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Sample records for 20-500 ev optical

  1. Luminescence excitation characteristics of Ca-, Na- and K-aluminosilicates (feldspars), in the stimulation range 20-500 eV: optical detection of XAS

    CERN Document Server

    Poolton, N R J; Quinn, F M; Pantos, E; Andersen, C E; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Johnsen, O; Murray, A S

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the visible/UV luminescence from common feldspar crystals (NaAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 , KAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 and CaAl sub 2 Si sub 2 O sub 8) can be used to detect detailed L-edge and associated near-edge absorption structure of the main constituent atoms (Ca, K, Na, Al, Si), when exciting in the energy range 20-500 eV. Comparisons of the spectral features are drawn with similar measurements made on the associated materials SiO sub 2 , Al sub 2 O sub 3 and CaCO sub 3. The potential for using optically detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a method for identifying the luminescent components of mixed mineral samples is considered.

  2. Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical constants of Eu films were obtained in the 8.3-1400 eV range from transmittance measurements performed at room temperature. Thin films of Eu were deposited by evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and their transmittance was measured in situ. Eu films were deposited onto grids coated with a thin C support film. The refractive index n of Eu was calculated using the Kramers-Kronig analysis. Data were extrapolated both on the high- and low-energy sides by using experimental and calculated extinction coefficient values available in the literature. Eu, similar to other lanthanides, has a low-absorption band just below the O2,3 edge onset; the lowest absorption was measured at about 16.7 eV. Therefore, Eu is a promising material for filters and multilayer coatings in the energy range below the O2,3 edge in which materials typically have a strong absorption. The consistency of the composite optical constants was tested with the f and inertial sum rules and found to be good

  3. Properties of the 4.45 eV optical absorption band in LiF:Mg, Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical absorption (OA) and thermoluminescence (TL) of dosimetric LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) as well as nominally pure LiF single crystal have been studied as a function of irradiation dose, thermal and optical bleaching in order to investigate the role of the 4.45 eV OA band in low temperature TL. Computerised deconvolution was used to resolve the absorption spectrum into individual gaussian bands and the TL glow curve into glow peaks. Although the 4.45 eV OA band shows thermal decay characteristics similar to the 4.0 eV band its dose filling constant and optical bleaching properties suggest that it cannot be associated with the TL of composite peaks 4 or 5. Its presence in optical grade single crystal LiF further suggests that it is an intrinsic defect or possibly associated with chance impurities other than Mg, Ti. (authors)

  4. Optical properties of ZrZn2 from 0.6 to 3.8 eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, P.A.M. van der; Baelde, W.; Groot, R.A. de; Vroomen, A.R. de; Mattocks, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper we report ellipsometry measurements on ZrZn2 at room temperature under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The optical constants have been determined in the energy range 0.6-3.8 eV. The results are compared with calculated optical conductivity curves based on recent band-structure calculatio

  5. Optical Oscillator Strengths of Hydrogen Bromide in the 4.5-20 eV Excitation Energy Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文斌; 朱林繁; 刘小井; 苑震生; 孙建敏; 成华东; 徐克尊

    2004-01-01

    The absolute optical oscillator strength density spectrum of HBr in the valence shell energy region of 4.5-20 eV has been determined by a high-resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer. The optical oscillator strengths reported. It has been manifested clearly that the optical oscillator strengths of some transitions for the previous photoabsorption method are subject to severe line-saturation effects.

  6. Optical Oscillator Strengths of Hydrogen Chloride in the Energy Region of 5.5-20 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文斌; 朱林繁; 刘小井; 苑震生; 孙建敏; 成华东; 酒井康弘; 徐克尊

    2003-01-01

    Absolute optical oscillator strength density (OOSD) spectrum of HCl in the valence shell energy region of 5.5-20 eV has been determined by the high resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer (EELS). The optical oscillator strengths for the broad A1Ⅱ + 13∑+ dissociation peak and the discrete transitions of b3Ⅱ(v′=0),C1Ⅱ(v′ = 0, 1, 2) and M1Ⅱ(v′= 0) are reported.

  7. 25 CFR 20.500 - Who is eligible for Child Assistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance § 20.500 Who is eligible for Child Assistance? A child... child's special needs in his/her own home; and (3) Provide a documented social services assessment from the social services worker of whether parent(s), custodian, guardian(s) are able to care for...

  8. Optical constants of magnetron-sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufli, Regina; Aquila, Andrew L; Salmassi, Farhad; Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Gullikson, Eric M

    2008-09-01

    This work discusses the experimental determination of the optical constants (refractive index) of DC-magnetron-sputtered boron carbide films in the 30-770 eV photon energy range. Transmittance measurements of three boron carbide films with thicknesses of 54.2, 79.0, and 112.5 nm were performed for this purpose. These are believed to be the first published experimental data for the refractive index of boron carbide films in the photon energy range above 160 eV and for the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure regions around the boron K (188 eV), carbon K (284.2 eV), and oxygen K (543.1 eV) absorption edges. The density, composition, surface chemistry, and morphology of the films were also investigated using Rutherford backscattering, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and extreme ultraviolet reflectance measurements.

  9. Optical properties of sputtered hexagonal CdZnO films with band gap energies from 1.8 to 3.3 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xiangyang; Chen Peiliang; Zhang Ruijie [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang Deren, E-mail: mseyang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-06-09

    Highlights: > Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films in a wide range of Cd contents were grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering, which is a simple and widely used method. > The optical band gap energies of Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films were tuned from {approx} 3.3 eV to {approx} 1.8 eV. > The ultraviolet irradiation enhanced photoluminescence from the Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films was observed. - Abstract: Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films in a wide range of Cd contents have been grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering. At x {<=} 0.66, the sputtered Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films are of single hexagonal phase. The optical band gap energies of the Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films decrease from {approx}3.3 eV at x = 0 to {approx}1.8 eV at x = 0.66. Correspondingly, the near-band-edge photoluminescence is tuned in a wide visible region from {approx}378 to 678 nm. Moreover, the ultraviolet irradiation enhanced PL from the Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films has been observed.

  10. Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Gd22Fe78 Thin Films in the Photon Energy Range From 1.5 to 5.5 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Jesenská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical and magneto-optical properties of amorphous Gd22Fe78 (GdFe thin films prepared by direct current (DC sputtering on thermally oxidized substrates were characterized by the combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical spectroscopy in the photon energy range from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. Thin SiNx and Ru coatings were used to prevent the GdFe surface oxidation and contamination. Using advanced theoretical models spectral dependence of the complete permittivity tensor and spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient were deduced from experimental data. No significant changes in the optical properties upon different coatings were observed, indicating reliability of used analysis.

  11. Optical constants and scattering factors from reflectivity measurements: 50 eV to 5 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, R.L.; Davis, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Graessle, D.E.; Burbine, T.H. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gullikson, E.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    An improved reflection technique has been introduced to permit more accurate measurements of material optical constants {delta} and {beta}, the density {rho}, and from these the atomic scattering factors f {prime} and f {double_prime}. Regions of normal and anomolous dispersion can be measured with resolving power 1000 or larger using a portable reflectometer that is moved to any of three beamlines at NSLS or two at CHESS. Herein the reflectometer and measurement techniques are described together with sample characteristics and preliminary results for the Ni LIII edge and the M edges of Au, Pt, and Ir. The primary accuracy limiting factors are density determination, accumulation of surface oxides or carbonaceous deposits, and synchrotron orbit stability. Each sample must be prepared for the specific energy range to be measured so that model fitting routines have the minimum possible number of free variables.

  12. The optical properties of a-C:H films between 1.5 and 10 eV and the effect of thermal annealing on the film character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetidis, S.; Petalas, J.; Ves, S.

    1996-01-01

    The optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films prepared with various techniques are studied with conventional and synchrotron-radiation spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and the pseudodielectric function of diamondlike and graphitelike films is presented in the energy region 1.5-10 eV. Characteristic features of the measured and the calculated electron-energy-loss (EEL) function are found to serve as useful criteria for the classification of such materials. The results and information obtained by SE are compared to those obtained by EEL and Raman spectroscopy techniques, which are the most widely used for this purpose. Thermal annealing experiments up to 675 °C with in situ monitoring of the reveal the undergoing structural changes in the material character from diamondlike into graphitelike during the annealing. The major modifications which turn the material into sp2-like are found to take place around and above 550 °C. The fundamental gap along with other optical parameters of the materials are compared to those of diamond and graphite and their shift with temperature is discussed and used to illustrate further the prevalence of the graphitic character during and after the annealing. Finally, the optimum growth parameters for the production of diamondlike material are discussed in the case of the glow-discharge and ion-beam deposited films.

  13. Enumeration Verification System (EVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — EVS is a batch application that processes for federal, state, local and foreign government agencies, private companies and internal SSA customers and systems. Each...

  14. Optical properties of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry between 0.75 and 6.24 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical properties of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te (CZT) were studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). Measurements made by VASE were performed on CZT and CdTe samples in air at room temperature at multiple angles of incidence. A parametric function model was employed in the VASE analysis to determine the dielectric functions (varepsilon)=(varepsilon)1 + i(varepsilon)2 in the range of 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A two-oscillator analytical model was used to describe the dielectric response of native oxides on CZT. Surface oxide optical properties and thickness on CZT were also determined in conjunction with the VASE measurement and analysis of a CdTe sample. Two samples of CZT of different oxide thicknesses were measured and their optical constants were coupled together in a multiple-sample, multiple-model VASE analysis to resolve correlations between fitting parameters. Effective medium approximation (EMA) was used to describe the optical properties of the CZT oxide with roughness. A Kramers-Kronig self-consistency check of the real and imaginary parts of the Cd0.9Zn0.1 dielectric functions was performed over the energy range 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A five-Lorentz-oscillator model was employed to describe the dielectric response of CZT in the range of 1.6 to 6.24 eV. Intensity transmission measurements were made on the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te and CdTe, showing the absorption energy band edges of ∼ 1.58 and 1.46 eV, respectively

  15. Modeling of Electric Vehicles (EVs) for EV Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2010-01-01

    In order to successfully integrate EVs into power systems, it is necessary to develop a detailed EV model considering both the EV users’ driving requirements and the battery charging and discharging characteristics. A generic EV model was proposed which takes into account charging and discharging...

  16. Broadband multilayer mirror and diffractive optics for attosecond pulse shaping in the 280-500 eV photon energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirped broadband multilayer mirrors are key components to shape attosecond pulses in the XUV range. Compressing high harmonic pulses to their Fourier limit is the major goal for attosecond physics utilizing short pulse pump-probe experiments. Here, we report about the first implementation of multilayers and diffractive optics fulfilling these requirements in the “water-window” spectral range.

  17. Suramin inhibits EV71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Sun, Yuna; Rao, Zihe

    2014-03-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is one of the major causative reagents for hand-foot-and-mouth disease. In particular, EV71 causes severe central nervous system infections and leads to numerous dead cases. Although several inactivated whole-virus vaccines have entered in clinical trials, no antiviral agent has been provided for clinical therapy. In the present work, we screened our compound library and identified that suramin, which has been clinically used to treat variable diseases, could inhibit EV71 proliferation with an IC50 value of 40 μM. We further revealed that suramin could block the attachment of EV71 to host cells to regulate the early stage of EV71 infection, as well as affected other steps of EV71 life cycle. Our results are helpful to understand the mechanism for EV71 life cycle and provide a potential for the usage of an approved drug, suramin, as the antiviral against EV71 infection.

  18. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  19. Digitaliseerimise demopäev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    8. XI tarbekunstimuuseumis, 10. XI rahvusraamatukogus digitaliseerimise demopäev koostöös OÜ Art Digitali, Eesti Kultuuriministeeriumi, Tarbekunstimuuseumi ja Eesti Rahvusraamatukoguga. OÜ Art Digital (asutasid 1998. a. Rein Tammik, Mauri Gross) skaneeris 1999. a. suvel Eesti Kunstimuuseumis 2400 graafilist lehte ja maali. Eesti digikeskuse loomisest, ülesannetest

  20. Kloostripäev Pirital

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    15. VIII Pirita kloostris konverents "Birgitiinide kodust Pirita asumiks". Esinevad Toomas Abiline, Jaan Tamm, Robert Nerman, Krista Kodres. Fuajees näitus Albin Strutzkini materjalidest Tallinna linnamuuseumis, Pirita postkaartide väljapanek Viktor Kuigi kogust. Eksponeeritud Tiina Veisseriku ikoonid tekstiilil, Anatoli Ljutjuki sari "Süütult solvatute kirik" kloostrivaremetes. Päev lõpeb rockoratooriumiga "Naerusuine vabadus"

  1. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  2. Markets Share Models for EVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Christensen, Linda

    A number of electric vehicles (EVs) matching ordinary conventional cars is on (or close to) the market and by now several stations and battery switch stations has been set up. Electrical vehi-cles are widely seen as an important tool for reducing CO2 emissions with a considerable reduc......-tion potential. The recent development has increased the knowledge of costs of stations and cars, but the knowledge of the market potential of EVs is still limited. In the traffic agreement of January 2009 electric vehicles were highlighted as part of the solution for future CO2 problems. Here, the target...... new cars to 95 g/km on average in 2020. The energy agreement from March 2012 states that the transport sec-tor is facing a radical change from fossil fuels to electricity and bio-mass in the long run. Here, the target for 2020 is 10% bio-fuels in 2020 and the tax exemption for EVs is prolonged...

  3. Absolute oscillator strength densities below 100eV of N2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jian-Min; Zhong Zhi-Ping; Zhu Lin-Fan; Liu Xiao-Jing; Yuan Zhen-Sheng; Xu Ke-Zun

    2005-01-01

    The absolute optical oscillator strength density (OOSD) and generalized oscillator strength densities (GOSDs)below 100eV of N2 are determined with an incident electron energy of 2500eV and an energy resolution of 100 meV.The absolute generalized oscillator strengths (GOSs) for two transitions to the superexcited states at 23 and 31.4eV are determined and their momentum transfer dependence behaviours are discussed.

  4. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  5. Serological detection and analysis of anti-VP1 responses against various enteroviruses (EV) (EV-A, EV-B and EV-C) in Chinese individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caixia; Ding, Yingying; Zhou, Peng; Feng, Jiaojiao; Qian, Baohua; Lin, Ziyu; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Rui, Bing; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The overall serological prevalence of EV infections based on ELISA remains unknown. In the present study, the antibody responses against VP1 of the EV-A species (enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), Coxsackievirus A5 (CA5) and Coxsackievirus A6 (CA6)), of the EV-B species (Coxsackievirus B3 (CB3)), and of the EV-C species (Poliovirus 1 (PV1)) were detected and analyzed by a NEIBM (novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule)-based ELISA in Shanghai blood donors. The serological prevalence of anti-CB3 VP1 antibodies was demonstrated to show the highest level, with anti-PV1 VP1 antibodies at the second highest level, and anti-CA5, CA6, CA16 and EV71 VP1 antibodies at a comparatively low level. All reactions were significantly correlated at different levels, which were approximately proportional to their sequence similarities. Antibody responses against EV71 VP1 showed obvious differences with responses against other EV-A viruses. Obvious differences in antibody responses between August 2013 and May 2014 were revealed. These findings are the first to describe the detailed information of the serological prevalence of human antibody responses against the VP1 of EV-A, B and C viruses, and could be helpful for understanding of the ubiquity of EV infections and for identifying an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance based on ELISA. PMID:26917423

  6. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most

  7. How much are Chevrolet Volts in The EV Project driven in EV Mode?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart

    2013-08-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how many miles are driven in EV mode, how far vehicles are driven between charging events, and how much energy is charged from the electric grid per charging event.

  8. 肠道病毒EV71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    肠道病毒EV71感染疾病是由肠道病毒EV71引起的传染病,多发生于婴幼儿,尤以3岁以下年龄组发病率最高,可引起手、足、口腔等部位的疱疹,个别患者可引起心肌炎、肺水肿、无菌性脑膜脑炎等并发症。

  9. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-10-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in Taiwan and in Singapore. Results from those clinical trials have indicated high safety and immunogenicity of EV71 vaccine. Protective efficacies were over 90% on EV71-associated HFMD and over 80% on other EV71-associated diseases. In this paper, we summarize the results from three EV71 vaccine Phase III clinical trials and discuss the challenges of incorporating EV71 vaccine into Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in countries with EV71 epidemics.

  10. Presidendi sünnipäev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Milliseid mõtteid või mälestusi tekitab Teis president Arnold Rüütli 75. juubelisünnipäev? Vastavad: Toivo Tootsen, Peeter Kreitzberg, Toomas Varek, Heiki Männik, Paavo Palk, Mai Vöörmann, Andres Keevallik

  11. Alkoholentwöhnung im Verbundsystem (EVS)

    OpenAIRE

    Tielking, Knut Hrsg; Kuß, Gabriele Hrsg.

    2002-01-01

    Die Landesversicherungsanstalt (LVA) Oldenburg-Bremen und die Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg verfolgen mit dem Modellprojekt 'Alkoholentwöhnung im Verbundsystem (EVS)' das gemeinsame Ziel, die Qualität von Alkoholentwöhnungsbehandlungen zu verbessern und noch wirkungsvoller zu gestalten. Der Eröffnungsbericht ist eine Zwischenbilanz der bisherigen Arbeiten des Modellprojekts.

  12. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  13. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  14. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  15. EVS25,Calls for Sustainable Mobility Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Li Yinghong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Want to low your cost and save energy for your car,and also be environmentfriendly in nearby future? May you can find an answer in Zhenshen,Guangdong province,China,where the 25th world battery,hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicle symposium and exhibition (EVS25) will be held.The special event will last from November 5 to 9,2010,and is expected to attract 2000-2500 visitors,with an exhibition size of 30 thousand square meters,the largest in all the sessions held.

  16. Radar Observations and the Shape of Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Michael W; Benner, Lance A M; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D; Jao, Joseph S; Scheeres, Daniel J; Magri, Christopher; Nolan, Michael C; Howell, Ellen S; Taylor, Patrick A; Margot, Jean-Luc; Brisken, Walter

    2011-01-01

    We observed the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars and the Very Long Baseline Array during December 2008. EV5 rotates retrograde and its overall shape is a 400 /pm 50 m oblate spheroid. The most prominent surface feature is a ridge parallel to the asteroid's equator that is broken by a concavity 150 m in diameter. Otherwise the asteroid's surface is notably smooth on decameter scales. EV5's radar and optical albedos are consistent with either rocky or stony-iron composition. The equatorial ridge is similar to structure seen on the rubble-pile near-Earth asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4 and is consistent with YORP spin-up reconfiguring the asteroid in the past. We interpret the concavity as an impact crater. Shaking during the impact and later regolith redistribution may have erased smaller features, explaining the general lack of decameter-scale surface structure.

  17. EV71 vaccine, an invaluable gift for children

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Development of vaccines against EV71 would be the most effective approach to prevent the EV71 outbreak. Research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccine was carried out in several Asian countries. Currently three companies in mainland China have completed Phase III clinical trials of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, whereas the other two companies have completed Phase I clinical trials separately in ...

  18. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  19. Proteomics analysis of EV71-infected cells reveals the involvement of host protein NEDD4L in EV71 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Rei-Lin; Lin, Ya-Han; Wang, Robert Yung-Liang; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Huang, Hsing-I; Kao, Li-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a human enterovirus that has seriously affected the Asia-Pacific area for the past two decades. EV71 infection can result in mild hand-foot-and-mouth disease and herpangina and may occasionally lead to severe neurological complications in children. However, the specific biological processes that become altered during EV71 infection remain unclear. To further explore host responses upon EV71 infection, we identified proteins differentially expressed in EV71-infected human glioblastoma SF268 cells using isobaric mass tag (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Network analysis of proteins altered in cells infected with EV71 revealed that the changed biological processes are related to protein and ion transport, regulation of protein degradation, and homeostatic processes. We confirmed that the levels of NEDD4L and PSMF1 were increased and reduced, respectively, in EV71-infected cells compared to mock-infected control cells. To determine the physiological relevance of our findings, we investigated the consequences of EV71 infection in cells with NEDD4L or PSMF1 depletion. We found that the depletion of NEDD4L significantly reduced the replication of EV71, whereas PSMF1 knockdown enhanced EV71 replication. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence of proteome-wide dysregulation by EV71 infection and suggest a novel role for the host protein NEDD4L in the replication of this virus.

  20. Radar Observations and the Shape of 2008 EV5: Ridges and Craters on Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Michael W.; Ostro, S. J.; Benner, L. A. M.; Scheeres, D. J.; Giorgini, J. D.; Brozovic, M.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Taylor, P. A.; Margot, J.; Magri, C.; Jao, J. S.; Brisken, W.

    2010-10-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 was discovered by the Mt. Lemmon Survey on March 4 2008, and approached to within 8.4 lunar distances in December 2008, when it was a very strong radar target. We observed EV5 with the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars and the Very Long Baseline Array, and previously described those observations and obtaining EV5's pole direction. We have now completed a detailed model of EV5's shape. The Arecibo delay-Doppler data provided 7.5-m spatial resolution, showing that EV5's overall shape is a 400 ± 50 m spheroid. The most prominent surface feature is a ridge parallel to the asteroid's equator that is broken by a concavity 150 m in diameter. Otherwise the asteroid's surface is shows few decameter-scale features and is notably smooth - our shape model has an average surface slope of <15º. EV5's radar and optical albedos are consistent with either rocky or stony-iron composition. EV5's ridge is similar to structure seen on the rubble-pile near-Earth asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4, and is consistent with YORP spin-up reconfiguring the asteroid during an episode of more rapid rotation. We interpret the concavity as an impact crater. Shaking during the impact should have erased smaller surface features and may explain the general lack of decameter-scale surface structure.

  1. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  2. Crew coordination issues of EVS approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Korn, Bernd R.

    2004-08-01

    Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) are currently developed with the goal to alleviate restrictions in airspace and airport capacity in low visibility conditions. Existing EVS-systems are based on IR-sensors although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum. But the quality of MMW radar is rather poor compared to IR images. However, the analysis of radar images can be simplified dramatically when simple passive radar retro-reflectors are used to mark the runway. This presentation is the third in a series of studies investigating the use of such simple landing aids. In the first study the feasibility of the radar PAPI concept was determined; the second one provided first promising human performance results in a low-fidelity simulation. The present study examined pilot performance, workload, situation awareness, and crew coordination issues in a high-fidelity simulation of 'Radar-PAPI' visual aids supporting a precision straight-in landing in low visibility (CAT-II). Simulation scenarios were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator involving six two-pilot flight-deck crews. Pilots could derive visual cues to correct lateral glide-path deviations from 13 pairs of runway-marking corner reflectors. Vertical deviations were indicated by a set of six diplane reflectors using intensity-coding to provide the PAPI categories needed for the correction of vertical deviations. The study compared three display formats and associated crew coordination issues: (1) PF views a head-down B-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (2) PF views a head-down C-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (3) PF views through a head-up display (HUD) that displays primary flight guidance information and receives vertical and lateral guidance from PNF who views a head-down B-scope. PNF guidance is terminated upon PF

  3. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; González-Gaitán, Santiago; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P.; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares E., Felipe; Haislip, Joshua B.; Reichart, Daniel E.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods: We obtain and analyze multiband optical light curves and optical/near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results: A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light-curve shape of Δm15(B) = 1.12 ± 0.02 and a stretch s = 0.94 ± 0.01 suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of E(B - V) = 0.25 ± 0.05 and a reddening law of Rv = 1.54 ± 0.65. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si iiλ6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high velocity gradient SN with v˙Si = 164 ± 7 km s-1 d-1. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocities to SN 2002bo and SN 2002dj. The analysis of the nebular spectra indicates that the [Fe ii]λ7155 and [Ni ii]λ7378 lines are redshifted, as expected for a high velocity gradient supernova. All these common intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the high velocity gradient (HVG) group are different from the low velocity gradient (LVG) normal SN Ia population and suggest significant variety in SN Ia explosions. This paper includes data gathered with the Du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; and the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Program GS-2010A-Q-14). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programme 085.D-0577).

  4. Human SCARB2-mediated entry and endocytosis of EV71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available Enterovirus (EV 71 infection is known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD and in severe cases, induces neurological disorders culminating in fatality. An outbreak of EV71 in South East Asia in 1997 affected over 120,000 people and caused neurological disorders in a few individuals. The control of EV71 infection through public health interventions remains minimal and treatments are only symptomatic. Recently, human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2 has been reported to be a cellular receptor of EV71. We expressed human SCARB2 gene in NIH3T3 cells (3T3-SCARB2 to study the mechanisms of EV71 entry and infection. We demonstrated that human SCARB2 serves as a cellular receptor for EV71 entry. Disruption of expression of SCARB2 using siRNAs can interfere EV71 infection and subsequent inhibit the expression of viral capsid proteins in RD and 3T3-SCARB2 but not Vero cells. SiRNAs specific to clathrin or dynamin or chemical inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis were all capable of interfering with the entry of EV71 into 3T3-SCARB2 cells. On the other hand, caveolin specific siRNA or inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis had no effect, confirming that only clathrin-mediated pathway was involved in EV71 infection. Endocytosis of EV71 was also found to be pH-dependent requiring endosomal acidification and also required intact membrane cholesterol. In summary, the mechanism of EV71 entry through SCARB2 as the receptor for attachment, and its cellular entry is through a clathrin-mediated and pH-dependent endocytic pathway. This study on the receptor and endocytic mechanisms of EV71 infection is useful for the development of effective medications and prophylactic treatment against the enterovirus.

  5. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bæk, Rikke; Varming, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles......, 2013; 2: 10) has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes) for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment...

  6. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability...... from the driving time periods to show how many cars are available for charging and discharging in each time period. The obtained EV availability data are in one hour time periods and one quarter time periods for different study purposes. The EV availability data of one hour time period are to be used...

  7. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Møller Jørgensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles, 2013; 2: 10 has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment or purification prior to analysis.

  8. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...... congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were...

  9. Weighted (C)eby(s)ev-Ostrowski type inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arif Rafiq; Nazir Ahmad Mir; Farooq Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    In account of the famous (C)eby(s)ev inequality, a rich theory has appeared in the literature. We establish some new weighted (C)eby(s)ev type integral inequalities. Our proofs are of independent interest and provide new estimates on these types of inequalities.

  10. Vabariigi aastapäev Ottawas / Walter Pent

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pent, Walter

    2004-01-01

    EV 86. aastapäeva puhul toimus 21. veebr. 2004 Ottawa Eesti Seltsi organiseeritud aktus, kus kõne pidas EV Suursaatkonna Ottawas asjur Argo Küünemäe, kes korraldas 24. veebr. 2004 saatkonnas ka piduliku diplomaatilise vastuvõtu

  11. Development of EV71 virus-like particle purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chiu, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes the outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and results in deaths of hundreds of young children. EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty capsids consisting of viral structural proteins and can elicit potent immune responses, thus holding promise as an EV71 vaccine candidate. However, an efficient, scalable production and purification scheme is missing. For mass production of EV71 VLPs, this study aimed to develop a production and chromatography-based purification process. We first demonstrated the successful EV71 VLPs production in the stirred-tank bioreactor in which High Five™ cells were infected with a recombinant baculovirus co-expressing EV71 structural polyprotein P1 and protease 3CD. The culture supernatant containing the VLPs was subjected to tangential flow filtration (TFF) for concentration/diafiltration, which enabled the removal of >80% of proteins while recovering >80% of VLPs. The concentrated VLPs were next subjected to hydroxyapatite chromatography (HAC) in which the VLPs were mainly found in the flow through. After another TFF concentration/diafiltration, the VLPs were purified by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and concentrated/diafiltered by a final TFF. The integrated process yielded an overall VLPs recovery of ≈ 36% and a purity of ≈ 83%, which was better or comparable to the recovery and purity for the purification of live EV71 virus particles. This process thus may move the EV71 VLPs vaccine one step closer to the clinical applications.

  12. DOE Field Operations Program EV and HEV Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Slezak, L. A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Field Operations Program tests advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) and disseminates the testing results to provide fleet managers and other potential ATV users with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance. The ATVs (including electric, hybrid, and other alternative fuel vehicles) are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance Testing (EVAmerica and Pomona Loop), Accelerated Reliability Testing, and Fleet Testing. The Program (http://ev.inel.gov/sop) and its nine industry testing partners have tested over 30 full-size electric vehicle (EV) models and they have accumulated over 4 million miles of EV testing experience since 1994. In conjunction with several original equipment manufacturers, the Program has developed testing procedures for the new classes of hybrid, urban, and neighborhood EVs. The testing of these vehicles started during 2001. The EVS 18 presentation will include (1) EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) test results, (2) operating experience with and performance trends of various EV and HEV models, and (3) experience with operating hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Data presented for EVs will include vehicle efficiency (km/kWh), average distance driven per charge, and range testing results. The HEV data will include operating considerations, fuel use rates, and range testing results.

  13. Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, M; Schultze, M; Guggenmos, A; Gagnon, J; Yakovlev, V S; Krausz, F; Kleineberg, U [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aquila, A; Yang, S; Gullikson, E [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2-400, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Huth, M; Nickel, B [Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Schellingstrasse 4, 80799 Munich (Germany); Goulielmakis, E, E-mail: michael.hofstetter@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    A novel multilayer material system consisting of lanthanum and molybdenum nano-layers for both broadband and highly reflecting multilayer mirrors in the energy range between 80 and 130 eV is presented. The simulation and design of these multilayers were based on an improved set of optical constants, which were recorded by extreme ultraviolet (XUV)/soft-x-ray absorption measurements on freestanding lanthanum nano-films between 30 eV and 1.3 keV. Lanthanum-molybdenum (La/Mo) multilayer mirrors were produced by ion-beam sputtering and characterized through both x-ray and XUV reflectivity measurements. We demonstrate the ability to precisely simulate and realize aperiodic stacks. Their stability against ambient air conditions is demonstrated. Finally, the La/Mo mirrors were used in the generation of single attosecond pulses from high-harmonic cut-off spectra above 100 eV. Isolated 200 attosecond-long pulses were measured by XUV-pump/IR-probe streaking experiments and characterized using frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts (FROG/CRAB) analyses.

  14. Operation Strategy of EV Battery Charging and Swapping Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Peng; Li Zhang; Ku-An Lu; Jun-Peng Hu; Si Liu

    2014-01-01

    An operation strategy of the electric vehicle (EV) battery charging and swapping station is proposed in the paper. The strategy is established based on comprehensively consideration of the EV charging behaviors and the possible mutual actions between battery charging and swapping. Three energy management strategies can be used in the station:charging period shifting, energy exchange between EVs, and energy supporting from surplus swapping batteries. Then an optimization model which minimizes the total energy management costs of the station is built. The Monte Carlo simulation is applied to analyze the characteristics of the EV battery charging load, and a heuristic algorithm is used to solve the strategy providing the relevant information of EVs and the battery charging and swapping station. The operation strategy can efficiently reduce battery charging during the high electricity price periods and make more reasonable use of the resources. Simulations prove the feasibility and rationality of the strategy.

  15. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 infections by a novel antiviral peptide derived from EV-71 capsid protein VP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wah Tan

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD. In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC(50 values ranging from 6-9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71.

  16. An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections.

  17. EV71疫苗研究进展%Progress in the research of EV71 vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宏荣; 王蕾; 廖芸

    2009-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Since no effeetive antiviral agents are available,developing effective EV71 vaccines for prevention of HFMD has been the control measure of choice. Currently, the research of EV71 vaccines has made certain pro-gress,and various EV71 vaccines, including attenuated vccines, inactivated vaccine, VP1 subunit vaccine and DNA vaccine, are being developed. Although various EV71 vaccines have certain efficacy, the optimal vaccine needs to be identified by evaluating the safety and protective efficacy of various EV71 vaccines.%肠道病毒71型(enterovims 71,EV71)是手足口病的主要病原体,由于尚无治疗手足口病的有效抗病毒药,因此,开发预防手足口病的有效EV71疫苗成为所有控制措施的首选.目前,EV71疫苗研究已取得一定的进展,正在研发的疫苗包括减毒或灭活疫苗、VP1亚单位疫苗和DNA疫苗.虽然各种疫苗均具有一定的免疫效果,但最适疫苗的确认还需对各种疫苗的安全性和保护效力进行评估.

  18. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  19. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  20. EBSCO infopäev Tallinnas / Marika Meltsas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meltsas, Marika

    2008-01-01

    16. aprillil 2008 toimus Tallinnas EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) infopäev, kus maailma suurim elektrooniliste ja trükiajakirjade vahendaja tutvustas oma tooteid ja teenuseid Eesti raamatukogudele. Kommentaar korraldajalt Tiina Nurmilt

  1. Immunological Evaluation and Comparison of Different EV71 Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs, and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1 VP1 peptide (residues 211–225 formulated with Freund’s adjuvant (CFA/IFA elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer; (2 recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160; (3 individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3 formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4 the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640, but failed to neutralize CVA16. In contrast, rabbits antisera could cross-neutralize strongly against different genotypes of EV71 but weakly against CVA16, with average titers 1/6400 and 1/32, respectively. The VP1 amino acid sequence dissimilarity between CVA16 and EV71 could partially explain why mouse antibodies failed to cross-neutralize CVA16. Therefore, the best formulation for producing cost-effective HFMD vaccine is a combination of formalin-inactivated EV71 and CAV16 virions.

  2. Analysis of CDMA EV DO capacity%CDMA EV DO容量的分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊

    2011-01-01

    With the development of CDMA EV DO technique, more and more subscribers are not satisfied with data link rate. This paper analyzes factors of forward link and reverse link capacity of EV DO network to guide network planning and optimization. The research in this field is to meet requirement of high speed data access and maximum throughput of data subscribers.%分析影响EV DO网络前、反向容量的因素,为CDMA EV DO数据业务网规网优提供方法论的指导,达到数据用户吞吐量的最大化,满足日益增长的多用户高速数据接入的需求.

  3. Järjekordne keelepäev Hamburgis (Emakeelepäev Hamburgis) I-III / Liilika M. Allev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allev, Liilika M.

    2007-01-01

    seekord oli keskseks teemaks lapse keeleareng, korraldajateks EV Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium, Eesti Keeleinstituut ja EÜSLi HEA Selts. Keelepoliitikast. Kuidas eesti laps rääkima hakkab? Kakskeelsuse omandamine

  4. First isolation of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 from Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamarão Leticia Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 has been associated to cases of neurological disease in many countries including Brazil. This virus has now been reported from three of the five Brazilian regions. Our study relates the findings concerning to the first isolate of this virus in Northern region of Brazil. A 15-month old female patient, from the rural zone of the municipality of Santana do Araguaia in southern Pará state was admitted at the hospital with acute, flaccid, asymmetric and ascending motor deficiency, located in the right lower limb. Stools samples from this child were inoculated in RD cells and was isolated an EV-71. We plan to sequence our strain and compare it to other isolates in Brazil. Differences at the molecular level can explain why EV-71 strains circulating in other continents, such as Asia, appear to be more virulent.

  5. ZGODBE V TUJEM JEZIKU IN VLOGA STARŠEV

    OpenAIRE

    Pušaver, Saša

    2016-01-01

    Zgodbe v tujem jeziku je empirično diplomsko delo, kjer predstavljamo zgodbe v tujem jeziku kot pripomoček za poučevanje tujega jezika v otroštvu. Osredotočamo se predvsem na vlogo staršev pri branju zgodb v tujem jeziku svojim otrokom. V empiričnem delu smo preverjali stališča staršev do branja zgodb v tujem jeziku svojim otrokom. Zaradi predvidevanja po upadu števila staršev, ki berejo svojim otrokom v tujem jeziku, smo sestavili tudi vprašanja za starše, ki zgodb v tujem jeziku svojim otro...

  6. Refractive indices of zincblende structure {beta}-GaN(001) in the subband-gap region (0.7{endash}3.3 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, M.A.; Ramirez-Flores, G.; Navarro-Contreras, H.; Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Communicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Powell, R.C.; Greene, J.E. [Materials Science Department, Coordinated Science Laboratory, and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Refractive indices {ital n} and absorption coefficients {alpha} of epitaxial metastable zincblende structure {beta}-GaN(001) were determined over the subband-gap energy range between 0.8{endash}3.1 eV from an analysis of optical transmission spectra. {ital n} was found to vary from 2.25 to 0.8 eV (1.55 {mu}m) to 2.50 at 3.1 eV (0.4 {mu}m) with an energy {ital E} (eV) dependence that is well described by a Sellmeir-type dispersion relationship, {ital n}{sup 2}({ital E})=1+148/(38.3{minus}{ital E}{sup 2}). The refractive indices of {beta}-GaN are 3{percent}{endash}4{percent} smaller than previously reported values for hexagonal {alpha}-GaN. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Adaptative initialisation of a EvKNN classification algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Wai Tim, Stefen; Rombaut, Michele; Pellerin, Denis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The establishment of the learning data base is a long and tedious task that must be carried out before starting the classification process. An Evidential KNN (EvKNN) has been developed in order to help the user, which proposes the "best" samples to label according to a strategy. However, at the beginning of this task, the classes are not clearly defined and are represented by a number of labeled samples smaller than the k required samples for EvKNN. In this paper, we p...

  8. KOMPETENTNOST STARŠEV ZA STARŠEVSKO VLOGO

    OpenAIRE

    Križan, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo z naslovom Kompetentnost staršev za starševsko vlogo je sestavljeno iz teoretičnega in empiričnega dela. V teoretičnem delu so predstavljene različne teme, vezane na kompetentnost staršev za starševsko vlogo, ki so podkrepljene z ustrezno strokovno literaturo. Podrobno so opredeljeni pojem družina in njene oblike danes. Opisani so vzgojni stili, ki so podani glede na različne avtorje. V teoretičnem delu so predstavljene nove paradigme zgodnjega otroštva. Podrobno je opisano,...

  9. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2010-01-01

    impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  10. High efficiency multilayer gratings for monochromators in the energy range from 500 eV to 2500 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, B.; Choueikani, F.; Capitanio, B.; Ohresser, P.; Meltchakov, E.; Delmotte, F.; Krumrey, M.; Polack, F.

    2013-03-01

    Multilayer (ML) gratings have been prepared by coating shallow ion etched lamellar gratings with a Mo2C/B4C multilayer having a layer thickness close to the groove depth. It was shown that such a structure behaves as a 2D synthetic crystal and can reach very high efficiencies when the Bragg condition is satisfied. A ML coated grating has been characterized at the SOLEIL Metrology beamline between 700 and 1700 eV and a beamline of PTB at BESSY II between 1750 and 3500 eV. A peak diffraction efficiency of nearly 27 % was measured at 2200 eV. The measured efficiencies are well reproduced by numerical simulations made with the electromagnetic propagation code CARPEM, This grating will be used in the Deimos beamline at SOLEIL together with a matched multilayer mirror.

  11. Mass Absorption Coefficient of Tungsten and Tantalum, 1450 eV to 2350 eV: Experiment, Theory, and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Zachary H.; Grantham, Steven; Tarrio, Charles; Paterson, David J.; McNulty, Ian; Levin, T. M.; Ankudinov, Alexei L.; Rehr, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The mass absorption coefficients of tungsten and tantalum were measured with soft x-ray photons from 1450 eV to 2350 eV using an undulator source. This region includes the M3, M4, and M5 absorption edges. X-ray absorption fine structure was calculated within a real-space multiple scattering formalism; the predicted structure was observed for tungsten and to a lesser degree tantalum as well. Separately, the effects of dynamic screening were observed as shown by an atomic calculation within the...

  12. CONSISTENCY OF LS ESTIMATOR IN SIMPLE LINEAR EV REGRESSION MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jixue; Chen Xiru

    2005-01-01

    Consistency of LS estimate of simple linear EV model is studied. It is shown that under some common assumptions of the model, both weak and strong consistency of the estimate are equivalent but it is not so for quadratic-mean consistency.

  13. Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Global EV Outlook represents the collective efforts of two years of primary data gathering and analysis from the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) and IEA. Key takeaways and insights include landscape analysis of electric vehicle (EV) stock/sales and charging station deployment. Existing policy initiatives are delineated and future opportunities highlighted in an ''Opportunity Matrix: Pathways to 2020''. Together EVI countries accounted for more than 90% of world EV stock at the end of 2012. Strong government support in EVI countries on both the supply and demand sides are contributing to rising market penetration. 12 out of 15 EVI countries offer financial support for vehicle purchases, and most employ a mix of financial and non-financial incentives (such as access to restricted highway lanes) to help drive adoption. The Global EV Outlook is a unique and data-rich overview of the state of electric vehicles today, and offers an understanding of the electric vehicle landscape to 2020.

  14. Philosophical Adventures in the Lands of Oz and Ev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gareth B.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the philosophical adventures of the characters in L. Frank Baum's Lands of Oz and Ev stories and discusses how such stories can stimulate reflections on philosophically interesting questions. Frank Baum is considered as the first American writer of philosophical fantasy for children for writing "The…

  15. Developing of the EV charging and parking shed of BIPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shaobo; Wei Chuanchuan; Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is an important application way of solar photovoltaic power. The electric vehicle (EV) charging and parking shed of BIPV is the regeneration energy intellectual integration demonstration application system collection of photovoltaic (PV) grid power,PV off-grid power,EV charging and parking shed,and any part of the functions and their combination will be engaged in practical application on demand. The paper describes the PV shed system structure and design in detail with the present of its actual photos. The shed is 50 m long and 5.5 m wide and capable of parking 18 cars. Under the control of system intellectual con-troller,the power produced by PV from sunlight will charge the parking EV car prior to charging the storage bat-tery,charging the storage battery prior to grid power,grid power at last,and charge the EV by utility grid when it is a cloudy or rainy day.

  16. Linear EV model with replicate observations on independent variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jixue; ZHANG; Sanguo; CHEN; Xiru

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the linear EV model when replicate observations are made only on independent variables. We construct the estimates of regression coefficients and prove the consistency and asymptotic normality under some proper conditions. Results obtained reveal the difference between the case where the independent and dependent variables are observed repeatedly and simultaneously and the case studied in this article.

  17. Ponjat samogo sebja / Ze'ev Hanin ; interv. Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanin, Ze'ev

    2006-01-01

    Lääne tsivilisatsiooni katse seostada tähtsamad maailma poliitikasündmused Iisraeliga ei ole selle riigi süü ega teene, tegemist on euroopa tsivilisatsiooni sügava kriisiga - sellisel seisukohal on hiljuti Tallinna külastanud Bar-Ilani ülikooli õppejõud ja politoloog Ze'ev Hanin

  18. Naistepäev ikka hinnas / Ivar Jung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jung, Ivar

    2003-01-01

    Kunstihoone galeriis Ivika Kivi ja Dagmar Kase näituse "ID 2002" taustal 8. III toimunud Reet Varblase organiseeritud seminarist "Naised, ühiskond, ilu ja hügieen". Linnagaleriis lõpetas Meiu Mündi maalinäituse Oksana Titova tantsuetendus. 9. III Pärnus Taave Tuutma kureeritud tegevuskunstipäev

  19. Developing a 500-eV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests have been carried out which indicate that H- intensity limitations in lamb-shift polarized ion sources result from large diveregence in the 500-eV H+ ion beam. Intensity limitations due to other effects are not yet measurable

  20. Protective effect of enterovirus-71 (EV71) virus-like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Lei; MAO, FENGFENG; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; MENG, QINGLING; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehen...

  1. A platform for actively loading cargo RNA to elucidate limiting steps in EV-mediated delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Joshua N.; Hung, Michelle E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate intercellular communication through transfer of RNA and protein between cells. Thus, understanding how cargo molecules are loaded and delivered by EVs is of central importance for elucidating the biological roles of EVs and developing EV-based therapeutics. While some motifs modulating the loading of biomolecular cargo into EVs have been elucidated, the general rules governing cargo loading and delivery remain poorly understood. To investigate how general ...

  2. EV71 virus-like particles produced by co-expression of capsid proteins in yeast cells elicit humoral protective response against EV71 lethal challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaowen; Xiao, Xiangqian; Zhao, Miao; Wei LIU; Pang, Lin; Sun, Xin; Cen, Shan; Burton B Yang; Huang, Yuming; Sheng, Wang; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most common causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with severe neurological complications. There is a great need to develop prophylactic vaccine against EV71 infection. Results EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) was produced in yeast expression system by the co-expression of four EV71 structural proteins VP1–VP4. Immunization with the recombinant VLPs elicited potent anti-EV71 antibody responses in adult mice and anti-VLP sera...

  3. Cascades from nu_E above 1020 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2004-12-21

    At very high energies, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect reduces the cross sections for electron bremsstrahlung and photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production. The fractional electron energy loss and pair production cross sections drop as the energy increases. In contrast, the cross sections for photonuclear interactions grow with energy. In solids and liquids, at energies above 10{sup 20} eV, photonuclear reactions dominate, and showers that originate as photons or electrons quickly become hadronic showers. These electron-initiated hadronic showers are much shorter (due to the absence of the LPM effect), but wider than purely electromagnetic showers would be. This change in shape alters the spectrum of the electromagnetic and acoustic radiation emitted from the shower. These alterations have important implications for existing and planned searches for radiation from u{sub e} induced showers above 10{sup 20} eV, and some existing limits should be reevaluated.

  4. Archaeology management system based on EV-Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Lu, Guo-nian; Pei, An-ping; Niu, Yu-gang; Luo, Tao

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, cultural relics were recorded in a 2D (2 dimensions) method such as paper maps, pictures, multi-media, micro-models and so on. This paper introduces the archaeology management system based on EV-Globe (Earth View-Globe - spatial information service platform on virtual 3D environment) for the cultural relics along the Eastern Route Project (ERP) of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD). Integrate the spatial and attribute data of the cultural relics along ERP of SNWD processed by SuperMap deskpro2005 with the relative basic geological data based on the platform of EV-Globe and develop a series of functions based on the SDK (Software Development Kit), and so the relics can be managed visually, at the same time the system may assist the archaeologists and some researchers in managing and studying the cultural relics. Some conception and conceiving of web and mobile version is put forward for next researching.

  5. Open Innovation in EVs: A Case Study of Tesla Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Karamitsios, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the topic of open innovation in EVs. Initially a brief description of the concept of innovation and open innovation is carried out. Moreover, the three processes of open innovation are deployed while the coupled process is described in more detail. Furthermore, a short description is also given for corporate entrepreneurship, alliances, and the U.S. government policy. Also, this report considers Tesla Motors’ partnerships as a case study and it aims to give an insight of h...

  6. Observations from The EV Project in Q3 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart

    2013-12-01

    This is a brief report that summarizes results published in numerous other reports. It describes the usage of electric vehicles and charging units in the EV Project over the past 3 months. There is no new data or information provided in this report, only summarizing of information published in other reports (which have all been approved for unlimited distribution publication). This report will be posted to the INL/AVTA website for viewing by the general public.

  7. Volatile Survival on Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Leos; Britt, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Asteroid 2008 EV5 is currently one of the possible targets of NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The objective of this mission is to recover a boulder from the surface of an asteroid. The selection of the final target requires understanding the physical characteristics of the asteroid such as the size-frequency distribution of boulders on the asteroid's surface, the presence of volatiles on the surface and below, the strength of the surface materials and the degree of their alteration. In our work, we focus on the second criterion, the possibility of volatiles presence on 2008 EV5. These can be expected to survive embedded within the crystal lattice of various phyllosilicates. The positive presence of volatiles on the surface of and inside the asteroid is important especially for ISRU hardware demonstrations. Spectral data suggest that 2008 EV5 is a member of CI chondrite group which is characterized by high phyllosilicate content (~70%) but there is also the possibility of it being a CR chondrite where the phyllosilicate content ranges significantly, from samples with negligible phyllosilicate content to samples with almost 70% phyllosilicate content. If the dynamical history of the asteroid brought it close enough to the Sun, the lattice of phyllosilicates could have disintegrated and released the volatiles (water) and the material could have dehydrated. The depth at which the dehydration might have taken place depends on the characteristic depth of heat wave penetration which in turn depends on material characteristics such as density, heat capacity and heat conductivity. These are in turn are closely linked to the porosity. The characteristic heat penetration depth also depends on orbital geometry and rotational and orbital periods. Besides the temperature itself, the dehydration is also affected by the duration of the crystal lattice breakup temperatures. We use thermal model in conjunction with available experimental data on the dehydration of clays and

  8. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  9. Fragmentation of isoxazole molecules by electron impact in the energy range 10-85 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linert, Ireneusz; Lachowicz, Izabela; Wasowicz, Tomasz J.; Zubek, Mariusz

    2010-09-01

    Fragmentation of isoxazole molecules by electron impact excitation, that produces excited atomic and molecular fragments, has been studied using the optical excitation technique. Excited hydrogen atoms H( n), n = 4-7, have been detected by observation of the H β to H ɛ lines of the Balmer series. The diatomic CH(A 2Δ) and CN(B 2Σ +) fragments have been identified by their A 2Δ → X 2Π r and B 2Σ + → X 2Σ + emission bands, respectively. The appearance energies for the H( n = 4), CH(A 2Δ) and CN(B 2Σ +) have been measured to be 21.9, 14.0 and 10.6 eV, respectively. Absolute emission cross sections have been also obtained for the fragments in electron energy ranges from their respective appearance thresholds up to 85 eV. Possible fragmentation processes are discussed.

  10. Sensitivity of an image plate system in the XUV (60 eV < E < 900 eV)

    CERN Document Server

    Failor, B H; Link, N G; Riordan, J C; Wilson, B C

    2012-01-01

    Phosphor imaging plates (IPs) have been calibrated and proven useful for quantitative x-ray imaging in the 1 to over 1000 keV energy range. In this paper we report on calibration measurements made at XUV energies in the 60 to 900 eV energy range using beamline 6.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. We measured a sensitivity of ~25 plus or minus 15 counts/pJ over the stated energy range which is compatible with the sensitivity of Si photodiodes that are used for time-resolved measurements. Our measurements at 900 eV are consistent with the measurements made by Meadowcroft et al. at ~1 keV.

  11. The Swift/Fermi GRB 080928 from 1 eV to 150 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, A; Klose, S; Kann, D A; Rau, A; Krimm, H A; Jóhannesson, G; Panaitescu, A; Yuan, F; Ferrero, P; Krühler, T; Greiner, J; Schady, P; Pandey, S B; Amati, L; Afonso, P M J; Akerlof, C W; Arnold, L; Clemens, C; Filgas, R; Hartmann, D H; Yoldaş, A Küpcü; McBreen, S; McKay, T A; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; E., F Olivares; Paciesas, B; Rykoff, E S; Szokoly, G; Updike, A C; Yoldaş, A

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of the Gamma-Ray Burst 080928 and of its afterglow. GRB 080928 was a long burst detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM. It is one of the exceptional cases where optical emission was already detected when the GRB itself was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. For nearly 100 seconds simultaneous optical, X-ray and gamma-ray data provide a coverage of the spectral energy distribution of the transient source from about 1 eV to 150 keV. Here we analyze the prompt emission, constrain its spectral properties, and set lower limits on the initial Lorentz factor of the relativistic outflow. In particular, we show that the SED during the main prompt emission phase is in agreement with synchrotron radiation. We construct the optical/near-infrared light curve and the spectral energy distribution based on Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIa (Australia) and GROND (La Silla) data and compare it to the X-ray light curve retrieved from the Swift/XRT repository. We show that its bumpy shape ca...

  12. Potential Analysis of Regulating Power from Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    The potential analysis of having electric vehicles (EVs) provide regulating power has been implemented. The possible regulating power capacity from EVs and the economic return for EV users by providing regulating power are obtained. A spot price based charging schedule scenario has been used to do...... the day-ahead charging schedule for all EVs based on the predicted driving pattern. On top of the obtained charging schedule, the predicted EV availability and the charging schedule are used to calculate the possible regulating power capacity from EVs for both up regulating power and down regulating power...

  13. Recombination in the evolution of enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus. However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C. In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5'UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses.

  14. [Establishment of EV71 animal models with 2-week-old BALB/c mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan

    2013-03-01

    Animal model is very important for anti-EV71 (enterovirus 71) drug and vaccine development. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse model is the main in vivo model used in China. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse is too small to perform antiviral experiment. And the route of administration and dosage capacity are also restricted. A strong virulence EV71 virus strain was selected after screening from five EV71 strains with 1-day-old suckling mice. A mouse-adapted EV71 strain with increased virulence in 12-day-old suckling mice, EV71-M5, was generated after five serial passages of the parental EV71 strain in mice. Virus titers of EV71 infected mice heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine, brain and muscle tissue were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. The virus used in this model is the first isolated EV71 strain in China. And 2-week-old suckling mice were used in this model. This is a supplement for the EV71 animal model in China. Establishment of this EV71 model will provide an attractive platform for anti-EV71 vaccine and drug development.

  15. In Vivo therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles with optical imaging reporter in tumor mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Gangadaran, Prakash; Li, Xiu Juan; Oh, Ji Min; Lee, Ho Won; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used as a therapeutic armor for cancer. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) from MSCs have been evaluated for anticancer effects. In vivo targeting of EVs to the tumor is an essential requirement for successful therapy. Therefore, non-invasive methods of monitoring EVs in animal models are crucial for developing EV-based cancer therapies. The present study to develop bioluminescent EVs using Renilla luciferase (Rluc)-expressing MSCs. The EVs from MSC/Rluc cells (EV-MSC/Rluc) were visualized in a murine lung cancer model. The anticancer effects of EVs on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and other cancer cells were assessed. EV-MSC/Rluc were visualized in vivo in the LLC-efffuc tumor model using optical imaging. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. EV-MSC/Rluc and EV-MSCs showed a significant cytotoxic effect against LLC-effluc cells and 4T1; however, no significant effect on CT26, B16F10, TC1 cells. Moreover, EV-MSC/Rluc inhibited LLC tumor growth in vivo. EV-MSC/Rluc-mediated LLC tumor inhibitory mechanism revealed the decreased pERK and increased cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP. We successfully developed luminescent EV-MSC/Rluc that have a therapeutic effect on LLC cells in both in vitro and in vivo. This bioluminescent EV system can be used to optimize EV-based therapy. PMID:27452924

  16. EV71 Infection and Innate Antiviral Innate Immunity%EV71的感染和抗病毒天然免疫应答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广成; 段招军

    2016-01-01

    EV71是儿童手足口病的主要病原体,部分感染儿童会出现疱疹性咽峡炎以及严重的肺水肿和/或脑干脑炎.近几年,EV71感染引起的疾病机制研究取得了诸多进展.本文针对目前EV71的敏感细胞、EV71感染激活的信号途径以及EV71感染活化的天然免疫应答或免疫逃逸机制研究进行综述,旨在为EV71抗病毒药物研制和免疫致病机理的研究提供思路.

  17. The approved pediatric drug suramin identified as a clinical candidate for the treatment of EV71 infection-suramin inhibits EV71 infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peijun; Zou, Gang; Bailly, Benjamin; Xu, Shanshan; Zeng, Mei; Chen, Xinsheng; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Ying; Guillon, Patrice; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Buchy, Philippe; Li, Jian; von Itzstein, Mark; Li, Qihan; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes severe central nervous system infections, leading to cardiopulmonary complications and death in young children. There is an urgent unmet medical need for new pharmaceutical agents to control EV71 infections. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we found that the approved pediatric antiparasitic drug suramin blocked EV71 infectivity by a novel mechanism of action that involves binding of the naphtalentrisulonic acid group of suramin to the viral capsid. Moreover, we demonstrate that when suramin is used in vivo at doses equivalent to or lower than the highest dose already used in humans, it significantly decreased mortality in mice challenged with a lethal dose of EV71 and peak viral load in adult rhesus monkeys. Thus, suramin inhibits EV71 infection by neutralizing virus particles prior to cell attachment. Consequently, these findings identify suramin as a clinical candidate for further development as a therapeutic or prophylactic treatment for severe EV71 infection.

  18. Secondary Use of PHEV and EV Batteries: Opportunities & Challenges (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Howell, D.

    2010-05-01

    NREL and partners will investigate the reuse of retired lithium ion batteries for plug-in hybrid, hybrid, and electric vehicles in order to reduce vehicle costs and emissions and curb our dependence on foreign oil. A workshop to solicit industry feedback on the process is planned. Analyses will be conducted, and aged batteries will be tested in two or three suitable second-use applications. The project is considering whether retired PHEV/EV batteries have value for other applications; if so, what are the barriers and how can they be overcome?

  19. Optimization of unipolar magnetic couplers for EV wireless power chargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Chen, H. X.; Zhou, B.; Hei, T.

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve the coupling coefficient of EV wireless power chargers, it's important to optimize the magnetic couplers. To improve the coupling coefficient, the relationship between coupling coefficient and efficiency is derived, and the expression of coupling coefficient based on magnetic circuit is deduced, which provide the basis for optimizing the couplers. By 3D FEM simulation, the optimal core structure and coils are designed for unipolar circular couplers. Experiments are designed to verify the correctness of the optimization results, and compared with previous coupler, the transmission efficiency is improved and weight is reduced.

  20. "Iga päev..." : [luuletused] / Doris Kareva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kareva, Doris, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Tekst eesti ja inglise k. D. Kareva lühibiograafia eesti ja inglise k. lk. 175. Sisu: "Iga päev..." = "Every day..." ; "Ma nägin unes - Saatan kõneles..." = "I dream that I heard Satan speak..." ; "Viib sünnieelsest unest surmaunne..." = "Rainbow-coloured confusion bears us..." ; "Vaadeldes vikerkaarlevat maailma..." = "Viewing the rainbowing world..." ; "Ei jõua kirjutada puhtandit..." = "No time to write the final draft..." ; "Põletatud luuletused..." = ""Burnt poems..." ; Fraktalia ; Müsteerium 1-5 = Enigma 1-5 ; "Jumal juhtub..." = "God happens..." ; Moira 1-7 = Wishing well 1-7 ; Concerto strumenti e voce

  1. Estimation in partial linear EV models with replicated observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Hengjian

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct the parameter estimators in the partial linear errors-in-variables (EV) models and explore their asymptotic properties. Unlike other related References, the assumption of known error covariance matrix is removed when the sample can be repeatedly drawn at each designed point from the model. The estimators of interested regression parameters, and the model error variance, as well as the nonparametric function, are constructed. Under some regular conditions, all of the estimators prove strongly consistent. Meanwhile, the asymptotic normality for the estimator of regression parameter is also presented. A simulation study is reported to illustrate our asymptotic results.

  2. Protective effect of enterovirus‑71 (EV71) virus‑like particle vaccine against lethal EV71 infection in a neonatal mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Mao, Fengfeng; Pang, Zheng; Yi, Yao; Qiu, Feng; Tian, Ruiguang; Meng, Qingling; Jia, Zhiyuan; Bi, Shengli

    2015-08-01

    Enterovirus-71 (EV71) is a viral pathogen that causes severe cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among young children, with significant mortality. Effective vaccines against HFMD are urgently required. Several EV71 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were found to be protective in the neonatal mouse EV71 challenge model. However, to what extent the VLP vaccine protects susceptible organs against EV71 infection in vivo has remained elusive. In the present study, the comprehensive immunogenicity of a potential EV71 vaccine candidate based on VLPs was evaluated in a neonatal mouse model. Despite lower levels of neutralizing antibodies to EV71 in the sera of VLP-immunized mice compared with those in mice vaccinated with inactivated EV71, the VLP-based vaccine was shown to be able to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA memory-associated cellular immune responses to EV71. Of note, the EV71 VLP vaccine candidate was capable of inhibiting viral proliferation in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, lung and intestine of immunized mice and provided effective protection against the pathological damage caused by viral attack. In particular, the VLP vaccine was able to inhibit the transportation of EV71 from the central nervous system to the muscle tissue and greatly protected muscle tissue from infection, along with recovery from the viral infection. This led to nearly 100% immunoprotective efficacy, enabling neonatal mice delivered by VLP-immunized female adult mice to survive and grow with good health. The present study provided valuable additional knowledge of the specific protective efficacy of the EV71 VLP vaccine in vivo, which also indicated that it is a promising potential candidate for being developed into an EV71 vaccine.

  3. A new treatment for neurogenic inflammation caused by EV71 with CR2-targeted complement inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Shaofu; Liu Nan; Jia Leili; Yang Guang; Su Wenli; Li Jing; Song Lixue; Yang Chaojie; Wang Jian; Zhang Chuanfu; Wang Zhongqiang; Qiao Fei; Tomlinson Stephen; Atkinson Carl; Sun Yansong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the most important neurotropic EVs, has caused death and long-term neurological sequelae in hundreds of thousands of young children in the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade. The neurological diseases are attributed to infection by EV71 inducing an extensive peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory response with abnormal cytokine production and lymphocyte depletion induced by EV71 infection. In the absence of specific antiv...

  4. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyong Ng; Fang He; Jimmy Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with ...

  5. 重症手足口病EV71感染护理体会%Nursing Experience of HFMD Children with Severe EV71 Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金利萍; 房彤; 芦玮玮

    2009-01-01

    目的:总结重症EV71感染患儿的护理经验.方法:时100多例重症EV71感染患儿的临床表现、救治措施及护理方法进行分析.结果:总结出重症手足口病EV71感染患儿各项护理要点.结论:重症EV71感染患儿的救治工作在配合护理措施后提高救治成功率.

  6. The attractivity of Mendrisio as industrial area for EVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M. [InfoVEL, Mendrisio (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    Located in the Italian speaking region of Switzerland, Mendrisio is in the Canton Ticino. The city of 300,000 people is served by two international airports, the Lugano-Agno 15 km away and the Milano-Malpensa 60 km away. Car manufacturers introduced their different alternative technologies in the area through the electric vehicle (EV) - Pilot and Demonstration Project. The country is neutral, and does not have protectionist policies in the area of car manufacturing, since the country does not have a national car manufacturer. The decision-makers and the population are open to new technologies, as demonstrated by the fact that 335 EVs are already in operation in the region. Infrastructure, in the form of charging stations, is already in place, as are tax exemptions and other financial incentives. Highly skilled workers, fluent in many languages abound and are supported by high schools and public research centers. The author briefly described a few selected initiatives that were implemented in the last few years.

  7. Broadband multilayer soft X-ray mirrors for attosecond pulse formation at photon energies above 100 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Michael; Schuster, Joerg; Kleineberg, Ulf [LMU, Physik (Germany); Aquila, Andrew [CXRO (United States); Schulze, Martin; Fiess, Markus; Gouliemakis, Eleftherios; Krausz, Ferenc [MPQ (Germany); Huth, Martin [LMU, Chemie (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We report on the development, fabrication and application of multilayer mirrors as broadband soft-X-ray optical components for the formation of attosecond (1 asec=10{sup -18}s)pulses from high harmonic radiation. Until recently, attosecond physics was merely confined to the photon energy range below 100 eV due to the properties of Mo/Si multilayer and single isolated pulses of 80 asec pulse duration have been achieved. For many applications, e.g. in the characterization of the photoemission dynamics from solid surfaces or the characterization of ultrafast surface plasmon dynamics in metallic nanostructures by attosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, higher photon energies are desirable to address deeper bound electronic core states or to increase the kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectrons. Here, we introduce new aperiodic broad bandwidth multilayer systems based on lanthanum (e.g. LaMo, LaB{sub 4}CMo, LaB{sub 4}C, MoB{sub 4}C),for the 100-190 eV photon energy range. Multilayer properties like interface roughness, interlayer formation and reflectivity are discussed. Finally, first applications for spectral filtering of the HHG comb above 100 eV are presented.

  8. RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication to accelerate the inhibition of the phosphorylation of AKT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengfeng; Liu, Yongjuan; Chen, Xiong; Dong, Lanlan; Zhou, Bingfei; Cheng, Qingqing; Han, Song; Liu, Zhongchun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2015-03-20

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), occasionally leading to death. As a member of the RAS association domain family (RASSFs), RASSF4 plays important roles in cell death, tumor development and signal transduction. However, little is known about the relationship between RASSF4 and EV71. Our study reveals for the first time that RASSF4 promotes EV71 replication and then accelerates AKT phosphorylation inhibition in EV71-infected 293T cells, suggesting that RASSF4 may be a potential new target for designing therapeutic measures to prevent and control EV71 infection.

  9. Analysis on influencing factors of EV charging station planning based on AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Ma, X. F.

    2016-08-01

    As a new means of transport, electric vehicle (EV) is of great significance to alleviate the energy crisis. EV charging station planning has a far-reaching significance for the development of EV industry. This paper analyzes the impact factors of EV charging station planning, and then uses the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to carry on the further analysis to the influencing factors, finally it gets the weight of each influence factor, and provides the basis for the evaluation scheme of the planning of charging stations for EV.

  10. On the maximal terms of succesive Gelfond-Leont’ev-Salagen and Gelfond- Leont’ev-Ruscheweyh derivatives of a function analytic in the unit disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Sheremeta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For a function analytic in the unit disc the concepts of Gelfond-Leont'ev-Salagen and Gelfond-Leont'ev-Ruscheweyh derivatives of n-th order are introduced and the asymptotic behaviour of the maximal terms of their power development as n→+∞ is investigated.

  11. Delivery of human EV71 receptors by adeno-associated virus increases EV71 infection-induced local inflammation in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hung-Bo; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Lin, Su-I; Lien, Shu-Pei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chong, Pele; Chen, Chih-Yeh; Tao, Mi-Hua; Liu, Shih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and one major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). However potential animal models for vaccine development are limited to young mice. In this study, we used an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to introduce the human EV71 receptors P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (hPSGL1) or a scavenger receptor class-B member-2 (hSCARB2) into adult ICR mice to change their susceptibility to EV71 infection. Mice were administered AAV-hSCARB2 or AAV-hPSGL1 through intravenous and oral routes. After three weeks, expression of human SCARB2 and PSGL1 was detected in various organs. After infection with EV71, we found that the EV71 viral load in AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice was higher than that of the control mice in both the brain and intestines. The presence of EV71 viral particles in tissues was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines were induced in the brain and intestines of AAV-hSCARB2- or AAV-hPSGL1-transduced mice after EV71 infection but not in wild-type mice. However, neurological disease was not observed in these animals. Taken together, we successfully infected adult mice with live EV71 and induced local inflammation using an AAV delivery system.

  12. Detection of RNA of EV71 in hospital sewage%医院污水中EV71病毒核酸的检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华洪; 白志永

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究医院污水EV71病毒核酸的检测方法,为手足口病控制提供依据.方法 用栽阳电荷的硅胶滤材吸附浓集污水中的EV71病毒,然后用RT-PCR和实时荧光PCR技术检测EV71病毒.结果 建立的栽阳电荷硅胶浓集方法能有效浓集医院污水中的EV71病毒,通过对6家医院的医院污水检测有2家检出EV71病毒核酸,所有检出EV71核酸的医院污水余氯都不符合国家卫生标准.结论 医院污水中含有EV71病毒核酸,提示其为环境中EV71病毒的重要污染源.因此需要加强医院污水消毒的监督检查.

  13. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngolaryngeal mucosa in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingchang; Xue; Yaoming; Li; Xiaoyi; Xu; Jie; Yu; Hu; Yan; Huimin; Yan

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal Ig G antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 Ig G were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral Ig G mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  14. Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration on Low Voltage (LV) Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2012-01-01

    Large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) has become a very interesting option because it can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the transport sector and facilitate the integration of more renewable energy resources (RES) by providing the flexibility of EV charging demands....... Although the EV grid integration is promising, the impact of the EV grid integration has to be investigated in order to identify the bottlenecks of power systems for the EV grid integration and assess different charging scenarios. This paper is focused on the impact of EV grid integration on low voltage...... (LV) grids. The work consists of modeling a typical LV grid, EV charging schedule managment, and impact study of different charging scenarios on LV grid. The modelling work of the LV grid is done using the data from the Bornholm power system. The topology data of the LV grid are used to develop...

  15. Recent Progress towards Novel EV71 Anti-Therapeutics and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qingyong; He, Fang; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a group of viruses that belongs to the Picornaviridae family, which also includes viruses such as polioviruses. EV71, together with coxsackieviruses, is widely known for its association with Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), which generally affects children age five and below. Besides HFMD, EV71 can also trigger more severe and life-threatening neurological conditions such as encephalitis. Considering the lack of a vaccine and antiviral drug against EV71, together with the increasing spread of these viruses, the development of such drugs and vaccines becomes the top priority in protecting our younger generations. This article, hence, reviews some of the recent progress in the formulations of anti-therapeutics and vaccine generation for EV71, covering (i) inactivated vaccines; (ii) baculovirus-expressed vaccines against EV71; (iii) human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment; and (iv) the use of monoclonal antibody therapy as a prevention and treatment for EV71 infections.

  16. EV71-infected CD14(+) cells modulate the immune activity of T lymphocytes in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Pu, Jing; Huang, Hongtai; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Longding; Yang, Erxia; Zhou, Xiaofang; Ma, Na; Zhao, Hongling; Wang, Lichun; Xie, Zhenfeng; Tang, Donghong; Li, Qihan

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary studies of the major pathogen enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, have suggested that EV71 may be a major cause of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases. Currently, the role of the pathological changes induced by EV71 infection in the immunopathogenic response remains unclear. Our study focused on the interaction between this virus and immunocytes and indicated that this virus has the ability to replicate in CD14(+) cells. Furthermore, these EV71-infected CD14(+) cells have the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of T cells and to enhance the release of certain functional cytokines. An adaptive immune response induced by the back-transfusion of EV71-infected CD14(+) cells was observed in donor neonatal rhesus monkeys. Based on these observations, the proposed hypothesis is that CD14(+) cells infected by the EV71 virus might modulate the anti-EV71 adaptive immune response by inducing simultaneous T-cell activation.

  17. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to interference of ~1 eV sterile neutrino. The specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST) starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in searches for sterile neutrino mixed with electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST) we find the regions in model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle), which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  18. X-ray Flares of EV Lac: Statistics, Spectra, Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Huenemoerder, David P; Testa, Paola; Drake, Jeremy J; Osten, Rachel A; Reale, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    We study the spectral and temporal behavior of X-ray flares from the active M-dwarf EV Lac in 200 ks of exposure with the Chandra/HETGS. We derive flare parameters by fitting an empirical function which characterizes the amplitude, shape, and scale. The flares range from very short (<1 ks) to long (10 ks) duration events with a range of shapes and amplitudes for all durations. We extract spectra for composite flares to study their mean evolution and to compare flares of different lengths. Evolution of spectral features in the density-temperature plane shows probable sustained heating. The short flares are significantly hotter than the longer flares. We determined an upper limit to the Fe K fluorescent flux, the best fit value being close to what is expected for compact loops.

  19. Approximation of Vorob'ev expectation for random closed sets

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Philippe; Tran, Viet Chi

    2010-01-01

    Random sets appear in many applications, in particular in image analysis. The issue of a "mean shape" often arises since there is no canonical definition. In this paper, we propose a consistent and ready to use estimator for the Vorob'ev expectation of a random set $X$. It is a kind of mean closely linked to quantile-like quantities and built from independent copies of $X$ with spatial discretization. The convergence is established through the Strong Law of Large Numbers of Kovyazin. The control of discretization errors is handled with a mild regularity assumption on the boundary of $X$: a not too large 'box counting' dimension. Some examples, including Boolean models, are studied.

  20. Construction Project Forecasting "Practical Use of EV Metrics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reda Abbas Sabry

    2014-01-01

    During this professional research--Construction Project Forecasting (Practical Use of EV Metrics), which criticize earned value management as a most distinguished methodology for forecasting the project expected end dates and expecting budget at completion, the field for the research is construction field and specially the projects which content different phases without repetitive tasks. Forecasting for construction project is a complicated process need more than applying one equation only. As assuming that, project performance during finishing stage will be similar to project performance during concrete stage is totally wrong. The case study techniques have been used to prove an important idea and also to implement a suggested protocol which actually implemented and tested and it should be considered as a research finding. The project used in this case study is "Hurgadah Intemational Airport--New Terminal Building", while executing this complex construction projects with different stages the forecasting for the project end date and final end budget were completely not realistic. The above leads to questioning the next: "Is it true that using the earned value indexes for forecasting construction projects end date and final budget is the right way? And if not, what is the right process that should be used in order to reach acceptable forecasting method?" We implement the EV measurements by the normal technique and also implement in the same month the suggested protocol for forecasting, comparing the results proof the effectiveness of the suggested protocol. The findings prove that, the construction projects need special treatment when use the EVM for forecasting. The earned value indexes created to serve the projects which have repeated tasks or can say which got one stage only, like information technology (IT) projects as those projects depending on manpower productivity and also based on few different qualifications. On such type of projects

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bianca Luena Victorio

    Full Text Available Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv, which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D. Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3)-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2014-01-01

    Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv), which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1) and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D). Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  3. The Swift/Fermi GRB 080928 from 1 eV to 150 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbas, Eda; Rossi, A.; Schulze, S.; Klose, S.; Kann, D. A.; Ferrero, P.; NicuesaGuelbenzu, A.; Rau, A.; Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Clemens, C.; Filgas, R.; KuepcuYoldas, A.; McBreen, S.; Olivares, F.; Szokoly, G.; Yoldas, A.; Krimm, H. A.; Johannesson, G.; Panaitescu, A.; Yuan, F.; Pandey, S. B.; Akerlof, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of the Gamma-Ray Burst 080928 and of its afterglow. GRB 08092 was a long burst detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM, It is one of the exceptional cases where optical emission was already detected when the GRB itself was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. for nearly 100 seconds simultaneous optical X-ray and gamma-ray data provide a coverage of the spectral energy distribution of the transient source from about 1 eV to 150 keV. Here we analyze the prompt emission, constrain its spectral propertIes. and set lower limits on the initial Lorentz factor of the relativistic outflow, In particular. we show that the SED during the main prompt emission phase is in agreement with synchrotron radiation. We construct the optical/near-infrared light curve and the spectral energy distribution based on Swift/UVOT. ROTSE-Illa (Australia) and GROND (La Silla) data and compare it to the X-ray light curve retrieved from the Swift/XRT repository. We show that its bumpy shape can be modeled by multiple energy injections into the forward shock. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the temporal and spectral evolution of the first strong flare seen in the early X-ray light curve can be explained by large-angle emission. Finally, we report on the results of our search for the GRB host galaxy, for which only a deep upper limit can be provided.

  4. Positron total cross sections for collisions with O2, H2O and CH4 in energy range from 30 to 3000eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2005-01-01

    Total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections (TCSs) for the scattering of positrons by molecules O2, H2O and CH4 in the energy range from 30 to 3000eV are calculated using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom which takes into considerationthe overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule is firstly employed for the TCS calculation of positron-molecule scattering. TCSs are quantitatively compared with those obtained in experiments and other theorieswherever available, and good agreement is obtained in the energy range from 30 to 3000eV. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the modified complex optical model potential is completely suitable for the TCS calculations of the positron-molecule scattering.

  5. Design of a polarised light beamline in the energy range of 30-4000 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhari, S M; Phase, D M; Dasannacharya, B A

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the design of a possible polarised light beamline for magnetic circular dichroism and photoemission experiments on a bending magnet source of 2.5 GeV storage ring, Indus-2. It will have an energy range of 30-4000 eV and will deliver circular as well as linearly polarised light to perform absorption and photoemission experiments covering relevant L and M edges of most of the elements. The beamline optics consists of a vertically moveable aperture for polarisation selection. It has three spherical gratings and a double crystal monochromator necessary for energy selection in low and high-energy ranges respectively. Corresponding pre- and post-mirror optics, which is common for both the monochromators is the highlight of this design. Detailed ray-tracing calculations, which were carried out to evaluate and optimise the performance of the proposed beamline, are presented in this article.

  6. Both ERK1 and ERK2 are required for enterovirus 71 (EV71) efficient replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng; Duan, Hao; Gao, Meng; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Yihong

    2015-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that MEK1, one of the two MEK isoforms in Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, is essential for successful EV71 propagation. However, the distinct function of ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms, the downstream kinases of MEKs, remains unclear in EV71 replication. In this study, specific ERK siRNAs and selective inhibitor U0126 were applied. Silencing specific ERK did not significantly impact on the EV71-caused biphasic activation of the other ERK isoform, suggesting the EV71-induced activations of ERK1 and ERK2 were non-discriminative and independent to one another. Knockdown of either ERK1 or ERK2 markedly impaired progeny EV71 propagation (both by more than 90%), progeny viral RNA amplification (either by about 30% to 40%) and protein synthesis (both by around 70%), indicating both ERK1 and ERK2 were critical and not interchangeable to EV71 propagation. Moreover, suppression of EV71 replication by inhibiting both early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation showed no significant difference from that of only blocking the late phase, supporting the late phase activation was more importantly responsible for EV71 life cycle. Taken together, this study for the first time identified both ERK1 and ERK2 were required for EV71 efficient replication and further verified the important role of MEK1-ERK1/2 in EV71 replication.

  7. Both ERK1 and ERK2 Are Required for Enterovirus 71 (EV71 Efficient Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that MEK1, one of the two MEK isoforms in Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 pathway, is essential for successful EV71 propagation. However, the distinct function of ERK1 and ERK2 isoforms, the downstream kinases of MEKs, remains unclear in EV71 replication. In this study, specific ERK siRNAs and selective inhibitor U0126 were applied. Silencing specific ERK did not significantly impact on the EV71-caused biphasic activation of the other ERK isoform, suggesting the EV71-induced activations of ERK1 and ERK2 were non-discriminative and independent to one another. Knockdown of either ERK1 or ERK2 markedly impaired progeny EV71 propagation (both by more than 90%, progeny viral RNA amplification (either by about 30% to 40% and protein synthesis (both by around 70%, indicating both ERK1 and ERK2 were critical and not interchangeable to EV71 propagation. Moreover, suppression of EV71 replication by inhibiting both early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation showed no significant difference from that of only blocking the late phase, supporting the late phase activation was more importantly responsible for EV71 life cycle. Taken together, this study for the first time identified both ERK1 and ERK2 were required for EV71 efficient replication and further verified the important role of MEK1-ERK1/2 in EV71 replication.

  8. Determinants of EV71 immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junliang; Li, Jingliang; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanchen; Yang, Jiaxin; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang

    2015-07-01

    Circulating enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a major public health problem in the Asian-Pacific region. An EV71 vaccine for HFMD prevention is currently being developed. However, viral determinants that could influence the vaccine's efficacy have not been well characterized. In this study, we isolated and characterized several EV71 strains that are currently circulating in northern and southern China. We determined that VP1 variation is a major determinant of EV71 immunogenicity. A single amino acid variation in VP1 can lead to significant differences in the breadth and potency of immune responses against primary EV71 isolates as well as the sensitivity of EV71 to heterologous neutralizing antibody responses. We also identified EV71 strains that could induce potent immunogenic and cross-neutralizing antibody responses against diverse EV71 strains. Furthermore, these neutralizing antibodies could protect neonatal mice from lethal dose challenge with various circulating EV71 viruses. Our study provides useful information for EV71 vaccine development and evaluation.

  9. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  10. EV City Casebook: A Look At The Global Electric Vehicle Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) hold the potential of transforming the way the world moves. EVs can increase energy security by diversifying the fuel mix and decreasing dependence on petroleum, while also reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Just as important, EVs can unlock innovation and create new advanced industries that spur job growth and enhance economic prosperity. However, the mass deployment of EVs will require transportation systems capable of integrating and fostering this new technology. To accelerate this transition, cities and metropolitan regions around the world are creating EV-friendly ecosystems and building the foundation for widespread adoption. In recognition of the importance of urban areas in the introduction and scale-up of electric vehicles, the EV City Casebook presents informative case studies on city and regional EV deployment efforts around the world. These case studies are illustrative examples of how pioneering cities are preparing the ground for mass market EV deployment. They offer both qualitative and quantitative information on cities' EV goals, progress, policies, incentives, and lessons learned to date. The purpose of the EV City Casebook is to share experiences on EV demonstration and deployment, identify challenges and opportunities, and highlight best practices for creating thriving EV ecosystems. These studies seek to enhance understanding of the most effective policy measures to foster the uptake of electric vehicles in urban areas. The cities represented here are actively engaging in a variety of initiatives that share the goal of accelerating EV adoption. This publication is the result of an effort to coordinate those initiatives and provide a global perspective on the electric vehicle movement. This international knowledge-sharing network consists of the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI), a multi-government initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial; Project Get Ready, a Rocky Mountain Institute

  11. 手足口病的元凶—EV71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明巧

    2008-01-01

    什么是 EV71?最近时常有一些家长带着有一点发热、或身上起了几个皮疹的宝宝来到医院就诊,首先就询问医生:"我家宝宝是否感染了EV71?""EV71"确实已给家长心理上蒙上了阴影,造成了恐慌。那么,什么是 EV71呢?EV71是一种肠道病毒,虽然 EV71是肠道病毒,但是人感染

  12. Evolution of the cosmic ray anisotropy above 10^{14} eV

    CERN Document Server

    Aglietta, M; Alessandro, B; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, F; Bergamasco, L; Bertaina, M; Bonino, R; Castellina, A; Chiavassa, A; Piazzoli, B D'Ettorre; Di Sciascio, G; Fulgione, W; Galeotti, P; Ghia, P L; Iacovacci, M; Mannocchi, G; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Saavedra, O; Stamerra, A; Trinchero, G C; Valchierotti, S; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C

    2009-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of the cosmic ray anisotropy are well established experimentally between 10^{11} eV and 10^{14} eV. The study of their evolution into the energy region 10^{14}-10^{16} eV can provide a significant tool for the understanding of the steepening ("knee") of the primary spectrum. In this letter we extend the EAS-TOP measurement performed at E_0 around 10^{14} eV, to higher energies by using the full data set (8 years of data taking). Results derived at about 10^{14} and 4x10^{14} eV are compared and discussed. Hints of increasing amplitude and change of phase above 10^{14} eV are reported. The significance of the observation for the understanding of cosmic ray propagation is discussed.

  13. Consistency of modified MLE in EV model with replicated observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Sanguo

    2001-01-01

    [1]Kendall, M., Stuart, A., The Advanced Theory of Statistics, Vol. 2, New York: Charles Griffin, 1979.[2]Anderson, T. W., Estimating linear statistical relationships, Ann. Statist., 1984, 12: 1.[3]Cui Hengjian, Asymptotic normality of M-estimates in the EV model, Sys. Sci. and Math. Sci., 1997, 10(3): 225.[4]Madansky, A., The fitting of straight lines when both variables are subject to error, JASA, 1959, 54: 173.[5]Villegas, C., Maximum likelihood estimations of a linear functional relationship, Ann. Math. Statist., 1961, 32(4): 1048.[6]Stout, W. F., Almost Sure Convergence, New York: Academic Press, 1974.[7]Petrov, V. V., Sums of Independent Random Variables, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.[8]Lai, T. L., Robbins, H., Wei, C. Z., Strong consistency of least squares estimates in multiple regression, J. Multivariate Anal., 1979, 9: 343.[9]Chen Xiru, On limiting properties of U-statistics and von-Mises statistics, Scientia Sinica (in Chinese), 1980, (6): 522.

  14. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenherg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX as an update of the state of the art in hybrid electric bicycles. The E-bike is seen as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The SX is a high performance, state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the SX's 36 V power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W, electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the SX, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the SX provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  15. Baseline Testing of The EV Global E-Bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption and reduce Operating costs for transportation systems. The work was done Linder the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electric bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W. electric hub motor and a 7-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. The E-Bike is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  16. Moby.Cockpit Project for EV seamless integration in the cooperative transport infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    João C. Ferreira; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Afonso, João L.

    2013-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) are being introduced in the market, however the reduced energy storage capacity of their batteries and the lack of a high density charging infrastructure, limits their autonomy range. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose the development of a new solution for EV drivers that enables to travel longer distances. This is achieved by integrating some components of the cooperative transport infrastructure, as EV battery charging systems and public transports syste...

  17. MicroRNA-23b inhibits enterovirus 71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bai-ping; Dai, Hong-jian; Yang, Yue-huang; Zhuang, Yu; Sheng, Ru

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and effective antiviral agents and vaccines against this virus have, to date, not been available. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of RNAs with the function of post-transcriptional gene expression regulation. It has been demonstrated that miRNAs play important roles in the complicated interaction network between virus and host, while few studies have explored the role of miRNAs in EV71 infection. A recent study showed that hsa-miR-23b was downregulated significantly in cell-infected viruses. To address this issue, biological software miRanda was first used to predict possible target sites of miR-23b at EV71 gene sequence, then to confirm it by luciferase assay. miR-23b mimics were transfected to verify its effects on infection of EV71. These results suggest that miR-23b and upregulation of miR-23b inhibited the replication of EV71 by targeting at EV71 3'UTR conserved sequence. Taken together, miR-23b could inhibit EV71 replication through downregulation of EV71 VPl protein. These results may enhance our understanding on the prevention and treatment of hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by EV71 infection.

  18. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin Fan; Yong Zhang; Lan Hu; Qiang Sun; Hui Cui; Dongmei Yan; Huerxidan Sikandaner; Haishu Tang; Dongyan Wang; Zhen Zhu; Shuangli Zhu; Wenbo Xu

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demons...

  19. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2009/2010; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  20. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2010/2011; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2010/2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  1. Purification technology of hand -foot -and -mouth disease EV71 vaccine%手足口病EV71疫苗纯化的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺芳; 穆瑞瑞; 张俊; 张可

    2012-01-01

    @@%为提高肠道病毒71型(EV71)疫苗的纯化工艺,采用粗纯、4FF层析、离子交换层析、蔗糖密度梯度离心等方法进行疫苗的纯化.结果表明,粗纯的EV71浓缩液经4FF层析和蔗糖密度梯度离心,得到高纯度的EV71疫苗.新工艺提高了EV71的纯度,适用于规模化生产.

  2. The cosmic ray spectrum and composition measured by KASCADE-Grande between 10{sup 16} eV and 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Blümer, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cantoni, E. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-15

    The shape and composition of the primary spectrum of cosmic rays are key elements to understand the origin, acceleration and propagation of the Galactic cosmic rays. Besides the well known knee and ankle features, the recent results of KASCADE-Grande indicate that the measured energy spectrum exhibits also a less pronounced but still clear deviation from a single power law between the knee and the ankle, with a spectral hardening at 2 × 10{sup 16} eV and a steepening at 10{sup 17} eV. The average mass composition gets heavier after the knee till 10{sup 17} eV where a bending of the heavy component is observed. An indication of a hardening of the light component just above 10{sup 17} eV has been measured as well. In this paper the major results obtained so far by the KASCADE-Grande experiment are reviewed.

  3. Development of A Quantitative ELISA Method for EV71 Antigen%EV71抗原ELISA定量检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卉; 蔡芳; 高强; 张建三; 井申荣

    2010-01-01

    目的 建立EV71抗原双抗体夹心ELISA定量检测方法,用于EV71灭活疫苗生产过程中抗原含量的检测.方法 采用EV71全病毒免疫,制备抗EV71单克隆抗体及多克隆抗体,以抗EV71多克隆抗体作为包被抗体,经HRP标记的抗EV71单克隆抗体作为酶标抗体,建立双抗体夹心ELISA法,检测样品中EV71抗原含量,并对该方法进行验证及应用.结果 所建立的方法线性范围为5~80 U/ml,R~2=0.994,线性关系良好,定量限度为5 U/ml;检测不同浓度的EV71抗原内部参考品,回收率为88%~119.0%;变异系数均小于15%;与甲肝病毒收获液、乙脑病毒灭活液、H5N1流感病毒裂解疫苗原液、小牛血清、人白蛋白、Veto细胞、MEM培养基及CoxA16收获液均无交叉反应;检测EV71灭活疫苗原液纯化过程样品的抗原含量,能有效反映抗原纯化趋势;检测铝吸附疫苗成品解离后抗原含量,准确性较高.结论 已建立了EV71抗原双抗体夹心ELISA定量检测方法,该方法线性好,特异性强,灵敏度高,准确性及重复性良好,可用于EV71疫苗生产过程中及终产品的抗原定量检测.

  4. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Annual report 1999/2000; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 1999/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, A.

    2001-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. outlines the state of the art and the boundary conditions of energy plant utilisation. The organisational struture of the association and its research projects are presented. [German] Der Jahresbericht der Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. stellt Stand der Technik und Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Verwendung von Energiepflanzen dar. Die Organisation des Vereins sowie die gefoerderten Forschungsprojekte werden vorgestellt.

  5. CDMA 1x EV-DO覆盖模型的分析与仿真%Analysis and Simulation of CDMA 1x EV-DO Coverage Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅琼

    2006-01-01

    结合经过校正后的适合于本地无线环境的OKUMURA-HATA传播模型,建立起一种新的本地化基于1x EV-DO系统数据业务吞吐量分析的覆盖预测仿真模型,可应用于1x EV-DO系统的网络规划及系统性能分析.

  6. Ratio of the 10BF3 and 3He(n,p) cross sections between 0.025 eV and 25,000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The /sup 10/BF/sub 3/(n,/alpha/) and /sup 3/He(n,p) cross sections have been compared in the energy range from 0.025 to 25,000 eV. Measurements at National Bureau of Standards using filtered beams gave results at 2 and 25 keV. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the ORELA facility measurements were completed between 0.025 and 10,000 eV. Normalizing the ratio of BF/sub 3//He to 1 at 0.03 eV, the ratio increases by 1% at 10 eV, by 2% at a few hundred ev, by 4% at 2 kev, and by 16% at 25 keV. The large deviations at the higher energies are expected purely from the nuclear parameterization of the cross sections. However, the deviations from 1/v in the ratio below 100 ev are surprising and perhaps might have their origin in the molecular binding for /sup 10/B in the /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ system. 8 refs

  7. 捕获ELISA法测定抗EV71-IgM抗体用于EV71感染早期诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林裕龙; 温坤; 王压娣; 晋晶; 车小燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨捕获ELISA法测定抗肠道病毒71型(EV71) IgM抗体在EV71感染所致手足口病(HFMD)早期诊断中的价值.方法 以实时荧光RT-PCR检测89例临床初诊为HFMD患儿的粪便、疱疹液、咽拭子或肛拭子的肠道病毒RNA.用40例排除HFMD的5岁以下儿童血清为抗EV71-IgM抗体阴性对照,以捕获ELISA法检测患儿不同发病期血清中抗EV71 -IgM抗体.结果 经实时荧光RT-PCR检测,89例HFMD患儿粪便、疱疹液、咽拭子或肛拭子中EV71感染28例,柯萨奇病毒A16(CA16)感染43例,非EV71和CA16的肠道病毒感染14例,非肠道病毒感染4例.EV71感染者发病1~3d、4~6d及>6d的血清抗EV71 -IgM抗体阳性率分别为81.3%、100%和100%;CA16感染者分别为10.0%、26.4%和65.7%;非EV71和CA16的肠道病毒感染者及非肠道病毒感染者在发病1~3d和4~6d无1例阳性;阴性对照组无1例阳性.抗EV71-IgM抗体在EV71感染的早期(急性期)的诊断敏感性和特异性分别为81.3%和92.9%.结论 EV71感染者与CA16感染者血清抗EV71-IgM抗体在发病4d后存在较明显的交叉反应.抗EV71-IgM抗体可用作EV71感染早期诊断的血清学标志物.

  8. Optical properties of GaAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.O.Akinlami; A.O.Ashamu

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of gallium arsenide (GaAs) in the photon energy range 0.6-6.0 eV.We obtained a refractive index which has a maximum value of 5.0 at a photon energy of 3.1 eV; an extinction coefficient which has a maximum value of 4.2 at a photon energy of 5.0 eV; the dielectric constant,the real part of the complex dielectric constant has a maximum value of 24 at a photon energy of 2.8 eV and the imaginary part of the complex dielectric constant has a maximum value of 26.0 at a photon energy of 4.8 eV; the transmittance which has a maximum value of 0.22 at a photon energy of 4.0 eV; the absorption coefficient which has a maximum value of 0.22 × 108 m-1 at a photon energy of 4.8 eV,the reflectance which has a maximum value of 0.68 at 5.2eV;the reflection coefficient which has a maximum value of 0.82 at a photon energy of 5.2 eV; the real part of optical conductivity has a maximum value of 14.2 × 1015 at 4.8 eV and the imaginary part of the optical conductivity has a maximum value of 6.8 × 1015 at 5.0 eV.The values obtained for the optical properties of GaAs are in good agreement with other results.

  9. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Rohrbaugh; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  10. Catalytic Assessment: Understanding How MCQs and EVS Can Foster Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    One technology for education whose adoption is currently expanding rapidly in UK higher education is that of electronic voting systems (EVS). As with all educational technology, whether learning benefits are achieved depends not on the technology but on whether an improved teaching method is introduced with it. EVS inherently relies on the…

  11. Comparison of the LEGO Mindstorms NXT and EV3 Robotics Education Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, Ann; Rhodes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The release of the latest LEGO Mindstorms EV3 robotics platform in September 2013 has provided a dilemma for many youth robotics leaders. There is a need to understand the differences in the Mindstorms NXT and EV3 in order to make future robotics purchases. In this article the differences are identified regarding software, hardware, sensors, the…

  12. Sõlmornamendist, eriti muinaskäevõrudel ja setu naiste ülerõivastel / Mare Piho

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piho, Mare, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    Artikli ajendiks sai 1972. aastal Setumaalt juhuleiuna saadud 11. sajandi käevõru. Käevõrul kujutaud plettornamenti on kasutatud setu naiste 19. sajandi keskpaiga - 20. sajandi riietelel. Sõlmest kui märgist ja selle tähendusest. Sõlmornamendist setu naiste pealisriietel. Sõlmornamendi järjepidevusest ja püsimisest

  13. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qun-ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated.

  14. Immunogenicity Studies of Bivalent Inactivated Virions of EV71/CVA16 Formulated with Submicron Emulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV 71 and coxsackievirus (CV A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg emulsified in submicron particles was found (i to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases.

  15. Immunogenicity studies of bivalent inactivated virions of EV71/CVA16 formulated with submicron emulsion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chong, Pele; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV) 71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg) emulsified in submicron particles was found (i) to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii) consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases.

  16. Progress on the research and development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Li, Jing-Xin; Yao, Xin; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of diseases caused by EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific region. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, controlling EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on the research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccines. Thus far, five organizations have completed pre-clinical studies focused on the development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, including vaccine strain screening, process optimization, safety and immunogenicity evaluation, and are in different stages of clinical trials. Among these organizations, three companies in Mainland China [Beijing Vigoo Biological Co., Ltd. (Vigoo), Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (Sinovac) and Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CAMS)] have recently completed Phase III trials for the vaccines they developed. In addition, the other two vaccines, developed by National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) of Taiwan and Inviragen Pte., Ltd (Inviragen), of Singapore, have also completed Phase I clinical trials. Published clinical trial results indicate that the inactivated EV71 vaccines have good safety and immunogenicity in the target population (infants) and confer a relatively high rate of protection against EV71 infection-related diseases. The results of clinical trials suggest a promising future for the clinical use of EV71 vaccines. Here, we review and highlight the recent progress on the R&D of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

  17. Discovery of gramine derivatives that inhibit the early stage of EV71 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanhong; Shi, Liqiao; Wang, Kaimei; Liu, Manli; Yang, Qingyu; Yang, Ziwen; Ke, Shaoyong

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a notable causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, which is associated with an increased incidence of severe neurological disease and death, yet there is no specific treatment or vaccine for EV71 infections. In this study, the antiviral activity of gramine and 21 gramine derivatives against EV71 was investigated in cell-based assays. Eighteen derivatives displayed some degree of inhibitory effects against EV71, in that they could effectively inhibit virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs), but the anti-EV71 activity of the lead compound gramine was not observed. Studies on the preliminary modes of action showed that these compounds functioned by targeting the early stage of the EV71 lifecycle after viral entry, rather than inactivating the virus directly, inhibiting virus adsorption or affecting viral release from the cells. Among these derivatives, one (compound 4s) containing pyridine and benzothiazole units showed the most potency against EV71. Further studies demonstrated that derivative 4s could profoundly inhibit viral RNA replication, protein synthesis, and virus-induced apoptosis in RD cells. These results indicate that derivative 4s might be a feasible therapeutic agent against EV71 infection and that these gramine derivatives may provide promising lead scaffolds for the further design and synthesis of potential antiviral agents.

  18. [Inactivation of EV71 by Exposure to Heat and Ultraviolet Light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Li, Dandi; Xie, Guangcheng; Hu, Yaqian; Zhang, Qing; Kong, Xiangyu; Guo, Nijun; Li, Yuning; Duan, Zhaojun

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major agent of hand, foot and mouth disease that can cause a severe burden of disease to children. To identify an effective method for the control and prevention of EV71, we studied the effect of exposure to heat and ultraviolet (UV) light upon EV71 inactivation. We found that exposure to 50 degrees C could not inactivate the infectivity of EV71. However, exposure to 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C could inactivate EV71 effectively. EV71 could be inactivated after exposure to UV light at a distance between the sample and a lamp of 30 cm for 30 min or 60 min because viral genomic RNA was destroyed. However, fetal bovine serum (FBS) could attenuate the inactivation proffered by heat and UV light. Attenuation effects of FBS were correlated positively with FBS concentration. Hence, EV71 can be inactivated by exposure to heat and UV light, and our results could provide guidance on prevention of the spread of EV71.

  19. Optimization and control method for smart charging of EVs facilitated by Fleet operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Si, Chengyong;

    2013-01-01

    -tion and the facilitator EV fleet operator are introduced. Secondly, control architec-tures and their integrations in term of electricity market and distribution grid are discussed. Then, data analysis of EVs including a battery model and driving pattern is presented. Further discussion is given on mathematical modelling...

  20. EV71 vaccine, a new tool to control outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-05-01

    On December 3rd 2015, the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) approved the first inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) whole virus vaccine for preventing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). As one of the few preventive vaccines for children's infectious diseases generated by the developing countries in recent years, EV71 vaccine is a blessing to children's health in China and worldwide. However, there are still a few challenges facing the worldwide use of EV71 vaccine, including the applicability against various EV71 pandemic strains in other countries, international requirements on vaccine production and quality control, standardization and harmonization on different pathogen monitoring and detecting methods, etc. In addition, the affordability of EV71 vaccine in other countries is a factor to be considered in HFMD prevention. Therefore, with EV71 vaccine commercially available, there is still a long way to go before reaching effective protection against severe HFMD after EV71 vaccines enter the market. In this paper, the bottlenecks and prospects for the wide use of EV71 vaccine after its approval are evaluated. PMID:26732723

  1. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  2. Origin of 3.45 eV Emission Line and Yellow Luminescence Band in GaN Nanowires: Surface Microwire and Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Zong, Hua; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Xin-he; Zhong, Hong-xia; Ding, Yi-min; He, Ying-ping; Lu, Jing; Hu, Xiao-dong

    2015-09-22

    The physical origin of the strong emission line at 3.45 eV and broadening yellow luminescence (YL) band centered at 2.2 eV in GaN nanowire (NW) has been debated for many years. Here, we solve these two notable issues by using state-of-the-art first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory combined with polarization-resolved experiments. We demonstrate that the ubiquitous surface "microwires" with amazing characteristics, i.e., the outgrowth nanocrystal along the NW side wall, are vital and offer a new perspective to provide insight into some puzzles in epitaxy materials. Furthermore, inversion of the top valence bands, in the decreasing order of crystal-field split-off hole (CH) and heavy/light hole, results in the optical transition polarized along the NW axis due to quantum confinement. The optical emission from bound excitons localized around the surface microwire to CH band is responsible for the 3.45 eV line with E∥c polarization. Both gallium vacancy and carbon-related defects tend to assemble at the NW surface layer, determining the broadening YL band. PMID:26301765

  3. A Correlation Potential Method for Electron Scattering Total Cross Section Calculations on Several Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules over Energy Range 10 ~ 5000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-Fang; SHI De-Heng; SUN Jin-Feng; ZHU Zun-Lue; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential correlated by the concept of bonded atom, which considers the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering on several molecules (NH3, H2O, CH4, CO, N2, O2, and C2H4) over the energy range 10 ~ 5000 eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The difference between the bonded atom and the free one in states is that the overlapping effect of electron clouds of bonded atoms in a molecule is considered. The quantitative total cross sections are compared with the experimental data and with the other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained over the energy range 10 ~ 5000 eV. It is shown that the correlated calculations are much closer to the available experimental data than the uncorrelated ones at lower energies, especially below 500 eV. Therefore,considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds in the complex optical model potential could be helpful for the better accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electron scattering from molecules.

  4. A modification potential method for electron scattering total cross section calculations on several molecules at 30-5000eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施德恒; 孙金锋; 朱遵略; 刘玉芳

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule is employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering in such molecules as N2, NO, NO2, CH4, CF4, CF3H, C2H2 and C2H4 at 30-5000eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The quantitative total cross sections are compared with those obtained in experiments and other theories, wherever available, and good agreement is obtained at 30-5000eV. It is shown that the modified calculation results are much closer to the available experimental data than the unmodified ones at lower energies, especially below 500eV. Therefore, considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds in the complex optical model potential could be helpful for better calculation results about electron scattering total cross sections from molecules.

  5. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration. PMID:27234148

  6. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of anti-EV71 agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yang, Bailing; Hao, Fei; Wang, Ping; He, Haiying; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Shengbin; Peng, Xuanjia; Yin, Ke; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Xinsheng; Gu, Zhengxian; Wang, Li; Shen, Liang; Hu, Guoping; Li, Ning; Li, Jian; Chen, Shuhui; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhenzhong; Guo, Qingming; Chang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lanjun; Cai, Qixu; Lin, Tianwei

    2016-07-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which can spread its infections to the central nervous and other systems with severe consequences. In this article, design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various anti-EV71 agents which incorporate Michael acceptors are described. Further SAR study demonstrated that lactone type of Michael acceptor provided a new lead of anti-EV71 drug candidates with high anti-EV71 activity in cell-based assay and enhanced mouse plasma stability. One of the most potent compounds (2K, cell-based anti-EV71 EC50=0.028μM), showed acceptable stability profile towards mouse plasma, which resulted into promising pharmacokinetics in mouse via IP administration.

  7. A-periodic multilayer development for attosecond pulses in the 300-500 eV photon energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Hofstetter, Michael; Kleineberg, Ulf [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Rauhut, Roman [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The development of ultrafast X-ray pulses in the sub-femtosecond time regime is a cutting edge technology for studying electron dynamics in atoms, molecules or solid surfaces/nanostructures by means of pump/probe electron spectroscopy. XUV elements as multilayer mirrors and thin metal filters are used to filter and shape attosecond bursts from high harmonic radiation. One near future goal is to extend the current technology to higher photon energies, reaching the water window range around 300-500 eV, where the in-vitro investigation of bio-materials on ultra-short time scales becomes possible. Following the ideas of nowadays experimental setups, both the spectral and the temporal resolution can be determined and guided by means of periodic and a-periodic multilayer mirrors, allowing for spectral and temporal soft X-ray pulse shaping. We will present first investigations of periodic and a-periodic multilayer XUV optics in that energy range of 300-400 eV and discuss their applications for filtering single attosecond pulses from High Harmonic radiation. Simulations and optimizations of various binary and ternary multilayer material systems as well as first experimental results achieved by Ion Beam Deposition and in-situ ellipsometry of the deposited nanolayers are demonstrated.

  8. Predicting the optical gap of conjugated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Andre Leitao

    The adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model is developed in this work as a tool for in silico prediction of the optical gap of pi-conjugated systems for photovoltaic applications. Full transferability of the model ensures reliable predictive power - excellent agreement with 180 independent experimental data points covering virtually all existing conjugated system types with an accuracy exceeding the time-dependent density functional theory, one of the most accurate first-principles methods. Insights on the structure-property relation of conjugated systems obtained from the model lead to guiding rules for optical gap design: 1) fusing aromatic rings parallel to the conjugated path does not significantly lower the optical gap, 2) fusing rings perpendicularly lowers the optical gap of the monomer, but has a reduced benefit from polymerization, and 3) copolymers take advantage of the lower optical gap of perpendicular fused rings and benefit from further optical gap reduction through added parallel fused rings as electronic communicators. A copolymer of parallel and perpendicular benzodithiophenes, differing only in sulfur atom locations, is proposed as a candidate to achieve the optimal 1.2 eV donor optical gap for organic photovoltaics. For small-molecule organic photovoltaics, substituting the end pairs of carbon atoms on pentacene with sulfur atoms is predicted to lower the optical gap from 1.8 eV to 1.1 eV. Furthermore, the model offers an improvement of orders of magnitude in the computational efficiency over commonly used first-principles tools.

  9. Heavy carriers and non-Drude optical conductivity in MnSi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mena, FP; van der Marel, D; Damascelli, A; Fath, M; Menovsky, AA; Mydosh, JA

    2003-01-01

    The optical properties of the weakly helimagnetic metal MnSi have been determined in the photon energy range from 2 meV to 4.5 eV using the combination of grazing incidence reflectance at 80degrees (from 2 meV to 0.8 eV) and ellipsometry (from 0.8 to 4.5 eV). As the sample is cooled below 100 K, the

  10. Total Cross Sections for Electron Scattering from the Isoelectronic (Z = 14) Molecules (C2H2, CO, HCN and N2) at 100-5000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI De-Heng; ZHU Zun-Lue; SUN Jin-Feng; YANG Xiang-Dong; LIU Yu-Fang; ZHAO Ye

    2004-01-01

    @@ A complex optical model potential correlated by the conception of bonded atom, which considers the overlapping effect of electron clouds between the two atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering from the isoelectronic (Z = 14) molecules (C2H2, CO, HCN, and N2) at 100-5000eV using the additivity rule at the Hartree-Fock level The difference between the bonded atom and the free one is that the overlapping effect of electron clouds of bonded atoms in molecules is considered. The quantitative molecular total cross section results are compared with the experimental data and with the other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained above 100eV. It is shown that the additivity rule along with the complex optical model potential considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds can give the results better than that uncorrelated by it. The correlating calculations are much closer to the experiments than the spherical-complex-optical-potential results in the lower energy region [Phys. Rev. A 45 (1992) 202]. Therefore,considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds in the complex optical potential could be helpful for the better accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electron scattering from molecules.

  11. The extreme ultraviolet emission spectrum of CO produced by electron impact at 20 and 200 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this first part of a laboratory study of predissociation in CO we have measured the electron-impact-induced fluorescence spectrum of CO in the wavelength range 40-125 nm at a spectral resolution of 0.5nm. The experiment was performed in a cross-beam configuration under optically thin conditions. Our spectral measurements at 200 eV electron impact energy provide the emission cross sections of atomic dissociation fragments (C 1, C 11, O 1, O 11) and the vibrational transitions of the B1Σ+, C 1Σ+, E 1II-X 1Σ+ band systems of CO. The measured emission cross sections of these molecular transitions will be needed for comparison with excitation cross sections from electron energy-loss spectra to determine predissociation yields. (Author)

  12. DEIMOS: A beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350–2500 eV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohresser, P., E-mail: philippe.ohresser@synchrotron-soleil.fr; Otero, E.; Choueikani, F.; Chen, K.; Stanescu, S.; Deschamps, F.; Moreno, T.; Polack, F.; Lagarde, B.; Daguerre, J.-P.; Marteau, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Scheurer, F.; Joly, L.; Muller, B. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 UdS-CNRS, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Kappler, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 UdS-CNRS, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Bunau, O.; Sainctavit, Ph. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés, CNRS UMR 7590, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-01-15

    The DEIMOS (Dichroism Experimental Installation for Magneto-Optical Spectroscopy) beamline was part of the second phase of the beamline development at French Synchrotron SOLEIL (Source Optimisée de Lumière à Energie Intermédiaire du LURE) and opened to users in March 2011. It delivers polarized soft x-rays to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and x-ray linear dichroism in the energy range 350–2500 eV. The beamline has been optimized for stability and reproducibility in terms of photon flux and photon energy. The main end-station consists in a cryo-magnet with 2 split coils providing a 7 T magnetic field along the beam or 2 T perpendicular to the beam with a controllable temperature on the sample from 370 K down to 1.5 K.

  13. A clinically authentic mouse model of enterovirus 71 (EV-A71)-induced neurogenic pulmonary oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Xu, Yishi; Ng, Qimei; Chua, Beng Hooi; Alonso, Sylvie; Chow, Vincent T K; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a neurotropic virus that sporadically causes fatal neurologic illness among infected children. Animal models of EV-A71 infection exist, but they do not recapitulate in animals the spectrum of disease and pathology observed in fatal human cases. Specifically, neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE)-the main cause of EV-A71 infection-related mortality-is not observed in any of these models. This limits their utility in understanding viral pathogenesis of neurologic infections. We report the development of a mouse model of EV-A71 infection displaying NPE in severely affected animals. We inoculated one-week-old BALB/c mice with an adapted EV-A71 strain and identified clinical signs consistent with observations in human cases and other animal models. We also observed respiratory distress in some mice. At necropsy, we found their lungs to be heavier and incompletely collapsed compared to other mice. Serum levels of catecholamines and histopathology of lung and brain tissues of these mice strongly indicated onset of NPE. The localization of virally-induced brain lesions also suggested a potential pathogenic mechanism for EV-A71-induced NPE. This novel mouse model of virally-induced NPE represents a valuable resource for studying viral mechanisms of neuro-pathogenesis and pre-clinical testing of potential therapeutics and prophylactics against EV-A71-related neurologic complications. PMID:27357918

  14. Inherited MST1 deficiency underlies susceptibility to EV-HPV infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Crequer

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV is characterized by persistent cutaneous lesions caused by a specific group of related human papillomavirus genotypes (EV-HPVs in otherwise healthy individuals. Autosomal recessive (AR EVER1 and EVER2 deficiencies account for two thirds of known cases of EV. AR RHOH deficiency has recently been described in two siblings with EV-HPV infections as well as other infectious and tumoral manifestations. We report here the whole-exome based discovery of AR MST1 deficiency in a 19-year-old patient with a T-cell deficiency associated with EV-HPV, bacterial and fungal infections. MST1 deficiency has recently been described in seven patients from three unrelated kindreds with profound T-cell deficiency and various viral and bacterial infections. The patient was also homozygous for a rare ERCC3 variation. Our findings broaden the clinical range of infections seen in MST1 deficiency and provide a new genetic etiology of susceptibility to EV-HPV infections. Together with the recent discovery of RHOH deficiency, they suggest that T cells are involved in the control of EV-HPVs, at least in some individuals.

  15. Management approach for NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) airborne science investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Denkins, Todd C.; Allen, B. Danette

    2013-09-01

    The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (PO) is responsible for programmatic management of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) Earth Venture (EV) missions. EV is composed of both orbital and suborbital Earth science missions. The first of the Earth Venture missions is EV-1, which are Principal Investigator-led, temporally-sustained, suborbital (airborne) science investigations costcapped at $30M each over five years. Traditional orbital procedures, processes and standards used to manage previous ESSP missions, while effective, are disproportionally comprehensive for suborbital missions. Conversely, existing airborne practices are primarily intended for smaller, temporally shorter investigations, and traditionally managed directly by a program scientist as opposed to a program office such as ESSP. In 2010, ESSP crafted a management approach for the successful implementation of the EV-1 missions within the constructs of current governance models. NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements form the foundation of the approach for EV-1. Additionally, requirements from other existing NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), systems engineering guidance and management handbooks were adapted to manage programmatic, technical, schedule, cost elements and risk. As the EV-1 missions are nearly at the end of their successful execution and project lifecycle and the submission deadline of the next mission proposals near, the ESSP PO is taking the lessons learned and updated the programmatic management approach for all future Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) missions for an even more flexible and streamlined management approach.

  16. Management Approach for NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Denkins, Todd C.; Allen, B. Danette

    2013-01-01

    The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (PO) is responsible for programmatic management of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) Earth Venture (EV) missions. EV is composed of both orbital and suborbital Earth science missions. The first of the Earth Venture missions is EV-1, which are Principal Investigator-led, temporally-sustained, suborbital (airborne) science investigations costcapped at $30M each over five years. Traditional orbital procedures, processes and standards used to manage previous ESSP missions, while effective, are disproportionally comprehensive for suborbital missions. Conversely, existing airborne practices are primarily intended for smaller, temporally shorter investigations, and traditionally managed directly by a program scientist as opposed to a program office such as ESSP. In 2010, ESSP crafted a management approach for the successful implementation of the EV-1 missions within the constructs of current governance models. NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements form the foundation of the approach for EV-1. Additionally, requirements from other existing NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), systems engineering guidance and management handbooks were adapted to manage programmatic, technical, schedule, cost elements and risk. As the EV-1 missions are nearly at the end of their successful execution and project lifecycle and the submission deadline of the next mission proposals near, the ESSP PO is taking the lessons learned and updated the programmatic management approach for all future Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) missions for an even more flexible and streamlined management approach.

  17. Optic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  18. Energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays from 1016eV to 1019eV determined from air showers observed at 5200 m a.s.l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy spectra of primary cosmic rays from 1016eV to 1019eV have been determined from electron-sizes as well as from muon-sizes of the same air showers observed at Mt. Chacaltaya. The spectrum from electron-sizes is significantly higher than that from muon-sizes. The discrepancy is discussed and an explanation is given under the assumption of possible existence of copious direct production of photons besides the production of charged and neutral pions at these high energies. The spectra are also compared with those by other groups and the discrepancies are discussed. (author)

  19. 解读肠病毒EV71——针对阜阳肠病毒EV71流行的答疑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎生

    2008-01-01

    @@ 新华社报道,阜阳市3月份以来发生小儿肠道病毒EV71疫情,数千儿童发病,22人经全力抢救无效死亡.消息传出,引起大众恐慌,咨询电话、短信不断:EV71到底是什么病毒?我们这里会不会发生?我们该怎么办?看来有必要做些答疑:

  20. 解读肠病毒EV71——针对阜阳肠病毒EV71流行的答疑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黎生

    2008-01-01

    新华社报道,阜阳市3月份以来发生小儿肠道病毒EV71疫情,数千儿童发病,22人经全力抢救无效死亡。消息传出,引起大众恐慌,咨询电话、短信不断:EV71到底是什么病毒?我们这里会不会发生?我们该怎么办?看来有必要做些答疑:

  1. Analysis of EV71 infection progression using triple-SILAC-based proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Lei-Ke; Zhu, Xiu-Juan; Shang, Jun; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Ying; Guo, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of Picornaviridae, causes severe neurological and systemic illness in children. To better understand the virus-host cell interactions, we performed a triple-SILAC-based quantitative proteomics study monitoring host cell proteome changes after EV71 infection. Based on the quantitative data for more than 4100 proteins, ∼17% of the proteins were found as significantly changed (pEV71 replication. Further studies showed that CHCH2 served as a negative regulator of innate immune responses. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002483 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002483).

  2. EV Charging Analysis Based on the National Travel Surveys of the Nordic Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the charging demand profiles of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys of the Nordic area. The EV charging analysis is carried out considering different types of charging patterns which are dumb charging, timed charging and spot price based charging....... The driving behavior of the vehicles is studied through the National Travel Surveys of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The features of the charging demand are discussed based on the results of the analysis. The study in this paper provides an estimation of the possible level and patterns of the EV...... charging demand in the Nordic area....

  3. Asymptotic Normality of LS Estimate in Simple Linear EV Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jixue LIU

    2006-01-01

    Though EV model is theoretically more appropriate for applications in which measurement errors exist, people are still more inclined to use the ordinary regression models and the traditional LS method owing to the difficulties of statistical inference and computation. So it is meaningful to study the performance of LS estimate in EV model.In this article we obtain general conditions guaranteeing the asymptotic normality of the estimates of regression coefficients in the linear EV model. It is noticeable that the result is in some way different from the corresponding result in the ordinary regression model.

  4. A modification potential method of calculating total cross sections of electrons scattering from complex molecules C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 at 100 eV-5000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Liu Yu-Fang; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is first employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level over the energy range from 100 eV to 5000 eV. The total cross sections are quantitatively compared with those obtained by experiments wherever available, and they are in good agreement with each other over a wide energy range. It is shown that the modified potential together with the additivity rule model is completely suitable for the calculation of total cross sections of electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 above 200 eV-300 eV.

  5. Study of optical spectra of semiconducting compound CuInSe2 in wide energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The precise reflectivity spectra of copper indium diselenide are obtained in energy range 1 to 5 eV at 80 K for polarized light (E perpendicular c, E||c*). For the first time the spectra for pure polarization E||c are evaluated. Optical functions in energy range 1-23 eV are calculated using Kramers-Kronig transformations. (authors)

  6. Total cross sections for electrons scattering from simple molecules containing the larger atom sulfur at 30-5000eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng; Yang Xiang-Dong; Zhu Zun-Lue

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds, is employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from simple molecules (SO2, H2S, OCS, CS2 and SO3) containing the larger atom, sulfur, at 30-5000eV by using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The quantitative molecular total cross section results are compared with those obtained in experiments and other calculations wherever available, and good agreement is obtained. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the complex optical model potential modified by the concept of bonded atom can give the results closer to the experiments than the one unmodified by it. So, the introduction of bonded-atom concept in complex optical model potential betters the accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electrons from the molecules containing the larger atom, sulfur.

  7. Analysis of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in human HFMD serum with an EV71 pseudovirus-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huafei; An, Dong; Liu, Wei; Mao, Qunying; Jin, Jun; Xu, Lin; Sun, Shiyang; Jiang, Liping; Li, Xiaojun; Shao, Jie; Ma, Hongxia; Huang, Xueyong; Guo, Shijie; Chen, Haiying; Cheng, Tong; Yang, Lisheng; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Jiang, Chunlai

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, has recently become an important public health issue throughout the world. Serum neutralizing antibodies are major indicators of EV71 infection and protective immunity. However, the potential for cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibodies for different EV71 genotypes and subgenotypes is unclear. Here we measured the cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against EV71 of different genotypes or subgenotypes in sera collected from EV71-infected children and vaccine-inoculated children in a phase III clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01636245) using a new pseudovirus-based neutralization assay. Antibodies induced by EV71-C4a were cross-reactive for different EV71 genotypes, demonstrating that C4a is a good candidate strain for an EV71 vaccine. Our study also demonstrated that this new assay is practical for analyses of clinical samples from epidemiological and vaccine studies.

  8. Optical properties of some half-metallic ferromagnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, P.A.M. van der; Baelde, W.; Groot, R.A. de; Vroomen, A.R. de; Engen, P.G. van; Buschow, K.H.J.

    1985-01-01

    In this Letter we report ellipsometry measurements on polycrystalline samples of NiMnSb and PtMnSb at room temperature under ultra-high vacuum conditions. From these measurements the optical constants of the two materials were determined in the energy range 0.5-5.3 eV. The measured optical conductiv

  9. Kaks nooremat luuletajat : Bernard Kangro "Vanad majad" ja Heiti Talviku "Kohtupäev" / Ants Oras

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oras, Ants

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Kangro, Bernard. Vanad majad : luuletusi 1936-37. Tartu : Eesti Kirjanikkude Liit, 1937 ; Talvik, Heiti. Kohtupäev. Tartu : Eesti Kirjanikkude Liit, 1937. Varem ilmunud: Eesti Kirjandus, 1937, nr. 12, lk. 618-622

  10. space pattern of events with halo in the field of energies E≥1015 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Roentgen emulsion chamber of 'Adron-44' facility located at 3340 m, we have registered two exotic interactions with build-up of halo- diffuse dark spots several cm2 in size in the area of energy > 1015 eV. Similar events were registered in rock experiments of some foreign teams (Japan-Brazil collaboration, 'Pamir' cooperation etc.). Nature of halo build-up is not clear enough even now, that is why detailed study of this phenomena is of great interest. In the report there are space and energy parameters of secondary gamma-quanta building halo in events with E = 4.4·101'5 eV and 3.3·1015 eV. Space distribution is compared with calculated distributions basing on scaling model. The comparison helps to conclude that there is possible scaling failure in the field of fragmentation of impinging hadron at E0∼1016 eV

  11. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  12. Effects of electric vehicles (EV) on environmental loads with consideration of regional differences of electric power generation and charging characteristics of EV users in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the reduction effect of electric vehicles (EVs) on various atmospheric environmental loads, we have performed a life-cycle inventory analysis (LCI), including the installation of charging stations and regional, seasonal and temporal difference of the energy mix of electricity generation. For an EV converted from a small gasoline vehicle, a regional LCI analysis was carried out in the following steps: (1) location of the charging stations, (2) modeling of charging characteristics of station users, (3) calculation of temporal life-cycle emission intensities of CO2, NOx and SOx by region, season and day. Assuming that total traveling distance is 100,000 km, the electricity consumption rate is 0.119 kWh/km and the charging/discharging efficiency is 70%, the average life-cycle emission of CO2 for that EV was 3.6 t-C throughout Japan. However, if we took regional difference into account, the emission ranged over 70-160% of the average amount. It was revealed that the regional difference of the primary energy mix significantly affected the emissions of EVs during the operation phase. (Author)

  13. UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Annual report 2011/2012; UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Jahresbericht 2011/2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The report presents the organisational structure and activities of the UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V. (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). Above all, topical issues on business in the mineral oil and lubricant sector are discussed. There is an appendix containing data on the production and sales of petroleum products in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  14. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2011/2012; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2011/2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants in Germany. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented for the fiscal year 2011/2012.

  15. Fluoresence Detection of Cosmic Ray Air Showers Between 10 16 . 5 eV and 1019 eV with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zundel, Zachary; Smith, Jeremy; Thomas, Stan; Abuzayyad, Tareq; Ivanov, Dmitri; Matthews, John; Jui, Charlie

    2014-03-01

    The Telescope Array Experiment has been observing cosmic ray air showers at energies above 1018 eV since 2008. TA operates three Fluorescence Detector (FD) sites, with telescopes that observe 3-31 deg in elevation. The FD sites are located at the periphery of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters covering 700 km2 , with 1.2 km spacing. The TA Collaboration has completed building a low-energy extension at its Middle drum FD site. Ten new telescopes currently observe between 33 and 51 degrees in elevation. A graded ground array of between 400 and 600m will be placed in front of the TALE FD. With these upgrades, the physics threshold of TA will be lowered to 10 16 . 5 eV. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) will explore the energy regime corresponding to that of the LHC in center-of-mass frame. This is also the range where the transition from galactic to extra- galactic cosmic ray flux is suspected to occur. We will give a brief overview of the physics, and report on the progress of TALE toward measuring the cosmic ray spectrum between 10 16 . 5 eV and 1019 eV.

  16. Establishment of EV71 animal models with 2-week-old BALB/c mice%应用2周龄BALB/c小鼠建立EV71动物模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉强; 蒋建东; 李玉环

    2013-01-01

    动物模型对于抗EV71药物和疫苗的研发非常重要.我国目前的EV 71小鼠模型大多采用1日龄乳鼠,因年龄太小进行抗病毒实验操作难度较大,给药途径和给药容量明显受限.在12~14日龄乳鼠上连续5代适应EV71毒株,成功建立了2周龄BALB/c小鼠的EV71模型,并且采用细胞病变(CPE)法滴定了小鼠心、肝、脾、肺、肾、小肠、脑和肌肉组织的EV 71病毒滴度.该模型采用的EV71病毒株是我国最早分离到的病毒株,动物采用的是2周龄的小鼠,对我国目前建立的EV71动物模型是个补充,可以更好地服务于我国抗EV71药物和疫苗的研发.%Animal model is very important for anti-EV71 (enterovirus 71) drug and vaccine development. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse model is the main in vivo model used in China. 1-day-old suckling EV71 mouse is too small to perform antiviral experiment. And the route of administration and dosage capacity are also restricted. A strong virulence EV71 virus strain was selected after screening from five EV71 strains with 1-day-old suckling mice. A mouse-adapted EV71 strain with increased virulence in 12-day-old suckling mice, EV71-M5, was generated after five serial passages of the parental EV71 strain in mice. Virus titers of EV71 infected mice heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, small intestine, brain and muscle tissue were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay. The virus used in this model is the first isolated EV71 strain in China. And 2-week-old suckling mice were used in this model. This is a supplement for the EV71 animal model in China. Establishment of this EV71 model will provide an attractive platform for anti-EV71 vaccine and drug development.

  17. A novel finding for enterovirus virulence from the capsid protein VP1 of EV71 circulating in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjuan; Fu, Chong; Wu, Suying; Chen, Xiong; Shi, Yingying; Zhou, Bingfei; Zhang, Lianglu; Zhang, Fengfeng; Wang, Zhihao; Zhang, Yingying; Fan, Chengpeng; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Wanhong; He, Xiaohua

    2014-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus that causes various clinical manifestations in young children, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal. Different pathotypes of EV71 notably differ in virulence. Several virulence determinants of EV71 have been predicted. However, these reported virulence determinants could not be used to identify the EV71 strains of subgenotype C4, which mainly circulate in China. In this study, VP1 sequences of 37 EV71 strains from severe cases (SC-EV71) and 192 EV71 strains from mild cases (MC-EV71) in mainland China were analyzed to determine the potential virulence determinants in the capsid protein VP1 of EV71. Although most SC-EV71 strains belonged to subgenotype C4a, no specific genetic lineages in C4a were correlated with EV71 virulence. Interestingly, amino acid substitutions at nine positions (H22Q, P27S, N31S/D, E98K, E145G/Q, D164E, T240A/S, V249I, and A289T) were detected by aligning the VP1 sequences of the SC-EV71 and MC-EV71 strains. Moreover, both the constituent ratios of the conservative or mutated residues in the MC-EV71 and SC-EV71 strains and the changes in the VP1 3D structure resulting from these mutations confirmed that the conservative residues (22H, 249V, and 289A) and the mutated residues (27S, 31S/D, 98K, 145G/Q, 164E, and 240A/S) might be potential virulence determinants in VP1 of EV71. Furthermore, these results led to the hypothesis that VP1 acts as a sandwich switch for viral particle stabilization and cellular receptors attachment, and specific mutations in this protein can convert mild cases into severe cases. These findings highlight new opportunities for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  18. Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of CaO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Merzlyakov, D. A.; Sobolev, V. Val.

    2016-09-01

    Spectra of 11 optical functions of CaO in the ranges 6.5-7.2 eV at 2 K and 0-60 eV at 77 K were determined. A total of 14 maxima and shoulders of excitons and interband transitions were found including two distinct exciton structures at 6.9 and 11.4 eV and volume and surface plasmon maxima at ~38.3 and 33.2 eV, respectively. Their principal features and general trends were established. Variable formation efficiencies of spectra of the dielectric permittivity and characteristic electron-energy losses in different spectral ranges were analyzed. The calculations used known experimental reflectance spectra and computer programs based on the Kramers-Kronig correlations and analytical formulae for the relationship between optical functions.

  19. 警惕肠道病毒EV71感染危害儿童

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷峰

    2008-01-01

    @@ 肠道病毒EV71感染疾病是由肠道病毒EV71引起的一种传染病,一年四季都可发生,但多发生于4~9月份.该病是全球性传染病,世界大部分地区均有此病流行的报道.

  20. NANO-BATTERY TECHNOLOGY FOR EV-HEV PANEL: A PIONEERING STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Ataur Rahman; M Rashid; A K M Mohiuddin; M. N. A. Hawlader

    2015-01-01

    Global trends toward CO2 reduction and resource efficiency have significantly increased the importance of lightweight materials for automobile original equipment manufacturers (OEM). CO2 reduction is a fundamental driver for a more lightweight automobile. The introduction of Electrical Vehicles (EVs) is one initiative towards this end. However EVs are currently facing several weaknesses: limited driving range, battery pack heaviness, lack of safety and thermal control, high cost, and overall ...

  1. Complete Genome Analysis of an Enterovirus EV-B83 Isolated in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingjing; Li, Qiongfen; Tian, Bingjun; Zhang, Jie; Li, Kai; Ding, Zhengrong; Lu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus B83 (EV-B83) is a recently identified member of enterovirus species B. It is a rarely reported serotype and up to date, only the complete genome sequence of the prototype strain from the United States is available. In this study, we describe the complete genomic characterization of an EV-B83 strain 246/YN/CHN/08HC isolated from a healthy child living in border region of Yunnan Province, China in 2008. Compared with the prototype strain, it had 79.6% similarity in the complete genome and 78.9% similarity in the VP1 coding region, reflecting the great genetic divergence among them. VP1-coding region alignment revealed it had 77.2-91.3% with other EV-B83 sequences available in GenBank. Similarity plot analysis revealed it had higher identity with several other EV-B serotypes than the EV-B83 prototype strain in the P2 and P3 coding region, suggesting multiple recombination events might have occurred. The great genetic divergence with previously isolated strains and the extremely rare isolation suggest this serotype has circulated at a low epidemic strength for many years. This is the first report of complete genome of EV-B83 in China. PMID:27405393

  2. miR-27a suppresses EV71 replication by directly targeting EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianglu; Chen, Xiong; Shi, Yingying; Zhou, Bingfei; Du, Chen; Liu, Yongjuan; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Peng, Biwen; He, Xiaohua; Liu, Wanhong

    2014-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, has broken out several times and was accompanied by neurological disease. microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs that are approximately 20 nucleotides long, play important roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including antiviral defense. However, the roles of miRNAs in EV71 replication and pathogenesis are not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-27a was significantly decreased in EV71-infected cells. Interestingly, the over-expression of miR-27a could inhibit EV71 replication, as measured by virus titration, qPCR, and Western blotting. We identified EGFR mRNA is a bona fide target of miR-27a by computational analysis and luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, miR-27a could decrease EGFR expression, as measured by qPCR and Western blotting. Moreover, the inhibition of EGFR expression by miR-27a decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, which facilitate EV71 replication. These results suggest that miR-27a may have antiviral activity against EV71 by inhibiting EGFR.

  3. Two models for changes of EV71 immunity in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yongmei; Zhu, Fengcai; Chen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been associated with outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in China. Susceptibility to EV71 is associated with age, but few studies have been accomplished to measure such a relationship. A better understanding of the connection between susceptibility and age is necessary to develop strategies for control of HFMD. In 2010, a survey of an epidemic of EV71 was conducted in a northern city of Jiangsu Province in China. Samples were tested serologically to identify the EV71 neutralizing antibody. Two different mathematical models have now been employed to describe how this antibody varied with age, and parameters in the model were estimated from survey data. Both models depicted the variations in EV71-neutralizing antibody. Seroprevalence was high for neonates but decreased to near zero at 5 months of age. Subsequently, the EV71 antibody levels increased and then remained stable after about 36 months. For models 1 and 2, values for the coefficient of determination (R(2)) were 0.9458 and 0.9576, and values for root mean square error (RMSE) were 0.0755 and 0.0752, respectively. Model 2, formulated from the characteristics of development of the immune system, was more reliable than model 1, formulated from survey data, because the impact of the survey on the structure of the model was removed. Moreover, model 2 provided the possibility to define the parameters in a biological sense.

  4. Photoabsorption Spectrum and Optically Forbidden Transitions of Krypton by Electron Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑震生; 朱林繁; 李文斌; 成华东; 徐克尊

    2002-01-01

    A high resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer with multi-channel energy analysis was employed. The maxima just above the threshold 4p-1(2P1/2), which is regarded as a shape resonance, was obtained at 16.3 eV. The optically forbidden excitations of 4s electron were measured for the first time, and the energy positions are 23.75 eV(4s-15s), 25.66 eV (4s-16s/4d) and 26.60 eV(4s-17s/5d).

  5. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of thorium isotopestowards a laser spectroscopic identification of the low-lying 7.6 eV isomer of 229Th

    OpenAIRE

    Raeder, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Gottwald, T; Moore, I. D.; Reponen, M.; Rothe, S.; Trautmann, N; Wendt, K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was used to identify an efficient and selective three step excitation/ionization scheme of thorium, suitable for titanium:sapphire (Ti:sa) lasers. The measurements were carried out in preparation of laser spectroscopic investigations for an identification of the low-lying 229 m Th isomer predicted at 7.6 ? 0.5 eV above the nuclear ground state. Using a sample of 232 Th, a multitude of optical transitions leading to over 20 previously unk...

  6. Total Cross Sections for Electron Scattering on Polyatomic Molecules (CH4, CO2,NO2, and N2O) at 10 ~ 3000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jin-Feng; XU Bin; LIU Yu-Fang; SHI De-Heng

    2005-01-01

    A new modified formulation of the Additivity Rule (AR) was proposed to calculate the total electron scattering cross sections for CH4, CO2, NO2, and N2O, considering the overlapping between atoms in molecules and the not fully transparency of the molecules. The present calculation covers the range of impact energy from 10 to 3000 eV. The results are compared with experimental data and other theories where available. The atoms are presented by spherical complex optical potential, which is composed of static, exchange, polarization, and absorption terms.

  7. Optical Constants and Functions of Corundum Single Crystals in the Vacuum Ultraviolat Region

    OpenAIRE

    Harutunyan, V. V.; Hakobyan, T. S.; Hovhannesian, A. S.; Gevorkyan, V. A.; Grigoryan, N. E.; Avakyan, A. K.; Grigoryan, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    Optical reflection spectra of corundum single crystals grown by HOC and Verneil methods are investigated before and after irradiated by electrons and neutrons using synchrotron radiation polarization (5-30eV).

  8. Identification of specific antigenic epitope at N-terminal segment of enterovirus 71 (EV-71) VP1 protein and characterization of its use in recombinant form for early diagnosis of EV-71 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Bingfu; Xu, Mingjie; Dai, Xing; Purdy, Michael A.; Meng, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiologic agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). We sought to identify EV-71 specific antigens and develop serologic assays for acute-phase EV-71 infection. A series of truncated proteins within the N-terminal 100 amino acids (aa) of EV-71 VP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. Western blot (WB) analysis showed that positions around 11–21 aa contain EV-71-specific antigenic sites, whereas positions 1–5 and 51–100 contain epitopes shared with hum...

  9. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  10. A new treatment for neurogenic inflammation caused by EV71 with CR2-targeted complement inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Shaofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71, one of the most important neurotropic EVs, has caused death and long-term neurological sequelae in hundreds of thousands of young children in the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade. The neurological diseases are attributed to infection by EV71 inducing an extensive peripheral and central nervous system (CNS inflammatory response with abnormal cytokine production and lymphocyte depletion induced by EV71 infection. In the absence of specific antiviral agents or vaccines, an effective immunosuppressive strategy would be valuable to alleviate the severity of the local inflammation induced by EV71 infection. Presentation of the hypothesis The complement system plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response. Inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system results in a severe inflammatory reaction or numerous pathological injuries. Previous studies have revealed that EV71 infection can induce complement activation and an inflammatory response of the CNS. CR2-targeted complement inhibition has been proved to be a potential therapeutic strategy for many diseases, such as influenza virus-induced lung tissue injury, postischemic cerebral injury and spinal cord injury. In this paper, a mouse model is proposed to test whether a recombinant fusion protein consisting of CR2 and a region of Crry (CR2-Crry is able to specifically inhibit the local complement activation induced by EV71 infection, and to observe whether this treatment strategy can alleviate or even cure the neurogenic inflammation. Testing the hypothesis CR2-Crry is expressed in CHO cells, and its biological activity is determined by complement inhibition assays. 7-day-old ICR mice are inoculated intracranially with EV71 to duplicate the neurological symptoms. The mice are then divided into two groups, in one of which the mice are treated with CR2-Crry targeted complement inhibitor, and in the other with phosphate-buffered saline. A

  11. 武汉地区2011年553例手足口病患儿EV71-IgMELISA法和EV71RNART-PCR法检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹泽; 项杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 对EV71-IgM ELISA法和EV71 RNA RT-PCR法检测肠道病毒71型进行比较.方法 采用EV71-IgM ELISA法和EV71 RNA RT-PCR法分别对553例手足口病临床确诊患儿的静脉血和咽拭标本进行检测.结果 EV71-IgM ELISA法阳性率35.62%(197例)高于EV71 RNA RT-PCR法阳性率18.63%(103例),差异存在统计学意义(χ2=39.56,P<0.001).EV71-IgM ELISA(-)且EV71 RNA RT-PCR(-)有329例,同时EV71-IgM ELISA(-)且EV71 RNA RT-PCR(+)有24例,进一步表明两种方法 结果 之间的差异存在统计学意义(χ2=63.11,P<0.001).结论 EV71-IgM ELISA法具有高敏感性,操作简单,成本低,适用范围广等优点.

  12. Circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS) measurements in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (@16 eV to 500 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maestre, M.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bustamante, C. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Snyder, P. (Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Rowe, E.; Hansen, R. (Wisconsin Univ., Stoughton, WI (United States). Synchrotron Radiation Center)

    1991-03-01

    We propose the use of recently developed techniques of circular intensity differential scattering (CIDS), as extended to the soft x-ray region of the spectrum (16 eV to 500 eV), to study the higher order organization of the eukaryotic chromosome. CIDS is the difference in scattering power of an object when illuminated by right circularly polarized vs. left circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary wavelength. CIDS has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of the helical organization of the scattering object eg. the eukaryotic chromosome. Preliminary results of measurements of samples of bacteriophages and octopus sperm done at SRC, Wisconsin, show the technique to be very sensitive to the dimensional parameters of the particles interrogated by circularly polarized light. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  13. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facilitya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; Caillaud, T.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Poirier, M.; Serres, F.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Villette, B.

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ⟨E/δE⟩ ˜ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  14. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Thais, Frederic; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Service Photons, Atomes et Molecules, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Busquet, M. [ARTEP Inc, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Ducret, J. E. [CELIA, UMR5107, CEA, CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, 33400 Talence (France); Foelsner, W. [Max Planck Instituet fuer Quantum Optik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S. [CEA, DSM, IRFU, Service d' astrophysique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-10-15

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution {approx} 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure the {Delta}n = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  15. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Blenski, T; Caillaud, T; Ducret, J E; Foelsner, W; Gilles, D; Gilleron, F; Pain, J C; Poirier, M; Serres, F; Silvert, V; Soullie, G; Turck-Chieze, S; Villette, B

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ∼ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented. PMID:23126955

  16. New training simulators of state-of-the-art coal fired power plants at KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V.; Neue Schulungssimulatoren moderner Kohlekraftwerke bei der KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeck, Martin; Fehse, Klaus; Nacke, Heinrich [Kraftwerksschule e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    For more than 20 years, KRAFTWERKSSCHULE E.V. (KWS - PowerTech Training Center) operates training simulators for fossil-fired power plants at its Essen headquarters. In the course of the construction of the new 800 MW and 1100 MW high-efficiency power plants with hypercritical steam generators, a growing demand for - even multilingual - training of operator personnel from such plants at simulators is arising. Thus, new training simulators are being erected. (orig.)

  17. Earth sciences within the project Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesy and geophysics; Le scienze della Terra nel progetto Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesia e geofisica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poretti, Giorgio [Trieste, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Matematiche

    1997-05-01

    Earth Sciences started the Ev-K2-CNR project in 1987 with the comparison between the heights of Mt. Everest and K2. Several gravimetric campaigns followed in the most difficult areas of the Himalayas. In 1991 a GPS network was established in Nepal for the determination of the Earth crust movements in the area. In 1992 a precise measurement of mount Everest was performed with classical and satellite technologies. Mount K2 was remeasured in Summer 1996.

  18. Identification, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of novel anti-EV71 agents via cyclophilin A inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenzhong; Qing, Jie; Mei, Hanbing; Nong, Junxiu; Huang, Jin; Zhu, Jin; Jiang, Hualiang; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Linqi; Li, Jian

    2015-12-15

    In this work, the relationship between cyclophilin A (CypA) and EV71 prompted us to screen a series of small molecular CypA inhibitors which were previously reported by our group. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were discovered as non-immunosuppressive anti-EV71 agents with an EC50 values of 1.07±0.17μM and 3.36±0.45μM in virus assay, respectively, which were desirably for the further study. The subsequent chemical modifications derived a novel class of molecules, among which compound 11 demonstrated the most potent anti-EV71 activity in virus assay (EC50=0.37±0.17μM), and low cytotoxicity (CC50>25μM). The following CypA enzyme inhibition studies indicated that there was not only the enzyme inhibition activity, undoubtedly important, functioning in the antiviral process, but also some unknown mechanisms worked in combination, and the further study is underway in our laboratory. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, compound 11 was probably the most potent small molecular anti-EV71 agent via CypA inhibitory mechanism to date. Consequently, our study provided a new potential small molecule for curing EV71 infection.

  19. Progress on the research and development of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Fan; Wang, Junzhi

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which can cause severe complications, have become one of the serious public health issues in the Western Pacific region and China. To date, a number of pharmaceutical companies and institutes have initiated the research and development of EV71 vaccines as a countermeasure. As is the case with innovative vaccine development, there are several critical bottlenecks in EV71 vaccine development that must be overcome before the clinical trials, including the selection of vaccine strain, standardization of the procedure for quantifying neutralizing antibody (NTAb) and antigen, establishment and application of a reference standard and biological standards, development of animal models for the evaluation of protective efficacy, and identification of the target patient population. To tackle these technical obstacles, researchers in Mainland of China have conducted a series of studies concerning the screening of vaccine strains and the establishment of criteria, biological standards and detection methods, thereby advancing EV71 vaccine development. This review summarizes recent worldwide progress on the quality control and evaluation of EV71 vaccines.

  20. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  1. Trapping of a microsphere pendulum resonator in an optical potential

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan M. Ward; Wu, Yuqiang; Minogin, V. G.; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method to spatially confine or corral the movements of a micropendulum via the optical forces produced by two simultaneously excited optical modes of a photonic molecule comprising two microspherical cavities. We discuss how the cavity enhanced optical force generated in the photonic molecule can create an optomechanical potential of about 10 eV deep and 30 pm wide, which can be used to trap the pendulum at any given equilibrium position by a simple choice of laser frequencies. T...

  2. Diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by EV71 and other enteroviruses by a one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bingfu; Zhang, Jianhua; You, Xianhui; Dong, Chen; Cheng, Xianfeng; Dai, Xing; Meng, Jihong

    2012-11-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is caused mainly by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and other enteroviruses (EVs) such as Coxsackie A16 in China. EV71 infection can lead to severe clinical manifestations and even death. Other EVs, however, generally cause mild symptoms. Thus, early and accurate distinction of EV71 from other EVs for HFMD will offer significant benefits. A one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR assay is described in the present study to detect simultaneously EV71 and other EVs. The primers used for the duplex RT-PCR underwent screening and optimization. The detection threshold was 0.001 TCID(50)/ml for EV71 and 0.01 TCID(50)/ml for other EVs. The positive rate of enterovirus detection in 165 clinical samples reached 68.5%, including 46.1% for EV71 and 22.4% for other EVs. Of all the severe HFMD cases, EV71 was responsible for 85.3% cases. The positive rate of EV71 fell markedly by day 8 after onset. In addition, sequencing of EV71 specific amplicons from duplex RT-PCR revealed that C4a was the predominant subgenotype of EV71 circulating in Nanjing, China. The accuracy and reliability of the assay suggest strongly that the one-step, single tube, duplex RT-PCR will be useful for early diagnosis and monitoring of EV71 and other EV infections.

  3. Electronic and Optical Properties of Monoclinic and Rhombohedral Vanadium Sesquioxide①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guang-Hua; DENG Xiao-Yan; WANG Chun-Hai

    2011-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of monoclinic and rhombohedral V2O3 are investigated in the framework of density fimctional theory (DFT) and GGA+U. It is found that, the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in V2O3 is induced by the on-site correlation effect, accompanied with a distinct orbital occupation change. The MIT is independent of the structural transition. The theoretical energy gap 0.6 eV agrees with the experimental value of 0.66±0.05 eV very well.Subsequently, the optical properties are also investigated. Interestingly, the insulating V2O3 shows minimal absorption in the infrared region, but the metallic V2O3 becomes opaque in such region.Therefore, a threshold at about 1 eV interprets the experimental charge gap (Perucchi et al., 2009)theoretically. Such infrared thermochromism makes it a potential candidate for several optical applications.

  4. The evolution of Vp1 gene in enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae, consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes. The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes. An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21, CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific 'signature' amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific 'signature' amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared.

  5. Differential cross sections of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 in the energy range 100-700eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Er-Jun; Ma Yu-Gang; Cai Xiang-Zhou; Fang De-Qing; Shen Wen-Qing; Tian Wen-Dong

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the differential cross sections (DCS) of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 at six impact energies in a range of 100-700eV by employing the independent atom model (IAM) together with the relativistic partial waves. The atom is present in an optical potential which is complex, spherically symmetric, and energy dependent. The optical potential of the atom is the sum of the direct static, dynamic polarization, local exchange and modified absorption potentials. The results obtained by using a modified absorption potential show significant improvements on the unmodified absorption potential results. The present results are generally in good agreement with experimental data available. In addition, the present results indicate that the structure of molecule manifests the observable effects on electron-molecule scattering.

  6. Construction and characterization of infectious cDNA clones of enterovirus 71(EV71)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-wei; Ma; Shu-bin; Hao; Le-le; Sun; Jing; Li; Qiao; Qiao; Feng; Gao; Li; Zhao; Xue-jie; Yu; Zhi-yu; Wang; Hong-ling; Wen

    2015-01-01

    Dear Editor,Enterovirus 71(EV71),a member of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae,is a single-stranded,positive-sense RNA virus that usually causes mild handfoot-mouth disease(HFMD)in children,with symptoms such as fever,diarrhea,and herpangina(Liu et al.,2013).However,certain strains of EV71 infection can cause severe neurological complications,such as SDLY107(Sun et al.,2014).EV71 is classified into three distinct genotypes(A–C);the B and C genotypes are further divided into B1–B5 and C1–C5 genotypes,respectively,based on

  7. NANO-BATTERY TECHNOLOGY FOR EV-HEV PANEL: A PIONEERING STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataur Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global trends toward CO2 reduction and resource efficiency have significantly increased the importance of lightweight materials for automobile original equipment manufacturers (OEM. CO2 reduction is a fundamental driver for a more lightweight automobile. The introduction of Electrical Vehicles (EVs is one initiative towards this end. However EVs are currently facing several weaknesses: limited driving range, battery pack heaviness, lack of safety and thermal control, high cost, and overall limited efficiency. This study presents a panel-style nano-battery technology built into an EV with CuO filler solid polymer electrolyte (SPE sandwiched by carbon fiber (CF and lithium (Li plate. In addition to this, an aluminum laminated polypropylene film is used as the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC shield. The proposed battery body panel of the EV would reduce the car weight by about 20%, with a charge and discharge capacity of 1.5 kWh (10% of car total power requirement, and provide the heat insulation for the car which would save about 10% power consumption of the air conditioning system. Therefore, the EV would be benefited by 30% in terms of energy reduction by using the proposed body. Furthermore, the proposed body is considered environmental-friendly since it is recyclable for use in a new product. However, the main limiting factors of the SPE are its thermal behavior and moderate ionic conductivity at low temperatures. The SPE temperature is maintained by controlling the battery panel charging/discharge rate. It is expected that the proposed panel-style nano-battery use in an EV would save up to 6.00 kWh in battery energy, equivalent to 2.81 liters of petrol and prevent 3.081 kg of CO2 emission for a travel distance of 100 km. KEYWORDS: epoxy resin; carbon fiber; lithium thin plate; energy generation; solid electrolyte battery

  8. EV-A71 vaccine licensure: a first step for multivalent enterovirus vaccine to control HFMD and other severe diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Bian, Lianlian; Xu, Miao; Liang, Zhenglun

    2016-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common viral agents in humans. Although most infections are mild or asymptomatic, there is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may be caused by EV infections with varying degrees of severity. Among these viruses, EV-A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) CV-A16 from group A EVs attract the most attention because they are responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Other EV-A viruses such as CV-A6 and CV-A10 were also reported to cause HFMD outbreaks in several countries or regions. Group B EVs such as CV-B3, CV-B5 and echovirus 30 were reported to be the main pathogens responsible for myocarditis and encephalitis epidemics and were also detected in HFMD patients. Vaccines are the best tools to control infectious diseases. In December 2015, China's Food and Drug Administration approved two inactivated EV-A71 vaccines for preventing severe HFMD.The CV-A16 vaccine and the EV-A71-CV-A16 bivalent vaccine showed substantial efficacy against HFMD in pre-clinical animal models. Previously, research on EV-B group vaccines was mainly focused on CV-B3 vaccine development. Because the HFMD pathogen spectrum has changed, and the threat from EV-B virus-associated severe diseases has gradually increased, it is necessary to develop multivalent HFMD vaccines. This study summarizes the clinical symptoms of diseases caused by EVs, such as HFMD, myocarditis and encephalitis, and the related EV vaccine development progress. In conclusion, developing multivalent EV vaccines should be strongly recommended to prevent HFMD, myocarditis, encephalitis and other severe diseases. PMID:27436364

  9. EV Charging Facilities and Their Application in LV Feeders with Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten;

    2013-01-01

    several limits. We introduce the use of electric vehicle (EV) public charging stations with energy storage system (ESS) as a solution for voltage regulation in LV feeders with PV. A novel method is proposed to determine the ESS charging load required for voltage regulation and compare the results...... for the different locations in the feeder. With time-series simulations, we quantify the energy size required for a station ESS. A Belgian LV residential grid, modeled using real PV generation and load profiles, is used as case study. The method and simulation results show the effectiveness of using public EV...... charging facilities with the additional function of voltage regulation in feeders with PV....

  10. Vloga staršev pri vključevanju otrok v sodobni ples

    OpenAIRE

    Verglez, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu preučujemo vlogo staršev pri vključevanju otrok v sodobni ples. V teoretičnem delu najprej predstavljamo nekatera dosedanja dognanja na področju gibalnega razvoja v zgodnjem otroštvu ter neločljivo vzajemno povezanost gibalnih in kognitivnih sposobnosti, ki so individualno pogojene. Pedagoški proces v sodobnem plesu se namreč naslanja na poznavanje slednjega. Vloga staršev pri izbiri organiziranih gibalnih/športnih in seveda tudi plesnih dejavnosti je kompleksna in široka. S...

  11. Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration on Medium Voltage (MV) Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    The impact study of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration on medium voltage (MV) grids was carried out to quantify the power component loading and voltage profile change in MV grids due to the extra demands from the EV charging. Three charging scenarios, dumb charging, time charging and fleet...... operator based charging, were considered in the impact study to assess the impacts of different charging options. In the mean time, different charging power levels were included in the impact study as well. A MV grid from the Bornholm power system was used to implement the case studies....

  12. Developing Online Marketing in Social Media for DORTMUNDtourismus e.V.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinrücken, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discussed the topic of online marketing in social media. The focus was set on the social media platforms Facebook, YouTube and Flickr. Commissioner of the thesis was DORTMUNDtourismus e.V., the destination management organization for Dortmund, Germany. The research problem was to identify ways to develop online marketing in social media in a cost-efficient and innovative way in order to raise the awareness of DORTMUNDtourismus e.V. and Dortmund in social media and as a destination....

  13. KOMUNIKACIJA IN ZADOVOLJSTVO STARŠEV Z VRTCI OBČINE ŽALEC

    OpenAIRE

    Špacapan, Boštjan

    2013-01-01

    V diplomskem delu s področja organizacije predšolske vzgoje smo ugotavljali, v kakšni povezanosti sta komunikacija in zadovoljstvo pri starših otrok. V teoretičnem delu so povzeti temeljni elementi komunikacije. V tem delu je prav tako obravnavana komunikacija v procesu predšolske vzgoje. V raziskovalnem delu smo ugotavljali ali obstaja povezanost med zadovoljstvom staršev s komunikacijo strokovnih delavcev in prisotnostjo staršev na govorilnih urah in rednih roditeljskih sestankih. Ugotavlja...

  14. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anees A. Ansari; M. A. M. Khan; M. Naziruddin Khan; Salman A. Alrokayan; M. Alhoshan; M. S. Alsalhi

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI)/cerium oxide (CeO2) hybrid nano-composite film onto indium-fin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. UV-visible spectroscopy and I-V characteristic were performed to study the optical and electrical parameters of the electrochemically deposited film. The film exhibited a strong absorption below 400 nm (3.10 eV) with a well defined absorbance peak at around 285 nm (4.35 eV). The estimated band gap of the CeO2 sample was 3.44 eV, higher than bulk CeO2 powder (Eg = 3.19 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. Optical and electrochemical characteristics indicated that the electrical properties of PANI/CeO2 hybrid nanocomposite film are dominated by PANI doping.

  15. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline/CeO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Anees A.; Khan, M. A. M.; Khan, M. Naziruddin; Alrokayan, Salman A.; Alhoshan, M.; Alsalhi, M. S., E-mail: aneesaansari@gmail.com [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh-11451, P. O. Box-2454 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-04-15

    This paper reports the optical and electrical properties of electrochemically deposited polyaniline (PANI)/cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) hybrid nano-composite film onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate. UV-visible spectroscopy and I-V characteristic were performed to study the optical and electrical parameters of the electrochemically deposited film. The film exhibited a strong absorption below 400 nm (3.10 eV) with a well defined absorbance peak at around 285 nm (4.35 eV). The estimated band gap of the CeO{sub 2} sample was 3.44 eV, higher than bulk CeO{sub 2} powder (E{sub g} = 3.19 eV) due to the quantum confinement effect. Optical and electrochemical characteristics indicated that the electrical properties of PANI/CeO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite film are dominated by PANI doping. (semiconductor materials)

  16. EnEV compact. Collection of texts according to the energy conservation ordinance 2009 and thermal insulation regulations; EnEV kompakt. Textsammlung zur Energieeinsparverordnung 2009 und den Waermeschutzverordnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The actual energy conservation ordinance (EnEV) came into force at 1st October, 2009. With the amended EnEV 2009, the energetic requirements at new buildings and redevelopments are intensified. The novella EnEV 2009 is a component of the Integrated Energy and Climatic Program (IEKP) of the Federal Government. The collection of texts of the German Energy Agency (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) contains the complete text of the EnEV 2009, the accompanying proclamations of the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the thermal insulation regulations of 1977, 1982 and 1994.

  17. A Method for Remote Control of EV Charging by Modifying IEC61851 Compliant EVSE Based PWM Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach;

    2016-01-01

    The Electric Vehicle (EV) has properties that can not only load but can elevate its value as a resource to the power system. An EV represents a high-power, fast-responding flexible demand unit, with an attached energy storage (battery) and the potential for bi-directional capabilities (V2G......). These properties can be used in a number of power and energy services, which can support power system operation while lowering the cost of EV ownership. Such services depend on the support from the communications technologies and standards that connect controllers and logic in the EVs with those in the charging...... infrastructure- and back-end systems. To date, there is still no widely adopted standard that supports EV grid services, such as smart charging. This work proposes a solution that would allow any combination of charging spot and EV - individually lacking the logic, communication and controllability required...

  18. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  19. Coordinated Control of PV Generation and EVs Charging Based on Improved DECell Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the coordination of EVs’ charging and renewable energy has become a hot research all around the globe. Considering the requirements of EV owner and the influence of the PV output fluctuation on the power grid, a three-objective optimization model was established by controlling the EVs charging power during charging process. By integrating the meshing method into differential evolution cellular (DECell genetic algorithm, an improved differential evolution cellular (IDECell genetic algorithm was presented to solve the multiobjective optimization model. Compared to the NSGA-II and DECell, the IDECell algorithm showed better performance in the convergence and uniform distribution. Furthermore, the IDECell algorithm was applied to obtain the Pareto front of nondominated solutions. Followed by the normalized sorting of the nondominated solutions, the optimal solution was chosen to arrive at the optimized coordinated control strategy of PV generation and EVs charging. Compared to typical charging pattern, the optimized charging pattern could reduce the fluctuations of PV generation output power, satisfy the demand of EVs charging quantity, and save the total charging cost.

  20. Dissociative Electron Attachment to Carbon Dioxide via the 8.2 eV Feshbach resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Dan; Adaniya, Hidihito; Rescigno, Tom; Haxton, Dan; Orel, Ann; McCurdy, Bill; Belkacem, Ali

    2011-08-17

    Momentum imaging experiments on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to CO{sub 2} are combined with the results of ab initio calculations to provide a detailed and consistent picture of the dissociation dynamics through the 8.2 eV resonance, which is the major channel for DEA in CO{sub 2}. The present study resolves several puzzling misconceptions about this system.

  1. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  2. Crystal structures of enterovirus 71 (EV71) recombinant virus particles provide insights into vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ke; Wang, Guang-Chuan; He, Ya-Ling; Han, Jian-Feng; Ye, Qing; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Rong

    2015-02-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) remains a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific regions, and its major causative agents include human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16. A desirable vaccine against HFMD would be multivalent and able to elicit protective responses against multiple HFMD causative agents. Previously, we have demonstrated that a thermostable recombinant EV71 vaccine candidate can be produced by the insertion of a foreign peptide into the BC loop of VP1 without affecting viral replication. Here we present crystal structures of two different naturally occurring empty particles, one from a clinical C4 strain EV71 and the other from its recombinant virus containing an insertion in the VP1 BC loop. Crystal structure analysis demonstrated that the inserted foreign peptide is well exposed on the particle surface without significant structural changes in the capsid. Importantly, such insertions do not seem to affect the virus uncoating process as illustrated by the conformational similarity between an uncoating intermediate of another recombinant virus and that of EV71. Especially, at least 18 residues from the N terminus of VP1 are transiently externalized. Altogether, our study provides insights into vaccine development against HFMD.

  3. Experimental study on EV purchases assisted by multi-agents representing a set of questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Yusheng; Wu, Juai; Xie, Dongliang;

    2014-01-01

    An experimental economics (EE) method is used to analyze the influences of subjective willingness on the development of the electric vehicle (EV) industry. It is difficult to run large-scale EE-based simulations and to support decision optimizations due to the limited number of qualified human pa...

  4. The EVS: a computerized decision support system for GPs in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, I.; Hoogen, H. van den; Bakker, D. de

    2003-01-01

    Background: In 1998 a project was started to introduce nationally a decision support system in general practice in the Netherlands, called EVS (electronic prescription support system). The system contains national guidelines developed by the Dutch Council of GPs (NHG) for approximately 80 diagnoses.

  5. Vabariigi aastapäev Ottawas Taani suursaadiku osalemisel / Walter Pent

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pent, Walter

    2003-01-01

    EV 85. aastapäeva üritusel pidas kõne Taani suursaadik Kanadas Svend R. Nielsen ning anti üle Kotkaristi Kuldrist Ottawa Eesti Seltsi esimehele, lennuväekolonel Margus Arujale teenete eest eesti sõjaväe loomisele kaasaaitamisel\\

  6. Invent--Innovate--Implement--Interview with Dr. Christian Schaefer, Senior Vice President Sales, EV Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dr. Christian Schaefer, Senior Vice President Sales of EV Group, has 15 years of international management experience in the materials and equipment industry. During his tenure, Schaefer spearheaded the consolidation 9f RHI following the first Asian crisis and guided the company through major mergers and acquisitions,accomplishments that ultimately helped the company increase market share, revenues and profits.

  7. Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 1018eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K.D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Mičanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, Xmax⁡, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 1018eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selec

  8. ev kukub põgeneja käest : [luuletused] / Helgi Muller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Muller, Helgi, 1932-1971

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kui minu tuppa ei kostaks ; Imelind ; Kodumaa ; Karikakar I ; "Taevas vaatab sind ..." ; Öö musta jõge pidi ; Põuavägud ; "Kas põletada ..." ; Pihud ; Hingetuisk ; "Nagu hüüd ..." ; Päev jälle kukub käest. Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 192

  9. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV in the ATLAS EventView Analysis Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lagouri, T; Del Peso, J

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This experiment has been designed to study a large range of physics topics, including searches for previously unobserved phenomena such as the Higgs Boson and super-symmetry. The physics analysis package HiggsToFourLeptonsEV for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs to four leptons channel with ATLAS is presented. The physics goal is to investigate with the ATLAS detector, the SM Higgs boson discovery potential through its observation in the four-lepton (electron and muon) final state. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV is based on the official ATLAS software ATHENA and the EventView (EV) analysis framework. EventView is a highly flexible and modular analysis framework in ATHENA and it is one of several analysis schemes for ATLAS physics user analysis. At the core of the EventView is the representative view of an event, which defines the contents of event data suitable for event-level physics analysis. The HiggsToFourLeptonsEV package prepares the dat...

  10. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV in the ATLAS EventView Analysis Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Lagouri, T; Del Peso, J

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS is one of the four experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. This experiment has been designed to study a large range of physics topics, including searches for previously unobserved phenomena such as the Higgs Boson and super-symmetry. The physics analysis package HiggsToFourLeptonsEV for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs to four leptons channel with ATLAS is presented. The physics goal is to investigate with the ATLAS detector, the SM Higgs boson discovery potential through its observation in the four-lepton (electron and muon) final state. HiggsToFourLeptonsEV is based on the official ATLAS software ATHENA and the EventView (EV) analysis framework. EventView is a highly flexible and modular analysis framework in ATHENA and it is one of several analysis schemes for ATLAS physics user analysis. At the core of the EventView is the representative "view" of an event, which defines the contents of event data suitable for event-level physics analysis. The HiggsToFourLeptonsEV package, presented in ...

  11. Damage threshold of amorphous carbon mirror for 177 eV FEL radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farahani, S. D.; Chalupsky, J.; Burian, T.; Chapman, H.; Gleeson, A. J.; Hajkoya, V.; Juha, L.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, D.; Sinn, H.; Sobierajski, R.; Stormer, M.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Wabnitz, H.; Gaudin, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of damage studies performed at the Free-Electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) on amorphous carbon (a-C). The experiment was performed in the total external reflection geometry representing the working configuration of X-ray mirrors. The 177 eV photon laser beam was focused on a 40 nm

  12. Equal energy sharing double photo ionization of the Helium atom at 20eV and 40eV above threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Das, J. N.; Chakrabarti, K.; Paul, S

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present triple differential cross sections for equal energy sharing kinematics for double photoionization of the helium atom at 20 and 40eV above threshold in the framework of the hyperspherical partial wave theory. This supplements our earlier work \\cite{DCP03} in which we were successful in showing fully, gauge independence of the results in our formalism. Also in this work we treat cases in which the Stokes parameter S$_1 < 1$ so that partial polarization of the photon s...

  13. EV71可感染幼龄中缅树鼩%Experimental studies on infant Tupaia belangeri chineses with EV71 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文广; 黄晓燕; 徐娟; 孙晓梅; 代解杰; 李琦涵

    2012-01-01

    Tupaia belonged are small mammals with a squirrel-like appearance; they were formerly classified under the primates order despite the lack of derived features characteristic of primates. Given that T. Belangeri are easy to raise, cheap to maintain, and have a small body size, a high reproductive rate, and close affinity to primates, these animals would be used as an alternative to primates in biomedical research. Three-month old T. Belangeri chineses were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71) via three different routes, namely, oral administration, nasal dripping, and tail intravenous injection, to study the infection in infant T. Belangeri and find a feasible scheme to make them an ideal animal model of EV71 in place of primates. Daily activities were regularly observed, body temperatures were measured, and blood tests were conducted. Blood and fecal samples were regularly collected. The infection was examined via the neutralizing antibody test, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Real-Time PCR, and pathological analysis. The temperature, as well as the white blood cell count and the number of lymphocytes, increased four days after infection. Virus loads were determined in all three groups, and the peak appeared on, before, or after the tenth day, respectively. Thus, oral administration proved to be the best route. The highest serum antibody titer obtained was 1:16. Acute paralysis with urinary retention manifested after about two weeks, and pathological changes were observed in the brain, heart, lung, spleen, kidney, and other tissues. In conclusion, T. Belangeri chineses can infected with EV71 via oral administration, nasal dripping, and tail intravenous injection. Therefore, T. Belangeri are potential EV71 animal models for further studies on the mechanism of pathogenesis or vaccine evaluation.%树鼩是灵长类动物的近亲,且具有体型小、繁殖周期短、饲养管理成本低等优点,长期以来被认为有望替代灵长类

  14. Electronic structure of antiferromagnetic UN and UPtGe single crystals from optical and magneto-optical spectroscopy; Elektronische Struktur von antiferromagnetischen UN- und UPtGe-Einkristallen aus optischer und magnetooptischer Spektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, M.

    2006-10-12

    In this thesis the study of the magneto-optical Kerr effect and the determination of the optical constants by means of ellipsometry and Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy of UN and UPtGe is described. In UPtGe an optical anisotropy was detected over a spectral range from 6 meV to 32 eV. (HSI)

  15. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao; Lin; Lingzhi; Xianyu; Songya; Lyu

    2015-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71(EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice(6–8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles(VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing m Abs(D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect > 95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 μg/m L solution(lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing m Abs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for m Abs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  16. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Xianyu, Lingzhi; Lyu, Songya

    2015-06-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice (6-8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles (VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing mAbs (D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect >95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 µg/mL solution (lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing mAbs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for mAbs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  17. Activation of PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis during EV71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengqi; Pan, Ziye; Wu, Zhijun; Wang, Yanhong; Cui, Yudong

    2014-11-01

    Apoptosis is frequently induced to inhibit virus replication during infection of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). On the contrary, anti-apoptotic pathway, such as PI3K/Akt pathway, is simultaneously exploited by EV71 to accomplish the viral life cycle. The relationship by which EV71-induced apoptosis and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that EV71 infection altered Bax conformation and triggered its redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria in RD cells. Subsequently, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol. We also found that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated during EV71 infection. The JNK specific inhibitor significantly inhibited Bax activation and cytochrome c release, suggesting that EV71-induced apoptosis was involved into a JNK-dependent manner. Meanwhile, EV71-induced Akt phosphorylation involved a PI3K-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway enhanced JNK phosphorylation and the JNK-mediated apoptosis upon EV71 infection. Moreover, PI3K/Akt pathway phosphorylated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and negatively regulated the ASK1 activity. Knockdown of ASK1 significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation, which implied that ASK1 phosphorylation by Akt inhibited ASK1-mediated JNK activation. Collectively, these data reveal that activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway limits JNK-mediated apoptosis by phosphorylating and inactivating ASK1 during EV71 infection.

  18. Characterization of the antibody response against EV71 capsid proteins in Chinese individuals by NEIBM-ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yingying; Chen, Xuguang; Qian, Baohua; Wu, Guorong; He, Ting; Feng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Zhao, Chunyan; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases, non-HFMD outpatient children and normal adults using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA. The high prevalence o...

  19. Characterization of the antibody response against EV71 capsid proteins in Chinese individuals by NEIBM-ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yingying; Chen, Xuguang; Qian, Baohua; Wu, Guorong; He, Ting; Feng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Zhao, Chunyan; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases, non-HFMD outpatient children and normal adults using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA. The high prevalence of antibody responses against all three capsid proteins was demonstrated, and anti-EV71 VP1 showed the main antibody response. Anti-EV71 VP1 antibody response was found to predominantly target to epitopes based on the common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. Moreover, inhibition pattern against anti-EV71 VP1 reactions in three groups was obviously different. Taken together, these results firstly characterized the anti-EV71 antibody responses which are predominantly against VP1 epitopes based on common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. This finding could be helpful for the better understanding of anti-EV71 humoral immunity and useful for seroepidemiological surveillance.

  20. Coordinated EV adoption: double-digit reductions in emissions and fuel use for $40/vehicle-year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Gu; Kreikebaum, Frank; Thomas, Valerie M; Divan, Deepak

    2013-09-17

    Adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) would affect the costs and sources of electricity and the United States efficiency requirements for conventional vehicles (CVs). We model EV adoption scenarios in each of six regions of the Eastern Interconnection, containing 70% of the United States population. We develop electricity system optimization models at the multidecade, day-ahead, and hour-ahead time scales, incorporating spatial wind energy modeling, endogenous modeling of CV efficiencies, projections for EV efficiencies, and projected CV and EV costs. We find two means to reduce total consumer expenditure (TCE): (i) controlling charge timing and (ii) unlinking the fuel economy regulations for CVs from EVs. Although EVs provide minimal direct GHG reductions, controlled charging provides load flexibility, lowering the cost of renewable electricity. Without EVs, a 33% renewable electricity standard (RES) would cost $193/vehicle-year more than the reference case (10% RES). Combining a 33% RES, EVs with controlled charging and unlinking would reduce combined electric- and vehicle-sector CO2 emissions by 27% and reduce gasoline consumption by 59% for $40/vehicle-year more than the reference case. Coordinating EV adoption with adoption of controlled charging, unlinked fuel economy regulations, and renewable electricity standards would provide low-cost reductions in emissions and fuel usage.

  1. Optical properties of PbS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmedov, O. R., E-mail: orucahmedov@mail.ru; Guseinaliyev, M. G. [National Academy of Azerbaijan, Nakhichevan Branch (Azerbaijan); Abdullaev, N. A.; Abdullaev, N. M.; Babaev, S. S.; Kasumov, N. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Abdullaev Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

    2016-01-15

    The complex dielectric function of PbS thin films is studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the spectral range from 0.74 to 6.45 eV at a temperature of 293 K. The critical energies are determined to be E{sub 1} = 3.53 eV and E{sub 2} = 4.57 eV. For both energy regions, the best fit is attained at the critical point 2D (m = 0). In addition, the Raman spectra and the optical-absorption spectra of PbS thin films are studied. From the dependence of the quantity (αhν){sup 2} on the photon energy hν, the band gap is established at E{sub g} = 0.37 eV.

  2. EV71-2A突变质粒的构建及体内外功能初探%Construction of pcDNA3 . 1-EV71-2A mutant and preliminary studying related biological functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原素梅; 徐超; 张煦; 王源; 谢冰玉; 熊庆; 彭宜红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To construct EV71-2Amut(pcDNA3. 1-EV71-2A mutant plasmid)and studying its functions in vitro and in vivo, so as to provide an experiemental base for the further studying the active site and biological function of 2A pro-teinase. Methods By using of site-directed mutagenesis system based on PCR, EV71-2Amut was constructed on site-directed mutagenesis of 21His,39Asp and 110Cys genes and confirmed by sequencing analysis. Then EV71-2Amut and pRL-CMV(Cyto-megalovirus, CMV) were co-transfected to human rhabdomyosarcoma cell( RD cell) , and the enzyme activity inside cells was determined and compared with effect to pRL expression level between wild type EV71-2Apro and EV71-2Amut . EV71-2A mR-NA was detected by RT-PCR, and its effect on the quadriceps femoris of BALB/c mice was observed on histopathological changes, which reflected its transcription level and activity in vivo. Results The constructed EV71-2Amut sequence was i-dentical with we expected,the RL activity detected at cellular level from EV71-2Amut groups were significantly higher than that of EV71-2Apro groups (P<0. 05). EV71-2A-mRNA were detected by RT-PCR in quadriceps femoris from the mice injected with EV71-2Apro and EV71-2Amut . Compared with the control group injected with wild type 2A,inflammatory cell infiltration and coagulation necrosis were mild in quadriceps femoris injected with EV71-2Amut . Conclusion EV71-2Amut with H21N+D39E+C110A was successfully constructed. and its protease activity was almost abolished in RD cell and BABL/c mice. This work provides a ground work for the further studying the biological functions of EV71-2A protease.%目的:构建pcDNA3.1-EV71-2A的突变质粒(EV71-2Amut),并对其功能进行检测,为进一步研究肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus type 71,EV71)2A蛋白酶的活性位点及其生物学功能奠定实验基础。方法利用聚合酶链式反应(PCR)定点诱变技术,定点突变编码EV71-2A第21His、39Asp 和110Cys 氨基酸的位点,构建EV71

  3. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  4. Electron scattering by atomic hydrogen: elastic and inelastic phenomena at 13.9 to 200 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six state coupled-channel optical potential method for electron-atom scattering is applied to electron-hydrogen scattering at energies of 13.87, 16.46, 19.58, 35, 40, 54.4, 100, and 200 eV. The n = 1, 2, and 3 channels are coupled explicitly whereas the rest of the excited states of the atom including the continuum are taken into account via the 'ab initio' complex non-local polarization potential. The differential and integrated cross sections, as well as the exchange asymmetries for n = 1 and 2 channels, the total cross section, and the λ, R and I parameters for the 2p excitation are presented at each energy. The ratio of differential cross sections for n = 1 to n = 2, and for 2s to 2p, and the 2s + 2p differential cross sections are found to be in good agreement with experiment. There are still some discrepancies between experiment and theory for the 2p angular correlation parameters λ, R and I. 24 refs., 9 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Dielectric function and magneto-optical Voigt constant of Cu2O: A combined spectroscopic ellipsometry and polar magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidu, Francisc; Fronk, Michael; Gordan, Ovidiu D.; Scarlat, Camelia; Salvan, Georgeta; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2011-11-01

    Cuprous oxide is a highly interesting material for the emerging field of transparent oxide electronics. In this work the energy dispersion of the dielectric function of Cu2O bulk material is revised by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements in an extended spectral range from 0.73 to 10 eV. For the first time, the magneto-optical Kerr effect was measured in the spectral range from 1.7 to 5.5 eV and the magneto-optical Voigt constant of Cu2O was obtained by numerical calculations from the magneto-optical Kerr effect spectra and the dielectric function.

  6. Neutron Transmission and Capture Measurements and Resonance Parameter Analysis of Neodymium from 1eV to 500 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neodymium is a 235U fission product and is important for reactor neutronic calculations. The aim of the present work is to improve upon the existing neutron cross section data of neodymium. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-off-light technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LINAC laboratory using metallic neodymium samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m flight station with a 16-segment NaI multiplicity detector, and the transmission measurements were performed at 15-m and 25-m flight stations, respectively, with 6Li glass scintillation detectors. After the data were collected and reduced, resonance parameters were determined by combined fitting of the transmission and capture data with the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. The resonance parameters for all naturally occurring neodymium isotopes were deduced within the energy range of 1 eV to 500 eV. The resulting resonance parameters were used to calculate the capture resonance integrals from this energy. The RPI parameters gave a resonance integral value of 32 ± 1 barns that is approximately 7% lower than that obtained with the ENDF-B/VI parameters. The current measurements significantly reduce the uncertainties on the resonance parameters when compared with previously published parameters

  7. Low-energy (<20 eV) and high-energy (1000 eV) electron-induced methanol radiolysis of astrochemical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kristal K.; Boamah, Mavis D.; Shulenberger, Katie E.; Chapman, Sitara; Atkinson, Karen E.; Boyer, Michael C.; Arumainayagam, Christopher R.

    2016-07-01

    We report the first infrared study of the low-energy (benefit that it does not require thermal processing prior to product detection. Using IRAS, we have found evidence for the formation of ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH), formaldehyde (CH2O), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and the hydroxyl methyl radical (·CH2OH) upon both low-energy and high-energy electron irradiation of condensed methanol at ˜85 K. Additionally, TPD results, presented herein, are similar for methanol films irradiated with both 1000 eV and 20 eV electrons. These IRAS and TPD findings are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that high-energy condensed phase radiolysis is mediated by low-energy electron-induced reactions. Moreover, methoxymethanol (CH3OCH2OH) could serve as a tracer molecule for electron-induced reactions in the interstellar medium. The results of experiments such as ours may provide a fundamental understanding of how complex organic molecules are synthesized in cosmic ices.

  8. Time-Resolved UV-Pump (4.8eV) and Vacuum-UV (8eV) Probe Experiments of Neutral Excited State Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Spencer; Liu, Yusong; Matsika, Spiridoula; Weinacht, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Excited state dynamics in polyatomic molecules involve a rich mixture of internal conversion, intersystem crossing, isomerization, and dissociation. Probing these dynamics with ultrafast laser pulses poses a number of challenges, in terms of both the execution of the measurements and their interpretation. We have developed an apparatus for probing excited state dynamics using a 260nm UV-pump pulse and a 156nm Vacuum-UV (VUV) probe pulse. For many systems of interest, an 8eV probe pulse can ionize the molecule from essentially any position along the excited state potential, while not having a background ionization yield from the ground state. Furthermore, given the perturbative interaction of each pulse with the molecule, it is possible interpret and model the experimental results with greater ease and confidence than more complicated probe interactions such as strong field ionization. We compare UV-IR strong-field ionization pump-probe experiments previously conducted directly with our 8eV probing and explore the differences between the two.

  9. The value of EV71-IgM detection in diagnosis of hand foot mouth disease%EV71-IgM检测在手足口病诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金亭; 刘力建

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the role of detecting EV71-IgM antibody by colloidal method and EV71 virus by RT-PCR method in the early identification of severe hand-foot-mouth disease by retrospective analysis.Methods:1 252 suspected cases of hand-foot-mouth disease were selected.The IgM antibody of EV71 intestinal virus was detected by serum colloidal gold method. The intestinal virus in stool of patients and 71-RNA were detected by RT-PCR method.Results:The positive rate of detecting EV71 by colloidal gold method was 28.67%;the positive rate of detecting intestinal virus by RT-PCR method was 81.15%;the positive rate of EV71 was 44.89%;5 cases were detected as positive by colloidal gold method and negative by RT-PCR method. Conclusion:EV71 colloidal gold method can be used as an early screening of EV71 infection,and it has important significance in early identification and treatment of severe hand-foot-mouth disease.%目的:回顾性分析评价应用胶体法检测EV71-IgM抗体与RT-PCR法检测EV71病毒在手足口病重症病例早期识别中的作用。方法:收治手足口病疑似病例1252例,分别采用血清胶体金法检测 EV71肠道病毒 IgM 抗体, RT-PCR法检测患者大便中肠道病毒及肠道病毒71-RNA。结果:胶体金法检测EV71阳性率28.67%;RT-PCR法检测肠道病毒阳性率81.15%,EV71阳性率44.89%。其中金标法检测阳性5例,RT-PCR法检测阴性。结论:EV71胶体金法可作为EV71感染的初筛早期快检,在临床手足口病重症病例早期识别及治疗中具有重要意义。

  10. 新型肠道病毒71型(EV71)疫苗质量控制和评价标准的研究%Quality Control and Evaluation of New Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛群颖; 姚昕; 梁争论

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究建立新型肠道病毒71型(EV71)疫苗质量控制标准和评价体系,为EV71疫苗研发提供基础.方法 根据创新型疫苗研发的要求,充分发挥技术优势,开展EV71疫苗质控标准、标准品和评价方法研究.结果与结论 建立EV71灭活疫苗的中和抗体和抗原定量测定标准品,统一不同企业疫苗的质控标准,规范疫苗的评价体系,为EV71疫苗的研发提供保障.

  11. An Improved Study of Electronic Band Structure and Optical Parameters of X-Phosphides (X--B, AL, Ga, In) by Modified Becke-Johnson Potential%An Improved Study of Electronic Band Structure and Optical Parameters of X-Phosphides (X--B, AL, Ga, In) by Modified Becke-Johnson Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masood Yousaf; M.A. Saeed; R. Ahmed; M.M. Alsardia; Ahmad Radzi Mat Isa; A. Shaari

    2012-01-01

    We report the electronic band structure and optical parameters of X-Phosphides (X=B, AI, Ga, In) by first-principles technique based on a new approximation known as modified Becke-Johnson (roB J). This potential is considered more accurate in elaborating excited states properties of insulators and semiconductors as compared to LDA and GGA. The present calculated band gaps values of BP, AlP, GaP, and InP are 1.867 eV, 2.268 eV, 2.090 eV, and 1.377 eV respectively, which are in close agreement to the experimental results. The band gap values trend in this study is as: E9 (mBJ-GGA/LDA) 〉 E9 (GGA) 〉 Eg (LDA). Optical parametric quantities (dielectric constant, refractive index, reflectivity and optical conductivity) which based on the band structure are aiso presented and discussed. BP, AlP, GaP, and InP have strong absorption in between the energy range 4-9 eV, 4-7 ev, 3-7 eV, and 2-7 eV respectively. Static dielectric constant, static refractive index and coefficient of reflectivity at zero frequency, within mBJ-GGA, are also calculated. BP, AIP, GaP, and InP show significant optical conductivity in the range 5.2-10 eV, 4.3-8 eV, 3.5- 7.2 eV, and 3.2-8 eV respectively. The present study endorses that the said compounds can be used in opto-electronic applications, for different energy ranges.

  12. Absolute total cross sections for the scattering of 2--18-eV electrons by cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute total cross sections for the scattering of electrons by cesium atoms between 2 and 18 eV have been measured using the atomic-recoil technique in the scattering-out mode. Our results are somewhat lower than those of Visconti, Slevin, and Rubin [Phys. Rev. A 3, 1310 (1971)] above 2 eV

  13. Absolute total cross sections for the scattering of 2--18-eV electrons by cesium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaduszliwer, B.; Chan, Y.C. (Electronics Technology Center, The Aerospace Corporation, P. O. Box 92957, Los Angeles, California 90009 (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for the scattering of electrons by cesium atoms between 2 and 18 eV have been measured using the atomic-recoil technique in the scattering-out mode. Our results are somewhat lower than those of Visconti, Slevin, and Rubin (Phys. Rev. A 3, 1310 (1971)) above 2 eV.

  14. Elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Robert Y L; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and, mouth disease, accounting for more than 65% of recent outbreaks. Following enteroviral infection, the host responses are crucial indicators for the development of a diagnosis regarding the clinical severity of EV71 infections. In this study, we implemented NanoString nCounter technology to characterize the responses of serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles to various EV71 infection diseases. Upon EV71 infection, 44 miRNAs were observed in patients with EV71 infections, with at least a 2-fold elevation and 133 miRNAs with a 2-fold reduction compared with the same miRNAs in healthy controls. Further detailed work with miR876-5p, a 9.5-fold change of upregulated miR-876-5p expression was observed in cases with severe EV71 symptoms, revealed that in vitro and in vivo knockdown of miR876-5p reduced viral RNA in cultured cells, and attenuated the severity of symptoms in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, we demonstrated that the elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections. PMID:27052555

  15. Enterovirus71 (EV71) utilise host microRNAs to mediate host immune system enhancing survival during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Tuan Lin; Woo, Wee Hong; Timms, Peter; Hafner, Louise Marie; Tan, Kian Hwa; Tan, Eng Lee

    2014-01-01

    Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a self-limiting viral disease that mainly affects infants and children. In contrast with other HFMD causing enteroviruses, Enterovirus71 (EV71) has commonly been associated with severe clinical manifestation leading to death. Currently, due to a lack in understanding of EV71 pathogenesis, there is no antiviral therapeutics for the treatment of HFMD patients. Therefore the need to better understand the mechanism of EV71 pathogenesis is warranted. We have previously reported a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) based model to study the pathogenesis of EV71. Using this system, we showed that knockdown of DGCR8, an essential cofactor for microRNAs biogenesis resulted in a reduction of EV71 replication. We also demonstrated that there are miRNAs changes during EV71 pathogenesis and EV71 utilise host miRNAs to attenuate antiviral pathways during infection. Together, data from this study provide critical information on the role of miRNAs during EV71 infection.

  16. EV71-IgM胶体金法在手足口病早期诊断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘超

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价胶体法检测EV71 IgM抗体与RT-PCR法检测EV71病毒核酸在手足口病诊断的优劣.方法:标本选取248例手足口疑似病例,分别采用血清金标法检测EV71肠道病毒IgM抗体,咽拭RT-PCR法检测EV71-RNA.结果:2012年3月~2012年4月对248例疑似病例进行胶体金法检测,EV71阳性率为16.94%(42/248),RT-PCR法检测阳性率为19.35%(48/248).其中2例金标法检测阳性采用RT-PCR法检测为阴性.EV71胶体金法快速检测试剂的特异度为96.15%,灵敏度为83.33%.结论:EV71胶体金法可作为EV71感染的初筛早期快检,在临床诊治和流感爆发疫情处理上具有重要意义.

  17. Elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Robert Y L; Weng, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand, foot, and, mouth disease, accounting for more than 65% of recent outbreaks. Following enteroviral infection, the host responses are crucial indicators for the development of a diagnosis regarding the clinical severity of EV71 infections. In this study, we implemented NanoString nCounter technology to characterize the responses of serum microRNA (miRNA) profiles to various EV71 infection diseases. Upon EV71 infection, 44 miRNAs were observed in patients with EV71 infections, with at least a 2-fold elevation and 133 miRNAs with a 2-fold reduction compared with the same miRNAs in healthy controls. Further detailed work with miR876-5p, a 9.5-fold change of upregulated miR-876-5p expression was observed in cases with severe EV71 symptoms, revealed that in vitro and in vivo knockdown of miR876-5p reduced viral RNA in cultured cells, and attenuated the severity of symptoms in EV71-infected mice. Altogether, we demonstrated that the elevated expression of circulating miR876-5p is a specific response to severe EV71 infections.

  18. Optimising production using the state-contingent approach versus the EV approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    It is not clear whether the state-contingent approach to decision making under risk and uncertainty has the potential of providing better decisions than the well-known EV model based on an estimated stochastic production function and variance measures. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulation...... to analyse this question. Based on an artificially generated set of stochastic production data, parameters of both stochastic production functions and of state-contingent production functions are estimated. Using these estimated production functions, input decisions are afterwards optimised using three...... different types of utility functions, i.e. linear utility function, EV-utility function and a Cobb Douglas utility function based on state-contingent income measures. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out for various numbers of observations. Finally the results are compared to the true optimal choice...

  19. Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system...... is highly efficient at grid congestion prevention, and the precise level of congestion that can be alleviated is dependent on the price profile of the optimisation period in question.......A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding...

  20. Optimal Operation of EVs and HPs in the Nordic Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi

    is consistent with the environmental weather pro- files. The increasing HP demand in the evening coincides with the conventional peak hours of the power system which may stress the grid. A chance constrained programming model through mixed-integer programming (MIP) is proposed to formulate the EV demand......The Nordic countries, including Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, have great ambitions in seeking a fully carbon neutral or low-carbon electric power system by 2050. The large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) is considered not only as an efficient method to limit...... the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and the fossil fuel consumption in the transportation and heating sectors but also as a potential approach to cope with the intermittency due to the further utilization of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Nordic region. With increasing amounts of RES in the power system...

  1. On search for eV hidden sector photons in Super-Kamiokande and CAST experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gninenko, S.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Redondo, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    If light hidden sector photons ({gamma}'s) exist, they could be produced through kinetic mixing with solar photons in the eV energy range. We propose to search for this hypothetical {gamma}'-flux with the Super-Kamiokande and/or upgraded CAST detectors. The proposed experiments are sensitive to the {gamma}-{gamma}' mixing strength as small as 10{sup -5}>or similar {chi}>or similar 10{sup -9} for the {gamma}'' mass region 10{sup -4} eV and, in the case of non-observation, would improve limits recently obtained from photon regeneration laser experiments for this mass region. (orig.)

  2. Intense X-ray flares from active stellar systems - EV Lacertae and HD 8357

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambruster, C.; Snyder, W. A.; Wood, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    The HEAO A-1 Sky Survey Experiment included X-ray data used to define light curves for the flare star EV Lac and for X-ray flares observed in the binary system HD 8357. The data were taken during flare events and were detailed enough to calculate the flare rates and flaring luminosities. The peak luminosities during flares were several times the luminosities in normal X-ray flares emitted by the objects. Peak luminosities reached 30-50 times the normal variations and were associated with an order of magnitude increase in energy output. EV Lac was sufficiently active to be recommended for inclusion in future X-ray monitoring programs.

  3. Energy levels of Th+ between 7.3 and 8.3 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Sancho, O A; Okhapkin, M V; Peik, E

    2013-01-01

    Using resonant two-step laser excitation of trapped 232Th+ ions, we observe 43 previously unknown energy levels within the energy range from 7.3 to 8.3 eV. The high density of states promises a strongly enhanced electronic bridge excitation of the 229mTh nuclear state that is expected in this energy range. From the observation of resonantly enhanced three-photon ionization of Th+, the second ionization potential of thorium can be inferred to lie within the range between 11.9 and 12.3 eV. Pulsed laser radiation in a wide wavelength range from 237 to 289 nm is found to provide efficient photodissociation of molecular ions that are formed in reactions of Th+ with impurities in the buffer gas, leading to a significantly increased storage time for Th+ in the ion trap.

  4. On the Transition Improvement of EV or HEV Induction Motor Propulsion Sensor Fault-Tolerant Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Tabbache, Bekheira; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Kheloui, Abdelaziz

    2010-01-01

    International audience This technical paper deals with the transition performance improvement of a sensor fault-tolerant controller devoted to Electric (EV) or Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). Indeed, improvements are brought over a previously developed technique that exhibit abrupt changes in the torque if a sensor fault is detected and after a transition from a control technique to another one [1]. The Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC) system firstly concerns the sliding mode control technique...

  5. Picosecond x-ray measurements from 100 eV to 30 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picosecond x-ray measurements relevant to the Livermore Laser Fusion Program are reviewed. Resolved to 15 picoseconds, streak camera detection capabilities extend from 100 eV to higher than 30 keV, with synchronous capabilities in the visible, near infrared, and ultraviolet. Capabilities include automated data retrieval using charge coupled devices (CCD's), absolute x-ray intensity levels, novel cathodes, x-ray mirror/reflector combinations, and a variety of x-ray imaging devices

  6. Picosecond x-ray measurements from 100 eV to 30 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attwood, D.T.; Kauffman, R.L.; Stradling, G.L.

    1980-10-15

    Picosecond x-ray measurements relevant to the Livermore Laser Fusion Program are reviewed. Resolved to 15 picoseconds, streak camera detection capabilities extend from 100 eV to higher than 30 keV, with synchronous capabilities in the visible, near infrared, and ultraviolet. Capabilities include automated data retrieval using charge coupled devices (CCD's), absolute x-ray intensity levels, novel cathodes, x-ray mirror/reflector combinations, and a variety of x-ray imaging devices.

  7. 20 Jahre ‚Gäa e.V. - Vereinigung ökologischer Landbau’

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Dipl.-Ing. agr. D.; Hirte, Dr. K.; Schüler, Dr. C.; Heß, Prof. Dr. J.

    2009-01-01

    For the understanding of ecological agriculture, knowledge of its roots is essential. Actual literature about this topic does not cover the history of ecological agriculture in East Germany especially if chronological development and individual motivation are seen as mutual dependent. The ecological organisation Gäa e.V. was founded in the GDR in 1989. Its origins were oppositional environmental groups working within the East German church. It developed own principles based on ...

  8. Shower front structure in EAS, Esub(p) approximately 3 x 1017 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to invoke a fast-developing air shower model to interpret the measurements of signal rise-times observed at about 500 m from the axis of extensive air showers (EAS) with primary energy near 3 x 1017 eV. Fluctuations in these rise-times indicate that the primary cosmic rays at this energy consist of at least 40 % protons. (author)

  9. Teadus- ja erialaraamatukogudel oma päev ja aasta teo auhind / Kristina Rallmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rallmann, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Esimene teadus- ja erialaraamatukogude päev toimus 22. oktoobril 2008 Tallinna majanduskoolis, teadusraamatukogu aasta teo auhind läks RR-i virtuaaalnäitusele "Meie parlament ja aeg: fakte, sündmusi, dokumente, inimesi" ning erialaraamatukogu aasta teo auhind Eesti Pimedate Raamatukogu töörühmale heliteavikute CD-plaatidele automatiseeritud paljundamise ja posti teel laenutamise süsteemi eest

  10. Electron scattering from molecule CH4 at 10-5000eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉芳; 朱遵略; 孙金锋; 丛书林; 韩克利

    2003-01-01

    Electron scattering from molecules in the intermediate- and high-energy range is investigated employing the devel-oped semi-empirical formula for electron scattering from diatomic molecules. Total cross sections of e-CH4 scatteringare obtained over an incident energy range of 10-5000eV. The results agree well with other available experimental andtheoretical data. According to our formula, some quantitative information of single Yukawa potential are also obtained.

  11. Tallinki esimene börsipäev pettis väikeinvestorite ootusi / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Tallinki aktsia esimene börsipäev valmistas paljudele väikeinvestoritele pettumust, kuna aktsia hind tõusis päevaga vaid 58 senti ehk 0,7 protsenti. Lisa: Kas teate? Küsimusele, mida teete Tallinki aktsiatega, vastavad: ettevõtja Indrek Toome, Riigikogu liige Margus Hanson, teleprodutsent Raivo Suviste ja AS-i Biodiesel nõukogu esimees Heino Harak

  12. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an EV71 virus-like particle vaccine against lethal challenge in newborn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiyang; Gao, Fan; Mao, Qunying; Shao, Jie; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Dawei; Wang, Yiping; Yao, Xin; Wu, Xing; Sun, Bo; Zhao, Dandan; Ma, Youlei; Lu, Jingcai; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) has caused severe epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia Pacific in recent years, particularly in infants and pre-school children. It has become a serious public health threat, as currently there are no approved vaccines or antiviral drugs for EV71 infection. Many EV71 vaccines have been under development worldwide, however the main focus is inactivated EV71 vaccines. For example, the inactivated EV71 vaccine has recently finished phase III clinical trial in Mainland China. There have been very few studies on EV71 virus like particles (VLPs). In this study, the immunogenicity and protective potency of the EV71 VLPs produced in insect cells were evaluated in mice with different dosages. Our results showed that EV71 VLPs could elicit high titers of neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) in a dose-dependent manner and NTAbs were sustained after the second injection with an average GMT (geometric mean titer) level from 19 to 2960 in immunized mice. Survival rates were 100%, 100%, 85%, and 40% after challenge with 15 LD50 (median lethal dose) of EV71 in these newborn mice, respectively. ED50 (50% effective dose) of VLPs was 0.20 μg/dose in newborn mice, while NTAb titer under this dosage was about 50. Passive protection was determined with 2 methods and demonstrated that the survival rates were positively correlated with NTAb titers, which at 24 and 54 induced 50% survival rates in experimental animals. The ED50 of VLP vaccines and the passive NTAb titers were also analyzed. The maternal NTAb titer was similar as the passive NTAb titer in the mouse model challenged with our lethal mouse EV71 strain. Hence, our work has provided preliminary data on the protection potency of VLPs as a vaccine candidate and would facilitate future VLP vaccine development.

  13. Electronic structure and optical properties of TbNi5-xCux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present theoretical investigation of optical conductivity for intermetallic TbNi5-xCux series. Within the framework of LSDA+U calculations, electronic structure for x=0, 1, 2 is calculated and additionally optical conductivity is obtained. Disorder effects of Cu for Ni substitution on a level of LSDA+U densities of states (DOS) are taken into account via averaging over all possible Cu ion positions in the unit cell for given doping level x. Gradual smoothing of optical conductivity structure at 2 eV together with simultaneous intensity growth at 4 eV corresponds to increase of Cu and decrease of Ni content.

  14. High-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy of Ni at 1s : 6-eV satellite at 4 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karis, O.; Svensson, S.; Rusz, J.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Gorgoi, M.; Schäfers, F.; Braun, W.; Eberhardt, W.; Mårtensson, N.

    2008-12-01

    Electron correlations are responsible for many profound phenomena in solid-state physics. A classical example is the 6-eV satellite in the photoelectron spectrum of Ni. Until now the satellite structure has only been investigated at the L shell and more shallow levels. Here we report a high-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy (HIKE) investigation of Ni metal. We present 1s and 2p photoelectron spectra, obtained using excitation energies up to 12.6 keV. Our investigation demonstrates that the energy position of the satellite relative to the main line is different for the 1s and the 2p levels. In combination with electronic structure calculations, we show that this energy shift is attributed to unique differences in the core-valence coupling for the K and L2,3 shells in 3d transition metals, resulting in different screening of the core holes.

  15. Distribution of EV71 receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiao-Yang; Guo, Li; Huang, Dong-Yang; Chang, Xiao-Lan; Qiu, Qian-Cheng

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues. The samples were chosen from archived specimens, and the profiles of two receptors were detected in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain in situ by immunohistochemistry. SCARB2 was detected in all the tissues studied, and strong staining was observed in the gastric fundus gland, mucosal and glandular epithelia of the intestine. Similar expression was found in bronchial epithelia and pneumocytes. In addition, SCARB2 was observed in the esophagus/gastric mucosal epithelia, neuron, glial cells, and blood vessels and the perivascular tissues of the brain. By comparison, PSGL-1 was expressed weakly in the mucosal and glandular epithelia of the small intestine and colon. PSGL-1 was expressed in a few bronchial epithelia, and weak staining was observed in the pneumocytes. However, PSGL-1 was found easily in the lamina propria of all the tissues studied, and strong staining of PSGL-1 was also observed in the neurons and glial cells. The distribution of the SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain tissues correlated with the distribution of pathological changes seen in EV71 infection. The widespread prevalence of these receptors may help explain the multiple organ involvement in infection with EV71. PMID:24997419

  16. Distribution of EV71 receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiao-Yang; Guo, Li; Huang, Dong-Yang; Chang, Xiao-Lan; Qiu, Qian-Cheng

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) receptors SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human tissues. The samples were chosen from archived specimens, and the profiles of two receptors were detected in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain in situ by immunohistochemistry. SCARB2 was detected in all the tissues studied, and strong staining was observed in the gastric fundus gland, mucosal and glandular epithelia of the intestine. Similar expression was found in bronchial epithelia and pneumocytes. In addition, SCARB2 was observed in the esophagus/gastric mucosal epithelia, neuron, glial cells, and blood vessels and the perivascular tissues of the brain. By comparison, PSGL-1 was expressed weakly in the mucosal and glandular epithelia of the small intestine and colon. PSGL-1 was expressed in a few bronchial epithelia, and weak staining was observed in the pneumocytes. However, PSGL-1 was found easily in the lamina propria of all the tissues studied, and strong staining of PSGL-1 was also observed in the neurons and glial cells. The distribution of the SCARB2 and PSGL-1 in human gastrointestinal tract, lung, and brain tissues correlated with the distribution of pathological changes seen in EV71 infection. The widespread prevalence of these receptors may help explain the multiple organ involvement in infection with EV71.

  17. Molecular mechanism of SCARB2-mediated attachment and uncoating of EV71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Minghao; Wang, Xiangxi; Wang, Quan; Wang, Yaxin; Lin, Jianping; Sun, Yuna; Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Liguo; Lou, Zhiyong; Wang, Junzhi; Rao, Zihe

    2014-09-01

    Unlike the well-established picture for the entry of enveloped viruses, the mechanism of cellular entry of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses remains largely mysterious. Picornaviruses are representative models for such viruses, and initiate this entry process by their functional receptors. Here we present the structural and functional studies of SCARB2, a functional receptor of the important human enterovirus 71 (EV71). SCARB2 is responsible for attachment as well as uncoating of EV71. Differences in the structures of SCARB2 under neutral and acidic conditions reveal that SCARB2 undergoes a pivotal pH-dependent conformational change which opens a lipid-transfer tunnel to mediate the expulsion of a hydrophobic pocket factor from the virion, a pre-requisite for uncoating. We have also identified the key residues essential for attachment to SCARB2, identifying the canyon region of EV71 as mediating the receptor interaction. Together these results provide a clear understanding of cellular attachment and initiation of uncoating for enteroviruses.

  18. Study of the integrated immune response induced by an inactivated EV71 vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longding Liu

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD, causes outbreaks among children in the Asia-Pacific region. A vaccine is urgently needed. Based on successful pre-clinical work, phase I and II clinical trials of an inactivated EV71 vaccine, which included the participants of 288 and 660 respectively, have been conducted. In the present study, the immune response and the correlated modulation of gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 30 infants (6 to 11 months immunized with this vaccine or placebo and consented to join this study in the phase II clinical trial were analyzed. The results showed significantly greater neutralizing antibody and specific T cell responses in vaccine group after two inoculations on days 0 and 28. Additionally, more than 600 functional genes that were up- or down-regulated in PBMCs were identified by the microarray assay, and these genes included 68 genes associated with the immune response in vaccine group. These results emphasize the gene expression profile of the immune system in response to an inactivated EV71 vaccine in humans and confirmed that such an immune response was generated as the result of the positive mobilization of the immune system. Furthermore, the immune response was not accompanied by the development of a remarkable inflammatory response. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01391494 and NCT01512706.

  19. A dominant EV71-specific CD4+ T cell epitope is highly conserved among human enteroviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruicheng Wei

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD, has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

  20. Magnetic Alignment Detection Using Existing Charging Facility in Wireless EV Chargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabiao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging is a promising outlet to promote the electric vehicle (EV industry due to its safe and noncontact manner. Wireless EV chargers require the secondary receiver coil to be well aligned with the primary station for efficient charging, which could require more of the driver’s time and attention when parking a vehicle. Therefore, this paper presents a magnetic alignment system to assist the EV driver during parking. The magnetic alignment approach uses the existing coil and frequency tracking control electronics of wireless chargers to detect the distance between the two coils while using 4 small auxiliary coils for direction and fine adjustment, leading to a cost effective detection method for coil alignment in electric vehicle wireless charging (EVWC. The testing results of a prototype show acceptable measurement correctness and the mean error for ten trials in range detection is within 0.25 cm at three different misalignment conditions (10.5, 15, and 20 cm. The positioning accuracy of coil alignment is within 1.2 cm for three different start positions with the auxiliary coils.

  1. Generating Geospatially Realistic Driving Patterns Derived From Clustering Analysis Of Real EV Driving Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Aabrandt, Andreas; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a vehicle fleet that realistically represents the predicted Electric Vehicle (EV) penetration for the future, a model is required that mimics people driving behaviour rather than simply playing back collected data. When the focus is broadened from on a traditional user-centric...... the vehicles park, the model can be transferred geographically using known locations of the same classification.......In order to provide a vehicle fleet that realistically represents the predicted Electric Vehicle (EV) penetration for the future, a model is required that mimics people driving behaviour rather than simply playing back collected data. When the focus is broadened from on a traditional user......-centric smart charging approach to be more grid-centric, it suddenly becomes important to know not just when- and how much the vehicles charge, but also where in the grid they plug in. Since one of the main goals of EV-grid studies is to find the saturation point, it is equally important that the simulation...

  2. Electronic, optical and bonding properties of MgCO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Faruque M.; Dlugogorski, B. Z.; Kennedy, E. M.; Belova, I. V.; Murch, Graeme E.

    2010-05-01

    The electronic, optical and bonding properties of MgCO 3 (magnesite, rhombohedral calcite-type structure) are calculated using a first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) method considering the exchange-correlation function within the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The indirect band gap of magnesite is estimated to be 5.0 eV, which is underestimated by ˜1.0 eV. The fundamental absorption edge, which indicates the exact optical transitions from occupied valence bands to the unoccupied conduction band, is estimated by calculating the photon energy dependent imaginary part of the dielectric function using scissors approximations (rigid shift of unoccupied bands). The optical properties show consistent results with the experimental calcite-type structure and also show a considerable optical anisotropy of the magnesite structure. The density of states and Mulliken population analyses reveal the bonding nature between the atoms.

  3. Molecular identification of newer enterovirus EV93 in the species of HEV-B from Yunnan province%云南省新型肠道病毒EV93的分子生物学鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田炳均; 陆林; 赵智娴; 张杰; 丁峥嵘

    2008-01-01

    人类肠道病毒(HEV)分为5个组别:HEV-A、HEV-B、HEV-C、HEV-D和脊髓灰质炎病毒(PV)。HEV-A由柯萨奇A2(CV-A2)-CV-A8、CV-A10、CV-A12、CV-A14、CV-A16、EV71和4种新型病毒EV76、Ev89、Ev90、EV91组成[1]。HEV-B由CV-A9、CV-B1-6、艾柯病毒(E)E1-7、E9、E11-21、E24-27、E29-33、EV69以及6个新发现的病毒EV73、

  4. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with 9-eV photon-energy pulses generated in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Bromberger, H; Belli, F; Liu, H; Calegari, F; Chavez-Cervantes, M; Li, M T; Lin, C T; Abdolvand, A; Russell, P St J; Cavalleri, A; Travers, J C; Gierz, I

    2015-01-01

    A recently developed source of ultraviolet radiation, based on optical soliton propagation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, is applied here to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Near-infrared femtosecond pulses of only few {\\mu}J energy generate vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation between 5.5 and 9 eV inside the gas-filled fiber. These pulses are used to measure the band structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 with a signal to noise ratio comparable to that obtained with high order harmonics from a gas jet. The two-order-of-magnitude gain in efficiency promises time-resolved ARPES measurements at repetition rates of hundreds of kHz or even MHz, with photon energies that cover the first Brillouin zone of most materials.

  5. EV71感染致重症手足口病的研究进展%Progress of severe hand-foot-mouth disease infected by EV71 virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨坤; 赵东赤

    2010-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是人类肠道病毒的一种,近30年来,EV71感染在亚太地区广泛流行,是手足口病(HFMD)重症病例的主要病原体.EV71感染引起的重症HFMD病情进展迅速,可表现为中枢神经系统和呼吸系统受累,其发病机制目前尚不十分清楚.研究认为病毒首先通过神经通路侵犯中枢神经系统,导致中枢神经系统的并发症,严重的病例进一步发展为肺水肿、肺出血.研究重症EV71感染的临床特征和发病机制从而采取积极有效的措施阻断其并发症的发生具有重要意义.%Enterovirus 71(EV71),a member of human enterovirus family,was first isolated from faeces of a central nervous system infected infant in 1969.In recent 30 years,EV71 outbreaks every 2-3 years in the Asia-Pacific regions,and is the main pathogen causing severe hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD).Severe HFMD caused by EV71 involves in central nervous system and respiratory system disorder.In general,EV71 associated complication is related to the viral invasion of central nervous system,leads to pulmonary edema or pulmonary hemorrhage.It is of great significance to study the clinical features and pathogenesis of EV71 infection,and then take positive and effective measures to block the occurrence of its complications.

  6. Non-linear optics of ultrastrongly coupled cavity polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimanno, Michael; Liu, Bin; McMaster, Michael; Singer, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Experiments at CWRU have developed organic cavity polaritons that display world-record vacuum Rabi splittings of more than an eV. This ultrastrongly coupled polaritonic matter is a new regime for exploring non-linear optical effects. We apply quantum optics theory to quantitatively determine various non-linear optical effects including types of low harmonic generation (SHG and THG) in single and double cavity polariton systems. Ultrastrongly coupled photon-matter systems such as these may be the foundation for technologies including low-power optical switching and computing.

  7. Coupled-channel optical calculation for positron-lithium scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fang; Cheng Yong-Jun; Zhou Ya-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Positron scattering with atomic lithium is investigated by using a coupled-channel optical method.The ionization continuum and positronium formation channels are taken into account via a complex equivalent-local optical potential.The positronium formation cross sections and the ionization cross sections,as well as the total scattering cross sections,are reported at energies above 3 eV and compared with available experimental and theoretical data.

  8. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of thorium isotopes-towards a laser spectroscopic identification of the low-lying 7.6 eV isomer of 229Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was used to identify an efficient and selective three-step excitation/ionization scheme of thorium, suitable for titanium:sapphire (Ti:sa) lasers. The measurements were carried out in the preparation of laser spectroscopic investigations for an identification of the low-lying 229mTh isomer predicted at 7.6 ± 0.5 eV above the nuclear ground state. Using a sample of 232Th, a multitude of optical transitions leading to over 20 previously unknown intermediate states of even parity as well as numerous high-lying odd parity auto-ionizing (AI) states were identified. Level energies were determined with an accuracy of 0.06 cm-1 for intermediate and 0.15 cm-1 for AI states. Using different excitation pathways, an assignment of total angular momenta for several energy levels was possible. One particularly efficient ionization scheme of thorium, exhibiting saturation in all three optical transitions, was studied in detail. For all three levels in this scheme, the isotope shifts of the isotopes 228Th, 229Th and 230Th relative to 232Th were measured. An overall efficiency including ionization, transport and detection of 0.6% was determined, which was predominantly limited by the transmission of the mass spectrometer ion optics.

  9. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of thorium isotopes-towards a laser spectroscopic identification of the low-lying 7.6 eV isomer of {sup 229}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, S; Sonnenschein, V; Gottwald, T; Rothe, S; Wendt, K [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Moore, I D; Reponen, M [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Survontie 9, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Trautmann, N, E-mail: raeder@uni-mainz.de, E-mail: volker.t.sonnenschein@jyu.fi [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-08-28

    In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was used to identify an efficient and selective three-step excitation/ionization scheme of thorium, suitable for titanium:sapphire (Ti:sa) lasers. The measurements were carried out in the preparation of laser spectroscopic investigations for an identification of the low-lying {sup 229m}Th isomer predicted at 7.6 {+-} 0.5 eV above the nuclear ground state. Using a sample of {sup 232}Th, a multitude of optical transitions leading to over 20 previously unknown intermediate states of even parity as well as numerous high-lying odd parity auto-ionizing (AI) states were identified. Level energies were determined with an accuracy of 0.06 cm{sup -1} for intermediate and 0.15 cm{sup -1} for AI states. Using different excitation pathways, an assignment of total angular momenta for several energy levels was possible. One particularly efficient ionization scheme of thorium, exhibiting saturation in all three optical transitions, was studied in detail. For all three levels in this scheme, the isotope shifts of the isotopes {sup 228}Th, {sup 229}Th and {sup 230}Th relative to {sup 232}Th were measured. An overall efficiency including ionization, transport and detection of 0.6% was determined, which was predominantly limited by the transmission of the mass spectrometer ion optics.

  10. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of thorium isotopes-towards a laser spectroscopic identification of the low-lying 7.6 eV isomer of 229Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Gottwald, T.; Moore, I. D.; Reponen, M.; Rothe, S.; Trautmann, N.; Wendt, K.

    2011-08-01

    In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was used to identify an efficient and selective three-step excitation/ionization scheme of thorium, suitable for titanium:sapphire (Ti:sa) lasers. The measurements were carried out in the preparation of laser spectroscopic investigations for an identification of the low-lying 229mTh isomer predicted at 7.6 ± 0.5 eV above the nuclear ground state. Using a sample of 232Th, a multitude of optical transitions leading to over 20 previously unknown intermediate states of even parity as well as numerous high-lying odd parity auto-ionizing (AI) states were identified. Level energies were determined with an accuracy of 0.06 cm-1 for intermediate and 0.15 cm-1 for AI states. Using different excitation pathways, an assignment of total angular momenta for several energy levels was possible. One particularly efficient ionization scheme of thorium, exhibiting saturation in all three optical transitions, was studied in detail. For all three levels in this scheme, the isotope shifts of the isotopes 228Th, 229Th and 230Th relative to 232Th were measured. An overall efficiency including ionization, transport and detection of 0.6% was determined, which was predominantly limited by the transmission of the mass spectrometer ion optics.

  11. Effects of γ-irradiation upon the optical behavior of spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 137Cs gamma irradiation (0.67 MeV photons) upon the optical absorption and thermoluminescence of spinel (MgAl2O4) is studied. Exposure to gamma radiation provides electrons which are captured at Fesup(3+) in octahedral sites, thereby producing Fesup(2+) and destroying the 4.8 and 6.4 eV absorption bands. Isochronal annealing curves of the 3.1 and 4.8 eV peaks are given. A reciprocal relationship between the recovery of the 4.8 eV band and the thermoluminescence immediately after irradiation and after sitting over night has been measured

  12. EV71感染的手足口病患儿体液免疫临床分析%Clinical analysis on humoral immunity in children with hand-foot-mouth disease by EV71 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海兰; 李华东

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the function of humoralimmunity in children with hand-foot-mouth disease ( HFMD )caused by EV71 infection. Methods Levels of IgG, IgA, IgM and C3, C4 were detected, respectively, in 30 children with HFMD of EV71 positive, 30 children with EV71 negative and 20 normal cases of healthy children. T test was used to analyze the differences of IgG, IgA, IgM and C3,C4 with levels among the EV71 positive group, EV71 negative group and control group by SPSS 18.0. Results There were no significant differences on serum levels of IgM,IgG, IgA, C3 and C4 between HFMD children with EV71 positive and EV71 negative. Serum levels of IgG, IgA, C3 and C4 were significantly reduced compared with those of normal controls ( P < 0.05 ), but serum level of IgM was significantly increased ( P < 0. 001 ). Conclusions The humoralimmunity function of children disordered after EV71 infection. But the influence to humoral immune function has no significant specificity.%目的 探讨并分析EV71感染手足病患儿体液免疫状况.方法 分别测定30例EV71阳性和30例EV71阴性的手足口病患儿与同期20例健康儿童的血清IgG、IgA、IgM及补体C3、C4水平,采用SPSS 18.0软件用t检验统计分析EV71阳性组的IgG、IgA、IgM及补体C3、C4水平与EV71阴性组和对照组各项指标水平的差异.结果 EV71阳性组和阴性组手足口病患儿各指标水平无显著差异;与对照组相比,EV71阳性组患儿血清IgG、IgA、C3、C4水平降低(P< 0.05);IgM明显升高(P< 0.001).结论 EV71感染的手足口病患儿存在体液免疫功能紊乱,但EV71感染对体液免疫功能影响无显著特异性.

  13. InterEvDock: a docking server to predict the structure of protein-protein interactions using evolutionary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinchao; Vavrusa, Marek; Andreani, Jessica; Rey, Julien; Tufféry, Pierre; Guerois, Raphaël

    2016-07-01

    The structural modeling of protein-protein interactions is key in understanding how cell machineries cross-talk with each other. Molecular docking simulations provide efficient means to explore how two unbound protein structures interact. InterEvDock is a server for protein docking based on a free rigid-body docking strategy. A systematic rigid-body docking search is performed using the FRODOCK program and the resulting models are re-scored with InterEvScore and SOAP-PP statistical potentials. The InterEvScore potential was specifically designed to integrate co-evolutionary information in the docking process. InterEvDock server is thus particularly well suited in case homologous sequences are available for both binding partners. The server returns 10 structures of the most likely consensus models together with 10 predicted residues most likely involved in the interface. In 91% of all complexes tested in the benchmark, at least one residue out of the 10 predicted is involved in the interface, providing useful guidelines for mutagenesis. InterEvDock is able to identify a correct model among the top10 models for 49% of the rigid-body cases with evolutionary information, making it a unique and efficient tool to explore structural interactomes under an evolutionary perspective. The InterEvDock web interface is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/services/InterEvDock/.

  14. Progress in research of enterovirus 71 vaccines%EV71疫苗研制新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾; 陈敬贤; 王明丽

    2013-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起手足口病和神经系统并发症的重要病原体.近几年,世界多个地区发生了由EV72感染引起的手足口病.由于目前尚无有效的抗病毒药物对患者进行治疗,因而疫苗的研制成为预防和控制EV71传播的关键.此文主要就近年EV71疫苗的研制进展做一综述.%Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is known to be a causative agent of hand,foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and severe neurological complications.Many outbreaks caused by EV71 have occurred in different regions of the world.Due to lacking an effective antiviral agent,development of effective vaccines has become the top priority in terms of control strategies.This article reviews the recent advancement in the design of various kinds of vaccines against EV71.

  15. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngo-laryngeal mucosa in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingchang; Li, Yaoming; Xu, Xiaoyi; Yu, Jie; Yan, Hu; Yan, Huimin

    2015-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal IgG antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 IgG were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral IgG mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  16. Recombinant VP1 protein expressed in Pichia pastoris induces protective immune responses against EV71 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Yefu

    2013-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease and is also associated with serious neurological diseases in children. Currently, there are no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against EV71 infection. VP1, one of the major immunogenic capsid proteins of EV71, is widely considered to be the candidate antigen for an EV71 vaccine. In this study, VP1 of EV71 was expressed as a secretory protein with an N-terminal histidine tag in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy of the recombinant VP1 were assessed in mouse models. The results showed that the recombinant VP1 could efficiently induce anti-VP1 antibodies in BALB/c mice, which were able to neutralize EV71 viruses in an in vitro neutralization assay. Passive protection of neonatal mice further confirmed the prophylactic efficacy of the antisera from VP1 vaccinated mice. Furthermore, VP1 vaccination induced strong lymphoproliferative and Th1 cytokine responses. Taken together, our study demonstrated that the yeast-expressed VP1 protein retained good immunogenicity and was a potent EV71 vaccine candidate.

  17. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D

    2015-01-01

    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  18. Calculations of stopping powers of 100 eV-30 keV electrons in 31 elemental solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present calculated electron stopping powers (SPs) for 31 elemental solids (Li, Be, glassy C, graphite, diamond, Na, Mg, K, Sc, Ti, V, Fe, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, In, Sn, Cs, Gd, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Bi). These SPs were determined with an algorithm previously used for the calculation of electron inelastic mean free paths and from energy-loss functions (ELFs) derived from experimental optical data. The SP calculations were made for electron energies between 100 eV and 30 keV and supplement our earlier SP calculations for ten additional solids (Al, Si, Cr, Ni, Cu, Ge, Pd, Ag, Pt, and Au). Plots of SP versus atomic number for the group of 41 solids show clear trends. Multiple peaks and shoulders are seen that result from the contributions of valence-electron and various inner-shell excitations. Satisfactory agreement was found between the calculated SPs and values from the relativistic Bethe SP equation with recommended values of the mean excitation energy (MEE) for energies above 10 keV. We determined effective MEEs versus maximum excitation energy from the ELFs for each solid. Plots of effective MEE versus atomic number showed the relative contributions of valence-electron and different core-electron excitations to the MEE. For a maximum excitation energy of 30 keV, our effective MEEs agreed well for Be, graphite, Na, Al, and Si with recommended MEEs; a difference for Li was attributed to sample oxidation in the SP measurements for the recommended MEE. Substantially different effective MEEs were found for the three carbon allotropes (graphite, diamond, and glassy C)

  19. Air Shower Radio Emission with Energy E$_0$$\\geq$10$^{19}$ eV by Yakutsk Array Data

    CERN Document Server

    Knurenko, S P

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents short technical description of Yakutsk Radio Array and some preliminary results obtained from measurements of radio emission at 32 MHz frequency induced by air shower particles with energy {\\epsilon}$\\geq$1$\\cdot$10$^{19}$ eV. The data obtained at Yakutsk array in 1987-1989 (first set of measurements) and 2009-2014 (new set of measurements). For the first time, at Yakutsk array radio emission from air shower with energy > 10$^{19}$ eV was registered including the shower with highest energy ever registered at Yakutsk array with energy $\\sim$2$\\cdot$10$^{20}$ eV.

  20. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10^19eV

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argiro, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, `F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Backer, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Ben Zvi, S; Bérat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohacova, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceicao, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; De Mello-Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; Garca, B; Garca Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, i H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gomez Berisso, M; Gonçalves, P; Goncalvesdo Amaral, M; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Gora, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutíerrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovsky, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kegl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leiguide Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; López-Aguera, A; Lozano-Bahilo, J; Lucero, A; Luna Garca, R; Maccarone, i M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Mancenido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martinez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafa, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodrguez-Fras, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, ii H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovanek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schussler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smialkowski, A; Smda, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Tascau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés-Galicia, J F; Valino, I; Valore, L; vanden Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5x10^18eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the flux, J ~ E^-gamma, at energies between 4x10^18eV and 4x10^19eV is 2.69+-0.02(stat)+-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+-0.4(stat)+-0.06(syst) at higher energies, consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min.

  1. Antigenic analysis of divergent genotypes human Enterovirus 71 viruses by a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies: current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixin; Li, Chuan; He, Delei; Cheng, Tong; Ge, Shengxiang; Shih, James Wai-Kuo; Zhao, Qinjian; Chen, Pei-Jer; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao

    2013-01-01

    In recent year, Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become an important public health issue in China. EV71 has been classified into genotypes A, B1-B5 and C1-C5. With such genetic diversity, whether the convalescent or recovery antibody responses can cross-protect infections from other genotypes remains a question. Understanding of the antigenicity of such diverse genetic EV71 isolates is crucial for the EV71 vaccine development. Here, a total of 186 clones anti-EV71 MAbs was generated and characterized with Western blot and cell-based neutralization assay. Forty neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs were further used to analyze the antigenic properties of 18 recent EV71 isolates representing seven genotypes in neutralization assay. We found that most neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs are specific to conformational epitopes. We also classified the 40 neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs into two classes according to their reactivity patterns with 18 EV71 isolates. Class I MAb can neutralize all isolates, suggesting conserved epitopes are present among EV71. Class II MAb includes four subclasses (IIa-IId) and neutralizes only subgroups of EV71 strains. Conversely, 18 EV71 strains were grouped into antigenic types 1 and four antigenic subtypes (2.1-2.4). These results suggest that the current genotyping of EV71 does not reflect their antigenicity which may be important in the selection of EV71 vaccine strains. This panel of neutralizing anti-EV71 MAbs may be useful for the recognition of emerging antigenic variants of EV71 and vaccine development.

  2. EV71病毒感染并发神经源性肺水肿研究进展%Progression on the study of EV71 complicating meurogenic pulmonary edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文先; 叶冬青

    2008-01-01

    2008年春季,EV71病毒感染疫情在安徽省阜阳市暴发,由其引起的手足口病(hand—foot—mouth disease,HFMD)于5月2日被卫生部纳入法定报告传染病。截至5月5日,安徽省阜阳市共发生婴幼儿因肠道病毒EV71(enterovirus71,EV71)引起的HFMD4496例,其中22例死亡。EV71病毒感染已经成为我国重要的公共卫生问题。

  3. 肠道病毒EV71型对不同细胞的敏感性研究%Study on the sensitivity of intestinal virus EV71 in different cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰洁

    2015-01-01

    目的 确定肠道病毒EV71的敏感细胞.方法 采用三种不同细胞(HEP-2、VERO、RD)对EV71核酸检测阳性标本进行病毒分离,对比不同细胞的分离率来比较细胞的敏感性.结果 本研究中肠道病毒EV71型对VERO细胞的敏感性最高,其次是RD细胞,对HEP-2细胞不敏感.结论 分离肠道病毒EV71型首选的细胞是VERO细胞.

  4. Growth and morphology of 0.80 eV photoemitting indium nitride nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.C.; Lee, C.J.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.; Konsek, S.L.; Aloni, S.; Han, W.Q.; Zettl, A.

    2004-08-13

    InN nanowires with high efficiency photoluminescence emission at 0.80 eV are reported for the first time. InN nanowires were synthesized via a vapor solid growth mechanism from high purity indium metal and ammonia. The products consist of only hexagonal wurtzite phase InN. Scanning electron microscopy showed wires with diameters of 50-100nm and having fairly smooth morphologies. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed high quality, single crystal InN nanowires which grew in the <0001> direction. The group-III nitrides have become an extremely important technological material over the past decade. They are commonly used in optoelectronic devices, such as high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and low wavelength laser diodes (LDs), as well as high power/high frequency electronic devices. Recently InN thin films grown by MOCVD and MBE were found to have a bandgap energy in the range of 0.7-0.9 eV, much lower than the value of {approx}1.9 eV found for InN films grown by sputtering. This large decrease in the direct bandgap transition energy and the ability to form ternary (InGaN) and quaternary (AlInGaN) alloys increases the versatility of group-III nitride optoelectronic devices, ranging from the near IR to the UV. Additionally, InN has some promising transport and electronic properties. It has the smallest effective electron mass of all the group-III nitrides which leads to high mobility and high saturation velocity10 and a large drift velocity at room temperature. As a result of these unique properties, there has been a large increase in interest in InN for potential use in optoelectronic devices, such as LDs and high efficiency solar cells, as well as high frequency/high power electronic devices.

  5. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  6. 2010年中国人免疫球蛋白中EV71中和抗体效价的比较研究%Study of anti- EV71 neutralizing titers of human immunoglobulins made in China in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛群颖; 郭增兵; 李青; 梁争论; 李凤祥; 王军志

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the anti - EV71 titer in human immunoglobulins produced by different blood product manufacturers in China in 2010. To provide specific drugs for hand,foot and mouth disease( HFMD) caused by EV71. Methods: 97 Lots of human immunoglobulins for intravenous injection (IVIG) produced by different manufacturers were tested for neutralizing antibodies (NTAb) to EV71 by microneutralization test with 2 different EV71 viruses, which isolated from mainland china in the past two years. The difference of anti - EV71 titer in IVIG has been compared. Results:The geometric mean titers (GMTs) of EV71 NTAb in 97 Lots IVIG is 1: 180 (1= 170 -1:191). The titers of EV71 NTAb in 12 Lots IVIG produced by 7 different manufacturers have been more than 1 ':256,and the IVIG of Lot 20100406 produced by S manufacturer has the highest titer (1:543). The A manufacturer had made the most Lot of IVIG (5 batches) with anti -EV71 titer higher than 1:512,that made the average of anti -EV71 from A manufacturer to be obviously higher than other 10 manufacturers (P <0. 05). Further analysis revealed that S manufacturer had tested the anti - EV71 titers in plasma of raw materials and selected the plasma with high titer of EV71 to produce this Lot IVIG; and A manufacturer selected the areas with high anti - EV71 levels in populations as a plasma source to feed and make IVIGs. Conclusion: This study shows that through controlling the neutralizing antibodies levels to EV71 of raw materials efficiently by the manufacturer, it is scientific and feasible to produce IVIG with high anti -EV71 titer.%目的:了解2010年我国生产的静注人免疫球蛋白(IVIG)中抗- EV71中和抗体效价的情况,为治疗EV71引起的手足口病( HFMD)提供特异性治疗药物.方法:采用经典微量细胞病变法,应用近2年分离自中国大陆的2株肠道病毒71型(EV71)病毒株,对我国不同血液制品厂家生产的97批IVIG进行抗- EV71中和效价检测,比较不同批次IVIG的EV

  7. The role of toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of EV71 infection%Toll样受体在EV71感染发病机制中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马慧敏; 欧维琳

    2014-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(EV71)易致婴幼儿重症手足口病(HFMD),是近年来儿童发病率最高的传染病,严重的脑干脑炎和神经源性肺水肿是其致死的主要原因.目前EV71精确发病机制尚未阐明,在细胞水平研究发现清道夫受体B族2型(SCARB2)既是EV71病毒受体,也是Toll样受体(TLRs)内源性配体.TLRs作为重要的病原模式识别受体能够识别EV71,与宿主抵抗病毒感染、炎症反应等有直接关系,可能参与介导EV71感染所致混合性拮抗反应综合征(MARS).现就Toll样受体在EV71感染发病机制中的作用研究现状进行概述.

  8. EV71特免血浆筛选方法的建立及其应用%Establishment and application of method to screen anti-EV71 positive plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书英; 汪模正; 丁勇; 孙思才

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the titers of EV71 neutralizing antibody in donators' plasma,and to establish a high throughput screening method to screening anti-EV71 positive plasma for the production of EV7l-specific IVIG in practice.Methods The EV71 neutralizing antibody titers in plasma samples and in commercial IVIGs (intravenous immunoglobulins) were evaluated by micro-cytopathic effect neutralization test (MCPENT),and a selecting criteria was determined for screening anti-EV71 positive plasma.Then,a high throughput neutralizing method for screening plasma was established and a comparison with MCPENT was conducted.EV71-specific IVIG was prepared from screened anti-EV71 source plasma,and its neutralizing activity was evaluated in cell model and mouse model.Results The results of MCPENT showed that the titers of EVT1 neutralizing antibody were 1 ∶ 50 or above in 20% of the source plasma,and reached 1 ∶ 180 after being pooled,approaching to the titer of commercial IVIG.In 480 samples,the coincidence rate between the established high throughput neutralizing method and MCPENT was 88.1%.The quality of prepared EV71-specific IVIG was complied with the national standard,and its neutralizing potency was 16 times of that of IVIG,suggesting EV71-specific IVIG had a significantly improved protecting effect on experimental neonatal mice.Conclusion The screening method and the screening criteria for EV71 specific plasma were successfully established.The established high throughput neutralizing method that was operated easily could be used for plasma screening in the development of EV71-specific IVIG.The prepared EV71-specific IVIG,whose neutralizing potency was significantly improved,showed a markedly protective effect on experimental neonatal mice,suggesting it might be very important for the prevention and treatment of handfoot-and-mouth disease.%目的 考察献血员血浆中抗EV71中和抗体的状况,同时建立适宜的高通量筛选EV71特免血浆的方法,为制备EV

  9. Femtosecond two-photon ionization of fluid NH3 at 9.3 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Alacan Joel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid and supercritical ammonia (NH3 is photo-ionized at an energy of 9.3 eV with 100-fs duration pulses at a wavelength of 266 nm. The ionization involves two photons and generates fully solvated electrons via the conduction band of the solvent within the time resolution of the experiment. The dynamics of their ensuing geminate recombination is followed in real time with femtosecond near-infrared (IR probe pulses. The recombination mechanism can be understood as an ion-pair mediated reaction. The electron survival probability is found to be in quantitative agreement with the classical Onsager theory for the initial recombination of ions.

  10. Pilot power based rate control in CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO Rev-A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-feng; GU Jian; YANG Hong-wen

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a new algorithm to improvethe rate control efficiency of enhanced reverse link mediumaccess control (RLMAC) in the code division multiple access(CDMA) lx EV-DO release A(Rev. A) system. The newalgorithm brings reverse access terminal (AT) pilot power tothe RLMAC rate control procedure and makes it easier for alow pilot power user to increase its data rate when the systemis slightly loaded and harder to decrease its date rate when thesystem is heavily loaded. Numerical results of system levelsimulations show that the new algorithm can bring highersystem throughput, lower AT transmission power, and lowersystem load.

  11. Der Landesjagdverband Sachsen-Anhalt e.V. stellt sich vor

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Der Landesjagdverband Sachsen-Anhalt e.V. wurde am 20.04.1990 gegründet. Er vertritt die Interessen von 8.500 Mitgliedern und hat in seiner Satzung die Ziele seiner Verbandstätigkeit eindeutig definiert. Seine wesentliche Zielstellung ist der Schutz und die Erhaltung der freilebenden Tierwelt in ihren natürlichen Lebensräumen. Der Verband wirkt für die Erhaltung und Gestaltung der Lebensgrundlagen der freilebenden Tierwelt unter komplexer Beachtung ökologischer Erfordernisse und der Interesse...

  12. MoS2 interactions with 1.5 eV atomic oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.; Cross, J. B.; Pope, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    Exposures of MoS2 to 1.5-eV atomic oxygen in an anhydrous environment reveal that the degree of oxidation is essentially independent of crystallite orientation, and that the surface-adsorbed reaction products are MoO3 and MoO2. A mixture of oxides and sulfide exists over a depth of about 90 A, and this layer has a low diffusion rate for oxygen. It is concluded that a protective oxide layer forms on MoS2 on exposure to the atomic-oxygen-rich environment of LEO.

  13. Interpretation of fluctuations of shower front structure Esub(p) approximately 1018 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predictions of a conventional multiplicity EAS model (Hillas E) at 1018 eV are not consistent with pulse profile measurements and their observed fluctuations even when 100% primary proton composition is assumed. For α-primaries the discrepancy is more severe and for both proton primaries and for α-primaries cannot be resolved by changes in the interaction length of nucleons. Models developing more rapid initial growth seem likely to fit the measured parameters more successfully, but it is not yet possible to indicate how strongly proton and heavy primaries will be differentiated. (orig.)

  14. INDIGO OTROCI - VZGOJA GENERACIJE INDIGO S STALIŠČA STARŠEV

    OpenAIRE

    Sovič, Maja

    2012-01-01

    V zadnjih desetletjih so se začele pojavljati nove generacije tako imenovanih »indigo otrok«, katerih fenomen je obkrožil svet. Kljub temu da je ta koncept zelo popularen, pa stroka tega fenomena še ni uspela znanstveno potrditi. Tako fenomen indigo otrok še vedno ostaja na poljudni ravni in empirično nedokazljiv. Namen moje diplomske naloge je bil osvetliti problematiko vzgoje otrok s stališča staršev, kateri tipi indigo otrok glede na mnenja strokovnjakov obstajajo in ali so indigo nadarjen...

  15. Search for eV (pseudo)scalar penetrating particles in the SPS neutrino beam

    OpenAIRE

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Ballocchi, G.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S; Bueno, A.

    2000-01-01

    We carried out a model-independent search for light scalar or pseudoscalar particles $a$'s (an example of which is the axion) that couple to two photons by using a photon-regeneration method at high energies allowing a substantial increase in the sensitivity to $eV$ masses.\\ The experimental set-up is based on elements of the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) beam line and theNOMAD neutrino detector.\\ The new particles, if they exist, could be produced through the Primakoff effect in in...

  16. Search for eV (pseudo)scalar penetrating particles in the SPS neutrino beam

    OpenAIRE

    NOMAD Collaboration; Astier, P.; Cervera Villanueva, Anselmo; Gómez Cadenas, Juan José

    2000-01-01

    We carried out a model-independent search for light scalar or pseudoscalar particles a's (an example of which is the axion) that couple to two photons by using a photon-regeneration method at high energies allowing a substantial increase in the sensitivity to eV masses.\\ The experimental set-up is based on elements of the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) beam line and theNOMAD neutrino detector.\\ The new particles, if they exist, could be produced through the Primakoff effect in intera...

  17. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  18. Trails, RS2477, 3200 ev, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as '3200 ev'....

  19. Smart Grid Charging of Electric Vehicles: EV-Owner Response to Scheduling and Pricing under Myopic Loss Aversion in an Ultimatum Two-Player Game

    OpenAIRE

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Upward expectations of future electric vehicle (EV) growth pose the question about the future load on the electricity grid. While the literature on demand side management of EV charging has focused on technical aspects and considered EV-owners as utility maximizers, this study looks at the neglected psychological dynamics of EV-owners facing charging decisions and interacting with the supplier. This study represents these dynamics by proposing a behavioral framework of utility maximization un...

  20. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0–10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) (1Δ←1Σ+) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to (1Σ−←1Σ+) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to 1Σ+ and 1Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed (1Σ+ and 1Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f0 value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  1. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Mogi, D. [Development and Marketing Department, New Products Development Division, Kanto Denka, Kogyo Co., Ltd., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0063 (Japan); Tanioka, T. [Shibukawa Development Research Laboratory, New Products Development Division, Kanto Denka Kogyo Co., Ltd., Shibukawa City, Gunma 377-8513 (Japan); Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Université de Liège, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, allée de la Chimie 3, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium)

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0–10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ({sup 1}Δ←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ({sup 1}Σ{sup −}←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ({sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f{sub 0} value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  2. Different EV enrichment methods suitable for clinical settings yield different subpopulations of urinary extracellular vesicles from human samples

    OpenAIRE

    Royo, Felix; Zuñiga-Garcia, Patricia; Sanchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Egia, Ainara; Perez, Amparo; Loizaga, Ana; Arceo, Raquel; Lacasa, Isabel; Rabade, Ainara; Arrieta, Edurne; Bilbao, Roberto; Unda, Miguel; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Falcon-Perez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Urine sample analysis is irreplaceable as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and follow-up. However, in urine samples, non-degraded protein and RNA may be only found in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs). In recent years, various methods of uEV enrichment using low volumes of urine and unsophisticated equipment have been developed, with variable success. We compared the results of the differential ultracentrifugation procedure with 4 of these methods. The methods tested were a lec...

  3. EV71疫苗研究进展%Progress of reaseach on vaccine of Enterovirus 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 姚昕; 李凤祥

    2009-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(EV71),可引起手足口病(HFMD)和严重神经系统疾病.近年来,在世界多个国家和地区报道了EV71的爆发.由于目前缺乏有效的抗病毒药物,因此研制有效的疫苗是控制EV71流行最为有效的策略.近年来很多报道显示在EV71疫苗研究上取得了重要进展,本文以此为重点概括了EV71灭活疫苗、重组疫苗、DNA疫苗、多肽疫苗、减毒活疫苗等以及动物模型方面的研究进展.%Enterovirus 71(EV71)is known to be a causative agent of hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD)and severe neurological complications.Many Ev71 outbreaks have been reposed in different regions of the world.Due to the lack of an effective antiviralagent,primary prevention of the disease,including the development of effective vaccines,has been the top priority in terms of control strategies.Recently,many reports indicated lots of important progression is acquired.In this article,we renewed the progression of EV71 animal model and vaccines which inchded inactivation vaccine,recombinant vaccine,DNA vaccine,polypeptide vaccine and live attenuated vaccine.

  4. Recoil ion and electronic angular asymmetry parameters for photo double ionization of helium at 99 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuning, H. [Kansas State Univ., Physics Dept., Manhattan, KS (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States); Doerner, R.; Braeuning-Demian, A. [Universitaet Frankfurt, Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany)] [and others

    1997-10-14

    Recoil ion momentum spectroscopy has been used to map the entire five-dimensional momentum space of the photo double ionization of helium at 20 eV above threshold. Angular asymmetry parameters for the relative motion of the electrons and the recoil ion have been determined and are found to be close to similar data at 1 eV above threshold. In addition the asymmetry parameter of one photoelectron is found to be in good agreement with recent theory. (author).

  5. Neljapäev sobib töö tegemiseks kõige vähem / Tõnu Vare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vare, Tõnu, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Uuringufirma Robert Half Finance & Accounting läbiviidud 1800 haldus- ja personalitöötaja küsitlus 11 riigis näitas, et kõige sobivam päev töötegemiseks on esmaspäev, kõige kiiremini elavad pärast puhkust igapäevatöösse sisse itaallased ja kõige aeglasemalt luksemburglased

  6. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  7. Low level optical absorption measurements on organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, M.; Rojas, F.; Escarre, J.; Asensi, J.M.; Bertomeu, J.; Andreu, J. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Voz, C.; Puigdollers, J.; Fonrodona, M. [Micro and Nano Technology Group (MNT), Dept. d' Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, C/Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord - Modul C4, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-06-15

    The optical absorption of n-type (C{sub 60} and PTCDA) and p-type (CuPc and pentacene) organic semiconductors is investigated by optical transmission and photothermal deflection spectroscopy. The usual absorption bands related to HOMO-LUMO transitions are observed in the high absorption region of transmission spectra. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy also evidences exponential absorption shoulders with characteristic energies 47meV for CuPc, 38meV for pentacene, 50 meV for PTCDA and 87meV for C{sub 60}. In addition, broad bands in the low absorption level are observed for C{sub 60} and PTCDA. These bands have been attributed to contamination due to air exposure. On the other hand, in CuPc a clear absorption peak at 1.12eV is observed with smaller features at 1.04eV, 1.20eV and 1.33eV. These peaks are attributed to transitions between the Pc levels of CuPc ions. Finally, the optical absorption expected in blends of organic semiconductors is estimated by an effective media approximation. (author)

  8. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  9. A functional polymorphism in IFNAR1 gene is associated with susceptibility and severity of HFMD with EV71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rongrong; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Shaoyuan; Wang, Wenfei; Yuan, Jing; Li, Jianming; Wang, Yanrong; Lin, Yimin; Deng, Yong; Zhou, Boping; Gao, George Fu; Liu, Yingxia

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major pathogens of Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), results in millions of infections and hundreds of deaths each year in Southeast Asia. Biased infection and variable clinical manifestations of EV71 HFMD indicated that host genetic background played an important role in the occurrence and development of the disease. We identified the mRNA profiles of EV71 HFMD patients, which type I interferon (IFN) pathway related genes were down-regulated. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) were chosen to analyze their relationships to EV71 infection. We found that genotype GG of promoter variant rs2843710 was associated with the susceptibility and severity to EV71 HFMD. In addition, we assessed the regulatory effects of rs2843710 to IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), and found that the expressions of IFNAR1, OAS1 and MX1 were significantly lower in patients with rs2843710 genotype GG. And rs2843710 allele G showed weaker transcriptional activity compared with allele C. Our study indicated that rs2843710 of IFNAR1 was associated with the susceptibility and severity of EV71 HFMD in Chinese Han populations, acting as a functional polymorphism by regulating ISGs expression, such as OAS1 and MX1.

  10. EV71病毒特异性单克隆抗体的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 蔡芳; 高强; 王宾

    2009-01-01

    目的:筛选高亲和力和高中和活性的抗EV71病毒的单克隆抗体(mAb), 并对其特异性和抗原表位进行鉴定.方法:采用葡萄球菌A蛋白亲和层析法纯化mAb, 并进行抗体的中和效价、交叉反应性以及表位进行分析.结果:筛选出1株抗EV71病毒的mAb, 纯度大于95%, 抗体滴度达到10-7, 对EV71病毒具有广谱中和特性, 与CA16无交叉反应, 为VP1特异性, 并识别EV71的构象型表位.结论:筛选出1株具有高亲和力和中和活性的EV71病毒的mAb, 为研制EV71病毒感染性疾病的诊断试剂提供了重要工具, 并为研制治疗性mAb提供了条件.

  11. [Construction of cDNA infectious clones of EV71 highly-pathogenic and cell-culture-adapted strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-xin; Li, Xiao-yu; Huang, Yu-ming; Zhou, Yong-dong; Bi, Sheng-li; Cen, Shan

    2014-11-01

    The highly-pathogenic EV71 strain is the primary cause of mortality in hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) associated with neurological symptoms, for which no clinically effective drugs or vaccines exist. This study aimed to construct infectious cDNA clones of the EV71 highly-pathogenic strain and the cell-culture adapted strain using a reverse genetics approach. The genomic RNAs of EV71 parent strains were used as the templates for RT-PCR amplification, and then the PCR products that overlapped the full-length genome were connected into the pBR322 vector to produce infectious clones of pEV71 (HP) and pEV71 (CCA), respectively. The results showed that the HP strain propagated much more quickly than the CCA strain. The rescued viruses derived from the infectious clones not only maintained their consistency with their parent strains in terms of genomic sequences, but also retained their respective biological phenotypes. This research will contribute to our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis and the development of novel vaccines against HFMD.

  12. Out-of-plane (e , 2 e) measurements on He autoionizing levels at 80, 150, and 488 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N. L. S.; Kim, B. N.; Weaver, C. M.; Deharak, B. A.; Bartschat, K.

    2016-05-01

    We report out-of-scattering-plane (e , 2 e) measurements on helium 2 l 2l' autoionizing levels for 80, 150, and 488 eV incident electron energies, and scattering angles 60°, 39. 2°, and 20. 5°, respectively. The kinematics are the same in all cases: ejected electrons are detected in a plane that contains the momentum transfer direction and is perpendicular to the scattering plane, and the momentum transfer is 2.1 a.u.. The 80 eV results complete our sets of measurements at low, intermediate, and high, incident energies. The results are presented as (e , 2 e) angular distributions energy-integrated over each level, and are compared with our theory calculated for 488 eV incident electron energy. The 150 eV and 488 eV experiments are characterized by recoil peaks appropriate to each autoionizing level. However, for the 80 eV angular distributions, these recoil peaks are largely absent for all levels, including the 3 P level observed at this energy. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants Nos. PHY-0855040 (NLSM), PHY-1402899 (BAdH), and PHY-1212450 (KB).

  13. Technical note: An improved estimate of uncertainty for source contribution from effective variance Chemical Mass Balance (EV-CMB) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guo-Liang; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Feng, Yin-Chang; Tian, Ying-Ze; Liu, Gui-Rong; Zheng, Mei; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2015-01-01

    The CMB (Chemical Mass Balance) 8.2 model released by the USEPA is a commonly used receptor model that can determine estimated source contributions and their uncertainties (called default uncertainty). In this study, we propose an improved CMB uncertainty for the modeled contributions (called EV-LS uncertainty) by adding the difference between the modeled and measured values for ambient species concentrations to the default CMB uncertainty, based on the effective variance least squares (EV-LS) solution. This correction reconciles the uncertainty estimates for EV and OLS regression. To verify the formula for the EV-LS CMB uncertainty, the same ambient datasets were analyzed using the equation we developed for EV-LS CMB uncertainty and a standard statistical package, SPSS 16.0. The same results were obtained by both ways indicate that the equation for EV-LS CMB uncertainty proposed here is acceptable. In addition, four ambient datasets were studies by CMB 8.2 and the source contributions as well as the associated uncertainties were obtained accordingly.

  14. Smart Grid Charging of Electric Vehicles: EV-Owner Response to Scheduling and Pricing under Myopic Loss Aversion in an Ultimatum Two-Player Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Sebald, Alexander Christopher;

    2015-01-01

    Upward expectations of future electric vehicle (EV) growth pose the question about the future load on the electricity grid. While the literature on demand side management of EV charging has focused on technical aspects and considered EV-owners as utility maximizers, this study looks at the neglec...

  15. A study on anti-EV71 virus in vitro of 10 kinds of common fruit juice%10种常见水果果汁体外抗EV71病毒研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炳丽; 康真; 梁爽; 李然; 宋晓琳; 范荣军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the inhibitory effect of 10 kinds of common fruit juice on cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by hand, foot and mouth EV71 virus. Methods The cytotoxicity of 10 kinds of common juice to Hep Ⅱ was determined by MTT assay. The inhibitory effect of 10 kinds of common juice on hand, foot and mouth EV71 virus was studied by cell culture in vitro within the maximum non-toxic concentration of cells (MNCC). Then inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values of apple juice and grape juice for EV71 virus were calculated. Results Apple juice and grape juice with the function of anti-hand,foot and mouth EV71 virus were selected from 10 kinds of common juice. The IC50 values were respectively 1.652 times dilution and 9.965 times dilution of the original fruit juice. Conclusion Apple juice and grape juice have a research value of further selecting effective components of anti-EV71 virus.%目的:观察10种常见水果果汁对手足口 EV71病毒所引起细胞病变(CPE)的抑制作用。方法采用MTT 比色法,测定10种常见水果果汁对 Hep Ⅱ细胞的细胞毒性,并在对细胞的最大无毒浓度(MNCC)范围内,采用体外细胞培养法研究10种常见水果果汁对手足口 EV71病毒病毒的抑制作用。在此基础上计算出苹果汁和葡萄汁对 EV71病毒的半数抑制浓度的 IC50值。结果在10种常见水果果汁中筛选出苹果汁和葡萄汁两种具有抗手足口 EV71病毒作用的果汁,其 IC50值分别为果汁原液的1.652倍稀释液和9.965倍稀释液。结论苹果汁和葡萄汁具有进一步筛选抗 EV71病毒有效成分的研究价值。

  16. 10种常见水果果汁体外抗EV71病毒研究%A study on anti-EV71 virus in vitro of 10 kinds of common fruit juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炳丽; 康真; 梁爽; 李然; 宋晓琳; 范荣军

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察10种常见水果果汁对手足口 EV71病毒所引起细胞病变(CPE)的抑制作用。方法采用MTT 比色法,测定10种常见水果果汁对 Hep Ⅱ细胞的细胞毒性,并在对细胞的最大无毒浓度(MNCC)范围内,采用体外细胞培养法研究10种常见水果果汁对手足口 EV71病毒病毒的抑制作用。在此基础上计算出苹果汁和葡萄汁对 EV71病毒的半数抑制浓度的 IC50值。结果在10种常见水果果汁中筛选出苹果汁和葡萄汁两种具有抗手足口 EV71病毒作用的果汁,其 IC50值分别为果汁原液的1.652倍稀释液和9.965倍稀释液。结论苹果汁和葡萄汁具有进一步筛选抗 EV71病毒有效成分的研究价值。%Objective To observe the inhibitory effect of 10 kinds of common fruit juice on cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by hand, foot and mouth EV71 virus. Methods The cytotoxicity of 10 kinds of common juice to Hep Ⅱ was determined by MTT assay. The inhibitory effect of 10 kinds of common juice on hand, foot and mouth EV71 virus was studied by cell culture in vitro within the maximum non-toxic concentration of cells (MNCC). Then inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values of apple juice and grape juice for EV71 virus were calculated. Results Apple juice and grape juice with the function of anti-hand,foot and mouth EV71 virus were selected from 10 kinds of common juice. The IC50 values were respectively 1.652 times dilution and 9.965 times dilution of the original fruit juice. Conclusion Apple juice and grape juice have a research value of further selecting effective components of anti-EV71 virus.

  17. Comparative Study of Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Normal, Disordered and Inverse Spinel Type Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Zviagin, Vitaly; Richter, Peter; Böntgen, Tammo; Lorenz, Michael; Ziese, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Salvan, Georgeta; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Co$_3$O$_4$, ZnFe$_2$O$_4$, CoFe$_2$O$_4$, ZnCo$_2$O$_4$, and Fe$_3$O$_4$ thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition at high and low temperatures resulting in crystalline single-phase normal, inverse, as well as disordered spinel oxide thin films with smooth surface morphology. The dielectric function, determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry in a wide spectral range from 0.5 eV to 8.5 eV, is compared with the magneto-optical response of the dielectric tensor, investigated by magne...

  18. Optical constants and nonlinear calculations of fluorescein/FTO thin film optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, H. Y.; Iqbal, Javed; Yahia, I. S.

    2016-11-01

    The organic thin films of fluorescein dye were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate by using low-cost spin coating technique. The surface of the deposited film was characterized by using AFM and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, which shows that the film is uniform and amorphous. The spectrophotometric study was carried out at the wavelength range of 300-2500 nm. The spectral dependences of the linear refractive index and absorption index were found to decrease as the wavelength was increased. Tauc's plot study revealed that the film shows the direct transition and energy band gap values were found 1.75 eV and 3.55 eV for the thin film and the substrate, respectively. Optical constants were found nearly the same in the higher energy domain (1.0-4.5 eV). Spectroscopic method was employed to study the nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3). The deposited thin film is a promising optical system for new generation of optoelectronics.

  19. Why is the Dark Axion Mass $10^{-22}$ eV?

    CERN Document Server

    Chiueh, Tzihong

    2014-01-01

    Scalar field dark matter likely is able to solve all small-scale cosmology problems facing the cold dark matter (CDM), and has become an emerging contender to challenge the CDM. It however requires a particle mass $\\sim 1 - 2 \\times10^{-22}$eV. We find such an extremely small particle mass can naturally arise from a non-QCD axion mechanism, under fairly general assumptions that a few species of self-interacting light particles of comparable masses and a massless gauge boson decouple from the bright sector since the photon temperature exceeds 200 GeV, and the axion is the dominant dark matter. These assumptions also set the axion decay constant scale to several $\\times 10^{16}$ GeV. Given the above axion mass range, we further pin down the dark-sector particles to consist of only one species of fermion and anti-fermion, likely right-handed neutrinos. With a mass around $92-128$ eV, the dark-sector particles may constitute a minority population of dark matter. If the gauge boson lives on SU(2), a dilute instant...

  20. Torque blending and wheel slip control in EVs with in-wheel motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ricardo; Araújo, Rui E.; Tanelli, Mara; Savaresi, Sergio M.; Freitas, Diamantino

    2012-01-01

    Among the many opportunities offered by electric vehicles (EVs), the design of power trains based on in-wheel electric motors represents, from the vehicle dynamics point of view, a very attractive prospect, mainly due to the torque-vectoring capabilities. However, this distributed propulsion also poses some practical challenges, owing to the constraints arising from motor installation in a confined space, to the increased unsprung mass weight and to the integration of the electric motor with the friction brakes. This last issue is the main theme of this work, which, in particular, focuses on the design of the anti-lock braking system (ABS). The proposed structure for the ABS is composed of a tyre slip controller, a wheel torque allocator and a braking supervisor. To address the slip regulation problem, an adaptive controller is devised, offering robustness to uncertainties in the tyre-road friction and featuring a gain-scheduling mechanism based on the vehicle velocity. Further, an optimisation framework is employed in the torque allocator to determine the optimal split between electric and friction brake torque based on energy performance metrics, actuator constraints and different actuators bandwidth. Finally, based on the EV working condition, the priorities of this allocation scheme are adapted by the braking supervisor unit. Simulation results obtained with the CarSim vehicle model, demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  1. Evaluation of E/EV/SE aptitude to very long duration. Final report of working groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint COGEMA/CEA action aims at evaluating the conditions allowing the extension beyond 50 years of the exploitation of the E/EV/SE vitrified wastes storage facility of the UP3 factory of La Hague (France). The approach considered consists in analysing the technical and administrative aspects of the facility in order to determine the changes to be implemented for its qualification as very long storage facility. Three target characteristics have been identified as priorities for this analysis: safety, civil engineering, and cooling ventilation of wells, and thus three working groups have been created. According to works carried out, facilities like the E/EV/SE one are designed in such a way that their durability can reach the century scale: the robustness of the cooling process, the passiveness of most equipments and the limitation of components functions are the main strong points. Service life limitations come mainly from the thermal evolution of waste packages and the aging of components under the climate conditions: risk of atmospheric corrosion of the bottom part of wells under the effect of water condensation, and risk of corrosion of concrete reinforcements. Suggestions of improvement of the quantification and understanding of phenomena influencing the lifetime limitation are made, and some possible technical solutions are proposed. (J.S.)

  2. The Cosmic Ray Anisotropy between 1014 and 1015 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglietta, M.; Alessandron, B.; Antonioli, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bergamasco, L.; Bertaina, M.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Castagnoli, G. C.; D'Ettore Piazzoli, B.; Di Sciascio, G.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Ghia, P. L.; Iacovacci, M.; Mannocchi, G.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Valchierotti, S.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; EAS-TOP Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The study of the anisotropy of the arrival directions is an essential and complementary to ol, with respect to the energy spectrum and composition, to investigate the origin and propagation of cosmic rays primaries. In particular, the study of the evolution of the CR anisotropy over primary energy can be very powerful for the interpretation of the knee in the CR primary spectrum. By means of the EAS-TOP data (four years) we have reported an anisotropy measurement at primary energy E0 ≈ 1014 eV [1], with amplitude Asid,δ=0° = (3.7 ± 0.6) · 10-4 and phase φ = (1.8 ± 0.5) hr LST, at a significance level 6.5 s.d. The use of the full EAS-TOP data set and the application of different criteria of data selection allow to extend this measurement to higher energies, up to around 1015 eV. We report here the results of the first harmonic analysis, both in solar and sidereal time, in five energy bins.

  3. High-resolution dipole (e, e) study for optical oscillator strengths of helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凤任飞; 杨炳忻; 武淑兰; 邢士林; 张芳; 钟志萍; 郭学哲; 徐克尊

    1996-01-01

    The optical oscillator strengths of helium have been studied by a high-resolution dipole (e, e) method on the recently built high-resolution fast-electron energy-loss spectrometer. The difficulties of optical measurement have been avoided and the experimental precision has been improved by using this method. The optical oscillator strength density spectrum corresponding to the 1S n’P transitions and ionization of helium has been measured in the energy loss range of 21 - 26 eV. And the same work corresponding to the autoionization resonance region has been done in energy loss ranges of 59-67 eV and 69-74 eV. The above results have also been compared with those of the previous work.

  4. Structure and optical properties of CdSe chalcogenide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaie, Mohsin; Prince, Zulfequar, M.

    2015-08-01

    CdSe bulk sample has been prepared by melt-quenching technique and were characterized with XRD, SEM, FTIR, and electrical measurements. Thin films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on ultra clean glass substrates under a high vacuum of 10-6 Torr. An XRD measurement reveals the coexistence of glassy and crystalline phase in bulk sample. SEM studies shows single phase, porous, and granular surface morphology of powder CdSe alloy. Optical properties (optical gap, absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, refractive index) are calculated in the range of 190-1100nm. Analysis of the optical measurement shows that the non-direct transition is predominant and the band gap come outs to be 1.751eV. Dc conductivity measurement is thermally activated process which shows the semiconducting nature of the sample having activation energy 0.31eV.

  5. Native defects affecting the Li atom distribution tune the optical emission of ZnO:Li epitaxial thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is found that the oxygen vacancy (VO) defect concentration affecting the separation between individual species in LiZn-Lii complex influences the optical emission property of Li0.06Zn0.94O epitaxial thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition. The film grown under low oxygen partial pressure (n-type conductivity)/higher partial pressure (resistive-type) has broad emission at ∼2.99 eV/∼2.1 eV and a narrower emission at 3.63 eV/3.56 eV, respectively. First principle based mBJLDA electronic structure calculation suggests that the emission at 2.99 eV is due to the LiZn-Lii pair complex and the emission at 2.1 eV is when the component species are away from each other

  6. Native defects affecting the Li atom distribution tune the optical emission of ZnO:Li epitaxial thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, R.; Dileep, K.; Loukya, B.; Datta, R.

    2014-02-01

    It is found that the oxygen vacancy (VO) defect concentration affecting the separation between individual species in LiZn-Lii complex influences the optical emission property of Li0.06Zn0.94O epitaxial thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition. The film grown under low oxygen partial pressure (n-type conductivity)/higher partial pressure (resistive-type) has broad emission at ˜2.99 eV/˜2.1 eV and a narrower emission at 3.63 eV/3.56 eV, respectively. First principle based mBJLDA electronic structure calculation suggests that the emission at 2.99 eV is due to the LiZn-Lii pair complex and the emission at 2.1 eV is when the component species are away from each other.

  7. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed

  8. Histopathological features and distribution of EV71 antigens and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model of enterovirus 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pin; Gao, Zifen; Zong, Yuanyuan; Bao, Linlin; Xu, Lili; Deng, Wei; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Gao, Zhancheng; Xu, Yanfeng; Yao, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2014-08-30

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease. While infection is usually self-limiting, a minority of patients infected with EV71 develop severe neurological complications. In humans, EV71 has been reported to utilize the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) as a receptor for infectious cellular entry. In this study, we define the pathological features of EV71-associated disease as well as the distribution of EV71 antigen and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model. Histopathologically, human fatal cases showed severe central nervous system (CNS) changes, mainly in the brainstems, spinal cords, and thalamus. These patient further exhibited pulmonary edema and necrotic enteritis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human fatal cases demonstrated that EV71 antigen and SCARB2 were observed mainly in neurons, microglia cells and inflammatory cells in the CNS, and epithelial cells in the intestines. However, skeletal muscle tissue was negative for EV71 antigen. In a mouse model of EV71 infection, we observed massive necrotic myositis, different degrees of viral diseases in CNS, and extensive interstitial pneumonia. In mice, EV71 exhibits strong myotropism compared to the neurotropism seen in humans. EV71 antigen was detected in the spinal cord and brainstem of mice. However, there was no clear correlation between mouse SCARB2 and EV71 antigen distribution in the mouse model, consistent with previous results that SCARB2 functions as a receptor for EV71 in humans but not mice. The EV71-induced lesions seen in the mouse model resembled the pathological changes seen in human samples. These results increase our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis and will inform further work developing a mouse model for EV71 infection.

  9. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of thorium isotopes-towards a laser spectroscopic identification of the low-lying 7.6 eV isomer of (229)Th

    CERN Document Server

    Raeder, S; Wendt, K; Sonnenschein, V; Trautmann, N; Rothe, S; Reponen, M; Gottwald, T

    2011-01-01

    In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was used to identify an efficient and selective three-step excitation/ionization scheme of thorium, suitable for titanium: sapphire (Ti:sa) lasers. The measurements were carried out in the preparation of laser spectroscopic investigations for an identification of the low-lying (229m)Th isomer predicted at 7.6 +/- 0.5 eV above the nuclear ground state. Using a sample of (232)Th, a multitude of optical transitions leading to over 20 previously unknown intermediate states of even parity as well as numerous high-lying odd parity auto-ionizing (AI) states were identified. Level energies were determined with an accuracy of 0.06 cm(-1) for intermediate and 0.15 cm(-1) for AI states. Using different excitation pathways, an assignment of total angular momenta for several energy levels was possible. One particularly efficient ionization scheme of thorium, exhibiting saturation in all three optical transitions, was studied in detail. For all three levels in this scheme, the is...

  10. Electron stopping power and inelastic mean free path in amino acids and protein over the energy range of 20-20,000 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong

    2006-07-01

    Systematic calculations of stopping power (SPs) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) values for 20-20,000 eV electrons in a group of 15 amino acids and a simple protein have been performed. The calculations are based on the dielectric response model and take into account the exchange effect between the incident electron and target electrons. The optical energy-loss functions for the 15 investigated amino acids and the protein are evaluated by using an empirical approach, because of the lack of experimental optical data. For all the considered materials, the calculated mean ionization potentials are in good agreement with those given by Bragg's rule, and the evaluated SP values at 20 keV converge well to the Bethe-Bloch predictions. The data shown represent the first results of SP and IMFP, for these 15 amino acids and the protein in the energy range below 20 keV, and might be useful for studies of various radiation effects in these materials. In addition, the average energy deposited by inelastic scattering of the electrons on this group of 15 amino acids, on the protein, on Formvar and on DNA, respectively, has been estimated for energies below 20 keV. The dependences of the average energy deposition on the electron energy are given. These results are important for any detailed studies of radiation-induced inactivation of proteins and the DNA. PMID:16733724

  11. IGSN e.V.: Registration and Identification Services for Physical Samples in the Digital Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Klump, J.; Arko, R. A.; Bristol, S.; Buczkowski, B.; Chan, C.; Chan, S.; Conze, R.; Cox, S. J.; Habermann, T.; Hangsterfer, A.; Hsu, L.; Milan, A.; Miller, S. P.; Noren, A. J.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.; Wyborn, L. A.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    -for-profit organization, the IGSN e.V. (e.V. = 'Eingetragener Verein', legal status for a registered voluntary association in Germany), that defines the IGSN scope and syntax and maintains the IGSN Handle system, and (b) a Science Advisory Board that guides policies, technology, and best practices of the SESAR Sample Metadata Clearinghouse and Local Registration Agents. The IGSN e.V. is being incorporated in Germany at the GFZ Potsdam, a founding event is planned for the AGU Fall Meeting.

  12. Spatial Mapping of NEO 2008 EV5 Using Small Satellite Formation Flying and Steresoscopic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan; Singh Derewa, Chrishma

    2016-10-01

    NASA is currently developing the first-ever robotic Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the objective to capture a multi-ton boulder from the asteroids surface and use its mass to redirect its parent into a CIS lunar orbit where astronauts will study its physical and chemical composition.A critical step towards achieving this mission is to effectively map the target asteroid, identify the candidate boulder for retrieval and characterize its critical parameters. Currently, ARRM utilizes a laser altimeter to characterize the height of the boulders and mapping for final autonomous control of the capture. The proposed Lava-Kusha mission provides the increased of stereoscopic imaging and mapping, not only the Earthward side of the asteroid which has been observed for possible landing sites, but mapping the whole asteroid. LKM will enhance the fidelity of the data collected by the laser altimeter and gather improved topographic data for future Orion missions to 2008 EV5 once in cis lunar space.LKM consists of two low cost small satellites (6U) as a part of the ARRM. They will launch with ARRM as an integrated part of the system. Once at the target, this formation of pathfinder satellites will image the mission critical boulder to ensure the system design can support its removal. LKM will conduct a series of flybys prior to ARRM's rendezvous. LKMs stereoscopic cameras will provide detailed surveys of the boulder's terrain and environment to ensure ARRM can operate safely, reach the location and interface with the boulder. The LKM attitude control and cold gas propulsion system will enable formation maintenance maneuvers for global mapping of asteroid 2008 EV5 at an altitude of 100 km to a high-spatial resolution imaging altitude of 5 km.LKM will demonstrate formation flying in deep space and the reliability of stereoscopic cameras to precisely identify a specific target and provide physical characterization of an asteroid. An

  13. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  14. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T

    2006-01-01

    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  15. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  16. EV71抗原表位的研究方法及研究进展%Method for and advance in research on neutralizing epitope of EV71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文超

    2014-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)属于小RNA病毒科(Picornaradae)肠道病毒属(Enterovirus)的成员,是引起亚太地区手足口病暴发的主要病原体之一.EV71可引起严重的神经系统病变,对6岁以下儿童造成较高的死亡率.目前尚无上市的疫苗来预防EV71的感染.因此,研制EV71疫苗及治疗药物十分迫切.病毒中和表位是刺激机体产生特异性免疫反应的物质基础,研究其结构、功能对于疫苗的研发,特别是亚单位疫苗的研制、药物靶点筛选至关重要.本文主要对研究EV71抗原表位的方法及最新近况作一综述.

  17. A single-aliquot regenerative-dose method based on IR (1.49eV) bleaching of the fast OSL component in quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M. [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales SY23 3DB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mgj@aber.ac.uk; Murray, A.S. [Nordic Laboratory for Luminescence Dating, Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University, Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Boetter-Jensen, L. [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Wintle, A.G. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales SY23 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    In the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz, the presence of significant medium and slow components in the initial-OSL signal (first 0.8s or so) can give rise to erroneous dose estimates. Thus it is desirable to develop a dose estimation method that is based on the OSL from the fast component alone. In this paper, the reduction of fast component OSL by high temperature infrared (IR) stimulation is investigated. It is shown that, in the temperature range from 120-190-bar C, it is possible to deplete the fast component preferentially using IR stimulation. The thermal assistance energy required for IR stimulation (1.49eV; 830nm) of the fast component is calculated to be 0.41+/-0.02eV. However, the elevated temperature IRSL of quartz has a poor signal-to-noise ratio; hence a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol based on a differential-OSL signal (the difference between the two short OSL signals separated by an elevated temperature IR stimulation) is proposed. The measurement conditions are optimised following examination of both the photoionisation cross-sections of the fast component for different stimulation temperatures, and possible thermally induced sensitivity changes arising from holding the samples at high temperatures for long periods ({approx}1500s). The resulting equivalent dose values, and those from a conventional SAR protocol based on the initial-OSL signal, are compared with the expected doses for several samples. We observe that for samples with relatively strong medium and slow components, the SAR protocol based on isolation of the fast component (derived by IR depletion of the OSL) gives significantly more accurate estimates than the SAR protocol using net initial OSL signals. On the other hand, accurate dose estimates are obtained from samples dominated by the fast component using both protocols. Finally, the implications are discussed for dosimetry using quartz.

  18. Experimental and theoretical investigations of absolute optical oscillator strengths for valence excitations of nitric oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱林繁; 钟志萍; 苑震生; 张卫华; 刘小井; 江锡满; 徐克尊; 李家明

    2002-01-01

    The absolute optical oscillator strength density spectra of nitric oxide in the energy region of 5.0-22.0 eV havebeen measured by a high-resolution fast-electron energy loss spectrometer. With the calculated results obtained by themultiscattering self-consistent-field method and channel characteristics, the strongly overlapped spectra in the energyregion of 7.5-9.3 eV have been analysed and the corresponding partially vibrationally resolved optical oscillator strengthshave been estimated from the experimental spectra.

  19. More is different: Reconciling eV sterile neutrinos with cosmological mass bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, Neff. In this paper we discuss a scenario that Neff can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN epoch, but leading to a decrease of Neff. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced. To be consistent with the latest Planck results, at least 3 sterile species are needed.

  20. Double-difference method to improve the resolution of an eV neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epithermal (eV) neutron spectrometers designed to measure the dynamic properties of condensed matter have been developed at several pulsed neutron sources, using nuclear resonances to define neutron energy. The energy resolution of such a spectrometer is limited by the width of the nuclear resonance. The paper describes how a linear combination of measurements with two thicknesses of foils of the resonance material yields better energy resolution than either foil alone. With proper selection of foil thicknesses, there is no penalty in counting statistics to obtain the improved resolution. The double-difference method also suppresses the wings of the resonance and yields a function with a finite second moment so that uncertainties may be properly propagated. (orig.)

  1. EV-16 vitrification demonstration with surrogate Oak Ridge reservation K-25 B & C pond sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-07-05

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) has chartered the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design and fabricate a Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) to demonstrate treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste (LLMW). This system will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrification on several LLMW streams. The first stream to be demonstrated will be the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) K-25 B&C Pond sludge. Before the demonstrations in the TVS can take place, a surrogate sludge vitrification demonstration had to be performed in the EV-16 melter located at the DOE Industrial Center for Vitrification Research (Center) at the Environmental Systems Engineering Department at Clemson University. During the demonstration at the Center, a 50 wt% B&C sludge glass composition was tested to determine any processing problems. A total of 1510 pounds (686 kg) of glass were produced from 9328 pounds (4240 kg) of surrogate feed. The resulting glass product was homogeneous and very durable.

  2. Inferring neutrino cross sections above 10^19 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Palomares-Ruiz, S

    2006-01-01

    Extremely high energy neutrinos propagating in the atmosphere or in the Earth can originate horizontal or upgoing air-showers, respectively. We calculate the acceptances (event rate/flux) for detecting both types of events by fluorescence detectors, both space-based as with the EUSO and OWL proposals, and ground-based, as with Auger, HiRes and Telescope Array. We depict them as a function of the neutrino-nucleon cross section and show that from the ratio of these two classes of events, the inference of the cross section above 10^{19} eV appears feasible, assuming that a neutrino flux exists at these energies. Our semi-analytic calculation includes realistic energy-losses for tau leptons and Earth-curvature effects. We also consider constraints on shower development and identification and the effects of a cloud layer.

  3. Damage of DNA by Low Energy Electrons (< 3 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments on low energy electron attachment to DNA and its components in the condensed phase and in the gas phase are reviewed and analysed. From different condensed phase experiments the sensitivity of DNA towards low energy electrons is well documented and strand breaks in DNA are observed at subexcitation energies (< 3 eV) and also in ultrafast electron transfer experiments involving electrons in presolvated states. Gas phase experiments indicate that all building blocks of DNA (the nucleobases, the sugar and the phosphate moiety) undergo resonant dissociative electron attachment (DEA) in the subexcitation regime which may ultimately lead to strand breaks. From very recent gas phase experiments on an entire nucleotide it can be concluded that most strand breaks result from direct electron attachment to the DNA backbone, but also initial electron capture by the nucleobase following electron transfer to the backbone contributes.

  4. Electron Correlation in the Final Continuum of Ionization Hydrogen by 150-eV Electron Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张程华; 臧树良; 王晓伟; 王京阳

    2004-01-01

    Electron correlation in triple differential cross sections for ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact is analysed for the case of coplanar asymmetric geometry within the framework of the two-potential formulae. Based on the approximations of projectile and faster-electron plane wave, the transition matrix element is analytically expressed to be a product of two factors: the correlation factor of two electrons in the final channel and the structure-scattering factor. The contribution of both the factors to the angular distribution of the triple differential cross section is calculated. The present results are compared with the experimental data and the other theoretical calculations for the incident energy of 150 eV.

  5. MoS/sub 2/ interactions with 1--3 eV atomic oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A.; Cross, J.B.; Pope, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Exposures of MoS/sub 2/ to 1.5--3 eV atomic oxygen in an anhydrous environment reveal that the degree of oxidation is essentially independent of crystallite orientation and the surface adsorbed reaction products are MoO/sub 3/ and MoO/sub 2/. A mixture of oxides and sulfide exist over a depth of at least 100 /angstrom/ and this layer has a low diffusion rate for oxygen. It is concluded that a protective oxide layer will form on MoS/sub 2/ upon exposure to the atomic-oxygen-rich environment of low earth orbit. The tribological implications of these results are under investigation. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Electron Landau damping in toroidal plasma with Solov'ev equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishanov, N. I.; Azarenkov, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The contribution of untrapped and two groups of trapped particles to the longitudinal (with respect to the magnetic field) elements of the dielectric susceptibility is determined by solving the drift-kinetic equations for such particles in axisymmetric tokamaks with Solov'ev equilibrium. The obtained dielectric characteristics are applicable for studying linear wave processes in the frequency range of Alfvén and fast magnetosonic waves in small- and large-aspect-ratio tokamaks with circular, elliptical, and D-shaped cross sections of magnetic surfaces. The high-frequency power absorbed in plasma via electron Landau damping is estimated by summing up terms containing the imaginary parts of both diagonal and non-diagonal elements of the longitudinal susceptibility. The imaginary part of the longitudinal susceptibility is calculated numerically for spherical tokamaks in a wide range of wave frequencies and magnetic surface radii.

  7. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.05% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~302 W/ .

  8. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.1% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~320 W/ .

  9. More Is Different: Reconciling eV Sterile Neutrinos and Cosmological Mass Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$. In this paper we discuss a scenario that $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$ can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch, but leading to a decrease of $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced.

  10. Aktion Fischotterschutz e.V. (German Campaign for Otter Protection Activities 1991-92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuther C.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Aktion Fischotterschutz e.V. (German Campaign for Otter Protection Activities 1991-92Pages 16 - 19 (ReportClaus ReutherFollowing reunification, the work of Aktion Fischotterschutz has intensified. In the east, due mainly to hunting reserves for politicians, otter populations and habitat is currently good. As the east reaps the benefit of reunification, and development begins, this is likely to rapidly change. We must act quickly to avoid the mistakes made in the past in the west. In West Germany, the focus is recovery of habitat, with a new project, Otter 2000, intended to reconnect isolated otter populations through the provision of habitat corridors. Reports on other projects are also presented.

  11. Studies on keV and eV electrons in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between keV or eV electrons and solids was studied. The results presented mostly concern problems in connection with electron irradiation of solids, but to some extent they also include ion-induced secondary electron emission. The experiments were mainly performed on solidified gases using 1 - 3 keV electrons. The projected range of electrons was determined in solid hydrogen, deuterium and nitrogen. The true secondary electron emission coefficient and the electron reflection coefficient of solid hydrogen, deuterium and nitrogen were measured. The escape depth of the true secondary electrons in nitrogen was determined. The angular dependence of both the reflection coefficient and the true secondary electron emission coefficient of solid hydrogen and deuterium was investigated. Both ion- and electron-induced secondary electron emission were treated theoretically on the basis of ionization cascade theory. (Auth.)

  12. Theory of Multiphoton Multielectron Ionization of Xenon under Strong 93-eV Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a theoretical interpretation of recent experimental results on multiphoton multiple ionization of xenon by soft-x-ray radiation of photon energy ∼93 eV and intensity up to 1016 W/cm2[A. A Sorokin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213002 (2007)]. The data are interpreted within multiphoton perturbation theory, taking into account the spatiotemporal distribution of the radiation. Multiphoton cross sections have been obtained through a technique of scaling, with occasional adjustment to the data, provided the two prove to be compatible. Whatever discrepancies between theory and experiment persist can be reasonably attributed to some uncertainty in the experimental conditions and possibly to the value of some cross sections, without, however, any evidence for nonperturbative behavior

  13. Existence of unbiased estimate of regression parameters in simple linear EV models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jixue

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that for one-dimensional normal EV regression model X = x +u, Y= α+βx+e, where x, u, e are mutually independent normal variables and Eu = Ee= 0,the regression parameters α andβ are not identifiable without some restriction imposed on the parameters. This paper discusses the problem of existence of unbiased estimate for α and β under some restrictions commonly used in practice. It is proved that the unbiased estimate does not exist under many such restrictions. We also point out one important case in which the unbiased estimates of α andβ exist, and the form of the MVUE of α and β are also given.

  14. Electrochemical efficiency in multiple discharge/recharge cycling of supercapacitors in hybrid EV applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pell, W.G.; Conway, B.E. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Adams, W.A.; Oliveira, J. de [ESTCO and IEA Electric Hybrid Vehicle Operating Agency, Nepean, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The use of large capacitance supercapacitors in series or series/parallel configurations has been envisaged and evaluated as a basis for load-levelling, and hence performance enhancement, in electric vehicles (EV) powered primarily by rechargeable batteries or fuel-cells. In this paper, charge/discharge efficiency in duty-cycles of the supercapacitor component are examined in relation to distributed resistance in porous double-layer and redox-type devices which restricts efficiency of discharge and recharge cycling, especially at high rates. Results of quantitative experiments on the responses of a five-element RC model hardware equivalent-circuit and a gold brush electrode are presented. Potential-recovery after discharge and potential-decay after recharge, and potential changes following load variations, enable efficiencies of charge delivery and acceptance to be evaluated. (orig.)

  15. 49th report of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rhein-Wasserwerke e.V.. Annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rhein-Wasserwerke (ARW) discusses the following subjects: (1) ARW report on water quality; (2) the problem of herbicides and pesticides; (3) Duesseldorf-Flehe Rhine river monitoring station - construction and performance; (4) observations concerning the aerobic degradation capacity of the river banks as a functional of the seasonal temperature variations of the Rhine; (5) results of Rhine water analyses of GEW-Werke Koeln AG in 1992; (6) statistical methods of generating groundwater levels in ground water aquifers under the influence of outfall ditches. The appendix contains the analyses of the year 1992, the data acquired by GEW-Werke Koeln AG for 1992, the 1993 monitoring programme, and a survey of the organisational structure of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rhein-Wasserwerke e.V. (orig./BRR)

  16. An explicit solution to the matrix equation AV+BW=EV J

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiguo WU; Guangren DUAN; Bin ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    In this note,the matrix equation AV+BW=EV J is considered,where E,A and B are given matrices of appropriate dimensions,J is an arbitrarily given Jordan matrix,V and W are the matrices to be determined.Firstly,a right factorization of(sE-A)-1 B is given based on the Leverriver algorithm for descriptor systems.Then based on this factorization and a proposed parametric solution,an alternative parametric solution to this matrix equation is established in terms of the R-controllability matrix of(E,A,B),the generalized symmetric operator and the observability matrix associated with the Jordan matrix J and a free parameter matrix.The proposed results provide great convenience for many analysis and design problems.Moreover,some equivalent forms are proposed.A numerical example is employed to illustrate the effect of the proposed approach.

  17. Extensive Air Showers and Cosmic Ray Physics above 1017 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaina, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic Rays above 1017 eV allow studying hadronic interactions at energies that can not be attained at accelerators yet. At the same time hadronic interaction models have to be applied to the cosmic-ray induced air-shower cascades in atmosphere to infer the nature of cosmic rays. The reliability of air-shower simulations has become the source of one of the largest systematic uncertainty in the interpretation of cosmic-ray data due to the uncertainties in modeling the hadronic interaction driving the air-shower development. This paper summarises in the first part the recent results on the cosmic ray energy spectrum, composition and anisotropy from the knee region to the GZK cutoff [1, 2] of the spectrum by means of ground-based experiments. Most of the information reported in this contribution is taken from [3-5]. Aspects interconnecting cosmic ray and particle physics are reviewed in the second part of the paper.

  18. Optical properties of substituted polyacetylenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontia, Ilarie I.

    In this work we present continuous wave (CW) optical spectroscopies of sustituted polyacetylenes: poly-disabstituted-acetylene (PDPA-nBu) and polyphenylacetylene (PPA). We found that although PDPA-nBu is a degenerate ground state polymer, it shows strong photoluminescence (PL) with quantum efficiency larger than 60%. Polarized PL measurements show that PDPA-nBu emission originates from intrachain excitons rather than from the side groups of the polymer chain. The absorption bands were identified, correlating the experimental results with the model proposed in the literature. The CW photomodulation (PM) spectra of pristine unoxidized and oxidized PDPA-nBu films showed that both solitons and polarons are simultaneously photogenerated. On the contrary, the PM spectrum of PDPA-nBu in toluene solution showed only polaron photogeneration. Using the photoinduced absorption detected magnetic resonance (PADMR) spectroscopy and doping induced electron spin resonance (ESR) we identified the spin of the photogenerated species. For spin 1/2 resonance, polaron, neutral soliton, and charged soliton bands were observed in the lambda-PADMR spectrum. We also investigated the charge transfer (CT) process in the PDPA-nBu/ C60 composites. The absorption spectra in the visible and infrared ranges of PDPA-nBu/C60 blend do not show any evidence for CT in the ground state. Using PL, PM and PADMR spectroscopies we show that in the PDPA-nBu/C60 blends the charge transfer reaction takes place in the excited state. PL spectra measured in films with different C60 concentration showed exciton quenching that is due to the fast CT process. The PM spectrum showed the signature of CT, namely, a PA band that peaks at about 1.15 eV, which is associated with C60 ion resulting from the excitons separation into positively charged polaron on the polymer chain and negative C60 ion. PADMR spectra also showed the signature of the CT reaction. We observed two resonances that were identified in H

  19. Antibody against extracellular vaccinia virus (EV protects mice through complement and Fc receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Cohen

    Full Text Available Protein-based subunit smallpox vaccines have shown their potential as effective alternatives to live virus vaccines in animal model challenge studies. We vaccinated mice with combinations of three different vaccinia virus (VACV proteins (A33, B5, L1 and examined how the combined antibody responses to these proteins cooperate to effectively neutralize the extracellular virus (EV infectious form of VACV. Antibodies against these targets were generated in the presence or absence of CpG adjuvant so that Th1-biased antibody responses could be compared to Th2-biased responses to the proteins with aluminum hydroxide alone, specifically with interest in looking at the ability of anti-B5 and anti-A33 polyclonal antibodies (pAb to utilize complement-mediated neutralization in vitro. We found that neutralization of EV by anti-A33 or anti-B5 pAb can be enhanced in the presence of complement if Th1-biased antibody (IgG2a is generated. Mechanistic differences found for complement-mediated neutralization showed that anti-A33 antibodies likely result in virolysis, while anti-B5 antibodies with complement can neutralize by opsonization (coating. In vivo studies found that mice lacking the C3 protein of complement were less protected than wild-type mice after passive transfer of anti-B5 pAb or vaccination with B5. Passive transfer of anti-B5 pAb or monoclonal antibody into mice lacking Fc receptors (FcRs found that FcRs were also important in mediating protection. These results demonstrate that both complement and FcRs are important effector mechanisms for antibody-mediated protection from VACV challenge in mice.

  20. Experimental investigation on EV battery cooling and heating by heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhancing battery safety and thermal behaviour are critical for electric vehicles (EVs) because they affect the durability, energy storage, lifecycle, and efficiency of the battery. Prior studies of using air, liquid or phase change materials (PCM) to manage the battery thermal environment have been investigated over the last few years, but only a few take heat pipes into account. This paper aims to provide a full experimental characterisation of heat pipe battery cooling and heating covering a range of battery ‘off-normal’ conditions. Two representative battery cells and a substitute heat source ranging from 2.5 to 40 W/cell have been constructed. Results show that the proposed method is able to keep the battery surface temperature below 40 °C if the battery generates less than 10 W/cell, and helps reduce the battery temperature down to 70 °C under uncommon thermal abuse conditions (e.g. 20–40 W/cell). Additionally, the feasibility of using sintered copper-water heat pipes under sub-zero temperatures has been assessed experimentally by exposing the test rig to −15 °C/−20 °C for more than 14 h. Data indicates that the heat pipe was able to function immediately after long hours of cold exposure and that sub-zero temperature conditions had little impact on heat pipe performance. We therefore conclude that the proposed method of battery cooling and heating via heat pipes is a viable solution for EVs

  1. Photofragmentation dynamics of gaseous dimethyl sulfoxide at 15 eV induced by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, A.C.O.; Leite, T.C.M.; Turci, C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Barros, A.L.F. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ), RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, G.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a solvent widely used in chemical and biological laboratories and in industrial processes, as well. DMSO [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - SO] is a sulfur analog of acetone [(H{sub 3}C){sub 2} - CO]. Being the simplest alkyl sulfoxide, the DMSO is a model system for the understanding of more complex sulfoxide molecules. In this work the DMSO was excited with synchrotron light and the photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectrum was acquired at 15 eV. Our goal is to study the S-C bonding breaking process, especially in the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} channels. The main question is how the 10a {yields} {infinity} transition affects the cleavage of S-C bond and consequently the production of those fragments. The experiments have been performed using the Toroidal Grating Monochromator (TGM) beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas-SP (research proposal D05A-TGM-11047). High purity samples were obtained commercially and used without any further purification. They were introduced into the Wiley-McLaren time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) from the vapours of the room temperature liquids after removing air and volatile impurities by a series of freeze-pump-thaw cycles. The work pressure was maintained at 1:0 x 10{sup -6} mbar during data acquisition. The basis pressure was 1:0 x 10{sup -8} mbar. The results confirm that at 10a {yields} {infinity} transition the main produced fragment is the H{sub 3}CSO{sup +}. It means that at 15 eV the S-C bonding breaking is the principal photofragmentation process. (author)

  2. Resonance and threshold effects in photoemission up to 3500 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, D.A.; Kobrin, P.H.; Lindle, D.W.; Truesdale, C.M.; Southworth, S.H.; Becker, U.; Kerkhoff, H.G.

    1982-08-01

    Beam lines at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) now provide photon beams throughout the entire energy range 5 to 5000 eV, with a pulse structure very well-suited to time-of-flight (TOF) photoelectron spectroscopy. We have used this facility, together with a TOF spectrometer, to measure photoemission cross sections sigma(epsilon) and asymmetry parameters ..beta..(epsilon) for several interesting systems. A summary of early results is given. Metal vapors (Ba, Cd, Mn, Hg) were studied using a high-temperature oven. Resonant photoemission was observed in several cases. Both sigma(epsilon) and ..beta..(epsilon) showed resonant behavior at 21.1 eV for several lines in Cd. The 4d, 5s, and 5p sigma(epsilon) line profiles differed dramatically, illustrating the detailed information about continuum states that is available from photoemission. Correlation satellites in photoemission from rare gases have been observed over a very wide energy range, including those seen in the K-shells of He, Ne and Ar and in the L-shell of Ne. The structure and preliminary intensity variations of these satellites will be discussed. Molecular shape resonances in C(1s), N(1s), and O(1s) photoemission were observed for the first time, in the molecules CO, CO/sub 2/, OCS, CF/sub 4/, N/sub 2/ and NO. Both the ..pi.. and sigma resonances were observed in KVV Auger emission, and the sigma resonances were studied by photoemission. The asymmetry parameters were measured in all cases. The results are in fair agreement with theory, but show systematic deviations and trends. 31 references.

  3. Study of the chemical composition of high energy cosmic rays using the muon LDF of EAS between $10^{17.25}$ eV and $10^{17.75}$ eV

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia, A; Sánchez, F; Croce, A Sedoski; Figueira, J M; García, B; González, N; Josebachuili, M; Ravignani, D; Wundheiler, B; Etchegoyen, A

    2015-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of estimating primary cosmic ray composition at high energies from the study of two parameters of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) at ground and underground level with Monte Carlo simulations using the new EPOS and QGSJETII hadronic models tuned with LHC data. Namely, the slope and density at a given distance of the muon lateral distribution function are analysed in this work. The power to discriminate primary masses is quantified in terms of merit factor for each parameter. The analysis considers three different primary particles (proton, iron and gamma), four different zenith angles (0$^{\\circ}$, 15$^{\\circ}$, 30$^{\\circ}$ and 45$^{\\circ}$) and primary energies of $10^{17.25}$ eV, $10^{17.50}$ eV and $10^{17.75}$ eV.

  4. A new animal model containing human SCARB2 and lacking stat-1 is highly susceptible to EV71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, An-Ting; Wu, Szu-Yao; Liao, Chun-Che; Chang, Ya-Shu; Chang, Chih-Shin; Shih, Chiaho

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major threat to children worldwide. Children infected with EV71 could develop subclinical infection and hand-foot-and -mouth disease (HFMD). In severe cases, patients could develop encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. A more user-friendly and robust animal model is essential to investigating EV71 pathogenesis. Here, we established a hybrid (hSCARB2+/+/stat-1−/−) mouse strain from crossbreeding SCARB2 transgenic and stat-1 KO mice, and compared the susceptibilities to EV71 infection and pathogenesis between parental and hybrid mice. Virus-encoded VP1 protein can be detected in the streaking nerve fibers in brain and spinal cord. This hybrid mouse strain at 2-week-old age can still be infected with different genotypes of EV71 at 1000-fold lower titer via an ip route. Infected hybrid mice developed earlier onset of CNS disease, paralysis, and death at a higher incidence. These advantages of this novel model meet the urgent need from the scientific community in basic and preclinical research in therapeutics and pathogenesis. PMID:27499235

  5. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadimpalli Ravi S. Varma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71 on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1 gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle.

  6. A new animal model containing human SCARB2 and lacking stat-1 is highly susceptible to EV71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, An-Ting; Wu, Szu-Yao; Liao, Chun-Che; Chang, Ya-Shu; Chang, Chih-Shin; Shih, Chiaho

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major threat to children worldwide. Children infected with EV71 could develop subclinical infection and hand-foot-and -mouth disease (HFMD). In severe cases, patients could develop encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. A more user-friendly and robust animal model is essential to investigating EV71 pathogenesis. Here, we established a hybrid (hSCARB2(+/+)/stat-1(-/-)) mouse strain from crossbreeding SCARB2 transgenic and stat-1 KO mice, and compared the susceptibilities to EV71 infection and pathogenesis between parental and hybrid mice. Virus-encoded VP1 protein can be detected in the streaking nerve fibers in brain and spinal cord. This hybrid mouse strain at 2-week-old age can still be infected with different genotypes of EV71 at 1000-fold lower titer via an ip route. Infected hybrid mice developed earlier onset of CNS disease, paralysis, and death at a higher incidence. These advantages of this novel model meet the urgent need from the scientific community in basic and preclinical research in therapeutics and pathogenesis. PMID:27499235

  7. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yingying; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Li, Bingqing; Li, Zhihui; Guo, Yuqi; Zhang, Weidong; Wei, Ming Q; Gai, Zhongtao; Meng, Hong; Wang, Jiwen; Qin, Lizeng

    2016-05-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post‑inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection. PMID:27035332

  8. A new animal model containing human SCARB2 and lacking stat-1 is highly susceptible to EV71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, An-Ting; Wu, Szu-Yao; Liao, Chun-Che; Chang, Ya-Shu; Chang, Chih-Shin; Shih, Chiaho

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major threat to children worldwide. Children infected with EV71 could develop subclinical infection and hand-foot-and -mouth disease (HFMD). In severe cases, patients could develop encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. A more user-friendly and robust animal model is essential to investigating EV71 pathogenesis. Here, we established a hybrid (hSCARB2(+/+)/stat-1(-/-)) mouse strain from crossbreeding SCARB2 transgenic and stat-1 KO mice, and compared the susceptibilities to EV71 infection and pathogenesis between parental and hybrid mice. Virus-encoded VP1 protein can be detected in the streaking nerve fibers in brain and spinal cord. This hybrid mouse strain at 2-week-old age can still be infected with different genotypes of EV71 at 1000-fold lower titer via an ip route. Infected hybrid mice developed earlier onset of CNS disease, paralysis, and death at a higher incidence. These advantages of this novel model meet the urgent need from the scientific community in basic and preclinical research in therapeutics and pathogenesis.

  9. Comparing the Primary and Recall Immune Response Induced by a New EV71 Vaccine Using Systems Biology Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jie; Zhang, Junnan; Wu, Xing; Mao, Qunying; Chen, Pan; Zhu, Fengcai; Xu, Miao; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2015-01-01

    Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines have completed Phase III clinical trials in mainland China, with high efficacy, satisfactory safety, and sustained immunogenicity. However, the molecular mechanisms how this new vaccine elicit potent immune response remain poorly understood. To characterize the primary and recall responses to EV71 vaccines, PBMC from 19 recipients before and after vaccination with EV71 vaccine are collected and their gene expression signatures after stimulation with EV71 antigen were compared. The results showed that primary and recall response to EV71 antigen have both activated an IRF7 regulating type I interferon and antiviral immune response network. However, up-regulated genes involved in T cell activation regulated by IRF1, inflammatory response, B-cell activation and humoral immune response were only observed in recall response. The specific secretion of IL-10 in primary response and IL-2,IP-10,CCL14a, CCL21 in recall response was consistent with the activation of immune response process found in genes. Furthermore, the expression of MX1 and secretion of IP-10 in recall response were strongly correlated with NTAb level at 180d after vaccination (r = 0.81 and 0.99). In summary, inflammatory response, adaptive immune response and a stronger antiviral response were indentified in recall response.

  10. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yingying; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Li, Bingqing; Li, Zhihui; Guo, Yuqi; Zhang, Weidong; Wei, Ming Q; Gai, Zhongtao; Meng, Hong; Wang, Jiwen; Qin, Lizeng

    2016-05-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post‑inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection.

  11. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S; Toosa, Haryanti; Foo, Hooi Ling; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Nor Shamsudin, Mariana; Arbab, Ali S; Yusoff, Khatijah; Abdul Rahim, Raha

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1) gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle.

  12. Vulnerability to chronic subordination stress-induced depression-like disorders in adult 129SvEv male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, Harold; Sanghez, Valentina; Di Cristo, Luisana; Lori, Andrea; Ceresini, Graziano; Malinge, Isabelle; Parmigiani, Stefano; Palanza, Paola; Sheardown, Malcolm; Bartolomucci, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to stressful life events is intimately linked with vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depression. Pre-clinical animal models offer an effective tool to disentangle the underlying molecular mechanisms. In particular, the 129SvEv strain is often used to develop transgenic mouse models but poorly characterized as far as behavior and neuroendocrine functions are concerned. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of 129SvEv male mice's vulnerability to social stress-induced depression-like disorders and physiological comorbidities. We employed a well characterized mouse model of chronic social stress based on social defeat and subordination. Subordinate 129SvEv mice showed body weight gain, hyperphagia, increased adipose fat pads weight and basal plasma corticosterone. Home cage phenotyping revealed a suppression of spontaneous locomotor activity and transient hyperthermia. Subordinate 129SvEv mice also showed marked fearfulness, anhedonic-like response toward a novel but palatable food, increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance of an unfamiliar male mouse. A direct measured effect of the stressfulness of the living environment, i.e. the amount of daily aggression received, predicted the degree of corticosterone level and locomotor activity but not of the other parameters. This is the first study validating a chronic subordination stress paradigm in 129SvEv male mice. Results demonstrated remarkable stress vulnerability and establish the validity to use this mouse strain as a model for depression-like disorders. PMID:21093519

  13. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, A E

    2011-01-01

    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  14. 4584例手足口病EV71病毒感染情况分析%Analysis on infection status of enterovirus EV71 for 4 584 cases children of hand foot and mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    目的 回顾性分析2009年至2013年第四军医大学西京医院手足口病肠道病毒71型(EV71)的感染情况.方法 采用实时荧光定量PCR的方法检测手足口病患儿的咽拭子或疱液标本.结果 2009年至2013年我院共收治手足口病患儿4 584例,其中EV71阳性标本369例,各年EV71的感染率依次分别为7.84%、5.77%、16.71%、10.16%、3.66%.不同年份EV71感染率差异有显著性(P<0.05).≤3岁的婴幼儿EV71感染率最高(65.58%),每年4~7月手足口病感染人数明显升高.结论 手足口病EV71型各年感染率不同,有明显的季节及人群分布.在流行季节应当加强宣传培训及督导作用,采取安全措施,有效控制病情.

  15. Characteristics and treatment strategies of severe enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in children%小儿危重肠病毒71型(EV71)感染临床特征及救治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育才; 徐梁; 戎群芳

    2010-01-01

    @@ 肠病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)是手足口病病原之一,也是发生危重病例最重要的病原.根据中国卫生部及疾病预防和控制中心资料,绝大多数死亡病例是由E71感染所致.重症EV71感染主要表现为脑干脑炎、脑脊髓炎、脊髓灰质炎样综合征等.

  16. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4 x 10 (19) eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; do Amaral, M Gonçalves; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; García, R Luna; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G

    2008-08-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10;{18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional, variantE;{-gamma}, at energies between 4 x 10;{18} eV and 4 x 10;{19} eV is 2.69+/-0.02(stat)+/-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+/-0.4(stat)+/-0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min. PMID:18764444

  17. 重症EV71感染手足口病患儿的护理现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫玉峰

    2016-01-01

    从心理护理、消毒隔离、皮肤护理、口腔及饮食护理、高热的护理、病情观察及健康宣教方面对重症EV71感染手足口病患儿的护理现状进行了综述,说明加强医护人员的对重症EV71感染手足口病的护理,对于重症EV71感染手足口病患儿的治疗及危重患者的救治十分重要。

  18. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10^19eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael; Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST /Lisbon, LIFEP; Aglietta, M.; /INFN, Turin; Aguirre, C.; /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /INFN, Naples; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Northeastern U. /Lisbon, IST /Lisbon, LIFEP

    2008-06-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10{sup 18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index {gamma} of the particle flux, J {proportional_to} E{sup {gamma}}, at energies between 4 x 10{sup 18} eV and 4 x 10{sup 19} eV is 2.69 {+-} 0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2 {+-} 0.4(stat){+-}0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuzmin.

  19. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4 x 10 (19) eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; do Amaral, M Gonçalves; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; García, R Luna; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Grande, N Smetniansky De; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-08-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10;{18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional, variantE;{-gamma}, at energies between 4 x 10;{18} eV and 4 x 10;{19} eV is 2.69+/-0.02(stat)+/-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+/-0.4(stat)+/-0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min.

  20. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  1. Similar protective immunity induced by an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Ma, Kaili; Yang, Erxia; Wang, Jingjing; Che, Yanchun; Jiang, Li; Pu, Jing; Guo, Lei; Feng, Min; Liang, Yan; Cui, Wei; Yang, Huai; Li, Qihan

    2015-11-17

    During the development of enterovirus 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine for preventing human hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) by EV71 infection, an effective animal model is presumed to be significant and necessary. Our previous study demonstrated that the vesicles in oral regions and limbs potentially associated with viremia, which are the typical manifestations of HFMD, and remarkable pathologic changes were identified in various tissues of neonatal rhesus macaque during EV71 infection. Although an immune response in terms of neutralizing antibody and T cell memory was observed in animals infected by the virus or stimulated by viral antigen, whether such a response could be considered as an indicator to justify the immune response in individuals vaccinated or infected in a pandemic needs to be investigated. Here, a comparative analysis of the neutralizing antibody response and IFN-γ-specific T cell response in vaccinated neonatal rhesus macaques and a human clinical trial with an EV71 inactivated vaccine was performed, and the results showed the identical tendency and increased level of neutralizing antibody and the IFN-γ-specific T cell response stimulated by the EV71 antigen peptide. Importantly, the clinical protective efficacy against virus infection by the elicited immune response in the immunized population compared with the placebo control and the up-modulated gene profile associated with immune activation were similar to those in infected macaques. Further safety verification of this vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children confirmed the potential use of the macaque as a reliable model for the evaluation of an EV71 candidate vaccine.

  2. Performance of reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique detecting EV71: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoying; Wen, Hongling; Zhao, Li; Yu, Xuejie

    2014-04-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a common infectious disease in young children. Studies in the past have shown that reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was a rapid approach for the detection of EV71 in HFMD. This meta-analysis study is to evaluate the diagnostic role of RT-LAMP in detecting EV71 infection. A comprehensive literature research of PubMed, Embase, Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted on articles aiming at the diagnostic performance of RT-LAMP in EV71 detection published before February 10, 2014. Data from selected studies were pooled to yield the summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR, NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve by using STATA VERSION 12.0 software. Ten studies including a total of 907 clinical samples were of high quality in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and the area under the SROC curve was 0.99 (0.97, 1.00), 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), 5.90 (95% CI: 3.90-8.94), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.14-0.29), and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), respectively. The univariate analysis of potential variables showed some changes in the diagnostic performance, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Despite inter-study variability, the test performance of RT-LAMP was consistent with real-time RT-PCR in detecting EV71. This meta-analysis suggests that RT-LAMP is a useful diagnostic tool with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting EV71. PMID:24815384

  3. Ellipsometry and energy characterization of the electron impact polymerization in the range 0-20 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyn, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The electron impact polymerization of adsorbed vapors of a hydrocarbon vacuum oil with molecular mass 450 Da (C32H66) has been studied in-situ in the range 0-20 eV using ellipsometry and a servo system with the Kelvin's vibrating probe. This allowed registering at the same time the two energy-dependent characteristics (spectra) of the process: the film growth rate and the electrical potential of the irradiated surface. The first spectrum has two resonance maxima near 2.5 and 9.5 eV while the surface potential has only one weak extremum near 9.5 eV. The first growth rate peak at 2.5 eV was connected with a creation of radicals through a resonant process of the dissociative electron attachment and beginning polymerization. The peaks at 9.5 eV in both the spectra mean accelerating polymerization and decreasing surface charge owing to simultaneous birth of highly active radicals and free electrons. The single resonant process controlling both the processes simultaneously is the dissociative attachment of an electron to an anti-bonding molecular orbital, almost the same as at the 2.5 eV but differing by deeper decomposition of the transient anion, among the products of which are now not the radicals only but also free electrons. The kinetic curves obtained in pulsed regimes of the electron bombardment were qualitatively identical for different precursors and were used for calculations of cross sections of these processes.

  4. EV71型与其他EV手足口病患者WBC和CRP结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婷; 常艳军

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较EV71型与其他EV手足口病患者白细胞(WBC)和C反应蛋白(CRP)结果是否有差异,为临床医师治疗EV71型感染的手足口病提供参考依据。方法回顾我院感染性疾病科收治的手足口病患儿86例,应用RT-PCR法检测患者咽拭子肠道病毒类型,分为肠道病毒71型(EV71)组和其他肠道病毒感染组,分析2组患者WBC和CRP结果。结果 EV71型与其他型肠道病毒感染的手足口病患儿WBC和CRP定量检测结果和异常率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论 EV71型与其他型肠道病毒手足口病感染患者WBC、CRP检测结果无差异,不能用WBC和CRP来区分EV71型和其他肠道病毒感染以及患者病情严重性。

  5. Performance of reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique detecting EV71: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoying; Wen, Hongling; Zhao, Li; Yu, Xuejie

    2014-04-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a common infectious disease in young children. Studies in the past have shown that reversed transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was a rapid approach for the detection of EV71 in HFMD. This meta-analysis study is to evaluate the diagnostic role of RT-LAMP in detecting EV71 infection. A comprehensive literature research of PubMed, Embase, Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted on articles aiming at the diagnostic performance of RT-LAMP in EV71 detection published before February 10, 2014. Data from selected studies were pooled to yield the summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR, NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve by using STATA VERSION 12.0 software. Ten studies including a total of 907 clinical samples were of high quality in this meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and the area under the SROC curve was 0.99 (0.97, 1.00), 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), 5.90 (95% CI: 3.90-8.94), 0.20 (95% CI: 0.14-0.29), and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), respectively. The univariate analysis of potential variables showed some changes in the diagnostic performance, but none of the differences reached statistical significance. Despite inter-study variability, the test performance of RT-LAMP was consistent with real-time RT-PCR in detecting EV71. This meta-analysis suggests that RT-LAMP is a useful diagnostic tool with high sensitivity and specificity for detecting EV71.

  6. Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindlein, Norbert; Leuchs, Gerd

    This chapter shall discuss the basics and the applications of geometrical optical methods in modern optics. Geometrical optics has a long tradition and some ideas are many centuries old. Nevertheless, the invention of modern personal computers which can perform several million floating-point operations in a second also revolutionized the methods of geometrical optics and so several analytical methods lost importance whereas numerical methods such as ray tracing became very important. Therefore, the emphasis in this chapter is also on modern numerical methods such as ray tracing and some other systematic methods such as the paraxial matrix theory.

  7. Establishment of cell lines with increased susceptibility to EV71/CA16 by stable overexpression of SCARB2

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaojun; Fan, Peihun; Jin, Jun; Su, Weiheng; An, Dong; Xu, Lin; Sun, Shiyang; Zhang, Yan; Meng, Xiangyu; Gao, Feng; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2013-01-01

    Background Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A group type 16 (CA16) belong to human Enterovirus species A of the family Picornaviridae. These viruses are recognized as the major pathogens responsible for epidemics of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), which presents with fever and vesicular eruptions of palms, soles of the feet or mouth. Human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) has been identified as the receptor for both EV71 and CA16, as overexpression of SCARB2 in...

  8. Temperature dependence of photoconductivity at 0.7 eV in single-wall carbon nanotube films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukitaka Matsuoka, Akihiko Fujiwara, Naoki Ogawa, Kenjiro Miyano, Hiromichi Kataura, Yutaka Maniwa, Shinzo Suzuki and Yohji Achiba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature dependence of photoconductivity has been investigated for single-wall carbon nanotube films at 0.7 eV. In order to clarify the effect of atmosphere on photoconductivity, measurements have been performed under helium and nitrogen gas flow in the temperature range from 10 K to room temperature (RT and from 100 K to RT, respectively. Photoconductive response monotonously increases with a decrease in temperature and tends to saturate around 10 K. No clear difference in photoconductive response under different atmosphere was observed. We discuss the mechanism of photoconductivity at 0.7 eV.

  9. DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by transient anions in the range 2-20 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xinglan; Zheng, Yi, E-mail: Yizheng@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Sanche, Léon [Group in the Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2014-04-21

    The energy dependence of the yields of single and double strand breaks (SSB and DSB) and crosslinks induced by electron impact on plasmid DNA films is measured in the 2-20 eV range. The yield functions exhibit two strong maxima, which are interpreted to result from the formation of core-excited resonances (i.e., transient anions) of the bases, and their decay into the autoionization channel, resulting in π → π{sup *} electronic transitions of the bases followed by electron transfer to the C–O σ{sup *} bond in the phosphate group. Occupancy of the σ{sup *} orbital ruptures the C–O bond of the backbone via dissociative electron attachment, producing a SSB. From a comparison of our results with those of other works, including theoretical calculations and electron-energy-loss spectra of the bases, the 4.6 eV peak in the SSB yield function is attributed to the resonance decay into the lowest electronically excited states of the bases; in particular, those resulting from the transitions 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) and 1{sup 3}A{sup ″} (n{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) of thymine and 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine. The strongest peak at 9.6 eV in the SSB yield function is also associated with electron captured by excited states of the bases, resulting mostly from a multitude of higher-energy π → π{sup *} transitions. The DSB yield function exhibits strong maxima at 6.1 and 9.6 eV. The peak at 9.6 eV is probably related to the same resonance manifold as that leading to SSB, but the other at 6.1 eV may be more restricted to decay into the electronic state 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine via autoionization. The yield function of crosslinks is dominated by a broad peak extending over the 3.6-11.6 eV range with a sharper one at 17.6 eV. The different line shape of the latter function, compared to that of SSB and DSB, appears to be due to the formation of reactive radical sites in the initial supercoiled

  10. Standards for EV charging and their usability for providing V2G services in the primary reserve market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Vandael, Stijn; Andersen, Peter Bach;

    2016-01-01

    Transition to sustainable energy and transport is inevitable, which brings new challenges for the existing power grid. Meanwhile, electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming more widespread and their potential for grid support services is becoming more evident. However, such intelligent integration of EVs...... into a smart grid is highly dependent on infrastructure and communication. This work overviews and analyses the current state of available standards in the field of eMobility. It particularly focuses on their usability for enabling V2G services such as primary frequency regulation....

  11. 直面EV71 一种让父母手足无措的病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    5月,安徽阜阳22名儿童被一种名为EV71的病毒夺去生命。为些,《时尚育儿》论坛www.baby023.com于5月2日贴出"重视EV71"一帖,引起了网友妈妈的极大关注。现将帖子内容整理刊登于此。

  12. EV71”挺“娇气”封堵传播并不难

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    EV71病毒虽然来势汹汹,但却比较“娇气”,所以在卫生部印发的防控指南中,要求“做好儿童个人、家庭和托幼机构的卫生”,而这正是利用了EV71“娇气”的特性,也是堵住传播途径、预防病毒感染的关键。

  13. PHEV-EV Charger Technology Assessment with an Emphasis on V2G Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C [ORNL; Bedir, Abdulkadir [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    More battery powered electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will be introduced to the market in 2011 and beyond. Since these vehicles have large batteries that need to be charged from an external power source or directly from the grid, their batteries, charging circuits, charging stations/infrastructures, and grid interconnection issues are garnering more attention. This report summarizes information regarding the batteries used in PHEVs, different types of chargers, charging standards and circuits, and compares different topologies. Furthermore, it includes a list of vehicles that are going to be in the market soon with information on their charging and energy storage equipment. A summary of different standards governing charging circuits and charging stations concludes the report. There are several battery types that are available for PHEVs; however, the most popular ones have nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) chemistries. The former one is being used in current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), but the latter will be used in most of the PHEVs and EVs due to higher energy densities and higher efficiencies. The chargers can be classified based on the circuit topologies (dedicated or integrated), location of the charger (either on or off the vehicle), connection (conductive, inductive/wireless, and mechanical), electrical waveform (direct current (dc) or alternating current (ac)), and the direction of power flow (unidirectional or bidirectional). The first PHEVs typically will have dedicated, on-board, unidirectional chargers that will have conductive connections to the charging stations or wall outlets and will be charged using either dc or ac. In the near future, bidirectional chargers might also be used in these vehicles once the benefits of practical vehicle to grid applications are realized. The terms charger and charging station cause terminology confusion. To prevent misunderstandings, a more descriptive term

  14. Optical latches using optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Hu, Hongyu; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2013-05-01

    Optical latches are important for a wide range of applications including communication systems, optical logic systems, optical random access memory (RAM) and encryption. All optical logic operations using quantum dot (QD) based semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) have been studied. The building block of an optical latch such as NAND gate has been fabricated and their operation experimentally demonstrated at ~ 80 GHz. A rate equation model has been developed for the QD-SOA-MZI and it has been used to analyze the Boolean logic operation. The model has been used to analyze the Set-Reset (S-R) latch and the D-Flip-Flop (DFF) devices. The DFF is the basic device for building larger logic circuits. The results show that the latches would work to speeds of ~ 250 Gb/s.

  15. Electron inelastic interactions in bioorganic compounds in the energy range of 20 10000 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Xia, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Ji, Y.; Li, F.; Huang, B.

    2005-09-01

    Systematic calculations of stopping powers (SPs) and mean free paths (MFPs) for 10 bioorganic compounds have been performed for electrons with energies lower than 10 keV, based on dielectric response theory and Penn’s statistical approximation. The exchange effect is also taken into account in the calculations. An empirical approach to obtain an optical energy loss function is presented for those organic compounds without available optical data. Using this method, the calculated values of the optical energy loss function are in good agreement with experimental data. Comparisons of SP and MFP values derived in this study with other published values are presented. Using the described model, the calculated mean ionization potentials agree well with the predictions from Bragg’s rule and the calculated SPs have also been compared with the Bethe Bloch results at an energy of 10 keV.

  16. Mott-Hubbard vs. charge-transfer type: optical conductivity of LaSrMnO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ellipsometry we study the optical conductivity of insulating LaSrMnO4 between 0.75 and 5.8 eV from 15 to 330 K. The layered structure gives rise to a pronounced anisotropy. Based on a local multiplet calculation we obtain (i) an excellent description of our data, (ii) a detailed peak assignment in terms of the multiplet splitting of Mott-Hubbard and charge-transfer (CT) bands, and (iii) effective electronic parameters, e.g. the on-site Coulomb repulsion Ueff=2.2 eV, the in-plane CT energy Δa=4.5 eV, and the crystal-field parameters (10 Dq=1.2 eV, Δeg=1.4 eV, and Δt2g=0.2 eV). The spectral weight of the lowest peak (at 1-2 eV) changes by a factor of 2 as a function of temperature, which can be attributed to the change of the nearest-neighbor spin-spin correlation function. Interpreting LaSrMnO4 effectively as a Mott-Hubbard insulator naturally explains this strong T dependence, the relative weight of the different peaks, and the pronounced anisotropy. From the transmittance we determine the onset of the optical gap Δaopt=0.4-0.45 eV at 15 K and 0.1-0.2 eV at 300 K. Our data show that the crystal-field splitting is too large to explain the anomalous T dependence of the c-axis lattice parameter by thermal occupation of excited crystal-field levels. Alternatively, we propose that a thermal population of the upper Hubbard band gives rise to the shrinkage of the c-axis lattice parameter

  17. Optical Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  18. Optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Roed, H; Sellebjerg, F

    2004-01-01

    To study the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC) in optic neuritis (ON).......To study the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC) in optic neuritis (ON)....

  19. EV71病毒核酸快速检测方法的比较%Comparison of Different Molecular Assays for the Rapid Detection of Enterovirus 71(EV71)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫海燕; 黄学勇; 许玉玲; 马宏; 陈豪敏; 许汴利

    2012-01-01

    Molecular detection of enterovirus (EV)71 RNA based on PCR methods is a quick and sensitive approach. At present, different PCR-based methods for EV71 RNA detection are available, but comparisons of results obtained using different approaches are limited. This study is to compare the analytical sensitivity and specificity of different real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) assays for enterovirus and EV71 detection, Altogether, three rRT-PCR assays and one cRT-PCR assay targeting the 5'UTR gene for universal detection of enterovirus; two rRT-PCR assays andone cRT-PCR assay targeting the VP1 gene for specific detection of EV 71 were examined. All assays showed good specificity. The detection sensitivity ranged from 8. 19 ×10 to 8. 19 ×105 copy equivalents. In general, rRT-PCR assays were more sensitive than cRT-PCR assays. All rRT-PCR assays showed 100% sensitivity for clinical specimens.%PCR方法检测肠道病毒71型(EV71)的分子诊断技术十分快速敏感.目前已有多篇文献报道了不同的检测EV71的PCR方法,但对不同方法检测结果的比较还少有报道.本研究将检测肠道病毒通用5′UTR基因的3种定量PCR(rRT-PCR)方法和1种普通PCR(cRT-PCR)方法和特异性检测EV71的2种rRT-PCR和1种cRT-PCR方法进行特异性和敏感性比较评估.所有试验方法都有较好的特异性,无交叉反应.核酸最低检测限值为从8.19× 101~8.19×105个拷贝,rRT-PCR比cRT-PCR更敏感.所有的rRT-PCR方法检测50份临床标本时都较敏感.

  20. Preparation of the EV71 VLPs%新肠道病毒71型病毒样颗粒的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓楠; 曹明慧; 李培锋

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究新肠道病毒71型(Enterovirus 71,EV71)病毒样颗粒(Virus-like particles,VLPs)的制备方法.方法:依据昆虫细胞偏爱密码子优化EV71 P1和EV71 3CD基因,将二者分别克隆至供体质粒pFastBac Dual多角体蛋白启动子pPh和pP10上;构建重组pFastBac Dual EV71 P1-3CD质粒,并与Bacmid质粒转座后,获得重组杆状病毒表达质粒转染至Sf9细胞,应用PCR、免疫荧光、SDS-Page和Western blot方法鉴定EV71 VLPs表达情况,最后利用蔗糖密度梯度离心的方法纯化EV71 VLPs.结果:经昆虫密码子优化的EV71 P1和EV71 3CD基因,利用Bac-to-Bac系统成功组装了EV71 VLPs,纯化EV71 VLPs的浓度为0.817 mg/ml,纯度>90%.结论:成功地构建了重组杆状病毒EV71 P1-3CD Bacmid表达质粒,并表达和纯化了 EV71 VLPs,这为今后EV71 VLPs疫苗的研究奠定了基础.%Objective: The aim of the present study was to prepared EV71 VLPs, which was important for further studies in term of EV71 VLPs. Methods: Based on preferred codon optimization of insect cells ,EV71 P1 and EV71 3 CD genes were cloned into the donor vector pFastBac Dual under the polyhedrin promoter pPh and pP 10, and the constructed donor plasmid pFastBac Dual -P1 -3CD was transformed to E. Coli DHlOBac. The obtained recombinant baculovirus plasmid Bacmid -P1-3CD was transfected into Sf9 cells to prepare recombinant baeulovirus and the expressed products were identified by PCR , IFA, SDS-Page and Western -Blot. Then the VLPs were purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation . Results:The EV71 P1 and EV71 3CD genes insects codon optimized were assembled EV71 VLPs successfully by Bac-to-Bac system. Concentration of purified EV71 VLPs was 0. 817 mg/ml, purity of 90%. Conclusion:Finally, the pFastBac Dual EV71 P1-3CD was constructed , and EV71 VLPs were expressed and purified successfully, which provide a valuable platform for the future EV71 VLPs vaccine research.

  1. Lagrangian optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K

    2002-01-01

    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  2. Optical properties of metal and semiconductor SmS thin films fabricated by rf/dc dual magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical properties of both metal and semiconductor phases of SmS thin films on Si substrate grown at a room temperature by dual targets (dc for metal Sm and rf for pressed powdered chalcogenide Sm2S3) magnetron sputtering system with the concurrent adjustment of the applied power to respective target, were evaluated by SE at the photon energy range between 0.75 to 5.0 eV. This is the first work performed on the intrinsically prepared metallic sample while the former works done for the sample transformed from semiconductor to metal phase by hard polishing. The followings are concluded: (1) in the metallic film, the refractive indices n have maximum value of 2.20 at 4.10 eV, while extinction coefficient k decreases monotonically and reaches 0.03 at 5.0 eV. The absorption coefficient derived from the obtained k and the complex dielectric constant from n and k agree satisfactorily with those cited in the preceding literatures for the bulk samples; (2) in the case of semiconductor, the refractive indices n have the maximum 3.66 at 3.93 eV, while extinction coefficient k increase monotonically from 0 at 2.31 eV to 1.633 at 5.0 eV. The optical transition mode from valence to conduction band is difficult to determine as either indirect allowed or direct forbidden mode because of the insignificant difference between the linear behavior of the curves α1/2 and that of α2/3 (α: absorption coefficient) as a function of photon energy beyond 3.5 eV. Hence the optical band gap Eg followed by indirect allowed mode and direct forbidden mode is given as 2.67 and 2.78 eV, respectively. The agreement between the derived dielectric constant and those in the preceding literatures for bulk semiconductors is not satisfactory

  3. Testing Serial Correlation in Semiparametric Varying-Coefficient Partially Linear EV Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-mei Hu; Zhi-zhong Wang; Feng Liu

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies estimation and serial correlation test of a semiparametric varying-coefficient partially linear EV model of the form Y = Xτβ + Zτα(T) + ε,ξ = X + η with the identifying condition E[(ε,ητ)τ] = 0, Cov[(ε,ητ)τ] = σ2Iρ+1. The estimators of interested regression parameters β, and the model error variance σ2, as well as the nonparametric components α(T), are constructed. Under some regular conditions, we show that the estimators of the unknown vector β and the unknown parameter σ2 are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal and that the estimator of α(T) achieves the optimal strong convergence rate of the usual nonparametric regression. Based on these estimators and asymptotic properties, we propose the VN,p test statistic and empirical log-likelihood ratio statistic for testing serial correlation in the model. The proposed statistics are shown to have asymptotic normal or chi-square distributions under the null hypothesis of no serial correlation. Some simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of the proposed tests.

  4. Cosmology based on $f(R)$ gravity with ${\\cal O}(1)$ eV sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Chudaykin, A S; Starobinsky, A A; Burenin, R A

    2015-01-01

    We address the cosmological role of ${\\cal O}(1)$ eV sterile neutrino in modified gravity models. We confront the present cosmological data with the predictions of FLRW cosmological model based on a variant of $f(R)$ modified gravity proposed by one of the authors previously. This viable cosmological model which deviation from general relativity with an induced effective cosmological constant decreases as $R^{-2n}$ for large, but not too large values of the Ricci scalar $R$ provides an alternative to the bare cosmological constant explanation of the present dark energy and accelerated expansion of the Universe ($n=2$ is adopted). We used various up-to-date cosmological data sets including Planck CMB anisotropy, CMB lensing potential, BAO, cluster mass function and Hubble constant measurements. Using the low-z measurements of linear perturbation amplitude from galaxy cluster mass function data we find that sum of neutrino masses constrained by CMB+BAO data is not sufficient to compensate for the extra linear p...

  5. Can EV (electric vehicles) address Ireland's CO2 emissions from transport?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period 1990-2007, CO2 emissions from Ireland's Transport sector increased by 181%. It has been proposed that a transition to EV (electrically-powered vehicles) - either BEV (battery-powered) or PHEV (plug-in hybrids) - offers the potential for significant reductions in these emissions. However, the benefits of PHEV - and of plug-in vehicles generally - accrue because some fraction of the fossil fuel normally consumed by the vehicle is displaced by electricity extracted from the national grid. The net benefit therefore depends on many factors, including the characteristics of the electricity generation and distribution system, and the proportion of vkm (vehicle-kilometres) completed under electric power. This paper examines these factors in an Irish context. On the basis of individual vehicles, it is found that electrification yields substantial and immediate reductions in GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions for urban-type driving cycles. For inter-city travel, however, the percentage reduction attainable is much smaller, and the technical difficulty of achieving this capability is much greater. Unless that challenge can be overcome, it is shown, 50-75% of CO2 emissions from private cars will remain beyond the reach of electrification.

  6. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission with Tabletop 11eV Laser

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yu; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, Michael; Moore, Robert; Kirchmann, Patrick; Merriam, Andrew; Shen, Zhixun

    2015-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with $113.778$nm wavelength (10.897eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10MHz, provides a flux of 2$\\times$10$^{12}$ photons/second, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2meV and 0.012\\AA$^{-1}$, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2\\AA$^{-1}$, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source, and sho...

  7. Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike with Ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center initiated baseline testing of the EV Global E-Bike SX with ultracapacitors as a way to reduce pollution in urban areas, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs for transportation systems. The E-Bike provides an inexpensive approach to advance the state of art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB). The E-Bike is a state of the art, ground up, hybrid electrical bicycle. Unique features of the vehicle's power system include the use of an efficient, 400 W electric hub motor, and a seven-speed derailleur system that permits operation as fully electric, fully pedal, or a combination of the two. Other innovative features, such as regenerative braking through ultracapacitor energy storage, are planned. Regenerative braking recovers much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle during deceleration. A description of the E-bike, the results of performance testing, and future vehicle development plans are given in this report. The report concludes that the E-Bike provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  8. EV-13 Helium Valve Discharge Coefficient Characterization by Continuous Water Flow Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Seth

    In this project, the students of the Suborbital Center of Excellence characterized the discharge coefficient of a modified NASA scientific Balloon valve using a water channel that was designed and built by the students specifically to test this valve. This coefficient is used in the balloon flight models (SINBAD) to predict the helium discharge rates at various altitudes and appropriate helium vent durations. Previous phases of the project subjected the valve to both highly transient and steady air flows resulting in a relatively small range of possible discharge coeffi- cient values that compared well to previous tests of the EV-13 valve. In this test, water is to be used as the working fluid because there will be fewer variables in the equation. Fewer equation variables translate to an error rate smaller than some of the previous test phases. Additionally, the authors present a detailed error/uncertainty analysis, description of the test setup, experimental procedures, calculations, results from previous phases, and literature searches.

  9. The role of low-energy (≤ 20 eV) electrons in astrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Michael C.; Rivas, Nathalie; Tran, Audrey A.; Verish, Clarissa A.; Arumainayagam, Christopher R.

    2016-10-01

    UV photon-driven condensed phase cosmic ice reactions have been the main focus in understanding the extraterrestrial synthesis of complex organic molecules. Low-energy (≤ 20 eV) electron-induced reactions, on the other hand, have been largely ignored. In this article, we review studies employing surface science techniques to study low-energy electron-induced condensed phase reactions relevant to astrochemistry. In particular, we show that low-energy electron irradiation of methanol ices leads to the synthesis of many of the same complex molecules formed through UV irradiation. Moreover, our results are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that high-energy condensed phase radiolysis is mediated by low-energy electron-induced reactions. In addition, due to the numbers of available low-energy secondary electrons resulting from the interaction of high-energy radiation with matter as well as differences between electron- and photon-induced processes, low-energy electron-induced reactions are perhaps as, or even more, effective than photon-induced reactions in initiating condensed-phase chemical reactions in the interstellar medium. Consequently, we illustrate a need for astrochemical models to include the details of electron-induced reactions in addition to those driven by UV photons. Finally, we show that low-energy electron-induced reactions may lead to the production of unique molecular species that could serve as tracer molecules for electron-induced condensed phase reactions in the interstellar medium.

  10. Search for eV sterile neutrinos at a nuclear reactor — the Stereo project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haser, J.; Stereo Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The re-analyses of the reference spectra of reactor antineutrinos together with a revised neutrino interaction cross section enlarged the absolute normalization of the predicted neutrino flux. The tension between previous reactor measurements and the new prediction is significant at 2.7 σ and is known as “reactor antineutrino anomaly”. In combination with other anomalies encountered in neutrino oscillation measurements, this observation revived speculations about the existence of a sterile neutrino in the eV mass range. Mixing of this light sterile neutrino with the active flavours would lead to a modification of the detected antineutrino flux. An oscillation pattern in energy and space could be resolved by a detector at a distance of few meters from a reactor core: the neutrino detector of the Stereo project will be located at about 10 m distance from the ILL research reactor in Grenoble, France. Lengthwise separated in six target cells filled with 2 m3 Gd-loaded liquid scintillator in total, the experiment will search for a position-dependent distortion in the energy spectrum.

  11. Collisional-Radiative Modeling of Tungsten at Temperatures of 1200–2400 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Colgan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss new collisional-radiative modeling calculations of tungsten at moderate temperatures of 1200 to 2400 eV. Such plasma conditions are relevant to ongoing experimental work at ASDEX Upgrade and are expected to be relevant for ITER. Our calculations are made using the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL collisional-radiative modeling ATOMIC code. These calculations formed part of a submission to the recent NLTE-8 workshop that was held in November 2013. This series of workshops provides a forum for detailed comparison of plasma and spectral quantities from NLTE collisional-radiative modeling codes. We focus on the LANL ATOMIC calculations for tungsten that were submitted to the NLTE-8 workshop and discuss different models that were constructed to predict the tungsten emission. In particular, we discuss comparisons between semi-relativistic configuration-average and fully relativistic configuration-average calculations. We also present semi-relativistic calculations that include fine-structure detail, and discuss the difficult problem of ensuring completeness with respect to the number of configurations included in a CR calculation.

  12. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Shen, Zhi-Xun [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liu, Zhongkai [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zong, Alfred [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Jefferson, C. Michael; Merriam, Andrew J. [Lumeras LLC, 207 McPherson St, Santa Cruz, California 95060 (United States); Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S. [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10{sup 12} photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å{sup −1}, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å{sup −1}, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  13. Studies of Air Showers above 10^18 eV with the CHICOS Array

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, T W; Carlson, B E; Jillings, C J; Larson, M B; McKeown, R D; Hill, J E; Falkowski, B J; Seki, R; Sepikas, J; Yodh, G B; Wells, D; Chan, K C

    2005-01-01

    CHICOS (California HIgh school Cosmic ray ObServatory) is presently an array of more than 140 detectors distributed over a large area (~400 km^2) of southern California, and will consist of 180 detectors at 90 locations in the near future. These sites, located at area schools, are equipped with computerized data acquisition and automatic nightly data transfer (via internet) to our Caltech lab. The installed sites make up the largest currently operating ground array for ultra-high energy cosmic ray research in the northern hemisphere. The goal of CHICOS is to provide data related to the flux and distribution of arrival directions for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We have performed detailed Monte-Carlo calculations to determine the density and arrival-time distribution of charged particles in extensive air showers for the CHICOS array. Calculations were performed for proton primaries with energies 10^18 to 10^21 eV and zenith angles out to 50 degrees. We have developed novel parameterizations for both distribu...

  14. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James J; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, C Michael; Moore, Robert G; Kirchmann, Patrick S; Merriam, Andrew J; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10(12) photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å(-1), respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å(-1), granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors. PMID:26827301

  15. Thorium s-wave neutron widths from 21 to 2006 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 232Th total cross section measurement in the resolved resonance region has been requested with a 2% accuracy in order to obtain resonance parameters with a 5% accuracy. These data are required for both fast and light-water breeder reactor studies. Inspection of the prior 232Th differential data base shows several problems: the thermal cross sections seem inconsistent; the measured capture widths have large uncertanties; the two rather complete sets of measured neutron widths are systematically discrepant; and the differential data appear to give Cd capture ratios and shielded-capture resonance integrals smaller than those required by integral measurements. In order to improve the differential data base we have measured neutron transmission spectra through eight samples of 232Th. Resonance parameters have been obtained from these data using the computer code S10B. Fits to these data up to 440 eV, which concentrated on the capture widths, have been previously reported. The results of extending these fits to 2.0 keV are reported and discussed in terms of the s-wave strength function and the dilute-capture resonance integral

  16. 1-eV GaInNAs solar cells for ultrahigh-frequency multijunction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, D.J.; Geisz, J.F.; Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors demonstrate working prototypes of a GaInNAs-based solar cell lattice-matched to GaAs with photoresponse down to 1 eV. This device is intended for use as the third junction of future-generation ultrahigh-efficiency three- and four-junction devices. Under the AM1.5 direct spectrum with all the light higher in energy than the GaAs band gap filtered out, the prototypes have open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.35 to 0.44 V, short-circuit currents of 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factors from 61--66%. The short-circuit currents are of principal concern: the internal quantum efficiencies rise only to about 0.2. The authors discuss the short diffusion lengths which are the reason for this low photocurrent. As a partial workaround for the poor diffusion lengths, they demonstrate a depletion-width-enhanced variation of one of the prototype devices that grades off decreased voltage for increased photocurrent, with a short-circuit current of 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and an open-circuit voltage of 0.29 V.

  17. 0.52eV Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diode Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MW Dashiell; JF Beausang; G Nichols; DM Depoy; LR Danielson; H Ehsani; KD Rahner; J Azarkevich; P Talamo; E Brown; S Burger; P Fourspring; W Topper; PF Baldasaro; CA Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; Jizhong Li; R Marinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi; DR Taylor; J Hazel

    2004-06-09

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes fabricated from 0.52eV lattice-matched InGaAsSb alloys are grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaSb substrates. 4cm{sup 2} multi-chip diode modules with front-surface spectral filters were tested in a vacuum cavity and attained measured efficiency and power density of 19% and 0.58 W/cm{sup 2} respectively at operating at temperatures of T{sub radiator} = 950 C and T{sub diode} = 27 C. Device modeling and minority carrier lifetime measurements of double heterostructure lifetime specimens indicate that diode conversion efficiency is limited predominantly by interface recombination and photon energy loss to the GaSb substrate and back ohmic contact. Recent improvements to the diode include lattice-matched p-type AlGaAsSb passivating layers with interface recombination velocities less than 100 cm/s and new processing techniques enabling thinned substrates and back surface reflectors. Modeling predictions of these improvements to the diode architecture indicate that conversion efficiencies from 27-30% and {approx}0.85 W/cm{sup 2} could be attained under the above operating temperatures.

  18. Thermophysical properties of near-Earth asteroid (341843) 2008 EV5 from WISE data

    CERN Document Server

    Alí-Lagoa, V; Delbo, M; Gundlach, B; Blum, J; Licandro, J

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To derive the thermal inertia of 2008 EV$_5$, the baseline target for the Marco Polo-R mission proposal, and infer information about the size of the particles on its surface. Methods. Values of thermal inertia are obtained by fitting an asteroid thermophysical model to NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared data. From the constrained thermal inertia and a model of heat conductivity that accounts for different values of the packing fraction (a measure of the degree of compaction of the regolith particles), grain size is derived. Results. We obtain an effective diameter $D = 370 \\pm 6\\,\\mathrm{m}$, geometric visible albedo $p_V = 0.13 \\pm 0.05$ (assuming $H=20.0 \\pm 0.4$), and thermal inertia $\\Gamma = 450 \\pm 60$ J/m2/s(1/2)/K at the 1-$\\sigma$ level of significance for its retrograde spin pole solution. The regolith particles radius is $r = 6.6^{+1.3}_{-1.3}$ mm for low degrees of compaction, and $r = 12.5^{+2.7}_{-2.6}$ mm for the highest packing densities.

  19. Linear Covariance Analysis For Proximity Operations Around Asteroid 2008 EV5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cinnamon A.; Bhatt, Sagar; Woffinden, David; Strube, Matthew; D'Souza, Christopher; DeWeese, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The NASA initiative to collect an asteroid the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) is currently investigating the option of retrieving a boulder off an asteroid, demonstrating planetary defense with an enhanced gravity tractor technique and returning it to a lunar orbit. Techniques for accomplishing this are being investigated by the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSOO) and NASA GSFC in colloboration with JPL, NASA, JSC, LaRC, and Draper Laboratories Inc. Two critical phases of the mission are the descent to the boulder and the Enhanced Gravity Tractor-enhanced gravity tractor demonstration. A linear covariance analysis was done for these phases to assess the feasibility of these concepts with the proposed design of the sensor and actuaor suite of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). The sensor suite for this analysis will include a wide field of view camera, Lidar, and a MMU. The proposed asteroid of interest is currently the C-type asteroid 2008 EV5, a carbonaceous chondrite that is of high interest to the scientific community. This paper will present an overview of the analysis discuss sensor and actuator models and address the feasibility of descending to the boulder within the requirements as the feasibility of maintaining the halo orbit in order to demonstrate the Enhanced Gravity Tractor-enhanced gravity tractory technique.

  20. Search for eV (pseudo)scalar penetrating particles in the SPS neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, Pierre; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Ballocchi, G; Banner, M; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I G; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S A; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, Paolo Walter; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R D; Daniels, D C; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kirsanov, M M; Klimov, O L; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnikov, N V; Krasnoperov, A V; Kuznetsov, V E; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Mossuz, L; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, Alfredo; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Popov, B; Poulsen, C; Rico, J; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sevior, M E; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Steininger, M; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Verkindt, D; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Volkov, S A; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zioutas, Konstantin; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2000-01-01

    We carried out a model-independent search for light scalar or pseudoscalar particles $a$'s (an example of which is the axion) that couple to two photons by using a photon-regeneration method at high energies allowing a substantial increase in the sensitivity to $eV$ masses.\\ The experimental set-up is based on elements of the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) beam line and theNOMAD neutrino detector.\\ The new particles, if they exist, could be produced through the Primakoff effect in interactions of high energy photons, generated by the 450 $GeV$ protons in the CERN SPS neutrino target, with virtual photons from the WANF horn magnetic field.\\ The particles would penetrate the downstream shieldingand would be observed in the NOMAD neutrino detector through their re-conversion into real high energy photons byinteracting with the virtual photons from the magnetic field of the NOMAD dipole magnet.\\ From the analysis of the data collected during the 1996 run with $1.08\\times10^{19}$ protons on target, 312 ca...

  1. EvArnoldi: A New Algorithm for Large-Scale Eigenvalue Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Ezer, Hillel

    2016-05-19

    Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are an essential theme in numerical linear algebra. Their study is mainly motivated by their high importance in a wide range of applications. Knowledge of eigenvalues is essential in quantum molecular science. Solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the electrons composing the molecule are the basis of electronic structure theory. Electronic eigenvalues compose the potential energy surfaces for nuclear motion. The eigenvectors allow calculation of diople transition matrix elements, the core of spectroscopy. The vibrational dynamics molecule also requires knowledge of the eigenvalues of the vibrational Hamiltonian. Typically in these problems, the dimension of Hilbert space is huge. Practically, only a small subset of eigenvalues is required. In this paper, we present a highly efficient algorithm, named EvArnoldi, for solving the large-scale eigenvalues problem. The algorithm, in its basic formulation, is mathematically equivalent to ARPACK ( Sorensen , D. C. Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi/Lanczos Methods for Large Scale Eigenvalue Calculations ; Springer , 1997 ; Lehoucq , R. B. ; Sorensen , D. C. SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications 1996 , 17 , 789 ; Calvetti , D. ; Reichel , L. ; Sorensen , D. C. Electronic Transactions on Numerical Analysis 1994 , 2 , 21 ) (or Eigs of Matlab) but significantly simpler. PMID:27015379

  2. Analysis and solution of false-positives when testing CVA16 sera using an antibody assay against the EV71 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbing; You, Aiping; Tian, Xingui; Zhao, Mingqi; Chen, Yi; Lin, Tao; Zheng, Jianbin; Xiao, Misi; Zhang, Yingying; Kuang, Lu; Zhou, Zhenwen; Zhu, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in humans is caused mainly by Enterovirus 71(EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). EV71 is associated with severe HFMD cases but not CVA16. Use of IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is important for the early diagnosis of EV71 infection, but cross-reactivity of the anti-CVA16 IgM antibody with EV71 produces false-positive results. In this report, we designed a new EV71 IgM-capture ELISA method using the EV71 VP1 peptide instead of the EV71 virion as the detectable antigen, and tested sera from patients infected with EV71 or CVA16. The results showed that acute sera from 76 EV71-infected patients had similar sensitivity for virus detection (98.68%) or VP1 detection (97.37%). When acute sera from patients infected with CVA16 were used, significant differences between the two methods were observed. The cross-reactivity rate of the virus detection method was 29.4% (5/17), but no cross-reactivity was observed using the VP1 detection method. Western immunoblotting demonstrated that EV71 VP3 cross-reacted with part of the CVA16 IgM antibody. The results demonstrate that EV71 VP3 is the cross-reactive antigen in the EV71 IgM-capture ELISA when testing CVA16 sera using the virus-antibody detection method. The problem of false-positive results was resolved by using the VP1 peptide as the detectable antigen.

  3. 抗肠道病毒71型药物研究进展%Research Progress on Anti-EV71 Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静; 周志统; 袁正宏

    2011-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(EV71)是引起手足口病的主要病原体,并且EV71引起的神经系统并发症所造成的危害也越来越引起人们的重视.但是迄今尚无有效的EV71疫苗和特效抗EV71药物.目前,国内外针对EV71复制周期不同靶点的抗病毒药物研究取得了一定的突破.现将受体阻断剂、病毒衣壳结合剂、蛋白酶抑制剂、3DRNA多聚酶抑制剂、利巴韦林、RNA干扰技术以及中药等抗EV71的研究进展进行综述.%EV71 is the main etiological agent of hand , foot and mouth disease( HFMD ) , people pay more and more attention on the harm of EV71 caused neurological complications. But there are still lacking of effective EV71 vaccine and anti-EV71 drug. Currently,domestic and overseas research group have achieved some breakthrough progress on anti-EV71 drug research which target different site of viral replication cycle.This article reviewed recent studies of research progress on anti-EV71 agents which based on various molecular targets. Including receptor inhibitors , vial capsid-binding molecules , 3C protease inhibitor , 3 D RNA polymerase inhibitor , ribavirin, RNA interference and traditional Chinese medcine.

  4. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 10(18) eV using the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a measurement of the flux of cosmic rays with unprecedented precision and Statistics using the Pierre Auger Observatory Based on fluorescence observations in coincidence with at least one Surface detector we derive a spectrum for energies above 10(18) eV We also update the previously publi

  5. What Kind of Charging Infrastructure Do Chevrolet Volt Drivers in The EV Project Use and When Do They Use It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will present information describing the charging behavior of Chevrolet Volts that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will included aggregated data from more than 1,800 vehicles regarding locations, power levels, and time-of-day of charging events performed by those vehicles. This document will be published to the INL AVTA website.

  6. Introduction of electric double layer capacitors in the solar-EV; Solar denki jidosha eno denki nijuso condenser no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaka, M. [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A basic experiment was carried out on a supplementary power supply, in which solar cells and electric double layer capacitors(EDLC) were combined for a DC/DC converter, for the use of a solar-electric vehicle (S-EV); and in actuality, an S-EV was loaded with the power supply with a running test conducted on a public road. The EDLC was found effective and useful for avoiding temporary lowering of voltage and momentary break. An electric supply was thereby made possible for an emergency light without the use of the DC/DC converter. However, in a tunnel or a night driving and in case of failure of the DC/DC converter, an operating time of only 7 minutes or so was affordable with the EDLC having a capacity of 100F. Moreover, particularly with a heavy load, it was impossible to maintain a voltage for many hours. Under the circumstances, an S-EV design would primarily require two sets of independent DC/DC converter loaded in the future. The EDLC, young after it was developed, still has a small energy density compared with a lead storage battery. Yet, an EDLC with a higher performance being developed, there is a possibility that it will be applied to S-EV`s by utilizing its characteristics such as a high efficiency and a long service life. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Play as the Leading Activity of the Preschool Period: Insights from Vygotsky, Leont'ev, and Bakhtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert M.; Tarulli, Donato

    2003-01-01

    Discusses ideas from Vygotsky, Leont'ev and Bakhtin to show how fantasy play acts as its own zone of proximal development that contributes to the development of symbolic mediation, the appropriation of social roles and symbols, and the preschool child's preparation for elementary school. (JPB)

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Human Enterovirus Strain 71 (EV71/Taipei/3118/2011), Isolated from a Patient in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Pei; Liu, Jiung-Liang; Chen, Lung-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Chao; Wang, Hsiu-Chi; Lin, Shih-Jie; Chen, Pin-Chun; Wang, Kun-Teng; Huang, Chih-Hung; Yang, Yi-Chan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang; Shih, Daniel Yang-Chih; Wang, Der-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This full-length genome sequence of human enterovirus strain 71 (EV71/Taipei/3118/2011) was isolated from a clinical patient in Taiwan in 2011. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the complete genome sequence in this study is part of the subgenotype C4.

  9. Toomkiriku Saueri orel saab korda! / Hugo Lepnurm, Toomas Mäeväli ; interv. Alo Põldmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepnurm, Hugo, 1914-1999

    1998-01-01

    Prof. Hugo Lepnurm ja orelimeister Toomas Mäeväli Toomkiriku Saueri oreli restaureerimise käigust saksa firmas Orgelwerkstatt Christian Scheffler. Oreli sisseõnnistamine 1. augustil 1998. Samas andmed oreli elukäigust. Oreli ehitas 1858. a. saksa meister Friedrich Ladegast. Eestis viimasel ajal töökorda saadud teistest orelitest.

  10. Si-Ge-Sn alloys with 1.0 eV gap for CPV multijunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roucka, Radek, E-mail: radek@translucentinc.com; Clark, Andrew [Translucent Inc., Palo Alto, CA, 94303 (United States); Landini, Barbara [Sumika Electronic Materials Inc., Phoenix, AZ, 85034 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Si-Ge-Sn ternary group IV alloys offer an alternative to currently used 1.0 eV gap materials utilized in multijunction solar cells. The advantage of Si-Ge-Sn is the ability to vary both the bandgap and lattice parameter independently. We present current development in fabrication of Si-Ge-Sn alloys with gaps in the 1.0 eV range. Produced material exhibits excellent structural properties, which allow for integration with existing III-V photovoltaic cell concepts. Time dependent room temperature photoluminescence data demonstrate that these materials have long carrier lifetimes. Absorption tunable by compositional changes is observed. As a prototype device set utilizing the 1 eV Si-Ge-Sn junction, single junction Si-Ge-Sn device and triple junction device with Si-Ge-Sn subcell have been fabricated. The resulting I-V and external quantum efficiency data show that the Si-Ge-Sn junction is fully functional and the performance is comparable to other 1.0 eV gap materials currently used.

  11. Potential Estimation of Hourly Blank Storage Space and Charge Loads of EVs using Road Traffic Census and Vehicles Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takuya; Ito, Masakazu; Kawasaki, Norihiro; Miyazaki, Takahiko; Kashiwagi, Takao

    If both EVs (Electric Vehicles, includes plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) and renewable energies spread in large quantities, it is possible to control the supply fluctuation of renewable energies using the storage battery of EVs. This research tried to show the charge load potential of EVs based on the state of the Japanese passenger car using traffic census results etc. Furthermore, it tried to show trend of the storage battery capacity according to time. From the estimated result; (1) the charge electricity of low and middle distance gets a majority of the total charge demand, (2) charge load changes according to time several times, and the minimum load is the number of GWh at early morning, (3) if night charge is assumed, the standby charge demand of noon will reach tens GWh, it may have sufficient scale for supply fluctuation control of PVs. Although the present EV is not suitable for long-distance running, these are expected to be 30 or less percent of the total charge demand. The estimated storage capacity potential in this research will not change numbers of times.

  12. Quasiparticle and optical spectroscopy of the organic semiconductors pentacene and PTCDA from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Biller, Ariel; Kronik, Leeor; Neaton, Jeffrey B.

    2012-03-01

    The broad use of organic semiconductors for optoelectronic applications relies on quantitative understanding and control of their spectroscopic properties. Of paramount importance are the transport gap—the difference between ionization potential and electron affinity—and the exciton binding energy—inferred from the difference between the transport and optical absorption gaps. Transport gaps are commonly established via photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (PES/IPES). However, PES and IPES are surface-sensitive, average over a dynamic lattice, and are subject to extrinsic effects, leading to significant uncertainty in gaps. Here, we use density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory to calculate the spectroscopic properties of two prototypical organic semiconductors, pentacene, and 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), quantitatively comparing with measured PES, IPES, and optical absorption spectra. For bulk pentacene and PTCDA, the computed transport gaps are 2.4 and 3.0 eV, and optical gaps are 1.7 and 2.1 eV, respectively. Computed bulk quasiparticle spectra are in excellent agreement with surface-sensitive photoemission measurements over several eV only if the measured gap is reduced by 0.6 eV for pentacene and 0.6-0.9 eV for PTCDA. We attribute this redshift to several physical effects, including incomplete charge screening at the surface, static and dynamical disorder, and experimental resolution. Optical gaps are in excellent agreement with experiment with solid-state exciton binding energies of ˜0.5 eV for both systems; for pentacene the exciton is delocalized over several molecules and exhibits significant charge transfer character. Our parameter-free calculations provide new interpretation of spectroscopic properties of organic semiconductors critical to optoelectronics.

  13. Validation-based insertional mutagenesis for identification of Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bei; Zhang, XiaoYu; Zhao, Zhendong, E-mail: timjszzd@163.com

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •We introduced a new mutagenesis strategy named VBIM to the viral research. •This method can identify either host factors or host restriction factors. •Using VBIM system, we identified Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells. -- Abstract: Lentiviral validation-based insertional mutagenesis (VBIM) is a sophisticated, forward genetic approach that is used for the investigation of signal transduction in mammalian cells. Using VBIM, we conducted function-based genetic screening for host genes that affect enterovirus 71 (EV71) viral replication. This included host factors that are required for the life cycle of EV71 and host restriction factors that inhibit EV71 replication. Several cell clones, resistant to EV71, were produced using EV71 infection as a selection pressure and the nuclear pore protein 214 (Nup214) was identified as a host factor required for EV71 replication. In SD2-2, the corresponding VBIM lentivirus transformed clone, the expression of endogenous Nup214 was significantly down-regulated by the reverse inserted VBIM promoter. After Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the VBIM promoter, the expression of Nup214 recovered and the clone regained sensitivity to the EV71 infection. Furthermore, over-expression of Nup214 in the cells suggested that Nup214 was promoting EV71 replication. Results of this study indicate that a successful mutagenesis strategy has been established for screening host genes related to viral replication.

  14. Demand Response and Economic Dispatch of Power Systems Considering Large-Scale Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles/Electric Vehicles (PHEVs/EVs): A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Xu; Junpeng Zhu; Haojun Yu; Wei Liu; Wei Gu

    2013-01-01

    Increasing concerns about global environmental issues have led to the urgent development of green transportation. The enthusiasm of governments should encourage the prosperity of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles/electric vehicles (PHEVs/EVs) industry in the near future. PHEVs/EVs are not only an alternative to gasoline but are also burgeoning units for power systems. The impact of large-scale PHEVs/EVs on power systems is of profound significance. This paper discusses how to use PHEVs/EVs...

  15. Coupled-channels-optical calculation of electron-helium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for electron impact excitation of the singlet n = 1 and 2 states of the helium atom at various energies ranging from 30-200eV are calculated using the coupled-channels optical method with the half-on-shell polarisation potential. The electron impact coherence parameters for the excitation to the 21P state are also calculated. Overall good, semiquantitative agreement with experiment is achieved. 33 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  16. [Hand-foot-mouth disease pathogen separation and EV71 VP1 gene analysis in Sanmenxia City, Henan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-xing; Wu, Jing-fu; Yang, Jie; Wei, Hai-yan; Xu, Yu-ling; Huang, Xue-yong

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the enterovirus types and biological features of pediatric cases of HFMD in Sanmenxia City during 2011, and compare the latter to a cohort of healthy children. Stool samples of 55 cases of HFMD and 60 healthy children were collected for the isolation and identification of enteroviruses using RNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR assays. EV71 and CA16 were identified by nucleotide sequencing using virus-specific VP1 primers; for the other enteroviruses, 012/011 and 008/013 primers were used for amplification and sequencing. The results were analysed by sequence alignment with known sequences, and the characteristics of the EV71 VP1 gene were also analyzed. The detection rates for enteroviruses in cases of HFMD and healthy children were 52.73% (29/55) and 18.33% (11/60), respectively. Among these, there were 22 cases of EV71, four cases of CA16 and three cases of other enteroviruses in the cases with HFMD. Eleven healthy children had intestinal viruses, of which nine were Coxsackie B virus strains (81.82%, 9/11). Gene sequencing of the 19 EV71 strains illustrated that they were all subgenotype C4a, but the evolutionary tree showed an obvious clustering between cases from Lingbao City and Lushi County. This study demonstrates that the EV71 subgenotype C4a and CA16 strains were the most common cause of HFMD in Sanmenxia City in 2011, and that Coxsackie B strains were prevalent in healthy children. This finding may indicate that there is a widespread source of recessive infection in the community.

  17. Optical holography

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Optical Holography deals with the use of optical holography to solve technical problems, with emphasis on the properties of holograms formed with visible light. Topics covered include the Fourier transform, propagation and diffraction, pulsed-laser holography, and optical systems with spherical lenses. A geometric analysis of point-source holograms is also presented, and holograms and hologram spatial filters formed with spatially modulated reference waves are described. This book is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to concepts that are basic to understanding hologr

  18. Annealing Effects on the Photoluminescence and Optical Properties of In-Doped CdS Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniye KARAKAYA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the II–IV semiconductor compounds, CdS (band gap 2.43 eV have large applications as photoconductors, in semiconductor lasers, nonlinear optical devices and photovoltaic solar cells. In this work; In-doped CdS (CdS:In

  19. Investigation of the optical properties of ordered semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Jack E., Jr.

    1997-11-01

    Optical Studies have been conducted upon CdGeAs2 and ZnGeP2, two of the most promising semiconductors being developed for mid-infrared non-linear optics applications. These experiments included photoluminescence (PL) studies of both compounds as well as photoreflectance (PR) measurements upon CdGeAs2. In addition, Hall effect measurements were carried out upon CdGeAs2, to aid in interpretation of the optical data. PL was measured as a function of laser power, sample temperature, and crystal orientation for CdGeAs2. One broad weak peak near 0.38 eV, and another somewhat narrower and often far brighter peak near 0.57 eV were found by low temperature (4 K) PL measurements. Strongly polarized PL was observed with the E field of the PL parallel to the material's c-axis. A polarization ratio as high as 6:1 was observed. PL on ZnGeP2 in the mid-IR revealed a previously unreported PL peak near 0.35 eV. PR measurements on CdCeAs2 allowed the estimation of the bandgap as a function of temperature. The low temperature bandgap proved to be lower than that reported for electroreflectance measurements on other samples of this compound. Hall effect measurements on CdGeAs2 reveals the dominant acceptor level lies about 120 meV above the valence band.

  20. Imaging the heliosphere using neutral atoms from solar wind energy down to 15 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P. [Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern 3012 (Switzerland); Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw 00-716 (Poland); Möbius, E. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We study the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath observed with the IBEX-Lo sensor of the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) from solar wind energies down to the lowest available energy (15 eV). All available IBEX-Lo data from 2009 January until 2013 June were included. The sky regions imaged when the spacecraft was outside of Earth's magnetosphere and when the Earth was moving toward the direction of observation offer a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio even at very low energies. We find that the ENA ribbon—a 20° wide region of high ENA intensities—is most prominent at solar wind energies whereas it fades at lower energies. The maximum emission in the ribbon is located near the poles for 2 keV and closer to the ecliptic plane for energies below 1 keV. This shift is an evidence that the ENA ribbon originates from the solar wind. Below 0.1 keV, the ribbon can no longer be identified against the globally distributed ENA signal. The ENA measurements in the downwind direction are affected by magnetospheric contamination below 0.5 keV, but a region of very low ENA intensities can be identified from 0.1 keV to 2 keV. The energy spectra of heliospheric ENAs follow a uniform power law down to 0.1 keV. Below this energy, they seem to become flatter, which is consistent with predictions. Due to the subtraction of local background, the ENA intensities measured with IBEX agree with the upper limit derived from Lyα observations.

  1. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  2. The natural diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 is an inhibitor of fungal delta-9 fatty acid desaturation with efficacy in a model of skin dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Philipp; Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B V; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids-but not saturated fatty acids-antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086-phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses.

  3. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate induced cross-neutralizing antibody against subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16. METHODS: Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses. RESULTS: The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had 4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (∼20% of participants against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8 against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16. CONCLUSION: EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01268787.

  4. Ocean optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  5. Magneto-optic properties and optical parameter of thin MnCo films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Attaran Kakhki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Having precise hysterics loop of thin ferroelectric and ferromagnetic layers for optical switching and optical storages are important. A hysterieses loop can be achieved from a phenomenon call the magneto-optic effect. The magneto-optic effect is the rotation of a linear polarized electromagnetic wave propagated through a ferromagnetic medium. When light is transmitted through a layer of magnetic material the result is called the Faraday effects and in the reflection mode Kerr effect. In the present work we prepared a thin layer of MnxCo3-xO4 (0≤ x ≤ 1 and a binary form of MnO/Co3O4 by the spray pyrolysis method. The films have been characterized by a special set up of magneto-optic hysterics loop plotter containing a polarized He- Ne laser beam and a special electronic circuit. Faraday rotation were measured for these films by hysterics loop plotter and their optical properties were also obtained by spatial software designed for this purpose according to Swane Poel theoretical method. The measurements show that the samples at diluted Mn study has are ferromagnetic and the magneto-optic rotation show a good enhance respect to the single Co layers. Also, the study has shown that the MnCo oxide layer have two different energy gaps and by increasing of Mn this energy decreases and fall to 0.13 eV.

  6. Spectra of Optical Functions and Transitions in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, V. V.; Timonov, A. P.; Sobolev, V. Val.

    2000-02-01

    Spectra of a complete set of optical functions are obtained for three different diamond samples in the region from 0 to 32 eV. The calculations were performed by the Kramers-Kronig method using experimental reflection spectra. Special features and differences of the spectra of optical functions of the three samples are analyzed. Based on the method of joined Argand diagrams, the spectra of the dielectric constant are decomposed into elementary components for the first time, and their energies and oscillator strengths are determined. The component structure is in good agreement with the theoretical spectrum of the dielectric constant and the expected spectrum of the interband transitions.

  7. Between the chairs. Pt. 2. Hurdles in the application and implementation of EnEV; Praxis versus Theorie. T. 2. Huerden in Anwendung und Umsetzung der EnEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsch, Lutz [Dorsch und Hoffmann GmbH, Institut fuer Energieeffizienz, Erkrath (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) has been employed since 2002 as a synonym for energy-saving legal minimum requirements in Germany. For the Federal Government, this regulation serves as an instrument for the implementation of the European and national targets for energy efficiency and climate protection. In the contribution under consideration the obstacles are presented that may arise during the planning implementation of the energy requirements.

  8. The association between IL1B gene-31 single nucleotide polymorphism and HFMD with EV71 infection%IL1B基因-31位点SNP与EV71手足口病的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹容容; 张国良; 刘映霞; 林益敏; 袁静; 李建明; 王艳荣; 邓永; 曾文

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between IL-1B gene-31 single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP)and susceptibility and severity of EV71 HFMD.Methods The genotype of IL-1B gene-31 SNP was determined in EV71 HFMD(n =1196,including 801 mild cases,395 severe cases)and healthy control group (HC,n =573)with TaqMan assay in a case-control study.(1)To explore the association between-31 SNP and susceptibility to EV71 HFMD;(2)To explore the association between-31 SNP and susceptibility to EV71 HFMD in different sex population;(3)To explored the association between-31 SNP and severity to EV71 HFMD.Results (1)IL-1B gene-31 T allele frequency was significantly higher in EV71 HFMD than that in HC.(2)IL-1B gene-31 T allele frequency was significantly higher in EV71 HFMD than in HC for male population.(3)The IL-1B gene-31 T is not associated with the severity of EV71 HFMD.Conclusion The IL-1B gene-31 T allele was associated with susceptibility to EV71 HFMD,but was not associated with the severity of EV71 HFMD,especially,the IL-1B gene-31 T allele was associated with susceptibility to EV71 HFMD for male population.%目的 探讨IL1B基因-31位点单核苷酸多态性(SNP)与EV71手足口病(HFMD)易感性及临床表型的相关性.方法 采用病例-对照研究方法,应用TaqMan探针基因分型技术,对1196例EV71 HFMD[(其中801例为轻症(M-EV71),395例为重症(S-EV71)]和573例健康对照人群(HC)IL1B基因-31位点进行分型,比较两组人群等位基因频率差异.(1)探讨IL1B基因-31位点SNP与EV71 HFMD易感性的相关性;(2)探讨在不同性别中-31位点SNP与EV71 HFMD易感性的相关性;(3)探讨-31位点SNP与EV71 HFMD临床表型的相关性.结果 (1) EV71 HFMD患者中IL1B基因-31 T等位基因的频率明显高于HC,这提示T等位基因增加了患EV71 HFMD的风险(OR=1.22;95% CI,1.06 ~1.40;P =0.007);(2)男性EV71 HFMD患者中IL1B基因-31 T等位基因的频率明显高于男性HC,这提示T等位基因也增加了男性患EV71 HFMD

  9. A single-aliquot regenerative-dose method based on IR (1.49 eV) bleaching of the fast OSL component in quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Murray, A.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.;

    2005-01-01

    assistance energy required for IR stimulation (1.49 eV; 830 nm) of the fast component is calculated to be 0.41 +/- 0.02 eV. However, the elevated temperature IRSL of quartz has a poor signal-to-noise ratio; hence a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol based on a differential-OSL signal (the...

  10. ATP1B3: a virus-induced host factor against EV71 replication by up-regulating the production of type-I interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanfang; Hou, Hongyan; Wang, Feng; Qiao, Long; Wang, Xiong; Yu, Jing; Liu, Weiyong; Sun, Ziyong

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe diseases, and is becoming increasingly common in children. In the current study, we carried out yeast two-hybrid assays to screen human proteins that could interact with 3A protein of EV71. Human β3 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP1B3) protein was demonstrated to interact with the 3A protein of EV71. Although 3A protein had no effect on the expression of ATP1B3, EV71 infection resulted in elevated expression of ATP1B3 in RD cell line, both on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Interestingly, knockdown of ATP1B3 could significantly increase the replication of EV71, whereas overexpression of ATP1B3 significantly suppressed the replication of EV71 in RD cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of ATP1B3 could induce the production of type-I interferons. Our study demonstrated that ATP1B3 inhibit EV71 replication by enhancing the production of type-I interferons, which could act as a potential therapeutic target in EV71 infection. PMID:27240146

  11. Formulation and immunological evaluation of a trivalent vaccine comprising emulsified submicron particles and inactivated virions of H5N1/EV71/JEV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Chang, Ching-Yun; Chen, Wei-Lin; Lin, Shih-Chang; Liao, Chien-Chun; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chih; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Wu, Suh-Chin; Chong, Pele; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2013-11-01

    Combination vaccines can reduce the number of injections and simplify the immunization schedule required to prevent different diseases. Here we assessed the immunogenicity in a mouse model of a vaccine composition comprising inactivated influenza viruses (H5N1/H1N1), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and/or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and investigated whether the vaccine formulations can overcome the immunologic interference between the individual vaccine components. We demonstrated that the antigenic competition happens between H5N1/H1N1 or H5N1/EV71 inactivated virions when the vaccine combinations either formulated with Alum suspensions or without adjuvant. In the presence of PELC emulsified particles, EV71-specific immune responses before and after incorporating H5N1 virus into EV71 vaccine were detected of no significant difference; in addition, H5N1- and EV71-specific immune responses were found at the same level when H5N1/EV71/JEV consolidating into combination vaccine. Emulsified vaccine formulation was represented as a potential tool that is found to reduce the number of injections required to prevent multiple infectious strains causing the same disease (H5N1/H1N1) and/or that protect against different diseases (H5N1/EV71). Combination vaccines can also include a third component to protect against H5N1/EV71/JEV at the same time.

  12. ATP1B3: a virus-induced host factor against EV71 replication by up-regulating the production of type-I interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanfang; Hou, Hongyan; Wang, Feng; Qiao, Long; Wang, Xiong; Yu, Jing; Liu, Weiyong; Sun, Ziyong

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can cause severe diseases, and is becoming increasingly common in children. In the current study, we carried out yeast two-hybrid assays to screen human proteins that could interact with 3A protein of EV71. Human β3 subunit of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (ATP1B3) protein was demonstrated to interact with the 3A protein of EV71. Although 3A protein had no effect on the expression of ATP1B3, EV71 infection resulted in elevated expression of ATP1B3 in RD cell line, both on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. Interestingly, knockdown of ATP1B3 could significantly increase the replication of EV71, whereas overexpression of ATP1B3 significantly suppressed the replication of EV71 in RD cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of ATP1B3 could induce the production of type-I interferons. Our study demonstrated that ATP1B3 inhibit EV71 replication by enhancing the production of type-I interferons, which could act as a potential therapeutic target in EV71 infection.

  13. Validation-based insertional mutagenesis for identification of Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhendong

    2013-08-01

    Lentiviral validation-based insertional mutagenesis (VBIM) is a sophisticated, forward genetic approach that is used for the investigation of signal transduction in mammalian cells. Using VBIM, we conducted function-based genetic screening for host genes that affect enterovirus 71 (EV71) viral replication. This included host factors that are required for the life cycle of EV71 and host restriction factors that inhibit EV71 replication. Several cell clones, resistant to EV71, were produced using EV71 infection as a selection pressure and the nuclear pore protein 214 (Nup214) was identified as a host factor required for EV71 replication. In SD2-2, the corresponding VBIM lentivirus transformed clone, the expression of endogenous Nup214 was significantly down-regulated by the reverse inserted VBIM promoter. After Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the VBIM promoter, the expression of Nup214 recovered and the clone regained sensitivity to the EV71 infection. Furthermore, over-expression of Nup214 in the cells suggested that Nup214 was promoting EV71 replication. Results of this study indicate that a successful mutagenesis strategy has been established for screening host genes related to viral replication.

  14. Development of Markov Chain-Based Queuing Model and Wireless Infrastructure for EV to Smart Meter Communication in V2G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoshkumar; Udaykumar, R. Y.

    2015-04-01

    The electrical vehicles (EVs) can be connected to the grid for power transaction. The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) supports the grid requirements and helps in maintaining the load demands. The grid control center (GCC), aggregator and EV are three key entities in V2G communication. The GCC sends the information about power requirements to the aggregator. The aggregator after receiving the information from the GCC sends the information to the EVs. Based on the information, the interested EV owners participate in power transaction with the grid. The aggregator facilitates the EVs by providing the parking and charging slot. In this paper the queuing model for EVs connected to the grid and development of wireless infrastructure for the EV to Smart Meter communication is proposed. The queuing model is developed and simulated. The path loss models for WiMAX are analyzed and compared. Also, the physical layer of WiMAX protocol is modeled and simulated for the EV to Smart Meter communication in V2G.

  15. Laser excitation of 8-eV electronic states in Th{sup +}. A first pillar of the electronic bridge toward excitation of the Th-229 nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Sancho, Oscar-Andrey

    2012-11-23

    The possibility to realize a nuclear clock based on the optical magnetic dipole transition from the ground state to the low-energy isomeric state in the {sup 229}Th nucleus has motivated experiments and proposals toward highly accurate clocks with trapped ions and highly stable optical frequency standards with Th-doped solids. These systems hold great promise to open a field of research in the borderland between atomic and nuclear physics, which will enable highly sensitive tests of postulates from fundamental physics and also will allow us to coherently excite and control nuclear states, opening a wonderful and intriguing new field in physics. A major experimental obstacle that has to be overcome before any precision spectroscopy can be performed with this system is however the insufficient knowledge on the exact transition energy. The best experimental result so far is an indirect determination from {gamma}-spectroscopy with a relative uncertainty of about 6%. To facilitate the search for the nuclear transition within a wide uncertainty range around 8 eV, we investigate two-photon excitation in the dense electronic level structure of Th{sup +}, which enables the nuclear excitation via a resonantly enhanced inverse electronic bridge process. Experiments on one- and two-photon laser excitation of buffer gas cooled {sup 232}Th{sup +} ions in a radio-frequency ion trap are reported in this thesis. The strongest resonance line at 402 nm from the (6d{sup 2}7s)J=3/2 ground state to the (6d7s7p)J=5/2 state is driven as the first excitation step. Using nanosecond laser pulses in the 250-nm wavelength range for the second step of a two-photon excitation, we have observed seven previously unknown levels in the unexplored region of the electronic level structure around 8 eV. This investigation shows that the Th{sup +} ion seems to be well suited for the search of the isomer transition because both, theory and experimental results, agree on the density of strong transitions

  16. Effects of process parameters on the optical constants of highly textured V2O5 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Kochubey, V. A.; Pokrovsky, L. D.; Kruchinin, V. N.; Ramana, C. V.

    2014-09-01

    The optical properties of the highly-textured V2O5 thin-films grown on Si(100) by sputter-deposition at various oxygen reactive-pressures were investigated in detail. The profiles of the optical constants, namely the refractive index and extinction coefficient, of V2O5 films were evaluated in the photon-energy range of 1-5 eV. At photon-energy above 2.5 eV, the dispersion behavior in optical constants is explained based on Lorentz-Drude model. The refractive index dispersion fits to a Cauchy's relation at photon-energy below 2.5 eV, where the V2O5-film is mostly transparent. The optical transitions across the bandgap occur at energy ˜2.5-3.2 eV depending on the V2O5 growth conditions and film-microstructure. The highly-textured and c-axis oriented V2O5-films, fabricated under optimum conditions of temperature and oxygen partial pressure, exhibit excellent optical characteristics similar to V2O5 single crystals.

  17. Evolution of energy deposition processes in anthracene single crystal from photochemistry to radiation chemistry under excitation with synchrotron radiation from 3 to 700 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute values of quantum yield Φ(hν) of singlet exciton formation in anthracene single crystals were measured as a function of photon energy hν, with the usage of synchrotron radiation (SR) in 3-700 eV region. Values of Φ(hν) were found to increase linearly for hν≥75 eV. For hν≤40 eV, values of Φ(hν) gave a wealth of structures and are not linear to hν. Because number of secondary electrons produced by radiation is thought to increase in proportional to the incident photon energy, it is natural to conclude that the radiation chemistry effect becomes dominant above 75 eV. On the other hand, values of Φ(hν) showed response due to resonance rather than linear dependence with hν, which implies that the photochemical effect is dominant below 40 eV

  18. Demand Response and Economic Dispatch of Power Systems Considering Large-Scale Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles/Electric Vehicles (PHEVs/EVs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns about global environmental issues have led to the urgent development of green transportation. The enthusiasm of governments should encourage the prosperity of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles/electric vehicles (PHEVs/EVs industry in the near future. PHEVs/EVs are not only an alternative to gasoline but are also burgeoning units for power systems. The impact of large-scale PHEVs/EVs on power systems is of profound significance. This paper discusses how to use PHEVs/EVs as a useful new tool for system operation and regulation from a review of recent studies and mainly considers two mainstream methods: demand response and economic dispatch. The potential of using PHEVs/EVs to coordinate renewable energy resources is also discussed in terms of accepting more renewable resources without violating the safety and the reliability of power systems or increasing the operation cost significantly.

  19. Magnetic Field Generation and Energy Confinement with Te> 500 eV in the SSPX Spheromak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, B.

    2007-11-01

    The understanding of confinement and energy transport in spheromaks is key the understanding the physics of spheromak formation and self-organization as well as addressing the feasibility of the concept as a reactor scenario. In the Sustained Spheromak Physics eXperiment (SSPX), increased understanding of the physics in building and sustaining self-organized magnetic equilibria has resulted in record electron temperatures Te> 500 eV and plasma currents of ˜ 1 MA on the magnetic axis. We find that the highest edge magnetic field magnitudes (and correspondingly high Te) is achieved when λ=μ0Igun ψgun is near (but slightly below) the Kruskal-Shafranov instability limit λKS2πL12.6,-1 where L is the length of the flux-conserver (0.5 m). Building on previously reported results, power-balance analysis has shown levels of electron thermal transport χebank we are able to highly tailor the gun current to take advantage of the sensitive dependence of spheromak performance on the plasma λ. When in this optimum operating range we also find that the efficiency of field build-up (defined as the ratio of edge poloidal magnetic field to gun current) is increased 20% over prior results, to ˜1.0 T/MA. Additionally this brings the efficiency of spheromak formation into numerical agreement with results from the NIMROD 3-D MHD code. Plasma energy evolution has been studied by taking time-resolved measurements of Te(r) and ne(r) indicating a distinct and robust feature of spheromak formation; a hollow-to-peaked temperature transition with an inverse relationship to the electron density. This feature, as well as sub-microsecond transport, is being studied with the upgrade of the Thomson scattering diagnostic to double-pulse operation. We also present recent results of the impact of charge-exchange losses on overall power balance and estimates of the plasma ion temperature as measured with a neutral particle analyzer.

  20. Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 10{18} eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anticić, T; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arisaka, K; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Dallier, R; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Domenico, M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; de Vries, K D; Decerprit, G; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Díaz Castro, M L; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fliescher, S; Fracchiolla, C E; Fraenkel, E D; Fröhlich, U; Fulgione, W; Gamarra, R F; Gambetta, S; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giller, M; Glass, H; Goggin, L M; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Louedec, K; Lozano Bahilo, J; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meurer, C; Micanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Parra, A; Parrisius, J; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petermann, E; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrolini, A; Petrov, Y; Petrovic, J; Pfendner, C; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Ponce, V H; Pontz, M; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Redondo, A; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Rossler, T; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scharf, N; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schiffer, P; Schmidt, A

    2010-03-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10;{18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{-21}{+35}) g/cm{2}/decade below 10{18.24+/-0.05} eV, and (24+/-3) g/cm{2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.