEYWORDS: epoxy resin; carbon fiber; lithium thin plate; energy generation; solid electrolyte battery

  5. Diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by EV71 and other enteroviruses by a one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR.

    Jiang, Bingfu; Zhang, Jianhua; You, Xianhui; Dong, Chen; Cheng, Xianfeng; Dai, Xing; Meng, Jihong

    2012-11-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused mainly by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and other enteroviruses (EVs) such as Coxsackie A16 in China. EV71 infection can lead to severe clinical manifestations and even death. Other EVs, however, generally cause mild symptoms. Thus, early and accurate distinction of EV71 from other EVs for HFMD will offer significant benefits. A one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR assay is described in the present study to detect simultaneously EV71 and other EVs. The primers used for the duplex RT-PCR underwent screening and optimization. The detection threshold was 0.001 TCID(50)/ml for EV71 and 0.01 TCID(50)/ml for other EVs. The positive rate of enterovirus detection in 165 clinical samples reached 68.5%, including 46.1% for EV71 and 22.4% for other EVs. Of all the severe HFMD cases, EV71 was responsible for 85.3% cases. The positive rate of EV71 fell markedly by day 8 after onset. In addition, sequencing of EV71 specific amplicons from duplex RT-PCR revealed that C4a was the predominant subgenotype of EV71 circulating in Nanjing, China. The accuracy and reliability of the assay suggest strongly that the one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR will be useful for early diagnosis and monitoring of EV71 and other EV infections.

  6. Q-chat基于EV-DO的高效能一键通

    徐超

    2008-01-01

    随着电信全面推动CDMA网络向EV-DO升级,具有方便快捷、络向EV-DO升级,具有方便快捷、成本低廉、功能强大特点的Q-chat有着更加广泛的推广空间。在不久的未来,Q-chat业务有可能成为2G时代短信这样的“杀手级”业务。

  7. Stripping in collisions between hydrogen molecules below 500 eV.

    Peterson, R. K.; Eisner, M.

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of the cross section of stripping the mass 2 and 4 isotopes from molecular hydrogen in their parent gases at kinetic energies between 50 and 500 eV. The angular dependence of the ions is found to be highly peaked in the forward direction, at energies above 100 eV. Plotted vs incident velocity, the cross sections for H2 and D2 approached the same value at the highest velocities and did diverge toward lower velocities. The behavior of the cross sections is found to be consistent with a theoretical model suggested by Demkov and Komarov (1968).

  8. Stopping power for electrons in pyrimidine in the energy range 20-3000 eV.

    Colmenares, R; Sanz, A G; Fuss, M C; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present new experimental electron energy loss distribution functions for pyrimidine (C4H4N2) measured for the incident energy range 30-2000 eV. Theoretical total and elastic cross sections for electron scattering from pyrimidine were calculated using the screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) method. Based on the mean energy loss observed in the experiment and the theoretical integral inelastic cross section, the stopping power for electrons in pyrimidine is calculated in the energy range 20-3000 eV.

  9. Differential cross sections of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 in the energy range 100-700eV

    Ma Er-Jun; Ma Yu-Gang; Cai Xiang-Zhou; Fang De-Qing; Shen Wen-Qing; Tian Wen-Dong

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the differential cross sections (DCS) of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 at six impact energies in a range of 100-700eV by employing the independent atom model (IAM) together with the relativistic partial waves. The atom is present in an optical potential which is complex, spherically symmetric, and energy dependent. The optical potential of the atom is the sum of the direct static, dynamic polarization, local exchange and modified absorption potentials. The results obtained by using a modified absorption potential show significant improvements on the unmodified absorption potential results. The present results are generally in good agreement with experimental data available. In addition, the present results indicate that the structure of molecule manifests the observable effects on electron-molecule scattering.

  10. A spherical grating monochromator and beamline optimised for the provision of polarised synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range 20-200 eV

    Finetti, P.; Holland, D.M.P. E-mail: d.m.p.holland@dl.ac.uk; Latimer, C.J.; Binns, C.; Quinn, F.M.; Bowler, M.A.; Grant, A.F.; Mythen, C.S

    2001-12-01

    The design and performance of a spherical grating monochromator and beamline optimised for experiments requiring polarised radiation are described. The beamline is mounted on a bending magnet source at the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, and the monochromator incorporates three gratings to cover the photon energy range 20-200 eV. The relative first- and higher-order grating efficiencies have been measured by means of photoelectron spectroscopy and have been compared to theoretical predictions. A movable aperture, placed in the optical path between the source and the first mirror, defines the photon emission directions of the beam entering the beamline. The polarisation of the radiation leaving the beamline is determined both by the vertical position of this aperture and by the modifications introduced by the beamline geometry and the optical components. The modification to the polarisation is difficult to calculate analytically, and a satisfactory quantitative assessment can only be accomplished through a combination of reflectivity and ray-tracing analysis. A reflection polarimeter has been used to obtain a full characterisation of the polarisation in the energy range 20-40 eV. These measurements have enabled the Stokes parameters to be deduced. The degree of linear polarisation has also been investigated through angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

  11. Optic glioma

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  12. EnEV compact. Collection of texts according to the energy conservation ordinance 2009 and thermal insulation regulations; EnEV kompakt. Textsammlung zur Energieeinsparverordnung 2009 und den Waermeschutzverordnungen

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The actual energy conservation ordinance (EnEV) came into force at 1st October, 2009. With the amended EnEV 2009, the energetic requirements at new buildings and redevelopments are intensified. The novella EnEV 2009 is a component of the Integrated Energy and Climatic Program (IEKP) of the Federal Government. The collection of texts of the German Energy Agency (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) contains the complete text of the EnEV 2009, the accompanying proclamations of the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the thermal insulation regulations of 1977, 1982 and 1994.

  13. Optical properties of hydroxyethyl cellulose film treated with nitrogen plasma

    Mahmoud, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) film has been prepared by casting technique. The prepared sample has been treated with nitrogen plasma at different exposure times. The optical absorption was recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range of 200-800 nm. Absorbance fitting procedure curves revealed a direct allowed transition with optical band gap, Eopt, of 4.9 eV for pristine film, and this value decreases to 4.30 eV for 20 min plasma treatment time. The band tail values (Ee) were found to be increased under plasma time treatment from 1.74 eV in case of the pristine film to 2.20 eV for 20 min. The dispersion of refractive index and complex dielectric constants under plasma treatment was also studied. Variation of color parameters under effect of the plasma treatment is analyzed in the framework of CIE L*U*V* color space.

  14. Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of CaO

    Sobolev, V. V.; Merzlyakov, D. A.; Sobolev, V. Val.

    2016-09-01

    Spectra of 11 optical functions of CaO in the ranges 6.5-7.2 eV at 2 K and 0-60 eV at 77 K were determined. A total of 14 maxima and shoulders of excitons and interband transitions were found including two distinct exciton structures at 6.9 and 11.4 eV and volume and surface plasmon maxima at ~38.3 and 33.2 eV, respectively. Their principal features and general trends were established. Variable formation efficiencies of spectra of the dielectric permittivity and characteristic electron-energy losses in different spectral ranges were analyzed. The calculations used known experimental reflectance spectra and computer programs based on the Kramers-Kronig correlations and analytical formulae for the relationship between optical functions.

  15. EV71可感染幼龄中缅树鼩%Experimental studies on infant Tupaia belangeri chineses with EV71 infection

    王文广; 黄晓燕; 徐娟; 孙晓梅; 代解杰; 李琦涵

    2012-01-01

    Tupaia belonged are small mammals with a squirrel-like appearance; they were formerly classified under the primates order despite the lack of derived features characteristic of primates. Given that T. Belangeri are easy to raise, cheap to maintain, and have a small body size, a high reproductive rate, and close affinity to primates, these animals would be used as an alternative to primates in biomedical research. Three-month old T. Belangeri chineses were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71) via three different routes, namely, oral administration, nasal dripping, and tail intravenous injection, to study the infection in infant T. Belangeri and find a feasible scheme to make them an ideal animal model of EV71 in place of primates. Daily activities were regularly observed, body temperatures were measured, and blood tests were conducted. Blood and fecal samples were regularly collected. The infection was examined via the neutralizing antibody test, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Real-Time PCR, and pathological analysis. The temperature, as well as the white blood cell count and the number of lymphocytes, increased four days after infection. Virus loads were determined in all three groups, and the peak appeared on, before, or after the tenth day, respectively. Thus, oral administration proved to be the best route. The highest serum antibody titer obtained was 1:16. Acute paralysis with urinary retention manifested after about two weeks, and pathological changes were observed in the brain, heart, lung, spleen, kidney, and other tissues. In conclusion, T. Belangeri chineses can infected with EV71 via oral administration, nasal dripping, and tail intravenous injection. Therefore, T. Belangeri are potential EV71 animal models for further studies on the mechanism of pathogenesis or vaccine evaluation.%树鼩是灵长类动物的近亲,且具有体型小、繁殖周期短、饲养管理成本低等优点,长期以来被认为有望替代灵长类

  16. A Method for Remote Control of EV Charging by Modifying IEC61851 Compliant EVSE Based PWM Signal

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    ). These properties can be used in a number of power and energy services, which can support power system operation while lowering the cost of EV ownership. Such services depend on the support from the communications technologies and standards that connect controllers and logic in the EVs with those in the charging......The Electric Vehicle (EV) has properties that can not only load but can elevate its value as a resource to the power system. An EV represents a high-power, fast-responding flexible demand unit, with an attached energy storage (battery) and the potential for bi-directional capabilities (V2G...... infrastructure- and back-end systems. To date, there is still no widely adopted standard that supports EV grid services, such as smart charging. This work proposes a solution that would allow any combination of charging spot and EV - individually lacking the logic, communication and controllability required...

  17. Coordinated Control of PV Generation and EVs Charging Based on Improved DECell Algorithm

    Guo Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the coordination of EVs’ charging and renewable energy has become a hot research all around the globe. Considering the requirements of EV owner and the influence of the PV output fluctuation on the power grid, a three-objective optimization model was established by controlling the EVs charging power during charging process. By integrating the meshing method into differential evolution cellular (DECell genetic algorithm, an improved differential evolution cellular (IDECell genetic algorithm was presented to solve the multiobjective optimization model. Compared to the NSGA-II and DECell, the IDECell algorithm showed better performance in the convergence and uniform distribution. Furthermore, the IDECell algorithm was applied to obtain the Pareto front of nondominated solutions. Followed by the normalized sorting of the nondominated solutions, the optimal solution was chosen to arrive at the optimized coordinated control strategy of PV generation and EVs charging. Compared to typical charging pattern, the optimized charging pattern could reduce the fluctuations of PV generation output power, satisfy the demand of EVs charging quantity, and save the total charging cost.

  18. Real-Time Forecasting of EV Charging Station Scheduling for Smart Energy Systems

    Bharatiraja Chokkalingam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The enormous growth in the penetration of electric vehicles (EVs, has laid the path to advancements in the charging infrastructure. Connectivity between charging stations is an essential prerequisite for future EV adoption to alleviate user’s “range anxiety”. The existing charging stations fail to adopt power provision, allocation and scheduling management. To improve the existing charging infrastructure, data based on real-time information and availability of reserves at charging stations could be uploaded to the users to help them locate the nearest charging station for an EV. This research article focuses on an a interactive user application developed through SQL and PHP platform to allocate the charging slots based on estimated battery parameters, which uses data communication with charging stations to receive the slot availability information. The proposed server-based real-time forecast charging infrastructure avoids waiting times and its scheduling management efficiently prevents the EV from halting on the road due to battery drain out. The proposed model is implemented using a low-cost microcontroller and the system etiquette tested.

  19. ev kukub põgeneja käest : [luuletused] / Helgi Muller

    Muller, Helgi, 1932-1971

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kui minu tuppa ei kostaks ; Imelind ; Kodumaa ; Karikakar I ; "Taevas vaatab sind ..." ; Öö musta jõge pidi ; Põuavägud ; "Kas põletada ..." ; Pihud ; Hingetuisk ; "Nagu hüüd ..." ; Päev jälle kukub käest. Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 192

  20. Crystal structures of enterovirus 71 (EV71) recombinant virus particles provide insights into vaccine design.

    Lyu, Ke; Wang, Guang-Chuan; He, Ya-Ling; Han, Jian-Feng; Ye, Qing; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Rong

    2015-02-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) remains a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific regions, and its major causative agents include human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16. A desirable vaccine against HFMD would be multivalent and able to elicit protective responses against multiple HFMD causative agents. Previously, we have demonstrated that a thermostable recombinant EV71 vaccine candidate can be produced by the insertion of a foreign peptide into the BC loop of VP1 without affecting viral replication. Here we present crystal structures of two different naturally occurring empty particles, one from a clinical C4 strain EV71 and the other from its recombinant virus containing an insertion in the VP1 BC loop. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that the inserted foreign peptide is well exposed on the particle surface without significant structural changes in the capsid. Importantly, such insertions do not seem to affect the virus uncoating process as illustrated by the conformational similarity between an uncoating intermediate of another recombinant virus and that of EV71. Especially, at least 18 residues from the N terminus of VP1 are transiently externalized. Altogether, our study provides insights into vaccine development against HFMD.

  1. The new EnEV: what's changing? Insulation of pipelines according to assistant draft on energy conservation ordinance (EnEV 2009); Die neue EnEV: Was aendert sich? Daemmung von Rohrleitungen nach dem Referentenentwurf zur Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV 2009)

    Anon.

    2009-02-26

    The assistant draft of EnEV 2009 was presented 18th april 2008. It is safe to assume that the draft will be realized. Essential innovations, taking into account insulations, are the requirement to insulate also refrigerating systems, cold water pipelines, and clean room- as air conditioning systems. (GL)

  2. Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 1018eV

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K.D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Mičanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, Xmax⁡, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 1018eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selec

  3. Generating Geospatially Realistic Driving Patterns Derived From Clustering Analysis Of Real EV Driving Data

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Aabrandt, Andreas; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    scales, which calls for a statistically correct, yet flexible model. This paper describes a method for modelling EV, based on non-categorized data, which takes into account the plug in locations of the vehicles. By using clustering analysis to extrapolate and classify the primary locations where...

  4. 77 FR 51983 - Availability of Department of Energy EV Everywhere Grand Challenge Initial Framing Document and...

    2012-08-28

    ... Challenge Initial Framing Document and Request for Public Comment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... 7, 2012. The EV Everywhere Initial Framing Document (framing document) has been developed as a principal means of facilitating stakeholder engagement in ] the planning process. The framing...

  5. Äripäev peab Seppikutele maksma 70 000 krooni / Indrek Veiserik

    Veiserik, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    Tartu ringkonnakohus mõistis 15. okt. 2009 AS-ilt Äripäev Riigikogu liikme Ain Seppiku ja tema poegade kasuks välja 70 000 krooni suuruse hüvitise. Kohus leidis, et Äripäevas ilmunud artiklitega sai Seppikute maine oluliselt kahjustada

  6. Invent--Innovate--Implement--Interview with Dr. Christian Schaefer, Senior Vice President Sales, EV Group

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dr. Christian Schaefer, Senior Vice President Sales of EV Group, has 15 years of international management experience in the materials and equipment industry. During his tenure, Schaefer spearheaded the consolidation 9f RHI following the first Asian crisis and guided the company through major mergers and acquisitions,accomplishments that ultimately helped the company increase market share, revenues and profits.

  7. Simultaneous Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation and Electric Vehicle Parking Lots Based on Probabilistic EV Model

    M.H. Amini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High penetration of distributed generations and the increasing demand for using electric vehicles provide a lot of issues for the utilities. If these two effective elements of the future power system are used in an unscheduled manner, it may lead to the loss increment in distribution networks, dramatically. In this paper, the simultaneous allocation of distributed generations (DGs and electric vehicles (EVs parking lots has been studied in a radial distribution network. A distribution network which is upgrading and equipped with DGs is considered and these resources' optimal placement is achieved in interaction with the EV parking lots in order to minimize the power distribution network loss. The proposed method considers not only the loss minimization but also the reliability of the parking lot from the investor's point of view. The output of this model is the daily electricity demand of parking lot. The proposed method includes two levels. At the first level of the proposed algorithm, the parking lot investor makes decision and selects three candidate buses for each parking based on three main criteria. After making decision by the parking lot investor, the candidate buses are introduced to the distribution network operator. At the second stage, the distribution network operator allocates the DGs and EV parking lots based on the candidate buses of investor in order to achieve the minimum loss of the distribution network. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by allocating of DGs and EV parking lots simultaneously on the standard distribution test system.

  8. Lavrent'ev problem for separated flows with an external perturbation

    Dmitriy K. Potapov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the Lavrent'ev mathematical model for separated flows with an external perturbation. This model consists of a differential equation with discontinuous nonlinearity and a boundary condition. Using a variational method, we show the existence of a semiregular solution. As a particular case, we study the one-dimensional model.

  9. Dissociative Electron Attachment to Carbon Dioxide via the 8.2 eV Feshbach resonance

    Slaughter, Dan; Adaniya, Hidihito; Rescigno, Tom; Haxton, Dan; Orel, Ann; McCurdy, Bill; Belkacem, Ali

    2011-08-17

    Momentum imaging experiments on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to CO{sub 2} are combined with the results of ab initio calculations to provide a detailed and consistent picture of the dissociation dynamics through the 8.2 eV resonance, which is the major channel for DEA in CO{sub 2}. The present study resolves several puzzling misconceptions about this system.

  10. Damage threshold of amorphous carbon mirror for 177 eV FEL radiation

    Farahani, S. D.; Chalupsky, J.; Burian, T.; Chapman, H.; Gleeson, A. J.; Hajkoya, V.; Juha, L.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, D.; Sinn, H.; Sobierajski, R.; Stormer, M.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Wabnitz, H.; Gaudin, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of damage studies performed at the Free-Electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) on amorphous carbon (a-C). The experiment was performed in the total external reflection geometry representing the working configuration of X-ray mirrors. The 177 eV photon laser beam was focused on a 40 nm

  11. Development of battery management systems (BMS for electric vehicles (EVs in Malaysia

    Salehen P.M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery Management Systems (BMS is an electronic devices component, which is a vital fundamental device connected between the charger and the battery of the hybrid or electric vehicle (EV systems. Thus, BMS significantly enable for safety protection and reliable battery management by performing of monitoring charge control, state evaluation, reporting the data and functionalities cell balancing. To date, 97.1% of Malaysian CO2 emissions are mainly caused by transportation activities and the numbers will keep rising as numbers of registered car increase close up to 1 million yearly; double the amounts in the last two decades. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to predict the extended range of EVs, which need BMS implementation of optimization of optimum power management. Hence, using MATLAB/SIMULINK software is one of the potential methods of BMS optimization with power generated by Hybrid Energy Storage system of lithium-ion battery. Therefore, this paper address through reviewing previous literatures initially focuses on the BMS optimization for EVs (car in Malaysia as prognostic technology model improvement on performance management of EVs.

  12. Experimental study on EV purchases assisted by multi-agents representing a set of questionnaires

    Wu, Juai; Xie, Dongliang; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    participants and the incomparability among repeated trials. Taking the customers’ willingness to buy EVs as an example, this paper extracts multi-layer correlation information from a limited number of questionnaires and builds a multi-agent model to match the probabilistic distributions of multi...

  13. Vabariigi aastapäev Ottawas Taani suursaadiku osalemisel / Walter Pent

    Pent, Walter

    2003-01-01

    EV 85. aastapäeva üritusel pidas kõne Taani suursaadik Kanadas Svend R. Nielsen ning anti üle Kotkaristi Kuldrist Ottawa Eesti Seltsi esimehele, lennuväekolonel Margus Arujale teenete eest eesti sõjaväe loomisele kaasaaitamisel\\

  14. Photoabsorption Spectrum and Optically Forbidden Transitions of Krypton by Electron Impact

    苑震生; 朱林繁; 李文斌; 成华东; 徐克尊

    2002-01-01

    A high resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer with multi-channel energy analysis was employed. The maxima just above the threshold 4p-1(2P1/2), which is regarded as a shape resonance, was obtained at 16.3 eV. The optically forbidden excitations of 4s electron were measured for the first time, and the energy positions are 23.75 eV(4s-15s), 25.66 eV (4s-16s/4d) and 26.60 eV(4s-17s/5d).

  15. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10(19) eV

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Backer, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Mer, H. Blu; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; Junior, W. J. M. de Mello; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Lucero, A.; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10(18) eV, derived from 20 000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional to E(-gamma), at energies between 4 x 10(18) eV and 4 x 10(19) eV is 2.69 +/- 0.02(stat) +/- 0.06

  16. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  17. Magneto-optical multilayers

    Bader, S.D.

    1992-02-01

    Magneto-optical multilayers are of interest to the optical data storage community as a possible second-generation medium of the future. The important Co/Pt-superlattice system is introduced in this respect, and an extensive reference listing is provided to previous research. Magneto-optical modeling studies of Co/Pt are presented, and it is concluded that the interfacial Pt is magnetized and is magneto-optically active at the short wavelengths of interest ({approximately}4 eV) for applications. Magneto-optics in the ultrathin limit are discussed, and an additivity law is presented and verified experimentally utilizing data for epitaxial Fe/Ag(111) superlattices. Finally, the surface magnetic anisotropy that provides the vertical easy axes of magnetization in candidate superlattice systems is discussed and illustrated experimentally using ultrathin epitaxial films of Fe grown on a variety of substrates. It is concluded that magneto-optic multilayers will provide many stimulating basic and applied challenges in the years ahead.

  18. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles.

    Lin, Tao; Xianyu, Lingzhi; Lyu, Songya

    2015-06-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice (6-8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles (VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing mAbs (D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect >95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 µg/mL solution (lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing mAbs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for mAbs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  19. Activation of PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis during EV71 infection.

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengqi; Pan, Ziye; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Yudong

    2014-11-01

    Apoptosis is frequently induced to inhibit virus replication during infection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). On the contrary, anti-apoptotic pathway, such as PI3K/Akt pathway, is simultaneously exploited by EV71 to accomplish the viral life cycle. The relationship by which EV71-induced apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection altered Bax conformation and triggered its redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria in RD cells. Subsequently, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. We also found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated during EV71 infection. The JNK specific inhibitor significantly inhibited Bax activation and cytochrome c release, suggesting that EV71-induced apoptosis was involved into a JNK-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EV71-induced Akt phosphorylation involved a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway enhanced JNK phosphorylation and the JNK-mediated apoptosis upon EV71 infection. Moreover, PI3K/Akt pathway phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and negatively regulated the ASK1 activity. Knockdown of ASK1 significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation, which implied that ASK1 phosphorylation by Akt inhibited ASK1-mediated JNK activation. Collectively, these data reveal that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis by phosphorylating and inactivating ASK1 during EV71 infection.

  20. Characterization of the antibody response against EV71 capsid proteins in Chinese individuals by NEIBM-ELISA

    Ding, Yingying; Chen, Xuguang; Qian, Baohua; Wu, Guorong; He, Ting; Feng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Zhao, Chunyan; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases, non-HFMD outpatient children and normal adults using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA. The high prevalence o...

  1. Characterization of the antibody response against EV71 capsid proteins in Chinese individuals by NEIBM-ELISA.

    Ding, Yingying; Chen, Xuguang; Qian, Baohua; Wu, Guorong; He, Ting; Feng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Zhao, Chunyan; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases, non-HFMD outpatient children and normal adults using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA. The high prevalence of antibody responses against all three capsid proteins was demonstrated, and anti-EV71 VP1 showed the main antibody response. Anti-EV71 VP1 antibody response was found to predominantly target to epitopes based on the common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. Moreover, inhibition pattern against anti-EV71 VP1 reactions in three groups was obviously different. Taken together, these results firstly characterized the anti-EV71 antibody responses which are predominantly against VP1 epitopes based on common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. This finding could be helpful for the better understanding of anti-EV71 humoral immunity and useful for seroepidemiological surveillance.

  2. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles

    Tao; Lin; Lingzhi; Xianyu; Songya; Lyu

    2015-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71(EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice(6–8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles(VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing m Abs(D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect > 95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 μg/m L solution(lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing m Abs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for m Abs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  3. Coordinated EV adoption: double-digit reductions in emissions and fuel use for $40/vehicle-year.

    Choi, Dong Gu; Kreikebaum, Frank; Thomas, Valerie M; Divan, Deepak

    2013-09-17

    Adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) would affect the costs and sources of electricity and the United States efficiency requirements for conventional vehicles (CVs). We model EV adoption scenarios in each of six regions of the Eastern Interconnection, containing 70% of the United States population. We develop electricity system optimization models at the multidecade, day-ahead, and hour-ahead time scales, incorporating spatial wind energy modeling, endogenous modeling of CV efficiencies, projections for EV efficiencies, and projected CV and EV costs. We find two means to reduce total consumer expenditure (TCE): (i) controlling charge timing and (ii) unlinking the fuel economy regulations for CVs from EVs. Although EVs provide minimal direct GHG reductions, controlled charging provides load flexibility, lowering the cost of renewable electricity. Without EVs, a 33% renewable electricity standard (RES) would cost $193/vehicle-year more than the reference case (10% RES). Combining a 33% RES, EVs with controlled charging and unlinking would reduce combined electric- and vehicle-sector CO2 emissions by 27% and reduce gasoline consumption by 59% for $40/vehicle-year more than the reference case. Coordinating EV adoption with adoption of controlled charging, unlinked fuel economy regulations, and renewable electricity standards would provide low-cost reductions in emissions and fuel usage.

  4. EV71-2A突变质粒的构建及体内外功能初探%Construction of pcDNA3 . 1-EV71-2A mutant and preliminary studying related biological functions

    原素梅; 徐超; 张煦; 王源; 谢冰玉; 熊庆; 彭宜红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To construct EV71-2Amut(pcDNA3. 1-EV71-2A mutant plasmid)and studying its functions in vitro and in vivo, so as to provide an experiemental base for the further studying the active site and biological function of 2A pro-teinase. Methods By using of site-directed mutagenesis system based on PCR, EV71-2Amut was constructed on site-directed mutagenesis of 21His,39Asp and 110Cys genes and confirmed by sequencing analysis. Then EV71-2Amut and pRL-CMV(Cyto-megalovirus, CMV) were co-transfected to human rhabdomyosarcoma cell( RD cell) , and the enzyme activity inside cells was determined and compared with effect to pRL expression level between wild type EV71-2Apro and EV71-2Amut . EV71-2A mR-NA was detected by RT-PCR, and its effect on the quadriceps femoris of BALB/c mice was observed on histopathological changes, which reflected its transcription level and activity in vivo. Results The constructed EV71-2Amut sequence was i-dentical with we expected,the RL activity detected at cellular level from EV71-2Amut groups were significantly higher than that of EV71-2Apro groups (P<0. 05). EV71-2A-mRNA were detected by RT-PCR in quadriceps femoris from the mice injected with EV71-2Apro and EV71-2Amut . Compared with the control group injected with wild type 2A,inflammatory cell infiltration and coagulation necrosis were mild in quadriceps femoris injected with EV71-2Amut . Conclusion EV71-2Amut with H21N+D39E+C110A was successfully constructed. and its protease activity was almost abolished in RD cell and BABL/c mice. This work provides a ground work for the further studying the biological functions of EV71-2A protease.%目的:构建pcDNA3.1-EV71-2A的突变质粒(EV71-2Amut),并对其功能进行检测,为进一步研究肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus type 71,EV71)2A蛋白酶的活性位点及其生物学功能奠定实验基础。方法利用聚合酶链式反应(PCR)定点诱变技术,定点突变编码EV71-2A第21His、39Asp 和110Cys 氨基酸的位点,构建EV71

  5. Variable coefficients EV model in the application of the exchange rate%变系数 EV 模型在人民币汇率中的应用

    王雁; 张德生; 王丽辉; 荀新新

    2014-01-01

    将自适应变系数EV模型在计算机模拟实验的基础上推广到人民币汇率应用中,并利用该模型对人民币美元汇率的月度数据进行拟合预测。实证研究结果表明:自适应变系数EV模型的拟合效果优于FA R模型、A FA R模型的拟合效果,其预测精度也是这几种模型中最优的,可以为研究人民币美元汇率今后的趋势提供帮助。%The adaptive variable coefficients EV model on the basis of computer simulation ex-periment to the RMB exchange rate applications ,the monthly RMB exchange rate is fitted and predicted by using this model .The empirical results show that adaptive variable coeffi-cients EV model was used for data fitting and forecasting precision is superior to the FAR model and AFAR model ,so this model can offer help for the trends of RMB/USD exchange rate .

  6. Measurement of the total neutron cross-section of selenium at neutron energies below 2 eV

    Salama, M.

    1983-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section of ordinary selenium has been measured at room temperature as a function of neutron energy in the range from 2.2 eV to 5.5 meV. The measurements were performed using the transmission method in connection with a time-of-flight spectrometer installed in front of one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. Expression for the dependence of the total neutron cross-section of selenium upon energy was obtained. New values for the coherent scattering amplitude as well as the coherent scattering cross-section of selenium were also determined. Values for the average scattering cross-section and the total incoherent scattering cross-section were also obtained. The values of both potential scattering cross-section and effective potential scattering radius R' were determined for this element from the measured behaviour of the total cross section, using the single level Breit-Wigner formula. The determined value of R' was found to be in agreement with that predicted from vibrational-rotational optical model calculations.

  7. The value of EV71-IgM detection in diagnosis of hand foot mouth disease%EV71-IgM检测在手足口病诊断中的价值

    刘金亭; 刘力建

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the role of detecting EV71-IgM antibody by colloidal method and EV71 virus by RT-PCR method in the early identification of severe hand-foot-mouth disease by retrospective analysis.Methods:1 252 suspected cases of hand-foot-mouth disease were selected.The IgM antibody of EV71 intestinal virus was detected by serum colloidal gold method. The intestinal virus in stool of patients and 71-RNA were detected by RT-PCR method.Results:The positive rate of detecting EV71 by colloidal gold method was 28.67%;the positive rate of detecting intestinal virus by RT-PCR method was 81.15%;the positive rate of EV71 was 44.89%;5 cases were detected as positive by colloidal gold method and negative by RT-PCR method. Conclusion:EV71 colloidal gold method can be used as an early screening of EV71 infection,and it has important significance in early identification and treatment of severe hand-foot-mouth disease.%目的:回顾性分析评价应用胶体法检测EV71-IgM抗体与RT-PCR法检测EV71病毒在手足口病重症病例早期识别中的作用。方法:收治手足口病疑似病例1252例,分别采用血清胶体金法检测 EV71肠道病毒 IgM 抗体, RT-PCR法检测患者大便中肠道病毒及肠道病毒71-RNA。结果:胶体金法检测EV71阳性率28.67%;RT-PCR法检测肠道病毒阳性率81.15%,EV71阳性率44.89%。其中金标法检测阳性5例,RT-PCR法检测阴性。结论:EV71胶体金法可作为EV71感染的初筛早期快检,在临床手足口病重症病例早期识别及治疗中具有重要意义。

  8. 新型肠道病毒71型(EV71)疫苗质量控制和评价标准的研究%Quality Control and Evaluation of New Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Vaccines

    毛群颖; 姚昕; 梁争论

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究建立新型肠道病毒71型(EV71)疫苗质量控制标准和评价体系,为EV71疫苗研发提供基础.方法 根据创新型疫苗研发的要求,充分发挥技术优势,开展EV71疫苗质控标准、标准品和评价方法研究.结果与结论 建立EV71灭活疫苗的中和抗体和抗原定量测定标准品,统一不同企业疫苗的质控标准,规范疫苗的评价体系,为EV71疫苗的研发提供保障.

  9. Standards for EV charging and their usability for providing V2G services in the primary reserve market

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Vandael, Stijn; Andersen, Peter Bach;

    2016-01-01

    Transition to sustainable energy and transport is inevitable, which brings new challenges for the existing power grid. Meanwhile, electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming more widespread and their potential for grid support services is becoming more evident. However, such intelligent integration of EVs...

  10. Enterovirus71 (EV71) utilise host microRNAs to mediate host immune system enhancing survival during infection.

    Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

    2014-01-01

    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection.

  11. EV71-IgM胶体金法在手足口病早期诊断的价值

    甘超

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价胶体法检测EV71 IgM抗体与RT-PCR法检测EV71病毒核酸在手足口病诊断的优劣.方法:标本选取248例手足口疑似病例,分别采用血清金标法检测EV71肠道病毒IgM抗体,咽拭RT-PCR法检测EV71-RNA.结果:2012年3月~2012年4月对248例疑似病例进行胶体金法检测,EV71阳性率为16.94%(42/248),RT-PCR法检测阳性率为19.35%(48/248).其中2例金标法检测阳性采用RT-PCR法检测为阴性.EV71胶体金法快速检测试剂的特异度为96.15%,灵敏度为83.33%.结论:EV71胶体金法可作为EV71感染的初筛早期快检,在临床诊治和流感爆发疫情处理上具有重要意义.

  12. Elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

    Wang, Robert Y L; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and, mouth disease, accounting for more than 65% of recent outbreaks. Following enteroviral infection, the host responses are crucial indicators for the development of a diagnosis regarding the clinical severity of EV71 infections. In this study, we implemented NanoString nCounter technology to characterize the responses of serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles to various EV71 infection diseases. Upon EV71 infection, 44 miRNAs were observed in patients with EV71 infections, with at least a 2-fold elevation and 133 miRNAs with a 2-fold reduction compared with the same miRNAs in healthy controls. Further detailed work with miR876-5p, a 9.5-fold change of upregulated miR-876-5p expression was observed in cases with severe EV71 symptoms, revealed that in vitro and in vivo knockdown of miR876-5p reduced viral RNA in cultured cells, and attenuated the severity of symptoms in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, we demonstrated that the elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

  13. Defined breast milk EV subsets boost the immune response and skew the T-cell balance towards a regulatory phenotype

    Zonneveld, Marijke; Van Herwijnen, Martijn; Brouwers, Jos; Garssen, Johan; Redegeld, Frank; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther; Wauben, Marca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the past years it has become clear that cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) are present in human breast milk and that these EV can play a role in the instruction of the immune system. Since breast milk impacts the development of the neonatal immune system by conveying environme

  14. Cosmic Rays from the Knee to the Second Knee: 10 [sup] 14 to 10 [sup] 18 eV

    Hörandel, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The energies of cosmic rays, fully ionized charged nuclei, extend over a wide range up to 1020 eV. A particularly interesting energy region spans from 1014 to 1018 eV, where the all-particle energy spectrum exhibits two interesting structures, the "knee" and the "second knee". An explanation of thes

  15. A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71

    Wang, Xiangxi; Peng, Wei; Ren, Jingshan; Hu, Zhongyu; Xu, Jiwei; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xumei; Yin, Weidong; Shen, Xinliang; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Rowlands, David J.; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Rao, Zihe

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, can cause severe central nervous system disease and mortality. At present no vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. We have determined high-resolution structures for the mature virus and natural empty particles. The structure of the mature virus is similar to that of other enteroviruses, whilst the empty particles are dramatically expanded, with notable fissures, resembling elusive enterovirus uncoating intermediates not previously characterized in atomic detail. Hydrophobic capsid pockets within the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding triggered virus uncoating. The results provide a paradigm for enterovirus uncoating, in which the VP1 GH loop acts as an adaptor-sensor for the attachment of cellular receptors, converting heterologous inputs to a generic uncoating mechanism, spotlighting novel points for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22388738

  16. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 1018eV

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Mičanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, Xmax⁡, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 1018eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106-21+35)g/cm2/decade below 1018.24±0.05eV, and (24±3)g/cm2/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26g/cm2. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  17. EVS19看燃料电池轿车的发展

    薛峰; 陈礼璠

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 EVS19概述 在21世纪世界关注洁净的环境时,世界电动汽车联合会WEVA(The World Electric Vehicle Association)、亚太电动汽车联合会EVAAP(The Electric Vehicle Association 0f Asia-Pacific)和韩国汽车工程师协会KSAE(The K0rean Society of Automotive Engineers)联合组织了2002年10月19~23日在韩国釜山召开的第十九届国际电池、混合动力和燃料电池电动汽车研讨与展览会(EVS).

  18. A Fusion of Sensors Information for Autonomous Driving Control of an Electric Vehicle (EV)

    Haris, Hasri; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.

    2013-12-01

    The study uses the environment of the road as input variables for the main system to control steering wheel, brake and acceleration pedals. A camera is installed on the roof of the Electric Vehicles (EV) and is used to obtain image information of the road. On the other hand, users or drivers do not have to directly contact with the main system because it will autonomously control the devices by using fuzzy information of the road conditions. A fuzzy information means in the preliminary experiments, reasoning of the various environments will be done by using fuzzy approach. At the end of the study, several existing algorithms for controlling motors and image processing technique could be combined into an algorithm that could be used to move EV without assist from human.

  19. On search for eV hidden sector photons in Super-Kamiokande and CAST experiments

    Gninenko, S.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Redondo, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    If light hidden sector photons ({gamma}'s) exist, they could be produced through kinetic mixing with solar photons in the eV energy range. We propose to search for this hypothetical {gamma}'-flux with the Super-Kamiokande and/or upgraded CAST detectors. The proposed experiments are sensitive to the {gamma}-{gamma}' mixing strength as small as 10{sup -5}>or similar {chi}>or similar 10{sup -9} for the {gamma}'' mass region 10{sup -4} eV and, in the case of non-observation, would improve limits recently obtained from photon regeneration laser experiments for this mass region. (orig.)

  20. High-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy of Ni at 1s : 6-eV satellite at 4 eV

    Karis, O.; Svensson, S.; Rusz, J.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Gorgoi, M.; Schäfers, F.; Braun, W.; Eberhardt, W.; Mårtensson, N.

    2008-12-01

    Electron correlations are responsible for many profound phenomena in solid-state physics. A classical example is the 6-eV satellite in the photoelectron spectrum of Ni. Until now the satellite structure has only been investigated at the L shell and more shallow levels. Here we report a high-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy (HIKE) investigation of Ni metal. We present 1s and 2p photoelectron spectra, obtained using excitation energies up to 12.6 keV. Our investigation demonstrates that the energy position of the satellite relative to the main line is different for the 1s and the 2p levels. In combination with electronic structure calculations, we show that this energy shift is attributed to unique differences in the core-valence coupling for the K and L2,3 shells in 3d transition metals, resulting in different screening of the core holes.

  1. Study of (e, 2e) process on potassium at 6 eV-60 eV above threshold in a second-order Born approximation

    Wang Yang; Zhou Ya-Jun; Jiao Li-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The standard distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method has been extended to second-order Born amplitude in order to describe the multiple interactions between the projectile and the atomic target.Second-order DWBA calculations have been preformed to investigate the triple differential cross sections (TDCS) of coplanar doubly symmetric (e,2e) collisions for the alkali target potassium at excess energies of 6 eV-60 eV.Compared with the previous first-order DWBA calculations,the present theoretical model improves the degree of agreement with experiments,especially for the backward scattering angle region of TDCS.This indicates that the present second-order Born term is capable of giving a reasonable correction to the DWBA model in studying coplanar symmetric (e,2e) problems in low and intermediate energy ranges.

  2. Tallinki esimene börsipäev pettis väikeinvestorite ootusi / Hindrek Riikoja

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Tallinki aktsia esimene börsipäev valmistas paljudele väikeinvestoritele pettumust, kuna aktsia hind tõusis päevaga vaid 58 senti ehk 0,7 protsenti. Lisa: Kas teate? Küsimusele, mida teete Tallinki aktsiatega, vastavad: ettevõtja Indrek Toome, Riigikogu liige Margus Hanson, teleprodutsent Raivo Suviste ja AS-i Biodiesel nõukogu esimees Heino Harak

  3. EV Charging Facilities and Their Application in LV Feeders with Photovoltaics

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten

    2013-01-01

    for the different locations in the feeder. With time-series simulations, we quantify the energy size required for a station ESS. A Belgian LV residential grid, modeled using real PV generation and load profiles, is used as case study. The method and simulation results show the effectiveness of using public EV...... charging facilities with the additional function of voltage regulation in feeders with PV....

  4. EV and HP Scheduling with Network Constraints in the Nordic Region

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    Large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) holds great potential not only to limit the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and fossil fuel consumption in the transportation and heating sectors but also to cope with the intermittency due to the further utilization of renewabl...... energy sources (RES) in the Nordic region including Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. It is therefore an important pathway to the goal of achieving a carbon neutral electric power system in the Nordic region by 2050....

  5. Teadus- ja erialaraamatukogudel oma päev ja aasta teo auhind / Kristina Rallmann

    Rallmann, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Esimene teadus- ja erialaraamatukogude päev toimus 22. oktoobril 2008 Tallinna majanduskoolis, teadusraamatukogu aasta teo auhind läks RR-i virtuaaalnäitusele "Meie parlament ja aeg: fakte, sündmusi, dokumente, inimesi" ning erialaraamatukogu aasta teo auhind Eesti Pimedate Raamatukogu töörühmale heliteavikute CD-plaatidele automatiseeritud paljundamise ja posti teel laenutamise süsteemi eest

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1981-01-15

    Charge efficiencies were determined for ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state-of-charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  7. Distribution of EV71 receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues.

    Jiao, Xiao-Yang; Guo, Li; Huang, Dong-Yang; Chang, Xiao-Lan; Qiu, Qian-Cheng

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues. The samples were chosen from archived specimens, and the profiles of two receptors were detected in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain in situ by immunohistochemistry. SCARB2 was detected in all the tissues studied, and strong staining was observed in the gastric fundus gland, mucosal and glandular epithelia of the intestine. Similar expression was found in bronchial epithelia and pneumocytes. In addition, SCARB2 was observed in the esophagus/gastric mucosal epithelia, neuron, glial cells, and blood vessels and the perivascular tissues of the brain. By comparison, PSGL-1 was expressed weakly in the mucosal and glandular epithelia of the small intestine and colon. PSGL-1 was expressed in a few bronchial epithelia, and weak staining was observed in the pneumocytes. However, PSGL-1 was found easily in the lamina propria of all the tissues studied, and strong staining of PSGL-1 was also observed in the neurons and glial cells. The distribution of the SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain tissues correlated with the distribution of pathological changes seen in EV71 infection. The widespread prevalence of these receptors may help explain the multiple organ involvement in infection with EV71.

  8. Molecular mechanism of SCARB2-mediated attachment and uncoating of EV71.

    Dang, Minghao; Wang, Xiangxi; Wang, Quan; Wang, Yaxin; Lin, Jianping; Sun, Yuna; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Liguo; Lou, Zhiyong; Wang, Junzhi; Rao, Zihe

    2014-09-01

    Unlike the well-established picture for the entry of enveloped viruses, the mechanism of cellular entry of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses remains largely mysterious. Picornaviruses are representative models for such viruses, and initiate this entry process by their functional receptors. Here we present the structural and functional studies of SCARB2, a functional receptor of the important human enterovirus 71 (EV71). SCARB2 is responsible for attachment as well as uncoating of EV71. Differences in the structures of SCARB2 under neutral and acidic conditions reveal that SCARB2 undergoes a pivotal pH-dependent conformational change which opens a lipid-transfer tunnel to mediate the expulsion of a hydrophobic pocket factor from the virion, a pre-requisite for uncoating. We have also identified the key residues essential for attachment to SCARB2, identifying the canyon region of EV71 as mediating the receptor interaction. Together these results provide a clear understanding of cellular attachment and initiation of uncoating for enteroviruses.

  9. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  10. Study of the integrated immune response induced by an inactivated EV71 vaccine.

    Longding Liu

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD, causes outbreaks among children in the Asia-Pacific region. A vaccine is urgently needed. Based on successful pre-clinical work, phase I and II clinical trials of an inactivated EV71 vaccine, which included the participants of 288 and 660 respectively, have been conducted. In the present study, the immune response and the correlated modulation of gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 30 infants (6 to 11 months immunized with this vaccine or placebo and consented to join this study in the phase II clinical trial were analyzed. The results showed significantly greater neutralizing antibody and specific T cell responses in vaccine group after two inoculations on days 0 and 28. Additionally, more than 600 functional genes that were up- or down-regulated in PBMCs were identified by the microarray assay, and these genes included 68 genes associated with the immune response in vaccine group. These results emphasize the gene expression profile of the immune system in response to an inactivated EV71 vaccine in humans and confirmed that such an immune response was generated as the result of the positive mobilization of the immune system. Furthermore, the immune response was not accompanied by the development of a remarkable inflammatory response. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01391494 and NCT01512706.

  11. Advances in Enterovirus 71 Receptors%EV71的受体研究进展

    徐广振; 李明; 李晋涛

    2011-01-01

    @@ 手足口病(Hand-foot-mouth disease,HFMD)是一种临床表现为手、足、口腔等部位的疱疹及中枢神经系统并发症的婴幼儿疾病,其病原体以柯萨奇病毒A16型(Coxsackievirus A16,CoxA16)和人肠道病毒71型(Human enterovirus 71,EV71)最为常见[1].2008年中国卫生部将HFMD列人丙类传染病目录.近年来,引起手足口病的主要病原体为小RNA病毒科肠道病毒71型[2].自1969年EV71在美国加利福尼亚州手足口病疫情中首次报道后,该病毒已在世界范围内引起十余次手足口病暴发和流行,且死亡病例趋于增多[3].仅1998年中国台湾EV71大暴发中就出现129 000例病例,其中重症病例多达400个,死亡78例[4].

  12. Magnetic Alignment Detection Using Existing Charging Facility in Wireless EV Chargers

    Yabiao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging is a promising outlet to promote the electric vehicle (EV industry due to its safe and noncontact manner. Wireless EV chargers require the secondary receiver coil to be well aligned with the primary station for efficient charging, which could require more of the driver’s time and attention when parking a vehicle. Therefore, this paper presents a magnetic alignment system to assist the EV driver during parking. The magnetic alignment approach uses the existing coil and frequency tracking control electronics of wireless chargers to detect the distance between the two coils while using 4 small auxiliary coils for direction and fine adjustment, leading to a cost effective detection method for coil alignment in electric vehicle wireless charging (EVWC. The testing results of a prototype show acceptable measurement correctness and the mean error for ten trials in range detection is within 0.25 cm at three different misalignment conditions (10.5, 15, and 20 cm. The positioning accuracy of coil alignment is within 1.2 cm for three different start positions with the auxiliary coils.

  13. High efficiency carbon-based multilayers for LAMP at 250 eV

    Wen, Mingwu; Huang, Qiushi; She, Rui; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Feng, Hua; Spiga, Daniele; Giglia, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    X-ray reflection near the Brewster's angle by multilayer mirrors can be used to detect the polarization from X-ray sources. The photon emission spectra from some isolated neutron stars and AGN/blazars etc. show that their emission is peaked at low energies near 250eV, which is just below carbon K-absorption edge. The Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe (LAMP) is proposed as a micro-satellite mission dedicated for astronomical X-ray polarimetry working at 250 eV and is currently under early phase study. Co/C multilayers are selected and designed at the energy near 250eV with a grazing incident angle of 45°. The carbon layer thickness ratio is optimized to get the highest integral reflectivity which means larger effective signals in the astrophysics observation. The multilayer coatings were manufactured by direct current magnetron sputtering on D263 glasses and electroformed nickels and characterized using Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8keV. Reactive sputtering with 4%, 6% and 8% nitrogen were used to improve the Co/C multilayer interfaces respectively. Reflectivity for s-polarization and p-polarization light was measured at BEAR beamline in Elettra synchtron facility. Co/C multilayer deposited with 6% nitrogen exhibits the best performance comparing to other multilayers with different nitrogen content.

  14. A dominant EV71-specific CD4+ T cell epitope is highly conserved among human enteroviruses.

    Ruicheng Wei

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD, has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

  15. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an EV71 virus-like particle vaccine against lethal challenge in newborn mice.

    Sun, Shiyang; Gao, Fan; Mao, Qunying; Shao, Jie; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Dawei; Wang, Yiping; Yao, Xin; Wu, Xing; Sun, Bo; Zhao, Dandan; Ma, Youlei; Lu, Jingcai; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) has caused severe epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific in recent years, particularly in infants and pre-school children. It has become a serious public health threat, as currently there are no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs for EV71 infection. Many EV71 vaccines have been under development worldwide, however the main focus is inactivated EV71 vaccines. For example, the inactivated EV71 vaccine has recently finished phase III clinical trial in Mainland China. There have been very few studies on EV71 virus like particles (VLPs). In this study, the immunogenicity and protective potency of the EV71 VLPs produced in insect cells were evaluated in mice with different dosages. Our results showed that EV71 VLPs could elicit high titers of neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) in a dose-dependent manner and NTAbs were sustained after the second injection with an average GMT (geometric mean titer) level from 19 to 2960 in immunized mice. Survival rates were 100%, 100%, 85%, and 40% after challenge with 15 LD50 (median lethal dose) of EV71 in these newborn mice, respectively. ED50 (50% effective dose) of VLPs was 0.20 μg/dose in newborn mice, while NTAb titer under this dosage was about 50. Passive protection was determined with 2 methods and demonstrated that the survival rates were positively correlated with NTAb titers, which at 24 and 54 induced 50% survival rates in experimental animals. The ED50 of VLP vaccines and the passive NTAb titers were also analyzed. The maternal NTAb titer was similar as the passive NTAb titer in the mouse model challenged with our lethal mouse EV71 strain. Hence, our work has provided preliminary data on the protection potency of VLPs as a vaccine candidate and would facilitate future VLP vaccine development.

  16. Expression and characterization of a novel scorpine-like peptide Ev37, from the scorpion Euscorpiops validus.

    Feng, Jing; Yu, Congya; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Yingliang; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; He, Xiaohua; Han, Song

    2013-03-01

    Scorpion venom contains a group of two-domain peptides that function to block potassium channels or have cytolytic activities. These peptides, whose functions are poorly studied, are named β-KTx or scorpine-like peptides. Ev37, the first identified gene in the Euscorpiidae family, which encoded a novel scorpine-like peptide, was cloned from the venom cDNA library of scorpion Euscorpiops validus. Sequence analysis showed that the mature Ev37 peptide contained 78 amino acid residues, which formed two structural domains: a putative α-helical N-terminus and a C-terminus with the cysteine-stabilized α/β motif. The peptide rEv37 and two truncated peptides representing the individual structural domains (Ev37-N and Ev37-C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified for functional study. Unlike classic scorpine-like peptides, rEv37 and truncated peptides showed no cytolytic activity against bacteria or eukaryotic cells. Interestingly, rEv37 selectively inhibited Kv1.3 channel without effectively blocking Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 channels. Neither Ev37-N nor Ev37-C blocked Kv1.3 channel, suggesting that both the N-terminal and C-terminal domain of Ev37 are likely involved in the interaction with Kv1.3 channel. These results not only enrich our knowledge of scorpion toxins from scorpine-like subfamily but also provide a novel template with unique structure for designing new types of selective Kv1.3 blockers.

  17. EV71感染致重症手足口病的研究进展%Progress of severe hand-foot-mouth disease infected by EV71 virus

    杨坤; 赵东赤

    2010-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是人类肠道病毒的一种,近30年来,EV71感染在亚太地区广泛流行,是手足口病(HFMD)重症病例的主要病原体.EV71感染引起的重症HFMD病情进展迅速,可表现为中枢神经系统和呼吸系统受累,其发病机制目前尚不十分清楚.研究认为病毒首先通过神经通路侵犯中枢神经系统,导致中枢神经系统的并发症,严重的病例进一步发展为肺水肿、肺出血.研究重症EV71感染的临床特征和发病机制从而采取积极有效的措施阻断其并发症的发生具有重要意义.%Enterovirus 71(EV71),a member of human enterovirus family,was first isolated from faeces of a central nervous system infected infant in 1969.In recent 30 years,EV71 outbreaks every 2-3 years in the Asia-Pacific regions,and is the main pathogen causing severe hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD).Severe HFMD caused by EV71 involves in central nervous system and respiratory system disorder.In general,EV71 associated complication is related to the viral invasion of central nervous system,leads to pulmonary edema or pulmonary hemorrhage.It is of great significance to study the clinical features and pathogenesis of EV71 infection,and then take positive and effective measures to block the occurrence of its complications.

  18. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film

    Anees A. Ansari; M. A. M. Khan; M. Naziruddin Khan; Salman A. Alrokayan; M. Alhoshan; M. S. Alsalhi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI)/cerium oxide (CeO2) hybrid nano-composite film onto indium-fin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. UV-visible spectroscopy and I-V characteristic were performed to study the optical and electrical parameters of the electrochemically deposited film. The film exhibited a strong absorption below 400 nm (3.10 eV) with a well defined absorbance peak at around 285 nm (4.35 eV). The estimated band gap of the CeO2 sample was 3.44 eV, higher than bulk CeO2 powder (Eg = 3.19 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. Optical and electrochemical characteristics indicated that the electrical properties of PANI/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film are dominated by PANI doping.

  19. Mechanism and Solution of Call Drop in cdma20001x EV-DO Systems%cdma20001x EV-DO的掉话原理分析及解决思路

    丁炜; 管文明

    2010-01-01

    本文结合cdma2000 1x EV-DO的技术特点阐述了EV-DO系统中造成掉话的几种情况,重点涉及EV-DO前向和反向掉话机制以及优化方法,和传统的cdma2000 1x掉话做了对比,另外还介绍了影响掉话指标的几个关键定时器.

  20. Research and Measurement of cdma2000 1x EV-DO RevA Network Throughput%cdma2000 1X EV-DO网络吞吐量的研究和试验

    王月珍; 尹珂

    2009-01-01

    本文重点对cdma2000 1x EV-DO RevA 网络的吞吐量进行了分析,并给出了EV-DO RevA试验网吞吐量的测试结果,实测结果展现了影响EV-DO RevA网络吞吐量的主要因素以及用户的业务速率体验情况.

  1. Optical Properties of InGaAsN: A New 1eV Bandgap Material System

    Allerman, A.A.; Fritz, I.J.; Jones, E.D.; Kurtz, S.R.; Modine, N.A.; Tozer, S.T.; Wei, X.; Wright, A.F.

    1999-01-25

    InGaAsN is a new semiconductor alloy system with the remarkable property that the inclusion of only 2% nitrogen reduces the bandgap by more than 30%. In order to help understand the physical origin of this extreme deviation from the typically observed nearly linear dependence of alloy properties on concentration, we have investigated the pressure dependence of the excited state energies using both experimental and theoretical methods. We report measurements of the low temperature photohnninescence energy of the material for pressures between ambient and 110 kbar. We describe a simple, density-functional-theory-based approach to calculating the pressure dependence of low lying excitation energies for low concentration alloys. The theoretically predicted pressure dependence of the bandgap is in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Based on the results of our calculations, we suggest an explanation for the strongly non-linear pressure dependence of the bandgap that, surprisingly, does not involve a nitrogen impurity band. Addhionally, conduction-band mass measurements, measured by three different techniques, will be described and finally, the magnetoluminescence determined pressure coefficient for the conduction-band mass is measured.

  2. EV71感染的手足口病患儿体液免疫临床分析%Clinical analysis on humoral immunity in children with hand-foot-mouth disease by EV71 infection

    周海兰; 李华东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the function of humoralimmunity in children with hand-foot-mouth disease ( HFMD )caused by EV71 infection. Methods Levels of IgG, IgA, IgM and C3, C4 were detected, respectively, in 30 children with HFMD of EV71 positive, 30 children with EV71 negative and 20 normal cases of healthy children. T test was used to analyze the differences of IgG, IgA, IgM and C3,C4 with levels among the EV71 positive group, EV71 negative group and control group by SPSS 18.0. Results There were no significant differences on serum levels of IgM,IgG, IgA, C3 and C4 between HFMD children with EV71 positive and EV71 negative. Serum levels of IgG, IgA, C3 and C4 were significantly reduced compared with those of normal controls ( P < 0.05 ), but serum level of IgM was significantly increased ( P < 0. 001 ). Conclusions The humoralimmunity function of children disordered after EV71 infection. But the influence to humoral immune function has no significant specificity.%目的 探讨并分析EV71感染手足病患儿体液免疫状况.方法 分别测定30例EV71阳性和30例EV71阴性的手足口病患儿与同期20例健康儿童的血清IgG、IgA、IgM及补体C3、C4水平,采用SPSS 18.0软件用t检验统计分析EV71阳性组的IgG、IgA、IgM及补体C3、C4水平与EV71阴性组和对照组各项指标水平的差异.结果 EV71阳性组和阴性组手足口病患儿各指标水平无显著差异;与对照组相比,EV71阳性组患儿血清IgG、IgA、C3、C4水平降低(P< 0.05);IgM明显升高(P< 0.001).结论 EV71感染的手足口病患儿存在体液免疫功能紊乱,但EV71感染对体液免疫功能影响无显著特异性.

  3. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngo-laryngeal mucosa in children.

    Xue, Jingchang; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Xiaoyi; Yu, Jie; Yan, Hu; Yan, Huimin

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal IgG antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 IgG were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral IgG mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  4. Recombinant VP1 protein expressed in Pichia pastoris induces protective immune responses against EV71 in mice.

    Wang, Man; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Yefu

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease and is also associated with serious neurological diseases in children. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against EV71 infection. VP1, one of the major immunogenic capsid proteins of EV71, is widely considered to be the candidate antigen for an EV71 vaccine. In this study, VP1 of EV71 was expressed as a secretory protein with an N-terminal histidine tag in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy of the recombinant VP1 were assessed in mouse models. The results showed that the recombinant VP1 could efficiently induce anti-VP1 antibodies in BALB/c mice, which were able to neutralize EV71 viruses in an in vitro neutralization assay. Passive protection of neonatal mice further confirmed the prophylactic efficacy of the antisera from VP1 vaccinated mice. Furthermore, VP1 vaccination induced strong lymphoproliferative and Th1 cytokine responses. Taken together, our study demonstrated that the yeast-expressed VP1 protein retained good immunogenicity and was a potent EV71 vaccine candidate.

  5. Progress in research of enterovirus 71 vaccines%EV71疫苗研制新进展

    赵蕾; 陈敬贤; 王明丽

    2013-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起手足口病和神经系统并发症的重要病原体.近几年,世界多个地区发生了由EV72感染引起的手足口病.由于目前尚无有效的抗病毒药物对患者进行治疗,因而疫苗的研制成为预防和控制EV71传播的关键.此文主要就近年EV71疫苗的研制进展做一综述.%Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is known to be a causative agent of hand,foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and severe neurological complications.Many outbreaks caused by EV71 have occurred in different regions of the world.Due to lacking an effective antiviral agent,development of effective vaccines has become the top priority in terms of control strategies.This article reviews the recent advancement in the design of various kinds of vaccines against EV71.

  6. InterEvDock: a docking server to predict the structure of protein-protein interactions using evolutionary information.

    Yu, Jinchao; Vavrusa, Marek; Andreani, Jessica; Rey, Julien; Tufféry, Pierre; Guerois, Raphaël

    2016-07-01

    The structural modeling of protein-protein interactions is key in understanding how cell machineries cross-talk with each other. Molecular docking simulations provide efficient means to explore how two unbound protein structures interact. InterEvDock is a server for protein docking based on a free rigid-body docking strategy. A systematic rigid-body docking search is performed using the FRODOCK program and the resulting models are re-scored with InterEvScore and SOAP-PP statistical potentials. The InterEvScore potential was specifically designed to integrate co-evolutionary information in the docking process. InterEvDock server is thus particularly well suited in case homologous sequences are available for both binding partners. The server returns 10 structures of the most likely consensus models together with 10 predicted residues most likely involved in the interface. In 91% of all complexes tested in the benchmark, at least one residue out of the 10 predicted is involved in the interface, providing useful guidelines for mutagenesis. InterEvDock is able to identify a correct model among the top10 models for 49% of the rigid-body cases with evolutionary information, making it a unique and efficient tool to explore structural interactomes under an evolutionary perspective. The InterEvDock web interface is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/services/InterEvDock/.

  7. Measurement of parity-nonconserving rotation of neutron spin in the 0.734-eV p-wave resonance of $^{139}La$

    Haseyama, T; Bowman, J D; Delheij, P P J; Funahashi, H; Ishimoto, S; Jones, G; Masaike, A; Masuda, Y; Matsuda, Y; Morimoto, K; Muto, S; Penttil\\"a, S I; Pomeroy, V R; Sakai, K; Sharapov, E I; Smith, D A; Yuan, V W

    2002-01-01

    The parity nonconserving spin rotation of neutrons in the 0.734-eV p-wave resonance of $^{139}La$ was measured with the neutron transmission method. Two optically polarized $^3He$ cells were used before and behind a a 5-cm long $^{139}La$ target as a polarizer and an analyzer of neutron spin. The rotation angle was carefully measured by flipping the direction of $^3He$ polarization in the polarizer in sequence. The peak-to-peak value of the spin rotation was found to be $ (7.4 \\pm 1.1) \\times 10^{-3} $ rad/cm which was consistent with the previous experiments. But the result was statisticallly improved. The s-p mixing model gives the weak matrix element as $xW = (1.71 \\pm 0.25)$ meV. The value agrees well with the one deduced from the parity-nonconserving longitudinal asymmetry in the same resonance.

  8. Smart Grid Charging of Electric Vehicles: EV-Owner Response to Scheduling and Pricing under Myopic Loss Aversion in an Ultimatum Two-Player Game

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Sebald, Alexander Christopher;

    2015-01-01

    Upward expectations of future electric vehicle (EV) growth pose the question about the future load on the electricity grid. While the literature on demand side management of EV charging has focused on technical aspects and considered EV-owners as utility maximizers, this study looks at the neglec......Upward expectations of future electric vehicle (EV) growth pose the question about the future load on the electricity grid. While the literature on demand side management of EV charging has focused on technical aspects and considered EV-owners as utility maximizers, this study looks...

  9. 规划有竞争力的cdma20001xEV-DO Rev.A网络

    谢国珠

    2007-01-01

    随着移动通信的迅猛发展,为了适应高速分组数据、实时多媒体和广播多播等业务需求,CDMA20001xEV-DORev.A技术面临更大发展空间。相比1xEV-DORel.0,1xEV-DORev.A提供更高的峰值速率,更高的扇区吞吐量和更丰富的业务类型,并提供端到端的QoS保障。

  10. Air Shower Radio Emission with Energy E$_0$$\\geq$10$^{19}$ eV by Yakutsk Array Data

    Knurenko, S P

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents short technical description of Yakutsk Radio Array and some preliminary results obtained from measurements of radio emission at 32 MHz frequency induced by air shower particles with energy {\\epsilon}$\\geq$1$\\cdot$10$^{19}$ eV. The data obtained at Yakutsk array in 1987-1989 (first set of measurements) and 2009-2014 (new set of measurements). For the first time, at Yakutsk array radio emission from air shower with energy > 10$^{19}$ eV was registered including the shower with highest energy ever registered at Yakutsk array with energy $\\sim$2$\\cdot$10$^{20}$ eV.

  11. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10^19eV

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argiro, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, `F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Backer, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Ben Zvi, S; Bérat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohacova, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceicao, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; De Mello-Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; Garca, B; Garca Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, i H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gomez Berisso, M; Gonçalves, P; Goncalvesdo Amaral, M; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Gora, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutíerrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovsky, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kegl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leiguide Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; López-Aguera, A; Lozano-Bahilo, J; Lucero, A; Luna Garca, R; Maccarone, i M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Mancenido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martinez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafa, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodrguez-Fras, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, ii H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovanek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schussler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smialkowski, A; Smda, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Tascau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés-Galicia, J F; Valino, I; Valore, L; vanden Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5x10^18eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the flux, J ~ E^-gamma, at energies between 4x10^18eV and 4x10^19eV is 2.69+-0.02(stat)+-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+-0.4(stat)+-0.06(syst) at higher energies, consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min.

  12. CDMA2000 1X EV-DO(A版本)对VoIP的承载能力初探

    赵培; 古建

    2005-01-01

    随着CDMA2000 1 X EV-DO技术的发展以及因特网的普及,人们开始越来越多地关注1X EV-DO(A版本)网络对VoIP业务的承载能力.文章首先概述了VoIP业务的特征,然后从物理层和MAC层两方面介绍了1X EV-DO(A版本)网络有助于支持VoIP的一些关键特性.

  13. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV

  14. Electronic structure of antiferromagnetic UN and UPtGe single crystals from optical and magneto-optical spectroscopy; Elektronische Struktur von antiferromagnetischen UN- und UPtGe-Einkristallen aus optischer und magnetooptischer Spektroskopie

    Marutzky, M.

    2006-10-12

    In this thesis the study of the magneto-optical Kerr effect and the determination of the optical constants by means of ellipsometry and Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy of UN and UPtGe is described. In UPtGe an optical anisotropy was detected over a spectral range from 6 meV to 32 eV. (HSI)

  15. EV71病毒感染并发神经源性肺水肿研究进展%Progression on the study of EV71 complicating meurogenic pulmonary edema

    李文先; 叶冬青

    2008-01-01

    2008年春季,EV71病毒感染疫情在安徽省阜阳市暴发,由其引起的手足口病(hand—foot—mouth disease,HFMD)于5月2日被卫生部纳入法定报告传染病。截至5月5日,安徽省阜阳市共发生婴幼儿因肠道病毒EV71(enterovirus71,EV71)引起的HFMD4496例,其中22例死亡。EV71病毒感染已经成为我国重要的公共卫生问题。

  16. 肠道病毒EV71型对不同细胞的敏感性研究%Study on the sensitivity of intestinal virus EV71 in different cells

    李冰洁

    2015-01-01

    目的 确定肠道病毒EV71的敏感细胞.方法 采用三种不同细胞(HEP-2、VERO、RD)对EV71核酸检测阳性标本进行病毒分离,对比不同细胞的分离率来比较细胞的敏感性.结果 本研究中肠道病毒EV71型对VERO细胞的敏感性最高,其次是RD细胞,对HEP-2细胞不敏感.结论 分离肠道病毒EV71型首选的细胞是VERO细胞.

  17. 一种CDMA EV-DO revA网络性能优化方案的设计%A Kind of Paln Design about Network Property Mayorization Based on CDMA EV-DO Rev A

    李晓堂; 湛邵斌; 谢忠时

    2010-01-01

    CDMA EV-DO Rev.A作为CDMA EV-DO Rel.O技术之后的下一代版本极大地增强了对实时业务的支持.CDMA EV-DO Rev.A除了继续提高数据业务的带宽之外,引入了一系列关键技术,保证各种业务流获得其相应的业务质量保证.提供了一种针对CDMA EV-DO Rev.A QoS算法进行的优化设计方案,以保证更优的网络性能.

  18. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  19. Growth and morphology of 0.80 eV photoemitting indium nitride nanowires

    Johnson, M.C.; Lee, C.J.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.; Konsek, S.L.; Aloni, S.; Han, W.Q.; Zettl, A.

    2004-08-13

    InN nanowires with high efficiency photoluminescence emission at 0.80 eV are reported for the first time. InN nanowires were synthesized via a vapor solid growth mechanism from high purity indium metal and ammonia. The products consist of only hexagonal wurtzite phase InN. Scanning electron microscopy showed wires with diameters of 50-100nm and having fairly smooth morphologies. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed high quality, single crystal InN nanowires which grew in the <0001> direction. The group-III nitrides have become an extremely important technological material over the past decade. They are commonly used in optoelectronic devices, such as high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and low wavelength laser diodes (LDs), as well as high power/high frequency electronic devices. Recently InN thin films grown by MOCVD and MBE were found to have a bandgap energy in the range of 0.7-0.9 eV, much lower than the value of {approx}1.9 eV found for InN films grown by sputtering. This large decrease in the direct bandgap transition energy and the ability to form ternary (InGaN) and quaternary (AlInGaN) alloys increases the versatility of group-III nitride optoelectronic devices, ranging from the near IR to the UV. Additionally, InN has some promising transport and electronic properties. It has the smallest effective electron mass of all the group-III nitrides which leads to high mobility and high saturation velocity10 and a large drift velocity at room temperature. As a result of these unique properties, there has been a large increase in interest in InN for potential use in optoelectronic devices, such as LDs and high efficiency solar cells, as well as high frequency/high power electronic devices.

  20. EV71感染者儿茶酚胺水平的研究%Detection of catecholamine in cases with EV71 infection

    费晓; 方凯; 李兴旺; 曾慧慧; 孙月; 孟雪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the alteration of three types of catecholamine (CA) secretion of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DO) in different phases especially in hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) with enterovirus 7 (EV71) infection and at the stage of the disease developing from phase 2 to end-stage cardiopulmonary failure. Methods Total of 106 patients with HFMD treated in Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University during August to December 2011 were selected. The levels of CA in patients with EV71 positive were detected. HFMD rash cases (phase 1) were divided into group A, the nervous system involvement cases (phase 2) into group B, the prophase cases of cardiopulmonary failure (phase 3) into group C, heart and lung cardiopulmonary failure (phase 4) patients into group D. Group B includes group B1 (without glucocorticoids) and group B2 (used glucocorticoids). The control group were healthy children in the same period in the hospital. Results Compared to the maximum value of the control group, there were different degrees of increase for CA levels in group A, B1, B2 and C. The levels of dopamine (DO), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) of group C during onset period had significant differences compared with the control group (P = 0.000). There were significant differences between group C and group A, B1 , B2 in DO levels of plasma and in urine (P = 0.000) during onset period. The plasma CA levels between onset period and convalescence were compared in group C, and there were significant differences (P = 0.003, 0.002, 0.005). While only DO and NE were found significantly different in group A, group B1 and group B2 (P < 0.05). Conclusions Partial patients might have neurological involvement during phase 1. The levels of CA during phase 1 and 2 might provide the early-warning. The levels of CA significantly increased after phase 3 and 4, while DO increased firstly, and NE and E increased subsequently after phase 4. Glucocorticoids

  1. INDIGO OTROCI - VZGOJA GENERACIJE INDIGO S STALIŠČA STARŠEV

    Sovič, Maja

    2012-01-01

    V zadnjih desetletjih so se začele pojavljati nove generacije tako imenovanih »indigo otrok«, katerih fenomen je obkrožil svet. Kljub temu da je ta koncept zelo popularen, pa stroka tega fenomena še ni uspela znanstveno potrditi. Tako fenomen indigo otrok še vedno ostaja na poljudni ravni in empirično nedokazljiv. Namen moje diplomske naloge je bil osvetliti problematiko vzgoje otrok s stališča staršev, kateri tipi indigo otrok glede na mnenja strokovnjakov obstajajo in ali so indigo nadarjen...

  2. E&V (Evaluation and Validation) Manual. Version 1.0.

    1987-12-29

    THE MANUAL Chapter 2 discusses the structure of the E&V Reference System (Refer- ence Manual plus Guidebook) and the Classification Schema upon which...should also be specified. This is because if the scores for reliability are high, but the software is incorrect or difficult to verify, the true...7.1.6.9] Experiments, Monitored (3.4.4) t- xpert System, APSE Viewed as a Knowledge-Based (3.2.5) Export (see: Import/Export] Fault Tolerance [Anomaly

  3. Operator Inequalities of the Jensen, _eby_ev and Grüss Type

    Dragomir, Silvestru Sever

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this book is to present recent results concerning inequalities of the Jensen, AiebyA!ev and Gruss type for continuous functions of bounded selfadjoint operators on complex Hilbert spaces. In the introductory chapter, the author portrays fundamental facts concerning bounded selfadjoint operators on complex Hilbert spaces. The generalized Schwarz's inequality for positive selfadjoint operators as well as some results for the spectrum of this class of operators are presented. This text introduces the reader to the fundamental results for polynomials in a linear operator, continuou

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Immunogenicity and Protective Effects of Inactivated EV71 Vaccines in Mice

    Mao, Qunying; Dong, Chenghong; Li, Xiuling; Gao, Qiang; Guo, Zengbing; Yao, Xin; Wang, Yiping; Gao, Fan; Li, Fengxiang; Xu, Miao; Yin, Weidong; Li, Qihan; Shen, Xinliang; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines of different strains developed by different manufacturers in mainland China have recently entered clinical trials. Although several studies on these vaccines have been published, a study directly comparing the immunogenicity and protective effects among them has not been carried out, which makes evaluating their relative effectiveness difficult. Thus, properly comparing newly developed vaccines has become a priority, especially in China. Methods and Findings This comparative immunogenicity study was carried out on vaccine strains (both live and inactivated), final container products (FCPs) without adjuvant, and corresponding FCPs containing adjuvant (FCP-As) produced by three manufacturers. These vaccines were evaluated by neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses induced by the same or different dosages at one or multiple time points post-immunization. The protective efficacy of the three vaccines was also determined in one-day-old ICR mice born to immunized female mice. Survival rates were observed in these suckling mice after challenge with 20 LD50 of EV71/048M3C2. Three FCP-As, in a dose of 200 U, generated nearly 100% NAb positivity rates and similar geometric mean titers (GMTs), especially at 14–21 days post-inoculation. However, the dynamic NAb responses were different among three vaccine strains or three FCPs. The FCP-As at the lowest dose used in clinical trials (162 U) showed good protective effects in suckling mice against lethal challenge (90–100% survival), while the ED50 of NAb responses and protective effects varied among three FCP-As. Conclusions These studies establish a standard method for measuring the immunogenicity of EV71 vaccines in mice. The data generated from our mouse model study indicated a clear dose-response relationship, which is important for vaccine quality control and assessment

  5. Comparative analysis of the immunogenicity and protective effects of inactivated EV71 vaccines in mice.

    Qunying Mao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines of different strains developed by different manufacturers in mainland China have recently entered clinical trials. Although several studies on these vaccines have been published, a study directly comparing the immunogenicity and protective effects among them has not been carried out, which makes evaluating their relative effectiveness difficult. Thus, properly comparing newly developed vaccines has become a priority, especially in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This comparative immunogenicity study was carried out on vaccine strains (both live and inactivated, final container products (FCPs without adjuvant, and corresponding FCPs containing adjuvant (FCP-As produced by three manufacturers. These vaccines were evaluated by neutralizing antibody (NAb responses induced by the same or different dosages at one or multiple time points post-immunization. The protective efficacy of the three vaccines was also determined in one-day-old ICR mice born to immunized female mice. Survival rates were observed in these suckling mice after challenge with 20 LD(50 of EV71/048M3C2. Three FCP-As, in a dose of 200 U, generated nearly 100% NAb positivity rates and similar geometric mean titers (GMTs, especially at 14-21 days post-inoculation. However, the dynamic NAb responses were different among three vaccine strains or three FCPs. The FCP-As at the lowest dose used in clinical trials (162 U showed good protective effects in suckling mice against lethal challenge (90-100% survival, while the ED(50 of NAb responses and protective effects varied among three FCP-As. CONCLUSIONS: These studies establish a standard method for measuring the immunogenicity of EV71 vaccines in mice. The data generated from our mouse model study indicated a clear dose-response relationship, which is important for vaccine quality control and

  6. Pilot power based rate control in CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO Rev-A

    LIU Xiao-feng; GU Jian; YANG Hong-wen

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a new algorithm to improvethe rate control efficiency of enhanced reverse link mediumaccess control (RLMAC) in the code division multiple access(CDMA) lx EV-DO release A(Rev. A) system. The newalgorithm brings reverse access terminal (AT) pilot power tothe RLMAC rate control procedure and makes it easier for alow pilot power user to increase its data rate when the systemis slightly loaded and harder to decrease its date rate when thesystem is heavily loaded. Numerical results of system levelsimulations show that the new algorithm can bring highersystem throughput, lower AT transmission power, and lowersystem load.

  7. Optimising production using the state-contingent approach versus the EV approach

    Rasmussen, Svend

    to analyse this question. Based on an artificially generated set of stochastic production data, parameters of both stochastic production functions and of state-contingent production functions are estimated. Using these estimated production functions, input decisions are afterwards optimised using three......It is not clear whether the state-contingent approach to decision making under risk and uncertainty has the potential of providing better decisions than the well-known EV model based on an estimated stochastic production function and variance measures. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulation...

  8. Antigenic analysis of divergent genotypes human Enterovirus 71 viruses by a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies: current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity.

    Chen, Yixin; Li, Chuan; He, Delei; Cheng, Tong; Ge, Shengxiang; Shih, James Wai-Kuo; Zhao, Qinjian; Chen, Pei-Jer; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-01-01

    In recent year, Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become an important public health issue in China. EV71 has been classified into genotypes A, B1-B5 and C1-C5. With such genetic diversity, whether the convalescent or recovery antibody responses can cross-protect infections from other genotypes remains a question. Understanding of the antigenicity of such diverse genetic EV71 isolates is crucial for the EV71 vaccine development. Here, a total of 186 clones anti-EV71 MAbs was generated and characterized with Western blot and cell-based neutralization assay. Forty neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs were further used to analyze the antigenic properties of 18 recent EV71 isolates representing seven genotypes in neutralization assay. We found that most neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs are specific to conformational epitopes. We also classified the 40 neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs into two classes according to their reactivity patterns with 18 EV71 isolates. Class I MAb can neutralize all isolates, suggesting conserved epitopes are present among EV71. Class II MAb includes four subclasses (IIa-IId) and neutralizes only subgroups of EV71 strains. Conversely, 18 EV71 strains were grouped into antigenic types 1 and four antigenic subtypes (2.1-2.4). These results suggest that the current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity which may be important in the selection of EV71 vaccine strains. This panel of neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs may be useful for the recognition of emerging antigenic variants of EV71 and vaccine development.

  9. 2010年中国人免疫球蛋白中EV71中和抗体效价的比较研究%Study of anti- EV71 neutralizing titers of human immunoglobulins made in China in 2010

    毛群颖; 郭增兵; 李青; 梁争论; 李凤祥; 王军志

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti - EV71 titer in human immunoglobulins produced by different blood product manufacturers in China in 2010. To provide specific drugs for hand,foot and mouth disease( HFMD) caused by EV71. Methods: 97 Lots of human immunoglobulins for intravenous injection (IVIG) produced by different manufacturers were tested for neutralizing antibodies (NTAb) to EV71 by microneutralization test with 2 different EV71 viruses, which isolated from mainland china in the past two years. The difference of anti - EV71 titer in IVIG has been compared. Results:The geometric mean titers (GMTs) of EV71 NTAb in 97 Lots IVIG is 1: 180 (1= 170 -1:191). The titers of EV71 NTAb in 12 Lots IVIG produced by 7 different manufacturers have been more than 1 ':256,and the IVIG of Lot 20100406 produced by S manufacturer has the highest titer (1:543). The A manufacturer had made the most Lot of IVIG (5 batches) with anti -EV71 titer higher than 1:512,that made the average of anti -EV71 from A manufacturer to be obviously higher than other 10 manufacturers (P <0. 05). Further analysis revealed that S manufacturer had tested the anti - EV71 titers in plasma of raw materials and selected the plasma with high titer of EV71 to produce this Lot IVIG; and A manufacturer selected the areas with high anti - EV71 levels in populations as a plasma source to feed and make IVIGs. Conclusion: This study shows that through controlling the neutralizing antibodies levels to EV71 of raw materials efficiently by the manufacturer, it is scientific and feasible to produce IVIG with high anti -EV71 titer.%目的:了解2010年我国生产的静注人免疫球蛋白(IVIG)中抗- EV71中和抗体效价的情况,为治疗EV71引起的手足口病( HFMD)提供特异性治疗药物.方法:采用经典微量细胞病变法,应用近2年分离自中国大陆的2株肠道病毒71型(EV71)病毒株,对我国不同血液制品厂家生产的97批IVIG进行抗- EV71中和效价检测,比较不同批次IVIG的EV

  10. The role of toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of EV71 infection%Toll样受体在EV71感染发病机制中的作用

    马慧敏; 欧维琳

    2014-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(EV71)易致婴幼儿重症手足口病(HFMD),是近年来儿童发病率最高的传染病,严重的脑干脑炎和神经源性肺水肿是其致死的主要原因.目前EV71精确发病机制尚未阐明,在细胞水平研究发现清道夫受体B族2型(SCARB2)既是EV71病毒受体,也是Toll样受体(TLRs)内源性配体.TLRs作为重要的病原模式识别受体能够识别EV71,与宿主抵抗病毒感染、炎症反应等有直接关系,可能参与介导EV71感染所致混合性拮抗反应综合征(MARS).现就Toll样受体在EV71感染发病机制中的作用研究现状进行概述.

  11. EV71特免血浆筛选方法的建立及其应用%Establishment and application of method to screen anti-EV71 positive plasma

    郭书英; 汪模正; 丁勇; 孙思才

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the titers of EV71 neutralizing antibody in donators' plasma,and to establish a high throughput screening method to screening anti-EV71 positive plasma for the production of EV7l-specific IVIG in practice.Methods The EV71 neutralizing antibody titers in plasma samples and in commercial IVIGs (intravenous immunoglobulins) were evaluated by micro-cytopathic effect neutralization test (MCPENT),and a selecting criteria was determined for screening anti-EV71 positive plasma.Then,a high throughput neutralizing method for screening plasma was established and a comparison with MCPENT was conducted.EV71-specific IVIG was prepared from screened anti-EV71 source plasma,and its neutralizing activity was evaluated in cell model and mouse model.Results The results of MCPENT showed that the titers of EVT1 neutralizing antibody were 1 ∶ 50 or above in 20% of the source plasma,and reached 1 ∶ 180 after being pooled,approaching to the titer of commercial IVIG.In 480 samples,the coincidence rate between the established high throughput neutralizing method and MCPENT was 88.1%.The quality of prepared EV71-specific IVIG was complied with the national standard,and its neutralizing potency was 16 times of that of IVIG,suggesting EV71-specific IVIG had a significantly improved protecting effect on experimental neonatal mice.Conclusion The screening method and the screening criteria for EV71 specific plasma were successfully established.The established high throughput neutralizing method that was operated easily could be used for plasma screening in the development of EV71-specific IVIG.The prepared EV71-specific IVIG,whose neutralizing potency was significantly improved,showed a markedly protective effect on experimental neonatal mice,suggesting it might be very important for the prevention and treatment of handfoot-and-mouth disease.%目的 考察献血员血浆中抗EV71中和抗体的状况,同时建立适宜的高通量筛选EV71特免血浆的方法,为制备EV

  12. Trails, RS2477, 3200 ev, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as '3200 ev'....

  13. Total neutron cross-sections of /sup 151/Eu, /sup 153/Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) (/sup 151/Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) (/sup 153/Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula.

  14. EV-DO系统支持差异化服务的QoS应用研究

    何晓明

    2009-01-01

    EV-DO系统是专门针对移动多媒体应用进行优化的无线传输技术.本文概述了EV-DO Rev A系统的QoS机制及端到端QoD体系架构,分析了EV-DO系统为不同用户、不同业务提供差异化服务的QoS需求,探讨了EV-DO系统支持差异化服务的端到端QoS技术及应用,并指出了进一步改进分组调度算法和速率控制技术以优化无线资源管理,从而满足用户公平性、不同用户和业务的QoS要求.

  15. Recoil ion and electronic angular asymmetry parameters for photo double ionization of helium at 99 eV

    Braeuning, H. [Kansas State Univ., Physics Dept., Manhattan, KS (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States); Doerner, R.; Braeuning-Demian, A. [Universitaet Frankfurt, Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany)] [and others

    1997-10-14

    Recoil ion momentum spectroscopy has been used to map the entire five-dimensional momentum space of the photo double ionization of helium at 20 eV above threshold. Angular asymmetry parameters for the relative motion of the electrons and the recoil ion have been determined and are found to be close to similar data at 1 eV above threshold. In addition the asymmetry parameter of one photoelectron is found to be in good agreement with recent theory. (author).

  16. EV71疫苗研究进展%Progress of reaseach on vaccine of Enterovirus 71

    刘刚; 姚昕; 李凤祥

    2009-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(EV71),可引起手足口病(HFMD)和严重神经系统疾病.近年来,在世界多个国家和地区报道了EV71的爆发.由于目前缺乏有效的抗病毒药物,因此研制有效的疫苗是控制EV71流行最为有效的策略.近年来很多报道显示在EV71疫苗研究上取得了重要进展,本文以此为重点概括了EV71灭活疫苗、重组疫苗、DNA疫苗、多肽疫苗、减毒活疫苗等以及动物模型方面的研究进展.%Enterovirus 71(EV71)is known to be a causative agent of hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD)and severe neurological complications.Many Ev71 outbreaks have been reposed in different regions of the world.Due to the lack of an effective antiviralagent,primary prevention of the disease,including the development of effective vaccines,has been the top priority in terms of control strategies.Recently,many reports indicated lots of important progression is acquired.In this article,we renewed the progression of EV71 animal model and vaccines which inchded inactivation vaccine,recombinant vaccine,DNA vaccine,polypeptide vaccine and live attenuated vaccine.

  17. Neljapäev sobib töö tegemiseks kõige vähem / Tõnu Vare

    Vare, Tõnu, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Uuringufirma Robert Half Finance & Accounting läbiviidud 1800 haldus- ja personalitöötaja küsitlus 11 riigis näitas, et kõige sobivam päev töötegemiseks on esmaspäev, kõige kiiremini elavad pärast puhkust igapäevatöösse sisse itaallased ja kõige aeglasemalt luksemburglased

  18. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    Rose, Harald H

    2009-01-01

    This reference monograph covers all theoretical aspects of modern geometrical charged-particle optics. It is intended as a guide for researchers, who are involved in the design of electron optical instruments and beam-guiding systems for charged particles, and as a tutorial for graduate students seeking a comprehensive treatment. Procedures for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axes are outlined in detail and methods are discussed for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters, monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. Also addressed is the design of novel electron optical components enabling sub-Angstroem spatial resolution and sub-0.1eV energy resolution. Relativistic motion and spin precession of the electron is treated in a concise way by employing a covariant five-dimensional procedure.

  19. Latency requirements for head-worn display S/EVS applications

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steven P.

    2004-08-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Synthetic Vision Systems Project is conducting research in advanced flight deck concepts, such as Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems (S/EVS), for commercial and business aircraft. An emerging thrust in this activity is the development of spatially-integrated, large field-of-regard information display systems. Head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems are being proposed as one method in which to meet this objective. System delays or latencies inherent to spatially-integrated, head-worn displays critically influence the display utility, usability, and acceptability. Research results from three different, yet similar technical areas - flight control, flight simulation, and virtual reality - are collectively assembled in this paper to create a global perspective of delay or latency effects in head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems. Consistent definitions and measurement techniques are proposed herein for universal application and latency requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS applications are drafted. Future research areas are defined.

  20. Why is the Dark Axion Mass $10^{-22}$ eV?

    Chiueh, Tzihong

    2014-01-01

    Scalar field dark matter likely is able to solve all small-scale cosmology problems facing the cold dark matter (CDM), and has become an emerging contender to challenge the CDM. It however requires a particle mass $\\sim 1 - 2 \\times10^{-22}$eV. We find such an extremely small particle mass can naturally arise from a non-QCD axion mechanism, under fairly general assumptions that a few species of self-interacting light particles of comparable masses and a massless gauge boson decouple from the bright sector since the photon temperature exceeds 200 GeV, and the axion is the dominant dark matter. These assumptions also set the axion decay constant scale to several $\\times 10^{16}$ GeV. Given the above axion mass range, we further pin down the dark-sector particles to consist of only one species of fermion and anti-fermion, likely right-handed neutrinos. With a mass around $92-128$ eV, the dark-sector particles may constitute a minority population of dark matter. If the gauge boson lives on SU(2), a dilute instant...

  1. Torque blending and wheel slip control in EVs with in-wheel motors

    de Castro, Ricardo; Araújo, Rui E.; Tanelli, Mara; Savaresi, Sergio M.; Freitas, Diamantino

    2012-01-01

    Among the many opportunities offered by electric vehicles (EVs), the design of power trains based on in-wheel electric motors represents, from the vehicle dynamics point of view, a very attractive prospect, mainly due to the torque-vectoring capabilities. However, this distributed propulsion also poses some practical challenges, owing to the constraints arising from motor installation in a confined space, to the increased unsprung mass weight and to the integration of the electric motor with the friction brakes. This last issue is the main theme of this work, which, in particular, focuses on the design of the anti-lock braking system (ABS). The proposed structure for the ABS is composed of a tyre slip controller, a wheel torque allocator and a braking supervisor. To address the slip regulation problem, an adaptive controller is devised, offering robustness to uncertainties in the tyre-road friction and featuring a gain-scheduling mechanism based on the vehicle velocity. Further, an optimisation framework is employed in the torque allocator to determine the optimal split between electric and friction brake torque based on energy performance metrics, actuator constraints and different actuators bandwidth. Finally, based on the EV working condition, the priorities of this allocation scheme are adapted by the braking supervisor unit. Simulation results obtained with the CarSim vehicle model, demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  2. Coil Design for High Misalignment Tolerant Inductive Power Transfer System for EV Charging

    Kafeel Ahmed Kalwar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The inductive power transfer (IPT system for electric vehicle (EV charging has acquired more research interest in its different facets. However, the misalignment tolerance between the charging coil (installed in the ground and pick-up coil (mounted on the car chassis, has been a challenge and fundamental interest in the future market of EVs. This paper proposes a new coil design QDQ (Quad D Quadrature that maintains the high coupling coefficient and efficient power transfer during reasonable misalignment. The QDQ design makes the use of four adjacent circular coils and one square coil, for both charging and pick-up side, to capture the maximum flux at any position. The coil design has been modeled in JMAG software for calculation of inductive parameters using the finite element method (FEM, and its hardware has been tested experimentally at various misaligned positions. The QDQ coils are shown to be capable of achieving good coupling coefficient and high efficiency of the system until the misalignment displacement reaches 50% of the employed coil size.

  3. The Cosmic Ray Anisotropy between 1014 and 1015 eV

    Aglietta, M.; Alessandron, B.; Antonioli, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bergamasco, L.; Bertaina, M.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Castagnoli, G. C.; D'Ettore Piazzoli, B.; Di Sciascio, G.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Ghia, P. L.; Iacovacci, M.; Mannocchi, G.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Valchierotti, S.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; EAS-TOP Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The study of the anisotropy of the arrival directions is an essential and complementary to ol, with respect to the energy spectrum and composition, to investigate the origin and propagation of cosmic rays primaries. In particular, the study of the evolution of the CR anisotropy over primary energy can be very powerful for the interpretation of the knee in the CR primary spectrum. By means of the EAS-TOP data (four years) we have reported an anisotropy measurement at primary energy E0 ≈ 1014 eV [1], with amplitude Asid,δ=0° = (3.7 ± 0.6) · 10-4 and phase φ = (1.8 ± 0.5) hr LST, at a significance level 6.5 s.d. The use of the full EAS-TOP data set and the application of different criteria of data selection allow to extend this measurement to higher energies, up to around 1015 eV. We report here the results of the first harmonic analysis, both in solar and sidereal time, in five energy bins.

  4. An Improved Study of Electronic Band Structure and Optical Parameters of X-Phosphides (X--B, AL, Ga, In) by Modified Becke-Johnson Potential%An Improved Study of Electronic Band Structure and Optical Parameters of X-Phosphides (X--B, AL, Ga, In) by Modified Becke-Johnson Potential

    Masood Yousaf; M.A. Saeed; R. Ahmed; M.M. Alsardia; Ahmad Radzi Mat Isa; A. Shaari

    2012-01-01

    We report the electronic band structure and optical parameters of X-Phosphides (X=B, AI, Ga, In) by first-principles technique based on a new approximation known as modified Becke-Johnson (roB J). This potential is considered more accurate in elaborating excited states properties of insulators and semiconductors as compared to LDA and GGA. The present calculated band gaps values of BP, AlP, GaP, and InP are 1.867 eV, 2.268 eV, 2.090 eV, and 1.377 eV respectively, which are in close agreement to the experimental results. The band gap values trend in this study is as: E9 (mBJ-GGA/LDA) 〉 E9 (GGA) 〉 Eg (LDA). Optical parametric quantities (dielectric constant, refractive index, reflectivity and optical conductivity) which based on the band structure are aiso presented and discussed. BP, AlP, GaP, and InP have strong absorption in between the energy range 4-9 eV, 4-7 ev, 3-7 eV, and 2-7 eV respectively. Static dielectric constant, static refractive index and coefficient of reflectivity at zero frequency, within mBJ-GGA, are also calculated. BP, AIP, GaP, and InP show significant optical conductivity in the range 5.2-10 eV, 4.3-8 eV, 3.5- 7.2 eV, and 3.2-8 eV respectively. The present study endorses that the said compounds can be used in opto-electronic applications, for different energy ranges.

  5. A functional polymorphism in IFNAR1 gene is associated with susceptibility and severity of HFMD with EV71 infection.

    Zou, Rongrong; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shaoyuan; Wang, Wenfei; Yuan, Jing; Li, Jianming; Wang, Yanrong; Lin, Yimin; Deng, Yong; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George Fu; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major pathogens of Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), results in millions of infections and hundreds of deaths each year in Southeast Asia. Biased infection and variable clinical manifestations of EV71 HFMD indicated that host genetic background played an important role in the occurrence and development of the disease. We identified the mRNA profiles of EV71 HFMD patients, which type I interferon (IFN) pathway related genes were down-regulated. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) were chosen to analyze their relationships to EV71 infection. We found that genotype GG of promoter variant rs2843710 was associated with the susceptibility and severity to EV71 HFMD. In addition, we assessed the regulatory effects of rs2843710 to IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), and found that the expressions of IFNAR1, OAS1 and MX1 were significantly lower in patients with rs2843710 genotype GG. And rs2843710 allele G showed weaker transcriptional activity compared with allele C. Our study indicated that rs2843710 of IFNAR1 was associated with the susceptibility and severity of EV71 HFMD in Chinese Han populations, acting as a functional polymorphism by regulating ISGs expression, such as OAS1 and MX1.

  6. EV71病毒特异性单克隆抗体的筛选及鉴定

    李静; 蔡芳; 高强; 王宾

    2009-01-01

    目的:筛选高亲和力和高中和活性的抗EV71病毒的单克隆抗体(mAb), 并对其特异性和抗原表位进行鉴定.方法:采用葡萄球菌A蛋白亲和层析法纯化mAb, 并进行抗体的中和效价、交叉反应性以及表位进行分析.结果:筛选出1株抗EV71病毒的mAb, 纯度大于95%, 抗体滴度达到10-7, 对EV71病毒具有广谱中和特性, 与CA16无交叉反应, 为VP1特异性, 并识别EV71的构象型表位.结论:筛选出1株具有高亲和力和中和活性的EV71病毒的mAb, 为研制EV71病毒感染性疾病的诊断试剂提供了重要工具, 并为研制治疗性mAb提供了条件.

  7. [Construction of cDNA infectious clones of EV71 highly-pathogenic and cell-culture-adapted strains].

    Zhang, Yong-xin; Li, Xiao-yu; Huang, Yu-ming; Zhou, Yong-dong; Bi, Sheng-li; Cen, Shan

    2014-11-01

    The highly-pathogenic EV71 strain is the primary cause of mortality in hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with neurological symptoms, for which no clinically effective drugs or vaccines exist. This study aimed to construct infectious cDNA clones of the EV71 highly-pathogenic strain and the cell-culture adapted strain using a reverse genetics approach. The genomic RNAs of EV71 parent strains were used as the templates for RT-PCR amplification, and then the PCR products that overlapped the full-length genome were connected into the pBR322 vector to produce infectious clones of pEV71 (HP) and pEV71 (CCA), respectively. The results showed that the HP strain propagated much more quickly than the CCA strain. The rescued viruses derived from the infectious clones not only maintained their consistency with their parent strains in terms of genomic sequences, but also retained their respective biological phenotypes. This research will contribute to our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis and the development of novel vaccines against HFMD.

  8. Out-of-plane (e , 2 e) measurements on He autoionizing levels at 80, 150, and 488 eV

    Martin, N. L. S.; Kim, B. N.; Weaver, C. M.; Deharak, B. A.; Bartschat, K.

    2016-05-01

    We report out-of-scattering-plane (e , 2 e) measurements on helium 2 l 2l' autoionizing levels for 80, 150, and 488 eV incident electron energies, and scattering angles 60°, 39. 2°, and 20. 5°, respectively. The kinematics are the same in all cases: ejected electrons are detected in a plane that contains the momentum transfer direction and is perpendicular to the scattering plane, and the momentum transfer is 2.1 a.u.. The 80 eV results complete our sets of measurements at low, intermediate, and high, incident energies. The results are presented as (e , 2 e) angular distributions energy-integrated over each level, and are compared with our theory calculated for 488 eV incident electron energy. The 150 eV and 488 eV experiments are characterized by recoil peaks appropriate to each autoionizing level. However, for the 80 eV angular distributions, these recoil peaks are largely absent for all levels, including the 3 P level observed at this energy. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants Nos. PHY-0855040 (NLSM), PHY-1402899 (BAdH), and PHY-1212450 (KB).

  9. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  10. 10种常见水果果汁体外抗EV71病毒研究%A study on anti-EV71 virus in vitro of 10 kinds of common fruit juice

    张炳丽; 康真; 梁爽; 李然; 宋晓琳; 范荣军

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察10种常见水果果汁对手足口 EV71病毒所引起细胞病变(CPE)的抑制作用。方法采用MTT 比色法,测定10种常见水果果汁对 Hep Ⅱ细胞的细胞毒性,并在对细胞的最大无毒浓度(MNCC)范围内,采用体外细胞培养法研究10种常见水果果汁对手足口 EV71病毒病毒的抑制作用。在此基础上计算出苹果汁和葡萄汁对 EV71病毒的半数抑制浓度的 IC50值。结果在10种常见水果果汁中筛选出苹果汁和葡萄汁两种具有抗手足口 EV71病毒作用的果汁,其 IC50值分别为果汁原液的1.652倍稀释液和9.965倍稀释液。结论苹果汁和葡萄汁具有进一步筛选抗 EV71病毒有效成分的研究价值。%Objective To observe the inhibitory effect of 10 kinds of common fruit juice on cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by hand, foot and mouth EV71 virus. Methods The cytotoxicity of 10 kinds of common juice to Hep Ⅱ was determined by MTT assay. The inhibitory effect of 10 kinds of common juice on hand, foot and mouth EV71 virus was studied by cell culture in vitro within the maximum non-toxic concentration of cells (MNCC). Then inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values of apple juice and grape juice for EV71 virus were calculated. Results Apple juice and grape juice with the function of anti-hand,foot and mouth EV71 virus were selected from 10 kinds of common juice. The IC50 values were respectively 1.652 times dilution and 9.965 times dilution of the original fruit juice. Conclusion Apple juice and grape juice have a research value of further selecting effective components of anti-EV71 virus.

  11. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV

    Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Mogi, D. [Development and Marketing Department, New Products Development Division, Kanto Denka, Kogyo Co., Ltd., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0063 (Japan); Tanioka, T. [Shibukawa Development Research Laboratory, New Products Development Division, Kanto Denka Kogyo Co., Ltd., Shibukawa City, Gunma 377-8513 (Japan); Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Université de Liège, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, allée de la Chimie 3, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium)

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0–10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ({sup 1}Δ←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ({sup 1}Σ{sup −}←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ({sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f{sub 0} value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  12. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV.

    Limão-Vieira, P; Ferreira da Silva, F; Almeida, D; Hoshino, M; Tanaka, H; Mogi, D; Tanioka, T; Mason, N J; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0-10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ((1)Δ←(1)Σ(+)) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ((1)Σ(-)←(1)Σ(+)) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to (1)Σ(+) and (1)Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ((1)Σ(+) and (1)Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f0 value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km).

  13. IGSN e.V.: Registration and Identification Services for Physical Samples in the Digital Universe

    Lehnert, K. A.; Klump, J.; Arko, R. A.; Bristol, S.; Buczkowski, B.; Chan, C.; Chan, S.; Conze, R.; Cox, S. J.; Habermann, T.; Hangsterfer, A.; Hsu, L.; Milan, A.; Miller, S. P.; Noren, A. J.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.; Wyborn, L. A.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    -for-profit organization, the IGSN e.V. (e.V. = 'Eingetragener Verein', legal status for a registered voluntary association in Germany), that defines the IGSN scope and syntax and maintains the IGSN Handle system, and (b) a Science Advisory Board that guides policies, technology, and best practices of the SESAR Sample Metadata Clearinghouse and Local Registration Agents. The IGSN e.V. is being incorporated in Germany at the GFZ Potsdam, a founding event is planned for the AGU Fall Meeting.

  14. Spatial Mapping of NEO 2008 EV5 Using Small Satellite Formation Flying and Steresoscopic Technology

    Gonzalez, Juan; Singh Derewa, Chrishma

    2016-10-01

    NASA is currently developing the first-ever robotic Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the objective to capture a multi-ton boulder from the asteroids surface and use its mass to redirect its parent into a CIS lunar orbit where astronauts will study its physical and chemical composition.A critical step towards achieving this mission is to effectively map the target asteroid, identify the candidate boulder for retrieval and characterize its critical parameters. Currently, ARRM utilizes a laser altimeter to characterize the height of the boulders and mapping for final autonomous control of the capture. The proposed Lava-Kusha mission provides the increased of stereoscopic imaging and mapping, not only the Earthward side of the asteroid which has been observed for possible landing sites, but mapping the whole asteroid. LKM will enhance the fidelity of the data collected by the laser altimeter and gather improved topographic data for future Orion missions to 2008 EV5 once in cis lunar space.LKM consists of two low cost small satellites (6U) as a part of the ARRM. They will launch with ARRM as an integrated part of the system. Once at the target, this formation of pathfinder satellites will image the mission critical boulder to ensure the system design can support its removal. LKM will conduct a series of flybys prior to ARRM's rendezvous. LKMs stereoscopic cameras will provide detailed surveys of the boulder's terrain and environment to ensure ARRM can operate safely, reach the location and interface with the boulder. The LKM attitude control and cold gas propulsion system will enable formation maintenance maneuvers for global mapping of asteroid 2008 EV5 at an altitude of 100 km to a high-spatial resolution imaging altitude of 5 km.LKM will demonstrate formation flying in deep space and the reliability of stereoscopic cameras to precisely identify a specific target and provide physical characterization of an asteroid. An

  15. Histopathological features and distribution of EV71 antigens and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model of enterovirus 71 infection.

    Yu, Pin; Gao, Zifen; Zong, Yuanyuan; Bao, Linlin; Xu, Lili; Deng, Wei; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Gao, Zhancheng; Xu, Yanfeng; Yao, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2014-08-30

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease. While infection is usually self-limiting, a minority of patients infected with EV71 develop severe neurological complications. In humans, EV71 has been reported to utilize the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) as a receptor for infectious cellular entry. In this study, we define the pathological features of EV71-associated disease as well as the distribution of EV71 antigen and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model. Histopathologically, human fatal cases showed severe central nervous system (CNS) changes, mainly in the brainstems, spinal cords, and thalamus. These patient further exhibited pulmonary edema and necrotic enteritis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human fatal cases demonstrated that EV71 antigen and SCARB2 were observed mainly in neurons, microglia cells and inflammatory cells in the CNS, and epithelial cells in the intestines. However, skeletal muscle tissue was negative for EV71 antigen. In a mouse model of EV71 infection, we observed massive necrotic myositis, different degrees of viral diseases in CNS, and extensive interstitial pneumonia. In mice, EV71 exhibits strong myotropism compared to the neurotropism seen in humans. EV71 antigen was detected in the spinal cord and brainstem of mice. However, there was no clear correlation between mouse SCARB2 and EV71 antigen distribution in the mouse model, consistent with previous results that SCARB2 functions as a receptor for EV71 in humans but not mice. The EV71-induced lesions seen in the mouse model resembled the pathological changes seen in human samples. These results increase our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis and will inform further work developing a mouse model for EV71 infection.

  16. Optical reflectance, optical refractive index and optical conductivity measurements of nonlinear optics for L-aspartic acid nickel chloride single crystal

    Anbazhagan, G.; Joseph, P. S.; Shankar, G.

    2013-03-01

    Single crystals of L-aspartic acid nickel chloride (LANC) were grown by the slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystals were subjected to Powder X-ray diffraction studies to confirm the crystal structure. The modes of vibration of different molecular groups present in LANC have been identified by FTIR spectral analysis. Optical transferency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectrum. The lower optical cut off wavelength for this crystal is observed at 240 nm and energy band gap 5.179 eV. The optical reflectance and optical refractive index studies have been carried out in this crystal. Finally, the optical conductivity and electrical conductivity studies have been carried out on LANC single crystal.

  17. 内源性禽白血病病毒ev/J gp85基因的表达%Expression of Endogenous Retrovirus ev/J gp85 Gene in vitro

    梁雄燕; 杨玉莹; 张莹; 钟蓓

    2009-01-01

    从已构建的质粒pGEM-MTCgp85中酶切回收ev/J gp85基因,通过构建杆状病毒转移载体pFastBac1-ev/Jgp85和重组杆状病毒穿梭载体Bacmid-ev/Jgp85,将ev/Jgp85基因转入Bac-to-Bac高效真核表达系统的Sf9 昆虫细胞进行真核表达.间接免疫荧光试验显示,构建的重组杆状病毒感染的Sf9细胞出现与野生型杆状病毒感染的Sf9细胞阴性对照明显不同的亮绿荧光;Western blot 分析DAB 显色,重组病毒感染的Sf9细胞蛋白显示出约35 ku的阳性条带.结果表明,内源性ev/Jgp85基因在Sf9细胞中得到良好的表达,并且其编码产物完全可以被外源性ALV-J的特异性单抗JE9识别.

  18. Electron Landau damping in toroidal plasma with Solov'ev equilibrium

    Grishanov, N. I.; Azarenkov, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The contribution of untrapped and two groups of trapped particles to the longitudinal (with respect to the magnetic field) elements of the dielectric susceptibility is determined by solving the drift-kinetic equations for such particles in axisymmetric tokamaks with Solov'ev equilibrium. The obtained dielectric characteristics are applicable for studying linear wave processes in the frequency range of Alfvén and fast magnetosonic waves in small- and large-aspect-ratio tokamaks with circular, elliptical, and D-shaped cross sections of magnetic surfaces. The high-frequency power absorbed in plasma via electron Landau damping is estimated by summing up terms containing the imaginary parts of both diagonal and non-diagonal elements of the longitudinal susceptibility. The imaginary part of the longitudinal susceptibility is calculated numerically for spherical tokamaks in a wide range of wave frequencies and magnetic surface radii.

  19. Extensive Air Showers and Cosmic Ray Physics above 1017 eV

    Bertaina, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic Rays above 1017 eV allow studying hadronic interactions at energies that can not be attained at accelerators yet. At the same time hadronic interaction models have to be applied to the cosmic-ray induced air-shower cascades in atmosphere to infer the nature of cosmic rays. The reliability of air-shower simulations has become the source of one of the largest systematic uncertainty in the interpretation of cosmic-ray data due to the uncertainties in modeling the hadronic interaction driving the air-shower development. This paper summarises in the first part the recent results on the cosmic ray energy spectrum, composition and anisotropy from the knee region to the GZK cutoff [1, 2] of the spectrum by means of ground-based experiments. Most of the information reported in this contribution is taken from [3-5]. Aspects interconnecting cosmic ray and particle physics are reviewed in the second part of the paper.

  20. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.05% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~302 W/ .

  1. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.1% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~320 W/ .

  2. Electron Correlation in the Final Continuum of Ionization Hydrogen by 150-eV Electron Impact

    张程华; 臧树良; 王晓伟; 王京阳

    2004-01-01

    Electron correlation in triple differential cross sections for ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact is analysed for the case of coplanar asymmetric geometry within the framework of the two-potential formulae. Based on the approximations of projectile and faster-electron plane wave, the transition matrix element is analytically expressed to be a product of two factors: the correlation factor of two electrons in the final channel and the structure-scattering factor. The contribution of both the factors to the angular distribution of the triple differential cross section is calculated. The present results are compared with the experimental data and the other theoretical calculations for the incident energy of 150 eV.

  3. An explicit solution to the matrix equation AV+BW=EV J

    Aiguo WU; Guangren DUAN; Bin ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    In this note,the matrix equation AV+BW=EV J is considered,where E,A and B are given matrices of appropriate dimensions,J is an arbitrarily given Jordan matrix,V and W are the matrices to be determined.Firstly,a right factorization of(sE-A)-1 B is given based on the Leverriver algorithm for descriptor systems.Then based on this factorization and a proposed parametric solution,an alternative parametric solution to this matrix equation is established in terms of the R-controllability matrix of(E,A,B),the generalized symmetric operator and the observability matrix associated with the Jordan matrix J and a free parameter matrix.The proposed results provide great convenience for many analysis and design problems.Moreover,some equivalent forms are proposed.A numerical example is employed to illustrate the effect of the proposed approach.

  4. More Is Different: Reconciling eV Sterile Neutrinos and Cosmological Mass Bounds

    Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$. In this paper we discuss a scenario that $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$ can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch, but leading to a decrease of $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced.

  5. More is different: Reconciling eV sterile neutrinos with cosmological mass bounds

    Yong Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, Neff. In this paper we discuss a scenario that Neff can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN epoch, but leading to a decrease of Neff. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced. To be consistent with the latest Planck results, at least 3 sterile species are needed.

  6. A method to improve observations of gamma-ray sources near 10 (15) eV

    Sommers, P.; Elbert, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Now that sources of gamma rays near 10 to the 15th power eV have been identified, there is a need for telescopes which can study in detail the high energy gamma ray emissions from these sources. The capabilities of a Cerenkov detector which can track a source at large zenith angle (small elevation angle) are analyzed. Because the observed showers must then develop far from the detector, the effective detection area is very large. During a single half-hour hot phase of Cygnus X-3, for example, it may be possible to detect 45 signal showers compared with 10 background showers. Time structure within the hot phase may then be discernible. The precise capabilities of the detector depend on its mirror size, angular acceptance, electronic speed, coincidence properties, etc. Calculations are presented for one feasible design using mirrors of an improved Fly's Eye type.

  7. Total and Total ionization Cross sections for Germanium hydrides GeHx (x=1-4) on electron impact from 0.1 eV to 5 keV

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Limbachiya, Chetan; Korot, Kirti; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, Nigel

    2008-10-01

    Germanium hydrides, in particular germane, GeH4, are widely used as feed gases in plasma deposition and doping processes in the semiconductor industries. In this paper we report electron impact total cross sections from 0.1 eV to 5 keV for GeHx (x=1-4). We employed R-matrix method using Quantemol N[1] till 15 eV and spherical complex optical potential formalism (SCOP) [2-3] beyond 15 eV. We also report total ionization cross sections using our Complex Scattering Potential -- ionization contribution (CSP-ic) [2,3] for these targets. Ref. [1] J.Tennyson, D.B. Brown, J.Munro I.Rozum, H.Varambhia, N.Vinci Journal of Physics: Conference Series 86 (2007) 012001 [2] M. Vinodkumar, C. Limbachiya, K.N. Joshipura, K. Korot, Eur. J. Phys. D. (2008) DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2008-00106-3 [3] M. Vinodkumar, C. Limbachiya, K.N.Joshipura, K. Korot, Nigel Mason Int. J. Mass Spectrom 273 (2008) 145.

  8. Transverse eV ion heating by random electric field fluctuations in the plasmasphere

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-02-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti˜0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  9. Photofragmentation dynamics of gaseous dimethyl sulfoxide at 15 eV induced by synchrotron radiation

    Guerra, A.C.O.; Leite, T.C.M.; Turci, C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Barros, A.L.F. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, G.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent widely used in chemical and biological laboratories and in industrial processes, as well. DMSO [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - SO] is a sulfur analog of acetone [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - CO]. Being the simplest alkyl sulfoxide, the DMSO is a model system for the understanding of more complex sulfoxide molecules. In this work the DMSO was excited with synchrotron light and the photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectrum was acquired at 15 eV. Our goal is to study the S-C bonding breaking process, especially in the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} channels. The main question is how the 10a {yields} {infinity} transition affects the cleavage of S-C bond and consequently the production of those fragments. The experiments have been performed using the Toroidal Grating Monochromator (TGM) beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas-SP (research proposal D05A-TGM-11047). High purity samples were obtained commercially and used without any further purification. They were introduced into the Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) from the vapours of the room temperature liquids after removing air and volatile impurities by a series of freeze-pump-thaw cycles. The work pressure was maintained at 1:0 x 10{sup -6} mbar during data acquisition. The basis pressure was 1:0 x 10{sup -8} mbar. The results confirm that at 10a {yields} {infinity} transition the main produced fragment is the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +}. It means that at 15 eV the S-C bonding breaking is the principal photofragmentation process. (author)

  10. Optical Constants of Cadmium Telluride Thin Film

    Nithyakalyani, P.; Pandiaraman, M.; Pannir, P.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Soundararajan, N.

    2008-04-01

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) is II-VI direct band gap semiconductor compound with potential application in Solar Energy conversion process. CdTe thin film of thickness 220 mn was prepared by thermal evaporation technique at a high vacuum better than 10-5 m.bar on well cleaned glass substrates of dimensions (l cm×3 cm). The transmittance spectrum and the reflectance spectrum of the prepared CdTc thin film was recorded using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range between 300 nm and 900 nm. These spectral data were analyzed and the optical band and optical constants of CdTe Thin film have been determined by adopting suitable relations. The optical band gap of CdTe thin film is found to be 1.56 eV and this value is also agreeing with the published works of CdTe thin film prepared by various techniques. The absorption coefficient (α) has been higher than 106 cm-1. The Refractive index (n) and the Extinction Coefficient (k) are found to be varying from 3.0 to 4.0 and 0.1 Cm-1 to 0.5 Cm-1 respectively by varying the energy from l.0 eV to 4.0 eV. These results are also compared with the literature.

  11. A single-aliquot regenerative-dose method based on IR (1.49eV) bleaching of the fast OSL component in quartz

    Jain, M. [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales SY23 3DB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mgj@aber.ac.uk; Murray, A.S. [Nordic Laboratory for Luminescence Dating, Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University, Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Boetter-Jensen, L. [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Wintle, A.G. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales SY23 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    In the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz, the presence of significant medium and slow components in the initial-OSL signal (first 0.8s or so) can give rise to erroneous dose estimates. Thus it is desirable to develop a dose estimation method that is based on the OSL from the fast component alone. In this paper, the reduction of fast component OSL by high temperature infrared (IR) stimulation is investigated. It is shown that, in the temperature range from 120-190-bar C, it is possible to deplete the fast component preferentially using IR stimulation. The thermal assistance energy required for IR stimulation (1.49eV; 830nm) of the fast component is calculated to be 0.41+/-0.02eV. However, the elevated temperature IRSL of quartz has a poor signal-to-noise ratio; hence a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol based on a differential-OSL signal (the difference between the two short OSL signals separated by an elevated temperature IR stimulation) is proposed. The measurement conditions are optimised following examination of both the photoionisation cross-sections of the fast component for different stimulation temperatures, and possible thermally induced sensitivity changes arising from holding the samples at high temperatures for long periods ({approx}1500s). The resulting equivalent dose values, and those from a conventional SAR protocol based on the initial-OSL signal, are compared with the expected doses for several samples. We observe that for samples with relatively strong medium and slow components, the SAR protocol based on isolation of the fast component (derived by IR depletion of the OSL) gives significantly more accurate estimates than the SAR protocol using net initial OSL signals. On the other hand, accurate dose estimates are obtained from samples dominated by the fast component using both protocols. Finally, the implications are discussed for dosimetry using quartz.

  12. Endogenous Retrovirus ev21 dose Not Recombine with ALV-J and Induces the Expression of ISGs in the Host

    Min Feng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV. In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 (ev21 with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94.8% nucleotide identity with reference ALV-J strains. Compared with the env gene and the LTR of ev21 and M180, the nucleotide identity of LTR was 69.7% and env gene was 58.4%, respectively, especially the amino acid identity of env gene as low as 14.2%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the 3’LTR showed that M180 was closely related to ALV-J, and was located in a distinct group with ev21 in the phylogenetic tree. Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP, we next demonstrate that the envelope protein of ev21 does not interact with the M180 envelope protein. We further show that the envelope protein of ev21 cannot activate ALV-J LTR promoter activity using luciferase-reporter assays. qPCR and western blot analysis revealed that envelope protein of endogenous ev21 can facilitate the expression of PKR at 6h post ALV-J infection (hpi and facilitate the expression of ISG12 and CH25H at 24 hpi. However, the expression of the env gene of M180 strain was not significantly at 6 hpi and 24 hpi. We conclude that there is no evidence of recombination between endogenous retrovirus ev21 and ALV-J strain M180 in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken, and envelope protein of ev21 can affect the expression of host ISGs, but appears not to influence the replication of ALV-J strain M180. This is the first report of interaction among the endogenous retrovirus ev21, ALV-J and the late-feathering chicken.

  13. Study of the chemical composition of high energy cosmic rays using the muon LDF of EAS between $10^{17.25}$ eV and $10^{17.75}$ eV

    Tapia, A; Sánchez, F; Croce, A Sedoski; Figueira, J M; García, B; González, N; Josebachuili, M; Ravignani, D; Wundheiler, B; Etchegoyen, A

    2015-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of estimating primary cosmic ray composition at high energies from the study of two parameters of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) at ground and underground level with Monte Carlo simulations using the new EPOS and QGSJETII hadronic models tuned with LHC data. Namely, the slope and density at a given distance of the muon lateral distribution function are analysed in this work. The power to discriminate primary masses is quantified in terms of merit factor for each parameter. The analysis considers three different primary particles (proton, iron and gamma), four different zenith angles (0$^{\\circ}$, 15$^{\\circ}$, 30$^{\\circ}$ and 45$^{\\circ}$) and primary energies of $10^{17.25}$ eV, $10^{17.50}$ eV and $10^{17.75}$ eV.

  14. Synthesis, optical and electrochemical study of bipolar heterocyclic systems, including 1,2,4-oxadiazole moiety

    Selivanova, D. G.; Mayorova, O. A.; Gorbunov, A. A.; Vasyanin, A. N.; Dmitriev, M. V.; Shklyaeva, E. V.; Abashev, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    Two new 3,5-dihetarylsubstituted 1,2,4- oxadiazoles 8 a,b, including N-alkyl substituted carbazole and thiophene moieties, were synthesized as potential components of materials for organic electronics devices. Optical and electrochemical properties of all new compounds were investigated. On the basis of the experimental UV absorption data, the values of bandgap energies equal to 3.44 eV (8a) and 3.05 eV (8b) were determined. The values of their ionization potentials, HOMO levels (-5.62 eV for 8a, -5.46 eV - for 8b), as well as their electron affinity levels, LUMO levels (-2.2 eV for 8a, -2.4 eV - for 8b), were calculated from the results of electrochemical studies. The energy of the triplet excited states of 8 a,b was defined with the help of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), comprising 2.68 eV (8a) and 2.32 eV (8b), where the greatest value of this parameter was for the compound with a shorter conjugation chain.

  15. Comparing the Primary and Recall Immune Response Induced by a New EV71 Vaccine Using Systems Biology Approaches.

    Jie Shao

    Full Text Available Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines have completed Phase III clinical trials in mainland China, with high efficacy, satisfactory safety, and sustained immunogenicity. However, the molecular mechanisms how this new vaccine elicit potent immune response remain poorly understood. To characterize the primary and recall responses to EV71 vaccines, PBMC from 19 recipients before and after vaccination with EV71 vaccine are collected and their gene expression signatures after stimulation with EV71 antigen were compared. The results showed that primary and recall response to EV71 antigen have both activated an IRF7 regulating type I interferon and antiviral immune response network. However, up-regulated genes involved in T cell activation regulated by IRF1, inflammatory response, B-cell activation and humoral immune response were only observed in recall response. The specific secretion of IL-10 in primary response and IL-2,IP-10,CCL14a, CCL21 in recall response was consistent with the activation of immune response process found in genes. Furthermore, the expression of MX1 and secretion of IP-10 in recall response were strongly correlated with NTAb level at 180d after vaccination (r = 0.81 and 0.99. In summary, inflammatory response, adaptive immune response and a stronger antiviral response were indentified in recall response.

  16. A new animal model containing human SCARB2 and lacking stat-1 is highly susceptible to EV71.

    Liou, An-Ting; Wu, Szu-Yao; Liao, Chun-Che; Chang, Ya-Shu; Chang, Chih-Shin; Shih, Chiaho

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major threat to children worldwide. Children infected with EV71 could develop subclinical infection and hand-foot-and -mouth disease (HFMD). In severe cases, patients could develop encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. A more user-friendly and robust animal model is essential to investigating EV71 pathogenesis. Here, we established a hybrid (hSCARB2(+/+)/stat-1(-/-)) mouse strain from crossbreeding SCARB2 transgenic and stat-1 KO mice, and compared the susceptibilities to EV71 infection and pathogenesis between parental and hybrid mice. Virus-encoded VP1 protein can be detected in the streaking nerve fibers in brain and spinal cord. This hybrid mouse strain at 2-week-old age can still be infected with different genotypes of EV71 at 1000-fold lower titer via an ip route. Infected hybrid mice developed earlier onset of CNS disease, paralysis, and death at a higher incidence. These advantages of this novel model meet the urgent need from the scientific community in basic and preclinical research in therapeutics and pathogenesis.

  17. Comparing the Primary and Recall Immune Response Induced by a New EV71 Vaccine Using Systems Biology Approaches.

    Shao, Jie; Zhang, Junnan; Wu, Xing; Mao, Qunying; Chen, Pan; Zhu, Fengcai; Xu, Miao; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines have completed Phase III clinical trials in mainland China, with high efficacy, satisfactory safety, and sustained immunogenicity. However, the molecular mechanisms how this new vaccine elicit potent immune response remain poorly understood. To characterize the primary and recall responses to EV71 vaccines, PBMC from 19 recipients before and after vaccination with EV71 vaccine are collected and their gene expression signatures after stimulation with EV71 antigen were compared. The results showed that primary and recall response to EV71 antigen have both activated an IRF7 regulating type I interferon and antiviral immune response network. However, up-regulated genes involved in T cell activation regulated by IRF1, inflammatory response, B-cell activation and humoral immune response were only observed in recall response. The specific secretion of IL-10 in primary response and IL-2,IP-10,CCL14a, CCL21 in recall response was consistent with the activation of immune response process found in genes. Furthermore, the expression of MX1 and secretion of IP-10 in recall response were strongly correlated with NTAb level at 180d after vaccination (r = 0.81 and 0.99). In summary, inflammatory response, adaptive immune response and a stronger antiviral response were indentified in recall response.

  18. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model.

    Yue, Yingying; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Li, Bingqing; Li, Zhihui; Guo, Yuqi; Zhang, Weidong; Wei, Ming Q; Gai, Zhongtao; Meng, Hong; Wang, Jiwen; Qin, Lizeng

    2016-05-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post‑inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection.

  19. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71.

    Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S; Toosa, Haryanti; Foo, Hooi Ling; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Arbab, Ali S; Yusoff, Khatijah; Abdul Rahim, Raha

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1) gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle.

  20. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71

    Nadimpalli Ravi S. Varma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71 on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1 gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle.

  1. Ab initio study of electron energy loss spectra of bulk bismuth up to 100 eV

    Timrov, Iurii; Markov, Maxime; Gorni, Tommaso; Raynaud, Michèle; Motornyi, Oleksandr; Gebauer, Ralph; Baroni, Stefano; Vast, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    The dynamical charge-density response of bulk bismuth has been studied within time-dependent density functional perturbation theory, explicitly accounting for spin-orbit coupling. The use of the Liouville-Lanczos approach allows us to calculate electron energy loss spectra for excitation energies as large as 100 eV. Effects of 5 d semicore electronic states, spin-orbit coupling, exchange and correlation, local fields, and anisotropy are thoroughly investigated. The account of the 5 d states in the calculation turns out to be crucial to correctly describe the loss spectra above 10 eV and, in particular, the position and shape of the bulk-plasmon peak at 14.0 eV at vanishing transferred momentum. Our calculations reveal the presence of interband transitions at 16.3 eV, which had never been discussed before. The origin of the peak at 5.8 eV is revisited as due to mixed interband and collective excitations. Finally, our study supplements the lack of experiments at finite transferred momenta.

  2. 4584例手足口病EV71病毒感染情况分析%Analysis on infection status of enterovirus EV71 for 4 584 cases children of hand foot and mouth disease

    2016-01-01

    目的 回顾性分析2009年至2013年第四军医大学西京医院手足口病肠道病毒71型(EV71)的感染情况.方法 采用实时荧光定量PCR的方法检测手足口病患儿的咽拭子或疱液标本.结果 2009年至2013年我院共收治手足口病患儿4 584例,其中EV71阳性标本369例,各年EV71的感染率依次分别为7.84%、5.77%、16.71%、10.16%、3.66%.不同年份EV71感染率差异有显著性(P<0.05).≤3岁的婴幼儿EV71感染率最高(65.58%),每年4~7月手足口病感染人数明显升高.结论 手足口病EV71型各年感染率不同,有明显的季节及人群分布.在流行季节应当加强宣传培训及督导作用,采取安全措施,有效控制病情.

  3. Analysis and Optimization of LTE-CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Redirection Ratio Anomaly%LTE-CDMA20001xEV-DO重定向比例异常的分析研究与优化

    王闽申; 陈烜; 饶明; 陈智强; 林志

    2016-01-01

    为了解决频繁的LTE-CDMA20001xEV-DO重定向严重影响LTE用户感知体验的问题,对LTE-CDMA20001xEV-DO重定向比例异常、用户感知差等现象着手进行具体问题的原因定位和分析,采用对比分析的方法发现厂家间驻留和迁移参数配置存在不一致。通过实验及对参数优化前后的数据分析,验证了厂家互操作策略不同、参数设置不一致是导致互操作重定向比例异常的根本原因,并给出了LTE-CDMA20001xEV-DO互操作参数配置原则和建议。%In order to solve the problem of frequent LTE-CDMA2000 1xEV-DO redirection affecting the LTE user perception experience seriously. This article located and analyzed the cause for LTE-CDMA2000 1xEV-DO redirection rate anomaly as well as bad user perception experience. With the method of comparative analysis, the article discovered the inconsistent conifguration of reside and migration parameters between the different manufacturers. Through experiments and data analysis of parameters before and after optimization, various operation strategies and inconsistent conifguration of manufacturers were determined to be the fundamental cause for the anomaly, and principles of LTE-CDMA2000 1xEV-DO interoperability parameters conifguration and the suggestions were put forward.

  4. 重症EV71感染手足口病患儿的护理现状

    巫玉峰

    2016-01-01

    从心理护理、消毒隔离、皮肤护理、口腔及饮食护理、高热的护理、病情观察及健康宣教方面对重症EV71感染手足口病患儿的护理现状进行了综述,说明加强医护人员的对重症EV71感染手足口病的护理,对于重症EV71感染手足口病患儿的治疗及危重患者的救治十分重要。

  5. Observation of the Suppression of the Flux of Cosmic Rays above 4×1019eV

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; Junior, W. J. M. De Mello; Neto, J. R. T. De Mello; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; García, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Grande, N. Smetniansky De; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-08-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5×1018eV, derived from 20 000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index γ of the particle flux, J∝E-γ, at energies between 4×1018eV and 4×1019eV is 2.69±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2±0.4(stat)±0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz’min.

  6. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4 x 10 (19) eV.

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; do Amaral, M Gonçalves; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; García, R Luna; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Grande, N Smetniansky De; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-08-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10;{18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional, variantE;{-gamma}, at energies between 4 x 10;{18} eV and 4 x 10;{19} eV is 2.69+/-0.02(stat)+/-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+/-0.4(stat)+/-0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min.

  7. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10^19eV

    Abraham, J.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael; Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST /Lisbon, LIFEP; Aglietta, M.; /INFN, Turin; Aguirre, C.; /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /INFN, Naples; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Northeastern U. /Lisbon, IST /Lisbon, LIFEP

    2008-06-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10{sup 18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index {gamma} of the particle flux, J {proportional_to} E{sup {gamma}}, at energies between 4 x 10{sup 18} eV and 4 x 10{sup 19} eV is 2.69 {+-} 0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2 {+-} 0.4(stat){+-}0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuzmin.

  8. Measurement of the total neutron cross-section of germanium at energies below 2 eV

    Salama, M.

    1983-01-01

    The total neutron cross-section of germanium has been measured at room temperature as a function of neutron energy in the range between 2.2 eV and 7 meV for randomly distributed crystals of germanium by transmission method using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer at ET-RR-1 research reactor. The measured cross-section showed an evidence of 1/..nu.. thermal slope in the energy range 1.20 eV to 0.20 eV. Crystal structure effects were also observed. Calculations were performed giving values for the coherent scattering amplitude as well as the coherent scattering cross-section. The results obtained showed also the absence of scattering nuclear spin dependence in case of germanium.

  9. EV71型与其他EV手足口病患者WBC和CRP结果分析

    杨婷; 常艳军

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较EV71型与其他EV手足口病患者白细胞(WBC)和C反应蛋白(CRP)结果是否有差异,为临床医师治疗EV71型感染的手足口病提供参考依据。方法回顾我院感染性疾病科收治的手足口病患儿86例,应用RT-PCR法检测患者咽拭子肠道病毒类型,分为肠道病毒71型(EV71)组和其他肠道病毒感染组,分析2组患者WBC和CRP结果。结果 EV71型与其他型肠道病毒感染的手足口病患儿WBC和CRP定量检测结果和异常率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 EV71型与其他型肠道病毒手足口病感染患者WBC、CRP检测结果无差异,不能用WBC和CRP来区分EV71型和其他肠道病毒感染以及患者病情严重性。

  10. Performance of reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique detecting EV71: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Lei, Xiaoying; Wen, Hongling; Zhao, Li; Yu, Xuejie

    2014-04-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a common infectious disease in young children. Studies in the past have shown that reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was a rapid approach for the detection of EV71 in HFMD. This meta-analysis study is to evaluate the diagnostic role of RT-LAMP in detecting EV71 infection. A comprehensive literature research of PubMed, Embase, Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted on articles aiming at the diagnostic performance of RT-LAMP in EV71 detection published before February 10, 2014. Data from selected studies were pooled to yield the summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR, NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve by using STATA VERSION 12.0 software. Ten studies including a total of 907 clinical samples were of high quality in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and the area under the SROC curve was 0.99 (0.97, 1.00), 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), 5.90 (95% CI: 3.90-8.94), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.14-0.29), and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), respectively. The univariate analysis of potential variables showed some changes in the diagnostic performance, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Despite inter-study variability, the test performance of RT-LAMP was consistent with real-time RT-PCR in detecting EV71. This meta-analysis suggests that RT-LAMP is a useful diagnostic tool with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting EV71.

  11. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  12. Ellipsometry and energy characterization of the electron impact polymerization in the range 0-20 eV

    Zyn, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The electron impact polymerization of adsorbed vapors of a hydrocarbon vacuum oil with molecular mass 450 Da (C32H66) has been studied in-situ in the range 0-20 eV using ellipsometry and a servo system with the Kelvin's vibrating probe. This allowed registering at the same time the two energy-dependent characteristics (spectra) of the process: the film growth rate and the electrical potential of the irradiated surface. The first spectrum has two resonance maxima near 2.5 and 9.5 eV while the surface potential has only one weak extremum near 9.5 eV. The first growth rate peak at 2.5 eV was connected with a creation of radicals through a resonant process of the dissociative electron attachment and beginning polymerization. The peaks at 9.5 eV in both the spectra mean accelerating polymerization and decreasing surface charge owing to simultaneous birth of highly active radicals and free electrons. The single resonant process controlling both the processes simultaneously is the dissociative attachment of an electron to an anti-bonding molecular orbital, almost the same as at the 2.5 eV but differing by deeper decomposition of the transient anion, among the products of which are now not the radicals only but also free electrons. The kinetic curves obtained in pulsed regimes of the electron bombardment were qualitatively identical for different precursors and were used for calculations of cross sections of these processes.

  13. Similar protective immunity induced by an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children.

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Ma, Kaili; Yang, Erxia; Wang, Jingjing; Che, Yanchun; Jiang, Li; Pu, Jing; Guo, Lei; Feng, Min; Liang, Yan; Cui, Wei; Yang, Huai; Li, Qihan

    2015-11-17

    During the development of enterovirus 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine for preventing human hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) by EV71 infection, an effective animal model is presumed to be significant and necessary. Our previous study demonstrated that the vesicles in oral regions and limbs potentially associated with viremia, which are the typical manifestations of HFMD, and remarkable pathologic changes were identified in various tissues of neonatal rhesus macaque during EV71 infection. Although an immune response in terms of neutralizing antibody and T cell memory was observed in animals infected by the virus or stimulated by viral antigen, whether such a response could be considered as an indicator to justify the immune response in individuals vaccinated or infected in a pandemic needs to be investigated. Here, a comparative analysis of the neutralizing antibody response and IFN-γ-specific T cell response in vaccinated neonatal rhesus macaques and a human clinical trial with an EV71 inactivated vaccine was performed, and the results showed the identical tendency and increased level of neutralizing antibody and the IFN-γ-specific T cell response stimulated by the EV71 antigen peptide. Importantly, the clinical protective efficacy against virus infection by the elicited immune response in the immunized population compared with the placebo control and the up-modulated gene profile associated with immune activation were similar to those in infected macaques. Further safety verification of this vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children confirmed the potential use of the macaque as a reliable model for the evaluation of an EV71 candidate vaccine.

  14. PHEV-EV Charger Technology Assessment with an Emphasis on V2G Operation

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C [ORNL; Bedir, Abdulkadir [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    More battery powered electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will be introduced to the market in 2011 and beyond. Since these vehicles have large batteries that need to be charged from an external power source or directly from the grid, their batteries, charging circuits, charging stations/infrastructures, and grid interconnection issues are garnering more attention. This report summarizes information regarding the batteries used in PHEVs, different types of chargers, charging standards and circuits, and compares different topologies. Furthermore, it includes a list of vehicles that are going to be in the market soon with information on their charging and energy storage equipment. A summary of different standards governing charging circuits and charging stations concludes the report. There are several battery types that are available for PHEVs; however, the most popular ones have nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) chemistries. The former one is being used in current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), but the latter will be used in most of the PHEVs and EVs due to higher energy densities and higher efficiencies. The chargers can be classified based on the circuit topologies (dedicated or integrated), location of the charger (either on or off the vehicle), connection (conductive, inductive/wireless, and mechanical), electrical waveform (direct current (dc) or alternating current (ac)), and the direction of power flow (unidirectional or bidirectional). The first PHEVs typically will have dedicated, on-board, unidirectional chargers that will have conductive connections to the charging stations or wall outlets and will be charged using either dc or ac. In the near future, bidirectional chargers might also be used in these vehicles once the benefits of practical vehicle to grid applications are realized. The terms charger and charging station cause terminology confusion. To prevent misunderstandings, a more descriptive term

  15. 直面EV71 一种让父母手足无措的病毒

    2008-01-01

    5月,安徽阜阳22名儿童被一种名为EV71的病毒夺去生命。为些,《时尚育儿》论坛www.baby023.com于5月2日贴出"重视EV71"一帖,引起了网友妈妈的极大关注。现将帖子内容整理刊登于此。

  16. EV71”挺“娇气”封堵传播并不难

    2008-01-01

    EV71病毒虽然来势汹汹,但却比较“娇气”,所以在卫生部印发的防控指南中,要求“做好儿童个人、家庭和托幼机构的卫生”,而这正是利用了EV71“娇气”的特性,也是堵住传播途径、预防病毒感染的关键。

  17. POVEZANOST VZGOJNIH STILOV STARŠEV Z DIMENZIJAMI OSEBNOSTI IN SAMOSPOŠTOVANJEM POSAMEZNIKOV V ZGODNJI ODRASLOSTI

    Belna, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Stili, ki jih starši uporabljajo pri vzgoji svojih otrok, se povezujejo z različnimi področji otrokovega življenja in funkcioniranja, ne samo v času otroštva, pač pa se učinki vzgoje kažejo tudi kasneje v življenju. Magistrsko delo obravnava posameznike v obdobju zgodnje odraslosti. Osnovni namen raziskave je ugotoviti povezanost vzgojnih stilov staršev z dimenzijami osebnosti in s samospoštovanjem udeležencev v obdobju zgodnje odraslosti. Cilj je tudi ugotoviti, ali vzgojni stili staršev pom...

  18. Skid Prevention for EVs Based on the Emulation of Torque Reduction Characteristics of Separately-excited DC Motor

    Kodama, Shinya; Hori, Yoichi

    It is well-known that the separately-excited DC motor has effective torque (current) reduction characteristics in response to rapid increase in the rotational speed of the motor. These characteristics have been utilized in adhesion control of electric railway trains with separately-excited DC motor. Up to now, we have proposed a new skid prevention method for EVs, utilizing these characteristics and have made experiments with the hardware skid simulator “Motor-Generator setup”. In this paper, we applied this skid prevention control to our new vehicle “UOT CADWELL EV" equipped with BLDC motors and showed its effectiveness.

  19. DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by transient anions in the range 2-20 eV

    Luo, Xinglan; Zheng, Yi, E-mail: Yizheng@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Sanche, Léon [Group in the Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2014-04-21

    The energy dependence of the yields of single and double strand breaks (SSB and DSB) and crosslinks induced by electron impact on plasmid DNA films is measured in the 2-20 eV range. The yield functions exhibit two strong maxima, which are interpreted to result from the formation of core-excited resonances (i.e., transient anions) of the bases, and their decay into the autoionization channel, resulting in π → π{sup *} electronic transitions of the bases followed by electron transfer to the C–O σ{sup *} bond in the phosphate group. Occupancy of the σ{sup *} orbital ruptures the C–O bond of the backbone via dissociative electron attachment, producing a SSB. From a comparison of our results with those of other works, including theoretical calculations and electron-energy-loss spectra of the bases, the 4.6 eV peak in the SSB yield function is attributed to the resonance decay into the lowest electronically excited states of the bases; in particular, those resulting from the transitions 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) and 1{sup 3}A{sup ″} (n{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) of thymine and 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine. The strongest peak at 9.6 eV in the SSB yield function is also associated with electron captured by excited states of the bases, resulting mostly from a multitude of higher-energy π → π{sup *} transitions. The DSB yield function exhibits strong maxima at 6.1 and 9.6 eV. The peak at 9.6 eV is probably related to the same resonance manifold as that leading to SSB, but the other at 6.1 eV may be more restricted to decay into the electronic state 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine via autoionization. The yield function of crosslinks is dominated by a broad peak extending over the 3.6-11.6 eV range with a sharper one at 17.6 eV. The different line shape of the latter function, compared to that of SSB and DSB, appears to be due to the formation of reactive radical sites in the initial supercoiled

  20. Temperature dependence of photoconductivity at 0.7 eV in single-wall carbon nanotube films

    Yukitaka Matsuoka, Akihiko Fujiwara, Naoki Ogawa, Kenjiro Miyano, Hiromichi Kataura, Yutaka Maniwa, Shinzo Suzuki and Yohji Achiba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature dependence of photoconductivity has been investigated for single-wall carbon nanotube films at 0.7 eV. In order to clarify the effect of atmosphere on photoconductivity, measurements have been performed under helium and nitrogen gas flow in the temperature range from 10 K to room temperature (RT and from 100 K to RT, respectively. Photoconductive response monotonously increases with a decrease in temperature and tends to saturate around 10 K. No clear difference in photoconductive response under different atmosphere was observed. We discuss the mechanism of photoconductivity at 0.7 eV.

  1. UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Annual report 2015/2016. Review, around look, outlook; UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Jahresbericht 2015/2016. Rueckblick Umblick Ausblick

    NONE

    2016-06-30

    The report presents the organisational structure and activities of the UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V. (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). Above all, topical issues on business in the mineral oil and lubricant sector are discussed. There is an appendix containing data on the production and sales of petroleum products in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  2. Modern optics

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  3. EV71病毒核酸快速检测方法的比较%Comparison of Different Molecular Assays for the Rapid Detection of Enterovirus 71(EV71)

    卫海燕; 黄学勇; 许玉玲; 马宏; 陈豪敏; 许汴利

    2012-01-01

    Molecular detection of enterovirus (EV)71 RNA based on PCR methods is a quick and sensitive approach. At present, different PCR-based methods for EV71 RNA detection are available, but comparisons of results obtained using different approaches are limited. This study is to compare the analytical sensitivity and specificity of different real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) assays for enterovirus and EV71 detection, Altogether, three rRT-PCR assays and one cRT-PCR assay targeting the 5'UTR gene for universal detection of enterovirus; two rRT-PCR assays andone cRT-PCR assay targeting the VP1 gene for specific detection of EV 71 were examined. All assays showed good specificity. The detection sensitivity ranged from 8. 19 ×10 to 8. 19 ×105 copy equivalents. In general, rRT-PCR assays were more sensitive than cRT-PCR assays. All rRT-PCR assays showed 100% sensitivity for clinical specimens.%PCR方法检测肠道病毒71型(EV71)的分子诊断技术十分快速敏感.目前已有多篇文献报道了不同的检测EV71的PCR方法,但对不同方法检测结果的比较还少有报道.本研究将检测肠道病毒通用5′UTR基因的3种定量PCR(rRT-PCR)方法和1种普通PCR(cRT-PCR)方法和特异性检测EV71的2种rRT-PCR和1种cRT-PCR方法进行特异性和敏感性比较评估.所有试验方法都有较好的特异性,无交叉反应.核酸最低检测限值为从8.19× 101~8.19×105个拷贝,rRT-PCR比cRT-PCR更敏感.所有的rRT-PCR方法检测50份临床标本时都较敏感.

  4. 直接RT-LAMP检测EV71方法的建立和评价%Development and assessment of direct reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for EV71 detection

    阮美生; 郭龙华; 周天龙; 黎荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a simple and rapid direct reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal am-plification (direct RT-LAMP) experimental method for detecting enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, and the sensitivity and specificity of this method using clinical nasopharyngeal swab specimens for the detection of EV71 were evaluated. Methods Direct RT-LAMP without RNA extraction and with heat-treatment was used to detect EV71 infection in 290 nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Results The accordance rate of direct RT-LAMP and RT-LAMP was 92.4%(268/290), and that of direct RT-LAMP and qRT-PCR was 88.9%. No false posi-tive was found in direct RT-LAMP or RT-LAMP. The clinical performance demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of direct RT-LAMP was 90.3%and 100%compared to RT-LAMP, and 86.8%and 100%compared to qRT-PCR, re-spectively. Conclusion Direct RT-LAMP method can potentially be developed for simple and rapid screening of EV71 and other pathogens.%目的:建立并评价一种简单快速的逆转录环-介导的等温扩增(直接RT-LAMP)检测人肠道病毒71(EV71)的实验方法。方法无需RNA提取,用热处理标本后用直接RT-LAMP方法检测EV71,并用临床收集的290份咽试标本评价其灵敏度和特异性。结果直接RT-LAMP和RT-LAMP实验完全符合率为92.4%(268/290),直接RT-LAMP和qRT-PCR完全符合率为88.9%。在RT-LAMP或直接RT-LAMP实验中没有发现假阳性。与RT-LAMP比较,直接RT-LAMP的灵敏度和特异性分别为90.3%和100%;与qRT-PCR比较,其敏感性和特异性分别为86.8%和100%。结论直接RT-LAMP方法能被开发成简单快速检测EV71和其他病原体的方法。

  5. EV/PHEV Bidirectional Charger Assessment for V2G Reactive Power Operation

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the available single-phase ac-dc topologies used for EV/PHEV, level-1 and -2 on-board charging and for providing reactive power support to the utility grid. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac-dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suitability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and increased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

  6. Studies of Air Showers above 10^18 eV with the CHICOS Array

    Lynn, T W; Carlson, B E; Jillings, C J; Larson, M B; McKeown, R D; Hill, J E; Falkowski, B J; Seki, R; Sepikas, J; Yodh, G B; Wells, D; Chan, K C

    2005-01-01

    CHICOS (California HIgh school Cosmic ray ObServatory) is presently an array of more than 140 detectors distributed over a large area (~400 km^2) of southern California, and will consist of 180 detectors at 90 locations in the near future. These sites, located at area schools, are equipped with computerized data acquisition and automatic nightly data transfer (via internet) to our Caltech lab. The installed sites make up the largest currently operating ground array for ultra-high energy cosmic ray research in the northern hemisphere. The goal of CHICOS is to provide data related to the flux and distribution of arrival directions for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We have performed detailed Monte-Carlo calculations to determine the density and arrival-time distribution of charged particles in extensive air showers for the CHICOS array. Calculations were performed for proton primaries with energies 10^18 to 10^21 eV and zenith angles out to 50 degrees. We have developed novel parameterizations for both distribu...

  7. Extensive Air Showers and Cosmic Ray Physics above 1017 eV

    Bertaina Mario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic Rays above 1017 eV allow studying hadronic interactions at energies that can not be attained at accelerators yet. At the same time hadronic interaction models have to be applied to the cosmic-ray induced air-shower cascades in atmosphere to infer the nature of cosmic rays. The reliability of air-shower simulations has become the source of one of the largest systematic uncertainty in the interpretation of cosmic-ray data due to the uncertainties in modeling the hadronic interaction driving the air-shower development. This paper summarises in the first part the recent results on the cosmic ray energy spectrum, composition and anisotropy from the knee region to the GZK cutoff [1, 2] of the spectrum by means of ground-based experiments. Most of the information reported in this contribution is taken from [3–5]. Aspects interconnecting cosmic ray and particle physics are reviewed in the second part of the paper.

  8. Collisional-Radiative Modeling of Tungsten at Temperatures of 1200–2400 eV

    James Colgan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss new collisional-radiative modeling calculations of tungsten at moderate temperatures of 1200 to 2400 eV. Such plasma conditions are relevant to ongoing experimental work at ASDEX Upgrade and are expected to be relevant for ITER. Our calculations are made using the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL collisional-radiative modeling ATOMIC code. These calculations formed part of a submission to the recent NLTE-8 workshop that was held in November 2013. This series of workshops provides a forum for detailed comparison of plasma and spectral quantities from NLTE collisional-radiative modeling codes. We focus on the LANL ATOMIC calculations for tungsten that were submitted to the NLTE-8 workshop and discuss different models that were constructed to predict the tungsten emission. In particular, we discuss comparisons between semi-relativistic configuration-average and fully relativistic configuration-average calculations. We also present semi-relativistic calculations that include fine-structure detail, and discuss the difficult problem of ensuring completeness with respect to the number of configurations included in a CR calculation.

  9. 1-eV GaInNAs solar cells for ultrahigh-frequency multijunction devices

    Friedman, D.J.; Geisz, J.F.; Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors demonstrate working prototypes of a GaInNAs-based solar cell lattice-matched to GaAs with photoresponse down to 1 eV. This device is intended for use as the third junction of future-generation ultrahigh-efficiency three- and four-junction devices. Under the AM1.5 direct spectrum with all the light higher in energy than the GaAs band gap filtered out, the prototypes have open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.35 to 0.44 V, short-circuit currents of 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factors from 61--66%. The short-circuit currents are of principal concern: the internal quantum efficiencies rise only to about 0.2. The authors discuss the short diffusion lengths which are the reason for this low photocurrent. As a partial workaround for the poor diffusion lengths, they demonstrate a depletion-width-enhanced variation of one of the prototype devices that grades off decreased voltage for increased photocurrent, with a short-circuit current of 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and an open-circuit voltage of 0.29 V.

  10. Thermophysical properties of near-Earth asteroid (341843) 2008 EV5 from WISE data

    Alí-Lagoa, V; Delbo, M; Gundlach, B; Blum, J; Licandro, J

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To derive the thermal inertia of 2008 EV$_5$, the baseline target for the Marco Polo-R mission proposal, and infer information about the size of the particles on its surface. Methods. Values of thermal inertia are obtained by fitting an asteroid thermophysical model to NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared data. From the constrained thermal inertia and a model of heat conductivity that accounts for different values of the packing fraction (a measure of the degree of compaction of the regolith particles), grain size is derived. Results. We obtain an effective diameter $D = 370 \\pm 6\\,\\mathrm{m}$, geometric visible albedo $p_V = 0.13 \\pm 0.05$ (assuming $H=20.0 \\pm 0.4$), and thermal inertia $\\Gamma = 450 \\pm 60$ J/m2/s(1/2)/K at the 1-$\\sigma$ level of significance for its retrograde spin pole solution. The regolith particles radius is $r = 6.6^{+1.3}_{-1.3}$ mm for low degrees of compaction, and $r = 12.5^{+2.7}_{-2.6}$ mm for the highest packing densities.

  11. 0.52eV Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diode Technology

    MW Dashiell; JF Beausang; G Nichols; DM Depoy; LR Danielson; H Ehsani; KD Rahner; J Azarkevich; P Talamo; E Brown; S Burger; P Fourspring; W Topper; PF Baldasaro; CA Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; Jizhong Li; R Marinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi; DR Taylor; J Hazel

    2004-06-09

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes fabricated from 0.52eV lattice-matched InGaAsSb alloys are grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaSb substrates. 4cm{sup 2} multi-chip diode modules with front-surface spectral filters were tested in a vacuum cavity and attained measured efficiency and power density of 19% and 0.58 W/cm{sup 2} respectively at operating at temperatures of T{sub radiator} = 950 C and T{sub diode} = 27 C. Device modeling and minority carrier lifetime measurements of double heterostructure lifetime specimens indicate that diode conversion efficiency is limited predominantly by interface recombination and photon energy loss to the GaSb substrate and back ohmic contact. Recent improvements to the diode include lattice-matched p-type AlGaAsSb passivating layers with interface recombination velocities less than 100 cm/s and new processing techniques enabling thinned substrates and back surface reflectors. Modeling predictions of these improvements to the diode architecture indicate that conversion efficiencies from 27-30% and {approx}0.85 W/cm{sup 2} could be attained under the above operating temperatures.

  12. Smart Charging of EVs in Residential Distribution Systems Using the Extended Iterative Method

    Jian Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart charging of electrical vehicles (EVs is critical to provide the secure and cost-effective operation for distribution systems. Three model objective functions which are minimization of total supplied power, energy costs and maximization of profits are formulated. The conventional household load is modeled as a ZIP load that consists of constant power, constant current and constant impedance components. The imbalance of distribution system, constraints on nodal voltages and thermal loadings of lines and transformers are all taken into account. Utilizing the radial operation structure of distribution system, an extended iterative method is proposed to greatly reduce the dimensions of optimization variables and thus improve calculation speed. Impacts of the conventional household load model on the simulation results are also investigated. Case studies on three distribution systems with 2, 14, and 141 buses are performed and analyzed. It is found that the linear constrained convex quadratic programming model is applicable at each iteration, when the conventional household load is composed of constant power and constant impedance load. However, it is not applicable when the conventional household load consists of constant current load. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are also validated.

  13. Molecule emission from condensed Ar and O2 targets by 750 eV Ne impact

    Anders, Christian; Pedrys, Roman; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-06-01

    The sputtering of a condensed Ar and a condensed O2 solid by 750 eV Ne+ ions is studied both by experiment and by molecular dynamics simulation. We focus on the emission of Ar2 dimers and O2 molecules. The translational energy distribution of ejected O2 molecules follows a high-energy fall-off ∼E-2 characteristic of collision-cascade ejection. Here simulation and experiment are in close agreement. The Ar2 translational energy distribution shows a steeper fall-off ∼En at high emission energies E with n ∼ 4 ; it is interpreted to be due to the so-called recombination mechanism of dimer formation. These interpretations are corroborated by an analysis of the distance-of-origin of the emitted species. The role of three-body collisions on the Ar2 emission is discussed. A comparison of experimental and simulated energy distributions of sputtered Ar atoms and dimers allows us to identify a contribution of electronic sputtering of these species.

  14. The role of low-energy (≤ 20 eV) electrons in astrochemistry

    Boyer, Michael C.; Rivas, Nathalie; Tran, Audrey A.; Verish, Clarissa A.; Arumainayagam, Christopher R.

    2016-10-01

    UV photon-driven condensed phase cosmic ice reactions have been the main focus in understanding the extraterrestrial synthesis of complex organic molecules. Low-energy (≤ 20 eV) electron-induced reactions, on the other hand, have been largely ignored. In this article, we review studies employing surface science techniques to study low-energy electron-induced condensed phase reactions relevant to astrochemistry. In particular, we show that low-energy electron irradiation of methanol ices leads to the synthesis of many of the same complex molecules formed through UV irradiation. Moreover, our results are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that high-energy condensed phase radiolysis is mediated by low-energy electron-induced reactions. In addition, due to the numbers of available low-energy secondary electrons resulting from the interaction of high-energy radiation with matter as well as differences between electron- and photon-induced processes, low-energy electron-induced reactions are perhaps as, or even more, effective than photon-induced reactions in initiating condensed-phase chemical reactions in the interstellar medium. Consequently, we illustrate a need for astrochemical models to include the details of electron-induced reactions in addition to those driven by UV photons. Finally, we show that low-energy electron-induced reactions may lead to the production of unique molecular species that could serve as tracer molecules for electron-induced condensed phase reactions in the interstellar medium.

  15. Asteroid Redirect Mission Proximity Operations for Reference Target Asteroid 2008 EV5

    Reeves, David M.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Broschart, Steve B.; Deweese, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is composed of two segments, the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), and the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM). In March of 2015, NASA selected the Robotic Boulder Capture Option1 as the baseline for the ARRM. This option will capture a multi-ton boulder, (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (greater than approx.100 m diameter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cis-lunar space for subsequent human exploration during the ARCM. Further human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cis-lunar space. In addition, prior to departing the asteroid, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) will perform a demonstration of the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT) planetary defense technique2. This paper will discuss the proximity operations which have been broken into three phases: Approach and Characterization, Boulder Capture, and Planetary Defense Demonstration. Each of these phases has been analyzed for the ARRM reference target, 2008 EV5, and a detailed baseline operations concept has been developed.

  16. Search for eV (pseudo)scalar penetrating particles in the SPS neutrino beam

    Astier, Pierre; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Ballocchi, G; Banner, M; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I G; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S A; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, Paolo Walter; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R D; Daniels, D C; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kirsanov, M M; Klimov, O L; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnikov, N V; Krasnoperov, A V; Kuznetsov, V E; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Mossuz, L; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, Alfredo; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Popov, B; Poulsen, C; Rico, J; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sevior, M E; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Steininger, M; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Verkindt, D; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Volkov, S A; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zioutas, Konstantin; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2000-01-01

    We carried out a model-independent search for light scalar or pseudoscalar particles $a$'s (an example of which is the axion) that couple to two photons by using a photon-regeneration method at high energies allowing a substantial increase in the sensitivity to $eV$ masses.\\ The experimental set-up is based on elements of the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) beam line and theNOMAD neutrino detector.\\ The new particles, if they exist, could be produced through the Primakoff effect in interactions of high energy photons, generated by the 450 $GeV$ protons in the CERN SPS neutrino target, with virtual photons from the WANF horn magnetic field.\\ The particles would penetrate the downstream shieldingand would be observed in the NOMAD neutrino detector through their re-conversion into real high energy photons byinteracting with the virtual photons from the magnetic field of the NOMAD dipole magnet.\\ From the analysis of the data collected during the 1996 run with $1.08\\times10^{19}$ protons on target, 312 ca...

  17. Cosmology based on $f(R)$ gravity with ${\\cal O}(1)$ eV sterile neutrino

    Chudaykin, A S; Starobinsky, A A; Burenin, R A

    2015-01-01

    We address the cosmological role of ${\\cal O}(1)$ eV sterile neutrino in modified gravity models. We confront the present cosmological data with the predictions of FLRW cosmological model based on a variant of $f(R)$ modified gravity proposed by one of the authors previously. This viable cosmological model which deviation from general relativity with an induced effective cosmological constant decreases as $R^{-2n}$ for large, but not too large values of the Ricci scalar $R$ provides an alternative to the bare cosmological constant explanation of the present dark energy and accelerated expansion of the Universe ($n=2$ is adopted). We used various up-to-date cosmological data sets including Planck CMB anisotropy, CMB lensing potential, BAO, cluster mass function and Hubble constant measurements. Using the low-z measurements of linear perturbation amplitude from galaxy cluster mass function data we find that sum of neutrino masses constrained by CMB+BAO data is not sufficient to compensate for the extra linear p...

  18. EvArnoldi: A New Algorithm for Large-Scale Eigenvalue Problems.

    Tal-Ezer, Hillel

    2016-05-19

    Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are an essential theme in numerical linear algebra. Their study is mainly motivated by their high importance in a wide range of applications. Knowledge of eigenvalues is essential in quantum molecular science. Solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the electrons composing the molecule are the basis of electronic structure theory. Electronic eigenvalues compose the potential energy surfaces for nuclear motion. The eigenvectors allow calculation of diople transition matrix elements, the core of spectroscopy. The vibrational dynamics molecule also requires knowledge of the eigenvalues of the vibrational Hamiltonian. Typically in these problems, the dimension of Hilbert space is huge. Practically, only a small subset of eigenvalues is required. In this paper, we present a highly efficient algorithm, named EvArnoldi, for solving the large-scale eigenvalues problem. The algorithm, in its basic formulation, is mathematically equivalent to ARPACK ( Sorensen , D. C. Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi/Lanczos Methods for Large Scale Eigenvalue Calculations ; Springer , 1997 ; Lehoucq , R. B. ; Sorensen , D. C. SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications 1996 , 17 , 789 ; Calvetti , D. ; Reichel , L. ; Sorensen , D. C. Electronic Transactions on Numerical Analysis 1994 , 2 , 21 ) (or Eigs of Matlab) but significantly simpler.

  19. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Shen, Zhi-Xun [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liu, Zhongkai [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zong, Alfred [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Jefferson, C. Michael; Merriam, Andrew J. [Lumeras LLC, 207 McPherson St, Santa Cruz, California 95060 (United States); Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S. [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10{sup 12} photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å{sup −1}, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å{sup −1}, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  20. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission with Tabletop 11eV Laser

    He, Yu; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, Michael; Moore, Robert; Kirchmann, Patrick; Merriam, Andrew; Shen, Zhixun

    2015-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with $113.778$nm wavelength (10.897eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10MHz, provides a flux of 2$\\times$10$^{12}$ photons/second, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2meV and 0.012\\AA$^{-1}$, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2\\AA$^{-1}$, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source, and sho...

  1. Testing Serial Correlation in Semiparametric Varying-Coefficient Partially Linear EV Models

    Xue-mei Hu; Zhi-zhong Wang; Feng Liu

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies estimation and serial correlation test of a semiparametric varying-coefficient partially linear EV model of the form Y = Xτβ + Zτα(T) + ε,ξ = X + η with the identifying condition E[(ε,ητ)τ] = 0, Cov[(ε,ητ)τ] = σ2Iρ+1. The estimators of interested regression parameters β, and the model error variance σ2, as well as the nonparametric components α(T), are constructed. Under some regular conditions, we show that the estimators of the unknown vector β and the unknown parameter σ2 are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal and that the estimator of α(T) achieves the optimal strong convergence rate of the usual nonparametric regression. Based on these estimators and asymptotic properties, we propose the VN,p test statistic and empirical log-likelihood ratio statistic for testing serial correlation in the model. The proposed statistics are shown to have asymptotic normal or chi-square distributions under the null hypothesis of no serial correlation. Some simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of the proposed tests.

  2. Search for eV sterile neutrinos at a nuclear reactor — the Stereo project

    Haser, J.; Stereo Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The re-analyses of the reference spectra of reactor antineutrinos together with a revised neutrino interaction cross section enlarged the absolute normalization of the predicted neutrino flux. The tension between previous reactor measurements and the new prediction is significant at 2.7 σ and is known as “reactor antineutrino anomaly”. In combination with other anomalies encountered in neutrino oscillation measurements, this observation revived speculations about the existence of a sterile neutrino in the eV mass range. Mixing of this light sterile neutrino with the active flavours would lead to a modification of the detected antineutrino flux. An oscillation pattern in energy and space could be resolved by a detector at a distance of few meters from a reactor core: the neutrino detector of the Stereo project will be located at about 10 m distance from the ILL research reactor in Grenoble, France. Lengthwise separated in six target cells filled with 2 m3 Gd-loaded liquid scintillator in total, the experiment will search for a position-dependent distortion in the energy spectrum.

  3. evěná nosná konstrukce patrového domu

    Junková, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Předmětem mé bakalářské práce je návrh a statické posouzení dřevěné nosné konstrukce patrového obytného domu. Budova má tři podlaží - 1. nadzemní parto, 2. nadzemní patro a obytné podkroví. Půdorysné rozměry konstrukce jsou 14,7x11,1 m a výška 11 m. Rámová nosná konstrukce je tvořena stěnovými panely, na které jsou uloženy stropnice. Střešní konstrukce je řešena soustavou vazníků. Budova se nachází ve Slavkově u Brna, klimatická zatížení jsou řešena pro danou oblast. The subject of my bach...

  4. Optic Neuritis

    1989-01-01

    Demyelinating optic neuritis is the most common cause of unilateral painful visual loss in the United States. Although patients presenting with demyelinating optic neuritis have favorable long-term visual prognosis, optic neuritis is the initial clinical manifestation of multiple sclerosis in 20% of patients. The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT) has helped stratify the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after the first episode of optic neuritis based on abnormal findings on brain MRI....

  5. High-resolution dipole (e, e) study for optical oscillator strengths of helium

    凤任飞; 杨炳忻; 武淑兰; 邢士林; 张芳; 钟志萍; 郭学哲; 徐克尊

    1996-01-01

    The optical oscillator strengths of helium have been studied by a high-resolution dipole (e, e) method on the recently built high-resolution fast-electron energy-loss spectrometer. The difficulties of optical measurement have been avoided and the experimental precision has been improved by using this method. The optical oscillator strength density spectrum corresponding to the 1S n’P transitions and ionization of helium has been measured in the energy loss range of 21 - 26 eV. And the same work corresponding to the autoionization resonance region has been done in energy loss ranges of 59-67 eV and 69-74 eV. The above results have also been compared with those of the previous work.

  6. Optical constants and nonlinear calculations of fluorescein/FTO thin film optical system

    Zahran, H. Y.; Iqbal, Javed; Yahia, I. S.

    2016-11-01

    The organic thin films of fluorescein dye were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate by using low-cost spin coating technique. The surface of the deposited film was characterized by using AFM and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, which shows that the film is uniform and amorphous. The spectrophotometric study was carried out at the wavelength range of 300-2500 nm. The spectral dependences of the linear refractive index and absorption index were found to decrease as the wavelength was increased. Tauc's plot study revealed that the film shows the direct transition and energy band gap values were found 1.75 eV and 3.55 eV for the thin film and the substrate, respectively. Optical constants were found nearly the same in the higher energy domain (1.0-4.5 eV). Spectroscopic method was employed to study the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3). The deposited thin film is a promising optical system for new generation of optoelectronics.

  7. Preparation of the EV71 VLPs%新肠道病毒71型病毒样颗粒的制备

    李晓楠; 曹明慧; 李培锋

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究新肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)病毒样颗粒(Virus-like particles,VLPs)的制备方法.方法:依据昆虫细胞偏爱密码子优化EV71 P1和EV71 3CD基因,将二者分别克隆至供体质粒pFastBac Dual多角体蛋白启动子pPh和pP10上;构建重组pFastBac Dual EV71 P1-3CD质粒,并与Bacmid质粒转座后,获得重组杆状病毒表达质粒转染至Sf9细胞,应用PCR、免疫荧光、SDS-Page和Western blot方法鉴定EV71 VLPs表达情况,最后利用蔗糖密度梯度离心的方法纯化EV71 VLPs.结果:经昆虫密码子优化的EV71 P1和EV71 3CD基因,利用Bac-to-Bac系统成功组装了EV71 VLPs,纯化EV71 VLPs的浓度为0.817 mg/ml,纯度>90%.结论:成功地构建了重组杆状病毒EV71 P1-3CD Bacmid表达质粒,并表达和纯化了 EV71 VLPs,这为今后EV71 VLPs疫苗的研究奠定了基础.%Objective: The aim of the present study was to prepared EV71 VLPs, which was important for further studies in term of EV71 VLPs. Methods: Based on preferred codon optimization of insect cells ,EV71 P1 and EV71 3 CD genes were cloned into the donor vector pFastBac Dual under the polyhedrin promoter pPh and pP 10, and the constructed donor plasmid pFastBac Dual -P1 -3CD was transformed to E. Coli DHlOBac. The obtained recombinant baculovirus plasmid Bacmid -P1-3CD was transfected into Sf9 cells to prepare recombinant baeulovirus and the expressed products were identified by PCR , IFA, SDS-Page and Western -Blot. Then the VLPs were purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation . Results:The EV71 P1 and EV71 3CD genes insects codon optimized were assembled EV71 VLPs successfully by Bac-to-Bac system. Concentration of purified EV71 VLPs was 0. 817 mg/ml, purity of 90%. Conclusion:Finally, the pFastBac Dual EV71 P1-3CD was constructed , and EV71 VLPs were expressed and purified successfully, which provide a valuable platform for the future EV71 VLPs vaccine research.

  8. Absolute Total Photoionization Cross Section of C60 in the Range of 25-120 eV: Revisited

    Kafle, Bhim P.; Katayanagi, Hideki; Prodhan, Md. Serajul I.; Yagi, Hajime; Huang, Chaoqun; Mitsuke, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    The absolute total photoionization cross section σabs,I of gaseous C60 is measured in the photon energy hν range from 25 to 120 eV by photoionization mass spectrometry with synchrotron radiation. The absolute detection efficiencies of photoions in different charge states are evaluated. The present σabs,I curve is combined with the photoabsorption cross section curves of C60 at hν=3.5--26 eV in the literature, after appropriate alterations of the vapor pressure are taken into account. The oscillator strengths are computed from the composite curve to be 178.5 and 230.5 for the hν ranges from 3.5 to 40.8 eV and from 3.5 to 119 eV, respectively. These oscillator strengths agree well with those expected from the Thomas-Kuhn-Reiche sum rule and 60 times the photoabsorption cross section of a carbon atom. Moreover, the present σabs,I curve behaves similarly to the relative photoionization cross section curve reported by Reinköster et al.

  9. Toomkiriku Saueri orel saab korda! / Hugo Lepnurm, Toomas Mäeväli ; interv. Alo Põldmäe

    Lepnurm, Hugo, 1914-1999

    1998-01-01

    Prof. Hugo Lepnurm ja orelimeister Toomas Mäeväli Toomkiriku Saueri oreli restaureerimise käigust saksa firmas Orgelwerkstatt Christian Scheffler. Oreli sisseõnnistamine 1. augustil 1998. Samas andmed oreli elukäigust. Oreli ehitas 1858. a. saksa meister Friedrich Ladegast. Eestis viimasel ajal töökorda saadud teistest orelitest.

  10. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 10(18) eV using the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a measurement of the flux of cosmic rays with unprecedented precision and Statistics using the Pierre Auger Observatory Based on fluorescence observations in coincidence with at least one Surface detector we derive a spectrum for energies above 10(18) eV We also update the previously publi

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Enterovirus Strain 71 (EV71/Taipei/3118/2011), Isolated from a Patient in Taiwan.

    Lin, Chia-Pei; Liu, Jiung-Liang; Chen, Lung-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Chao; Wang, Hsiu-Chi; Lin, Shih-Jie; Chen, Pin-Chun; Wang, Kun-Teng; Huang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Yi-Chan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih; Wang, Der-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This full-length genome sequence of human enterovirus strain 71 (EV71/Taipei/3118/2011) was isolated from a clinical patient in Taiwan in 2011. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the complete genome sequence in this study is part of the subgenotype C4.

  12. Design of a High Voltage Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Driving Capacitive Incremental Actuators usable in Electric Vehicles (EVs)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    the converter for efficiently charging and discharging the capacitive actuator from 0 V to 2.5 kV and vice versa, respectively. The converter is used to drive a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) based capacitive incremental actuator, which has the potential to be used in automotive (e.g., EVs), space...

  13. Damage induced to DNA by low-energy (0-30 eV) electrons under vacuum and atmospheric conditions.

    Brun, Emilie; Cloutier, Pierre; Sicard-Roselli, Cécile; Fromm, Michel; Sanche, Léon

    2009-07-23

    In this study, we show that it is possible to obtain data on DNA damage induced by low-energy (0-30 eV) electrons under atmospheric conditions. Five monolayer films of plasmid DNA (3197 base pairs) deposited on glass and gold substrates are irradiated with 1.5 keV X-rays in ultrahigh vacuum and under atmospheric conditions. The total damage is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The damage produced on the glass substrate is attributed to energy absorption from X-rays, whereas that produced on the gold substrate arises from energy absorption from both the X-ray beam and secondary electrons emitted from the gold surface. By analysis of the energy of these secondary electrons, 96% are found to have energies below 30 eV with a distribution peaking at 1.4 eV. The differences in damage yields recorded with the gold and glass substrates is therefore essentially attributed to the interaction of low-energy electrons with DNA under vacuum and hydrated conditions. From these results, the G values for low-energy electrons are determined to be four and six strand breaks per 100 eV, respectively.

  14. $\\gamma$-Ray Bursts Cannot Produce the Observed Cosmic Rays Above $10^{19} eV$

    Stecker, F W

    2000-01-01

    Using recent results indicating that the redshift distribution of gamma-ray bursts most likely follows the redshift evolution of the star formation rate, I show that the energy input from these bursts at low redshifts is insufficient to account for the observed flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with energies above $10^{19}$ eV.

  15. Play as the Leading Activity of the Preschool Period: Insights from Vygotsky, Leont'ev, and Bakhtin.

    Duncan, Robert M.; Tarulli, Donato

    2003-01-01

    Discusses ideas from Vygotsky, Leont'ev and Bakhtin to show how fantasy play acts as its own zone of proximal development that contributes to the development of symbolic mediation, the appropriation of social roles and symbols, and the preschool child's preparation for elementary school. (JPB)

  16. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10(18) eV

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Barbosa, A. F.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X-max, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10(18) eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are se

  17. Introduction of electric double layer capacitors in the solar-EV; Solar denki jidosha eno denki nijuso condenser no oyo

    Fujinaka, M. [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A basic experiment was carried out on a supplementary power supply, in which solar cells and electric double layer capacitors(EDLC) were combined for a DC/DC converter, for the use of a solar-electric vehicle (S-EV); and in actuality, an S-EV was loaded with the power supply with a running test conducted on a public road. The EDLC was found effective and useful for avoiding temporary lowering of voltage and momentary break. An electric supply was thereby made possible for an emergency light without the use of the DC/DC converter. However, in a tunnel or a night driving and in case of failure of the DC/DC converter, an operating time of only 7 minutes or so was affordable with the EDLC having a capacity of 100F. Moreover, particularly with a heavy load, it was impossible to maintain a voltage for many hours. Under the circumstances, an S-EV design would primarily require two sets of independent DC/DC converter loaded in the future. The EDLC, young after it was developed, still has a small energy density compared with a lead storage battery. Yet, an EDLC with a higher performance being developed, there is a possibility that it will be applied to S-EV`s by utilizing its characteristics such as a high efficiency and a long service life. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Structure and optical properties of CdSe chalcogenide semiconductors

    Ganaie, Mohsin; Prince, Zulfequar, M.

    2015-08-01

    CdSe bulk sample has been prepared by melt-quenching technique and were characterized with XRD, SEM, FTIR, and electrical measurements. Thin films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on ultra clean glass substrates under a high vacuum of 10-6 Torr. An XRD measurement reveals the coexistence of glassy and crystalline phase in bulk sample. SEM studies shows single phase, porous, and granular surface morphology of powder CdSe alloy. Optical properties (optical gap, absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index) are calculated in the range of 190-1100nm. Analysis of the optical measurement shows that the non-direct transition is predominant and the band gap come outs to be 1.751eV. Dc conductivity measurement is thermally activated process which shows the semiconducting nature of the sample having activation energy 0.31eV.

  19. Engineering Optics

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  20. Analysis and solution of false-positives when testing CVA16 sera using an antibody assay against the EV71 virus.

    Wang, Changbing; You, Aiping; Tian, Xingui; Zhao, Mingqi; Chen, Yi; Lin, Tao; Zheng, Jianbin; Xiao, Misi; Zhang, Yingying; Kuang, Lu; Zhou, Zhenwen; Zhu, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in humans is caused mainly by Enterovirus 71(EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). EV71 is associated with severe HFMD cases but not CVA16. Use of IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is important for the early diagnosis of EV71 infection, but cross-reactivity of the anti-CVA16 IgM antibody with EV71 produces false-positive results. In this report, we designed a new EV71 IgM-capture ELISA method using the EV71 VP1 peptide instead of the EV71 virion as the detectable antigen, and tested sera from patients infected with EV71 or CVA16. The results showed that acute sera from 76 EV71-infected patients had similar sensitivity for virus detection (98.68%) or VP1 detection (97.37%). When acute sera from patients infected with CVA16 were used, significant differences between the two methods were observed. The cross-reactivity rate of the virus detection method was 29.4% (5/17), but no cross-reactivity was observed using the VP1 detection method. Western immunoblotting demonstrated that EV71 VP3 cross-reacted with part of the CVA16 IgM antibody. The results demonstrate that EV71 VP3 is the cross-reactive antigen in the EV71 IgM-capture ELISA when testing CVA16 sera using the virus-antibody detection method. The problem of false-positive results was resolved by using the VP1 peptide as the detectable antigen.

  1. 抗肠道病毒71型药物研究进展%Research Progress on Anti-EV71 Agents

    何静; 周志统; 袁正宏

    2011-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(EV71)是引起手足口病的主要病原体,并且EV71引起的神经系统并发症所造成的危害也越来越引起人们的重视.但是迄今尚无有效的EV71疫苗和特效抗EV71药物.目前,国内外针对EV71复制周期不同靶点的抗病毒药物研究取得了一定的突破.现将受体阻断剂、病毒衣壳结合剂、蛋白酶抑制剂、3DRNA多聚酶抑制剂、利巴韦林、RNA干扰技术以及中药等抗EV71的研究进展进行综述.%EV71 is the main etiological agent of hand , foot and mouth disease( HFMD ) , people pay more and more attention on the harm of EV71 caused neurological complications. But there are still lacking of effective EV71 vaccine and anti-EV71 drug. Currently,domestic and overseas research group have achieved some breakthrough progress on anti-EV71 drug research which target different site of viral replication cycle.This article reviewed recent studies of research progress on anti-EV71 agents which based on various molecular targets. Including receptor inhibitors , vial capsid-binding molecules , 3C protease inhibitor , 3 D RNA polymerase inhibitor , ribavirin, RNA interference and traditional Chinese medcine.

  2. A Novel Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Virulence Determinant: The 69th Residue of 3C Protease Modulates Pathogenicity

    Li, Bingqing; Yue, Yingying; Zhang, Yajie; Yuan, Zenglin; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yan; Gu, Lichuan; Meng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71), the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has been known to cause fatal neurological complications. Unfortunately, the reason for neurological complications that have been seen in fatal cases of the disease and the relationship between EV71 virulence and viral genetic sequences remains largely undefined. The 3C protease (3Cpro) of EV71 plays an irreplaceable role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, and intervening with host life activity during viral infection. In this study, for the first time, the 69th residue of 3C protease has been identified as a novel virulence determinant of EV71. The recombinant virus with single point variation, in the 69th of 3Cpro, exhibited obvious decline in replication, and virulence. We further determined the crystal structure of 3C N69D at 1.39 Ǻ resolution and found that conformation of 3C N69D demonstrated significant changes compared with a normal 3C protein, in the substrate-binding site and catalytic active site. Strikingly, one of the switch loops, essential in fixing substrates, adopts an open conformation in the 3C N69D-rupintrivir complex. Consistent with this apparent structural disruption, the catalytic activity of 3C N69D decreased sharply for host derived and viral derived substrates, detected for both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in addition to EV71, Asp69 was also found in 3C proteases of other virus strains, such as CAV16, and was conserved in nearly all C type human rhinovirus. Overall, we identified a natural virulence determinant of 3C protease and revealed the mechanism of attenuated virulence is mediated by N69D substitution. Our data provides new insight into the enzymatic mechanism of a subdued 3C protease and suggests a theoretical basis for virulence determinantion of picornaviridae. PMID:28217559

  3. [Hand-foot-mouth disease pathogen separation and EV71 VP1 gene analysis in Sanmenxia City, Henan Province, China].

    Wu, Shu-xing; Wu, Jing-fu; Yang, Jie; Wei, Hai-yan; Xu, Yu-ling; Huang, Xue-yong

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the enterovirus types and biological features of pediatric cases of HFMD in Sanmenxia City during 2011, and compare the latter to a cohort of healthy children. Stool samples of 55 cases of HFMD and 60 healthy children were collected for the isolation and identification of enteroviruses using RNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR assays. EV71 and CA16 were identified by nucleotide sequencing using virus-specific VP1 primers; for the other enteroviruses, 012/011 and 008/013 primers were used for amplification and sequencing. The results were analysed by sequence alignment with known sequences, and the characteristics of the EV71 VP1 gene were also analyzed. The detection rates for enteroviruses in cases of HFMD and healthy children were 52.73% (29/55) and 18.33% (11/60), respectively. Among these, there were 22 cases of EV71, four cases of CA16 and three cases of other enteroviruses in the cases with HFMD. Eleven healthy children had intestinal viruses, of which nine were Coxsackie B virus strains (81.82%, 9/11). Gene sequencing of the 19 EV71 strains illustrated that they were all subgenotype C4a, but the evolutionary tree showed an obvious clustering between cases from Lingbao City and Lushi County. This study demonstrates that the EV71 subgenotype C4a and CA16 strains were the most common cause of HFMD in Sanmenxia City in 2011, and that Coxsackie B strains were prevalent in healthy children. This finding may indicate that there is a widespread source of recessive infection in the community.

  4. Validation-based insertional mutagenesis for identification of Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells

    Wang, Bei; Zhang, XiaoYu; Zhao, Zhendong, E-mail: timjszzd@163.com

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •We introduced a new mutagenesis strategy named VBIM to the viral research. •This method can identify either host factors or host restriction factors. •Using VBIM system, we identified Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells. -- Abstract: Lentiviral validation-based insertional mutagenesis (VBIM) is a sophisticated, forward genetic approach that is used for the investigation of signal transduction in mammalian cells. Using VBIM, we conducted function-based genetic screening for host genes that affect enterovirus 71 (EV71) viral replication. This included host factors that are required for the life cycle of EV71 and host restriction factors that inhibit EV71 replication. Several cell clones, resistant to EV71, were produced using EV71 infection as a selection pressure and the nuclear pore protein 214 (Nup214) was identified as a host factor required for EV71 replication. In SD2-2, the corresponding VBIM lentivirus transformed clone, the expression of endogenous Nup214 was significantly down-regulated by the reverse inserted VBIM promoter. After Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the VBIM promoter, the expression of Nup214 recovered and the clone regained sensitivity to the EV71 infection. Furthermore, over-expression of Nup214 in the cells suggested that Nup214 was promoting EV71 replication. Results of this study indicate that a successful mutagenesis strategy has been established for screening host genes related to viral replication.

  5. Electron optics

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  6. Imaging the heliosphere using neutral atoms from solar wind energy down to 15 eV

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P. [Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern 3012 (Switzerland); Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw 00-716 (Poland); Möbius, E. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We study the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath observed with the IBEX-Lo sensor of the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) from solar wind energies down to the lowest available energy (15 eV). All available IBEX-Lo data from 2009 January until 2013 June were included. The sky regions imaged when the spacecraft was outside of Earth's magnetosphere and when the Earth was moving toward the direction of observation offer a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio even at very low energies. We find that the ENA ribbon—a 20° wide region of high ENA intensities—is most prominent at solar wind energies whereas it fades at lower energies. The maximum emission in the ribbon is located near the poles for 2 keV and closer to the ecliptic plane for energies below 1 keV. This shift is an evidence that the ENA ribbon originates from the solar wind. Below 0.1 keV, the ribbon can no longer be identified against the globally distributed ENA signal. The ENA measurements in the downwind direction are affected by magnetospheric contamination below 0.5 keV, but a region of very low ENA intensities can be identified from 0.1 keV to 2 keV. The energy spectra of heliospheric ENAs follow a uniform power law down to 0.1 keV. Below this energy, they seem to become flatter, which is consistent with predictions. Due to the subtraction of local background, the ENA intensities measured with IBEX agree with the upper limit derived from Lyα observations.

  7. The FUNK search for Hidden Photon Dark Matter in the eV range

    Döbrich, Babette; Engel, Ralph; Jaeckel, Joerg; Kowalski, Marek; Lindner, Axel; Mathes, Hermann-Josef; Redondo, Javier; Roth, Markus; Schäfer, Christoph; Ulrich, Ralf; Veberic, Darko

    2015-01-01

    We give a brief update on the search for Hidden Photon Dark Matter with FUNK. The experiment uses a large spherical mirror, which, if Hidden Photon Dark Matter exists in the accessible mass and coupling parameter range, would yield an optical signal in the mirror's center in an otherwise dark environment. After a test run with a CCD, preparations for a run with a low-noise PMT are under way and described in this proceedings.

  8. Experimental and theoretical investigations of absolute optical oscillator strengths for valence excitations of nitric oxide

    朱林繁; 钟志萍; 苑震生; 张卫华; 刘小井; 江锡满; 徐克尊; 李家明

    2002-01-01

    The absolute optical oscillator strength density spectra of nitric oxide in the energy region of 5.0-22.0 eV havebeen measured by a high-resolution fast-electron energy loss spectrometer. With the calculated results obtained by themultiscattering self-consistent-field method and channel characteristics, the strongly overlapped spectra in the energyregion of 7.5-9.3 eV have been analysed and the corresponding partially vibrationally resolved optical oscillator strengthshave been estimated from the experimental spectra.

  9. Optical Solitons

    Taylor, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  10. Optical properties of nanometre AgI silica composite synthesized by a simple quenching method

    He, Haiping; Wang, Yuxia; Zou, Youming

    2003-07-01

    Optical absorption and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) properties of nanometre AgI-silica composite synthesized by a simple heating-quenching method were investigated. The absorption of quenched AgI-silica was enhanced markedly. Three absorption bands at 440 (2.8 eV), 260 (4.8 eV) and 220 nm (5.6 eV) were observed. The excitonic absorption of AgI showed a red shift of ~0.11 eV, in contrast to the usually observed blue shift in AgI nanocrystals. Besides two UV emissions from a non-bridging hole centre and E' centre defects formed in silica, the composite exhibited two PL emissions at 2.62 and 2.40 eV. The 2.62 eV PL was ascribed to donor-acceptor recombination of AgI, while the 2.40 eV one may correlate with energy levels induced by the interaction between silica and AgI. The role of silica in improving the PL for nanometre AgI is discussed.

  11. Optical keyboard

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  12. Optical biosensors

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biose...

  13. UV optical absorption spectra analysis of beryl crystals from Brazil

    Isotani, Sadao, E-mail: sisotani@if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Regina Blak, Ana; Watanabe, Shigueo [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    The spectral decomposition analysis was applied to the optical absorption spectra of green and colorless beryl crystals from the Brazilian Eastern Pegmatitic province in the natural state, submitted to heat treatment and irradiated with UV light. The attributions of the lines were made taking into account highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations. The deconvolution of the green beryl spectra revealed four lines, two of them around 12,000 cm{sup -1} (1.5 eV) and two of them around 34,000 cm{sup -1} (4.2 eV) attributed to Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively. The deconvolution of the colorless beryl spectra without any treatment, after heating and for the same heat treatment followed by UV light irradiation revealed five lines. The analysis of ratio relations showed that the lines at 36,400 cm{sup -1} (4.5 eV) and 41,400 cm{sup -1} (5.1 eV) belongs to a single defect attributed to a silicon dangling bond defect (=Si:). Discussions and comparison with reported defects in quartz have supported the allocation of the lines at 61,000 cm{sup -1} (7.6 eV) and 43,800 cm{sup -1} (5.4 eV) to diamagnetic oxygen vacancy defect (ident toSi-Siident to) and unrelaxed (ident toSi...Siident to) defect, respectively. Finally, the line at 39,100 cm{sup -1} (4.8 eV), quite polarized along the c-axis, was attributed to a (Fe{sup 2+}OH{sup -}) defect in the structural channels.

  14. The natural diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 is an inhibitor of fungal delta-9 fatty acid desaturation with efficacy in a model of skin dermatophytosis.

    Knechtle, Philipp; Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B V; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids-but not saturated fatty acids-antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086-phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses.

  15. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate induced cross-neutralizing antibody against subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in adult volunteers.

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16. METHODS: Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses. RESULTS: The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had 4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (∼20% of participants against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8 against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16. CONCLUSION: EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01268787.

  16. The state at the brakes. Pt. 1. The long way from DIN 4108 to EnEV; Der Staat als Bremser. T. 1. Der lange Weg von der DIN 4108 bis zur EnEV

    Eicke-Hennig, Werner [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Due to the oil crisis in the year 1973, the former substantial energy consumption of buildings had to be reduced. However, first successes were very meagre. The contribution under consideration reports on the long way from the regulation DIN 4108 up to the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV). The first part of this multipart contribution is concerned with the difficult birth of the thermal insulation regulation and comments the period of time up to their first amendment in the year 1984.

  17. 人源抗EV71病毒中和表位SP70的Fab抗体研制%Development of a humanized Fab antibody against the neutralizing SP70 epitope of EV71

    余艳琼; 翁育伟; 严延生

    2016-01-01

    目的 构建人源抗EV71病毒Fab噬菌体抗体库,筛选具有中和活性的人源单克隆抗体,为EV71感染引起的手足口病临床诊断及治疗奠定基础.方法 从成人志愿者抗凝血中分离外周淋巴细胞,提取总RNA并逆转录为cDNA.以cDNA为模板,用人源IgG Fab段基因引物扩增轻链及重链Fd区基因,分步克隆至pComb3载体,构建Fab噬菌体抗体库.以SP70为抗原对Fab噬菌体抗体库进行富集筛选,将获得的重组噬菌体感染XL1-Blue菌并诱导表达,用SP70对诱导表达的菌上清进行筛选.结果 共获得3株轻、重链基因组合序列不同的克隆,且这3株Fab抗体可特异性结合SP70多肽.结论 成功构建人源抗EV71病毒Fab噬菌体抗体库,并从中筛选出3株针对EV71病毒结构蛋白VP1上中和线性表位SP70的特异性人源Fab抗体,为研发新的手足口病诊断和治疗工具奠定基础.

  18. Optical properties of substituted polyacetylenes

    Gontia, Ilarie I.

    In this work we present continuous wave (CW) optical spectroscopies of sustituted polyacetylenes: poly-disabstituted-acetylene (PDPA-nBu) and polyphenylacetylene (PPA). We found that although PDPA-nBu is a degenerate ground state polymer, it shows strong photoluminescence (PL) with quantum efficiency larger than 60%. Polarized PL measurements show that PDPA-nBu emission originates from intrachain excitons rather than from the side groups of the polymer chain. The absorption bands were identified, correlating the experimental results with the model proposed in the literature. The CW photomodulation (PM) spectra of pristine unoxidized and oxidized PDPA-nBu films showed that both solitons and polarons are simultaneously photogenerated. On the contrary, the PM spectrum of PDPA-nBu in toluene solution showed only polaron photogeneration. Using the photoinduced absorption detected magnetic resonance (PADMR) spectroscopy and doping induced electron spin resonance (ESR) we identified the spin of the photogenerated species. For spin 1/2 resonance, polaron, neutral soliton, and charged soliton bands were observed in the lambda-PADMR spectrum. We also investigated the charge transfer (CT) process in the PDPA-nBu/ C60 composites. The absorption spectra in the visible and infrared ranges of PDPA-nBu/C60 blend do not show any evidence for CT in the ground state. Using PL, PM and PADMR spectroscopies we show that in the PDPA-nBu/C60 blends the charge transfer reaction takes place in the excited state. PL spectra measured in films with different C60 concentration showed exciton quenching that is due to the fast CT process. The PM spectrum showed the signature of CT, namely, a PA band that peaks at about 1.15 eV, which is associated with C60 ion resulting from the excitons separation into positively charged polaron on the polymer chain and negative C60 ion. PADMR spectra also showed the signature of the CT reaction. We observed two resonances that were identified in H

  19. Optical fibres

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  20. Nonlinear optics

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  1. Optical interconnects

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  2. Formulation and immunological evaluation of a trivalent vaccine comprising emulsified submicron particles and inactivated virions of H5N1/EV71/JEV.

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Chang, Ching-Yun; Chen, Wei-Lin; Lin, Shih-Chang; Liao, Chien-Chun; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chih; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Wu, Suh-Chin; Chong, Pele; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2013-11-01

    Combination vaccines can reduce the number of injections and simplify the immunization schedule required to prevent different diseases. Here we assessed the immunogenicity in a mouse model of a vaccine composition comprising inactivated influenza viruses (H5N1/H1N1), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and/or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and investigated whether the vaccine formulations can overcome the immunologic interference between the individual vaccine components. We demonstrated that the antigenic competition happens between H5N1/H1N1 or H5N1/EV71 inactivated virions when the vaccine combinations either formulated with Alum suspensions or without adjuvant. In the presence of PELC emulsified particles, EV71-specific immune responses before and after incorporating H5N1 virus into EV71 vaccine were detected of no significant difference; in addition, H5N1- and EV71-specific immune responses were found at the same level when H5N1/EV71/JEV consolidating into combination vaccine. Emulsified vaccine formulation was represented as a potential tool that is found to reduce the number of injections required to prevent multiple infectious strains causing the same disease (H5N1/H1N1) and/or that protect against different diseases (H5N1/EV71). Combination vaccines can also include a third component to protect against H5N1/EV71/JEV at the same time.

  3. ATP1B3: a virus-induced host factor against EV71 replication by up-regulating the production of type-I interferons.

    Lu, Yanfang; Hou, Hongyan; Wang, Feng; Qiao, Long; Wang, Xiong; Yu, Jing; Liu, Weiyong; Sun, Ziyong

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe diseases, and is becoming increasingly common in children. In the current study, we carried out yeast two-hybrid assays to screen human proteins that could interact with 3A protein of EV71. Human β3 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP1B3) protein was demonstrated to interact with the 3A protein of EV71. Although 3A protein had no effect on the expression of ATP1B3, EV71 infection resulted in elevated expression of ATP1B3 in RD cell line, both on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Interestingly, knockdown of ATP1B3 could significantly increase the replication of EV71, whereas overexpression of ATP1B3 significantly suppressed the replication of EV71 in RD cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of ATP1B3 could induce the production of type-I interferons. Our study demonstrated that ATP1B3 inhibit EV71 replication by enhancing the production of type-I interferons, which could act as a potential therapeutic target in EV71 infection.

  4. Validation-based insertional mutagenesis for identification of Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells.

    Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhendong

    2013-08-01

    Lentiviral validation-based insertional mutagenesis (VBIM) is a sophisticated, forward genetic approach that is used for the investigation of signal transduction in mammalian cells. Using VBIM, we conducted function-based genetic screening for host genes that affect enterovirus 71 (EV71) viral replication. This included host factors that are required for the life cycle of EV71 and host restriction factors that inhibit EV71 replication. Several cell clones, resistant to EV71, were produced using EV71 infection as a selection pressure and the nuclear pore protein 214 (Nup214) was identified as a host factor required for EV71 replication. In SD2-2, the corresponding VBIM lentivirus transformed clone, the expression of endogenous Nup214 was significantly down-regulated by the reverse inserted VBIM promoter. After Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the VBIM promoter, the expression of Nup214 recovered and the clone regained sensitivity to the EV71 infection. Furthermore, over-expression of Nup214 in the cells suggested that Nup214 was promoting EV71 replication. Results of this study indicate that a successful mutagenesis strategy has been established for screening host genes related to viral replication.

  5. Development of Markov Chain-Based Queuing Model and Wireless Infrastructure for EV to Smart Meter Communication in V2G

    Santoshkumar; Udaykumar, R. Y.

    2015-04-01

    The electrical vehicles (EVs) can be connected to the grid for power transaction. The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) supports the grid requirements and helps in maintaining the load demands. The grid control center (GCC), aggregator and EV are three key entities in V2G communication. The GCC sends the information about power requirements to the aggregator. The aggregator after receiving the information from the GCC sends the information to the EVs. Based on the information, the interested EV owners participate in power transaction with the grid. The aggregator facilitates the EVs by providing the parking and charging slot. In this paper the queuing model for EVs connected to the grid and development of wireless infrastructure for the EV to Smart Meter communication is proposed. The queuing model is developed and simulated. The path loss models for WiMAX are analyzed and compared. Also, the physical layer of WiMAX protocol is modeled and simulated for the EV to Smart Meter communication in V2G.

  6. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    Ranković, M. Lj. [Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Canon, F. [INRA, UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon (France); Nahon, L. [SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, St Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Giuliani, A. [SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, St Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); INRA, UAR1008, CEPIA, Rue de la Géraudière, BP 71627, 44316 Nantes (France); Milosavljević, A. R., E-mail: vraz@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4, and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insight into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. The photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending on both the types of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  7. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV

    Abraham, J.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

    2010-02-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  8. Advancing non-equilibrium ARPES experiments by a 9.3 eV coherent ultrafast photon source

    Cilento, F., E-mail: federico.cilento@elettra.eu [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); C.N.R. – I.O.M., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Crepaldi, A. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Manzoni, G.; Sterzi, A. [Universitá degli Studi di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); Zacchigna, M. [C.N.R. – I.O.M., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Bugnon, Ph.; Berger, H. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Parmigiani, F. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); International Faculty, University of Köln, 50937 Köln (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The quest for investigating the non-equilibrium dynamics of the band structure of strongly-correlated materials over their entire Brillouin zone is a primary objective. However, the actual ultrafast UV light sources are not suitable for addressing several critical questions in the field. Here we report on a novel light source generating sub-250 fs, 9.3 eV photon energy light pulses at 250 kHz repetition rate, obtained via third-harmonic generation in Xe of frequency-doubled 50 fs laser pulses at 1.55 eV. By reporting the measured band dispersion of a Cu(111) crystal and the non-equilibrium dynamics of the Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator, we prove that this source is suitable for studying the non-equilibrium dynamics of the entire Fermi surface of several complex materials, with high signal statistics and limited space-charge effect.

  9. Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 10{18} eV.

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anticić, T; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arisaka, K; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Díaz Castro, M L; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Louedec, K; Lozano Bahilo, J; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meurer, C; Micanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Parra, A; Parrisius, J; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovancova, J; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Schuster, D; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Stasielak, J; Stephan, M; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Susa, T; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tapia, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Tcherniakhovski, D; Tegolo, D; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Travnicek, P; Tridapalli, D B; Tristram, G; Trovato, E; Tueros, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Williams, C; Winchen, T; Winnick, M G; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Yuan, G; Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2010-03-05

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10;{18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{-21}{+35}) g/cm{2}/decade below 10{18.24+/-0.05} eV, and (24+/-3) g/cm{2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  10. Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by neon - 5 to 100 eV

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Relative elastic-scattering differential cross sections were measured in the 5-100-eV impact energy and 10-145 deg angular ranges. Normalization of these cross sections was achieved by utilizing accurate total electron-scattering cross sections. A phase-shift analysis of the angular distributions in terms of real phase shifts has been carried out. From the differential cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections were obtained and the values of the critical energy and angle were established (associated with the lowest value of the differential cross section) as 62.5 + or - 2.5 eV and 101.7 deg + or - 1.5 deg, respectively. The present phase shifts, the critical parameters, and differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared to previous experimental and theoretical results. The error associated with the present data is about 10 percent.

  11. Calibrating image plate sensitivity in the 700 to 5000 eV spectral energy range

    Haugh, Michael J.; Lee, Joshua; Romano, Edward; Schneider, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method to calibrate image plate sensitivity for use in the low energy spectral range. Image plates, also known as photostimulable luminescence (PSL) detectors, have often proved to be a valuable tool as a detector for plasma physics studies. Their advantages of large dynamic range, high stopping power, and resistance to neutron damage sometimes outweigh the problems of limited resolution and the remote processing required. The neutron damage resistance is required when the X-ray source is producing a high neutron flux. The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a key diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at LLNL for use in determining the symmetry of the laser beams. The SXI is essential to proper interpretation of the data from the Dante diagnostic to determine the X-ray radiation temperature. It is comprised of two diagnostics located at the top and the bottom of the target chamber. The usual detector is a large array CCD camera. For shots giving high yields of neutrons, the camera would not only be blinded by the neutrons, it would be damaged. To get around this problem, an image plate (IP) is used as the detector. The NIF application covers the energy range from 700 to 5000 eV. The type of image plates typically used for plasma physics are the Fuji BAS-MS, BAS-SR, and BAS-TR models. All models consist of an X-ray sensitive material made of BaF(Br,I):Eu2+ embedded in a plastic binder. X-rays incident on the phosphor ionize the Eu 2+ producing Eu3+ and free electrons that are trapped in lattice defects (F-centers) produced by the absence of halogen ions in the BaF2 crystal. An image plate readout scanner irradiates the IP with a red laser causing reduction of the Eu3+ and emission of a blue photon. The photon is collected using a photomultiplier and digitized to make an electronic image. Image plates are cleared of all F-centers by putting them under a bright light for about 10 minutes. They are then ready for producing a

  12. The association between IL1B gene-31 single nucleotide polymorphism and HFMD with EV71 infection%IL1B基因-31位点SNP与EV71手足口病的相关性研究

    邹容容; 张国良; 刘映霞; 林益敏; 袁静; 李建明; 王艳荣; 邓永; 曾文

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between IL-1B gene-31 single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP)and susceptibility and severity of EV71 HFMD.Methods The genotype of IL-1B gene-31 SNP was determined in EV71 HFMD(n =1196,including 801 mild cases,395 severe cases)and healthy control group (HC,n =573)with TaqMan assay in a case-control study.(1)To explore the association between-31 SNP and susceptibility to EV71 HFMD;(2)To explore the association between-31 SNP and susceptibility to EV71 HFMD in different sex population;(3)To explored the association between-31 SNP and severity to EV71 HFMD.Results (1)IL-1B gene-31 T allele frequency was significantly higher in EV71 HFMD than that in HC.(2)IL-1B gene-31 T allele frequency was significantly higher in EV71 HFMD than in HC for male population.(3)The IL-1B gene-31 T is not associated with the severity of EV71 HFMD.Conclusion The IL-1B gene-31 T allele was associated with susceptibility to EV71 HFMD,but was not associated with the severity of EV71 HFMD,especially,the IL-1B gene-31 T allele was associated with susceptibility to EV71 HFMD for male population.%目的 探讨IL1B基因-31位点单核苷酸多态性(SNP)与EV71手足口病(HFMD)易感性及临床表型的相关性.方法 采用病例-对照研究方法,应用TaqMan探针基因分型技术,对1196例EV71 HFMD[(其中801例为轻症(M-EV71),395例为重症(S-EV71)]和573例健康对照人群(HC)IL1B基因-31位点进行分型,比较两组人群等位基因频率差异.(1)探讨IL1B基因-31位点SNP与EV71 HFMD易感性的相关性;(2)探讨在不同性别中-31位点SNP与EV71 HFMD易感性的相关性;(3)探讨-31位点SNP与EV71 HFMD临床表型的相关性.结果 (1) EV71 HFMD患者中IL1B基因-31 T等位基因的频率明显高于HC,这提示T等位基因增加了患EV71 HFMD的风险(OR=1.22;95% CI,1.06 ~1.40;P =0.007);(2)男性EV71 HFMD患者中IL1B基因-31 T等位基因的频率明显高于男性HC,这提示T等位基因也增加了男性患EV71 HFMD

  13. Structural, Optical, and Dielectric Properties of Azure B Thin Films and Impact of Thermal Annealing

    Zeyada, H. M.; Zidan, H. M.; Abdelghany, A. M.; Abbas, I.

    2017-03-01

    Thin films of azure B (AB) have been prepared by thermal evaporation. Structural, optical, and dielectric characteristics of as-prepared and annealed samples were studied. AB is polycrystalline in as-synthesized powder form. Detailed x-ray diffraction studies showed amorphous structure for pristine and annealed films. Fourier-transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy indicated minor changes in molecular bonds of AB thin films either after deposition or after thermal annealing. Optical transmittance and reflection spectra of prepared thin films were studied at nearly normal light incidence in the spectral range from 200 nm to 2500 nm, showing marked changes without new peaks. Annealing increased the absorption coefficient and decreased the optical bandgap. Onset and optical energy gaps of pristine films were found to obey indirect allowed transition with values of 1.10 eV and 2.64 eV, respectively. Annealing decreased the onset and optical energy gaps to 1.0 eV and 2.57 eV, respectively. The dispersion parameters before and after annealing are discussed in terms of a single-oscillator model. The spectra of the dielectric constants (ɛ 1, ɛ 2) were found to depend on the annealing temperature in addition to the incident photon energy.

  14. EV-DO监测系统中R-P接口业务信令追踪的研究与实现%RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SIGNALING TRACING OF R-P INTERFACE SERVICE IN EV-DO MONITORING SYSTEM

    向程超; 雒江涛; 梁昌银

    2015-01-01

    In EV-DO network,the signaling monitoring system is particularly important to the analyses of users data business operation.Ai-ming at CDR synthesis of A1 1 signaling and PPP signaling between R-P interface which is an important interface in EV-DO network,and com-bining the service characteristics of calling and paging procedures,this paper presents a series of optimisation and improvement schemes.By testing on ED-VO existing network data and its corresponding experimental result derived,it is shown that the optimisation of the correlation mechanism between signaling and service data messages shortens the tracing statistic time in regard to the signaling of data network paging and user calling businesses to the highest of 30 s,the refinement in indexes boosts fault positioning accuracy as well.This improved scheme has important significance for optimising the analyses platform of networks operation and maintenance.%在EV-DO网络中,信令监测系统对于用户数据业务运营的分析尤为重要。针对EV-DO网络中的重要数据接口R-P接口间A11及PPP信令CDR(Call Data Record)的合成,结合主叫和寻呼过程的业务特征,提出一系列优化及改进方案。经过EV-DO现网数据的测试以及产生的相应实验结果表明,优化信令与业务数据消息间的关联机制,缩短了数据网络寻呼与用户主叫业务信令的追踪统计时间最高可达30 s,指标的细化提升了故障定位准确性。这项改进方案对于优化网络运维的分析平台有着重要意义。

  15. EVS vs TIPS shunt for gastric variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis:A meta-analysis

    Ming; Bai; Xing-Shun; Qi; Zhi-Ping; Yang; Kai-Chun; Wu; Dai-Ming; Fan; Guo-Hong; Han

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) vs endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) in the management of gastric variceal (GV) bleeding in terms of variceal rebleeding, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and survival by meta-analysis.METHODS: Medline, Embase, and CNKI were searched. Studies compared TIPS with EVS in treating GV bleeding were identified and included according to our predefined inclusion criteria. Data were extracted independently by two of our authors. Studies with prospective randomized design were considered to be of high quality. Hazard ratios (HRs) or odd ratios(ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model when there was no inter-trial heterogeneity. Oppositely, a random-effects model was employed.RESULTS: Three studies with 220 patients who had at least one episode of GV bleeding were included in the present meta-analysis. The proportions of patients with viral cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis were 39% (range 0%-78%) and 36% (range 12% to 41%), respectively. The pooled incidence of variceal rebleeding in the TIPS group was significantly lower than that in the EVS group (HR = 0.3, 0.35, 95% CI: 0.17-0.71, P = 0.004). However, the risk of the development of any degree of HE was significantly increased in the TIPS group (OR = 15.97, 95% CI: 3.61-70.68). The pooled HR of survival was 1.26(95% CI: 0.76-2.09, P = 0.36). No inter-trial heterogeneity was observed among these analyses. CONCLUSION: The improved effect of TIPS in the prevention of GV rebleeding is associated with an increased risk of HE. There is no survival difference between the TIPS and EVS groups. Further studies are needed to evaluate the survival benefit of TIPS in cirrhotic patients with GV bleeding.

  16. Experimental Search for Hidden Photon CDM in the eV mass range with a Dish Antenna

    Suzuki, J; Horie, T.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2015-01-01

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$ of $\\sim 6\\times 10^{-12}$ for the hidden photon mass $m_\\gamma = 3.1 \\pm 1.2$ eV.

  17. How to deal with PCR composition problem at $E_0 \\gtrsim 10^{17}$ eV

    Galkin, V I; Bakhromzod, R; Mukumov, A

    2015-01-01

    Basic ideas of muon tracker technique for the solution of primary cosmic ray (PCR) composition problem in the energy range $10^{17}-10^{18}$ eV are presented. The approach uses MC simulation data made with CORSIKA6.990 for "Pamir-XXI" site conditions. Similar technology can certainly be developed for other observation levels and interaction models. One can probably extend it to much higher primary energies.

  18. Estilo de vida saludable (EVS): la necesidad de una mirada alternativa al enfoque biomédico

    Pinzón Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    La comunidad médica adventista continuamente encuentra evidencia que respalda la filosofía de la salud, especialmente la que tiene que ver con los Estilos de Vida Saludables (EVS), dado que está asociado a una larga longevidad y menor riesgo de padecer enfermedades crónicas y degenerativas. Pero, ¿qué se conoce de la investigación científica que identifica restricciones en este enfoque?

  19. Ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule in the VUV energy range (12 to 310 eV)

    Bernini, R.B., E-mail: rafael.bernini@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), 25050-100 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Coutinho, L.H. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio De Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunez, C.V. [Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biotecnologia, Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), 69060-001 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Castilho, R.B. de [Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Souza, G.G.B. de [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Ionic fragmentation of isoprene following valence-shell and C 1s excitation. • Experimental observation of single and double ionization processes. • Large increase in fragmentation following core excitation. • Similar dissociation pattern bellow (270 eV) and above (310 eV) core edge. • Stable molecular ion observed at all photon energies. - Abstract: Isoprene, C{sub 5}H{sub 8}, is a biogenic volatile compound emitted from plants and animals, playing an important role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, we have studied the ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule induced by high energy photons (synchrotron radiation), both at the valence (12.0, 14.0, 16.0, 18.0, and 21.0 eV) and carbon 1s edge (270 and 310 eV, respectively, below and above edge) energies. The ionic fragments were mass-analyzed using a Wiley–McLaren time-of-flight spectrometer (TOF) and single (PEPICO) and double ionization coincidence (PEPIPICO) spectra were obtained. As expected, the fragmentation degree increases with increasing energy. Below and above the carbon 1s edge, the fragmentation patterns are quite similar, and basically the same fragments are observed as compared to the spectra following valence-shell ionization. Stable doubly-charged ions were not observed. A PEPIPICO spectrum has shown that the main dissociation route for doubly-ionized species corresponds to the [CH{sub 3}]{sup +}/[C{sub 4}H{sub 2–5}]{sup +} ion pair. Intense fragmentation of the isoprene molecule has been observed following valence shell and core electron ionization. The observance of basically the same fragments when moving from valence to inner-shell suggests that basically the same fragmentation routes are present in both cases. All doubly (or multiply)-charged cations are unstable, at least on a microsecond scale.

  20. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T. [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inoue, Y. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Minowa, M. [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science,The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼6×10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ}=3.1±1.2 eV.

  1. Conformal gauge mediation and light gravitino of mass m{sub 3/2}eV

    Ibe, M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)], E-mail: ibe@slac.stanford.edu; Nakayama, Y. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Yanagida, T.T. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan)

    2009-01-26

    We discuss a class of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models with conformal invariance above the messenger mass scale (conformal gauge mediation). The spectrum of the supersymmetric particles including the gravitino is uniquely determined by the messenger mass. When the conformal fixed point is strongly interacting, it predicts a light gravitino of mass m{sub 3/2}eV, which is attractive since such a light gravitino causes no problem in cosmology.

  2. Laser excitation of 8-eV electronic states in Th{sup +}. A first pillar of the electronic bridge toward excitation of the Th-229 nucleus

    Herrera-Sancho, Oscar-Andrey

    2012-11-23

    The possibility to realize a nuclear clock based on the optical magnetic dipole transition from the ground state to the low-energy isomeric state in the {sup 229}Th nucleus has motivated experiments and proposals toward highly accurate clocks with trapped ions and highly stable optical frequency standards with Th-doped solids. These systems hold great promise to open a field of research in the borderland between atomic and nuclear physics, which will enable highly sensitive tests of postulates from fundamental physics and also will allow us to coherently excite and control nuclear states, opening a wonderful and intriguing new field in physics. A major experimental obstacle that has to be overcome before any precision spectroscopy can be performed with this system is however the insufficient knowledge on the exact transition energy. The best experimental result so far is an indirect determination from {gamma}-spectroscopy with a relative uncertainty of about 6%. To facilitate the search for the nuclear transition within a wide uncertainty range around 8 eV, we investigate two-photon excitation in the dense electronic level structure of Th{sup +}, which enables the nuclear excitation via a resonantly enhanced inverse electronic bridge process. Experiments on one- and two-photon laser excitation of buffer gas cooled {sup 232}Th{sup +} ions in a radio-frequency ion trap are reported in this thesis. The strongest resonance line at 402 nm from the (6d{sup 2}7s)J=3/2 ground state to the (6d7s7p)J=5/2 state is driven as the first excitation step. Using nanosecond laser pulses in the 250-nm wavelength range for the second step of a two-photon excitation, we have observed seven previously unknown levels in the unexplored region of the electronic level structure around 8 eV. This investigation shows that the Th{sup +} ion seems to be well suited for the search of the isomer transition because both, theory and experimental results, agree on the density of strong transitions

  3. An investigation of mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 1019 eV via the study of extensive air showers

    Doostmohammadi S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron and muon components of extensive air shower (EAS with energies above 1019 eV are analyzed via various giant EAS arrays. A varying property of showers is observed for two energy ranges; higher and lower than (3 − 4 x 1019 eV. The age parameter, zenith angle, shower size dependence on muon size and shower size dependence on primary energy show an increment of mass composition (MC above (3−4x 1019eV. Comparison of the observed EAS results with the simulations of Capdevielle et al. (2000 and Shinozaki et al. (2005 gives at most 20% photon fraction for primary energies above 1019 eV. The arrival directions of showers above 4x1019 eV indicate an increasing concentration towards the super galactic plane.

  4. Tonsillar crypt epithelium is an important extra-central nervous system site for viral replication in EV71 encephalomyelitis.

    He, Yaoxin; Ong, Kien Chai; Gao, Zifen; Zhao, Xishun; Anderson, Virginia M; McNutt, Michael A; Wong, Kum Thong; Lu, Min

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71; family Picornaviridae, species human Enterovirus A) usually causes hand, foot, and mouth disease, which may rarely be complicated by fatal encephalomyelitis. We investigated extra-central nervous system (extra-CNS) tissues capable of supporting EV71 infection and replication, and have correlated tissue infection with expression of putative viral entry receptors, scavenger receptor B2 (SCARB2), and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded CNS and extra-CNS tissues from seven autopsy cases were examined by IHC and in situ hybridization to evaluate viral antigens and RNA. Viral receptors were identified with IHC. In all seven cases, the CNS showed stereotypical distribution of inflammation and neuronal localization of viral antigens and RNA, confirming the clinical diagnosis of EV71 encephalomyelitis. In six cases in which tonsillar tissues were available, viral antigens and/or RNA were localized to squamous epithelium lining the tonsillar crypts. Tissues from the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, mesenteric nodes, spleen, and skin were all negative for viral antigens/RNA. Our novel findings strongly suggest that tonsillar crypt squamous epithelium supports active viral replication and represents an important source of viral shedding that facilitates person-to-person transmission by both the fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. It may also be a portal for viral entry. A correlation between viral infection and SCARB2 expression appears to be more significant than for PSGL-1 expression.

  5. Case-fatality of hand, foot and mouth disease associated with EV71: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Zhao, Y Y; Jin, H; Zhang, X F; Wang, B

    2015-10-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a growing public health concern. This study aimed to estimate the case-fatality of HFMD associated with EV71 on the basis of a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Elsevier, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases. Two authors independently selected relevant studies. The pooled estimate of case-fatality was calculated using a random-effects model. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored using subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis and meta-regression. We identified 14 eligible studies with a total population of 112 546. The random-effects pooled case-fatality was 1·7% (95% confidence interval 1·2-2·4). The funnel plot was asymmetrical. The estimate of case-fatality was highest in mainland China (1·8%). Removal of eight local Chinese studies decreased the original estimate. The pooled case-fatality in the period of 1998-2007 (1·5%) was lower than that in the period 2008-2012 (1·8%). Control measures for HFMD associated with EV71 are essential because of the increased case-fatality over time, especially in East Asia.

  6. NIF-scale re-emission sphere measurements of early-time Tr = 100 eV hohlraum symmetry (invited).

    Dewald, E L; Thomas, C; Milovich, J; Edwards, J; Sorce, C; Kirkwood, R; Meeker, D; Jones, O; Izumi, N; Landen, O L

    2008-10-01

    The indirect-drive National Ignition Campaign (NIC) proposes to set the first 2 ns of hohlraum radiation symmetry by observing the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern from a high-Z sphere in place of the ignition capsule. To assess this technique under NIC conditions, we used the Omega Laser Facility to image the re-emission of Bi coated spheres with 200 ps temporal, 50-100 microm spatial, and 30% spectral resolution. The sphere is driven by 70% NIC-scale vacuum Au hohlraums heated to Tr=100 eV using two cones per side laser beam illumination. The experiments have demonstrated the required accuracies of <3%P(2)/P(0) and <3%P(4)/P(0) Legendre mode flux asymmetry at both 900 and 1200 eV re-emission photon energies. The re-emission patterns at 900 and 1200 eV are also consistent with each other and their relative dependence on radiation temperature. We measured the P(2)/P(0) and P(4)/P(0) dependence to laser cone power ratio. View factor calculations are in agreement with the experimentally measured radiation flux and re-emit images when assuming 55% inner beam and 100 % outer beam coupling into x rays at the hohlraum wall.

  7. The Energy Spectrum and the Chemical Composition of Primary Cosmic Rays with Energies from 1014 to 1016 eV

    Ogio, S.; Kakimoto, F.; Kurashina, Y.; Burgoa, O.; Harada, D.; Tokuno, H.; Yoshii, H.; Morizawa, A.; Gotoh, E.; Nakatani, H.; Nishi, K.; Shimoda, S.; Tajima, N.; Yamada, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Murakami, K.; Toyoda, Y.; Matsubara, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Shirasaki, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Miranda, P.; Velarde, A.

    2004-09-01

    We have measured extensive air showers with primary energies above 6 TeV at Mount Chacaltaya in Bolivia. The data were collected by an air shower array called the Minimum Air Shower (MAS) array starting in 2000 March. We applied an equi-intensity analysis method to the extensive air showers extended over the region of their maximum development. We varied the mixture of protons and iron in our simulations and compared these to the data to determine the mixing ratio of protons as a function of the primary energy. Using this, we derived the primary energy spectrum from 1014 to 5×1016 eV. Consequently, we conclude that the power-law index of the spectrum changes gradually around 1015.5 eV and that the obtained proton ratio decreases with increasing energy. We directly measured the longitudinal development of air showers generated by primaries with energies around the knee. We found that the average mass number of primary cosmic rays shows a steady increase with energy above 1014.5 eV and that the dominant component around the knee is not protons.

  8. Unresolved clinical aspects and safety hazards of blood derived- EV/MV in stored blood components: From personal memory lanes to newer perspectives on the roles of EV/MV in various biological phenomena.

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Amiral, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Blood cells generate heterogeneous populations of vesicles that are delivered, as small-specialized packages of highly active cell fragments in blood circulation, having almost similar functional activities, as the mother cells. These so called extracellular vesicles are the essential part of an energy-dependent natural apoptotic process; hence their beneficial and harmful biological functions cannot be ignored. Evidence is accumulating, that cellular derived vesicles, originate from all viable cells including: megakaryocytes, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells and endothelial cells, the highest in proportions from platelets. Shedding can also be triggered by pathological activation of inflammatory processes and activation of coagulation or complement pathways, or even by shear stress in the circulation. Structurally, so called MV/EV appear to be, sometimes inside-out and sometimes outside-in cell fragments having a bilayered phospholipid structure exposing coagulant-active phosphatidylserine, expressing various membrane receptors, and they serve as cell-to-cell shuttles for bioactive molecules such as lipids, growth factors, microRNAs, and mitochondria. Ex vivo processing of blood into its components, embodying centrifugation, processing by various apheresis procedures, leukoreduction, pathogen reduction, and finally storage in different media and different types of blood bags, also have major impacts on the generation and retention of MV content. These artificially generated small, but highly liable packages, together with the original pool of MVs collected from the donor, do exhibit differing biological activities, and are not inert elements and should be considered as a parameter of blood safety in haemovigilance programmes. Harmonization and consensus in sampling protocols, sample handling, processing, and assessment methods, in particular converting to full automation, are needed to achieve consensual interpretations. This review focuses on some of

  9. X-ray induced optical reflectivity

    Stephen M. Durbin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity. Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4, a semiconductor (gallium arsenide, GaAs, and a metal (gold, Au, obtained with ∼100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

  10. Applied optics and optical design

    Conrady, A E

    2011-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  11. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi [V P and R P T P Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India); Bhutadia, Harshad [Government Engineering College, Patan 384265, Gujarat (India); Antony, Bobby [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad JH-826004 (India); Mason, Nigel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy ({approx}15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  12. [Optic neuritis].

    Wilhelm, H; Heine, C; Tonagel, F

    2014-11-01

    Optic neuritis is a frequent neuro-ophthalmological disease in which the diagnosis can be based on just a few symptoms and findings. It is not only important to differentiate from other optic nerve disorders but also to recognise special types of optic neuritis, which is mostly only possible during the course of the disease. This article presents a review of the current state in diagnosis and therapy from the authors' personal point of view.

  13. Nuclear Gamma-Ray Laser of Optical Range

    Tkalya, E V

    2010-01-01

    A possibility of amplification of the 7.6 eV (3.5 eV) $\\gamma$-radiation by the stimulated $\\gamma$-emission of the ensemble of the $^{229m}$Th isomeric nuclei in a host dielectric crystal with a large band gap is proved theoretically. This amplification is a result of the following three factors: 1) the excitation of a great number of the $^{229m}$Th isomers by laser radiation; 2) the creation of the inverse population of nuclear levels in a cooled sample placed in magnetic field; 3) the emissions/absorption of the optical photons by thorium nuclei in the crystal without recoil (the M\\"{o}ssbauer effect in the optical range).

  14. The research on the immunoprotection difference among five EV71 virus%不同EV71毒株的免疫保护差异性研究

    汪颖; 叶祥忠; 李娟; 贾继宗; 韩金乐; 李艳; 李益民; 游松

    2010-01-01

    目的 对用MRC-5细胞分离的5株EV71疫苗候选株进行差异性研究,旨在筛选出符合疫苗制备需要的病毒株.方法 将5株单克隆化的EV71疫莳候选株制备成试验苗,腹腔接种ICR雌性小鼠,加强免疫两周后,雌雄配对,饲养2周,对雌鼠再加强免疫1次,并对出生24 h内的乳鼠进行颅腔攻毒,观察乳鼠生存状况;用ELISA法检测母鼠和乳鼠血清IgG滴度;用巢式PCR检测攻毒乳鼠肠道EV71载量;用MRC-5细胞培养法检测免疫血清对病毒的中和能力;用SPSS16.0对实验数据进行统计分析.结果 5株病毒免疫的雌鼠血清抗体水平随免疫次数增加而提高、抗体对病毒的中和能力存在差别;致死株攻毒的乳鼠存活状况存在差别,非致死株攻毒的乳鼠肠道EV71载量也存在差别.结论 从分子水平、细胞水平和个体水平上证实5株病毒的免疫原性和免疫保护性存在差别,123株是免疫保护力最好的一株,可用于疫苗研究.%Objective To screen the 5 EV71 vaccine candidates which were isolated from MRC-5 cells to find one as the vaccine virus. Methods The ICR mother mouse were immunized by intraperitoneal injection with the 5 vaccine candidates which were made from monoclonal EV71 virus. Two weeks after booster immunization, the animals were allowed to mate, another booster was given after 2 weeks, and then attracted the milk mouse within 24 h with different types of virus by cranial cavity injection. The survival condition were recorded everyday, and the antibody titre(IgG) were detected by ELISA, the virus titre of intestine were detected by nest-PCR, and neutralizing antibodies were determined using a microassay with MRC-5 cells, and then the data were analyzed by SPSS16.0. Results The antibody titre of 5 virus immunized ICR mouse were improved with the increase in the immune times, and they got difference in neutralization capacity, the survival rate after fatal attract and the virus titre of the intestine

  15. A new EV71 VP3 epitope in norovirus P particle vector displays neutralizing activity and protection in vivo in mice.

    Jiang, Liping; Fan, Rongjun; Sun, Shiyang; Fan, Peihu; Su, Weiheng; Zhou, Yan; Gao, Feng; Xu, Fei; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-11-27

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), as the main agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), have become a serious public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, various neutralizing B cell epitopes of EV71 were identified as targets for promising vaccine candidates. Structural studies of Picornaviridae indicated that potent immunodominant epitopes typically lie in the hypervariable loop of capsid surfaces. However, cross-neutralizing antibodies and cross-protection between EV71 and CVA16 have not been observed. Therefore, we speculated that divergent sequences of the two viruses are key epitopes for inducing protective neutralizing responses. In this study, we selected 10 divergent epitope candidates based on alignment of the EV71 and CVA16 P1 amino acid sequences using the Multalin interface page, and these epitopes are conserved among all subgenotypes of EV71. Simultaneously, by utilizing the norovirus P particle as a novel vaccine delivery carrier, we identified the 71-6 epitope (amino acid 176-190 of VP3) as a conformational neutralizing epitope against EV71 in an in vitro micro-neutralization assay as well as an in vivo protection assay in mice. Altogether, these results indicated that the incorporation of the 71-6 epitope into the norovirus P domain can provide a promising candidate for an effective synthetic peptide-based vaccine against EV71.

  16. EV71与CA16病毒所致重症手足口病患儿的脑脊液比较

    娄莹; 梁鹏

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究EV71与CA16病毒感染所致的手足口病重症患儿脑脊液的区别,分析脑脊液检查在不同病原体感染患儿中的临床意义.方法 采用前瞻性分组对照试验设计,对被检查出EV71或CA16感染的重症手足口病患儿按照病原体不同分为A(EV71)、B(CA16)2组,记录患儿脑脊液压力、生化及常规检查数据.结果 EV71感染患儿脑脊液细胞数及压力均较CA16组高(P<0.05),EV71组脑脊液蛋白较CA16组高(P<0.05);EV71组伴有更加明显的神经系统症状.结论 脑脊液检查在EV71感染的手足口病患儿中较CA16感染患儿更具有临床意义.

  17. Effects of the dual TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells

    Petri, Marcelo H. [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Tellier, Céline; Michiels, Carine [NARILIS, URBC, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Ellertsen, Ingvill [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Dogné, Jean-Michel [Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); Bäck, Magnus, E-mail: Magnus.Back@ki.se [Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •EV-077 reduced TNF-α induced inflammation in endothelial cells. •The thromboxane mimetic U69915 enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. •EV-077 inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The prothrombotic mediator thromboxane A{sub 2} is derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways, and transduces its effect through the thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptor. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the TP receptor antagonist and thromboxane synthase inhibitor EV-077 on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and on human coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation. To this end, mRNA levels of different proinflammatory mediators were studied by real time quantitative PCR, supernatants were analyzed by enzyme immune assay, and cell proliferation was assessed using WST-1. EV-077 significantly decreased mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and PTX3 after TNFα incubation, whereas concentrations of 6-keto PGF1α in supernatants of endothelial cells incubated with TNFα were significantly increased after EV-077 treatment. Although U46619 did not alter coronary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation, this thromboxane mimetic enhanced the proliferation induced by serum, insulin and growth factors, which was significantly inhibited by EV-077. In conclusion, EV-077 inhibited TNFα-induced endothelial inflammation and reduced the enhancement of smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by a thromboxane mimetic, supporting that the thromboxane pathway may be associated with early atherosclerosis in terms of endothelial dysfunction and vascular hypertrophy.

  18. A Modified Potential Method for Electrons Scattering Total Cross Section Calculations on Several Molecules at 30 ~ 5000 eV: CF4, CCl4, CFCl3, CF2Cl2, and CF3Cl

    2006-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is employed to calculate the total cross sections (TCSs) for electrons scattering from several molecules (CF4, CCl4, CFCl3, CF2 Cl2, and CF3 Cl) over an incident energy range 30 ~ 5000 eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The quantitative TCSs are compared with those obtained by experiments and other theories wherever available, and good agreement is obtained above 100 eV.It is shown that the modified potential can successfully calculate the TCSs of electron-molecule scattering over a wide energy range, especially at lower energies.

  19. The state as a refugee. Pt. 2. The long way from DIN 4108 to EnEV; Der Staat als Getriebener. T. 2. Der lange Weg von der DIN 4108 bis zur EnEV

    Eicke-Hennig, Werner [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The 1980ies and 1990ies were the time of fruitful energy discussions. Low-energy buildings and passive houses were defined. Clear standards of consumption were set and heat balance programs were developed. This was performed outside of Federal Ministries and universities. This was conceived by pioneers and small institutions, promoted by some Federal States, motivated and supported by an increasing environmental movement. In the 1990ies, everything pushed to an introduction of the low energy standard. However, the WSVO novella 1995 (WVO - Ordinance on Heat Insulation of Buildings) and the introduction of the Energy Saving Ordinance in 2002 (EnEV 2002) missed this target considerably.

  20. The Construction of the EGFP Enterovirus 71%肠道病毒71型(EV71)荧光病毒的构建

    朱守海; 王璐璐

    2014-01-01

    人肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus,EV71)是引起手足口病的主要病原体。首先利用反向遗传学的方法,构建了EV71全长cDNA感染性克隆,经体外转录、转染RD细胞后成功获得了拯救病毒。随后,将增强型绿色荧光蛋白基因(Enhanced green fluorescent protein,EGFP)插入到EV71基因组中构建荧光病毒。结果表明,此荧光病毒不仅可以侵染、复制,在传代的过程中EGFP基因也保持了较好的稳定性,表明其可以作为一种报告病毒应用于高通量的EV71抗病毒药物筛选中。%Human Enterovirus 71(EV71)is one of the major agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD). An infectious full-length cDNA clone of EV71 as well as the recuse virus were obtained using the reverse genetic techniques. Then, the EGFP gene was inserted into the EV71 genome to construct the reporter virus. The results show that the EGFP-EV71 virus not only are replication-competent and infectious, but the EGFP gene are stable during passaging, implicating the recombinant virus could be used as a reporter virus for high throughput EV71 antiviral drugs screening.

  1. Progress in research on inactivated whole virus vaccine against enterovirus 71%EV71全病毒灭活疫苗的研究进展

    姚昕; 毛群颖

    2012-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD) has been circulated in China and has become a serious public health problem. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is emerged as a significant pathogen causing severe and death cases. Various EV71 vaccines are in development for controlling EV71 infection, of which inactivated vaccines are developed rapidly. At present, phase HI clinical trials will be performed on the inactivated whole virus vaccines against EV71 manufactured by three manufacturers in China. This review attempts to give an overview of the progress and quality control of inactivated whole virus vaccine against EV71.%近年来手足口病(Hand,foot and mouth disease,HFMD)在我国持续流行,已经成为危害儿童健康的严重疾病.肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)感染是引起HFMD病例和婴儿重症死亡的主要病因.为控制EV71感染的流行,国内外均在开展不同种类EV71疫苗的研发,其中以灭活疫苗的进展最快,目前国内3家EV71全病毒灭活疫苗即将进入Ⅲ期临床试验阶段.本文就全病毒灭活疫苗的研发进展及质量控制和评价要点作一综述.

  2. Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium nitride polycrystalline films

    Silva, M.V.S. da, E-mail: marcus.sansil@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisica, UFBA, Campus Ondina, 40210-340, Salvador (Brazil); David, D.G.F.; Pepe, I.; Ferreira da Silva, A.; Almeida, J.S. de [Instituto de Fisica, UFBA, Campus Ondina, 40210-340, Salvador (Brazil); Gazoto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Santos, A.O. dos [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); CCSST, Universidade Federal do Maranhao, 65900-410 Imperatriz, MA (Brazil); Cardoso, L.P.; Meneses, E.A. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Graybill, D.L. [75 Logan Street Brooklyn, NY 11208 (United States); Mertes, K.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 8754 (United States)

    2012-05-31

    The structural, optical and electrical properties of InN polycrystalline films on glass substrate are investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman scattering measurements, X-ray diffraction analysis, optical spectroscopy, and electrical measurements as a function of the inverse of temperature. The absorption edge for the films is most likely due to an impurity band formed by the presence of defects in the material. Such an impurity band, located at 1.6 eV extends itself to about 1.8 eV above the Fermi level, and it is attributed to nitrogen vacancies present in the material. The Raman scattering data also reveal the incorporation of oxygen in the InN films, leading to the formation of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} amorphous phase during the process of sputtering. Additionally, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the valence band, which is highly desirable to the determination of the Fermi level, confirms the optical gap energy. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction patterns of the thinner films present broader peaks, indicating high values for the strain between the film lattice and the glass substrate. Finally, first principles calculations are used to investigate the optical properties of InN and also to support the experimental findings. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InN thin films with different thicknesses and good quality were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semiconductor behavior and some contamination by In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap was close to 1.8 eV compared to 0.7 eV found in pure InN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic structure for this material was determined.

  3. Polarisation analysis of VUV synchrotron radiation emitted from a bending magnet source in the energy range 20-50 eV: A comparison between measurements and theoretical predictions

    Finetti, P.; Holland, D.M.P. E-mail: d.m.p.holland@dl.ac.uk; Latimer, C.J.; Binns, C

    2004-02-01

    The results of a study to characterise the polarisation properties of the photon beam emerging from beamline 5D, mounted on a bending magnet source at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury Laboratory, are presented. The expectation values for the Stokes parameters corresponding to the light transmitted by the beamline have been calculated by combining ray-tracing and optical methods. The polarisation of the light at the source is modified both by the beamline geometry and by the reflections at the optical components. Although it is often assumed that the polarising properties of grazing incidence optics are negligible, this assumption leads to rather inaccurate results in the VUV region. A study of the reflectivity shows that even at incidence angles ({theta}{sub i}=80-85 deg.) which are far from the Brewster angle ({theta}{sub B}{approx}45 deg. for VUV and soft X-ray radiation) the residual changes in the amplitudes of the reflected light can result in non-negligible polarisation effects. Furthermore, reflection at grazing incidence gives rise to a substantial change in the phase, and this has the effect of rotating the elliptically polarised state. Theoretical Stokes parameters have been compared with full polarisation measurements obtained using a reflection polarimeter in the energy range 20-40 eV.

  4. Radio signals from extensive air showers with the energies E 0 ≥ 1019 eV according to data from the Yakutsk extensive air shower array

    Knurenko, S. P.; Petrov, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    A radio instrument and results obtained from the measurements of the 32-MHz radio signal from particles of extensive air showers (EASs) with energies E 0 ≥ 1×1019 eV are reported in brief. The data were obtained at the Yakutsk EAS array in 1987-1989 (the first series of measurements) and in 2009-2014 (new series of measurements). The radio signal from EASs with energies above 1020eV was detected at the Yakutsk EAS array for the first time, including the shower with the record energy of 2×1020 eV for the Yakutsk EAS array.

  5. A Method for Compensating Customer Voltage Drops due to Nighttime Simultaneous Charging of EVs Utilizing Reactive Power Injection from Battery Chargers

    Noda, Taku; Kabasawa, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Kentaro; Nemoto, Koshichi; Uemura, Satoshi

    When we consider the global warming, the reduction of CO2 emission is one of the most important problems which require urgent solutions. One option is to integrate low-CO2-emission generators to the grid as much as possible. Another option is to replace inefficient vehicles based on internal-combustion engines with electric ones (EVs). Due to the latter, we can easily estimate that most consumers will charge EVs' batteries at nighttime. Thus, excessive voltage drops due to the nighttime simultaneous charging are supposed to be a possible future problem. This paper proposes a method for compensating the voltage drops by injecting reactive power from EV battery chargers.

  6. Annealing Effects on the Photoluminescence and Optical Properties of In-Doped CdS Films

    Seniye KARAKAYA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the II–IV semiconductor compounds, CdS (band gap 2.43 eV have large applications as photoconductors, in semiconductor lasers, nonlinear optical devices and photovoltaic solar cells. In this work; In-doped CdS (CdS:In

  7. Optical Detectors

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  8. Optic neuritis

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Roed, H; Sellebjerg, F

    2004-01-01

    To study the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC) in optic neuritis (ON).......To study the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC) in optic neuritis (ON)....

  9. Theoretical description of electronically excited vinylidene up to 10 eV: First high level ab initio study of singlet valence and Rydberg states

    Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Gauyacq, Dolores [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, UMR 8214, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, Bât. 210, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Liévin, Jacques, E-mail: jlievin@ulb.ac.be [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Cpi 160/09, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2014-11-07

    The first quantitative description of the Rydberg and valence singlet electronic states of vinylidene lying in the 0–10 eV region is performed by using large scale ab initio calculations. A deep analysis of Rydberg-valence interactions has been achieved thanks to the comprehensive information contained in the accurate Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and an original population analysis highlighting the respective role played by orbital and state mixing in such interactions. The present theoretical approach is thus adequate for dealing with larger than diatomic Rydberg systems. The nine lowest singlet valence states have been optimized. Among them, some are involved in strong Rydberg-valence interactions in the region of the Rydberg state equilibrium geometry. The Rydberg states of vinylidene present a great similarity with the acetylene isomer, concerning their quantum defects and Rydberg molecular orbital character. As in acetylene, strong s-d mixing is revealed in the n = 3 s-d supercomplex. Nevertheless, unlike in acetylene, the close-energy of the two vinylidene ionic cores {sup 2}A{sub 1} and {sup 2}B{sub 1} results into two overlapped Rydberg series. These Rydberg series exhibit local perturbations when an accidental degeneracy occurs between them and results in avoided crossings. In addition, some Δl = 1 (s-p and p-d) mixings arise for some Rydberg states and are rationalized in term of electrostatic interaction from the electric dipole moment of the ionic core. The strongest dipole moment of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} cationic state also stabilizes the lowest members of the n = 3 Rydberg series converging to this excited state, as compared to the adjacent series converging toward the {sup 2}A{sub 1} ionic ground state. The overall energies of vinylidene Rydberg states lie above their acetylene counterpart. Finally, predictions for optical transitions in singlet vinylidene are suggested for further experimental spectroscopic

  10. Lagrangian optics

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K

    2002-01-01

    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  11. Optical biosensors

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. PMID:27365039

  12. MRI and associated clinical characteristics of EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis in children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    Zeng, Hongwu; Gan, Yungen [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shenzhen (China); Wen, Feiqiu [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Shenzhen (China); Huang, Wenxian [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory, Shenzhen (China)

    2012-06-15

    This study was conducted to investigate MRI and associated clinical characteristics of brainstem encephalitis induced by enterovirus 71 (EV71) in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). We analyzed clinical and imaging data from 42 HFMD cases with EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis. All patients underwent plain and enhanced MRI cranial scans and were placed into one of two groups according to MRI enhancement results, an enhanced group or a nonenhanced group. Thirty-two cases were positive on MRI exam. The primary location of the lesion for brainstem encephalitis was the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata (32 cases), followed by the cerebellar dentate nucleus (8 cases), midbrain (5 cases), and thalamus (2 cases). Plain T1-weighted images showed isointense or hypointense signals, and T2-weighted images showed isointense and hyperintense signals. Enhanced MRI scans showed that 12 cases had slight to moderate enhancement; 4 of these were normal on plain scan. The time from MRI examination to disease onset was statistically different between the enhanced (n = 12) and nonenhanced (n = 21) groups with a mean of 7.67 days (SD = 1.07) vs 11.95 days (SD = 5.33), respectively. The most common neurological symptoms for brainstem encephalitis were myoclonus and tremor. The greater the area of affected brain, the more severe the clinical symptoms were. The locations of EV71-induced HFMD-associated brainstem encephalitis lesions are relatively specific. Enhanced MRI scans could also identify the lesions missed by early plain scans. MRI scans can provide important information for clinical evaluation and treatment. (orig.)

  13. Stibine/arsine monitoring during EV operation: summary report on preliminary tests at ANL and at LILCO

    Loutfy, R.O.; Graczyk, D.G.; Varma, R.; Hayes, E.R.; Williams, F.L.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-02-01

    A series of tests was performed to monitor the evolution and dispersal of stibine and arsine from the lead-acid propulsion batteries in three different Electra-Van Model 600 vehicles operated by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and by the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO). Ambient air was sampled at several locations inside the vehicles and in the garages where testing was done during charge, equalization charge, and on-the-road discharge operations. In addition, direct sampling of cell off-gases was performed with the ANL van. Interpretation of the individual test results was carried out in the context of vehicle characteristics, sampling protocol, and operating conditions. The test results demonstrated that under the test conditions only small concentrations of stibine and arsine accumulated in occupiable work areas. Measured concentrations in the vehicles and in the garages never exceeded 25% of the Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) standards. A threshold voltage for hydride production, at about 2.45 V per cell, was reflected in the results of the experiments performed during charging of the batteries. Hydride evolution rates were lower during equalization charge than during the overcharge portion of a charge cycle when the on-board charger was used in a normal operating mode. A delayed release of the metal hydrides from the battery cells was observed during on-the-road operation of the vehicles. The implications of these observations for electric vehicle (EV) operation are discussed. An engineering analysis of the generation and dispersal of the metal hydrides is presented, and equations are derived for estimating minimum ventilation requirements for the EV battery compartment and for garages housing EV operations. Recommendations are made regarding safe handling procedures for battery off-gases, procedures for conducting stibine/arsine monitoring tests and future work.

  14. A First Preliminary Look: Are Corridor Charging Stations Used to Extend the Range of Electric Vehicles in The EV Project?

    John Smart

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of data from The EV Project was performed to begin answering the question: are corridor charging stations used to extend the range of electric vehicles? Data analyzed were collected from Blink brand electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) units based in California, Washington, and Oregon. Analysis was performed on data logged between October 1, 2012 and January 1, 2013. It should be noted that as additional AC Level 2 EVSE and DC fast chargers are deployed, and as drivers become more familiar with the use of public charging infrastructure, future analysis may have dissimilar conclusions.

  15. Baseline characteristics in the Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Chertow, Glenn M; Akizawa, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most important contributing cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Bardoxolone methyl, a nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activator, augments estimated glomerular filtration. The Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic k...... kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Occurrence of renal eveNts (BEACON) trial was designed to establish whether bardoxolone methyl slows or prevents progression to ESRD. Herein, we describe baseline characteristics of the BEACON population....

  16. Properties of solutions to Neumann-Tricomi problems for Lavrent'ev-Bitsadze equations at corner points

    Makhmud A. Sadybekov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Neumann-Tricomi problem for the Lavrent'ev-Bitsadze equation for the case in which the elliptic part of the boundary is part of a circle. For the homogeneous equation, we introduce a new class of solutions that are not continuous at the corner points of the domain and construct nontrivial solutions in this class in closed form. For the nonhomogeneous equation, we introduce the notion of an n-regular solution and prove a criterion for the existence of such a solution.

  17. STS-54 EV2 Runco attaches PFR to OV-105's PLB longeron during DTO 1210 EVA

    1993-01-01

    STS-54 Mission Specialist (MS1) and extravehicular crewmember 2 (EV2) Mario Runco, Jr, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), positions a portable foot restraint (PFR) on sill longeron in Endeavour's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105's, payload bay (PLB) during Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 1210, extravehicular activity (EVA) operations procedure/training. Once attached, Runco will test the ability to climb into the PFR without handholds. This EVA is the first in a series to broaden EVA procedures and training experience bases and proficiency in preparation for future EVAs such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  18. Use of microPCM fluids as enhanced liquid coolants in automotive EV and HEV vehicles. Final report

    Mulligan, James C.; Gould, Richard D.

    2001-10-31

    Proof-of-concept experiments using a specific microPCM fluid that potentially can have an impact on the thermal management of automotive EV and HEV systems have been conducted. Samples of nominally 20-micron diameter microencapsulated octacosane and glycol/water coolant were prepared for testing. The melting/freezing characteristics of the fluid, as well as the viscosity, were determined. A bench scale pumped-loop thermal system was used to determine heat transfer coefficients and wall temperatures in the source heat exchanged. Comparisons were made which illustrate the enhancements of thermal performance, reductions of pumping power, and increases of heat transfer which occur with the microPCM fluid.

  19. Evaluation of E/EV/SE aptitude to very long duration. Final report of working groups; Evaluation de l'aptitude de E/EV/SE a la tres longue duree. Rapport final des groupes de travail

    Leroy, C.; Bouniol, P. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Arrighi; Cellier; Gallois [Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), 78 - Montigny le Bretonneaux (France); Grandjean, J.P. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. Technique et Assistance aux Projets, 13 - Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Mazaudier, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Etudes du Comportement. des Materiaux, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Siboulet, B. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/VRH/DRCP/SCPS/LCAM), 30 - Marcoule (France); Bouniol, P. [CEA Saclay (DEN-DANS/DPC/SCCME/LECBA), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2000-07-01

    A joint COGEMA/CEA action aims at evaluating the conditions allowing the extension beyond 50 years of the exploitation of the E/EV/SE vitrified wastes storage facility of the UP3 factory of La Hague (France). The approach considered consists in analysing the technical and administrative aspects of the facility in order to determine the changes to be implemented for its qualification as very long storage facility. Three target characteristics have been identified as priorities for this analysis: safety, civil engineering, and cooling ventilation of wells, and thus three working groups have been created. According to works carried out, facilities like the E/EV/SE one are designed in such a way that their durability can reach the century scale: the robustness of the cooling process, the passiveness of most equipments and the limitation of components functions are the main strong points. Service life limitations come mainly from the thermal evolution of waste packages and the aging of components under the climate conditions: risk of atmospheric corrosion of the bottom part of wells under the effect of water condensation, and risk of corrosion of concrete reinforcements. Suggestions of improvement of the quantification and understanding of phenomena influencing the lifetime limitation are made, and some possible technical solutions are proposed. (J.S.)

  20. Monument protection and energy conservation. Status quo five years after the EnEV 2007; Denkmalschutz und Energieeinsparung. Stand der Dinge fuenf Jahre nach der EnEV 2007

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The meeting ''Monument conservation and energy conservation'' at 9th February 2012 in Wiesbaden (Federal Republic of Germany) focuses on the status quo five years after the revised version of the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) in the year 2007. Within this meeting the following lectures were held: (1) Monument conservation and energy conservation - Status Quo five years after the EnEV 2007 (Roswitha Kaiser); (2) Interior insulation with exterior hydrophic treatment - material appropriate and monument appropriate? (Anatol Worch, Michael Auras); (3) Hints regarding to planning, execution and quality assurance of a subsequent core insulation (Heinrich Wigger, Kerstin Stoelken, Britta Schreiber); (4) Comparison of different interior insulation materials (Rudolf Platte); (5) Urban structural energy study Winterthur (Reto Bieli); (6) Remodelling of an industrial plant protected as a historical monument - Historical window systems, exposed masonry and modern installations (Andr Kramm, Marcel Kremer); (7) Model project - Facade insulation with VIP panels at a Ernst-May building protected as a historical building in Frankfurt (Main) (Juergen Werner); (8) The former tax office Wiesbaden - Energetic strengthening (Klaus Daniels); (9) House of the Evangelical Church in Wiesbaden - Energetic strengthening of the facades (Dominik Loh); (10) Conservation versus comfort and energy demand - Potentials of optimization by means of a targeting controlled operation of plant-technical systems in a historical monument (Harald Garrecht); (11) Energy efficient construction - Compound insulation materials as a disposal problem for dismantling and renovation (Ulrich Langer, Thomas Egloffstein).