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Sample records for 2-encoded type iii

  1. Lysogeny with Shiga toxin 2-encoding bacteriophages represses type III secretion in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

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    Xuefang Xu

    Full Text Available Lytic or lysogenic infections by bacteriophages drive the evolution of enteric bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC have recently emerged as a significant zoonotic infection of humans with the main serotypes carried by ruminants. Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx and association with specific clinical symptoms. The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT 21/28 is the most prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle shedding high levels of the organism than PT32 strains. In this study we have demonstrated that the majority (90% of PT 21/28 strains contain both Stx2 and Stx2c phages, irrespective of source. This is in contrast to PT 32 strains for which only a minority of strains contain both Stx2 and 2c phages (28%. PT21/28 strains had a lower median level of T3S compared to PT32 strains and so the relationship between Stx phage lysogeny and T3S was investigated. Deletion of Stx2 phages from EHEC strains increased the level of T3S whereas lysogeny decreased T3S. This regulation was confirmed in an E. coli K12 background transduced with a marked Stx2 phage followed by measurement of a T3S reporter controlled by induced levels of the LEE-encoded regulator (Ler. The presence of an integrated Stx2 phage was shown to repress Ler induction of LEE1 and this regulation involved the CII phage regulator. This repression could be relieved by ectopic expression of a cognate CI regulator. A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is promoted by Stx and secreted effector proteins.

  2. Lysogeny with Shiga toxin 2-encoding bacteriophages represses type III secretion in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuefang; McAteer, Sean P; Tree, Jai J; Shaw, Darren J; Wolfson, Eliza B K; Beatson, Scott A; Roe, Andrew J; Allison, Lesley J; Chase-Topping, Margo E; Mahajan, Arvind; Tozzoli, Rosangela; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Morabito, Stefano; Gally, David L

    2012-01-01

    Lytic or lysogenic infections by bacteriophages drive the evolution of enteric bacteria. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) have recently emerged as a significant zoonotic infection of humans with the main serotypes carried by ruminants. Typical EHEC strains are defined by the expression of a type III secretion (T3S) system, the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and association with specific clinical symptoms. The genes for Stx are present on lambdoid bacteriophages integrated into the E. coli genome. Phage type (PT) 21/28 is the most prevalent strain type linked with human EHEC infections in the United Kingdom and is more likely to be associated with cattle shedding high levels of the organism than PT32 strains. In this study we have demonstrated that the majority (90%) of PT 21/28 strains contain both Stx2 and Stx2c phages, irrespective of source. This is in contrast to PT 32 strains for which only a minority of strains contain both Stx2 and 2c phages (28%). PT21/28 strains had a lower median level of T3S compared to PT32 strains and so the relationship between Stx phage lysogeny and T3S was investigated. Deletion of Stx2 phages from EHEC strains increased the level of T3S whereas lysogeny decreased T3S. This regulation was confirmed in an E. coli K12 background transduced with a marked Stx2 phage followed by measurement of a T3S reporter controlled by induced levels of the LEE-encoded regulator (Ler). The presence of an integrated Stx2 phage was shown to repress Ler induction of LEE1 and this regulation involved the CII phage regulator. This repression could be relieved by ectopic expression of a cognate CI regulator. A model is proposed in which Stx2-encoding bacteriophages regulate T3S to co-ordinate epithelial cell colonisation that is promoted by Stx and secreted effector proteins.

  3. Salmonella pathogenicity island 2-encoded type III secretion system mediates exclusion of NADPH oxidase assembly from the phagosomal membrane.

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    Gallois, A; Klein, J R; Allen, L A; Jones, B D; Nauseef, W M

    2001-05-01

    Salmonella typhimurium requires a type III secretion system encoded by pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 to survive and proliferate within macrophages. This survival implies that S. typhimurium avoids or withstands bactericidal events targeted to the microbe-containing vacuole, which include intraphagosomal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagosomal acidification, and delivery of hydrolytic enzymes to the phagosome via fusion with lysosomes. Recent evidence suggests that S. typhimurium alters ROS production by murine macrophages in an SPI-2-dependent manner. To gain insights into the mechanism by which S. typhimurium inhibits intraphagosomal ROS production, we analyzed the subcellular distribution of NADPH oxidase components during infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages by wild-type (WT) or several SPI-2 mutant strains of S. typhimurium. We found that the membrane component of the NADPH oxidase, flavocytochrome b(558), was actively excluded or rapidly removed from the phagosomal membrane of WT-infected monocyte-derived macrophages, thereby preventing assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex and intraphagosomal production of superoxide anion. In contrast, the NADPH oxidase assembled on and generated ROS in phagosomes containing SPI-2 mutant S. typhimurium. Subversion of NADPH oxidase assembly by S. typhimurium was accompanied by increased bacterial replication relative to that of SPI-2 mutant strains, suggesting that the ability of WT S. typhimurium to prevent NADPH oxidase assembly at the phagosomal membrane represents an important virulence factor influencing its intracellular survival.

  4. The Salmonella pathogenicity island 2-encoded type III secretion system is essential for the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in free-living amoebae.

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    Bleasdale, Benjamin; Lott, Penelope J; Jagannathan, Aparna; Stevens, Mark P; Birtles, Richard J; Wigley, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Free-living amoebae represent a potential reservoir and predator of Salmonella enterica. Through the use of type III secretion system (T3SS) mutants and analysis of transcription of selected T3SS genes, we demonstrated that the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 is highly induced during S. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection of Acanthamoeba polyphaga and is essential for survival within amoebae.

  5. SseA is a chaperone for the SseB and SseD translocon components of the Salmonella pathogenicity-island-2-encoded type III secretion system.

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    Ruiz-Albert, Javier; Mundy, Rosanna; Yu, Xiu-Jun; Beuzón, Carmen R; Holden, David W

    2003-05-01

    The type III secretion system (TTSS) encoded by the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) is required for bacterial replication inside macrophages and for systemic infection in mice. Many TTSS secreted proteins, including effectors and components of the translocon, require chaperones which promote their stability, prevent their premature interactions or facilitate their secretion. In this study, the function of the first gene (sseA) of one of the SPI-2 operons (sseA-G) was investigated. This operon includes genes that encode translocon components (SseB, SseC and SseD), translocated proteins (SseF and SseG) and putative chaperones (SscA and SscB). sseA encodes a 12.5 kDa protein with a C-terminal region with the potential to form a coiled-coil structure, but no sequence similarity to other proteins. Mutation of sseA results in severe virulence attenuation and an intracellular replication defect. It is shown here that SseA is not a secreted protein, but is required for SPI-2-dependent translocation of two effector proteins (SifA and PipB). Furthermore, the translocon components SseB and SseD were not detected in an sseA mutant strain. By using a yeast two-hybrid assay and column binding experiments, it is demonstrated that SseA interacts directly with SseB and SseD. These results indicate that SseA is a chaperone for SseB and SseD. The inability of an sseA mutant to assemble the SPI-2 TTSS translocon accounts for its high level of virulence attenuation in vivo. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first chaperone described for the SPI-2 TTSS.

  6. The type III manufactory

    CERN Document Server

    Palcoux, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Using unusual objects in the theory of von Neumann algebra, as the chinese game Go or the Conway game of life (generalized on finitely presented groups), we are able to build, by hands, many type III factors.

  7. De Novo and Inherited Mutations in COL4A2, Encoding the Type IV Collagen α2 Chain Cause Porencephaly

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    Yoneda, Yuriko; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Arai, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Shigeo; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Doi, Hiroshi; Miyake, Noriko; Yokochi, Kenji; Osaka, Hitoshi; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo

    2012-01-01

    Porencephaly is a neurological disorder characterized by fluid-filled cysts or cavities in the brain that often cause hemiplegia. It has been suggested that porencephalic cavities result from focal cerebral degeneration involving hemorrhages. De novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in COL4A1, which encodes the type IV α1 collagen chain that is essential for structural integrity for vascular basement membranes, have been reported in individuals with porencephaly. Most mutations occurred at conserved Gly residues in the Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeats of the triple-helical domain, leading to alterations of the α1α1α2 heterotrimers. Here we report on two individuals with porencephaly caused by a heterozygous missense mutation in COL4A2, which encodes the type IV α2 collagen chain. Mutations c.3455G>A and c.3110G>A, one in each of the individuals, cause Gly residues in the Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeat to be substituted as p.Gly1152Asp and p.Gly1037Glu, respectively, probably resulting in alterations of the α1α1α2 heterotrimers. The c.3455G>A mutation was found in the proband's mother, who showed very mild monoparesis of the left upper extremity, and the maternal elder uncle, who had congenital hemiplegia. The maternal grandfather harboring the mutation is asymptomatic. The c.3110G>A mutation occurred de novo. Our study confirmed that abnormalities of the α1α1α2 heterotrimers of type IV collagen cause porencephaly and stresses the importance of screening for COL4A2 as well as for COL4A1. PMID:22209246

  8. Coronal type III radio bursts and their X-ray flare and interplanetary type III counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Hamish A S

    2016-01-01

    Type III bursts and hard X-rays are both produced by flare energetic electron beams. The link between both emissions has been investigated in many previous studies, but no statistical studies have compared both coronal and interplanetary type III bursts with X-ray flares. Using coronal radio events above 100 MHz exclusively from type III bursts, we revisited long-standing questions: Do all coronal type III bursts have X-ray counterparts. What correlation, if any, occurs between radio and X-ray intensities. What X-ray and radio signatures above 100 MHz occur in connection with interplanetary type III bursts below 14 MHz. We analysed data from 2002 to 2011 starting with coronal type III bursts above 100 MHz. We used RHESSI X-ray data greater than 6 keV to make a list of 321 events that have associated type III bursts and X-ray flares, encompassing at least 28 percent of the initial sample of type III events. We examined the timings, intensities, associated GOES class, and any interplanetary radio signature. For...

  9. Mechanistic insights into type III restriction enzymes.

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    Raghavendra, Nidhanapati K; Bheemanaik, Shivakumara; Rao, Desirazu N

    2012-01-01

    Type III restriction-modification (R-M) enzymes need to interact with two separate unmethylated DNA sequences in indirectly repeated, head-to-head orientations for efficient cleavage to occur at a defined location next to only one of the two sites. However, cleavage of sites that are not in head-to-head orientation have been observed to occur under certain reaction conditions in vitro. ATP hydrolysis is required for the long-distance communication between the sites prior to cleavage. Type III R-M enzymes comprise two subunits, Res and Mod that form a homodimeric Mod2 and a heterotetrameric Res2Mod2 complex. The Mod subunit in M2 or R2M2 complex recognizes and methylates DNA while the Res subunit in R2M2 complex is responsible for ATP hydrolysis, DNA translocation and cleavage. A vast majority of biochemical studies on Type III R-M enzymes have been undertaken using two closely related enzymes, EcoP1I and EcoP15I. Divergent opinions about how the long-distance interaction between the recognition sites exist and at least three mechanistic models based on 1D- diffusion and/or 3D- DNA looping have been proposed.

  10. NNMSM type-II and -III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane (Japan); Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Osaka University, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Hokkaido University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    We suggest two types of extension of the standard model, which are the so-called next to new minimal standard model type-II and -III. They can achieve gauge coupling unification as well as suitable dark matter abundance, small neutrino masses, baryon asymmetry of the universe, inflation, and dark energy. The gauge coupling unification can be realized by introducing two or three extra new fields, and they could explain charge quantization. We also show that there are regions in which the vacuum stability, coupling perturbativity, and correct dark matter abundance can be realized with current experimental data at the same time. (orig.)

  11. Type III Societies (Apparently) Do Not Exist

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    Lacki, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Whether technological societies remain small and planet-bound like our own, or ultimately span across galaxies is an open question in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. Societies that engineer on a galactic scale are classified as Type III on Kardashev's scale. I argue that Type III societies can take the form of blackboxes, entire galaxies veiled in an opaque screen. A blackbox has a temperature that is just above that of the cosmic microwave background. The screen can be made from artificial dust pervading the galaxy. I show that there is enough material in galaxies to build blackboxes if the dust is fashioned into dipole antennas. The thermal emission of a blackbox makes it a bright microwave source. I examine the Planck Catalog of Compact Sources to constrain the abundance of blackboxes. None of the 100 GHz sources has the spectrum expected of a blackbox. The null result rules out shrouded galaxy clusters out to z ~ 1 and shrouded Milky Ways out to (comoving) 700 Mpc. The reach of th...

  12. Type III apical transportation of root canal

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    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  13. Autism Symptoms Related to Tyrosinemia Type III: A Case Report

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    Ayşegül Yolga Tahiroğlu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The published literature on tyrosinemia type III consists of only a few case reports. In this report, we present a patient with tyrosinemia type III, autism, and mental retardation. This patient’s speech improved and his autistic symptoms lessened on a tyrosine-restricted diet, although his mental retardation remained unchanged. This is the first published report of a patient with tyrosinemia type III and autism. This observation is significant due to the paucity of published information about tyrosinemia type III. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 55-6

  14. Diverse intracellular pathogens activate type III interferon expression from peroxisomes.

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    Odendall, Charlotte; Dixit, Evelyn; Stavru, Fabrizia; Bierne, Helene; Franz, Kate M; Durbin, Ann Fiegen; Boulant, Steeve; Gehrke, Lee; Cossart, Pascale; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2014-08-01

    Type I interferon responses are considered the primary means by which viral infections are controlled in mammals. Despite this view, several pathogens activate antiviral responses in the absence of type I interferons. The mechanisms controlling type I interferon-independent responses are undefined. We found that RIG-I like receptors (RLRs) induce type III interferon expression in a variety of human cell types, and identified factors that differentially regulate expression of type I and type III interferons. We identified peroxisomes as a primary site of initiation of type III interferon expression, and revealed that the process of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation upregulates peroxisome biogenesis and promotes robust type III interferon responses in human cells. These findings highlight the importance of different intracellular organelles in specific innate immune responses.

  15. The expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia: involvement of lipolysis genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, P.; Sman-de Beer, F. van der; Moghaddam, P.H.; Huijts, P.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Kastelein, J.J.; Duijn, C.M. van; Havekes, L.M.; Frants, R.R.; Dijk, K.W. van; Smelt, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) is mainly found in homozygous apolipoprotein (APO) E2 (R158C) carriers. Genetic factors contributing to the expression of type III HLP were investigated in 113 hyper- and 52 normolipidemic E2/2 subjects, by testing for polymorphisms in APOC3, APOA5, HL (hepatic li

  16. Guarding the frontiers: the biology of type III interferons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wack, Andreas; Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Hartmann, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) or IFN-λs regulate a similar set of genes as type I IFNs, but whereas type I IFNs act globally, IFN-λs primarily target mucosal epithelial cells and protect them against the frequent viral attacks that are typical for barrier tissues. IFN-λs thereby help to maintain...

  17. The expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia: involvement of lipolysis genes

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    Henneman, Peter; van der Sman-de Beer, Femke; Moghaddam, Payman Hanifi; Huijts, Petra; Stalenhoef, Anton FH; Kastelein, John JP; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Havekes, Louis M; Frants, Rune R; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Smelt, Augustinus HM

    2009-01-01

    Type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) is mainly found in homozygous apolipoprotein (APO) E2 (R158C) carriers. Genetic factors contributing to the expression of type III HLP were investigated in 113 hyper- and 52 normolipidemic E2/2 subjects, by testing for polymorphisms in APOC3, APOA5, HL (hepatic lipase) and LPL (lipoprotein lipase) genes. In addition, 188 normolipidemic Dutch control panels (NDCP) and 141 hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) patients were genotyped as well. No associations were found for four HL gene polymorphisms and two LPL gene polymorphisms and type III HLP. The frequency of the rare allele of APOC3 3238 G>C and APOA5 −1131 T>C (in linkage disequilibrium) was significantly higher in type III HLP patients when compared with normolipidemic E2/2 subjects, 15.6 vs 6.9% and 15.1 vs 5.8%, respectively, (PC polymorphism and LPL c.27 G>A mutation were higher in type III HLP patients, though not significant. Some 58% of the type III HLP patients carried either the APOA5 −1131 T>C, c.56 G>C and/or LPL c.27 G>A mutation as compared to 27% of the normolipidemic APOE2/2 subjects (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval=1.8–7.5, PC/APOA5 −1131 T>C polymorphism showed a more severe hyperlipidemia than patients without this polymorphism. Polymorphisms in lipolysis genes associate with the expression and severity of type III HLP in APOE2/2. PMID:19034316

  18. Type III factors with unique Cartan decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Houdayer, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We prove that for any free ergodic nonsingular nonamenable action \\Gamma\\ \\actson (X,\\mu) of all \\Gamma\\ in a large class of groups including all hyperbolic groups, the associated group measure space factor $L^\\infty(X) \\rtimes \\Gamma$ has L^\\infty(X) as its unique Cartan subalgebra, up to unitary conjugacy. This generalizes the probability measure preserving case that was established in [PV12]. We also prove primeness and indecomposability results for such crossed products, for the corresponding orbit equivalence relations and for arbitrary amalgamated free products $M_1 *_B M_2$ over a subalgebra B of type I.

  19. Auroral Kilometric Radiation and Type III Solar Radio Bursts

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    Romantsova, T. V.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Skalsky, A. A.; Hanasz, J.

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous wave observations onboard the ISEE-1 and ISEE-3 spacecraft show that onsets of the Auroral Kilometric Radiation frequently coincide with an arrival of type III solar burst (Calvert, 1981). It was supposed that solar burst stimulates maser instability in auroral region and AKR consequently . We present statistical and case studies of events when both type III solar radio bursts and Auroral Kilometric Radiation are recorded simultaneously. AKR was observed onboard the INTERBALL-2 spacecraft orbiting around the Earth by the POLRAD experiment. Wave measurements carried out onboard the Wind, INTEBALL-TAIL and Geotail spacecraft are used to identify unambiguously the type III solar radio bursts. The origin of close relation between onsets of both solar radiation and AKR is discussed and interpreted. Acknowledgements. This work is supported by grant RFBR 06-02-72560.

  20. Assessment of sleep in children with mucopolysaccharidosis type III.

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    Louise Victoria Mahon

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances are prevalent in mucopolysaccharidosis Type III (MPS III, yet there is a lack of objective, ecologically valid evidence detailing sleep quantity, quality or circadian system. Eight children with MPS III and eight age-matched typically developing children wore an actigraph for 7-10 days/nights. Saliva samples were collected at three time-points on two separate days, to permit analysis of endogenous melatonin levels. Parents completed a sleep questionnaire and a daily sleep diary. Actigraphic data revealed that children with MPS III had significantly longer sleep onset latencies and greater daytime sleep compared to controls, but night-time sleep duration did not differ between groups. In the MPS III group, sleep efficiency declined, and sleep onset latency increased, with age. Questionnaire responses showed that MPS III patients had significantly more sleep difficulties in all domains compared to controls. Melatonin concentrations showed an alteration in the circadian system in MPS III, which suggests that treatment for sleep problems should attempt to synchronise the sleep-wake cycle to a more regular pattern. Actigraphy was tolerated by children and this monitoring device can be recommended as a measure of treatment success in research and clinical practice.

  1. Exploiting the Biosynthetic Potential of Type III Polyketide Synthases

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    Yan Ping Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyketides are structurally and functionally diverse secondary metabolites that are biosynthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs using acyl-CoA precursors. Recent studies in the engineering and structural characterization of PKSs have facilitated the use of target enzymes as biocatalysts to produce novel functionally optimized polyketides. These compounds may serve as potential drug leads. This review summarizes the insights gained from research on type III PKSs, from the discovery of chalcone synthase in plants to novel PKSs in bacteria and fungi. To date, at least 15 families of type III PKSs have been characterized, highlighting the utility of PKSs in the development of natural product libraries for therapeutic development.

  2. Tyrosinemia Type III detected via neonatal screening: management and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Evelyne; Scherer, Gerd; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; Marie, Sandrine; Fischer, Judith; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile

    2012-11-01

    Tyrosinemia Type III is caused by the deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD), an enzyme involved in the catabolic pathway of tyrosine. To our knowledge, only a few patients presenting with this disease have been described in the literature, and the clinical phenotype remains variable and unclear. We report the case of a boy with tyrosinemia Type III detected using neonatal screening, who is homozygous for the splice donor mutation IVS11+1G>A in intron 11 of the HPD gene. At the age of 30 months, the boy's outcome under mild protein restriction was characterized by normal growth and psychomotor development.

  3. Type III restriction-modification enzymes: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Desirazu N; Dryden, David T F; Bheemanaik, Shivakumara

    2014-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases interact with DNA at specific sites leading to cleavage of DNA. Bacterial DNA is protected from restriction endonuclease cleavage by modifying the DNA using a DNA methyltransferase. Based on their molecular structure, sequence recognition, cleavage position and cofactor requirements, restriction-modification (R-M) systems are classified into four groups. Type III R-M enzymes need to interact with two separate unmethylated DNA sequences in inversely repeated head-to-head orientations for efficient cleavage to occur at a defined location (25-27 bp downstream of one of the recognition sites). Like the Type I R-M enzymes, Type III R-M enzymes possess a sequence-specific ATPase activity for DNA cleavage. ATP hydrolysis is required for the long-distance communication between the sites before cleavage. Different models, based on 1D diffusion and/or 3D-DNA looping, exist to explain how the long-distance interaction between the two recognition sites takes place. Type III R-M systems are found in most sequenced bacteria. Genome sequencing of many pathogenic bacteria also shows the presence of a number of phase-variable Type III R-M systems, which play a role in virulence. A growing number of these enzymes are being subjected to biochemical and genetic studies, which, when combined with ongoing structural analyses, promise to provide details for mechanisms of DNA recognition and catalysis.

  4. Type III von Neumann Algebras associated with $\\O_\\theta$

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Dilian

    2011-01-01

    Let $\\Fth$ be a 2 graph generated by $m$ blue edges and $n$ red edges, and $\\omega$ be the distinguished faithful state associated with its graph C*-algebra $\\O_\\theta$. In this paper, we characterize the factorness of the von Neumann algebra $\\pi_\\omega(\\O_\\theta)"$ induced from the GNS representation of $\\omega$ under a certain condition. Moreover, when $\\pi_\\omega(\\O_\\theta)"$ is a factor, then it is of type III$_{m^{-\\frac{1}{b}}}$ (or III$_{n^{-\\frac{1}{a}}}$) if $\\frac{\\ln m}{\\ln n}\\in\\bQ$, where $a,b\\in\\bN$ with $\\gcd(a,b)=1$ satisfy $m^a=n^b$, and of type III$_1$ if $\\frac{\\ln m}{\\ln n}\

  5. Microwave Type III Pair Bursts in Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin; Karlicky, Marian; Huang, Guangli; Tan, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    Solar microwave type III pair burst is composed of normal and reverse-sloped (RS) burst branches with oppositely fast frequency drifts. It is the most sensitive signature of the primary energy release and electron accelerations in flares. This work reported 11 microwave type III pair events in 9 flares observed by radio spectrometers in China and the Czech Republic at frequency of 0.80 - 7.60 GHz during 1994 - 2014. These type III pairs occurred in flare impulsive and postflare phases with separate frequency in range of 1.08 - 3.42 GHz and frequency gap 10 - 1700 MHz. The frequency drift increases with the separate frequency (f_{x}), the lifetime of each burst is anti-correlated to f_{x}, while the frequency gap is independent to f_{x}. In most events, the normal branches are drifting obviously faster than the RS branches. The type III pairs occurring in flare impulsive phase have lower separate frequency, longer lifetime, wider frequency gap, and slower frequency drift than that occurring in postflare phase....

  6. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica type III secretion system effector proteins as carriers for heterologous vaccine antigens.

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    Hegazy, Wael Abdel Halim; Xu, Xin; Metelitsa, Leonid; Hensel, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Live attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica have a high potential as carriers of recombinant vaccines. The type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent translocation of S. enterica can be deployed for delivery of heterologous antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Here we investigated the efficacy of various effector proteins of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI2)-encoded T3SS for the translocation of model antigens and elicitation of immune responses. The SPI2 T3SS effector proteins SifA, SteC, SseL, SseJ, and SseF share an endosomal membrane-associated subcellular localization after translocation. We observed that all effector proteins could be used to translocate fusion proteins with the model antigens ovalbumin and listeriolysin into the cytosol of host cells. Under in vitro conditions, fusion proteins with SseJ and SteC stimulated T-cell responses that were superior to those triggered by fusion proteins with SseF. However, in mice vaccinated with Salmonella carrier strains, only fusion proteins based on SseJ or SifA elicited potent T-cell responses. These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines.

  7. Identification of Novel Type III Effectors Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

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    Yang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the six secretion systems identified in Gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS plays important roles in the disease development of pathogens. T3SS has attracted a great deal of research interests. However, the secretion mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Especially, the identification of effectors (secreted proteins is an important and challenging task. This paper adopts machine learning methods to identify type III secreted effectors (T3SEs. We extract features from amino acid sequences and conduct feature reduction based on latent semantic information by using latent Dirichlet allocation model. The experimental results on Pseudomonas syringae data set demonstrate the good performance of the new methods.

  8. Type III effector-mediated processes in Salmonella infection.

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    van der Heijden, Joris; Finlay, B Brett

    2012-06-01

    Salmonella is one of the most successful bacterial pathogens that infect humans in both developed and developing countries. In order to cause infection, Salmonella uses type III secretion systems to inject bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In the age of antibiotic resistance, researchers have been looking for new strategies to reduce Salmonella infection. To understand infection and to analyze type III secretion as a potential therapeutic target, research has focused on identification of effectors, characterization of effector functions and how they contribute to disease. Many effector-mediated processes have been identified that contribute to infection but thus far no specific treatment has been found. In this perspective we discuss our current understanding of effector-mediated processes and discuss new techniques and approaches that may help us to find a solution to this worldwide problem.

  9. On the theory of the type III burst exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.; Goldstein, M. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1976-01-01

    In situ satellite observations of type III burst exciters at 1 AU show that the beam does not evolve into a plateau in velocity space, contrary to the prediction of quasilinear theory. The observations can be explained by a theory that includes mode coupling effects due to excitation of the parametric oscillating two-stream instability and its saturation by anomalous resistivity. The time evolution of the beam velocity distribution is included in the analysis.

  10. Tape Casting of Honeywell PZT Type III Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    STANDARDS 193 A . . . • . .I-" ’ .7. ’. .. ’. .-7 . • " U) 1 IV. Tape Casting of Honeywell PZT Type III Poder II~ II * I S Gordon 0. Dayton Beth A. Jones...Street Port Hueneme, CA 93043 Arlington, VA 22217 3 ATTN: Materials Division Attn: Code 431 Naval Research Laboratory Naval Electronics Laboratory...Washington, DC 20375 San Diego, CA 92152 ATTN: Codes 6000 1 ATTN: Electron Materials 6300 1 Sciences Division 2627 1 Naval Air Development Center Naval

  11. Emission Patterns of Solar Type III Radio Bursts: Stereoscopic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of solar type III radio bursts obtained by the STEREO A, B, and WIND spacecraft at low frequencies from different vantage points in the ecliptic plane are used to determine their directivity. The heliolongitudes of the sources of these bursts, estimated at different frequencies by assuming that they are located on the Parker spiral magnetic field lines emerging from the associated active regions into the spherically symmetric solar atmosphere, and the heliolongitudes of the spacecraft are used to estimate the viewing angle, which is the angle between the direction of the magnetic field at the source and the line connecting the source to the spacecraft. The normalized peak intensities at each spacecraft Rj = Ij /[Sigma]Ij (the subscript j corresponds to the spacecraft STEREO A, B, and WIND), which are defined as the directivity factors are determined using the time profiles of the type III bursts. It is shown that the distribution of the viewing angles divides the type III bursts into: (1) bursts emitting into a very narrow cone centered around the tangent to the magnetic field with angular width of approximately 2 deg and (2) bursts emitting into a wider cone with angular width spanning from [approx] -100 deg to approximately 100 deg. The plots of the directivity factors versus the viewing angles of the sources from all three spacecraft indicate that the type III emissions are very intense along the tangent to the spiral magnetic field lines at the source, and steadily fall as the viewing angles increase to higher values. The comparison of these emission patterns with the computed distributions of the ray trajectories indicate that the intense bursts visible in a narrow range of angles around the magnetic field directions probably are emitted in the fundamental mode, whereas the relatively weaker bursts visible to a wide range of angles are probably emitted in the harmonic mode.

  12. Assembly of the bacterial type III secretion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepold, Andreas; Wagner, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteria that live in contact with eukaryotic hosts, whether as symbionts or as pathogens, have evolved mechanisms that manipulate host cell behaviour to their benefit. One such mechanism, the type III secretion system, is employed by Gram-negative bacterial species to inject effector proteins into host cells. This function is reflected by the overall shape of the machinery, which resembles a molecular syringe. Despite the simplicity of the concept, the type III secretion system is one of the most complex known bacterial nanomachines, incorporating one to more than hundred copies of up to twenty different proteins into a multi-MDa transmembrane complex. The structural core of the system is the so-called needle complex that spans the bacterial cell envelope as a tripartite ring system and culminates in a needle protruding from the bacterial cell surface. Substrate targeting and translocation are accomplished by an export machinery consisting of various inner membrane embedded and cytoplasmic components. The formation of such a multimembrane-spanning machinery is an intricate task that requires precise orchestration. This review gives an overview of recent findings on the assembly of type III secretion machines, discusses quality control and recycling of the system and proposes an integrated assembly model.

  13. Insight into the flagella type III export revealed by the complex structure of the type III ATPase and its regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru; Uchida, Yumiko; Kinoshita, Miki; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-03-29

    FliI and FliJ form the FliI6FliJ ATPase complex of the bacterial flagellar export apparatus, a member of the type III secretion system. The FliI6FliJ complex is structurally similar to the α3β3γ complex of F1-ATPase. The FliH homodimer binds to FliI to connect the ATPase complex to the flagellar base, but the details are unknown. Here we report the structure of the homodimer of a C-terminal fragment of FliH (FliHC2) in complex with FliI. FliHC2 shows an unusually asymmetric homodimeric structure that markedly resembles the peripheral stalk of the A/V-type ATPases. The FliHC2-FliI hexamer model reveals that the C-terminal domains of the FliI ATPase face the cell membrane in a way similar to the F/A/V-type ATPases. We discuss the mechanism of flagellar ATPase complex formation and a common origin shared by the type III secretion system and the F/A/V-type ATPases.

  14. Nonlinear Spinor Fields in Bianchi type-III spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Within the scope of Bianchi type-III spacetime we study the role of spinor field on the evolution of the Universe as well as the influence of gravity on the spinor field. In doing so we have considered a polynomial type of nonlinearity. In this case the spacetime remains locally rotationally symmetric and anisotropic all the time. It is found that depending on the sign of nonlinearity the models allows both accelerated and oscillatory modes of expansion. The non-diagonal components of energy-momentum tensor though impose some restrictions on metric functions and components of spinor field, unlike Bianchi type I, V and $VI_0$ cases, they do not lead to vanishing mass and nonlinear terms of the spinor field.

  15. $\\ell_1 \\to \\ell_2 \\gamma$ in type III seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, F

    2008-01-01

    We study the decay rates of the $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ and $\\tau \\to \\ell \\gamma$ transitions in the framework of the type III seesaw model, where fermionic triplets are exchanged to generate neutrino masses. We show that the observation of one of those decays in planned experiments would contradict bounds arising from present experimental limits on the $\\mu \\to eee$ and $\\tau \\to 3 l$ decay rates, and therefore imply that there exist other sources of lepton flavour violation than those associated to triplet of fermions.

  16. Guadalajara camptodactyly type III: a new probably autosomal dominant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuera, L E; Ramírez-Dueñas, M L; Dávalos, I P; Cantú, J M

    2002-10-01

    A Mexican family is presented with the main clinical features of camptodactyly, a distinctive facial appearance because of ocular hypertelorism, telecanthus, symblepharon and spinal defects. Other clinical manifestations included: multiple nevi, simplified ears, retrognathia, congenital shortness of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, thin hands and feet, a small penis and mild mental retardation. Radiographic studies revealed spina bifida occulta at cervical and dorso-lumbar levels, increased bone trabeculae, cortical thickening and delayed bone age. The presence of five affected members through four generations suggests autosomal dominant inheritance although no male-to-male transmission was documented. The authors propose this as a new entity, and have designated it Guadalajara camptodactyly type III.

  17. A Probable Short Decimetric Type I-like Noise Storm: Associated with Type III Bursts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Xiang Xie; Min Wang; Yi-Hua Yan

    2005-01-01

    A rare Type I-like noise storm was observed with the solar radio spectrometers (1.0-2.0 GHz and 2.60-3.8 GHz) at National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) on September 23, 1998. We concentrate on checking the Type I-like noise storm occurred in the decay phase of a Type IV radio burst. This noise storm consists of many Type I bursts and isolated Type III or Type III pair bursts.It has a bandwidth of ≤ 0.5 GHz. The duration of each Type I burst is of the order of 100-300ms. The total duration is greater than 11 minutes. The circular polarization degree of the components of Type I and associated Type III bursts are about 40%-100% and almost 100%, respectively, which is greater than that of the background continuum (nearly the precision of our instrument). This short decimetric Type I-like storm may be another kind or the extension of the kind of metric Type I storm, and may possess the duality of metric and decimetric radio emission. It may be in favor of an earlier emission mechanism of the fundamental plasma radiation due to the coalescence of Langmuir waves with low-frequency waves.

  18. Numerical simulations of type III planetary migration: III. Outward migration of massive planets

    CERN Document Server

    Peplinski, A; Mellema, G

    2008-01-01

    We present a numerical study of rapid, so called type III migration for Jupiter-sized planets embedded in a protoplanetary disc. We limit ourselves to the case of outward migration, and study in detail its evolution and physics, concentrating on the structure of the co-rotation and circumplanetary regions, and processes for stopping migration. We also consider the dependence of the migration behaviour on several key parameters. We perform this study using global, two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with adaptive mesh refinement. We find that the outward directed type III migration can be started if the initial conditions support $Z > 1$, that corresponds to initial value $M_\\rmn{\\Delta} \\ga 1.5$. Unlike the inward directed migration, in the outward migration the migration rate increases due to the growing of the volume of the co-orbital region. We find the migration to be strongly dependent on the rate of the mass accumulation in the circumplanetary disc, leading to two possible regimes of migration, f...

  19. Outcome of Gartland type II and type III supracondylar fractures treated by Blount′s technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Gheldere Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : According to some orthopedic surgeons, almost all supracondylar humerus fractures should be treated operatively by reduction and pinning. While according to others, closed reduction and immobolization should be used for Gartland type II and some type III fractures. However, the limit of this technique remains unclear. We present 74 patients with displaced extension-type supracondylar fractures treated by closed reduction and immobilization with a collar sling fixed to a cast around the wrist. The purpose of the study is to give a more precise limitation of this technique. Materials and Methods : Retrospective data acquisition of 74 patients with a Gartland type II or type III fractures treated by closed reduction and immobilization (Blount′s technique between January 2004 and December 2007 was done. The mean age was 6.3 years (range, 2-11. The mean time of follow-up was 6.5 months (range, 3-25. All open injuries and complex elbow fracture dislocations or T-condylar fractures were excluded from the study. All patients were evaluated with standardized anteroposterior and true lateral x-rays of the elbow, and Flynn criteria were used for functional assessment. Results : Gartland type II fractures had 94% good or excellent final results. Gartland type III fractures had 73% good or excellent final result. The Gartland type III outcome depended on the displacement. The fractures remained stable in 88% for the posterior displacement, and 58% for the posteromedial displacement. These displacements were mild. However, for the posterolaterally displaced fractures, only 36% were stable; 36% had a mild displacement and 27% had a major displacement. Conclusion : Pure posterior displacement is more stable than posteromedial displacement which is more stable than posterolaterally displaced fractures. This study suggests that Gartland type II and pure posterior or posteromedial displaced Gartland type III fractures can be treated by closed

  20. 77 FR 76426 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... organizations that are not functionally integrated. The withdrawal affects Type III supporting organizations... ``Type III Supporting Organizations''). Those regulations reflect changes to the law made by the Pension... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG 155929-06] RIN 1545-BL44 Payout Requirements for Type III...

  1. 77 FR 76382 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... regulations regarding the requirements to qualify as a Type III supporting organization that is operated in... Pension Protection Act of 2006. The regulations will affect Type III supporting organizations and their... may require to ensure that the Type III supporting organization is responsive to the needs or...

  2. Biphenyl synthase, a novel type III polyketide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Raeth, T; Beuerle, T; Beerhues, L

    2007-05-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae, a subfamily of the economically important Rosaceae. The carbon skeleton of the two classes of antimicrobial secondary metabolites is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS). A cDNA encoding this key enzyme was cloned from yeast-extract-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia. BIS is a novel type III polyketide synthase (PKS) that shares about 60% amino acid sequence identity with other members of the enzyme superfamily. Its preferred starter substrate is benzoyl-CoA that undergoes iterative condensation with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to give 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl via intramolecular aldol condensation. BIS did not accept CoA-linked cinnamic acids such as 4-coumaroyl-CoA. This substrate, however, was the preferential starter molecule for chalcone synthase (CHS) that was also cloned from S. aucuparia cell cultures. While BIS expression was rapidly, strongly and transiently induced by yeast extract treatment, CHS expression was not. In a phylogenetic tree, BIS grouped together closely with benzophenone synthase (BPS) that also uses benzoyl-CoA as starter molecule but cyclizes the common intermediate via intramolecular Claisen condensation. The molecular characterization of BIS thus contributes to the understanding of the functional diversity and evolution of type III PKSs.

  3. A Novel Type III Endosome Transmembrane Protein, TEMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan D. Teasdale

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As part of a high-throughput subcellular localisation project, the protein encoded by the RIKEN mouse cDNA 2610528J11 was expressed and identified to be associated with both endosomes and the plasma membrane. Based on this, we have assigned the name TEMP for Type III Endosome Membrane Protein. TEMP encodes a short protein of 111 amino acids with a single, alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Experimental analysis of its membrane topology demonstrated it is a Type III membrane protein with the amino-terminus in the lumenal, or extracellular region, and the carboxy-terminus in the cytoplasm. In addition to the plasma membrane TEMP was localized to Rab5 positive early endosomes, Rab5/Rab11 positive recycling endosomes but not Rab7 positive late endosomes. Video microscopy in living cells confirmed TEMP's plasma membrane localization and identified the intracellular endosome compartments to be tubulovesicular. Overexpression of TEMP resulted in the early/recycling endosomes clustering at the cell periphery that was dependent on the presence of intact microtubules. The cellular function of TEMP cannot be inferred based on bioinformatics comparison, but its cellular distribution between early/recycling endosomes and the plasma membrane suggests a role in membrane transport.

  4. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2007-10-03

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception) and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating). Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III), which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  5. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Felicia B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN encompass a number of inherited disorders that are associated with sensory dysfunction (depressed reflexes, altered pain and temperature perception and varying degrees of autonomic dysfunction (gastroesophageal reflux, postural hypotention, excessive sweating. Subsequent to the numerical classification of four distinct forms of HSAN that was proposed by Dyck and Ohta, additional entities continue to be described, so that identification and classification are ongoing. As a group, the HSAN are rare diseases that affect both sexes. HSAN III is almost exclusive to individuals of Eastern European Jewish extraction, with incidence of 1 per 3600 live births. Several hundred cases with HSAN IV have been reported. The worldwide prevalence of HSAN type II is very low. This review focuses on the description of three of the disorders, HSAN II through IV, that are characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance and onset at birth. These three forms of HSAN have been the most intensively studied, especially familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome or HSAN III, which is often used as a prototype for comparison to the other HSAN. Each HSAN disorder is likely caused by different genetic errors that affect specific aspects of small fiber neurodevelopment, which result in variable phenotypic expression. As genetic tests are routinely used for diagnostic confirmation of HSAN III only, other means of differentiating between the disorders is necessary. Diagnosis is based on the clinical features, the degree of both sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and biochemical evaluations, with pathologic examinations serving to further confirm differences. Treatments for all these disorders are supportive.

  6. Expression and secretion of Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 virulence genes in response to acidification exhibit differential requirements of a functional type III secretion apparatus and SsaL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Brian K; Brown, Nat F; Valdez, Yanet; Brumell, John H; Finlay, B Brett

    2004-11-26

    Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 is pivotal to the intracellular survival of Salmonella and for virulence in mammals. SPI-2 encodes virulence factors (called effectors) that are translocated into the host cell, a type III secretion apparatus and a two-component regulatory system that regulates intracellular expression of SPI-2. Salmonella SPI-2 secretion activity appears to be induced in response to acidification of the vacuole in which it replicates. Here we show that the expression of the SPI-2 proteins, SseB and SseD (filament and pore forming components of the secretion apparatus, respectively) in response to acidification requires an intact secretion system and SsaL, a Salmonella homologue of SepL, a regulator required for type III-dependent secretion of translocators but not effectors in attaching and effacing gastrointestinal pathogens. We show that the expression of SPI-2-encoded effectors is acid-regulated but can be uncoupled from the expression of filament and translocon components, thus showing a differential requirement of SsaL for expression. The secretion and translocation of SPI-2-encoded effectors requires SsaL, but SsaL is dispensable for the secretion of SPI-2 effectors encoded in other pathogenicity loci, suggesting a secretion regulation function for SsaL. Further, we demonstrate that the differential expression of adjacent genes within the sseA operon (sseD and sseE) occurs at the transcriptional level. These data indicate that a Salmonella SPI-2 activation state is achieved by an acidregulated response that requires SsaL. These data also suggest the existence of a previously unrecognized regulatory element within SPI-2 for the "effector operon" region downstream of sseD that might demarcate the expression of translocators and effectors.

  7. Prevalence of type III secretion system in effective biocontrol pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Juliana; Gobbin, Davide; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Functional type III secretion system (T3SS) genes are needed for effective biocontrol of Pythium damping-off of cucumber by Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, but whether biocontrol Pseudomonas strains with T3SS genes display overall a higher plant-protecting activity is unknown. The assessment of 198 biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads originating from 60 soils worldwide indicated that 32% harbour the ATPase-encoding T3SS gene hrcN, which was most often found in tomato isolates. The hrcN(+) biocontrol strains (and especially those also producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and displaying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity) displayed higher plant-protecting ability in comparison with hrcN(-) biocontrol strains, both in the Pythium/cucumber and Fusarium/cucumber pathosystems.

  8. Yersinia Type III Secretion System Master Regulator LcrF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesow, Leah; Lam, Hanh; Dersch, Petra; Auerbuch, Victoria

    2015-12-07

    Many Gram-negative pathogens express a type III secretion (T3SS) system to enable growth and survival within a host. The three human-pathogenic Yersinia species, Y. pestis, Y. pseudotuberculosis, and Y. enterocolitica, encode the Ysc T3SS, whose expression is controlled by an AraC-like master regulator called LcrF. In this review, we discuss LcrF structure and function as well as the environmental cues and pathways known to regulate LcrF expression. Similarities and differences in binding motifs and modes of action between LcrF and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa homolog ExsA are summarized. In addition, we present a new bioinformatics analysis that identifies putative LcrF binding sites within Yersinia target gene promoters.

  9. High-Frequency Cutoff in Type III Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavsky, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Volvach, Ya. S.; Koval, A. A.

    In this article we report about a group of solar bursts with high-frequency cutoff, observed on 19 August of 2012 near 8:23 UT, simultaneously by three different radio telescopes: the Ukrainian decameter radio telescope (8-33 MHz), the French Nancay Decametric Array (10-70 MHz) and the Italian San Vito Solar Observatory of RSTN (25-180 MHz). Morphologically the bursts are very similar to the type III bursts. The solar activity is connected with the emergency of a new group of solar spots on the far side of the Sun with respect to observers on Earth. The solar bursts accompany many moderate flares over eastern limb. The refraction of the behind-limb radio bursts towards the Earth is favorable, if CMEs generate low-density cavities in solar corona.

  10. Harnessing type I and type III CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingjun; Pan, Saifu; Zhang, Yan;

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are widespread in archaea and bacteria, and research on their molecular mechanisms has led to the development of genome-editing techniques based on a few Type II systems. However, there has not been any...... report on harnessing a Type I or Type III system for genome editing. Here, a method was developed to repurpose both CRISPR-Cas systems for genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus, a thermophilic archaeon. A novel type of genome-editing plasmid (pGE) was constructed, carrying an artificial mini...

  11. Type II and Type III Radio Bursts and their Correlation with Solar Energetic Proton Events

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, L M

    2015-01-01

    Using the Wind/WAVES radio observations from 2010-2013, we present an analysis of the 123 decametric-hectometric (DH) type II solar radio bursts during this period, the associated type III burst properties, and their correlation with solar energetic proton (SEP) properties determined from analysis of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) observations. We present a useful catalog of the type II burst, type III burst, Langmuir wave, and proton flux properties for these 123 events, which we employ to develop a statistical relationship between the radio properties and peak proton flux that can be used to forecast SEP events. We find that all SEP events with a peak > 10 MeV flux above 15 pfu are associated with a type II burst and virtually all SEP events, 92%, are also associated with a type III radio burst. Based on a principal component analysis, the radio burst properties that are most highly correlated with the occurrence of gradual SEP events and account for the most variance in the ra...

  12. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH (HAE type III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), also known as HAE type III, is a familial condition only clinically recognized within the past three decades. Similar to HAE from C1-INH deficiency (HAE types I and II), affected individuals experience unpredictable angioedema episodes of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway. Unique clinical features of HAE with normal C1-INH include the predominance of affected women, frequent exacerbation by estrogen, and a prominence of angioedema that involves the face and oropharynx. The underlying pathophysiology of HAE with normal C1-INH is poorly understood, but indirect evidence points to contact pathway dysregulation with bradykinin-mediated angioedema. Currently, evaluation is complicated by a lack of confirmatory laboratory testing such that clinical criteria must often be used to make the diagnosis of HAE with normal C1-INH. Factor XII mutations have been identified in only a minority of persons affected by HAE with normal C1-INH, limiting the utility of such analysis. To date, no controlled clinical studies have examined the efficacy of therapeutic agents for HAE with normal C1-INH, although published evidence supports frequent clinical benefit with medications shown effective in HAE due to C1-INH deficiency.

  13. Pulmonary involvement in siblings with Gaucher disease type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary involvement has been described in all types of Gaucher disease (GD but it is considered as relatively rare manifestation. There are reports suggesting that homozygosity for L444P mutation in GBA gene is associated with a substantial risk for developing primary pulmonary disease in GD. Case report. We reported sisters with pulmonary involvement in GD type III. Respiratory failure with fatal outcome at 3 years and 4 months of age occurred in K.K. due to pulmonary complications of GD. At the time enzyme replacement therapy (ERT was not available in Serbia. J.K., homozygous for L444P mutation, developed asymptomatic pulmonary involvement at the age of 6 after 2.5 years of ERT. Pulmonary disease in J.K. was verified by high resolution computerized tomography, cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histopathology of transbronchial lung biopsy. Conclusion. Primary lung disease in children homoallelic for L444P mutation in GBA gene emerges as a significant clinical manifestation of GD with unclear response to ERT.

  14. Antiviral Type I and Type III Interferon Responses in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Michiels

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system (CNS harbors highly differentiated cells, such as neurons that are essential to coordinate the functions of complex organisms. This organ is partly protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB from toxic substances and pathogens carried in the bloodstream. Yet, neurotropic viruses can reach the CNS either by crossing the BBB after viremia, or by exploiting motile infected cells as Trojan horses, or by using axonal transport. Type I and type III interferons (IFNs are cytokines that are critical to control early steps of viral infections. Deficiencies in the IFN pathway have been associated with fatal viral encephalitis both in humans and mice. Therefore, the IFN system provides an essential protection of the CNS against viral infections. Yet, basal activity of the IFN system appears to be low within the CNS, likely owing to the toxicity of IFN to this organ. Moreover, after viral infection, neurons and oligodendrocytes were reported to be relatively poor IFN producers and appear to keep some susceptibility to neurotropic viruses, even in the presence of IFN. This review addresses some trends and recent developments concerning the role of type I and type III IFNs in: i preventing neuroinvasion and infection of CNS cells; ii the identity of IFN-producing cells in the CNS; iii the antiviral activity of ISGs; and iv the activity of viral proteins of neurotropic viruses that target the IFN pathway.

  15. pKBuS13, a KPC-2-Encoding Plasmid from Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 833, Carrying Tn4401b Inserted into an Xer Site-Specific Recombination Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbari, Luigi; Busetti, Marina; Dolzani, Lucilla; Petix, Vincenzo; Knezevich, Anna; Bressan, Raffaela; Gionechetti, Fabrizia; Tonin, Enrico A.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the first detection of a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 2 (KPC-2)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain belonging to sequence type 833 (ST833), collected in an Italian hospital from a patient coming from South America. Its blaKPC determinant was carried by a ColE1 plasmid, pKBuS13, that showed the Tn4401b::blaKPC-2 transposon inserted into the regulatory region of an Xer site-specific recombination locus. This interfered with the correct resolution of plasmid multimers into monomers, lowering plasmid stability and leading to overestimation of the number of plasmids harbored by a single host cell. Sequencing of the fragments adjacent to Tn4401b detected a region that did not have significant matches in databases other than the genome of a carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli strain collected during the same year at a hospital in Boston. This is interesting in an epidemiologic context, as it suggests that despite the absence of tra genes and the instability under nonselective conditions, the circulation of pKBuS13 or of analogous plasmids might be wider than reported. PMID:26077252

  16. Spontaneous R-Parity Violating Type III Seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2009-01-01

    We present a model where neutrino masses are generated by a combination of spontaneous R-parity violation and Type III seesaw. In addition to the usual MSSM particle content, our model consists of one extra triplet matter chiral superfield containing heavy SU(2) triplet fermions and its superpartners. R-parity is broken spontaneously when the sneutrinos associated with the one heavy neutrino as well as the three light neutrinos get vacuum expectation values, giving rise to the mixed $8\\times 8$ neutralino-neutrino mass matrix. We show that our model can comfortably explain all the existing neutrino oscillation data. Due to the presence of the triplet fermion, we have a pair of additional heavy charged leptons which mix with the standard model charged leptons and the charginos. This gives rise to a $6\\times 6$ chargino-charged lepton mass matrix, with 6 massive eigenstates. Finally we discuss about the different R-parity violating possible decay modes and the distinctive collider signatures which our model off...

  17. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Type III Secretion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Gu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant pathogens have presented increasing challenges to the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents. The type III secretion system (T3SS, existing in bacterial chromosomes or plasmids, is one of the most complicated protein secretion systems. T3SSs of animal and plant pathogens possess many highly conserved main structural components comprised of about 20 proteins. Many Gram-negative bacteria carry T3SS as a major virulence determinant, and using the T3SS, the bacteria secrete and inject effector proteins into target host cells, triggering disease symptoms. Therefore, T3SS has emerged as an attractive target for antimicrobial therapeutics. In recent years, many T3SS-targeting small-molecule inhibitors have been discovered; these inhibitors prevent the bacteria from injecting effector proteins and from causing pathophysiology in host cells. Targeting the virulence of Gram-negative pathogens, rather than their survival, is an innovative and promising approach that may greatly reduce selection pressures on pathogens to develop drug-resistant mutations. This article summarizes recent progress in the search for promising small-molecule T3SS inhibitors that target the secretion and translocation of bacterial effector proteins.

  18. Radiative Type III Seesaw Model and its collider phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    von der Pahlen, Federico; Restrepo, Diego; Zapata, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the present bounds of a scotogenic model, the Radiative Type III Seesaw (RSIII), in which an additional scalar doublet and at least two fermion triplets of $SU(2)_L$ are added to the Standard Model (SM). In the RSIII the new physics (NP) sector is odd under an exact global $Z_2$ symmetry. This symmetry guaranties that the lightest NP neutral particle is stable, providing a natural dark matter (DM) candidate, and leads to naturally suppressed neutrino masses generated by a one-loop realization of an effective Weinberg operator. We focus on the region with the highest sensitivity in present and future LHC searches, with light scalar DM and at least one NP fermion triplet at the sub-TeV scale. This region allows for significant production cross-sections of NP fermion pairs at the LHC. We reinterpret a set of searches for supersymmetric particles at the LHC obtained using the package CheckMATE, to set limits on our model as a function of the masses of the NP particles and their Yukawa interactions. The...

  19. Identification of type II and III DDR2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, André; Nguyen, Hoang D; Phan, Trang; Simard, Jeffrey R; Grütter, Christian; Engel, Julian; Rauh, Daniel

    2014-05-22

    Discoidin domain-containing receptors (DDRs) exhibit a unique mechanism of action among the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) because their catalytic activity is induced by extracellular collagen binding. Moreover, they are essential components in the assimilation of extracellular signals. Recently, DDRs were reported to be significantly linked to tumor progression in breast cancer by facilitating the processes of invasion, migration, and metastasis. Here, we report the successful development of a fluorescence-based, direct binding assay for the detection of type II and III DFG-out binders for DDR2. Using sequence alignments and homology modeling, we designed a DDR2 construct appropriate for fluorescent labeling. Successful assay development was validated by sensitive detection of a reference DFG-out binder. Subsequent downscaling led to convenient application to high-throughput screening formats. Screening of a representative compound library identified high-affinity DDR2 ligands validated by orthogonal activity-based assays, and a subset of identified compounds was further investigated with respect to DDR1 inhibition.

  20. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Ty...

  1. Evaluation of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score in Combat-Related Type III Tibia Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Evaluation of the Mangled Extremity Severity Score in Combat-Related Type III Open Tibia Fracture Andrew J. Sheean, MD,* Chad A...soldiers sustaining combat-related Gustilo–Anderson type III open tibia fractures. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary trauma center...Patients: Service Members with combat-related type III open tibia fractures occurring between 2003 and 2007 treated definitively in a US military medical

  2. Synthesis of type III collagen by fibroblasts from the embryonic chick cornea

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Synthesis of collagen types I, II, III, and IV in cells from the embryonic chick cornea was studied using specific antibodies and immunofluorescence. Synthesis of radioactively labeled collagen types I and III was followed by fluorographic detection of cyanogen bromide peptides on polyacrylamide slab gels and by carboxymethylcellulose chromatography followed by disc gel electrophoresis. Type III collagen had been detected previously by indirect immunofluorescence in the corneal epithelial cel...

  3. Harnessing type I and type III CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingjun; Pan, Saifu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are widespread in archaea and bacteria, and research on their molecular mechanisms has led to the development of genome-editing techniques based on a few Type II systems. However, there has not been any...... report on harnessing a Type I or Type III system for genome editing. Here, a method was developed to repurpose both CRISPR-Cas systems for genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus, a thermophilic archaeon. A novel type of genome-editing plasmid (pGE) was constructed, carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR...... and selectively retained as transformants. Using this strategy, different types of mutation were generated, including deletion, insertion and point mutations. We envision this method is readily applicable to different bacteria and archaea that carry an active CRISPR-Cas system of DNA interference provided...

  4. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan S Georgy

    Full Text Available Cerebrolysin (CBL, a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i vehicle- (ii CBL- and (iii STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%, which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU, glycine, serotonin (5-HT and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti

  5. Protein export through the bacterial flagellar type III export pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Tohru

    2014-08-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, which is responsible for bacterial motility, the flagellar type III export apparatus utilizes both ATP and proton motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane and exports flagellar proteins from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the nascent structure. The export apparatus consists of a membrane-embedded export gate made of FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR and a water-soluble ATPase ring complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlgN, FliS, and FliT act as substrate-specific chaperones that do not only protect their cognate substrates from degradation and aggregation in the cytoplasm but also efficiently transfer the substrates to the export apparatus. The ATPase ring complex facilitates the initial entry of the substrates into the narrow pore of the export gate. The export gate by itself is a proton-protein antiporter that uses the two components of proton motive force, the electric potential difference and the proton concentration difference, for different steps of the export process. A specific interaction of FlhA with FliJ located in the center of the ATPase ring complex allows the export gate to efficiently use proton motive force to drive protein export. The ATPase ring complex couples ATP binding and hydrolysis to its assembly-disassembly cycle for rapid and efficient protein export cycle. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein trafficking and secretion in bacteria. Guest Editors: Anastassios Economou and Ross Dalbey.

  6. Cerebrolysin Ameloriates Cognitive Deficits in Type III Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgy, Gehan S; Nassar, Noha N; Mansour, Hanaa A; Abdallah, Dalaal M

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrolysin (CBL), a mixture of several active peptide fragments and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is currently used in the management of cognitive alterations in patients with dementia. Since Cognitive decline as well as increased dementia are strongly associated with diabetes and previous studies addressed the protective effect of BDNF in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes; hence this work aimed to evaluate the potential neuroprotective effect of CBL in modulating the complications of hyperglycaemia experimentally induced by streptozotocin (STZ) on the rat brain hippocampus. To this end, male adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into (i) vehicle- (ii) CBL- and (iii) STZ diabetic-control as well as (iv) STZ+CBL groups. Diabetes was confirmed by hyperglycemia and elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c%), which were associated by weight loss, elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased insulin growth factor (IGF)-1β in the serum. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia caused learning and memory impairments that corroborated degenerative changes, neuronal loss and expression of caspase (Casp)-3 in the hippocampal area of STZ-diabetic rats. Behavioral deficits were associated by decreased hippocampal glutamate (GLU), glycine, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine. Moreover, diabetic rats showed an increase in hippocampal nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances versus decreased non-protein sulfhydryls. Though CBL did not affect STZ-induced hyperglycemia, it partly improved body weight as well as HbA1c%. Such effects were associated by enhancement in both learning and memory as well as apparent normal cellularity in CA1and CA3 areas and reduced Casp-3 expression. CBL improved serum TNF-α and IGF-1β, GLU and 5-HT as well as hampering oxidative biomarkers. In conclusion, CBL possesses neuroprotection against diabetes-associated cerebral neurodegeneration and cognitive decline via anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and

  7. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J;

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... propeptide of type III procollagen. Type I collagen is mainly found in bone and type III collagen in loose connective tissue. We observed a GH dose dependency of both procollagen propeptides. Serum type I procollagen propeptide was significantly higher following GH doses of 4 and 6 IU/day for 14 days...... procollagen propeptide increased twice as much as type I procollagen propeptide, by 47 vs 25%, at a GH dose of 6 IU/day compared with 2 IU/day. The differences between the effects on type I and type III collagen may reflect differences in secretion or turn-over rate of collagen in bone and loose connective...

  8. OPA3, mutated in 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, encodes two transcripts targeted primarily to mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizing, Marjan; Dorward, Heidi; Ly, Lien

    2010-01-01

    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type III (3-MGCA type III), caused by recessive mutations in the 2-exon gene OPA3, is characterized by early-onset bilateral optic atrophy, later-onset extrapyramidal dysfunction, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. Her...

  9. 46 CFR 170.135 - Operating information for a vessel with Type III subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating information for a vessel with Type III... Operating Personnel § 170.135 Operating information for a vessel with Type III subdivision. (a) In addition to the information required in 46 CFR 170.110, the stability booklet of a passenger vessel with...

  10. 78 FR 9802 - Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... requirements to qualify as a Type III supporting organization that is operated in connection with one or more... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG31; 1545-BL38 Payout Requirements for Type III Supporting Organizations That Are Not Functionally Integrated; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS),...

  11. A note on tilted Bianchi type VIh models: the type III bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, A. A.; Hervik, S.

    2008-10-01

    In this note we complete the analysis of Hervik, van den Hoogen, Lim and Coley (2007 Class. Quantum Grav. 24 3859) of the late-time behaviour of tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type III models. We consider models with dust, and perfect fluids stiffer than dust, and eludicate the late-time behaviour by studying the centre manifold which dominates the behaviour of the model at late times. In the dust case, this centre manifold is three-dimensional and can be considered a double bifurcation as the two parameters (h and γ) of the type VIh model are varied. We therefore complete the analysis of the late-time behaviour of tilted ever-expanding Bianchi models of types I VIII.

  12. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Type III effectors also interfere with additional plant cellular processes including proteasome-dependent protein degradation, phytohormone signaling, the formation of the cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and gene expression. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular functions of type III effector proteins with known plant target molecules. Furthermore, plant defense strategies for the detection of effector protein activities or effector-triggered alterations in plant targets are discussed. PMID:27526699

  13. Harnessing Type I and Type III CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjun; Pan, Saifu; Zhang, Yan; Ren, Min; Feng, Mingxia; Peng, Nan; Chen, Lanming; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2016-02-29

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are widespread in archaea and bacteria, and research on their molecular mechanisms has led to the development of genome-editing techniques based on a few Type II systems. However, there has not been any report on harnessing a Type I or Type III system for genome editing. Here, a method was developed to repurpose both CRISPR-Cas systems for genetic manipulation in Sulfolobus islandicus, a thermophilic archaeon. A novel type of genome-editing plasmid (pGE) was constructed, carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR array and a donor DNA containing a non-target sequence. Transformation of a pGE plasmid would yield two alternative fates to transformed cells: wild-type cells are to be targeted for chromosomal DNA degradation, leading to cell death, whereas those carrying the mutant gene would survive the cell killing and selectively retained as transformants. Using this strategy, different types of mutation were generated, including deletion, insertion and point mutations. We envision this method is readily applicable to different bacteria and archaea that carry an active CRISPR-Cas system of DNA interference provided the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) of an uncharacterized PAM-dependent CRISPR-Cas system can be predicted by bioinformatic analysis.

  14. Frontal Sinus Patency after Extended Frontal Sinusotomy Type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbeygi, Mansour; Nadjafi, Ali; Amali, Amin; Saedi, Babak; Sadrehosseini, Seyed Mousa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The surgical management of chronic frontal sinus disorders remains a challenge for rhinologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the result of Draf III in a series of patients who underwent this procedure. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients were included in this study. Demographic data, history of prior surgery, asthma, aspirin sensitivity and Lund–Mackay score were recorded. A visual analog scale was used for frontal-related symptoms. Patients were followed for a mean duration of 17.5 months and the patency of the frontal sinus ostium was closely monitored. Results: Fifteen patients with chronic frontal sinusitis, two patients with mucoceles, two with malignancy, and one with osteoma underwent Draf III. The mean symptoms score significantly decreased from 5.9 to 3. No ostial closure was seen in the follow-up period. Among 15 patients with chronic frontal sinusitis, 12 had patent ostia of whom three had significant stenosis. All patients with mucocele and osteoma had patent ostia in the follow-up period but patients with sinonasal malignancy showed significant stenosis. Conclusion: Draf III frontal sinusotomy is successful in alleviating patient symptoms and the frontal sinus neo-ostium will remain patent in long-term follow-up of most patients. Revision surgery will be required in some cases, which seems to be related to the nature of the underlying chronic sinus diseases. PMID:27738610

  15. Type III Secretion: a Virulence Factor Delivery System Essential for the Pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, Ricky L; DeShazer, David

    2004-01-01

    By creating mutations in the Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 animal pathogen-like type III secretion system (TTSS), this study analyzes the correlation between type III secretion and the pathogenicity of ATCC 23344 in vivo. Mutagenesis demonstrated that a functional TTSS was required for the full pathogenicity of ATCC 23344 in the BALB/c mouse and Syrian hamster models of infection. However, vaccination with each mutant failed to elicit a protective immunity against challenge with wild-type AT...

  16. [Prophylactic use of icatibant before tracheal intubation of a patient with hereditary angioedema type III. (A literature review of perioperative management of patients with hereditary angioedema type III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturri Clavero, F; González Uriarte, A; Tamayo Medel, G; Gamboa Setién, P M

    2014-01-01

    Type III hereditary angioedema is a rare familial disorder that has recently been described as a separate condition. Triggers for episodes of angioedema include surgery, dental procedures, and tracheal intubation maneuvers. Since episodes affecting the upper airway are potentially life-threatening, prophylactic treatment is recommended in these situations. The use of icatibant (Firazyr(®)), for prevention of angioedema prior to tracheal intubation, is reported in a patient with type iii hereditary angioedema. A literature review on the anesthetic management of this condition was conducted.

  17. Serum aminoterminal type III procollagen peptide reflects repair after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Hørslev-Petersen, K; Toft, P;

    1990-01-01

    similar to changes observed during wound healing in humans. PIIINP is cleaved off procollagen type III during the biosynthesis of type III collagen, which characterizes the early stages of repair and inflammation. Our findings suggest that serum PIIINP reflects the repair processes and scar formation......In 16 patients with acute myocardial infarction and in 15 controls, procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide in serum (PIIINP) was measured consecutively. Serum PIIINP was increased on the second to third postinfarction day (p less than 0.01) and remained elevated for more than 4 months. Peak...

  18. Second harmonic generation microscopy differentiates collagen type I and type III in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Kayra, Damian; Elliott, W. Mark; Hogg, James C.; Abraham, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The structural remodeling of extracellular matrix proteins in peripheral lung region is an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multiphoton microscopy is capable of inducing specific second harmonic generation (SHG) signal from non-centrosymmetric structural proteins such as fibrillar collagens. In this study, SHG microscopy was used to examine structural remodeling of the fibrillar collagens in human lungs undergoing emphysematous destruction (n=2). The SHG signals originating from these diseased lung thin sections from base to apex (n=16) were captured simultaneously in both forward and backward directions. We found that the SHG images detected in the forward direction showed well-developed and well-structured thick collagen fibers while the SHG images detected in the backward direction showed striking different morphological features which included the diffused pattern of forward detected structures plus other forms of collagen structures. Comparison of these images with the wellestablished immunohistochemical staining indicated that the structures detected in the forward direction are primarily the thick collagen type I fibers and the structures identified in the backward direction are diffusive structures of forward detected collagen type I plus collagen type III. In conclusion, we here demonstrate the feasibility of SHG microscopy in differentiating fibrillar collagen subtypes and understanding their remodeling in diseased lung tissues.

  19. Dietary management in glycogen storage disease type III : what is the evidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Terry G. J.; Smit, G. Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    In childhood, GSD type III causes relatively severe fasting intolerance, classically associated with ketotic hypoglycaemia. During follow up, history of (documented) hypoglycaemia, clinical parameters (growth, liver size, motor development, neuromuscular parameters), laboratory parameters (glucose,

  20. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen. Studies on physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the physiological basis for the clinical use of serum PIIINP as a marker of the deposition rate of type III collagen. The assumption was that the serum concentration of PIIINP would reflect the turnover of type III collagen and thus directly reflect...... disappears when the body is in a catabolic state. Anabolic states give rise to increased serum concentrations of PIIINP as compared with normals states. The general conclusion is that serum PIIINP is a marker of type III collagen turnover under well-defined conditions. Serum PIIINP, mainly consisting...... of peaks B and C (intact PIIINP) may, owing to the disposal rate, reflect changes in type III collagen turnover over one day (6 half-lives). The liver and kidneys actively take part in the degradation of circulating PIIINP. Serum concentrations of PIIINP in the presence of changing body composition (weight...

  1. Decameter type III bursts with positive and negative frequency drift rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Zarka, P.; Frantzusenko, A. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Panchenko, M.; Zaqarashvili, T.; Shergelashvili, B.

    2013-09-01

    We report about observations of decameter type III bursts whose frequency drift rates vary their signs from negative to positive. Moreover drift rates of some bursts vary the sign some times. Positive drift rates for some bursts are changed from 0.44 MHz/s to 12 MHz/s. At the same time the negative drift rates of these bursts are standard values for decameter type III bursts. A possible interpretation of such phenomenon on the base of plasma mechanism of type III burst generation is discussed. The sense of this interpretation is that group velocity of type III electromagnetic waves generated by fast electrons at some conditions can be smaller than velocity of these electrons.

  2. Critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Llamoza, O. [Departamento de Fisica, FACYT, Universidad de Carabobo, Valencia (Venezuela); Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Grupo de Caos y Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5251, Merida (Venezuela)], E-mail: llamoza@ula.ve; Cosenza, M.G. [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Grupo de Caos y Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5251, Merida (Venezuela); Ponce, G.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Honduras (Honduras); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Pedagogica Nacional Francisco Morazan, Tegucigalpa (Honduras)

    2008-04-15

    The critical behavior of the Lyapunov exponent near the transition to robust chaos via type-III intermittency is determined for a family of one-dimensional singular maps. Critical boundaries separating the region of robust chaos from the region where stable fixed points exist are calculated on the parameter space of the system. A critical exponent {beta} expressing the scaling of the Lyapunov exponent is calculated along the critical curve corresponding to the type-III intermittent transition to chaos. It is found that {beta} varies on the interval 0 {<=} {beta} < 1/2 as a function of the order of the singularity of the map. This contrasts with earlier predictions for the scaling behavior of the Lyapunov exponent in type-III intermittency. The variation of the critical exponent {beta} implies a continuous change in the nature of the transition to chaos via type-III intermittency, from a second-order, continuous transition to a first-order, discontinuous transition.

  3. Expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III during the development of the peripheral nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-liang Huang; Zhong-yang Liu; Jing-hui Huang; Zhuo-jing Luo

    2015-01-01

    Neuregulin-1 type III is a key regulator in Schwann cell proliferation, committing to a myelinat-ing fate and regulating myelin sheath thickness. However, the expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III in the peripheral nervous system during developmental periods (such as the premyelin-ating stage, myelinating stage and postmyelinating stage) has rarely been studied. In this study, dorsal root ganglia were isolated from rats between postnatal day 1 and postnatal day 56. The expression pattern of neuregulin-1 type III in dorsal root ganglia neurons at various develop-mental stages were compared by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot assay and immunolfuorescent staining. The expression of neuregulin-1 type III mRNA reached its peak at postnatal day 3 and then stabilized at a relative high expression level from postnatal day 3 to postnatal day 56. The expression of neuregulin-1 type III protein increased gradually from postnatal day 1, reached a peak at postnatal day 28, and then decreased at postnatal day 56. Immunolfuorescent staining results showed a similar tendency to western blot assay results. Experimental findings indicate that the expression of neuregulin-1 type III in rat dorsal root ganglion was increased during the premyelinating (from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 5) and myelinating stage (from postnatal day 5 to postnatal day 10), but remained at a high level in the postmyelinating stage (after postnatal day 10).

  4. Solar Micro-Type III Burst Storms and Long Dipolar Magnetic Field in the Outer Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Iwai, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Masuda, S.; Misawa, H.; Obara, T.

    2015-08-01

    Solar micro-type III radio bursts are elements of the so-called type III storms and are characterized by short-lived, continuous, and weak emissions. Their frequency of occurrence with respect to radiation power is quite different from that of ordinary type III bursts, suggesting that the generation process is not flare-related, but due to some recurrent acceleration processes around the active region. We examine the relationship of micro-type III radio bursts with coronal streamers. We also explore the propagation channel of bursts in the outer corona, the acceleration process, and the escape route of electron beams. It is observationally confirmed that micro-type III bursts occur near the edge of coronal streamers. The magnetic field line of the escaping electron beams is tracked on the basis of the frequency drift rate of micro-type III bursts and the electron density distribution model. The results demonstrate that electron beams are trapped along closed dipolar field lines in the outer coronal region, which arise from the interface region between the active region and the coronal hole. A 22 year statistical study reveals that the apex altitude of the magnetic loop ranges from 15 to 50 RS. The distribution of the apex altitude has a sharp upper limit around 50 RS suggesting that an unknown but universal condition regulates the upper boundary of the streamer dipolar field.

  5. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of SrcA, a Multi-cargo Type III Secretion Chaperone in Salmonella Required for Pathogenic Association with a Host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.; Zhang, K; Andres, S; Fnag, Y; Kaniuk, N; Hannemann, M; Brumell, J; Foster, L; Junop, M; Coombes, B

    2010-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS) that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for effector translocation into host cells. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a T3SS encoded in a large genomic island (SPI-2) is required for intracellular infection, but the chaperone complement required for effector translocation by this system is not known. Using a reverse genetics approach, we identified a multi-cargo secretion chaperone that is functionally integrated with the SPI-2-encoded T3SS and required for systemic infection in mice. Crystallographic analysis of SrcA at a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} revealed a dimer similar to the CesT chaperone from enteropathogenic E. coli but lacking a 17-amino acid extension at the carboxyl terminus. Further biochemical and quantitative proteomics data revealed three protein interactions with SrcA, including two effector cargos (SseL and PipB2) and the type III-associated ATPase, SsaN, that increases the efficiency of effector translocation. Using competitive infections in mice we show that SrcA increases bacterial fitness during host infection, highlighting the in vivo importance of effector chaperones for the SPI-2 T3SS.

  6. Structural and biochemical characterization of SrcA, a multi-cargo type III secretion chaperone in Salmonella required for pathogenic association with a host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A Cooper

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for effector translocation into host cells. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a T3SS encoded in a large genomic island (SPI-2 is required for intracellular infection, but the chaperone complement required for effector translocation by this system is not known. Using a reverse genetics approach, we identified a multi-cargo secretion chaperone that is functionally integrated with the SPI-2-encoded T3SS and required for systemic infection in mice. Crystallographic analysis of SrcA at a resolution of 2.5 A revealed a dimer similar to the CesT chaperone from enteropathogenic E. coli but lacking a 17-amino acid extension at the carboxyl terminus. Further biochemical and quantitative proteomics data revealed three protein interactions with SrcA, including two effector cargos (SseL and PipB2 and the type III-associated ATPase, SsaN, that increases the efficiency of effector translocation. Using competitive infections in mice we show that SrcA increases bacterial fitness during host infection, highlighting the in vivo importance of effector chaperones for the SPI-2 T3SS.

  7. The extracellular matrix of Gadus morhua muscle contains types III, V, VI and IV collagens in addition to type I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Lawson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Confocal microscopy and immuno‐histochemistry were used to examine collagens in the extracellular matrix of cod Gadus morhua swimming muscle. In addition to the well known presence of type I fibrous collagen, types III and VI were also found in the myocommata and the endomysium. The beaded collagen...

  8. Identification and characterization of a type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus in the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessarab, Irina N; Nakajima, Rui; Liu, Hsing-Wei; Tai, Jung-Hsiang

    2011-02-01

    A type III Trichomonas vaginalis virus, which may be involved in transcriptional regulation of the major surface protein gene P270 of the protozoan pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, was purified and characterized in the present study. The complete 4844-base-pair complementary DNA sequence of the viral genome reveals overlapping cap and pol genes with a putative ribosomal frame-shifting signal within the overlap region. The type III virus is related more closely to the type II virus than to the type I virus in the sequence of its ribosomal frameshift signal and in its capsid protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses could be grouped in the same clade as a genus distantly related to other genera in the family Totiviridae. Virus-induced P270 gene expression was only evident in Trichomonas vaginalis cells infected with either a type II or type III virus, but not with a type I virus. These findings suggest that transcription of the P270 gene is likely regulated by viral factors common to type II and type III viruses and thus provides important information for future investigation of virus-host interactions.

  9. Lack of the type III epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Nielsen, Jens Nederby;

    2007-01-01

    network are being investigated and mutations in the EGFR gene have been identified. The type III epidermal growth factor receptor, a tumour-specific, ligand independent, constitutively activated form of EGFR, might contribute to the malignant phenotype in CRC and may be a potential target for anticancer...... therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of EGFRvIII in CRC by PCR and protein analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 79 colorectal cancer patients for PCR analysis and 50 patients for protein analysis by Western blots, in two different laboratories. RESULTS......: No type III mutations were detected in our material. CONCLUSION: The EGFRvIII mutations are rare in colorectal adenocarcinomas and overall probability does not appear to contribute to the malignant phenotype of this disease....

  10. On the three harmonics of solar type III bursts at the decameter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhenko, Anatolii; Pylaev, Oleg; Melnik, Valentin; Konovalenko, Alexandr; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Rucker, Helmut; Frantsuzenko, Anatolii; Dorovskyy, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Harmonic structure of type III bursts are explained in terms of plasma emission mechanism. The second harmonic emission is well known. But there are theoretical papers about the third harmonic of type III bursts. And there were observations of the third harmonic of such types of bursts as U, J, V, II. We observed triple type III bursts where frequency ratio is close to 1:2:3. They are structures where type III emission is repeated at the double and triple frequencies. Incidentally, components of triple type III bursts are not only standard type III but also type IIIb bursts. We registered 30 triple bursts during 2011 and 2012 years. Observations were made by radio telescope URAN-2, Poltava, Ukraine. It enables polarization measurements at the frequencies 8 - 32 MHz. URAN-2 allows registration of radio emission with time and frequency resolution 10 ms and 4 kHz correspondingly. We analyze properties of the components of triple bursts and their dependencies on frequency, type of burst and on the position of the component within the triplet. The main properties of the components of triple bursts such as duration and drift rate are similar to those of standard type III and IIIb bursts. We find usual for type III bursts dependencies such as follow: duration decreases with frequency, the type IIIb bursts have always smaller duration at the same frequencies, all bursts drift from high to low frequencies. But we also find the linear dependence of drift rate on frequency. All components of a trio have the same sign of polarization. Polarization of the first component is always the highest in triple bursts. It corresponds to the generally accepted viewpoint about the first harmonic emission. The second and the third components of trio have low polarization. It is typical for the second and the third harmonics according to the plasma radiation mechanism. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and theoretical aspects of observed dependencies. The most of detected regularities

  11. OPA3, mutated in 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, encodes two transcripts targeted primarily to mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huizing, Marjan; Dorward, Heidi; Ly, Lien;

    2010-01-01

    3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type III (3-MGCA type III), caused by recessive mutations in the 2-exon gene OPA3, is characterized by early-onset bilateral optic atrophy, later-onset extrapyramidal dysfunction, and increased urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid. Her...... we report the identification of a novel third OPA3 coding exon, the apparent product of a segmental duplication event, resulting in two gene transcripts, OPA3A and OPA3B. OPA3A deficiency (as in optic atrophy type 3) causes up-regulation of OPA3B. OPA3 protein function remains unknown...

  12. Serial audiometry and speech recognition findings in Finnish Usher syndrome type III patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, R.F.; Kleemola, L.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Joensuu, T.; Sankila, E.M.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Audiometric features, evaluated by serial pure tone audiometry and speech recognition tests (n = 31), were analysed in 59 Finnish Usher syndrome type III patients (USH3) with Finmajor/Finmajor (n = 55) and Finmajor/Finminor (n = 4) USH3A mutations. These patients showed a highly variable type and de

  13. Exercise intolerance in Glycogen Storage Disease Type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Pradel, Agnès; Husu, Edith

    2013-01-01

    experience exercise intolerance due to insufficient carbohydrate oxidation in skeletal muscle. Six patients aged 17-36-years were studied. We determined VO 2peak (peak oxygen consumption), the response to forearm exercise, and the metabolic and cardiovascular responses to cycle exercise at 70% of VO 2peak......Myopathic symptoms in Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIIa (GSD IIIa) are generally ascribed to the muscle wasting that these patients suffer in adult life, but an inability to debranch glycogen likely also has an impact on muscle energy metabolism. We hypothesized that patients with GSD IIIa can...... caused exercise intolerance with dynamic skeletal muscle symptoms (excessive fatigue and muscle pain), and hypoglycemia in 4 subjects. In this study we combined anaerobic and aerobic exercise to systematically study skeletal muscle metabolism and exercise tolerance in patients with GSD IIIa. Exercise...

  14. Translational regulation of Yersinia enterocolitica mRNA encoding a type III secretion substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaskie, Karyl S; Ligtenberg, Katherine Given; Schneewind, Olaf

    2013-12-06

    Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion machines transport YopQ and other Yop effectors into host immune cells. YopD and its chaperone LcrH are essential components of the Yersinia type III pathway, enabling effector translocation into host cells. YopD, LcrH, and YscM1 also regulate yop expression post-transcriptionally in response to environmental signals; however, the molecular mechanisms for this regulation and Yop secretion are unknown. We show here that YopD associates with 30 S ribosomal particles in a manner requiring LcrH. When added to ribosomes, YopD, LcrH, and YscM1 block the translation of yopQ mRNA. We propose a model whereby LcrH-dependent association of YopD with 30 S ribosomal particles enables YscM1 to block yopQ translation unless type III machines are induced to secrete the effector.

  15. The heliocentric radial variation of plasma oscillations associated with type III radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Scarf, F. L.; Kurth, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of all of the electron plasma oscillation events found to date in association with low-frequency type III solar radio bursts using approximately 9 years of observations from the Imp 6 and 8, Helios 1 and 2, and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Plasma oscillation events associated with type III radio bursts show a pronounced increase in both the intensity and the frequency of occurrence with decreasing heliocentric radial distance. This radial dependence explains why intense electron plasma oscillations are seldon observed in association with type III radio bursts at the orbit of the earth. Possible interpretations of the observed radial variation in the plasma oscillation intensity are considered.

  16. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen. Studies on physiology and pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T

    1997-01-01

    disappears when the body is in a catabolic state. Anabolic states give rise to increased serum concentrations of PIIINP as compared with normals states. The general conclusion is that serum PIIINP is a marker of type III collagen turnover under well-defined conditions. Serum PIIINP, mainly consisting......The aim of the present study was to examine the physiological basis for the clinical use of serum PIIINP as a marker of the deposition rate of type III collagen. The assumption was that the serum concentration of PIIINP would reflect the turnover of type III collagen and thus directly reflect......-venous shunt in conscious pigs was developed. Double and triple isotope tracer techniques were used for kinetic studies in the animal model and in cultures of tubule cells. The rat model with the induction of granulation tissue was used to investigate catabolic states. The anabolic state was studied in humans...

  17. An important role for type III interferon (IFN-lambda/IL-28) in TLR-induced antiviral activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ank, Nina; Iversen, Marie B; Bartholdy, Christina;

    2008-01-01

    Type III IFNs (IFN-lambda/IL-28/29) are cytokines with type I IFN-like antiviral activities, which remain poorly characterized. We herein show that most cell types expressed both types I and III IFNs after TLR stimulation or virus infection, whereas the ability of cells to respond to IFN-lambda w...

  18. Conservative Management of Type III Dens in Dente Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens in dente, also known as dens invaginatus, dilated composite odontoma, or deep foramen caecum, is a developmental malformation that usually affects maxillary incisor teeth, particularly lateral incisors. It may occur in teeth anywhere within the jaws, other locations are comparatively rare. It can occur within both the crown and the root, although crown invaginations are more common. The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is very helpful in endodontic diagnosis of complex anatomic variations. In this case we demonstrate the use of CBCT in the evaluation and endodontic management of a Type III dens in dente (Oehler′s Type III.

  19. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P < 0·001). Median total attack duration was 5·0 h and 9·0 h for patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II, respectively.

  20. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Sano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C.

  1. Type III Radio Bursts and the Structure of the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Type III solar radio bursts provide important information on the origin, acceleration, and propagation of particles associated with solar flares and coronal shocks. Since these radio emissions are generated by the plasma emission mechanism, observations of these solar radio transients also provide remote sensing of the plasma conditions in the corona and of the magnetic and plasma structure of the inner heliosphere. In this talk I will review the progress of type III research from their discovery in the late 40s to the most recent advances from low-frequency spacecraft observations, primarily from ISEE-3, Wind and Ulysses.

  2. Salter-Harris Type III and Type IV Combined Fracture of the Distal Femoral Epiphysis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature.

  3. Concurrent Occurrence of Type II and Type III Endoleak of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Stent Graft: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Su; Hong, Seong Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Yong Jae; Goo, Dong Erk; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Endoleak is an important complication following stent grafts for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Here we describe ultrasonography findings in an 86-year-old man including doppler ultrasonography and CT scan in an unusual and interesting case of the concurrent occurrence of a type II endoleak that originated from the left accessory renal artery and a type III endoleak due to shaft fracture of the stent

  4. Collagen Type III and VI Turnover in Response to Long-Term Immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Shu; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Muscle mass and function are perturbed by immobilization and remobilization. When muscle mass changes, the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix protein, particularly the collagens, change with it. In this study, we investigated the temporal profile of three peptide...... biomarkers derived from turnover of collagen type III and type VI in a long-term immobilization and remobilization study. We also compared individual biomarker levels with Lean body Mass (LBM) and changes therein, hypothesizing that these biomarkers would be biomarkers of the remodeling processes associated...... the synthesis of collagen type III; Pro-C6, measured the synthesis of collagen type VI; and C6M measured the degradation of collagen type VI induced by MMP-2 and MMP-9 cleavage. RESULTS: Pro-C3 and Pro-C6 biomarkers are up-regulated with both immobilization and remobilization, whereas C6M is hardly affected...

  5. Tracking Type III Radio Burst Sources in the Solar Corona by Heliographic Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Volvach, Ya. S.

    We present the preliminary results of heliographic measurements of solar type III radio bursts in the low-frequency range (16.5-33 MHz) using the UTR-2 radio heliograph. The radio astronomy tools permit us to obtain two-dimensional spatial structures of burst sources in dependence of frequency and time. Each heliogram consists of 40 pixels (beams) as a result of the serial sweep in UV-plane wherein signals of each beam are recorded in a dynamic spectrum with both high temporal (˜ 2.482 ms) and top spectral (˜ 4 kHz) resolutions. The rate of output heliograph is one image per 3 seconds. Over a session in April, 2013 many type III radio and IIIb-III bursts were observed. On the heliograms the source motion direction in the upper corona is clearly detectable. The heliogram features are discussed.

  6. Angular Study of the III Type Solar Bursts by Ukrainian Decameter Heliograph of UTR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Artem; Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Konovalenko, Aleksander

    2014-05-01

    Solar radio bursts are attractive manifestations of solar activity. They contain useful information about physical processes in solar corona. The type III radio bursts are the most frequent events among many different types of solar bursts studied since middle of the last century. The type III bursts are generated by beams of fast electrons (beams velocity ~ 0.3c) ejected into the corona and propagated through coronal plasma to interplanetary medium. It is assumed that such an electron beam passing coronal plasma generates plasma waves that converse to electromagnetic waves registered as type III radio bursts. They are observed in a wide frequency range from 1 GHz to tens kHz. In particular, the decameter emission (10-30 MHz) of III type bursts arises at heights about 2-3 solar radii from the center of the Sun. In the last decades the various ground-based, satellite and spacecraft observations have provided detailed information about features of the bursts. Due to non-thermal emission mechanism their intensity can be very high that allows ones to record the bursts even by amateur radio astronomers with help of elementary antennas (for example, half-wave dipole) and simple radio equipment. At dynamic spectra the type III radio bursts are characterized by very fast frequency drifts. Usually, the analysis of such two-dimensional spectrograms reveals also duration and intensity of the events in time and frequency; if the antenna facilities permit, as well as degree of polarization. It should be noticed that the observations of angular three-dimensional structure of the burst source are also of great interest. Our knowledge about angular structure of type III radio bursts in decameter wavelengths was very restricted because of the absence of appropriate radio astronomy instruments. Recently, the difficulty has been overcome by means of the UTR-2 radio telescope (Kharkiv, Ukraine) in heliographic modes. It was successfully used for heliographic observations of solar

  7. Type III interferon gene expression in response to influenza virus infection in chicken and duck embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zou, Tingting; Hu, Xiaotong; Jin, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Type III interferons (IFN-λs) comprise a group of newly identified antiviral cytokines that are functionally similar to type I IFNs and elicit first-line antiviral responses. Recently, type III IFNs were identified in several species; however, little information is available about type III IFNs in ducks. We compared the expression of type III IFNs and their receptor in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEFs) in response to influenza virus infection. The results showed that the expression of type III IFNs was upregulated in both DEFs and CEFs following infection with H1N1 influenza virus or treatment with poly (I:C), and expression levels were significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs (IL-28Rα) was also upregulated following infection with H1N1 virus or treatment with poly (I:C) and was significantly higher in CEFs than in DEFs at each time point. The expression of the receptor for type III IFNs occurred from 8 hpi and remained at similar levels until 36 hpi in CEFs, but the expression level was elevated from 36 hpi in DEFs. These findings revealed the existence of distinct expression patterns for type III IFNs in chickens and ducks in response to influenza virus infection. The provided data are fundamentally useful in furthering our understanding of type III IFNs and innate antiviral responses in different species.

  8. Pregnancy Differentially Regulates the Collagens Types I and III in Left Ventricle from Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Limon-Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathologic cardiac remodeling has been widely documented; however, the physiological cardiac remodeling induced by pregnancy and its reversion in postpartum are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the changes in collagen I (Col I and collagen III (Col III mRNA and protein levels in left ventricle from rat heart during pregnancy and postpartum. Col I and Col III mRNA expression in left ventricle samples during pregnancy and postpartum were analyzed by using quantitative PCR. Data obtained from gene expression show that Col I and Col III in left ventricle are upregulated during pregnancy with reversion in postpartum. In contrast to gene expression, the protein expression evaluated by western blot showed that Col I is downregulated and Col III is upregulated in left ventricle during pregnancy. In conclusion, the pregnancy differentially regulates collagens types I and III in heart; this finding could be an important molecular mechanism that regulates the ventricular stiffness in response to blood volume overload present during pregnancy which is reversed in postpartum.

  9. Type III restriction endonucleases translocate DNA in a reaction driven by recognition site-specific ATP hydrolysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Meisel, A.; Mackeldanz, P; Bickle, T A; Krüger, D H; Schroeder, C.

    1995-01-01

    Type III restriction/modification systems recognize short non-palindromic sequences, only one strand of which can be methylated. Replication of type III-modified DNA produces completely unmethylated recognition sites which, according to classical mechanisms of restriction, should be signals for restriction. We have shown previously that suicidal restriction by the type III enzyme EcoP15I is prevented if all the unmodified sites are in the same orientation: restriction by EcoP15I requires a pa...

  10. On the speed and acceleration of electron beams triggering interplanetary type III radio bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Krupar, Vratislav; Soucek, Jan; Santolik, Ondrej; Maksimovic, Milan; Kruparova, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    Type III radio bursts are intense radio emissions triggered by beams of energetic electrons often associated with solar flares. These exciter beams propagate outwards from the Sun along an open magnetic field line in the corona and in the interplanetary (IP) medium. We performed a statistical survey of 29 simple and isolated IP type III bursts observed by STEREO/Waves instruments between January 2013 and September 2014. We investigated their time-frequency profiles in order to derive the speed and acceleration of exciter electron beams. We show these beams noticeably decelerate in the IP medium. Obtained speeds range from $\\sim$ 0.02c up to $\\sim$ 0.35c depending on initial assumptions. It corresponds to electron energies between tens of eV and hundreds of keV, and in order to explain the characteristic energies or speeds of type III electrons ($\\sim 0.1$c) observed simultaneously with Langmuir waves at 1 au, the emission of type III bursts near the peak should be predominately at double plasma frequency. Der...

  11. A bacterial pathogen uses distinct type III secretion systems to alternate between host kingdoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant and animal-pathogenic bacteria utilize phylogenetically distinct type III secretion systems (T3SS) that produce needle-like injectisomes or pili for the delivery of effector proteins into host cells. Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), the causative agent of Stewart’s bacterial wilt and...

  12. An Essential Role for Fibronectin Extra Type III Domain A in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Muro, Andrés F.; Moretti, Federico A.; Moore, Bethany B.; Yan, Mei; Atrasz, Rachelle G.; Wilke, Carol A.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Tsui, Jessica L.; Sheppard, Dean; Baralle, Francisco E.; Toews, Galen B.; White, Eric S.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Tissue fibrosis is considered a dysregulated wound-healing response. Fibronectin containing extra type III domain A (EDA) is implicated in the regulation of wound healing. EDA-containing fibronectin is deposited during wound repair, and its presence precedes that of collagen.

  13. Propolis Modifies Collagen Types I and III Accumulation in the Matrix of Burnt Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Olczyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing represents an interactive process which requires highly organized activity of various cells, synthesizing cytokines, growth factors, and collagen. Collagen types I and III, serving as structural and regulatory molecules, play pivotal roles during wound healing. The aim of this study was to compare the propolis and silver sulfadiazine therapeutic efficacy throughout the quantitative and qualitative assessment of collagen types I and III accumulation in the matrix of burnt tissues. Burn wounds were inflicted on pigs, chosen for the evaluation of wound repair because of many similarities between pig and human skin. Isolated collagen types I and III were estimated by the surface plasmon resonance method with a subsequent collagenous quantification using electrophoretic and densitometric analyses. Propolis burn treatment led to enhanced collagens and its components expression, especially during the initial stage of the study. Less expressed changes were observed after silver sulfadiazine (AgSD application. AgSD and, with a smaller intensity, propolis stimulated accumulation of collagenous degradation products. The assessed propolis therapeutic efficacy, throughout quantitatively and qualitatively analyses of collagen types I and III expression and degradation in wounds matrix, may indicate that apitherapeutic agent can generate favorable biochemical environment supporting reepithelization.

  14. Biofilms and type III secretion are not mutually exclusive in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, H; Bond, N J; Skindersoe, M E;

    2009-01-01

    in exponential phase than to those in stationary phase. In the current study, we investigated how these conditions influence the production of virulence factors using a transcriptomic approach. Our results show that biofilms express the type III secretion system, whereas planktonic cells do not...

  15. Search for the Third Harmonic of Type III Bursts Radio Emission at Decameter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhenko, A. I.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Pylaev, O. S.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Vashchishin, R. V.; Rucker, H. O.

    The results of observations of trio bursts consisting of type III bursts are presented in this paper. The instantaneous frequency ratio of trio components is near 1:2:3. We analyze flow, duration, frequency drift rate and polarization of trio components as well as dependencies of these characteristics on frequency.

  16. Decameter Type III Bursts with Changing Frequency Drift-Rate Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, V. N.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Zarka, P.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Rucker, H. O.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Panchenko, M.; Denis, L.; Zaqarashvili, T.; Shergelashvili, B.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss properties of type III bursts that change the sign of their drift rate from negative to positive and vice versa. Moreover, these bursts may change the sign of their drift rates more than once. These particular type III bursts were observed simultaneously by the radio telescopes UTR-2 ( Ukrainian T-shaped Radio telescope, Kharkov, Ukraine), URAN-2 ( Ukrainian Radio telescope of the Academy of Sciences, Poltava, Ukraine), and by the NDA ( Nançay Decametric Array, Nancay, France) in the frequency range 8 - 41 MHz. The negative drift rates of these bursts are similar to those of previously reported decameter type III bursts and vary from -0.7 MHz s-1 to -1.7 MHz s-1, but their positive drift rates vary in a wider range from 0.44 MHz s-1 to 6 MHz s-1. Unlike inverted U-bursts, the tracks of these type III bursts have C- or inverted C-shapes.

  17. Structure of Spa15, a type III secretion chaperone from Shigella flexneri with broad specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerde, André van; Hamiaux, Cyril; Pérez, Javier; Parsot, Claude; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2004-01-01

    Type III secretion (TTS) systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to inject virulence proteins into the cells of their hosts. Several of these virulence effectors require TTS chaperones that maintain them in a secretion-competent state. Whereas most chaperones bind only one effector, Spa15 f

  18. Weapons of Mass Secretion : The Type III Secretion System of Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa

    2007-01-01

    In bacteria that are pathogenic for animals, type III secretion systems allow extracellular bacteria adhering to the surface of a host cell to inject specialized proteins across the plasma membrane. The injected proteins subvert the functioning of the aggressed cell or destroy its communications, fa

  19. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen provides new information on prognosis after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Jensen, L T; Bendixen, P M;

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine sequential changes in serum levels of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (S-PIIINP) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to assess the value of S-PIIINP as a predictor of outcome. The study group comprised 74 patients with AMI, and 24...

  20. Mutations in the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase gene are responsible for tyrosinemia type III and hawkinsinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoeda, K; Awata, H; Matsuura, T; Matsuda, I; Ploechl, E; Milovac, T; Boneh, A; Scott, C R; Danks, D M; Endo, F

    2000-11-01

    The enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase (HPD) catalyzes the reaction of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid to homogentisic acid in the tyrosine catabolism pathway. A deficiency in the catalytic activity of HPD may lead to tyrosinemia type III, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by elevated levels of blood tyrosine and massive excretion of tyrosine derivatives into urine. It has been postulated that hawkinsinuria, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the excretion of 'hawkinsin,' may also be a result of HPD deficiency. Hawkinsin is a sulfur amino acid identified as (2-l-cystein-S-yl, 4-dihydroxycyclohex-5-en-1-yl)acetic acid. Patients with hawkinsinuria excrete this metabolite in their urine throughout their life, although symptoms of metabolic acidosis and tyrosinemia improve in the first year of life. We performed analyses of the HPD gene in a patient with tyrosinemia type III and two unrelated patients with hawkinsinuria. A homozygous missense mutation predicting an Ala to Val change at codon 268 (A268V) in the HPD gene was found in the patient with tyrosinemia type III. A heterozygous missense mutation predicting an Ala to Thr change at codon 33 (A33T) was found in the same HPD gene in the two patients with hawkinsinuria. These findings support the hypothesis that alterations in the structure and activity of HPD are causally related to two different metabolic disorders, tyrosinemia type III and hawkinsinuria.

  1. Cloning and characterization of type III iodothyronine deiodinase from the fish Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Sanders (Jo); S. van der Geyten; E. Kaptein (Ellen); V.M. Darras (Veerle); E.R. Kuhn; J.L. Leonard; T.J. Visser (Theo)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractType III iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) catalyzes the inner ring deiodination (IRD) of T4 and T3 to the inactive metabolites rT3 and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (3,3'-T2), respectively. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of complementary DNA (cDNA) co

  2. Liver transplantation for glycogen storage disease types I, III, and IV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matern, D; Starzl, TE; Arnaout, W; Barnard, J; Bynon, JS; Dhawan, A; Emond, J; Haagsma, EB; Hug, G; Lachaux, A; Smit, GPA; Chen, YT

    1999-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) types I, III, and IV can be associated with severe liver disease. The possible development of hepatocellular carcinoma and/or hepatic failure make these GSDs potential candidates for liver transplantation. Early diagnosis and initiation of effective dietary therapy hav

  3. Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Matérn III process within a bounded window in , fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...

  4. Perfect simulation and moment properties for the Matérn type III process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Huber, Mark L.; Wolpert, Robert L.

    In a seminal work, Bertil Matérn introduced several types of processes for modeling repulsive point processes. In this paper an algorithm is presented for the perfect simulation of the Mat´ern III process within a bounded window in Rd fully accounting for edge effects. A simple upper bound...

  5. Integrated scenario with type-III ELMy H-mode edge: extrapolation to ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; Corre, Y.; Andrew, Y.; M.R. de Baar,; Beurskens, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Brix, M.; Devaux, S.; Eich, T.; Felton, R.; Fundamenski, W.; Giroud, C.; Howell, D.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Joffrin, E.; Korotkov, A.; Matthews, G. F.; McDonald, D. C.; Meigs, A.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Morgan, P.; Nunes, I.; van Rooij, G. J.; Sauter, O.; Stamp, M. F.; Telesca, G.; de Vries, P. C.; Zagorski, R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most severe problems for fusion reactors is the power load on the plasma facing components. The challenge is to develop operation scenarios, which combine sufficient energy confinement with benign heat loads to the plasma facing components. The radiative type-III ELMy H-mode seems a possi

  6. Aquatic Therapy for a Child with Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Yasser; Gropack, Stacy Jaffee

    2010-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons. This case report describes an aquatic therapy program and the outcomes for a 3-year-old girl with type III SMA. Motor skills were examined using the 88-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales…

  7. IpaD is localized at the tip of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sani, Musa; Botteaux, Anne; Parsot, Claude; Sansonetti, Philippe; Boekema, Egbert J.; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2007-01-01

    Type III secretion (T3S) systems are used by numerous Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria to inject virulence proteins into animal and plant host cells. The core of the T3S apparatus, known as the needle complex, is composed of a basal body transversing both bacterial membranes and a needle protruding

  8. Disturbances in affective touch in hereditary sensory & autonomic neuropathy type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Löken, Line; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III, Riley-Day syndrome, Familial Dysautomia) is characterised by elevated thermal thresholds and an indifference to pain. Using microelectrode recordings we recently showed that these patients possess no functional stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors in their muscles (muscle spindles), a feature that may explain their lack of stretch reflexes and ataxic gait, yet patients have apparently normal low-threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The density of C-fibres in the skin is markedly reduced in patients with HSAN III, but it is not known whether the C-tactile afferents, a distinct type of low-threshold C fibre present in hairy skin that is sensitive to gentle stroking and has been implicated in the coding of pleasant touch are specifically affected in HSAN III patients. We addressed the relationship between C-tactile afferent function and pleasant touch perception in 15 patients with HSAN III and 15 age-matched control subjects. A soft make-up brush was used to apply stroking stimuli to the forearm and lateral aspect of the leg at five velocities: 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 cm/s. As demonstrated previously, the control subjects rated the slowest and highest velocities as less pleasant than those applied at 1-10 cm/s, which fits with the optimal velocities for exciting C-tactile afferents. Conversely, for the patients, ratings of pleasantness did not fit the profile for C-tactile afferents. Patients either rated the higher velocities as more pleasant than the slow velocities, with the slowest velocities being rated unpleasant, or rated all velocities equally pleasant. We interpret this to reflect absent or reduced C-tactile afferent density in the skin of patients with HSAN III, who are likely using tactile cues (i.e. myelinated afferents) to rate pleasantness of stroking or are attributing pleasantness to this type of stimulus irrespective of velocity.

  9. Alterations of thoraco-abdominal volumes and asynchronies in patients with spinal muscle atrophy type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; Romei, Marianna; Priori, Rita; Laviola, Marianna; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2014-06-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by degeneration of motor neurons resulting in muscle weakness. For the mild type III form, a sub-classification into type IIIA and IIIB, based on age of motor impairment, was recently proposed. To investigate if SMA IIIA (more severe) and IIIB differ also in terms of respiratory function, thoracoabdominal kinematics was measured during quiet breathing, inspiration preceding cough and inspiratory capacity on 5 type IIIA and 9 type IIIB patients. Four patients with SMA II (more severe than types III) and 19 healthy controls were also studied. Rib cage motion was similar in SMA IIIB and controls. Conversely, in SMA IIIA and SMA II it was significantly reduced and sometime paradoxical during quiet breathing in supine position. Our results suggest that in SMA IIIA intercostal muscles are weakened and the diaphragm is preserved similarly to SMA II, while in SMA IIIB the action of all inspiratory muscles is maintained. Sub-classification of type III seems feasible also for respiratory function.

  10. Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome mutations in type III collagen differently stall the triple helical folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kazunori; Boudko, Sergei; Engel, Jürgen; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2013-06-28

    Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is the most severe form of EDS. In many cases the disease is caused by a point mutation of Gly in type III collagen. A slower folding of the collagen helix is a potential cause for over-modifications. However, little is known about the rate of folding of type III collagen in patients with EDS. To understand the molecular mechanism of the effect of mutations, a system was developed for bacterial production of homotrimeric model polypeptides. The C-terminal quarter, 252 residues, of the natural human type III collagen was attached to (GPP)7 with the type XIX collagen trimerization domain (NC2). The natural collagen domain forms a triple helical structure without 4-hydroxylation of proline at a low temperature. At 33 °C, the natural collagenous part is denatured, but the C-terminal (GPP)7-NC2 remains intact. Switching to a low temperature triggers the folding of the type III collagen domain in a zipper-like fashion that resembles the natural process. We used this system for the two known EDS mutations (Gly-to-Val) in the middle at Gly-910 and at the C terminus at Gly-1018. In addition, wild-type and Gly-to-Ala mutants were made. The mutations significantly slow down the overall rate of triple helix formation. The effect of the Gly-to-Val mutation is much more severe compared with Gly-to-Ala. This is the first report on the folding of collagen with EDS mutations, which demonstrates local delays in the triple helix propagation around the mutated residue.

  11. On the Energy Momentum in Bianchi Type I-III-V-VI0 Space-Time

    CERN Document Server

    Aygun, S; Tarhan, I; Aygun, Melis; Aygun, Sezgin; Tarhan, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    In this study, using the energy momentum definitions of Einstein, Moller, Bergmann-Thomson, Landau-Lifshitz and Papapetrou we compute the total energy-momentum distribution (due to matter and fields including gravitation) of the universe based on general Bianchi type I-III-V-VI(o) space-time and its transforms type I, III, V, VI(o) metrics, respectively. The energy-momentum densities are found exactly same for Einstein and Bergmann-Thomson definitions. The total energy and momentum is found to be zero for Bianchi types I and VI(o) space-times. These results are same as a previous works of Radinschi, Banerjee-Sen, Xulu and Aydogdu-Salti. Another point is that our study agree with previous works of Cooperstock-Israelit, Rosen, Johri et al.

  12. Dentin phosphoprotein gene locus is not associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta types II and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, M.; Zeichner-David, M.; Davis, A.; Slavkin, H. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)); Murray, J. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)); Crall, M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI) is an autosomal dominant inherited dental disease which affects dentin production and mineralization. Genetic linkage studies have been performed on several multigeneration informative kindreds. These studies determined linkage between DGI types II and III and group-specific component (vitamin D-binding protein). This gene locus has been localized to the long arm of human chromosome 4 in the region 4q11-q21. Although this disease has been mapped to chromosome 4, the defective gene product is yet to be determined. Biochemical studies have suggested abnormal levels of dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) associated with DGI type II. This highly acidic protein is the major noncollagenous component of dentin, being solely expressed by the ectomesenchymal derived odontoblast cells of the tooth. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether DPP is associated with DGI types II and III, by using molecular biology techniques. The results indicated that DPP is not localized to any region of human chromosome 4, thus suggesting that the DPP gene is not directly associated with DGI type II or DGI type III. The data do not exclude the possibility that other proteins associated with DPP posttranslational modifications might be responsible for this genetic disease.

  13. Type I and III procollagen propeptides in growth hormone-deficient patients: effects of increasing doses of GH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Jørgensen, J O; Risteli, J;

    1991-01-01

    The effect of increasing doses of growth hormone on collagen synthesis in GH-treated GH-deficient patients was determined in a short-term study. The synthesis of type I and III collagen was estimated by measurements of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen and the aminoterminal...... propeptide of type III procollagen. Type I collagen is mainly found in bone and type III collagen in loose connective tissue. We observed a GH dose dependency of both procollagen propeptides. Serum type I procollagen propeptide was significantly higher following GH doses of 4 and 6 IU/day for 14 days...... procollagen propeptide increased twice as much as type I procollagen propeptide, by 47 vs 25%, at a GH dose of 6 IU/day compared with 2 IU/day. The differences between the effects on type I and type III collagen may reflect differences in secretion or turn-over rate of collagen in bone and loose connective...

  14. Dentin phosphoprotein compound mutation in dentin sialophosphoprotein causes dentinogenesis imperfecta type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juan; Gu, TingTing; Jeffords, Leticia; MacDougall, Mary

    2005-01-30

    A rare compound mutation involving a 36 bp deletion and 18 bp insertion within exon 5 of the dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) gene has been identified in a family with dentinogenesis imperfecta type III (DGI-III). The DSPP gene encodes two major tooth matrix proteins dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP). DSPP mutations associated with DGI-III results in an in frame truncation of the serine aspartic acid triplet repeat found in DPP near the highly conserved carboxyl terminal region shortening the protein by six amino acids. Clinically this family presents with discolored amber opalescent teeth and severe attrition of the tooth structure. This study is the first report of a mutation within DPP associated with a genetic dentin disease. Our study indicates that DGI-III is allelic with some forms of DGI-II with and without progressive hearing loss and dentin dysplasia type II that have been shown to be caused by mutations within the DSP coding or signal peptide regions.

  15. Bianchi type-I, type-III and Kantowski-Sachs solutions in f( T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. E.; Kpadonou, A. V.; Rahaman, F.; Oliveira, P. J.; Houndjo, M. J. S.

    2015-06-01

    In the context of modified tele-parallel theory of gravity, we undertake cosmological anisotropic models and search for their solutions. Within a suitable choice of non-diagonal tetrads, the decoupled equations of motion are obtained for Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kantowski-Sachs models, from which we obtain the correspondent solutions. By the way, energy density and pressures are also obtained, showing, as an important result, that our universe may live a quintessence like universe even while anisotropic models are considered.

  16. Hierarchical effector protein transport by the Salmonella Typhimurium SPI-1 type III secretion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Winnen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type III secretion systems (TTSS are employed by numerous pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria to inject a cocktail of different "effector proteins" into host cells. These effectors subvert host cell signaling to establish symbiosis or disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have studied the injection of SipA and SptP, two effector proteins of the invasion-associated Salmonella type III secretion system (TTSS-1. SipA and SptP trigger different host cell responses. SipA contributes to triggering actin rearrangements and invasion while SptP reverses the actin rearrangements after the invasion has been completed. Nevertheless, SipA and SptP were both pre-formed and stored in the bacterial cytosol before host cell encounter. By time lapse microscopy, we observed that SipA was injected earlier than SptP. Computer modeling revealed that two assumptions were sufficient to explain this injection hierarchy: a large number of SipA and SptP molecules compete for transport via a limiting number of TTSS; and the TTSS recognize SipA more efficiently than SptP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This novel mechanism of hierarchical effector protein injection may serve to avoid functional interference between SipA and SptP. An injection hierarchy of this type may be of general importance, allowing bacteria to precisely time the host cell manipulation by type III effectors.

  17. A New Look at Type III Bursts and their Use as Coronal Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, Samuel Tun; White, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We present meter wave solar radio spectra of the highest spectrotemporal resolution achieved to date. The observations, obtained with the first station of the Long Wavelength Array (LWA1), show unprecedented detail of solar emissions across a wide bandwidth during a Type III/IIIb storm. Our flux calibration demonstrates that the LWA1 can detect Type III bursts much weaker than 1 SFU, much lower than previous observations, and that the distribution of fluxes in these bursts varies with frequency. The high sensitivity and low noise in the data provide strong constraints to models of this type of plasma emission. The continuous generation of electron beams in the corona revealed by the high density Type III storm is evidence for ubiquitous magnetic reconnection in the lower corona. Such an abundance of reconnection events not only contributes to the total coronal energy budget, but also provides an engine by which to form the populations of seed particles responsible for proton-rich solar energetic particle even...

  18. In Situ Detection of Strong Langmuir Turbulence Processes in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Thejappa; Macdowall, Robert J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The high time resolution observations obtained by the WAVES experiment of the STEREO spacecraft in solar type III radio bursts show that Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets. These wave packets are characterized by short durations of only a few ms and peak intensities, which well exceed the supersonic modulational instability (MI) thresholds. These timescales and peak intensities satisfy the criterion of the solitons collapsed to spatial scales of a few hundred Debye lengths. The spectra of these wave packets consist of primary spectral peaks corresponding to beam-resonant Langmuir waves, two or more sidebands corresponding to down-shifted and up-shifted daughter Langmuir waves, and low frequency enhancements below a few hundred Hz corresponding to daughter ion sound waves. The frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the modulational instability (MI). Moreover, the tricoherences, computed using trispectral analysis techniques show that these spectral components are coupled to each other with a high degree of coherency as expected of the MI type of four wave interactions. The high intensities, short scale lengths, sideband spectral structures and low frequency spectral enhancements and, high levels of tricoherences amongst the spectral components of these wave packets provide unambiguous evidence for the supersonic MI and related strong turbulence processes in type III radio bursts. The implication of these observations include: (1) the MI and related strong turbulence processes often occur in type III source regions, (2) the strong turbulence processes probably play very important roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation at the fundamental and second harmonic of the electron plasma frequency, fpe, and (3) the Langmuir collapse probably follows the route of MI in type III radio bursts.

  19. C1-C3 lateral mass fusion for type IIa and type III Hangman′s fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Muthukumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hangman′s fractures, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis, can be managed either conservatively with immobilization or by surgery. Surgery is usually indicated in cases with instability or failure of conservative treatment. Different surgical approaches, both anterior and posterior, have been described for treating Hangman′s fracture. We report two patients, one with type IIa and another with type III Hangman′s fracture treated with C1-C3 lateral mass fusion and discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique when compared to other techniques for fusion in patients with Hangman′s fracture.

  20. Propagation of energetic electrons from the corona into interplanetary space and type III radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Breitling, F; Vocks, C

    2015-01-01

    During solar flares a large amount of electrons with energies greater than 20 keV is generated with a production rate of typically $10^{36}$ s$^{-1}$. A part of them is able to propagate along open magnetic field lines through the corona into interplanetary space. During their travel they emit radio radiation which is observed as type III radio bursts in the frequency range from 100 MHz down to 10 kHz by the WAVES radio spectrometer aboard the spacecraft WIND, for instance. From the drift rates of these bursts in dynamic radio spectra the radial propagation velocity $V_r$ of the type III burst exciting electrons is derived by employing a newly developed density model of the heliosphere. Calculations show that the radio radiation is emitted by electrons with different $V_r$ and therefore by different electrons of the initially produced electron distribution.

  1. Stopping Frequency of Type III Solar Radio Bursts in Expanding Magnetic Flux Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Hamish A S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the properties of type III radio bursts in the solar corona and interplanetary space is one of the best ways to remotely deduce the characteristics of solar accelerated electron beams and the solar wind plasma. One feature of all type III bursts is the lowest frequency they reach (or stopping frequency). This feature reflects the distance from the Sun that an electron beam can drive the observable plasma emission mechanism. The stopping frequency has never been systematically studied before from a theoretical perspective. Using numerical kinetic simulations, we explore the different parameters that dictate how far an electron beam can travel before it stops inducing a significant level of Langmuir waves, responsible for plasma radio emission. We use the quasilinear approach to model self-consistently the resonant interaction between electrons and Langmuir waves in inhomogeneous plasma, and take into consideration the expansion of the guiding magnetic flux tube and the turbulent density of the in...

  2. Clumpy Langmuir waves in type III radio sources - Comparison of stochastic-growth theory with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed comparisons are made between the Langmuir-wave properties predicted by the recently developed stochastic-growth theory of type III sources and those observed by the plasma wave experiment on ISEE 3, after correcting for the main instrumental and selection effects. Analysis of the observed field-strength distribution confirms the theoretically predicted form and implies that wave growth fluctuates both spatially and temporally in sign and magnitude, leading to an extremely clumpy distribution of fields. A cutoff in the field-strength distribution is seen at a few mV/m, corresponding to saturation via nonlinear effects. Analysis of the size distribution of Langmuir clumps yields results in accord with those obtained in earlier work and with the size distribution of ambient density fluctuations in the solar wind. This confirms that the inhomogeneities in the Langmuir growth rate are determined by the density fluctuations and that these fluctuations persist during type III events.

  3. Mutations in the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase gene (HPD) in patients with tyrosinemia type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüetschi, U; Cerone, R; Pérez-Cerda, C; Schiaffino, M C; Standing, S; Ugarte, M; Holme, E

    2000-06-01

    Tyrosinemia type III (OMIM 276710) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPD), the second enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. The enzyme deficiency results in an accumulation and increased excretion of tyrosine and phenolic metabolites. Only a few cases with the disorder have been described, and the clinical spectrum of the disorder is unknown. Reported patients have presented with mental retardation or neurological symptoms or have been picked up by neonatal screening. We have identified four presumed pathogenic mutations (two missense and two nonsense mutations) in the HPD gene in three unrelated families encompassing four homozygous individuals and one compound heterozygous individual with tyrosinemia type III. Furthermore, a number of polymorphic mutations have been identified in the HPD gene. No correlation of the severity of the mutation and enzyme deficiency and mental function has been found; neither do the recorded tyrosine levels correlate with the clinical phenotype.

  4. Type III events, flares and CMEs, in the extremely active period October-November 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsakou, E; Preka-Papadema, P; Moussas, X; Hillaris, A; Caroubalos, C; Alissandrakis, C E; Tsitsipis, P; Kontogeorgos, A; Bougeret, J -L; Dumas, G; 10.1063/1.2347984

    2010-01-01

    The type III observations trace the propagation of energetic electron populations through the Solar Corona which, more often than not, precede or are associated with energy release on the Sun. A sample of Type III bursts in the range 20-650 MHz during the period of extraordinary solar activity (20 October to 4 November 2003) recorded by the ARTEMIS-IV1 radio spectrograph is analysed; its parameters are compared with characteristics of associated flares (Ha and GOES SXR) and CMEs, observed in the same period and reported in the SGR and the LASCO archives respectively. In this report we attempt to establish a correlation between energetic particles and major manifestations of solar activity such as flares and CMEs.

  5. RNA-activated DNA cleavage by the Type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrella, Michael A; Kuo, Fang-Ting; Bailey, Scott

    2016-02-15

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) system is an RNA-guided immune system that protects prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. This system represents an inheritable and adaptable immune system that is mediated by multisubunit effector complexes. In the Type III-B system, the Cmr effector complex has been found to cleave ssRNA in vitro. However, in vivo, it has been implicated in transcription-dependent DNA targeting. We show here that the Cmr complex from Thermotoga maritima can cleave an ssRNA target that is complementary to the CRISPR RNA. We also show that binding of a complementary ssRNA target activates an ssDNA-specific nuclease activity in the histidine-aspartate (HD) domain of the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. These data suggest a mechanism for transcription-coupled DNA targeting by the Cmr complex and provide a unifying mechanism for all Type III systems.

  6. Type III Dyson Sphere of Highly Advanced Civilizations around a Super Massive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    We describe a new system for a society of highly advanced civilizations around a super massive black hole (SMBH), as an advanced Type III "Dyson Sphere", pointing out an efficient usage of energy for the advanced civilizations. SMBH also works as a sink for waste materials. Here we assume that Type III civilisations of Kardashev classification [1] form a galactic club [2] in a galaxy, and the energy from the SMBH will be delivered to the club members, forming an energy control system similar to power grids in our present society. The energy is probably transmitted by a sharp beam with coherent electro-magnetic waves, which provide a new concept for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) via detection of such energy transmission signals. This expands the search window for other intelligences within the Universe.

  7. Apparent diffusion coefficient vale of the brain in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Abd El-Gaber, Nahed [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mansoura (Egypt); Abdalla, Ahmed; Fathy, Abeer [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric, Mansoura (Egypt); Azab, Ahmed [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Mansoura (Egypt); Rahman, Ashraf Abdel [Radiology Unit of Pediatric Hospital, Mansoura (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this work is to assess the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of the brain for diagnosis of patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III. Prospective study was conducted upon 13 patients (nine boys and four girls aged 8 months-14 years: mean 6.1 years) with Gaucher's disease type II and III and for age-matched control group (n = 13). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using a single-shot echo-planar imaging with a diffusion-weighted factor b of 0, 500, and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} was done for all patients and volunteers. The ADC value was calculated in ten regions of the brain parenchyma and correlated with genotyping. There was significantly lower ADC value of the cortical frontal (P = 0.003), cortical temporal (P = 0.04), frontal subcortical white matter (P = 0.02), corticospinal tract (P = 0.001), cerebellum (P = 0.001), medulla (P = 0.002), and midbrain (P = 0.02) between patients and volunteers. There was significant difference in the ADC value of the frontal and temporal gray matter (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively) between patients with heterozygous and homozygous gene mutation. We concluded that ADC value is a new promising quantitative imaging parameter that can be used for the detection of brain abnormalities in patients with Gaucher's disease type II and type III and has a correlation with genotyping. (orig.)

  8. Observation of local radio emission associated with type III radio bursts and Langmuir waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.; Stone, R. G.; Fainberg, J.

    1992-01-01

    The first clear detection of fundamental and harmonic radiation from the type III radio source region is presented. This radiation is characterized by its lack of frequency drift, its short rise and decay times, its relative weakness compared to the remotely observed radiation and its temporal coincidence with observed Langmuir waves. The observations were made with the radio and plasma frequency (URAP) receivers on the Ulysses spacecraft between about 1 and 2 AU from the Sun.

  9. Observation of Current Structures at Type-III ELM Onset on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ning; Naulin, Volker; Xu, G.

    In far scrape-o layer (SOL), alternating negative and positive burst structures in ion saturation current were detected at the onset of each type-III edge localized mode (ELM) on EAST. Different from the fast streaming phenomenon reported previously, one subsequent positive burst structure appears...... led generated by scrape-off layer current can ultimately trigger the ELM through the coupling with MHD modes inside the separatrix....

  10. Type III Seesaw and Dark Matter in a Supersymmetric Left-Right Model

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new supersymmetric left right model with Higgs doublets carrying odd B-L charge, higgs bidoublet and heavy Higgs triplets with zero B-L charge and a set of sterile neutrinos which are singlet under the gauge group. We show that spontaneous parity violation can be achieved naturally in this model and the neutrino masses arise from the so called type III seesaw mechanism. We also discuss the possible phenomenology in the context of neutrino masses and dark matter.

  11. Increased nitric oxide release by neutrophils of a patient with tyrosinemia type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eufemia, Patrizia; Finocchiaro, Roberto; Celli, Mauro; Raccio, Ivana; Properzi, Enrico; Zicari, Alessandra

    2009-06-01

    Tyrosinemia type III (OMIM 276710) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPD). Few cases have been described with mental retardation or neurological symptoms. Recently it has been demonstrated that 4-HPD participates to nitric oxide (NO) intracellular sequestration in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 4-HPD is an ubiquitous enzyme with a prominent expression in neutrophils and neurons. In the nervous system NO has been perceived to be a potential neuromodulator although prolonged excessive generation is detrimental. We analyzed NO release by neutrophils of a patient with tyrosinemia type III in order to evaluate a possible influence of 4-HPD deficiency on this process. Our patient, previously described, is a 30-year-old women with persistent tyrosinemia (450-680 micromol/l) and deficient activity of 4-HPD. At 17 months of age she experienced an acute ataxia and drowsiness lasting for 10 days, but further clinical course showed persistent tyrosinemia with normal growth and psychomotor development. Neutrophils isolated from our patient exhibited a NO release greatly higher in respect to the controls (mean+/-SEM 23.2+/-1.8 micromol/10(6) cells vs 3.5+/-0.5 micromol/10(6) cells). Clinical findings of tyrosinemia type III include neurological symptoms and mental retardation but no consistent phenotype has emerged. Therefore the pathogenesis of neurological involvement is yet not well understood. Our results suggest that an excessive neutrophils of NO release could reflect the lack of scavenging action of 4-HPD. Considering the prominent expression of this enzyme in neurons, we hypothesize that excessive NO release could participate in neuronal damage explaining the neurological involvement described in patients with tyrosinemia type III.

  12. Global Analysis of a Delayed Impulsive Lotka-Volterra Model with Holling III Type Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A delayed impulsive Lotka-Volterra model with Holing III type functional response was established. With the help of Mawhin’s Continuation Theorem in coincidence degree theory, a sufficient condition is found for the existence of positive periodic solutions of the system under consideration. By applying the comparison theorem and constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, the permanence and global attractivity of the model are proved. Two numerical simulations are also given to illustrate our main results.

  13. Infection Reduces Return-to-duty Rates for Soldiers with Type III Open Tibia Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Type III open tibia fracture and tabulated the prevalence of infectious complications.We searched the Physical Evaluation Board database to determine...disability among combat casualties, with an average disability rating of 42% based on the Physical Evaluation Board.8 In addition, it has been...redness, warmth , swelling, or purulence that required operative inter- vention. Osteomyelitis was defined as deep infection with positive bone cultures

  14. Searching the charged Higgs boson of the type III two Higss doublet model

    CERN Document Server

    Cardenas, H

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) type III appears two charged Higgs boson and recently there are experimental reports from D0 and CDF collaborations searching a particular signature of new physics. We present a review of the analisys done in the region $M_{H^+}>m_t$ by D0 collaboration and we use the ratio $R_\\sigma$ for the region $M_{H^+} < m_t$ in different scenarios of space parameter of this model.

  15. The relationship between chronic type III acromioclavicular joint dislocation and cervical spine pain

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    Vestri Anna R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed at evaluating whether or not patients with chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation develop cervical spine pain and degenerative changes more frequently than normal subjects. Methods The cervical spine of 34 patients with chronic type III AC dislocation was radiographically evaluated. Osteophytosis presence was registered and the narrowing of the intervertebral disc and cervical lordosis were evaluated. Subjective cervical symptoms were investigated using the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ. One-hundred healthy volunteers were recruited as a control group. Results The rate and distribution of osteophytosis and narrowed intervertebral disc were similar in both of the groups. Patients with chronic AC dislocation had a lower value of cervical lordosis. NPQ score was 17.3% in patients with AC separation (100% = the worst result and 2.2% in the control group (p Conclusions Our study shows that chronic type III AC dislocation does not interfere with osteophytes formation or intervertebral disc narrowing, but that it may predispose cervical hypolordosis. The higher average NPQ values were observed in patients with chronic AC dislocation, especially in those that developed cervical hypolordosis.

  16. Evidence for Langmuir Envelope Solitons in Solar Type III Burst Source Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; Goldstein, M. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Papadopoulos, K.; Stone, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    We present observational evidence for the generation of Langmuir envelope solitons in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts. The solitons appear to be formed by electron beams which excite either the modulational instability or oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI). Millisecond data from the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (URAP) show that Langmuir waves associated with type III bursts occur as broad intense peaks with time scales ranging from 15 to 90 milliseconds (6 - 27 km). These broad field structures have the properties expected of Langmuir envelope solitons, viz.: the normalized peak energy densities, W(sub L)/n(sub e)T(sub e) approximately 10(exp -5), are well above the modulational instability threshold; the spatial scales, L, which range from 1 - 5 Langmuir wavelengths, show a high degree of inverse correlation with (W(sub L)/n(sub e)T(sub e))(sup 1/2); and the observed widths of these broad peaks agree well with the predicted widths of envelope solitons. We show that the orientation of the Langmuir field structures is random with respect to the ambient magnetic field, indicating that they are probably isotropic structures that have evolved from initially pancake-like solitons. These observations suggest that strong turbulence processes, such as the modulational instability or the OTSI, stabilize the electron beams that produce type III bursts.

  17. Operated DeBakey type III dissecting aortic aneurysm: review of 12 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hi Eun; Lee, Ghi Jai; Oh, Sang Joon; Yoon, Sei Ra; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Han, Chang Yul [Inje University, Seoul Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    We evaluated the indications of operation and radiologic findings in 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections. We retrospectively reviewed radiologic findings of 12 operated DeBakey type III aortic dissections, using CT, MRI, or aortography, and correlations were made with clinical course of the patients. Three cases were uncomplicated dissections. There were aneurysm rupture in 4 cases, impending rupture in 4 cases, occlusion of common iliac artery in 2 cases, occlusion of renal artery in 1 case, and compression of bronchus and esophagus by dilated aorta in 1 case. Associated clinical sign and symptoms were chest and back pain in 12 cases, claudication in 3 cases, dyspnea and dysphagia in 1 case, hoarseness in 1 case, and hemoptysis in 1 case. Post-operative complications were death from aneurysm rupture in 1 case, paraplegia in 2 cases, acute renal failure in 3 cases, and hemopericardium in 1 case. Although medical therapy is preferred in management of DeBakey type III aortic dissection, surgical treatment should be considered in patients with radiological findings of aortic rupture, impending rupture, occlusion of aortic major branches.

  18. HVEM serial-section analysis of rabbit foliate taste buds: I. Type III cells and their synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, S M; Kinnamon, J C

    1991-04-01

    Serially sectioned rabbit foliate taste buds were examined with high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM) and computer-assisted, three-dimensional reconstruction. This report focuses on the ultrastructure of the type III cells and their synapses with sensory nerve fibers. Type III cells have previously been proposed to be the primary gustatory receptor cells in taste buds of rabbits and other mammals. Within rabbit foliate taste buds, type III cells constitute a well-defined, easily recognizable class and are the only taste bud cells observed to form synapses with intragemmal nerve fibers. Among 18 type III cells reconstructed from serial sections, 11 formed from 1 to 6 synapses each with nerve fibers; 7 reconstructed type III cells formed no synapses. Examples of both convergence and divergence of synaptic input from type III cells onto nerve fibers were observed. The sizes of the active zones of the synapses and numbers of vesicles associated with the presynaptic membrane specializations were highly variable. Dense-cored vesicles 80-140 nm in diameter were often found among the 40-60 nm clear vesicles clustered at presynaptic sites. At some synapses, these large dense-cored vesicles appeared to be the predominant vesicle type. This observation suggests that there may be functionally different types of synapses in taste buds, distinguished by the prevalence of either clear or dense-cored vesicles. Previous investigations have indicated that the dense-cored vesicles in type III cells may be storage sites for biogenic amines.

  19. Characteristic Relations of Type-III Intermittency in an Electronic Circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C M; Ryu, J W; Park, Y J; Kim, Chil-Min; Yim, Geo-Su; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    1998-01-01

    It is reported that the characteristic relations of type-II and type-III intermittencies, with respective local Poincar$\\acute{e}$ maps of $x_{n+1}= (1+\\epsilon)x_n + a x^3_n$ and $x_{n+1}= - (1+\\epsilon)x_n - a x^3_n$, are both $- ln (\\epsilon)$ under the assumption of uniform reinjection probability. However, the intermittencies have various characteristic relations such as probability. In this Letters the various characteristic relations are discussed, and the $\\epsilon^{-1/2}$ characteristic relation is obtained experimentally in an electronic circuit, with uniform reinjection probability.

  20. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels) and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels), which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold) higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown) host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells.

  1. SORPTION OF Ga (III ON FLEXIBLE OPEN CELL POLYURETHANE FOAM OF POLYETHER TYPE IMPREGNATED WITH TRI-N-BUTHYL PHOSPATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Tofan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The obtained results concerning the Ga (III ion retention on flexible open cell polyurethane foam of polyether type pretreated with tri-n-butyl phosphate are presented. The influence of solution acidity, phases contact time, Ga (III concentration and solution temperature have been investigated. The parameters of Ga (III batch sorption have been optimized. On the basis of Langmuir isotherms, the sorption constants and the thermodynamic parameters, ∆G, ∆Η and ∆S have been calculated.

  2. NMR and molecular dynamics studies of the conformational epitope of the type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, J R; Uhrinova, S; Woods, R J; van der Zwan, M; Jarrell, H C; Paoletti, L C; Kasper, D L; Jennings, H J

    1997-03-18

    The conformational epitope of the type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide (GBSP III) exhibits unique properties which can be ascribed to the presence of sialic acid in its structure and the requirement for an extended binding site. By means of NMR and molecular dynamics studies on GBSP III and its fragments, the extended epitope of GBSP III was further defined. The influence of sialic acid on the conformational properties of GBSP III was examined by performing conformational analysis on desialylated GBSP III, which is identical to the polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14, and also on oxidized and reduced GBSP III. Conformational changes were gauged by 1H and 13C chemical shift analysis, NOE, 1D selective TOCSY-NOESY experiments, J(HH) and J(CH) variations, and NOE of OH resonances. Changes in mobility were examined by 13C T1 and T2 measurements. Unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water using the AMBER force field and the GLYCAM parameter set were used to assess static and dynamic conformational models, simulate the observable NMR parameters and calculate helical parameters. GBSP III was found to be capable of forming extended helices. Hence, the length dependence of the conformational epitope could be explained by its location on extended helices within the random coil structure of GBSP III. The interaction of sialic acid with the backbone of the PS was also found to be important in defining the conformational epitope of GBSP III.

  3. Analysis of the characteristics of patients with open tibial fractures of Gustilo and Anderson type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Carlos Jaña Neto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of patients with Gustilo-Anderson Type III open tibial fractures treated at a tertiary care hospital in São Paulo between January 2013 and August 2014. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study. The following data were gathered from the electronic medical records: age; gender; diagnosis; trauma mechanism; comorbidities; associated fractures; Gustilo and Anderson, Tscherne and AO classifications; treatment (initial and definitive; presence of compartment syndrome; primary and secondary amputations; MESS (Mangled Extremity Severity Score index; mortality rate; and infection rate. RESULTS: 116 patients were included: 81% with fracture type IIIA, 12% IIIB and 7% IIIC; 85% males; mean age 32.3 years; and 57% victims of motorcycle accidents. Tibial shaft fractures were significantly more prevalent (67%. Eight patients were subjected to amputation: one primary case and seven secondary cases. Types IIIC (75% and IIIB (25% predominated among the patients subjected to secondary amputation. The MESS index was greater than 7 in 88% of the amputees and in 5% of the limb salvage group. CONCLUSION: The profile of patients with open tibial fracture of Gustilo and Anderson Type III mainly involved young male individuals who were victims of motorcycle accidents. The tibial shaft was the segment most affected. Only 7% of the patients underwent amputation. Given the current controversy in the literature about amputation or salvage of severely injured lower limbs, it becomes necessary to carry out prospective studies to support clinical decisions.

  4. Management of Oehler’s Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Ranganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler’s classification (1957 for Dens Invaginatus (DI into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler’s Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation.

  5. Epigenetic reprogramming of the type III interferon response potentiates antiviral activity and suppresses tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type III interferon (IFN-λ exhibits potent antiviral activity similar to IFN-α/β, but in contrast to the ubiquitous expression of the IFN-α/β receptor, the IFN-λ receptor is restricted to cells of epithelial origin. Despite the importance of IFN-λ in tissue-specific antiviral immunity, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this confined receptor expression remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the histone deacetylase (HDAC repression machinery mediates transcriptional silencing of the unique IFN-λ receptor subunit (IFNLR1 in a cell-type-specific manner. Importantly, HDAC inhibitors elevate receptor expression and restore sensitivity to IFN-λ in previously nonresponsive cells, thereby enhancing protection against viral pathogens. In addition, blocking HDAC activity renders nonresponsive cell types susceptible to the pro-apoptotic activity of IFN-λ, revealing the combination of HDAC inhibitors and IFN-λ to be a potential antitumor strategy. These results demonstrate that the type III IFN response may be therapeutically harnessed by epigenetic rewiring of the IFN-λ receptor expression program.

  6. Type III Supracondylar Humerus Fractures in Children: Open Reduction and Pinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common type of fractures involving the elbow region in children. Open reduction is a successful method for the management of displaced supracondylar fractures, with the most important advantages being complete anatomical reduction by visualising the fracture line and the lower level of risk for iatrogenic neurovascular injuries. In the present study, we assessed outcomes of open reduction and cross-pinning employed in the surgical management of paediatric Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures. Material and Method: The study included 18 children with Gartland extension type III supracondylar humerus fractures (13 boys, 5 girls; mean age: 7.3 ± 2.02 years; range, 3%u201312. There were fractures in the right elbows of 11 patients (61.1% and in the left elbows of seven (38.8%. The mean operative time was 53.3 ± 8.5 minutes (range, 45%u201370. The mean length of hospital stay was 1.7 ± 0.75 days (range, 1%u20133, while the mean follow-up time was 2.2 ± 0.6 years (range, 1.5%u20134. Results: According to the Flynn criteria, excellent results were obtained in six patients (33.3%, and good results in 12 (61.7% regarding changes in the carrying angle of the elbow. Functional assessment results were excellent for 14 patients (77.7% and good for four (22.3% regarding their loss of joint movement. Radiographic examinations revealed an average Baumann%u2019s angle of 75.6° (range, 70%u201385. Discussion: Good clinical outcomes can be achieved through the management of Gartland extension type III supracondylar humerus fractures using the open reduction technique. The most important disadvantage, however, is the post-surgical appearance of the elbow incision scar.

  7. The type III secreted protein BspR regulates the virulence genes in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kurushima

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica is closely related with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the causative agents of whooping cough. These pathogenic species share a number of virulence genes, including the gene locus for the type III secretion system (T3SS that delivers effector proteins. To identify unknown type III effectors in Bordetella, secreted proteins in the bacterial culture supernatants of wild-type B. bronchiseptica and an isogenic T3SS-deficient mutant were compared with iTRAQ-based, quantitative proteomic analysis method. BB1639, annotated as a hypothetical protein, was identified as a novel type III secreted protein and was designated BspR (Bordetella secreted protein regulator. The virulence of a BspR mutant (ΔbspR in B. bronchiseptica was significantly attenuated in a mouse infection model. BspR was also highly conserved in B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, suggesting that BspR is an essential virulence factor in these three Bordetella species. Interestingly, the BspR-deficient strain showed hyper-secretion of T3SS-related proteins. Furthermore, T3SS-dependent host cell cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity were also enhanced in the absence of BspR. By contrast, the expression of filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and adenylate cyclase toxin was completely abolished in the BspR-deficient strain. Finally, we demonstrated that BspR is involved in the iron-responsive regulation of T3SS. Thus, Bordetella virulence factors are coordinately but inversely controlled by BspR, which functions as a regulator in response to iron starvation.

  8. Complex Function for SicA, a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Type III Secretion-Associated Chaperone

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Stephanie C.; Jorge E Galán

    2000-01-01

    Salmonella enterica encodes a type III secretion system within a pathogenicity island located at centisome 63 that is essential for virulence. All type III secretion systems require the function of a family of low-molecular-weight proteins that aid the secretion process by acting as partitioning factors and/or secretion pilots. One such protein is SicA, which is encoded immediately upstream of the type III secreted proteins SipB and SipC. We found that the absence of SicA results in the degra...

  9. Early Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation Does Not Prevent Neurological Deterioration in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, Lindsey; Marchal, Jan Pieter; van Hasselt, Peter; van der Ploeg, Ans T; Wijburg, Frits A; Boelens, Jaap Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo disease, is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by defective lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate (HS). No effective disease-modifying therapy is yet available. In contrast to some other neuronopathic LSDs, bone marro

  10. Trabecular Metal Augments for the Management of Paprosky Type III Defects Without Pelvic Discontinuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grappiolo, Guido; Loppini, Mattia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Traverso, Francesco; Mazziotta, Giuseppe; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    Fifty-five hips undergoing acetabular reconstruction with trabecular metal (TM)-coated cup and TM augments were reviewed at an average follow up of 53.7 months (36-91). Bony defects were Paprosky type IIIA in 42 and type IIIB without pelvic discontinuity in 13 hips. The average HHS increased from 40 (27-52) preoperatively to 90.5 (61-100) postoperatively (P<0.0001). Four (7.3%) of 55 hips underwent acetabular components revision: three cases of loosening (5.4%), and one of recurrent instability (1.8%) were reported. Survival rate at 2 and 5 years was 96.4% and 92.8%. In conclusion, the use of TM-coated cups and augments could be considered an effective management of Paprosky type III defects without pelvic discontinuity providing good clinical and radiographic outcomes in the mid term.

  11. Beat-type Langmuir wave emissions associated with a type III solar radio burst: Evidence of parametric decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Recent measurements from the plasma wave instrument on the Galileo spacecraft have shown that Langmuir waves observed in conjunction with a type III solar radio burst contain many beat-type waveforms, with beat frequencies ranging from about 150 to 650 Hz. Strong evidence exists that the beat pattern is produced by two closely spaced narrowband components. The most likely candidates for these two waves are a beam-generated Langmuir wave and an oppositely propagating Langmuir wave produced by parametric decay. In the parametric decay process, nonlinear interactions cause the beam-driven Langmuir wave to decay into a Langmuir wave and a low-frequency ion sound wave. Comparisons of the observed beat frequency are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a three-wave parametric decay process. Weak low-frequency emissions are also sometimes observed at the predicted frequency of the ion sound wave.

  12. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosan, D. E.; Gallagher, P. T.; Zucca, P.; Fallows, R.; Carley, E. P.; Mann, G.; Bisi, M. M.; Kerdraon, A.; Konovalenko, A. A.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Rucker, H. O.; Thidé, B.; Magdalenić, J.; Vocks, C.; Reid, H.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Avruch, I. M.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; Conway, J. E.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hassall, T. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Markoff, S.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pietka, G.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B. W.; Stewart, A.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, C.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Aims: Here, the combined high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. Methods: The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within ≤5 R⊙ of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (~83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Results: Over a period of 30 min, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high altitudes (~4 R⊙ from the solar center at 30 MHz) and to have non-radial trajectories. These bursts occurred at altitudes in excess of values predicted by 1D radial electron density models. The non-radial high altitude Type III bursts were found to be associated with the expanding flank of a CME. Conclusions: The CME may have compressed neighbouring streamer plasma producing larger electron densities at high altitudes, while the non-radial burst trajectories can be explained by the deflection of radial magnetic fields as the CME expanded in the low corona. Movie associated to Fig. 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Type-II/III DCT/DST algorithms with reduced number of arithmetic operations

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Xuancheng

    2007-01-01

    We present algorithms for the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete sine transform (DST), of types II and III, that achieve a lower count of real multiplications and additions than previously published algorithms, without sacrificing numerical accuracy. Asymptotically, the operation count is reduced from ~ 2N log_2 N to ~ (17/9) N log_2 N for a power-of-two transform size N. Furthermore, we show that a further N multiplications may be saved by a certain rescaling of the inputs or outputs, generalizing a well-known technique for N=8 by Arai et al. These results are derived by considering the DCT to be a special case of a DFT of length 4N, with certain symmetries, and then pruning redundant operations from a recent improved fast Fourier transform algorithm (based on a recursive rescaling of the conjugate-pair split radix algorithm). The improved algorithms for DCT-III, DST-II, and DST-III follow immediately from the improved count for the DCT-II.

  14. Bounds on charged higgs boson in the 2HDM type III from Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, R; Rozo, M

    2003-01-01

    We consider the Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) of type III which leads to Flavour Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC) at tree level. In the framework of this model we can use an appropriate form of the Yukawa Lagrangian that makes the type II model limit of the general type III couplings apparent. This way is useful in order to compare with the experimental data which is model dependent. The analytical expressions of the partial width $\\Gamma (t \\to H^+ b) $ are derived and we compare with the data available at this energy range. We examine the limits on the new parameter $\\lambda_{tt}$ from the validness criterium of perturbation theory and we get $\\lambda_{tt} \\geq \\sqrt{2} (1-\\tan \\beta)/\\sqrt{1+\\tan^2 \\beta}$. Furthermore, we analyze the perturbation theory limit together with experimental bounds on $B(t \\to H^+ b)$ and we get a bound on the charged Higgs mass, $m_{H^+}\\geq 123$ GeV.

  15. Type III polyketide synthase is involved in the biosynthesis of protocatechuic acid in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yangyong; Xiao, Jing; Pan, Li

    2014-11-01

    Genomic studies have shown that not only plants but also filamentous fungi contain type III polyketide synthases. To study the function of type III polyketide synthase (AnPKSIII) in Aspergillus niger, a deletion strain (delAnPKSIII) and an overexpression strain (oeAnPKSIII) were constructed in A. niger MA169.4, a derivative of the wild-type (WT) A. niger ATCC 9029 that produces large quantities of gluconic acid. Alterations in the metabolites were analyzed by HPLC when the extract of the overexpression strain was compared with extracts of the WT and deletion strains. Protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3.2 mg/l) was isolated and identified as the main product of AnPKSIII when inductively expressed in A. niger MA169.4. The molecular weight of PCA was 154.1 (m/z 153.1 [M-H](-)), was detected by ESI-MS in the negative ionization mode, and (1)H and (13)C NMR data confirmed its structure.

  16. The Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion Systems manipulate host cell MAPK for critical steps in pathogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia

    2010-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a food-borne pathogen causing inflammation of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Pathogenic strains of this bacterium possess two Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS) that deliver effector proteins into host cells. In order to better understand human host cell responses to V. parahaemolyticus, the modulation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation in epithelial cells by an O3:K6 clinical isolate, RIMD2210633, was investigated. The importance of MAPK activation for the ability of the bacterium to be cytotoxic and to induce secretion of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) was determined.

  17. Tyrosinemia type III: diagnosis and ten-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerone, R; Holme, E; Schiaffino, M C; Caruso, U; Maritano, L; Romano, C

    1997-09-01

    Tyrosinemia type III, caused by deficiency of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, is a rare disorder of tyrosine catabolism. Primary 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase deficiency has been described in only three patients. The biochemical phenotype shows hypertyrosinemia and elevated urinary excretion of 4-hydroxyphenyl derivatives. We report the clinical and biochemical findings and the results of long-term follow-up in a new patient with this disorder presenting with severe mental retardation and neurological abnormalities. The clinical phenotype is compared with those reported in the three previously described patients.

  18. Developmental defects in a Caenorhabditis elegans model for type III galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokate-Llanos, Ana M; Monje, José M; Murdoch, Piedad Del Socorro; Muñoz, Manuel J

    2014-12-01

    Type III galactosemia is a metabolic disorder caused by reduced activity of UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, which participates in galactose metabolism and the generation of various UDP-sugar species. We characterized gale-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that a complete loss-of-function mutation is lethal, as has been hypothesized for humans, whereas a nonlethal partial loss-of-function allele causes a variety of developmental abnormalities, likely resulting from the impairment of the glycosylation process. We also observed that gale-1 mutants are hypersensitive to galactose as well as to infections. Interestingly, we found interactions between gale-1 and the unfolded protein response.

  19. Metabolism of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen in cultures of human proximal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Blaehr, H; Andersen, C B;

    1992-01-01

    Degradation of the intact form of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) has been established in the liver, whereas the col 1 domain of PIIINP is extracted by the kidneys. We used native human PIIINP and col 1 domain of PIIINP to investigate the degradation of PIIINP...... in cultures of human proximal tubular cells. Normal renal tissue was obtained from the healthy part of kidneys surgically removed and from biopsies from a total of 10 patients. The degradation was characterized by incubation of [125I]-PIIINP followed by gel filtration. We found that in physiological...

  20. The rare decay $t \\to c \\gamma$ in the General 2HDM type III

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, R A; Rodríguez, José Alberto; Diaz, Rodolfo A.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the branching ratio for the process $t \\to c \\gamma$ in the context of the General Two Higgs Doublet Model type III. We find that taking into account reasonable values for the parameter $\\tan \\beta$ is possible to get values of this branching ratio up to orders of magnitude lying in the range of sensitivity of near future top quark experiments. For values of $B(t \\to c \\gamma) \\sim 1-9 \\times 10^{-5}$, values between 8-15 for $\\tan \\beta$ are allowed.

  1. Localization, by linkage analysis, of the cystinuria type III gene to chromosome 19q13.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisceglia, L.; Totaro, A.; Melchionda, S. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive aminoaciduria in which three urinary phenotypes (I, II, and III) have been described. An amino acid transporter gene, SLC3A1 (formerly rBAT), was found to be responsible for this disorder. Mutational and linkage analysis demonstrated the presence of genetic heterogeneity in which the SLC3A1 gene is responsible for type I cystinuria but not for type II or type III. In this study, we report the identification of the cystinuria type III locus on the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q13.1), obtained after a genomewide search. Pairwise linkage analysis in a series of type III or type II families previously excluded from linkage to the cystinuria type I locus (SLC3A1 gene) revealed a significant maximum LOD score (Z{sub max}) of 13.11 at a maximum recombination fraction ({theta}{sub max}) of .00, with marker D19S225. Multipoint linkage analysis performed with the use of additional markers from the region placed the cystinuria type III locus between D19S414 and D19S220. Preliminary data on type II families also seem to place the disease locus for this rare type of cystinuria at 19q13.1 (significant Z{sub max} = 3.11 at {theta}{sub max} of .00, with marker D19S225). 33 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Structure-function relationships within Keppler-type antitumor ruthenium(III) complexes: the case of 2-aminothiazolium[trans-tetrachlorobis(2-aminothiazole)ruthenate(III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Pasquale; Piccioli, Francesca; Gabbiani, Chiara; Camalli, Mercedes; Messori, Luigi

    2005-07-11

    Keppler-type ruthenium(III) complexes exhibit promising antitumor properties. We report here a study of 2-aminothiazolium[trans-tetrachlorobis(2-aminothiazole)ruthenate(III)], both in the solid state and in solution. The crystal structure has been solved and found to exhibit classical features. Important solvatochromic effects were revealed. Notably, we observed that introduction of an amino group in position 2 greatly accelerates chloride hydrolysis compared to the thiazole analogue; this latter finding may be of interest for a fine-tuning of the reactivity of these novel metallodrugs.

  3. Collagen Type III and VI Turnover in Response to Long-Term Immobilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Sun

    Full Text Available Muscle mass and function are perturbed by immobilization and remobilization. When muscle mass changes, the quality and quantity of the extracellular matrix protein, particularly the collagens, change with it. In this study, we investigated the temporal profile of three peptide biomarkers derived from turnover of collagen type III and type VI in a long-term immobilization and remobilization study. We also compared individual biomarker levels with Lean body Mass (LBM and changes therein, hypothesizing that these biomarkers would be biomarkers of the remodeling processes associated with immobilization and/or remobilization.In the Berlin bed rest study, 20 young men were recruited and randomly assigned to 8-week's strict bed rest with or without resistive vibration exercise countermeasure. We measured three neo-epitope ELISA kits in the serum samples of this study: Pro-C3, measured the synthesis of collagen type III; Pro-C6, measured the synthesis of collagen type VI; and C6M measured the degradation of collagen type VI induced by MMP-2 and MMP-9 cleavage.Pro-C3 and Pro-C6 biomarkers are up-regulated with both immobilization and remobilization, whereas C6M is hardly affected at all. We found that Pro-C3 and C6M levels are related to LBM at baseline and that high levels of Pro-C6 are associated with smaller changes in muscle mass during both immobilization and remobilization.The Pro-C3 and-C6 biomarkers change likely reflect remodeling changes in response to unloading or reloading, whereas C6M does not appear to respond to unloading. Pro-C3 and C6M levels correlate with LBM at baseline, while Pro-C6 is related to the anabolic and catabolic responses to unloading and reloading.

  4. Influence of geochemical properties and land-use types on the microbial reduction of Fe(III) in subtropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengshuai; Wang, Yongkui; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Manjia; Zhai, Guangshu; Tao, Liang; Liu, Chuanping

    2014-08-01

    Microbial Fe(III) reduction significantly impacts the geochemical processes and the composition of most subsurface soils. However, up to now, the factors influencing the efficiency of Fe(III) reduction in soils have not been fully described. In this study, soil Fe(III) reduction processes related to geochemical properties and land-use types were systematically investigated using iron-rich soils. The results showed that microbial Fe(III) reduction processes were efficient and their rates varied significantly in different types of soils. Fe(III) reduction rates were 1.1-5.6 times as much in soils with glucose added as in those without glucose. Furthermore, Fe(III) reduction rates were similar in soils from the same parent materials, while they were highest in soils developed from sediments, with a mean rate of 1.87 mM per day when supplemented with glucose. In addition, the Fe(III) reduction rates, reaching 0.99 and 0.59 mM per day on average with and without glucose added, respectively, were higher in the paddy soils affected heavily by human activities than those in the forest soils (average rates of 0.38 and 0.15 mM per day when with and without glucose, respectively). All the soil weathering indices correlated linearly with Fe(III) reduction rates, even though the reduction of iron in soils with higher weathering degrees was partly inhibited by a higher soil protonation trend and fewer available iron reduction sites in the soils, which gives lower reduction rates. These results clearly illustrate that soil Fe(III) reduction rates are greatly dependent on soil geochemical properties and land-use types and help define which soil types exhibit similar degrees of Fe(III) reduction under field conditions.

  5. Pore-forming Activity of the Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System Protein EspD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Caballero-Franco, Celia; Bakker, Dannika; Totten, Stephanie; Jardim, Armando

    2015-10-16

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is a causative agent of gastrointestinal and diarrheal diseases. Pathogenesis associated with enterohemorrhagic E. coli involves direct delivery of virulence factors from the bacteria into epithelial cell cytosol via a syringe-like organelle known as the type III secretion system. The type III secretion system protein EspD is a critical factor required for formation of a translocation pore on the host cell membrane. Here, we show that recombinant EspD spontaneously integrates into large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) lipid bilayers; however, pore formation required incorporation of anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and an acidic pH. Leakage assays performed with fluorescent dextrans confirmed that EspD formed a structure with an inner diameter of ∼2.5 nm. Protease mapping indicated that the two transmembrane helical hairpin of EspD penetrated the lipid layer positioning the N- and C-terminal domains on the extralumenal surface of LUVs. Finally, a combination of glutaraldehyde cross-linking and rate zonal centrifugation suggested that EspD in LUV membranes forms an ∼280-320-kDa oligomeric structure consisting of ∼6-7 subunits.

  6. Immunomodulation by the Pseudomonas syringae HopZ type III effector family in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D Lewis

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae employs a type III secretion system to inject 20-30 different type III effector (T3SE proteins into plant host cells. A major role of T3SEs is to suppress plant immune responses and promote bacterial infection. The YopJ/HopZ acetyltransferases are a superfamily of T3SEs found in both plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. In P. syringae, this superfamily includes the evolutionarily diverse HopZ1, HopZ2 and HopZ3 alleles. To investigate the roles of the HopZ family in immunomodulation, we generated dexamethasone-inducible T3SE transgenic lines of Arabidopsis for HopZ family members and characterized them for immune suppression phenotypes. We show that all of the HopZ family members can actively suppress various facets of Arabidopsis immunity in a catalytic residue-dependent manner. HopZ family members can differentially suppress the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase cascades or the production of reactive oxygen species, whereas all members can promote the growth of non-virulent P. syringae. Localization studies show that four of the HopZ family members containing predicted myristoylation sites are localized to the vicinity of the plasma membrane while HopZ3 which lacks the myristoylation site is at least partially nuclear localized, suggesting diversification of immunosuppressive mechanisms. Overall, we demonstrate that despite significant evolutionary diversification, all HopZ family members can suppress immunity in Arabidopsis.

  7. Type III mixed cryoglobulinemia and antiphospholipid syndrome in a patient with partial DiGeorge syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alice D; Tachdjian, Raffi; Gallagher, Kerry; McCurdy, Deborah K; Lassman, Charles; Stiehm, E Richard; Yadin, Ora

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 14 year-old boy with partial DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), status post complete repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. He presented with recurrent fever and dyspnea upon exertion secondary to right pulmonary embolus on chest computed tomography (CT). Coagulation studies revealed homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT mutations, elevated cardiolipin IgM antibodies, and elevated beta(2)-glycoprotein I IgM antibodies. Infectious work-up revealed only positive anti-streptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNAse B titers. Autoimmune studies showed strongly positive anti-platelet IgM, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF), and positive cryocrit. Renal biopsy for evaluation of proteinuria and hematuria showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) with membranoproliferative features consistent with cryoglobulinemia. Immunofixation showed polyclonal bands. Our patient was treated successfully with antibiotics, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). This is the first report of a patient with partial DGS presenting with APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia possibly due to Streptococcal infection.

  8. Extended SUSY SU(5) predicting type-III seesaw testable at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Awasthi, Ram Lal

    2013-01-01

    We propose an extension of the SUSY SU(5) which predicts LHC testable type-III seesaw. The supersymmetric SU(5) GUT model is extended by adding a 24-plet matter superfield along with a pair of $10_H$-plet and $\\bar{10}_H$-plet Higgs superfields. The 24-plet carries a triplet and a singlet fermion multiplet of SU(2)$_L$, which leads to type I+III seesaw. The additional $10_H$ (and $\\bar{10}_H$) multiplets help in achieving gauge coupling unification while keeping the triplet fermion mass in the TeV range, making them accessible at LHC. We study the phenomenology of this model in detail. Large lepton flavor violation predicted in this model puts severe constraints on the Yukawa couplings of the triplet fermion. We show that this smothers the possibility of observing the contribution of the heavy fermions in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. The presence of the additional $10_H$ and $\\bar{10}_H$ in this model not only gives gauge coupling unification, it also leads to very large lepton flavor violation...

  9. Plant flavonoids target Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 flagella and type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Paola; Farias, Gabriela A; Nogales, Joaquina; Prada, Harold; Carvajal, Vivian; Barón, Matilde; Rivilla, Rafael; Martín, Marta; Olmedilla, Adela; Gallegos, María-Trinidad

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites involved in plant protection against pathogens, but micro-organisms have developed resistance mechanisms to those compounds. We previously demonstrated that the MexAB-OprM efflux pump mediates resistance of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 to flavonoids, facilitating its survival and the colonization of the host. Here, we have shown that tomato plants respond to Pto infection producing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. The effects of flavonoids on key traits of this model plant-pathogen bacterium have also been investigated observing that they reduce Pto swimming and swarming because of the loss of flagella, and also inhibited the expression and assembly of a functional type III secretion system. Those effects were more severe in a mutant lacking the MexAB-OprM pump. Our results suggest that flavonoids inhibit the function of the GacS/GacA two-component system, causing a depletion of rsmY RNA, therefore affecting the synthesis of two important virulence factors in Pto DC3000, flagella and the type III secretion system. These data provide new insights into the flavonoid role in the molecular dialog between host and pathogen.

  10. LOFAR tied-array imaging of Type III solar radio bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Morosan, D E; Zucca, P; Fallows, R; Carley, E P; Mann, G; Bisi, M M; Kerdraon, A; Konovalenko, A A; MacKinnon, A L; Rucker, H O; Thidé, B; Magdalenić, J; Vocks, C; Reid, H; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; Conway, J E; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Deller, A; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hassall, T E; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Markoff, S; McKean, J P; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Nelles, A; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pietka, G; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Serylak, M; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Stewart, A; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, C; Vermeulen, R; van Weeren, R J; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2014-01-01

    The Sun is an active source of radio emission which is often associated with energetic phenomena such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). At low radio frequencies (<100 MHz), the Sun has not been imaged extensively because of the instrumental limitations of previous radio telescopes. Here, the combined high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) was used to study solar Type III radio bursts at 30-90 MHz and their association with CMEs. The Sun was imaged with 126 simultaneous tied-array beams within 5 solar radii of the solar centre. This method offers benefits over standard interferometric imaging since each beam produces high temporal (83 ms) and spectral resolution (12.5 kHz) dynamic spectra at an array of spatial locations centred on the Sun. LOFAR's standard interferometric output is currently limited to one image per second. Over a period of 30 minutes, multiple Type III radio bursts were observed, a number of which were found to be located at high...

  11. Adenocarcinoma arising in a heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egashira Yutaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Heterotopic pancreatic cancer in the duodenum is a very rare disease. Only twelve cases have been reported worldwide to date. We report a rare case of malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum with long-term survival of the patient, and review the 12 cases in the literature. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital complaining of nausea and vomiting. Endoscopy and upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed marked duodenal stenosis. A pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of the surgically resected specimen showed malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 30. He is well and shows no signs of recurrence at the time of writing, six years after the surgery. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma arising within the heterotopic pancreas appears to be rare. It is difficult to obtain a correct diagnosis preoperatively. The management of heterotopic pancreas depends on the presence or absence of symptoms. If the patient is asymptomatic or benign, conservative treatment with regular follow-up is recommended. When the patient is symptomatic or there is a suspicion of malignancy, surgical management with intra-operative frozen section diagnosis is indicated.

  12. Tenascin C promiscuously binds growth factors via its fifth fibronectin type III-like domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Laporte

    Full Text Available Tenascin C (TNC is an extracellular matrix protein that is upregulated during development as well as tissue remodeling. TNC is comprised of multiple independent folding domains, including 15 fibronectin type III-like (TNCIII domains. The fifth TNCIII domain (TNCIII5 has previously been shown to bind heparin. Our group has shown that the heparin-binding fibronectin type III domains of fibronectin (FNIII, specifically FNIII12-14, possess affinity towards a large number of growth factors. Here, we show that TNCIII5 binds growth factors promiscuously and with high affinity. We produced recombinant fragments of TNC representing the first five TNCIII repeats (TNCIII1-5, as well as subdomains, including TNCIII5, to study interactions with various growth factors. Multiple growth factors of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF family, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF family, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily, the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGF-BPs, and neurotrophins were found to bind with high affinity to this region of TNC, specifically to TNCIII5. Surface plasmon resonance was performed to analyze the kinetics of binding of TNCIII1-5 with TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, NT-3, and FGF-2. The promiscuous yet high affinity of TNC for a wide array of growth factors, mediated mainly by TNCIII5, may play a role in multiple physiological and pathological processes involving TNC.

  13. High frequency ion sound waves associated with Langmuir waves in type III radio burst source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir waves occur as coherent field structures with peak intensities exceeding the Langmuir collapse thresholds. Their scale sizes are of the order of the wavelength of an ion sound wave. These Langmuir wave field characteristics indicate that the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are most probably generated during the thermalization of the burnt-out cavitons left behind by the Langmuir collapse. Moreover, the peak intensities of the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are comparable to the expected intensities of those ion sound waves radiated by the burnt-out cavitons. However, the speeds of the electron beams derived from the frequency drift of type III radio bursts are too slow to satisfy the needed adiabatic ion approximation. Therefore, some non-linear process such as the induced scattering on thermal ions most probably pumps the beam excited Langmuir waves towards the lower wavenumbers, where the adiabatic ion approximation is justified.

  14. Type III Mixed Cryoglobulinemia and Antiphospholipid Syndrome in a Patient With Partial DiGeorge Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice D. Chang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a 14 year-old boy with partial DiGeorge syndrome (DGS, status post complete repair of Tetralogy of Fallot, who developed antiphospholipid syndrome (APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia. He presented with recurrent fever and dyspnea upon exertion secondary to right pulmonary embolus on chest computed tomography (CT. Coagulation studies revealed homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT mutations, elevated cardiolipin IgM antibodies, and elevated β2-glycoprotein I IgM antibodies. Infectious work-up revealed only positive anti-streptolysin O (ASO and anti-DNAse B titers. Autoimmune studies showed strongly positive anti-platelet IgM, elevated rheumatoid factor (RF, and positive cryocrit. Renal biopsy for evaluation of proteinuria and hematuria showed diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN with membranoproliferative features consistent with cryoglobulinemia. Immunofixation showed polyclonal bands. Our patient was treated successfully with antibiotics, prednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF. This is the first report of a patient with partial DGS presenting with APS and type III mixed cryoglobulinemia possibly due to Streptococcal infection.

  15. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  16. Role of NSO compounds during primary cracking of a Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, F.; Lorant, F.; Lewan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to follow the generation of NSO compounds during the artificial maturation of an immature Type II kerogen and a Type III lignite in order to determine the different sources of the petroleum potential during primary cracking. Experiments were carried out in closed system pyrolysis in the temperature range from 225 to 350 ??C. Two types of NSOs were recovered: one is soluble in n-pentane and the second in dichloromethane. A kinetic scheme was optimised including both kerogen and NSO cracking. It was validated by complementary experiments carried out on isolated asphaltenes generated from the Type II kerogen and on the total n-pentane and DCM extracts generated from the Type III lignite. Results show that kerogen and lignite first decompose into DCM NSOs with minor generation of hydrocarbons. Then, the main source of petroleum potential originates from secondary cracking of both DCM and n-pentane NSOs through successive decomposition reactions. These results confirm the model proposed by Tissot [Tissot, B., 1969. Premie??res donne??es sur les me??canismes et la cine??tique de la formation du pe??trole dans les bassins se??dimentaires. Simulation d'un sche??ma re??actionnel sur ordinateur. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 24, 470-501] in which the main source of hydrocarbons is not the insoluble organic matter, but the NSO fraction. As secondary cracking of the NSOs largely overlaps that of the kerogen, it was demonstrated that bulk kinetics in open system is a result of both kerogen and NSO cracking. Thus, another kinetic scheme for primary cracking in open system was built as a combination of kerogen and NSO cracking. This new kinetic scheme accounts for both the rate and amounts of hydrocarbons generated in a closed pyrolysis system. Thus, the concept of successive steps for hydrocarbon generation is valid for the two types of pyrolysis system and, for the first time, a common kinetic scheme is available for extrapolating results to natural

  17. Increased Levels of Type I and III Collagen and Hyaluronan in Scleroderma Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Klaus; Heickendorff, Lene; L, Risteli

    1997-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) and the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) and hyaluronan (HA) were measured in plasma and suction blister fluid from 13 systemic sclerosis patients and 11 healthy volunteers. Suction blisters and skin biopsies were...... from the transition zone between normal skin and scleroderma, and uninvolved abdominal skin of patients. The median value of suction blister PIIINP from the transition zone was 38% higher than suction blister PIIINP from uninvolved skin. PIIINP was localized to the dermis by immunohistochemical...... techniques. PICP and HA levels in blisters from the transition zone were 87% and 53%, respectively, above the levels measured in uninvolved skin. Furthermore, PICP and HA blister levels from the transition zone were 67% and 63%, respectively, higher than the levels measured in healthy volunteers. In plasma...

  18. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Graña

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%, moderate (27.8% and high (7.1%. This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types.

  19. Type- and Subcomplex-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies against Domain III of Dengue Virus Type 2 Envelope Protein Recognize Adjacent Epitopes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukupolvi-Petty, Soila; Austin, S. Kyle; Purtha, Whitney E.; Oliphant, Theodore; Nybakken, Grant E.; Schlesinger, Jacob J.; Roehrig, John T.; Gromowski, Gregory D.; Barrett, Alan D.; Fremont, Daved H.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Neutralization of flaviviruses in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. Previous studies demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein strongly protect against infection in animals. Based on X-ray crystallography and sequence analysis, an analogous type-specific neutralizing epitope for individual serotypes of the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV) was hypothesized. Using yeast surface display of DIII variants, we defined contact residues of a panel of type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive MAbs that recognize DIII of DENV type 2 (DENV-2) and have different neutralizing potentials. Type-specific MAbs with neutralizing activity against DENV-2 localized to a sequence-unique epitope on the lateral ridge of DIII, centered at the FG loop near residues E383 and P384, analogous in position to that observed with WNV-specific strongly neutralizing MAbs. Subcomplex-specific MAbs that bound some but not all DENV serotypes and neutralized DENV-2 infection recognized an adjacent epitope centered on the connecting A strand of DIII at residues K305, K307, and K310. In contrast, several MAbs that had poor neutralizing activity against DENV-2 and cross-reacted with all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses recognized an epitope with residues in the AB loop of DIII, a conserved region that is predicted to have limited accessibility on the mature virion. Overall, our experiments define adjacent and structurally distinct epitopes on DIII of DENV-2 which elicit type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive antibodies with different neutralizing potentials. PMID:17881453

  20. Type- and subcomplex-specific neutralizing antibodies against domain III of dengue virus type 2 envelope protein recognize adjacent epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukupolvi-Petty, Soila; Austin, S Kyle; Purtha, Whitney E; Oliphant, Theodore; Nybakken, Grant E; Schlesinger, Jacob J; Roehrig, John T; Gromowski, Gregory D; Barrett, Alan D; Fremont, Daved H; Diamond, Michael S

    2007-12-01

    Neutralization of flaviviruses in vivo correlates with the development of an antibody response against the viral envelope (E) protein. Previous studies demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against an epitope on the lateral ridge of domain III (DIII) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein strongly protect against infection in animals. Based on X-ray crystallography and sequence analysis, an analogous type-specific neutralizing epitope for individual serotypes of the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV) was hypothesized. Using yeast surface display of DIII variants, we defined contact residues of a panel of type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive MAbs that recognize DIII of DENV type 2 (DENV-2) and have different neutralizing potentials. Type-specific MAbs with neutralizing activity against DENV-2 localized to a sequence-unique epitope on the lateral ridge of DIII, centered at the FG loop near residues E383 and P384, analogous in position to that observed with WNV-specific strongly neutralizing MAbs. Subcomplex-specific MAbs that bound some but not all DENV serotypes and neutralized DENV-2 infection recognized an adjacent epitope centered on the connecting A strand of DIII at residues K305, K307, and K310. In contrast, several MAbs that had poor neutralizing activity against DENV-2 and cross-reacted with all DENV serotypes and other flaviviruses recognized an epitope with residues in the AB loop of DIII, a conserved region that is predicted to have limited accessibility on the mature virion. Overall, our experiments define adjacent and structurally distinct epitopes on DIII of DENV-2 which elicit type-specific, subcomplex-specific, and cross-reactive antibodies with different neutralizing potentials.

  1. Spectroscopic Identification of Type 2 Quasars at Z < 1 in SDSS-III/BOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Sihan; Zakamska, Nadia L

    2016-01-01

    The physics and demographics of type 2 quasars remain poorly understood, and new samples of such objects selected in a variety of ways can give insight into their physical properties, evolution, and relationship to their host galaxies. We present a sample of 2758 type 2 quasars at z $\\leq$ 1 from the SDSS-III/BOSS spectroscopic database, selected on the basis of their emission-line properties. We probe the luminous end of the population by requiring the rest-frame equivalent width of [OIII] to be > 100 {\\AA}. We distinguish our objects from star-forming galaxies and type 1 quasars using line widths, standard emission line ratio diagnostic diagrams at z 0.52. The majority of our objects have [OIII] luminosities in the range 10^8.5-10^10 L$_{\\odot}$ and redshifts between 0.4 and 0.65. Our sample includes over 400 type 2 quasars with incorrectly measured redshifts in the BOSS database; such objects often show kinematic substructure or outflows in the [OIII] line. The majority of the sample has counterparts in t...

  2. Changes in histoanatomical distribution of types I, III and V collagen promote adaptative remodeling in posterior tibial tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Satomi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common cause of adult flat foot deformity, and its etiology is unknown. PURPOSE: In this study, we characterized the morphologic pattern and distribution of types I, III and V collagen in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. METHOD: Tendon samples from patients with and without posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were stained by immunofluorescence using antibodies against types I, III and V collagen. RESULTS: Control samples showed that type V deposited near the vessels only, while surgically obtained specimens displayed type V collagen surrounding other types of collagen fibers in thicker adventitial layers. Type III collagen levels were also increased in pathological specimens. On the other hand, amounts of collagen type I, which represents 95% of the total collagen amount in normal tendon, were decreased in pathological specimens. CONCLUSION: Fibrillogenesis in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is altered due to higher expression of types III and V collagen and a decreased amount of collagen type I, which renders the originating fibrils structurally less resistant to mechanical forces.

  3. Type I, II, and III Interferons: Regulating Immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, Maja; Petkovic, Miroslav; Verhaz, Antonija

    2016-02-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens or tumor cells. The aim of this review was to present the previously known and new findings about the role of interferons type I and II, and recently discovered type III in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection control. Infection of various cell types with M. tuberculosis induce both IFN-α and IFN-β synthesis. The majority of the studies support the findings that IFN type I actually promotes infection with M. tuberculosis. It has been well establish that IFN-γ has protective function against M. tuberculosis and the other mycobacteria and that the primary source of this cytokine are CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Recently, it has been shown that also the innate lymphocytes, γδ T cells, natural killer (NK) T cells, and NK cells can also be the source of IFN-γ in response to mycobacterial infection. Several studies have shown that CD4(+) T cells protect mice against M. tuberculosis independently of IFN-γ. The balance between IFN-γ and different cytokines such as IL-10 and other Th2 cell cytokines is likely to influence disease outcome. Type I IFN appears to be detrimental through at least three separate, but overlapping, type I IFN-mediated mechanisms: induction of excessive apoptosis, specific suppression of Th1 and IFN-γ responses, and dampening of the immune response by strong IL-10 induction. Recently it has been found that M. tuberculosis infection in A549 lung epithelial cells stimulate up-regulation of IFN-λ genes in vitro. IFN-λs also have a role in modulation of Th1/Th2 response. IFN-λs are not essential for M. tuberculosis infection control, but can give some contribution in immune response to this pathogen.

  4. The SPI-1-like Type III secretion system: more roles than you think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Frank; Barret, Matthieu; O'Gara, Fergal

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a protein delivery system which is involved in a wide spectrum of interactions, from mutualism to pathogenesis, between Gram negative bacteria and various eukaryotes, including plants, fungi, protozoa and mammals. Various phylogenetic families of the T3SS have been described, including the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 family (SPI-1). The SPI-1 T3SS was initially associated with the virulence of enteric pathogens, but is actually found in a diverse array of bacterial species, where it can play roles in processes as different as symbiotic interactions with insects and colonization of plants. We review the multiple roles of the SPI-1 T3SS and discuss both how these discoveries are changing our perception of the SPI-1 family and what impacts this has on our understanding of the specialization of the T3SS in general.

  5. Diagnosis and Treatment of a Type III Dens Invagination Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mohsen; Adl, Alireza; Javanmardi, Samane; Naghizadeh, Sina

    2016-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with the history of pain and swelling in the anterior maxillary segment. The periapical radiography was indicative of a dental anomaly in right maxillary lateral incisor. Due to the insufficient information from conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was ordered. CBCT showed apical root resorption, large apical lucency and two separate canals with distinct apical foramen (Oehlers type III dens invagination). The CBCT image was used as a guide for dentine removal with an ultrasonic tip. Conventional root canal therapy was done using lateral compaction technique. One-and two-year follow-up radiographies revealed periapical repair and absence of symptoms. PMID:27790268

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Translocon Is Required for Biofilm Formation at the Epithelial Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Cindy S; Rangel, Stephanie M; Almblad, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known...... about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates...... a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection....

  7. Architecture of the major component of the type III secretion system export apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrusci, Patrizia; Vergara-Irigaray, Marta; Johnson, Steven; Beeby, Morgan D; Hendrixson, David R; Roversi, Pietro; Friede, Miriam E; Deane, Janet E; Jensen, Grant J; Tang, Christoph M; Lea, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are bacterial membrane-embedded nanomachines designed to export specifically targeted proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm. Secretion through T3SS is governed by a subset of inner membrane proteins termed the 'export apparatus'. We show that a key member of the Shigella flexneri export apparatus, MxiA, assembles into a ring essential for secretion in vivo. The ring-forming interfaces are well-conserved in both nonflagellar and flagellar homologs, implying that the ring is an evolutionarily conserved feature in these systems. Electron cryo-tomography revealed a T3SS-associated cytoplasmic torus of size and shape corresponding to those of the MxiA ring aligned to the secretion channel located between the secretion pore and the ATPase complex. This defines the molecular architecture of the dominant component of the export apparatus and allows us to propose a model for the molecular mechanisms controlling secretion.

  8. Type III occipital condylar fracture presenting with hydrocephalus, vertebral artery injury and vasospasm: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, J.A.; Baskaya, M.K.; Day, M.A.; Nanda, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State Univ., Shreveport (United States); Helath Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Occipital condylar fractures (OCF) are rare and have a high mortality rate. We report a patient with OCF who presented with acute hydrocephalus and died from diffuse vasospasm secondary to vertebral artery injury. A 45-year-old man fell 20 feet from a deer stand and landed on his head. CT showed a type III OCF continuing to the anterior rim of the foramen magnum on the left, with a bone fragment pushing into the medulla, causing hydrocephalus. The patient was stabilized, and a four-vessel arteriogram showed diffuse vasospasm with complete occlusion of the left vertebral artery at the level of the OCF. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of the conjunction of OCF, hydrocephalus, and vasospasm. (orig.)

  9. Dynamics of Langmuir and ion-sound waves in type III solar radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P. A.; Willes, A. J.; Cairns, I. H.

    1993-01-01

    The study traces the evolution of Langmuir and ion-sound waves in type III sources, incorporating linear growth, linear damping, and nonlinear electrostatic decay. Improved estimates are obtained for the wavenumber range of growing waves and the nonlinear coupling coefficient for the decay process. It is shown that the conditions in the solar wind do not allow a steady state to be attained; instead, bursty linear and nonlinear interactions take place, consistent with the highly inhomogeneous and impulsive waves actually observed. Nonlinear growth is found to be rapid enough to saturate the growth of the parent Langmuir waves in the available interaction time. The competing processes of nonlinear wave collapse and quasi-linear relaxation are discussed, and it is concluded that neither is responsible for the saturation of Langmuir growth.

  10. A clinical report of Type III dens invaginatus: relevant aspects of a combined therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva E Souza, Patricia de Almeida Rodrigues; de Almeida, Bruno Vila Nova; Tartari, Talita; Alves, Ana Claudia Braga Amoras; Tuji, Farbicio Mesquita; Silva E Souza, Mario Honorato

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental abnormality that alters dental morphology; as a result, treating this condition is a challenge for endodontic practices. This article describes how a combination of nonsurgical and surgical therapies was utilized to treat a maxillary central incisor with Type III dens invaginatus and vital pulp. The treatment plan included using computed tomography (CT) for a detailed analysis of the dental anatomy and periapical area, endodontic and surgical procedures, and a 4-year follow-up period that included periodic clinical and radiographic examinations. The follow-up examinations revealed a regression of the apical lesion and no other signs or symptoms. Based on the present case report, the authors concluded that this combination of surgical and nonsurgical approaches was effective and that CT is a valuable auxiliary tool for the study of dental anatomy.

  11. Bacterial flagella and Type III secretion: case studies in the evolution of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallen, M J; Gophna, U

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial flagella at first sight appear uniquely sophisticated in structure, so much so that they have even been considered 'irreducibly complex' by the intelligent design movement. However, a more detailed analysis reveals that these remarkable pieces of molecular machinery are the product of processes that are fully compatible with Darwinian evolution. In this chapter we present evidence for such processes, based on a review of experimental studies, molecular phylogeny and microbial genomics. Several processes have played important roles in flagellar evolution: self-assembly of simple repeating subunits, gene duplication with subsequent divergence, recruitment of elements from other systems ('molecular bricolage'), and recombination. We also discuss additional tentative new assignments of homology (FliG with MgtE, FliO with YscJ). In conclusion, rather than providing evidence of intelligent design, flagellar and non-flagellar Type III secretion systems instead provide excellent case studies in the evolution of complex systems from simpler components.

  12. Relationship of type III radio bursts with quasi-periodic pulsations in a solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kupriyanova, E G; Reid, H A S; Myagkova, I N

    2016-01-01

    We studied a solar flare with pronounced quasi-periodic pulsations detected in the microwave, X-ray, and radio bands. We used the methods of correlation, Fourier, and wavelet analyses to examine the temporal fine structures and relationships between the time profiles in each wave band. We found that the time profiles of the microwaves, hard X-rays and type III radio bursts vary quasi-periodically with the common period of 40-50 s. The average amplitude of the variations is high, above 30% of the background flux level and reaching 80% after the flare maximum. We did not find the periodicity in either the thermal X-ray flux component or source size dynamics. Our findings indicate that the detected periodicity is likely to be associated with periodic dynamics in the injection of non-thermal electrons, that can be produced by periodic modulation of magnetic reconnection.

  13. The immune reponse to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide in mice with malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedderburn, N; Dracott, B N

    1977-04-01

    The immune response of BALB/c mice to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (SIII), as measured by splenic PFC, was abolished at the height of an acute self-limiting attack of malaria caused by the murine plasmodium P. yoelii, over a wide range of antigen doses. The response to antigen, given at various times after clinical recovery, gradually reappeared, but did not reach normal levels until 12 weeks after the injection of the parasite. A second injection of P. yoelii given 1 hr before SIII caused a moderate degree of depression, although in this case the plasmodium does not multiply. In chronic malaria the response to SIII was also very poor. Short term under-nourishment was found to reduce only slightly the response to SIII.

  14. Cross-complementation study of the flagellar type III export apparatus membrane protein FlhB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    Full Text Available The bacterial type III export apparatus is found in the flagellum and in the needle complex of some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. In the needle complex its function is to secrete effector proteins for infection into Eukaryotic cells. In the bacterial flagellum it exports specific proteins for the building of the flagellum during its assembly. The export apparatus is composed of about five membrane proteins and three soluble proteins. The mechanism of the export apparatus is not fully understood. The five membrane proteins are well conserved and essential. Here a cross-complementation assay was performed: substituting in the flagellar system of Salmonella one of these membrane proteins, FlhB, by the FlhB ortholog from Aquifex aeolicus (an evolutionary distant hyperthermophilic bacteria or a chimeric protein (AquSalFlhB made by the combination of the trans-membrane domain of A. aeolicus FlhB with the cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella FlhB dramatically reduced numbers of flagella and motility. From cells expressing the chimeric AquSalFlhB protein, suppressor mutants with enhanced motility were isolated and the mutations were identified using whole genome sequencing. Gain-of-function mutations were found in the gene encoding FlhA, another membrane protein of the type III export apparatus. Also, mutations were identified in genes encoding 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase, ubiquinone/menaquinone biosynthesis methyltransferase, and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, which are required for ubiquinone biosynthesis. The mutations were shown by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography to reduce the quinone pool of the cytoplasmic membrane. Ubiquinone biosynthesis could be restored for the strain bearing a mutated gene for 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase by the addition of excess exogenous 4-hydroxybenzoate. Restoring the level of ubiquinone reduced flagella biogenesis with the AquSalFlhB chimera

  15. Cross-Complementation Study of the Flagellar Type III Export Apparatus Membrane Protein FlhB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial type III export apparatus is found in the flagellum and in the needle complex of some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. In the needle complex its function is to secrete effector proteins for infection into Eukaryotic cells. In the bacterial flagellum it exports specific proteins for the building of the flagellum during its assembly. The export apparatus is composed of about five membrane proteins and three soluble proteins. The mechanism of the export apparatus is not fully understood. The five membrane proteins are well conserved and essential. Here a cross-complementation assay was performed: substituting in the flagellar system of Salmonella one of these membrane proteins, FlhB, by the FlhB ortholog from Aquifex aeolicus (an evolutionary distant hyperthermophilic bacteria) or a chimeric protein (AquSalFlhB) made by the combination of the trans-membrane domain of A. aeolicus FlhB with the cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella FlhB dramatically reduced numbers of flagella and motility. From cells expressing the chimeric AquSalFlhB protein, suppressor mutants with enhanced motility were isolated and the mutations were identified using whole genome sequencing. Gain-of-function mutations were found in the gene encoding FlhA, another membrane protein of the type III export apparatus. Also, mutations were identified in genes encoding 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase, ubiquinone/menaquinone biosynthesis methyltransferase, and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, which are required for ubiquinone biosynthesis. The mutations were shown by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography to reduce the quinone pool of the cytoplasmic membrane. Ubiquinone biosynthesis could be restored for the strain bearing a mutated gene for 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase by the addition of excess exogenous 4-hydroxybenzoate. Restoring the level of ubiquinone reduced flagella biogenesis with the AquSalFlhB chimera demonstrating that the

  16. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena, E-mail: e_cardenal@us.es; Gutiérrez, Gabriel, E-mail: ggpozo@us.es; Ramos-Morales, Francisco, E-mail: framos@us.es

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell proliferation and serine/threonine kinase signaling pathways. SteA also causes repression of genes related to immune processes and regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis and pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation. In addition, a cell biology approach revealed that epithelial cells expressing steA show altered cell morphology, and decreased cytotoxicity, cell–cell adhesion and migration.

  17. Type I/II cytokines, JAKs, and new strategies for treating autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniella M; Bonelli, Michael; Gadina, Massimo; O'Shea, John J

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are major drivers of autoimmunity, and biologic agents targeting cytokines have revolutionized the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Despite the effectiveness of these drugs, they do not induce complete remission in all patients, prompting the development of alternative strategies - including targeting of intracellular signal transduction pathways downstream of cytokines. Many cytokines that bind type I and type II cytokine receptors are critical regulators of immune-mediated diseases and employ the Janus kinase (JAK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway to exert their effect. Pharmacological inhibition of JAKs blocks the actions of type I/II cytokines, and within the past 3 years therapeutic JAK inhibitors, or Jakinibs, have become available to rheumatologists. Jakinibs have proven effective for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Adverse effects of these agents are largely related to their mode of action and include infections and hyperlipidemia. Jakinibs are currently being investigated for a number of new indications, and second-generation selective Jakinibs are being developed and tested. Targeting STATs could be a future avenue for the treatment of rheumatologic diseases, although substantial challenges remain. Nonetheless, the ability to therapeutically target intracellular signalling pathways has already created a new paradigm for the treatment of rheumatologic disease.

  18. Identification of chromosomal genes in Yersinia pestis that influence type III secretion and delivery of Yops into target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Houppert

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Yersinia species possess a type III secretion system, which is required for the delivery of effector Yop proteins into target cells during infection. Genes encoding the type III secretion machinery, its substrates, and several regulatory proteins all reside on a 70-Kb virulence plasmid. Genes encoded in the chromosome of yersiniae are thought to play important roles in bacterial perception of host environments and in the coordinated activation of the type III secretion pathway. Here, we investigate the contribution of chromosomal genes to the complex regulatory process controlling type III secretion in Yersinia pestis. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified five chromosomal genes required for expression or secretion of Yops in laboratory media. Four out of the five chromosomal mutants were defective to various extents at injecting Yops into tissue culture cells. Interestingly, we found one mutant that was not able to secrete in vitro but was fully competent for injecting Yops into host cells, suggesting independent mechanisms for activation of the secretion apparatus. When tested in a mouse model of plague disease, three mutants were avirulent, whereas two strains were severely attenuated. Together these results demonstrate the importance of Y. pestis chromosomal genes in the proper function of type III secretion and in the pathogenesis of plague.

  19. Focal adhesion kinase is involved in type III group B streptococcal invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sooan; Paul-Satyaseela, Maneesh; Maneesh, Paul-Satyaseela; Lee, Jong-Seok; Romer, Lewis H; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2006-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), the leading cause of neonatal meningitis, has been shown to invade human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the blood-brain barrier. GBS invasion of HBMEC has been shown to require the host cell actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. The present study examined the mechanisms underlying actin cytoskeleton rearrangements that are involved in type III GBS invasion of HBMEC. We showed that type III GBS invasion was inhibited by genistein, a general tyrosine kinase inhibitor (mean 54% invasion decrease at 100 microM), and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase inhibitor (mean 70% invasion decrease at 50 microM), but not by PP2, an inhibitor of the Src family tyrosine kinases. We subsequently showed that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was the one of the host proteins tyrosine phosphorylated by type III GBS. Over-expression of a dominant negative form of the FAK C-terminal domain significantly decreased type III GBS invasion of HBMEC (mean 51% invasion decrease). In addition, we showed that FAK phosphorylation correlated with its association of paxillin, an adapter protein of actin filament, and PI3-kinase subunit p85. This is the first demonstration that FAK phosphorylation and its association with paxillin and PI3 kinase play a key role in type III GBS invasion of HBMEC.

  20. Planar tetranuclear Dy(III) single-molecule magnet and its Sm(III), Gd(III), and Tb(III) analogues encapsulated by salen-type and β-diketonate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng-Fei; Lin, Po-Heng; Habib, Fatemah; Aharen, Tomoko; Murugesu, Muralee; Deng, Zhao-Peng; Li, Guang-Ming; Sun, Wen-Bin

    2011-08-01

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties are reported for four new lanthanide clusters [Sm(4)(μ(3)-OH)(2)L(2)(acac)(6)]·4H(2)O (1), [Gd(4)(μ(3)-OH)(2)L(2)(acac)(6)]·4CH(3)CN (2), and [Ln(4)(μ(3)-OH)(2)L(2)(acac)(6)]·2H(2)L·2CH(3)CN (3, Ln = Tb; 4, Ln = Dy) supported by salen-type (H(2)L = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-cyclohexanediamine) and β-diketonate (acac = acetylacetonate) ligands. The four clusters were confirmed to be essentially isomorphous by infrared spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their crystal structures reveal that the salen-type ligand provides a suitable tetradentate coordination pocket (N(2)O(2)) to encapsulate lanthanide(III) ions. Moreover, the planar Ln(4) core is bridged by two μ(3)-hydroxide, four phenoxide, and two ketonate oxygen atoms. Magnetic properties of all four compounds have been investigated using dc and ac susceptibility measurements. For 4, the static and dynamic data indicate that the Dy(4) complex exhibits slow relaxation of the magnetization below 5 K associated with single-molecule magnet behavior.

  1. Studies on the Painlev\\'e Equations, V, \\\\ Third Painlev\\'e Equations \\\\ of Special Type $P_{\\rm III}(D_7)$ and $P_{\\rm III}(D_8)$

    OpenAIRE

    Ohyama, Yousuke; Kwamuko, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Hidetaka; Okamoto, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    By means of geometrical classification (\\cite{S}) of space of initial conditions, it is natural to consider the three types, $P_{\\rm III}(D_6)$, $P_{\\rm III}(D_7)$ and $P_{\\rm III}(D_8)$, for the third Painlev\\'e equation. The fourth article of the series of papers \\cite{O2} on the Painlev\\'e equations is concerned with $P_{\\rm III}(D_6)$, generic type of the equation. The other two types, $P_{\\rm III}(D_7)$ and $P_{\\rm III}(D_8)$ are obtained as degeneration from $P_{\\rm III}(D_6...

  2. Identification of a novel PROS1 c.1113T -> GG frameshift mutation in a family with mixed type I/type III protein S deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, Min Ki; Mulder, Rene; Platteel, Mathieu; Brouwer, Jan-Leendert P.; van der Steege, Gerrit; van der Meer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    We report a family with type I and type III protein S (PS) deficiency, which showed to be phenotypic variants of the same genetic disease. Direct sequencing analysis of the PROS1 gene was performed to establish the genotype. The ratio of protein C antigen and total PS antigen levels (protein C/S rat

  3. Enhanced expression of the type II transforming growth factor beta receptor in human pancreatic cancer cells without alteration of type III receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, H; Yamanaka, Y; Büchler, M; Berger, H G; Kobrin, M S; Baldwin, R L; Korc, M

    1993-06-15

    We have recently found that human pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibit strong immunostaining for the three mammalian transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) isoforms. These important growth-regulating polypeptides bind to a number of proteins, including the type I TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-I), type II TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-II), and the type III TGF-beta receptor (T beta R-III). In the present study we sought to determine whether T beta R-II and T beta R-III expression is altered in pancreatic cancer. Northern blot analysis indicated that, by comparison with the normal pancreas, pancreatic adenocarcinomas exhibited a 4.6-fold increase (P beta R-II. In contrast, mRNA levels encoding T beta R-III were not increased. In situ hybridization showed that T beta R-II mRNA was expressed in the majority of cancer cells, whereas mRNA grains encoding T beta R-III were detectable in only a few cancer cells and were present mainly in the surrounding stroma. These findings suggest that enhanced levels of T beta R-II may have a role in regulating human pancreatic cancer cell growth, while T beta R-III may function in the extracellular matrix.

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of types I and III collagen antibodies in the temporomandibular joint disc of human foetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O.C. de Moraes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the morphology of the articular disc and analyse the immunohistochemical expression of types I and III collagen markers in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc of human foetuses of different gestational ages. Twenty TMJ from human foetuses supplied by Universidade Federal de Uberaba with gestational ages from 17 to 24 weeks were studied. The gestational age of the foetuses was determined by measuring the crown-rump (CR length. Macroscopically, the foetuses were fixed in 10% formalin solution and dissected by removing the skin and subcutaneous tissue and exposing the deep structures. Immunohistochemical markers of type I and III were used to characterize the existence of collagen fibres. Analysis of the immunohistochemical markers of types I and III collagen revealed the presence of heterotypical fibril networks.

  5. Flare-associated type III radio bursts and dynamics of the EUV jet from SDO/AIA and RHESSI observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Naihwa; Innes, Davina

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the interrelation between the Type III radio bursts and energetic phenomena associated with the flare activities in Active region AR 11158 at 07:58 UT on 2011, Feb. 15. The timing of the Type-III radio burst measured by the radio wave experiment on the Wind/WAVE and an array of ground-based radio telescopes, coincided with an EUV jet and hard X-ray emission observed by SDO/AIA and RHESSI., respectively. There is clear evidence that the EUV jet shares the same source region as the hard X-ray emission. The temperature of the jet, as determined by multiwavelength measurements of AIA, suggests that type III emission is associated with hot, 7 MK, plasma at the jet's footpoint.

  6. Evidence for four- and three-wave interactions in solar type III radio emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high time resolution observations obtained by the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts, Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets with short durations of only few ms. One of these wave packets shows that it is a three-dimensional field structure with WLneTe ~ 10−3, where WL is the peak energy density, and ne and Te are the electron density and temperature, respectively. For this wave packet, the conditions of the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI and supersonic collapse are satisfied within the error range of determination of main parameters. The density cavity, observed during this wave packet indicates that its depth, width and temporal coincidence are consistent with those of a caviton, generated by the ponderomotive force of the collapsing wave packet. The spectrum of each of the parallel and perpendicular components of the wave packet contains a primary peak at fpe, two secondary peaks at fpe ± fS and a low-frequency enhancement below fS, which, as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the fast Fourier transform (FFT-based tricoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, fpe + fS, fpe − fS, are coupled to each other by the OTSI type of four-wave interaction (fpe is the local electron plasma frequency and fS is the frequency of ion sound waves. In addition to the primary peak at fpe, each of these spectra also contains a peak at 2fpe, which as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the wavelet-based bicoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, appears to correspond to the second harmonic electromagnetic waves generated as a result of coalescence of oppositely propagating sidebands excited by the OTSI. Thus, these observations for the first time provide combined evidence that (1 the OTSI and related strong turbulence processes play a significant role in the stabilization of the electron beam, (2 the coalescence

  7. Positive regulation of the Hrp type III secretion system in Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Martín, Inmaculada; Thwaites, Richard; Macho, Alberto P; Mansfield, John W; Beuzón, Carmen R

    2010-05-01

    Disease in compatible hosts and induction of the hypersensitive response in resistant plants by most plant-pathogenic bacteria require a functional type III secretion system (T3SS). Expression of T3SS genes responds to host and environmental factors and is induced within the plant. In Pseudomonas syringae, expression of the T3SS requires HrpL, which is transcriptionally upregulated by HrpR and HrpS. In some pathovars, expression of the hrpRS genes is upregulated by the GacA/S two-component system. Additionally, HrpA, the major component of the T3SS pilus, has also been linked to the regulation of the hrpRS gene expression. Previous studies concerning regulation of hypersensitive response and pathogenesis/hypersensitive response conserved (hrp/hrc) gene expression have used mostly in vitro inducing conditions, different pathovars, and methodology. Here, we analyze the roles of HrpL, GacA, and HrpA in the bean pathogen, using single, double, and triple mutants as well as strains ectopically expressing the regulators. We use real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis in vitro and in planta to quantify gene expression and competitive indices and other assays to assess bacterial fitness. Our results indicate that i) HrpL acts as a general virulence regulator that upregulates non-T3SS virulence determinants and downregulates flagellar function; ii) GacA modulates the expression of hrpL, and its contribution to virulence is entirely HrpL dependent; iii) there is a basal HrpL-independent expression of the T3SS genes in rich medium that is important for full activation of the system, maybe by keeping the system primed for rapid activation upon contact with the plant; and iv) HrpA upregulates expression of the T3SS genes and is essential to activate expression of the hrpZ operon upon contact with the plant.

  8. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Bierne

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues.

  9. The Role of Type III Interferons in Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Bruening

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human interferon (IFN response is a key innate immune mechanism to fight virus infection. IFNs are host-encoded secreted proteins, which induce IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs with antiviral properties. Among the three classes of IFNs, type III IFNs, also called IFN lambdas (IFNLs, are an essential component of the innate immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV. In particular, human polymorphisms in IFNL gene loci correlate with hepatitis C disease progression and with treatment response. To date, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly elusive; however it seems clear that viral infection of the liver induces IFNL responses. As IFNL receptors show a more restricted tissue expression than receptors for other classes of IFNs, IFNL treatment has reduced side effects compared to the classical type I IFN treatment. In HCV therapy, however, IFNL will likely not play an important role as highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA exist. Here, we will review our current knowledge on IFNL gene expression, protein properties, signaling, ISG induction, and its implications on HCV infection and treatment. Finally, we will discuss the lessons learnt from the HCV and IFNL field for virus infections beyond hepatitis C.

  10. The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formation

    KAUST Repository

    Zimaro, Tamara

    2014-04-18

    Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system is involved in multicellular processes, such as bacterial biofilm formation has not been elucidated. Here, the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) was used as a model to gain further insights about the role of the T3SS in biofilm formation. Results: The capacity of biofilm formation of different X. citri T3SS mutants was compared to the wild type strain and it was observed that this secretion system was necessary for this process. Moreover, the T3SS mutants adhered proficiently to leaf surfaces but were impaired in leaf-associated growth. A proteomic study of biofilm cells showed that the lack of the T3SS causes changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolic processes, energy generation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and bacterial motility as well as outer membrane proteins. Furthermore, EPS production and bacterial motility were also altered in the T3SS mutants. Conclusions: Our results indicate a novel role for T3SS in X. citri in the modulation of biofilm formation. Since this process increases X. citri virulence, this study reveals new functions of T3SS in pathogenesis. 2014 Zimaro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Adenylate Cyclase Type III Is Not a Ubiquitous Marker for All Primary Cilia during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Maria Cristina; Bénardais, Karelle; Samama, Brigitte; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Ghandour, Said; Boehm, Nelly

    2017-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase type III (AC3) is localized in plasma membrane of neuronal primary cilium and can be used as a marker of this cilium. AC3 has also been detected in some other primary cilia such as those of fibroblasts, synoviocytes or astrocytes. Despite the presence of a cilium in almost all cell types, we show that AC3 is not a common marker of all primary cilia of different human and mouse tissues during development. In peripheral organs, AC3 is present mainly in primary cilia in cells of the mesenchymal lineage (fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts-osteocytes, odontoblasts, muscle cells and endothelial cells). In epithelia, the apical cilium of renal and pancreatic tubules and of ductal plate in liver is AC3-negative whereas the cilium of basal cells of stratified epithelia is AC3-positive. Using fibroblasts cell culture, we show that AC3 appears at the plasma membrane of the primary cilium as soon as this organelle develops. The functional significance of AC3 localization at the cilium membrane in some cells but not others has to be investigated in relationship with cell physiology and expression at the cilium plasma membrane of specific upstream receptors. PMID:28122017

  12. Defective glycosylation of coagulation factor XII underlies hereditary angioedema type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkqvist, Jenny; de Maat, Steven; Lewandrowski, Urs; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Oschatz, Chris; Schönig, Kai; Nöthen, Markus M; Drouet, Christian; Braley, Hal; Nolte, Marc W; Sickmann, Albert; Panousis, Con; Maas, Coen; Renné, Thomas

    2015-08-03

    Hereditary angioedema type III (HAEIII) is a rare inherited swelling disorder that is associated with point mutations in the gene encoding the plasma protease factor XII (FXII). Here, we demonstrate that HAEIII-associated mutant FXII, derived either from HAEIII patients or recombinantly produced, is defective in mucin-type Thr309-linked glycosylation. Loss of glycosylation led to increased contact-mediated autoactivation of zymogen FXII, resulting in excessive activation of the bradykinin-forming kallikrein-kinin pathway. In contrast, both FXII-driven coagulation and the ability of C1-esterase inhibitor to bind and inhibit activated FXII were not affected by the mutation. Intravital laser-scanning microscopy revealed that, compared with control animals, both F12-/- mice reconstituted with recombinant mutant forms of FXII and humanized HAEIII mouse models with inducible liver-specific expression of Thr309Lys-mutated FXII exhibited increased contact-driven microvascular leakage. An FXII-neutralizing antibody abolished bradykinin generation in HAEIII patient plasma and blunted edema in HAEIII mice. Together, the results of this study characterize the mechanism of HAEIII and establish FXII inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy to interfere with excessive vascular leakage in HAEIII and potentially alleviate edema due to other causes.

  13. AGN III - primordial activity in nuclei of late-type galaxies with pseudobulges

    CERN Document Server

    Komberg, B V

    2013-01-01

    1. Based on observational data on evolution of quasars and galaxies of different types along with the results of numerical simulations we make a conclusion that on low redshifts ($z<0.5$) QSOI/II objects in massive elliptical and spiral galaxies with classical bulges cannot be in late single activity event (be "primordial"). Instead of it they have had events of activity earlier in their evolution. It means that their presence on low redshifts is connected with the recurrence phenomenon, sequential wet minor mergings, because timescale of the activity does not exceed several units of $10^7$ years. 2. We define a new class - "AGN III" as active galactic nuclei in isolated late-type spirals with low-mass rapidly rotating pseudobulges. We also state that only such objects can be in the primordial phase of activity at low redshifts. Black holes in such galaxies have masses $M_{BH}<10^7M_\\odot$ and also, probably very high spin. Such properties can explain their peculiar emission spectra. A good representati...

  14. Feynman Rules in the Type III Natural Flavour-Conserving Two-Higgs Doublet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, C; Yang, Y W; Lin, Chilong; Lee, Chien-er; Yang, Yeou-Wei

    1994-01-01

    We consider a two Higgs-doublet model with $S_3$ symmetry, which implies a $\\pi \\over 2$ rather than 0 relative phase between the vacuum expectation values $$ and $$. The corresponding Feynman rules are derived accordingly and the transformation of the Higgs fields from the weak to the mass eigenstates includes not only an angle rotation but also a phase transformation. In this model, both doublets couple to the same type of fermions and the flavour-changing neutral currents are naturally suppressed. We also demonstrate that the Type III natural flavour-conserving model is valid at tree-level even when an explicit $S_3$ symmetry breaking perturbation is introduced to get a reasonable CKM matrix. In the special case $\\beta = \\alpha$, as the ratio $\\tan\\beta = {v_2 \\over v_1}$ runs from 0 to $\\infty$, the dominant Yukawa coupling will change from the first two generations to the third generation. In the Feynman rules, we also find that the charged Higgs currents are explicitly left-right asymmetric. The ratios ...

  15. Immunohistochemical analysis of type III collagen expression in the lingual mucosa of rats during organogenesis of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi; Asami, Tomoichiro; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Aoyagi, Hidekazu

    2008-07-01

    We examined the distribution of immunofluorescence due to immunostaining of type III collagen, differential interference contrast (DIC) images and images obtained in the transmission mode after toluidine blue staining by laser-scanning microscopy of semi-ultrathin sections of epoxy resin-embedded samples, during morphogenesis of the filiform papillae, keratinization of the lingual epithelium, and myogenesis of the rat tongue. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was distributed widely in the mesenchymal connective tissue in fetuses on day 15 after conception (E15), at which time the lingual epithelium was composed of one or two layers of cuboidal cells and the lingual muscle was barely recognizable. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was clearly detected on the lamina propria in fetuses on E17 and E19, and it was relatively distinct just beneath the lingual epithelium. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was sparsely distributed on the connective tissue around the developing lingual muscle. In fetuses on E19, the epithelium became clearly stratified and squamous. At postnatal stages from newborn (P0) to postnatal day 14 (P14), keratinization of the lingual epithelium advanced gradually with the development of filiform papillae. On P0, myogenesis of the tongue was almost completed. The intensity of the fluorescence immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen at postnatal stages was almost same as that on E19. The immunoreactivity around the fully mature muscle was relatively distinct between P0 and P14. Thus, type III collagen appeared in conjunction with the morphogenesis of filiform papillae and the keratinization of the lingual epithelium as well as in the connective tissue that surrounded the lingual muscle during myogenesis of the rat tongue.

  16. Oblique Axis Body Fracture: An Unstable Subtype of Anderson Type III Odontoid Fractures—Apropos of Two Cases

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    Hirokazu Takai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as “oblique type axis body fracture.” Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic “oblique type” fracture pattern. The first patient was treated conservatively with cervical spine immobilization in a semirigid collar. However, gross displacement was noted at the 6-week follow-up visit. The second patient was therefore treated operatively by C1–C3/4 posterior fusion and the course was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion for this injury and suggest early operative stabilization.

  17. Strains of the Propionibacterium acnes type III lineage are associated with the skin condition progressive macular hypomelanosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Emma; Liu, Jared; Yankova, Eliza; Cavalcanti, Silvana M.; Magalhães, Marcelo; Li, Huiying; Patrick, Sheila; McDowell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Progressive macular hypomelanosis (PMH) is a common skin disorder that causes hypopigmentation in a variety of skin types. Although the underlying aetiology of this condition is unclear, there is circumstantial evidence that links the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to the condition. We now describe the first detailed population genetic analysis of P. acnes isolates recovered from paired lesional and non-lesional skin of PMH patients. Our results demonstrate a strong statistical association between strains from the type III phylogenetic lineage and PMH lesions (P = 0.0019), but not those representing other phylogroups, including those associated with acne (type IA1). We also demonstrate, based on in silico 16S rDNA analysis, that PMH isolates previously recovered from patients in Europe are also consistent with the type III lineage. Using comparative genome analysis, we identified multiple genomic regions that are specific for, or absent from, type III strains compared to other phylogroups. In the former case, these include open reading frames with putative functions in metabolism, transport and transcriptional regulation, as well as predicted proteins of unknown function. Further study of these genomic elements, along with transcriptional and functional analyses, may help to explain why type III strains are associated with PMH. PMID:27555369

  18. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.; Morrison, J.M.; Harley, E.J.; de Cordoba, S.R.; Bacino, C.; Ting, R.C.; Bodner, A.J.; Sarngadharan, M.G.; Gallo, R.C.

    1986-04-25

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men.

  19. Ulysses Observations of Nonlinear Wave-wave Interactions in the Source Regions of Type III Solar Radio Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Thejappa; R. J. MacDowall

    2000-09-01

    The Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (URAP) has observed Langmuir, ion-acoustic and associated solar type III radio emissions in the interplanetary medium. Bursts of 50-300 Hz (in the spacecraft frame) electric field signals, corresponding to long-wavelength ion-acoustic waves are often observed coincident in time with the most intense Langmuir wave spikes, providing evidence for the electrostatic decay instability. Langmuir waves often occur as envelope solitons, suggesting that strong turbulence processes, such as modulational instability and soliton formation, often coexist with weak turbulence processes, such as electrostatic decay, in a few type III burst source regions.

  20. Understanding the sequential activation of Type III and Type VI Secretion Systems in Salmonella typhimurium using Boolean modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Three pathogenicity islands, viz. SPI-1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1), SPI-2 (Salmonella pathogenicity island 2) and T6SS (Type VI Secretion System), present in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium have been implicated in the virulence of the pathogen. While the regulation of SPI-1 and SPI-2 (both encoding components of the Type III Secretion System - T3SS) are well understood, T6SS regulation is comparatively less studied. Interestingly, inter-connections among the regulatory elements of these three virulence determinants have also been suggested to be essential for successful infection. However, till date, an integrated view of gene regulation involving the regulators of these three secretion systems and their cross-talk is not available. Results In the current study, relevant regulatory information available from literature have been integrated into a single Boolean network, which portrays the dynamics of T3SS (SPI-1 and SPI-2) and T6SS mediated virulence. Some additional regulatory interactions involving a two-component system response regulator YfhA have also been predicted and included in the Boolean network. These predictions are aimed at deciphering the effects of osmolarity on T6SS regulation, an aspect that has been suggested in earlier studies, but the mechanism of which was hitherto unknown. Simulation of the regulatory network was able to recreate in silico the experimentally observed sequential activation of SPI-1, SPI-2 and T6SS. Conclusions The present study integrates relevant gene regulatory data (from literature and our prediction) into a single network, representing the cross-communication between T3SS (SPI-1 and SPI-2) and T6SS. This holistic view of regulatory interactions is expected to improve the current understanding of pathogenesis of S. typhimurium. PMID:24079299

  1. Genetics of type III Bartter syndrome in Spain, proposed diagnostic algorithm.

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    Alejandro García Castaño

    Full Text Available The p.Ala204Thr mutation (exon 7 of the CLCNKB gene is a "founder" mutation that causes most of type III Bartter syndrome cases in Spain. We performed genetic analysis of the CLCNKB gene, which encodes for the chloride channel protein ClC-Kb, in a cohort of 26 affected patients from 23 families. The diagnostic algorithm was: first, detection of the p.Ala204Thr mutation; second, detecting large deletions or duplications by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Quantitative Multiplex PCR of Short Fluorescent Fragments; and third, sequencing of the coding and flanking regions of the whole CLCNKB gene. In our genetic diagnosis, 20 families presented with the p.Ala204Thr mutation. Of those, 15 patients (15 families were homozygous (57.7% of overall patients. Another 8 patients (5 families were compound heterozygous for the founder mutation together with a second one. Thus, 3 patients (2 siblings presented with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion (comprising the entire gene; one patient carried the p.Val170Met mutation (exon 6; and 4 patients (3 siblings presented with the novel p.Glu442Gly mutation (exon 14. On the other hand, another two patients carried two novel mutations in compound heterozygosis: one presented the p.Ile398_Thr401del mutation (exon 12 associated with the c. -19-?_2053+? del deletion, and the other one carried the c.1756+1G>A splice-site mutation (exon 16 as well as the already described p.Ala210Val change (exon 7. One case turned out to be negative in our genetic screening. In addition, 51 relatives were found to be heterozygous carriers of the described CLCNKB mutations. In conclusion, different mutations cause type III Bartter syndrome in Spain. The high prevalence of the p.Ala204Thr in Spanish families thus justifies an initial screen for this mutation. However, should it not be detected further investigation of the CLCNKB gene is warranted in clinically diagnosed families.

  2. Investigations into the synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) complexes of a novel bis-beta-diketone-type ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Rui-Ren; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Peng, Hong-Jian

    2008-02-01

    A novel bis-beta-diketon ligand, 1,1'-(2,6-bispyridyl)bis-3-phenyl-1,3-propane-dione (L), was designed and synthesized and its complexes with Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) ions were successfully prepared. The ligand and the corresponding metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, and infrared, mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the IR spectra suggested that each of the lanthanide metal ions coordinated to the ligand via the carbonyl oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The fluorescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated and it was discovered that all of the lanthanide ions could be sensitized by the ligand (L) to some extent. In particular, the Tb(III) complex was an excellent green-emitter and would be a potential candidate material for applications in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and medical diagnosis.

  3. Investigations into the synthesis and fluorescence properties of Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) complexes of a novel bis- β-diketone-type ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-Ming; Chen, Zhe; Tang, Rui-Ren; Xiao, Lin-Xiang; Peng, Hong-Jian

    2008-02-01

    A novel bis- β-diketon ligand, 1,1'-(2,6-bispyridyl)bis-3-phenyl-1,3-propane-dione (L), was designed and synthesized and its complexes with Eu(III), Tb(III), Sm(III) and Gd(III) ions were successfully prepared. The ligand and the corresponding metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, and infrared, mass and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Analysis of the IR spectra suggested that each of the lanthanide metal ions coordinated to the ligand via the carbonyl oxygen atoms and the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The fluorescence properties of these complexes in solid state were investigated and it was discovered that all of the lanthanide ions could be sensitized by the ligand (L) to some extent. In particular, the Tb(III) complex was an excellent green-emitter and would be a potential candidate material for applications in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) and medical diagnosis.

  4. In silico identification of potential chaperone genes that belong to type III and type IV secretion systems in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Khater

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The secretion of bacterial virulence factors and flagellar components requires the assistance of specific type III and flagellar chaperones. Standard computational annotation of the genome of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, a plant pathogen that causes citrus canker, initially did not identify any genes belonging to these chaperone categories since the primary sequence homology between them was very low. However, in a search for hypothetical proteins with characteristics similar to these chaperones, we have now identified 30 chromosomal and 10 plasmidial potential genes encoding chaperones belonging to types III/IV, and flagellar secretion systems in this organism. The significance of these findings is discussed.

  5. A modeling study of notch noise responses of type III units in the gerbil dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohan; Voigt, Herbert F

    2006-12-01

    A computational model of the neural circuitry of the gerbil dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), based on the MacGregor's neuromime model, was used to simulate type III unit (P-cell) responses to notch noise stimuli. The DCN patch model is based on a previous computational model of the cat DCN [Hancock, K. E., and H. F. Voigt. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 27:73-87, 1999]. According to the experimental study of Parsons et al. [Ann. Biomed. Eng. 29:887-896, 2001], the responses of gerbil DCN type III units to notch noise stimuli are similar to those of cat DCN type IV units, which are thought to be spectral notch detectors. This suggests that type III units in the gerbil DCN may serve as spectral notch detectors. In this modeling study, a simplified notch noise response plot--spike discharge rate vs. notch cutoff frequency plot--was used to compare model responses to the experimental results. Parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis of three connection parameters within the DCN patch have been studied and shows the model is robust, providing reasonable fits to the experimental data from 14 of 15 type III units examined.

  6. Genetic and expression studies of SMN2 gene in Russian patients with spinal muscular atrophy type II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiöth Helgi B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA type I, II and III is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1. SMN2 is a centromeric copy gene that has been characterized as a major modifier of SMA severity. SMA type I patients have one or two SMN2 copies while most SMA type II patients carry three SMN2 copies and SMA III patients have three or four SMN2 copies. The SMN1 gene produces a full-length transcript (FL-SMN while SMN2 is only able to produce a small portion of the FL-SMN because of a splice mutation which results in the production of abnormal SMNΔ7 mRNA. Methods In this study we performed quantification of the SMN2 gene copy number in Russian patients affected by SMA type II and III (42 and 19 patients, respectively by means of real-time PCR. Moreover, we present two families consisting of asymptomatic carriers of a homozygous absence of the SMN1 gene. We also developed a novel RT-qPCR-based assay to determine the FL-SMN/SMNΔ7 mRNA ratio as SMA biomarker. Results Comparison of the SMN2 copy number and clinical features revealed a significant correlation between mild clinical phenotype (SMA type III and presence of four copies of the SMN2 gene. In both asymptomatic cases we found an increased number of SMN2 copies in the healthy carriers and a biallelic SMN1 absence. Furthermore, the novel assay revealed a difference between SMA patients and healthy controls. Conclusions We suggest that the SMN2 gene copy quantification in SMA patients could be used as a prognostic tool for discrimination between the SMA type II and SMA type III diagnoses, whereas the FL-SMN/SMNΔ7 mRNA ratio could be a useful biomarker for detecting changes during SMA pharmacotherapy.

  7. ABNORMAL TYPE-III COLLAGEN PRODUCED BY AN EXON-17-SKIPPING MUTATION OF THE COL3A1 GENE IN EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME TYPE-IV IS NOT INCORPORATED INTO THE EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHIODO, AA; SILLENCE, DO; COLE, WG; BATEMAN, JF

    1995-01-01

    A novel heterozygous mutation of the COL3Al gene that encodes the alpha 1(III) chains of type III collagen was identified in a family with the: acrogeric form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS-IV). Cultured dermal fibroblasts produced normal and shortened alpha 1(III) chains. The triple helix o

  8. Salmonella Typhimurium type III secretion effectors stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M Bruno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of conserved bacterial products by innate immune receptors leads to inflammatory responses that control pathogen spread but that can also result in pathology. Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to bacterial products and therefore must prevent signaling through innate immune receptors to avoid pathology. However, enteric pathogens are able to stimulate intestinal inflammation. We show here that the enteric pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium can stimulate innate immune responses in cultured epithelial cells by mechanisms that do not involve receptors of the innate immune system. Instead, S. Typhimurium stimulates these responses by delivering through its type III secretion system the bacterial effector proteins SopE, SopE2, and SopB, which in a redundant fashion stimulate Rho-family GTPases leading to the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and NF-kappaB signaling. These observations have implications for the understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella Typhimurium induces intestinal inflammation as well as other intestinal inflammatory pathologies.

  9. Type III Effector VopC Mediates Invasion for Vibrio Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are associated with infections caused by contaminated food and water. A type III secretion system (T3SS2 is a shared feature of all clinical isolates of V. parahaemolyticus and some V. cholerae strains. Despite its being responsible for enterotoxicity, no molecular mechanism has been determined for the T3SS2-dependent pathogenicity. Here, we show that although Vibrio spp. are typically thought of as extracellular pathogens, the T3SS2 of Vibrio mediates host cell invasion, vacuole formation, and replication of intracellular bacteria. The catalytically active effector VopC is critical for Vibrio T3SS2-mediated invasion. There are other marine bacteria encoding VopC homologs associated with a T3SS; therefore, we predict that these bacteria are also likely to use T3SS-mediated invasion as part of their pathogenesis mechanisms. These findings suggest a new molecular paradigm for Vibrio pathogenicity and modify our view of the roles of T3SS effectors that are translocated during infection.

  10. Phase Coupling Between Spectral Components of Collapsing Langmuir Solitons in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present the high time resolution observations of one of the Langmuir wave packets obtained in the source region of a solar type III radio burst. This wave packet satisfies the threshold condition of the supersonic modulational instability, as well as the criterion of a collapsing Langmuir soliton, i.e., the spatial scale derived from its peak intensity is less than that derived from its short time scale. The spectrum of t his wave packet contains an intense spectral peak at local electron plasma frequency, f(sub pe) and relatively weaker peaks at 2f(sub pe) and 3f(sub pe). We apply the wavelet based bispectral analysis technique on this wave packet and compute the bicoherence between its spectral components. It is found that the bicoherence exhibits two peaks at (approximately f(sub pe), approximately f(sub pe)) and (approximately f(sub pe) approximately 2f(sub pe)), which strongly suggest that the spectral peak at 2f(sub pe) probably corresponds to the second harmonic radio emission, generated as a result of the merging of antiparallel propagating Langmuir waves trapped in the collapsing Langmuir soliton, and, the spectral peak at 3f(sub pe) probably corresponds to the third harmonic radio emission, generated as a result of merging of a trapped Langmuir wave and a second harmonic electromagnetic wave.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Secretory Toxin ExoU and Its Predicted Homologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teiji Sawa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoU, a type III secretory toxin and major virulence factor with patatin-like phospholipase activity, is responsible for acute lung injury and sepsis in immunocompromised patients. Through use of a recently updated bacterial genome database, protein sequences predicted to be homologous to Ps. aeruginosa ExoU were identified in 17 other Pseudomonas species (Ps. fluorescens, Ps. lundensis, Ps. weihenstephanensis, Ps. marginalis, Ps. rhodesiae, Ps. synxantha, Ps. libanensis, Ps. extremaustralis, Ps. veronii, Ps. simiae, Ps. trivialis, Ps. tolaasii, Ps. orientalis, Ps. taetrolens, Ps. syringae, Ps. viridiflava, and Ps. cannabina and 8 Gram-negative bacteria from three other genera (Photorhabdus, Aeromonas, and Paludibacterium. In the alignment of the predicted primary amino acid sequences used for the phylogenetic analyses, both highly conserved and nonconserved parts of the toxin were discovered among the various species. Further comparative studies of the predicted ExoU homologs should provide us with more detailed information about the unique characteristics of the Ps. aeruginosa ExoU toxin.

  12. The Bacterial Type III Secretion System as a Target for Developing New Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Andrew C.; De Guzman, Roberto N.

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in pathogens requires new targets for developing novel antibacterials. The bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) is an attractive target for developing antibacterials as it is essential in the pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria. The T3SS consists of structural proteins, effectors and chaperones. Over 20 different structural proteins assemble into a complex nanoinjector that punctures a hole on the eukaryotic cell membrane to allow the delivery of effectors directly into the host cell cytoplasm. Defects in the assembly and function of the T3SS render bacteria non-infective. Two major classes of small molecules, salicylidene acylhydrazides and thiazolidinones, have been shown to inhibit multiple genera of bacteria through the T3SS. Many additional chemically and structurally diverse classes of small molecule inhibitors of the T3SS have been identified as well. While specific targets within the T3SS of a few inhibitors have been suggested, the vast majority of specific protein targets within the T3SS remain to be identified or characterized. Other T3SS inhibitors include polymers, proteins and polypeptides mimics. In addition, T3SS activity is regulated by its interaction with biologically relevant molecules, such as bile salts and sterols, which could serve as scaffolds for drug design. PMID:25521643

  13. /sup 31/P-NMR studies of a case of type III glycogenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Mitsuru; Aizawa, Hitoshi; Itoh, Masamitsu; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Murase, Toshio

    1988-05-01

    /sup 31/P-NMR spectra of skeletal muscles were obtained from a patient of type III glycogenosis (33 y.o. man, reported by one of the authors, T. Murase, in 1973) and the control subject (32 y.o. man), using a superconducting whole body MR (Magnetom, Siemens). Two parameters, 1. muscle pH calculated from the chemical shift of Pi (inorganic phosphate) and PCr (creatine phosphate) and 2. PCr/Pi ratio were monitored before and after the aerobic or ischemic exercise. In resting state, the spectra were normal except for the muscle pH of thigh extensors (7.3), which was obviously higher than that of the control subject (7.0). Significant reduction of PCr/Pi ratio (from 7.0 to 4.1) was observed after the aerobic exercise in thigh extensors. Such a reduction was not recognized in the control subject. The ischemic exercise of forearm muscles revealed slight decrease in muscle pH (from 7.1 to 6.9), which was less prominent than that of the control subject. These results were compatible with the abnormality in the energy metabolism of this disorder, the block in the pathway of glycogenolysis.

  14. Phylogeny and virulence of naturally occurring type III secretion system-deficient Pectobacterium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T; Charkowski, Amy O

    2009-07-01

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers.

  15. Phylogeny and Virulence of Naturally Occurring Type III Secretion System-Deficient Pectobacterium Strains▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Ma, Bing; Perna, Nicole T.; Charkowski, Amy O.

    2009-01-01

    Pectobacterium species are enterobacterial plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause soft rot disease in diverse plant species. Previous epidemiological studies of Pectobacterium species have suffered from an inability to identify most isolates to the species or subspecies level. We used three previously described DNA-based methods, 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, to examine isolates from diseased stems and tubers and found that MLSA provided the most reliable classification of isolates. We found that strains belonging to at least two Pectobacterium clades were present in each field examined, although representatives of only three of five Pectobacterium clades were isolated. Hypersensitive response and DNA hybridization assays revealed that strains of both Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pectobacterium wasabiae lack a type III secretion system (T3SS). Two of the T3SS-deficient strains assayed lack genes adjacent to the T3SS gene cluster, suggesting that multiple deletions occurred in Pectobacterium strains in this locus, and all strains appear to have only six rRNA operons instead of the seven operons typically found in Pectobacterium strains. The virulence of most of the T3SS-deficient strains was similar to that of T3SS-encoding strains in stems and tubers. PMID:19411432

  16. Neutrino Masses at LHC: Minimal Lepton Flavour Violation in Type-III See-saw

    CERN Document Server

    Eboli, O J P; Gonzalez-Garcia, M C

    2011-01-01

    We study the signatures of minimal lepton flavour violation in a simple Type-III see--saw model in which the flavour scale is given by the new fermion triplet mass and it can be naturally light enough to be produced at the LHC. In this model the flavour structure of the couplings of the triplet fermions to the Standard Model leptons can be reconstructed from the neutrino mass matrix and the smallness of the neutrino mass is associated with a tiny violation of total lepton number. Characteristic signatures of this model include suppressed lepton number violation decays of the triplet fermions, absence of displaced vertices in their decays and predictable lepton flavour composition of the states produced in their decays. We study the observability of these signals in the processes $pp\\rightarrow 3\\ell + 2j +\\Sla{E_T}$ and $pp\\rightarrow 2\\ell + 4j$ with $\\ell =e$ or $\\mu$ taking into account the present low energy data on neutrino physics and the corresponding Standard Model backgrounds. Our results indicate th...

  17. Two Higgs Doublet Type III Seesaw with mu-tau symmetry at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Mitra, Manimala

    2009-01-01

    We propose a two Higgs doublet Type III seesaw model with $\\mu$-$\\tau$ flavor symmetry. We add an additional SU(2) Higgs doublet and three SU(2) fermion triplets in our model. The presence of two Higgs doublets allows for natural explanation of small neutrino masses with triplet fermions in the 100 GeV mass range, without fine tuning of the Yukawa couplings to extremely small values. The triplet fermions couple to the gauge bosons and can be thus produced at the LHC. We study in detail the effective cross-sections for the production and subsequent decays of these heavy exotic fermions. We show for the first time that the $\\mu$-$\\tau$ flavor symmetry in the low energy neutrino mass matrix results in mixing matrices for the neutral and charged heavy fermions that are not unity and which carry the flavor symmetry pattern. This flavor structure can be observed in the decays of the heavy fermions at LHC. The large Yukawa couplings in our model result in the decay of the heavy fermions into lighter leptons and Higg...

  18. Chronic effects of a Salmonella type III secretion effector protein AvrA in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella infection is a common public health problem that can become chronic and increase the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer. AvrA is a Salmonella bacterial type III secretion effector protein. Increasing evidence demonstrates that AvrA is a multi-functional enzyme with critical roles in inhibiting inflammation, regulating apoptosis, and enhancing proliferation. However, the chronic effects of Salmonella and effector AvrA in vivo are still unknown. Moreover, alive, mutated, non-invasive Salmonella is used as a vector to specifically target cancer cells. However, studies are lacking on chronic infection with non-pathogenic or mutated Salmonella in the host. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We infected mice with Salmonella Typhimurium for 27 weeks and investigated the physiological effects as well as the role of AvrA in intestinal inflammation. We found altered body weight, intestinal pathology, and bacterial translocation in spleen, liver, and gallbladder in chronically Salmonella-infected mice. Moreover, AvrA suppressed intestinal inflammation and inhibited the secretion of cytokines IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. AvrA expression in Salmonella enhanced its invasion ability. Liver abscess and Salmonella translocation in the gallbladder were observed and may be associated with AvrA expression in Salmonella. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We created a mouse model with persistent Salmonella infection in vivo. Our study further emphasizes the importance of the Salmonella effector protein AvrA in intestinal inflammation, bacterial translocation, and chronic infection in vivo.

  19. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N.; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R.; Grishin, Nick V.; Orth, Kim

    2016-07-05

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered thatVibrio parahaemolyticusVtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment.

  20. Fermentation of Metroxylon sagu resistant starch type III by Lactobacillus sp. and Bifidobacterium bifidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew-Wai, Loo; Zi-Ni, Tan; Karim, Alias A; Hani, Norziah M; Rosma, Ahmad

    2010-02-24

    The in vitro fermentability of sago (Metroxylon sagu) resistant starch type III (RS(3)) by selected probiotic bacteria was investigated. Sago RS(3) with 12% RS content was prepared by enzymatic debranching of native sago starch with pullulanase enzyme, followed by autoclaving, cooling, and annealing. The fermentation of sago RS(3) by L. acidophilus FTCC 0291, L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411, L. casei FTCC 0442, and B. bifidum BB12 was investigated by observing the bacterial growth, carbohydrate consumption profiles, pH changes, and total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced in the fermentation media. Comparisons were made with commercial fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), Hi-maize 1043, and Hi-maize 240. Submerged fermentations were conducted in 30 mL glass vials for 24 h at 37 degrees C in an oven without shaking. The results indicated that fermentation of sago RS(3) significantly (P < 0.05) yielded the highest count of Lactobacillus sp. accompanied by the largest reduction in pH of the medium. Sago RS(3) was significantly the most consumed substrate compared to FOS and Hi-maizes.

  1. Mutations in MDH2, Encoding a Krebs Cycle Enzyme, Cause Early-Onset Severe Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-El-Mkadem, Samira; Dayem-Quere, Manal; Gusic, Mirjana; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Bannwarth, Sylvie; François, Bérengère; Genin, Emmanuelle C; Fragaki, Konstantina; Volker-Touw, Catharina L M; Vasnier, Christelle; Serre, Valérie; van Gassen, Koen L I; Lespinasse, Françoise; Richter, Susan; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Rouzier, Cécile; Mochel, Fanny; De Saint-Martin, Anne; Abi Warde, Marie-Thérèse; de Sain-van der Velde, Monique G M; Jans, Judith J M; Amiel, Jeanne; Avsec, Ziga; Mertes, Christian; Haack, Tobias B; Strom, Tim; Meitinger, Thomas; Bonnen, Penelope E; Taylor, Robert W; Gagneur, Julien; van Hasselt, Peter M; Rötig, Agnès; Delahodde, Agnès; Prokisch, Holger; Fuchs, Sabine A; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique

    2017-01-05

    MDH2 encodes mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which is essential for the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate as part of the proper functioning of the Krebs cycle. We report bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in MDH2 in three unrelated subjects presenting with early-onset generalized hypotonia, psychomotor delay, refractory epilepsy, and elevated lactate in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Functional studies in fibroblasts from affected subjects showed both an apparently complete loss of MDH2 levels and MDH2 enzymatic activity close to null. Metabolomics analyses demonstrated a significant concomitant accumulation of the MDH substrate, malate, and fumarate, its immediate precursor in the Krebs cycle, in affected subjects' fibroblasts. Lentiviral complementation with wild-type MDH2 cDNA restored MDH2 levels and mitochondrial MDH activity. Additionally, introduction of the three missense mutations from the affected subjects into Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided functional evidence to support their pathogenicity. Disruption of the Krebs cycle is a hallmark of cancer, and MDH2 has been recently identified as a novel pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma susceptibility gene. We show that loss-of-function mutations in MDH2 are also associated with severe neurological clinical presentations in children.

  2. The Architecture of the Cytoplasmic Region of Type III Secretion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Fumiaki; Shen, Dakang; Kajimura, Naoko; Kawamoto, Akihiro; Pissaridou, Panayiota; Oswin, Henry; Pain, Maria; Murillo, Isabel; Namba, Keiichi; Blocker, Ariel J.

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential devices in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. They mediate injection of protein effectors of virulence from bacteria into eukaryotic host cells to manipulate them during infection. T3SSs involved in virulence (vT3SSs) are evolutionarily related to bacterial flagellar protein export apparatuses (fT3SSs), which are essential for flagellar assembly and cell motility. The structure of the external and transmembrane parts of both fT3SS and vT3SS is increasingly well-defined. However, the arrangement of their cytoplasmic and inner membrane export apparatuses is much less clear. Here we compare the architecture of the cytoplasmic regions of the vT3SSs of Shigella flexneri and the vT3SS and fT3SS of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium at ~5 and ~4 nm resolution using electron cryotomography and subtomogram averaging. We show that the cytoplasmic regions of vT3SSs display conserved six-fold symmetric features including pods, linkers and an ATPase complex, while fT3SSs probably only display six-fold symmetry in their ATPase region. We also identify other morphological differences between vT3SSs and fT3SSs, such as relative disposition of their inner membrane-attached export platform, C-ring/pods and ATPase complex. Finally, using classification, we find that both types of apparatuses can loose elements of their cytoplasmic region, which may therefore be dynamic. PMID:27686865

  3. DYNC2H1 mutations cause asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy and short rib-polydactyly syndrome, type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagoneau, Nathalie; Goulet, Marie; Geneviève, David; Sznajer, Yves; Martinovic, Jelena; Smithson, Sarah; Huber, Céline; Baujat, Geneviève; Flori, Elisabeth; Tecco, Laura; Cavalcanti, Denise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Serre, Valérie; Le Merrer, Martine; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2009-05-01

    Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD) is an autosomal-recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by short ribs and a narrow thorax, short long bones, inconstant polydactyly, and trident acetabular roof. ATD is closely related to the short rib polydactyly syndrome (SRP) type III, which is a more severe condition characterized by early prenatal expression and lethality and variable malformations. We first excluded IFT80 in a series of 26 fetuses and children belonging to 14 families diagnosed with either ATD or SRP type III. Studying a consanguineous family from Morocco, we mapped an ATD gene to chromosome 11q14.3-q23.1 in a 20.4 Mb region and identified homozygous mutations in the cytoplasmic dynein 2 heavy chain 1 (DYNC2H1) gene in the affected children. Compound heterozygosity for DYNC2H1 mutations was also identified in four additional families. Among the five families, 3/5 were diagnosed with ATD and 2/5 included pregnancies terminated for SRP type III. DYNC2H1 is a component of a cytoplasmic dynein complex and is directly involved in the generation and maintenance of cilia. From this study, we conclude that ATD and SRP type III are variants of a single disorder belonging to the ciliopathy group.

  4. Periodic solutions of multispecies-competition predator-prey system with Holling's type III functional response and prey supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a nonautonomous multispecies competition predator-prey system with Holling's type III functional response and prey supplement. It is proved that the system is uniformly persistent under some conditions. Furthermore, we show that the system has a unique positive periodic solution which is globally asymptotically stable.

  5. A note on classification of proper homothetic vector fields in Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi type III Lorentzian manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Shabbir, Ghulam

    2011-01-01

    A complete study of Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi type III space-times according to their proper homothetic vector fields is given by using direct integration technique. Using the above mentioned technique we have shown that very special classes of the above space-times admit proper homothetic vector fields. The dimension of homothetic vector fields is five.

  6. Virulence determinants of Pseudomonas syringae strains isolated from grasses in the context of a small type III effector repertoire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudnik, Alexey; Dudler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas syringae is pathogenic to a large number of plant species. For host colonization and disease progression, strains of this bacterium utilize an array of type III-secreted effectors and other virulence factors, including small secreted molecules such as syringolin A, a pepti...

  7. Talents and Type Iiis: The Effects of the Talents Unlimited Model on Creative Productivity in Gifted Youngsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jane L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined a set of lessons that integrate the Talents Unlimited Model (TU; C. L. Schlichter, 1986) with the 10 steps of completing a Type III activity (J. S. Renzulli & S. M. Reis, 1985) to determine the effects of these lessons on the quality of students' creative products and on the number of students who completed their products.…

  8. A note on proper affine symmetry in Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi type III space-times

    CERN Document Server

    Shabbir, Ghulam

    2016-01-01

    We investigate proper affine symmetry for the Kantowski-Sachs and Bianchi type III space-times by using holonomy and decomposability, the rank of the 6X6 Riemann matrix and direct integration techniques. It is shown that the very special classes of the above space-times admit proper affine vector fields.

  9. The Low-High-Low Trend of Type III Radio Burst Starting Frequencies and Solar Flare Hard X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Hamish A S; Kontar, Eduard P

    2014-01-01

    Using simultaneous X-ray and radio observations from solar flares, we investigate the link between the type III radio burst starting frequency and hard X-ray spectral index. For a proportion of events the relation derived between the starting height (frequency) of type III radio bursts and the electron beam velocity spectral index (deduced from X-rays) is used to infer the spatial properties (height and size) of the electron beam acceleration region. Both quantities can be related to the distance travelled before an electron beam becomes unstable to Langmuir waves. To obtain a list of suitable events we considered the RHESSI catalogue of X-ray flares and the Phoenix 2 catalogue of type III radio bursts. From the 200 events that showed both type III and X-ray signatures, we selected 30 events which had simultaneous emission in both wavelengths, good signal to noise in the X-ray domain and > 20 seconds duration. We find that > 50 % of the selected events show a good correlation between the starting frequencies ...

  10. Structure and Activity of the RNA-Targeting Type III-B CRISPR-Cas Complex of Thermus thermophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, R.H.J.; Agari, Y.; Maki-Yonekura, S.; Zhu, Y.; Taylor, D.W.; van Duijn, E.; Barendregt, A.; Vlot, M.C.; Koehorst, J.J.; Sakamoto, K.; Masuda, A.; Dohmae, N.; Schaap, P.J.; Doudna, J.A.; Heck, A.J.R.; Yonekura, K.; van der Oost, J.; Shinkai, A.

    2013-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas system is a prokaryotic host defense system against genetic elements. The Type III-B CRISPR-Cas system of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the TtCmr complex, is composed of six different protein subunits (Cmr1-6) and one crRNA with a stoichiometry of Cmr112131445361:crRNA1. The TtC

  11. Adsorption of As(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Novel Fe-Mg Type Hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2015-01-01

    Morphological and chemical evaluation of Fe-Mg hydrotalcite (Fe-HT) was performed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and electron microanalysis for application as an adsorbent for water treatment. The adsorption of arsenic III (As(III)) on Fe-HT was evaluated via examination of the effect of the contact time and analysis of the adsorption isotherm. The amount of As(III) adsorbed increased slightly with increasing temperature. The results of the adsorption isotherm studies suggested that As(III) adsorption can be well described by both the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The adsorption of As(III) on Fe-HT reached equilibrium within 24 h, and the adsorption kinetic data fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model better than the pseudo-first-order model. The amount of As(III) present on the surface of Fe-HT increased after As(III) adsorption, and the crystalline structure of Fe-HT was maintained after adsorption of As(III). The (003) and (006) peaks in the X-ray diffraction patterns were attributed to basal reflections, and these peaks shifted from respective 2θ values of 10.86 and 21.94° to 11.12 and 22.52°, indicating exchange of As(III) with chloride ions in Fe-HT with consequent narrowing of the inter-layer spacing. Collectively, these results suggest that Fe-HT is prospectively useful for the adsorption of As(III) from aqueous solutions.

  12. Glucocorticoids inhibit the synthesis rate of type III collagen, but do not affect the hepatic clearance of its aminoterminal propeptide (PIIINP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Stoltenberg, M; Høst, N B;

    1995-01-01

    The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) is a marker of type III collagen metabolism. The serum concentration of PIIINP is increased during inflammation, probably reflecting stimulated biosynthesis of type III collagen. Serum PIIINP decreases during glucocorticoid treatment....... This has been interpreted as an inhibited biosynthesis of type III collagen. However, circulating PIIINP is extracted by the liver, and the decrease in serum PIIINP may also be caused by an increased hepatic elimination. In the present study we investigated the influence of intravenous methylprednisolone...

  13. Spatiotemporal Patterns of a Predator-Prey System with an Allee Effect and Holling Type III Functional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jinfeng

    A diffusive Gause type predator-prey system with Allee effect in prey growth and Holling type III response subject to Neumann boundary conditions is investigated. Existence of nonconstant positive steady state solutions is proved by Leray-Schauder degree theory and bifurcation theory. Global stability of the positive equilibrium of the system is also investigated. Moreover, bifurcations of spatially homogeneous and nonhomogeneous periodic solutions are analyzed. Our rigorous results justify some recent ecological observations.

  14. Manganese(III)-containing Wells-Dawson sandwich-type polyoxometalates: comparison with their manganese(II) counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrini, Mounim; Mbomekallé, Israël M; Dolbecq, Anne; Marrot, Jérôme; Berthet, Patrick; Ntienoue, Joseline; Sécheresse, Francis; Vigneron, Jacky; Etcheberry, Arnaud

    2011-07-18

    We present the synthesis and structural characterization, assessed by various techniques (FTIR, TGA, UV-vis, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction for three compounds, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemistry) of five manganese-containing Wells-Dawson sandwich-type (WDST) complexes. The dimanganese(II)-containing complex, [Na(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](18-) (1), was obtained by reaction of MnCl(2) with 1 equiv of [As(2)W(15)O(56)](12-) in acetate medium (pH 4.7). Oxidation of 1 by Na(2)S(2)O(8) in aqueous solution led to the dimanganese(III) complex [Na(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](16-) (2), while its trimanganese(II) homologue, [Na(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(H(2)O)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](17-) (3), was obtained by addition of ca. 1 equiv of MnCl(2) to a solution of 1 in 1 M NaCl. The trimanganese(III) and tetramanganese(III) counterparts, [Mn(III)(H(2)O)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](15-) (4) and [Mn(III)(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](12-) (6), are, respectively, obtained by oxidation of aqueous solutions of 3 and [Mn(II)(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](16-) (5) by Na(2)S(2)O(8). Single-crystal X-ray analyses were carried out on 2, 3, and 4. BVS calculations and XPS confirmed that the oxidation state of Mn centers is +II for complexes 1, 3, and 5 and +III for 2, 4, and 6. A complete comparative electrochemical study was carried out on the six compounds cited above, and it was possible to observe the distinct redox steps Mn(IV/III) and Mn(III/II). Magnetization measurements, as a function of temperature, confirm the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn ions in these compounds in all cases with the exception of compound 2.

  15. An N-terminal three-helix fragment of the exchangeable insect apolipoprotein apolipophorin III conserves the lipid binding properties of wild-type protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettloff, M; Weers, P M; Niere, M; Kay, C M; Ryan, R O; Wiesner, A

    2001-03-13

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) from the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella is an exchangeable insect apolipoprotein that consists of five amphipathic alpha-helices, sharing high sequence identity with apoLp-III from the sphinx moth Manduca sexta whose structure is available. To define the minimal requirement for apoLp-III structural stability and function, a C-terminal truncated apoLp-III encompassing residues 1-91 of this 163 amino acid protein was designed. Far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed apoLp-III(1-91) has 50% alpha-helix secondary structure content in buffer (wild-type apoLp-III 86%), increasing to essentially 100% upon interactions with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation studies revealed similar stability properties for wild-type apoLp-III and apoLp-III(1-91). Resistance to denaturation for both proteins increased substantially upon association with phospholipid. In the absence of lipid, wild-type apoLp-III was monomeric whereas apoLp-III(1-91) partly formed dimers and trimers. Discoidal apoLp-III(1-91)-DMPC complexes were smaller in diameter (13.5 nm) compared to wild-type apoLp-III (17.7 nm), and more molecules of apoLp-III(1-91) associated with the complexes. Lipid interaction revealed that apoLp-III(1-91) binds to modified spherical lipoprotein surfaces and efficiently transforms phospholipid vesicles into discoidal complexes. Thus, the first three helices of G. mellonella apoLp-III contain the basic features required for maintenance of the structural integrity of the entire protein.

  16. Influence of Term of Exposure to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity on Myocardial Collagen Type I and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz da [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares [Departamento de Esportes, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, ES (Brazil); Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé de; Nascimento, André Ferreira do [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Sílvio Assis Junior de [Escola de Fisioterapia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Padovani, Carlos Roberto [Departamento de Bioestatística do Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Cicogna, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: dany.tomaz@gmail.com [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for many medical complications; medical research has shown that hemodynamic, morphological and functional abnormalities are correlated with the duration and severity of obesity. Present study determined the influence of term of exposure to high-fat diet-induced obesity on myocardial collagen type I and III. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: a control (C) group fed a standard rat chow and an obese (Ob) group alternately fed one of four palatable high-fat diets. Each diet was changed daily, and the rats were maintained on their respective diets for 15 (C{sub 15} and Ob{sub 15}) and 30 (C{sub 30} and Ob{sub 30}) consecutive weeks. Obesity was determined by adiposity index. The Ob{sub 15} group was similar to the C{sub 15} group regarding the expression of myocardial collagen type I; however, expression in the Ob{sub 30} group was less than C{sub 30} group. The time of exposure to obesity was associated with a reduction in collagen type I in Ob{sub 30} when compared with Ob{sub 15}. Obesity did not affect collagen type III expression. This study showed that the time of exposure to obesity for 30 weeks induced by unsaturated high-fat diet caused a reduction in myocardial collagen type I expression in the obese rats. However, no effect was seen on myocardial collagen type III expression.

  17. Diagnosing the Source Region of a Solar Burst on 26 September 2011 by Using Microwave Type-III Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. L.; Karlický, M.; Mészárosová, H.; Kashapova, L.; Huang, J.; Yan, Y.; Kontar, E. P.

    2016-10-01

    We report a peculiar and interesting train of microwave Type-III pair bursts in the impulsive rising phase of a solar flare on 26 September 2011. The observations include radio spectrometers at frequencies of 0.80 - 2.00 GHz from the Ondřejov radiospectrograph in the Czech Republic (ORSC), hard X-ray from the Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor onboard the Fermi Space Telescope ( Fermi/GRB), EUV images from the Sun Watcher using APS detectors and image Processing instrument onboard the Project for Onboard Autonomy 2 (SWAP/PROBA2), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO/HMI). By using a recently developed method (Tan et al., Res. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 82, 2016a), we diagnosed the plasma density, temperature, plasma-β, magnetic field near the source region, the energy of energetic electrons, and the distance between the acceleration region and the emission start sites of Type-III bursts. From the diagnostics, we find that i) The plasma density, temperature, magnetic field, and the distance between the acceleration region and the emission start sites have almost no obvious variations during the period of Type-III pair trains, while the energy of electrons has an obvious peak value that is consistent with the hard X-ray emission. ii) The plasma-β is much higher than unity, showing a highly dynamic process near the emission start site of Type-III bursts. iii) Although the reversed-slope Type-III branches drift more slowly by one order of magnitude than that of the normal Type-IIIs, the related descending and ascending electrons still could have energy of the same order of magnitude. These facts indicate that both the ascending and descending electrons are possibly accelerated by a similar mechanism and in a small source region. These diagnostics can help us to understand the physics in the source region of solar bursts.

  18. The Type III Secretion System-Related CPn0809 from Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid C Engel

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS, which enables the pathogen to deliver, in a single step, effector proteins for modulation of host-cell functions into the human host cell cytosol to establish a unique intracellular niche for replication. The translocon proteins located at the top of the T3SS needle filament are essential for its function, as they form pores in the host-cell membrane. Interestingly, unlike other Gram-negative bacteria, C. pneumoniae has two putative translocon operons, named LcrH_1 and LcrH_2. However, little is known about chlamydial translocon proteins. In this study, we analyzed CPn0809, one of the putative hydrophobic translocators encoded by the LcrH_1 operon, and identified an 'SseC-like family' domain characteristic of T3S translocators. Using bright-field and confocal microscopy, we found that CPn0809 is associated with EBs during early and very late phases of a C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, CPn0809 forms oligomers, and interacts with the T3SS chaperone LcrH_1, via its N-terminal segment. Moreover, expression of full-length CPn0809 in the heterologous host Escherichia coli causes a grave cytotoxic effect that leads to cell death. Taken together, our data indicate that CPn0809 likely represents one of the translocon proteins of the C. pneumoniae T3SS, and possibly plays a role in the translocation of effector proteins in the early stages of infection.

  19. Characteristics of Metroxylon sagu resistant starch type III as prebiotic substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi-Ni, Tan; Rosma, Ahmad; Napisah, Hussin; Karim, Alias A; Liong, Min-Tze

    2015-04-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS3 ) was produced from sago (Metroxylon sagu) and evaluated for its characteristics as a prebiotic. Two RS3 samples designated sago RS and HCl-sago RS contained 35.71% and 68.30% RS, respectively, were subjected to hydrolyses by gastric juice and digestive enzymes and to absorption. Both sago RS and HCl-sago RS were resistant to 180 min hydrolysis by gastric acidity at pH 1 to 4 with less than 0.85% hydrolyzed. Both samples were also resistant toward hydrolysis by gastrointestinal tract enzymes and intestinal absorption with 96.75% and 98.69% of RS3 were recovered respectively after 3.5 h digestion and overnight dialysis at 37 °C. Sago RS3 supported the growth of both beneficial (lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) and pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter coli, and Clostridium perfringens) in the range of 2.60 to 3.91 log10 CFU/mL. Hence, prebiotic activity score was applied to describe the extent to which sago RS3 supports selective growth of the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains over pathogenic bacteria. The highest scores were obtained from Bifidobacterium sp. FTDC8943 grown on sago RS (+0.26) and HCl-sago RS (+0.24) followed by L. bulgaricus FTDC1511 grown on sago RS (+0.21). The findings had suggested that sago RS3 has the prebiotic partial characteristics and it is suggested to further assess the suitability of sago RS3 as a prebiotic material.

  20. Tracking the Cognitive, Social, and Neuroanatomical Profile in Early Neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Couto, Blas; Herrera, Eduar; Bocanegra, Yamile; Trujillo-Orrego, Natalia; Madrigal-Zapata, Lucia; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin; Villegas, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration, and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications, and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy) tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language, and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions), which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor's brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging.

  1. The Type III Secretion System Effector SptP of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca; Byrne, Alexander; Berger, Cedric N; Klemm, Elizabeth; Crepin, Valerie F; Dougan, Gordon; Frankel, Gad

    2017-02-15

    Strains of the various Salmonella enterica serovars cause gastroenteritis or typhoid fever in humans, with virulence depending on the action of two type III secretion systems (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1] and SPI-2). SptP is a Salmonella SPI-1 effector, involved in mediating recovery of the host cytoskeleton postinfection. SptP requires a chaperone, SicP, for stability and secretion. SptP has 94% identity between S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S Typhi; direct comparison of the protein sequences revealed that S Typhi SptP has numerous amino acid changes within its chaperone-binding domain. Subsequent comparison of ΔsptP S Typhi and S. Typhimurium strains demonstrated that, unlike SptP in S. Typhimurium, SptP in S Typhi was not involved in invasion or cytoskeletal recovery postinfection. Investigation of whether the observed amino acid changes within SptP of S Typhi affected its function revealed that S Typhi SptP was unable to complement S. Typhimurium ΔsptP due to an absence of secretion. We further demonstrated that while S. Typhimurium SptP is stable intracellularly within S Typhi, S Typhi SptP is unstable, although stability could be recovered following replacement of the chaperone-binding domain with that of S. Typhimurium. Direct assessment of the strength of the interaction between SptP and SicP of both serovars via bacterial two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that S Typhi SptP has a significantly weaker interaction with SicP than the equivalent proteins in S. Typhimurium. Taken together, our results suggest that changes within the chaperone-binding domain of SptP in S Typhi hinder binding to its chaperone, resulting in instability, preventing translocation, and therefore restricting the intracellular activity of this effector.

  2. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola Mutants Compromised for type III secretion system gene induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Xiao, Yanmei; Lan, Lefu; Zhou, Jian-Min; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2009-08-01

    Pseudomonas syringae bacteria utilize the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into host cells. The T3SS and T3 effector genes (together called the T3 genes hereafter) are repressed in nutrient-rich medium but rapidly induced after the bacteria are transferred into minimal medium or infiltrated into plants. The induction of the T3 genes is mediated by HrpL, an alternative sigma factor that recognizes the conserved hrp box motif in the T3 gene promoters. The induction of hrpL is mediated by HrpR and HrpS, two homologous proteins that bind the hrpL promoter. To identify additional genes involved in regulation of the T3 genes, we screened for the P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 transposon-tagged mutants with reduced induction of avrPto-luc and hrpL-luc, reporter genes for promoters of effector gene avrPto and hrpL, respectively. Determination of the transposon-insertion sites revealed genes with putative functions in signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, protein synthesis, and basic metabolism. A transcriptional regulator (AefR(NPS3121)) was identified in our screen that is homologous to AefR of P. syringae pv. syringae strain B728a, a regulator of the quorum-sensing signal and epiphytic traits, but was not known to regulate the T3 genes. AefR(NPS3121) in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 and AefR in P. syringae pv. syringae B728a behave similarly in regulating the quorum-sensing signal in liquid medium but differ in regulating the epiphytic traits, including swarming motility, leaf entry, and epiphytic survival.

  3. Potassium transport of Salmonella is important for type III secretion and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yehao; Ho, Katharina Kim; Su, Jing; Gong, Hao; Chang, Alexander C; Lu, Sangwei

    2013-08-01

    Intracellular cations are essential for the physiology of all living organisms including bacteria. Cations such as potassium ion (K(+)), sodium ion (Na(+)) and proton (H(+)) are involved in nearly all aspects of bacterial growth and survival. K(+) is the most abundant cation and its homeostasis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella is regulated by three major K(+) transporters: high affinity transporter Kdp and low affinity transporters Kup and Trk. Previous studies have demonstrated the roles of cations and cation transport in the physiology of Escherichia coli; their roles in the virulence and physiology of pathogenic bacteria are not well characterized. We have previously reported that the Salmonella K(+) transporter Trk is important for the secretion of effector proteins of the type III secretion system (TTSS) of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Here we further explore the role of Salmonella cation transport in virulence in vitro and pathogenesis in animal models. Impairment of K(+) transport through deletion of K(+) transporters or exposure to the chemical modulators of cation transport, gramicidin and valinomycin, results in a severe defect in the TTSS of SPI-1, and this defect in the TTSS was not due to a failure to regulate intrabacterial pH or ATP. Our results also show that K(+) transporters are critical to the pathogenesis of Salmonella in mice and chicks and are involved in multiple growth and virulence characteristics in vitro, including protein secretion, motility and invasion of epithelial cells. These results suggest that cation transport of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella, especially K(+) transport, contributes to its virulence in addition to previously characterized roles in maintaining homeostasis of bacteria.

  4. Tracking the cognitive, social and neuroanatomical profile in early neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind and empathy tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions, which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor’s brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging.

  5. Severe osteogenesis imperfecta Type-III and its challenging treatment in newborn and preschool children. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Ojaniemi, Marja; Lehenkari, Petri; Serlo, Willy

    2015-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders, of which Type III is the most severe among survivors. The disease is characterised in particular by bone fragility, decreased bone mass and increased incidence of fractures. Other usual findings are muscle hypotonia, joint hypermobility and short stature. Fractures and weak bones may consequently cause limb and spinal deformity and chronic physical disability. Bisphosphonates have revolutionised the treatment of newborn children with severe OI type III. Surgery is still needed in most patients due to high frequency of the fractures. In this systematic review we describe the present state-of-art in treating the most severe type of OI in newborn and preschool children with their bone fractures.

  6. Biosynthesis of Dictyostelium Discoideum Differentation-Inducing Factor by a Hybrid Type I Fatty Acid A-Type III polyketide synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin,M.; Saito, T.; Bowman, M.; Haydock, S.; Kato, A.; Moore, B.; Kay, R.; Noel, J.

    2006-01-01

    Differentiation-inducing factors (DIFs) are well known to modulate formation of distinct communal cell types from identical Dictyostelium discoideum amoebas, but DIF biosynthesis remains obscure. We report complimentary in vivo and in vitro experiments identifying one of two {approx}3,000-residue D. discoideum proteins, termed 'steely', as responsible for biosynthesis of the DIF acylphloroglucinol scaffold. Steely proteins possess six catalytic domains homologous to metazoan type I fatty acid synthases (FASs) but feature an iterative type III polyketide synthase (PKS) in place of the expected FAS C-terminal thioesterase used to off load fatty acid products. This new domain arrangement likely facilitates covalent transfer of steely N-terminal acyl products directly to the C-terminal type III PKS active sites, which catalyze both iterative polyketide extension and cyclization. The crystal structure of a steely C-terminal domain confirms conservation of the homodimeric type III PKS fold. These findings suggest new bioengineering strategies for expanding the scope of fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis.

  7. Purification, crystal structure determination and functional characterization of type III antifreeze proteins from the European eelpout Zoarces viviparus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Ramløv, Hans;

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are essential components of many organisms adaptation to cold temperatures. Fish type III AFPs are divided into two groups, SP isoforms being much less active than QAE1 isoforms. Two type III AFPs from Zoarces viviparus, a QAE1 (ZvAFP13) and an SP (ZvAFP6) isoform...

  8. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptors types II and III within various cells in the rat periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Symons, A L; Bartold, P M

    1999-02-01

    This study reports the immunohistochemical localization of TGF-beta receptor type II (T beta R-II) and type III (T beta R-III) in cells of the forming periodontal ligament (PDL) in rat first molar roots. Mandibular periodontium was obtained from 3, 6 and 12-wk-old rats. This represented tissue from the initial, pre-mature and post-mature stages of root and periodontal development, respectively. Mandibular bone chips and molar roots were used to isolate osteoblasts, fibroblasts and cementoblasts. Cells were obtained using a 2-step trypsinization and explant technique, and cultured in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM) under routine cell culture conditions. Cells were cultured on coverslips for the purpose of detecting TGF-beta receptors, and compared with whole tissue sections using the same detection method. Cells which stained positively for T beta R-II and T beta R-III on both paraffin sections and cultured cell slides were counted. Both receptors were expressed in the various periodontal tissue compartments. PDL fibroblasts, cementoblasts and osteoblasts were stained positively for T beta R-II and T beta R-III. Endothelial cells were noted to be positive for T beta R-II only. T beta R-II was more widely distributed in cells than T beta R-III, but T beta R-III was extensively localized in the extracellular matrix. Both receptors were expressed on the cell membrane and also localized in the cytoplasm. The findings for paraffin sections were consistent with the immunohistochemical staining of cultured cells. The percentage of cells which stained positively for T beta R-II was greater (approximately 85%) than that for T beta R-III (approximately 60%) in all major types of the PDL cells on both paraffin sections and cultured cell slides. Extensive location of TGF-beta receptors in both cells and extracellular matrix suggests that several binding sites are available for TGF-beta s to interact with target cells during development and following maturation

  9. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picking Wendy L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. Results In this study, we present the 3.3 Å crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155 of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC1-151. Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric "head-to- head" dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC1-151. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II

  10. Inheritance of Pantoea type III secretion systems through both vertical and horizontal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzinger, Morgan W B; Butz, Cory J; Stavrinides, John

    2015-12-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an extracellular apparatus used by many Gram-negative bacteria to deliver effector proteins directly into plant and animal cells, thereby facilitating host-specific association. Strains of the enterobacterial genus, Pantoea, have been isolated from a wide variety of hosts, including plants, insects, and humans, yet it is unclear whether the T3SS may be involved in these associations. In this study, we use comparative genomics and phylogenetic methods to examine the origin and distribution of T3SSs in 35 sequenced environmental and clinical strains of Pantoea. We began our analysis by examining the distribution of the previously characterized plant cell-specific PSI-1 and animal cell-specific PSI-2 of the plant pathogenic Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii DC283 (PstDC283), and showed that both had a somewhat limited distribution. Our analysis, however, identified two variants of a unique plant cell-specific T3SS (PSI-1a and PSI-1b) in six Pantoea strains, including a clinical isolate. Our genome analysis of PstDC283 also identified a third T3SS that we named PSI-3, which has a similar genetic content and organization to the Salmonella, animal cell-specific SPI-2 system. Phylogenetic analysis of all three systems suggests that the PSI-1 system has been inherited vertically, whereas the newly identified PSI-1a and PSI-1b systems have been acquired independently from other genera within the Enterobacteriaceae. PSI-2 appears to have been acquired horizontally as far back as the Erwinia/Pantoea common ancestor, with evidence of more recent horizontal acquisition of the PSI-3 system. Our results suggest that Pantoea is a relatively old plant pathogen that has lost and subsequently regained different plant-associated T3SSs. This work has broad implications for understanding the host-associating capacity of Pantoea strains, and reveals the propensity for Pantoea isolates to exchange pathogenicity determinants with human

  11. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000, associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.

  12. Evidence for alternative quaternary structure in a bacterial Type III secretion system chaperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Zhang, Lingling; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2010-10-05

    Type III secretion systems are a common virulence mechanism in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. These systems use a nanomachine resembling a molecular needle and syringe to provide an energized conduit for the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm for the benefit of the pathogen. Prior to translocation specialized chaperones maintain proper effector protein conformation. The class II chaperone, Invasion plasmid gene (Ipg) C, stabilizes two pore forming translocator proteins. IpgC exists as a functional dimer to facilitate the mutually exclusive binding of both translocators. In this study, we present the 3.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of an amino-terminally truncated form (residues 10-155, denoted IpgC10-155) of the class II chaperone IpgC from Shigella flexneri. Our structure demonstrates an alternative quaternary arrangement to that previously described for a carboxy-terminally truncated variant of IpgC (IpgC{sup 1-151}). Specifically, we observe a rotationally-symmetric 'head-to-head' dimerization interface that is far more similar to that previously described for SycD from Yersinia enterocolitica than to IpgC1-151. The IpgC structure presented here displays major differences in the amino terminal region, where extended coil-like structures are seen, as opposed to the short, ordered alpha helices and asymmetric dimerization interface seen within IpgC{sup 1-151}. Despite these differences, however, both modes of dimerization support chaperone activity, as judged by a copurification assay with a recombinant form of the translocator protein, IpaB. Conclusions: From primary to quaternary structure, these results presented here suggest that a symmetric dimerization interface is conserved across bacterial class II chaperones. In light of previous data which have described the structure and function of asymmetric dimerization, our results raise the possibility that class II chaperones may

  13. Ethylene polymerization by PN3-type pincer chromium(III) complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Dirong

    2014-12-01

    Chromium (III) complexes, Cr1, [2,6-(tBu2PNH) 2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr2, [2,6-(Ph 2PNH)2C5H4N]CrCl3; Cr3, [2-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N]CrCl3 THF; Cr4, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2- CH2NEt2]CrCl3; Cr5, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-C3H2N 2]CrCl3; Cr6, [6-(tBu2PNH)C 5H4N-2-(3,5-Me2)C3H 2N2]CrCl3; Cr7, [6-(tBu 2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-iPr 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3; Cr8, [6-(tBu2PNH)C5H4N-2-(3,5-Ph 2)C3H2N2]CrCl3, bearing a family of neutral PN3-type pincer ligands have been prepared. The molecular structure of Cr2 was further elucidated by the X-ray crystallographic analysis, showing an octahedral geometry. Treatment of these complexes with MAO or alkylaluminum led to catalysts with moderate activities (about 105 g (PE)/Cr(mol) h) for ethylene polymerization, affording exclusively linear low molecular weight solid PE without any detectable oligomers. Among Cr1-Cr8, the highest activity was achieved for Cr1/MAO at room temperature with production of PE with highest molecular weight, indicating that replacement of both tBu groups in Cr1 with Ph groups, or one PtBu2 with the N (imine) arm, resulted in a lower catalytic activity and lower M w. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an acridone-producing novel multifunctional type III polyketide synthase from Huperzia serrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Hiroyuki [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan); Kondo, Shin; Kato, Ryohei [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Kiyofumi; Noguchi, Hiroshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka and the COE21 Program, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Sugio, Shigetoshi, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [Innovation Center Yokohama, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, 1000 Kamoshida, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 227-8502 (Japan); Abe, Ikuro, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka and the COE21 Program, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kohno, Toshiyuki, E-mail: sugio.shigetoshi@mw.m-kagaku.co.jp [Mitsubishi Kagaku Institute of Life Sciences (MITILS), 11 Minamiooya, Machida, Tokyo 194-8511 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    An acridone-producing novel type III polyketide synthase from H. serrata has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.0 Å. Polyketide synthase 1 (PKS1) from Huperzia serrata is a plant-specific type III polyketide synthase that shows an unusually versatile catalytic potential, producing various aromatic tetraketides, including chalcones, benzophenones, phlorogulucinols and acridones. Recombinant H. serrata PKS1 expressed in Escherichia coli was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group I222 or I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 73.3, b = 85.0, c = 137.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90.0°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at BL24XU of SPring-8.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated type III collagen degradation as a novel serological biochemical marker for liver fibrogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S; Vassiliadis, Efstathios; Barascuk, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    During fibrogenesis in the liver, in which excessive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs, both the quantity of type III collagen (CO3) and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-9, increase significantly. MMPs play major roles in ECM remodelling, via their acti......During fibrogenesis in the liver, in which excessive remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) occurs, both the quantity of type III collagen (CO3) and levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including MMP-9, increase significantly. MMPs play major roles in ECM remodelling, via...... their activity in the proteolytic degradation of extracellular macromolecules such as collagens, resulting in the generation of specific cleavage fragments. These neo-epitopes may be used as markers of fibrosis....

  16. Characteristics of type III bursts in the solar wind from simultaneous observations on board ISEE-3 and Voyager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecacheux, A.; Steinberg, J.-L.; Hoang, S.; Dulk, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of solar type III bursts observed aboard ISEE-3 and Voyager that originate behind the sun are analyzed and compared to those originating on the near side. The measurement of the burst parameters and the correction for proximity effects are described. The diminution of flux densities, the increase of source sizes, the difference of source azimuths and elevations, the change of spectral properties, and the anomalous delays in burst arrival time at one spacecraft relative to another are determined. Many of the observations imply that the beaming of type III radiation is much more widespread at all frequencies than has been derived from statistical studies. The effective beam appears to consist of at least two components: a Gaussian core of half width about 60 deg, and a very broad halo that extends to 180 deg with an amplitude of a few percent.

  17. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebourg-Polster, Juliane; Wolf, Detlef; Czech, Christian; Bonati, Ulrike; Fischer, Dirk; Khwaja, Omar; Strahm, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials. PMID:28122039

  18. Feasibility of Using Microsoft Kinect to Assess Upper Limb Movement in Type III Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Siebourg-Polster, Juliane; Wolf, Detlef; Czech, Christian; Bonati, Ulrike; Fischer, Dirk; Khwaja, Omar; Strahm, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Although functional rating scales are being used increasingly as primary outcome measures in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), sensitive and objective assessment of early-stage disease progression and drug efficacy remains challenging. We have developed a game based on the Microsoft Kinect sensor, specifically designed to measure active upper limb movement. An explorative study was conducted to determine the feasibility of this new tool in 18 ambulant SMA type III patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Upper limb movement was analysed elaborately through derived features such as elbow flexion and extension angles, arm lifting angle, velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were found in the active range of motion between ambulant SMA type III patients and controls. Hand velocity was found to be different but further validation is necessary. This study presents an important step in the process of designing and handling digital biomarkers as complementary outcome measures for clinical trials.

  19. Nitrated type III collagen as a biological marker of nitric oxide-mediated synovial tissue metabolism in osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardot, P; Charni-Ben Tabassi, N; Toh, L

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Nitric oxide (NO) is a major mediator of joint tissue inflammation and damage in osteoarthritis (OA) and mediates the nitration of tyrosine (Y*) residues in proteins. We investigated the nitration of type III collagen, a major constituent of synovial membrane, in knee OA. METHODS...... in healthy controls and significantly correlated with C-reactive protein values (r=0.40, Pcollagen N-telopeptide is increased in the synovial tissue of patients with knee OA. Measurements of serum IIINys level may be useful for the clinical......: A polyclonal antibody directed against the nitrated QY*DSY*DVKSG sequence from type III collagen N-telopeptide was generated. Synovial tissues from patients with knee OA (n=4) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=4) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for IIINys. Serum IIINys levels were measured by enzyme...

  20. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : III. AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE ISOLATION OF THE TRANSFORMING SUBSTANCE AND ITS APPLICATION TO PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPES II, III, AND VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M; Avery, O T

    1946-01-31

    1. An improved method is outlined for the isolation and purification of the pneumococcal transforming substance. This method makes use of the fact that citrate inhibits the destructive action of the enzyme, desoxyribonuclease, which is released together with the active material during lysis of the living bacterial cells. A fivefold greater yield of purified transforming agent is obtained by the present method than by the procedure previousiy described. 2. The specific transforming substance has been isolated from pneumococci of types II and VI, in addition to Type III. In each instance the biologically active material has been found to consist of desoxyribonucleic acid.

  1. DYNC2H1 Mutations Cause Asphyxiating Thoracic Dystrophy and Short Rib-Polydactyly Syndrome, Type III

    OpenAIRE

    Dagoneau, Nathalie; Goulet, Marie; Geneviève, David; Sznajer, Yves; Martinovic, Jelena; Smithson, Sarah; Huber, Céline; Baujat, Geneviève; Flori, Elisabeth; Tecco, Laura; Cavalcanti, Denise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Serre, Valérie; Le Merrer, Martine; Munnich, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD) is an autosomal-recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by short ribs and a narrow thorax, short long bones, inconstant polydactyly, and trident acetabular roof. ATD is closely related to the short rib polydactyly syndrome (SRP) type III, which is a more severe condition characterized by early prenatal expression and lethality and variable malformations. We first excluded IFT80 in a series of 26 fetuses and children belonging to 14 families diagnos...

  2. Comparison of backbone dynamics of the type III antifreeze protein and antifreeze-like domain of human sialic acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Geun [Gyeongsang National University, Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Science (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chin-Ju [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Department of Chemistry (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Eun; Seo, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Ae-Ree; Choi, Seo-Ree; Lee, Shim Sung; Lee, Joon-Hwa, E-mail: joonhwa@gnu.ac.kr [Gyeongsang National University, Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Science (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in a variety of cold-adapted (psychrophilic) organisms to promote survival at subzero temperatures by binding to ice crystals and decreasing the freezing temperature of body fluids. The type III AFPs are small globular proteins that consist of one α-helix, three 3{sub 10}-helices, and two β-strands. Sialic acids play important roles in a variety of biological functions, such as development, recognition, and cell adhesion and are synthesized by conserved enzymatic pathways that include sialic acid synthase (SAS). SAS consists of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal antifreeze-like (AFL) domain, which is similar to the type III AFPs. Despite having very similar structures, AFL and the type III AFPs exhibit very different temperature-dependent stability and activity. In this study, we have performed backbone dynamics analyses of a type III AFP (HPLC12 isoform) and the AFL domain of human SAS (hAFL) at various temperatures. We also characterized the structural/dynamic properties of the ice-binding surfaces by analyzing the temperature gradient of the amide proton chemical shift and its correlation with chemical shift deviation from random coil. The dynamic properties of the two proteins were very different from each other. While HPLC12 was mostly rigid with a few residues exhibiting slow motions, hAFL showed fast internal motions at low temperature. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis of thermostability and structural flexibility in homologous psychrophilic HPLC12 and mesophilic hAFL proteins.

  3. The Dynamics of an Impulsive Predator-Prey System with Stage Structure and Holling Type III Functional Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the biological resource management of natural resources, a stage-structured predator-prey model with Holling type III functional response, birth pulse, and impulsive harvesting at different moments is proposed in this paper. By applying comparison theorem and some analysis techniques, the global attractivity of predator-extinction periodic solution and the permanence of this system are studied. At last, examples and numerical simulations are given to verify the validity of the main results.

  4. Type III Effector Diversification via Both Pathoadaptation and Horizontal Transfer in Response to a Coevolutionary Arms Race

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbo Ma; Dong, Frederick F. T; John Stavrinides; David S. Guttman

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the coevolutionary arms race holds a central position in our understanding of pathogen-host interactions. Here we identify the molecular mechanisms and follow the stepwise progression of an arms race in a natural system. We show how the evolution and function of the HopZ family of type III secreted effector proteins carried by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are influenced by a coevolutionary arms race between pathogen and host. We surveyed 96 isolates of P. syringae an...

  5. [Purpura pigmentosa progressiva in type III cryoglobulinemia and tartrazine intolerance. A follow-up over 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinke, D U; Wüthrich, B

    1999-01-01

    A 58 year old patient with hepatitis virus C (HCV) infection had a secondary polyclonal IgG-IgM cryoglobulinemia with a benign 20 year course. Clinically the patient suffered from progressive pigmented purpura (PPP). Histologic evaluation revealed a lymphocytic vasculitis. Food containing tartrazine triggered flares of the PPP, as demonstrated with controlled oral provocation testing. In most of the previously described cases of HCV and type III cryoglobulinemia, the typical cutaneous finding was palpable purpura with leukocytoclastic vasculitis.

  6. Determination of the Stoichiometry of the Complete Bacterial Type III Secretion Needle Complex Using a Combined Quantitative Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkenat, Susann; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Galán, Jorge E; Macek, Boris; Wagner, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Precisely knowing the stoichiometry of their components is critical for investigating structure, assembly, and function of macromolecular machines. This has remained a technical challenge in particular for large, hydrophobic membrane-spanning protein complexes. Here, we determined the stoichiometry of a type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using two complementary protocols of gentle complex purification combined with peptide concatenated standard and synthetic stable isotope-labeled peptide-based mass spectrometry. Bacterial type III secretion systems are cell envelope-spanning effector protein-delivery machines essential for colonization and survival of many Gram-negative pathogens and symbionts. The membrane-embedded core unit of these secretion systems, termed the needle complex, is composed of a base that anchors the machinery to the inner and outer membranes, a hollow filament formed by inner rod and needle subunits that serves as conduit for substrate proteins, and a membrane-embedded export apparatus facilitating substrate translocation. Structural analyses have revealed the stoichiometry of the components of the base, but the stoichiometry of the essential hydrophobic export apparatus components and of the inner rod protein remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that the export apparatus of type III secretion systems contains five SpaP, one SpaQ, one SpaR, and one SpaS. We confirmed that the previously suggested stoichiometry of nine InvA is valid for assembled needle complexes and describe a loose association of InvA with other needle complex components that may reflect its function. Furthermore, we present evidence that not more than six PrgJ form the inner rod of the needle complex. Providing this structural information will facilitate efforts to obtain an atomic view of type III secretion systems and foster our understanding of the function of these and related flagellar machines. Given that other virulence

  7. Diagnose Physical Conditions Near the Flare Energy-release Sites from Observations of Solar Microwave Type III Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin; Meszarosova, Hana; Huang, Guangli

    2015-01-01

    In the physics of solar flares, it is crucial to diagnose the physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites. However, so far it is unclear how do diagnose these physical conditions. Solar microwave type III burst is believed to be a sensitive signature of the primary energy release and electron accelerations in solar flares. This work takes into account the effect of magnetic field on the plasma density and developed s set of formulas which can be used to estimate the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field near the magnetic reconnection site and particle acceleration region, and the velocity and energy of electron beams. We applied these formulas to three groups of microwave type III pairs in a X-class flare, and obtained some reasonable and interesting results. This method can be applied to other microwave type III bursts to diagnose the physical conditions of source regions, and provide some basic information to understand the intrinsic nature and fundamental processes occurring near the flar...

  8. Phase Coupling in Langmuir Wave Packets: Evidence for Four Wave Interactions in Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Bergamo, M.

    2012-01-01

    The four wave interaction process, known as the oscillating two stream instability (OTSI) is considered as one of the mechanisms responsible for stabilizing the electron beams associated with solar type III radio bursts. It has been reported that (1) an intense localized Langmuir wave packet associated with a type III burst contains the spectral characteristics of the OTSI: (a) a resonant peak at the local electron plasma frequency, f(sub pe), (b) a Stokes peak at a frequency slightly lower than f(sub pe), (c) anti-Stokes peak at a frequency slightly higher than f(sub pe), and (d) a low frequency enhancement below a few hundred Hz, (2) the frequencies and wave numbers of these spectral components satisfy the resonance conditions of the OTSI, and (3) the peak intensity of the wave packet is well above the thresholds for the OTSI as well as spatial collapse of envelope solitons. Here, for the first time, applying the trispectral analysis on this wave packet, we show that the tricoherence, which measures the degree of coherent four-wave coupling amongst the observed spectral components exhibits a peak. This provides an additional evidence for the OTSI and related spatial collapse of Langmuir envelope solitons in type III burst sources.

  9. Diagnosing the Source Region of a Solar Burst on 26 September 2011 by Microwave Type III Pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin; Meszarosova, Hana; Kashapova, Larisa; Huang, Jing; Yan, Yan; Kontar, Eduard P

    2016-01-01

    This work reports a peculiar and interesting train of microwave type III pair bursts in the impulsive rising phase of a solar flare on 2011 September 26. The observations include radio spectrometers at frequency of 0.80 - 2.00 GHz, hard X-ray (RHESSI and FERMI), EUV images of SWAP/PROBA-2 and magnetogram of HMI/SDO. By using a recently developed method (Tan et al. 2016a), we diagnosed the plasma density, temperature, plasma beta, magnetic field near the source region, the energy of energetic electrons and the distance between the acceleration region and the emission start sites of type III bursts. From the diagnostics, we find that: (1) The plasma density, temperature, magnetic field, and the distance between the acceleration region and the emission start sites almost have no obvious variations during the period of type III pair trains, while the energy of electrons has an obvious peak value which is consistent to the hard X-ray emission. (2) The plasma beta is much higher than an unity showing a highly dynam...

  10. On the Brightness and Waiting-time Distributions of a Type III Radio Storm observed by STEREO/WAVES

    CERN Document Server

    Eastwood, J P; Hudson, H S; Krucker, S; Bale, S D; Maksimovic, M; Goetz, K; Bougeret, J -L

    2009-01-01

    Type III solar radio storms, observed at frequencies below approximately 16 MHz by space borne radio experiments, correspond to the quasi-continuous, bursty emission of electron beams onto open field lines above active regions. The mechanisms by which a storm can persist in some cases for more than a solar rotation whilst exhibiting considerable radio activity are poorly understood. To address this issue, the statistical properties of a type III storm observed by the STEREO/WAVES radio experiment are presented, examining both the brightness distribution and (for the first time) the waiting-time distribution. Single power law behavior is observed in the number distribution as a function of brightness; the power law index is approximately 2.1 and is largely independent of frequency. The waiting-time distribution is found to be consistent with a piecewise-constant Poisson process. This indicates that during the storm individual type III bursts occur independently and suggests that the storm dynamics are consiste...

  11. Minifilament Eruption as the Source of a Blowout Jet, C-class Flare, and Type-III Radio Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Xu, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    We report a strong minifilament eruption associated with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite C1.6 flare and WIND type-III radio burst. The minifilament, which lies at the periphery of active region 12259, is detected by Hα images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope. The minifilament undergoes a partial and then a full eruption. Simultaneously, two co-spatial jets are successively observed in extreme ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The first jet exhibits a typical fan-spine geometry, suggesting that the co-spatial minifilament is possibly embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine structure. However, the second jet displays blowout morphology when the entire minifilament erupts upward, leaving behind a hard X-ray emission source in the base. Differential emission measure analyses show that the eruptive region is heated up to about 4 MK during the fan-spine jet, while up to about 7 MK during the blowout jet. In particular, the blowout jet is accompanied by an interplanetary type-III radio burst observed by WIND/WAVES in the frequency range from above 10 to 0.1 MHz. Hence, the minifilament eruption is correlated with the interplanetary type-III radio burst for the first time. These results not only suggest that coronal jets can result from magnetic reconnection initiated by erupting minifilaments with open fields, but also shed light on the potential influence of minifilament eruption on interplanetary space.

  12. High frequency of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with SCCmec type III and Spa types t037 and t631 isolated from burn patients in southwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizgari, Najmeh; Khoramrooz, Seyed Sajjad; Malek Hosseini, Seyed Ali Asghar; Marashifard, Masoud; Yazdanpanah, Mahboobeh; Emaneini, Mohammad; Gharibpour, Farzaneh; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Moein, Masoud; Naraki, Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Methicilin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are the major challenges in hospitals, especially in the burn units. The use of molecular typing methods is essential for tracking the spread of S. aureus infection and epidemiological investigations. The aim of this study was to find the profile of the spa types and also the prevalence of each SCCmec type of S. aureus strains in a central burn hospital in southwest of Iran. A total of 81 non-duplicate S. aureus were isolated from burn patients between April 2011 and February 2012. The susceptibility of the isolates against 13 different antibiotics was tested by disk agar diffusion (DAD) method. MRSA strains were identified by amplification of mecA gene. Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the SCCmec types of MRSA strains and all the S. aureus isolates were typed by spa typing method. Detection of mecA gene showed that 70 (86.4%) of the isolates were MRSA. The highest rate of resistance was observed for penicillin (97.5%) and erythromycin (77.8%). None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Sixty-seven of the 70 MRSA isolates harbored only SCCmec type III and three untypeable isolates. Five different spa types were detected. The most common spa types were t037 (42.5%) and t631 (34.5%) and were only found in MRSA isolates. Only SCCmec type III was found in burn patients which emphasizes the HA-MRSA origin of these strains. Only five different spa types identified in this study are in accordance with one SCCmec type which indicates that a limited number of bacterial colons are circulated in the burn unit in this hospital.

  13. T346Hunter: a novel web-based tool for the prediction of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems in bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Martínez-García

    Full Text Available T346Hunter (Type Three, Four and Six secretion system Hunter is a web-based tool for the identification and localisation of type III, type IV and type VI secretion systems (T3SS, T4SS and T6SS, respectively clusters in bacterial genomes. Non-flagellar T3SS (NF-T3SS and T6SS are complex molecular machines that deliver effector proteins from bacterial cells into the environment or into other eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells, with significant implications for pathogenesis of the strains encoding them. Meanwhile, T4SS is a more functionally diverse system, which is involved in not only effector translocation but also conjugation and DNA uptake/release. Development of control strategies against bacterial-mediated diseases requires genomic identification of the virulence arsenal of pathogenic bacteria, with T3SS, T4SS and T6SS being major determinants in this regard. Therefore, computational methods for systematic identification of these specialised machines are of particular interest. With the aim of facilitating this task, T346Hunter provides a user-friendly web-based tool for the prediction of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS clusters in newly sequenced bacterial genomes. After inspection of the available scientific literature, we constructed a database of hidden Markov model (HMM protein profiles and sequences representing the various components of T3SS, T4SS and T6SS. T346Hunter performs searches of such a database against user-supplied bacterial sequences and localises enriched regions in any of these three types of secretion systems. Moreover, through the T346Hunter server, users can visualise the predicted clusters obtained for approximately 1700 bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. T346Hunter offers great help to researchers in advancing their understanding of the biological mechanisms in which these sophisticated molecular machines are involved. T346Hunter is freely available at http://bacterial-virulence-factors.cbgp.upm.es/T346Hunter.

  14. Titanocene(III)-promoted Barbier-type crotylation of carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Sanz, Iris; Miguel, Delia; Millán, Alba; Estévez, Rosa E; Oller-López, Juan L; Álvarez-Manzaneda, Enrique; Robles, Rafael; Cuerva, Juan M; Justicia, José

    2011-01-21

    A mild, highly regio- and stereoselective method for the crotylation of aldehydes and ketones mediated/catalyzed by titanocene(III) is described. Optimized conditions permit the selective generation of γ-adducts in high yields together with high stereoselectivity, with a predominance of anti stereoisomers.

  15. Mutations in MDH2, Encoding a Krebs Cycle Enzyme, Cause Early-Onset Severe Encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait-El-Mkadem, Samira; Dayem-Quere, Manal; Gusic, Mirjana; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Bannwarth, Sylvie; François, Bérengère; Genin, Emmanuelle C; Fragaki, Konstantina; Volker-Touw, Catharina L M; Vasnier, Christelle; Serre, Valérie; van Gassen, Koen L I; Lespinasse, Françoise; Richter, Susan; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Rouzier, Cécile; Mochel, Fanny; De Saint-Martin, Anne; Abi Warde, Marie-Thérèse; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M; Jans, Judith J M; Amiel, Jeanne; Avsec, Ziga; Mertes, Christian; Haack, Tobias B; Strom, Tim; Meitinger, Thomas; Bonnen, Penelope E; Taylor, Robert W; Gagneur, Julien; van Hasselt, Peter M; Rötig, Agnès; Delahodde, Agnès; Prokisch, Holger; Fuchs, Sabine A; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    MDH2 encodes mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which is essential for the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate as part of the proper functioning of the Krebs cycle. We report bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in MDH2 in three unrelated subjects presenting with early-onset generalized hypotonia

  16. Hemolytic C-type lectin CEL-III from sea cucumber expressed in transgenic mosquitoes impairs malaria parasite development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeto Yoshida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The midgut environment of anopheline mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of the malaria parasite. Using genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes to change the environment in the mosquito midgut may inhibit development of the malaria parasite, thus blocking malaria transmission. Here we generate transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes that express the C-type lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata, in a midgut-specific manner. CEL-III has strong and rapid hemolytic activity toward human and rat erythrocytes in the presence of serum. Importantly, CEL-III binds to ookinetes, leading to strong inhibition of ookinete formation in vitro with an IC(50 of 15 nM. Thus, CEL-III exhibits not only hemolytic activity but also cytotoxicity toward ookinetes. In these transgenic mosquitoes, sporogonic development of Plasmodium berghei is severely impaired. Moderate, but significant inhibition was found against Plasmodium falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of stably engineered anophelines that affect the Plasmodium transmission dynamics of human malaria. Although our laboratory-based research does not have immediate applications to block natural malaria transmission, these findings have significant implications for the generation of refractory mosquitoes to all species of human Plasmodium and elucidation of mosquito-parasite interactions.

  17. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion in a baby with Saethre-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Али Аль-Каисси

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-months old baby of Austrian origin and product of non-consanguineous parents. Abnormal craniofacial contour was the main deformity. The overall clinico-radiographic features were consistent with Saether-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome. Bi-directional sequencing of the exon 8 and of the FGFR3-genes, exons 7 of FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor3 genes, the exon 5 of the FGFR1 gene, revealed no mutations. Sagittal MRI imaging of the spine showed anterior vertebral fusion along the thoraco-lumbar vertebrae compatible with the non-infectious type.

  18. Endoscopic treatment of choledochal cyst type III Tratamento endoscópico de cisto de colédoco do tipo III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Alessi Rodrigues

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Todani type III cysts are not very common disease. Endoscopically the choledochocele is not a challenging diagnosis. Sometimes biliary stone disease is associated and events of cholangitis and pancreatitis may occur. Normally these patients are referred for surgical treatment, mainly because there is a widespread concept that choledocal cysts are very prone to develop neoplasia and must be resected. Nevertheless surgical resection is not free of morbidity. The chance for neoplasia in such cases seems to be related to the presence of pancreaticobiliary reflux towards the common bile duct. AIM: To report a case of endoscopic treatment of choledochal cyst type III with literature review. CASE REPORT: Young man with recurrent abdominal pain, fever and hyperamylasemia. An ERCP showed pancreaticobiliary maljunction and calculus impaction. Papillotomy was performed and complete biliary clearance was achieved. Amylase contents in the common bile duct was measured and normal. Due to absence of pancreatiobiliary reflux, a second endoscopic approach was performed and a wide communication between choledochocele and duodenum was done with diathermy (using the papillotome. The patient recovering was uneventful and in 30 months follow-up he remains asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Since pancreatobiliary reflux is not present, surgical approach of the diverticulum seemed to be not necessary. Endoscopic drainage of choledococele was a good option for conservative treatment.INTRODUÇÃO: Cisto de colédoco do tipo III de Todani não é doença muito comum. Eventualmente pode ocorrer a presença de doença biliar calculosa, que nestes casos estaria associada a eventos de colangite e pancreatite. Normalmente estes pacientes são conduzidos ao tratamento cirúrgico, principalmente porque há conceito difundido de que os cistos de colédoco são muito propensos a desenvolver neoplasia e que a sua presença indicaria ressecção cirúrgica. A chance para

  19. Two-Higgs-doublet type-II and -III models and t → ch at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arhrib, A. [Universite Abdelmalek Essaadi, Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, B. 416, Tangier (Morocco); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China); Benbrik, R. [Cadi Ayyad University, LPHEA, Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); Faculte Polydisciplinaire de Safi, MSISM Team, Sidi Bouzid, B.P 4162, Safi (Morocco); Chen, Chuan-Hung [National Cheng-Kung University, Department of Physics, Tainan (China); Gomez-Bock, Melina [Universidad de las Americas Puebla, DAFM, Cholula, PUE (Mexico); Semlali, Souad [Cadi Ayyad University, LPHEA, Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco)

    2016-06-15

    We study the constraints of the generic two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) type-III and the impacts of the new Yukawa couplings. For comparisons, we revisit the analysis in the 2HDM type-II. To understand the influence of all involving free parameters and to realize their correlations, we employ a χ-square fitting approach by including theoretical and experimental constraints, such as the S, T, and U oblique parameters, the production of standard model Higgs and its decay to γγ, WW*/ZZ*, τ{sup +}τ{sup -}, etc. The errors of the analysis are taken at 68, 95.5, and 99.7% confidence levels. Due to the new Yukawa couplings being associated with cos(β - α) and sin(β - α), we find that the allowed regions for sin α and tan β in the type-III model can be broader when the dictated parameter χ{sub F} is positive; however, for negative χ{sub F}, the limits are stricter than those in the type-II model. By using the constrained parameters, we find that the deviation from the SM in h → Zγ can be of O(10 %). Additionally, we also study the top-quark flavor-changing processes induced at the tree level in the type-III model and find that when all current experimental data are considered, we get Br(t → c(h, H)) < 10{sup -3} for m{sub h} = 125.36 and m{sub h} = 150 GeV, and Br(t → cA) slightly exceeds 10{sup -3} for m{sub A} = 130 GeV. (orig.)

  20. IPS-1 is essential for type III IFN production by hepatocytes and dendritic cells in response to hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masaaki; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Masahiro; Kato, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2014-03-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. The innate immune system is essential for controlling HCV replication, and HCV is recognized by RIG-I and TLR3, which evoke innate immune responses through IPS-1 and TICAM-1 adaptor molecules, respectively. IL-28B is a type III IFN, and genetic polymorphisms upstream of its gene are strongly associated with the efficacy of polyethylene glycol-IFN and ribavirin therapy. As seen with type I IFNs, type III IFNs induce antiviral responses to HCV. Recent studies established the essential role of TLR3-TICAM-1 pathway in type III IFN production in response to HCV infection. Contrary to previous studies, we revealed an essential role of IPS-1 in type III IFN production in response to HCV. First, using IPS-1 knockout mice, we revealed that IPS-1 was essential for type III IFN production by mouse hepatocytes and CD8(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in response to cytoplasmic HCV RNA. Second, we demonstrated that type III IFN induced RIG-I but not TLR3 expression in CD8(+) DCs and augmented type III IFN production in response to cytoplasmic HCV RNA. Moreover, we showed that type III IFN induced cytoplasmic antiviral protein expression in DCs and hepatocytes but failed to promote DC-mediated NK cell activation or cross-priming. Our study indicated that IPS-1-dependent pathway plays a crucial role in type III IFN production by CD8(+) DCs and hepatocytes in response to HCV, leading to cytoplasmic antiviral protein expressions.

  1. Adjusting the log-Pearson type III function to even-aged eucalyptus stands data

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    Daniel Henrique Breda Binoti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the log-Pearson tipo III function to describe the diameter structure of even-aged stands, and propose a diameter distribution model using the function. The modeling function performed by the log-Pearson tipo III was compared with the modeling performed with the Weibull function. For this we used data from permanent plots of eucalyptus, located in the Midwestern region of Minas Gerais. Adherence to the functions of the data was confirmed by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS. The diameter distribution models used were based on models proposed by Nogueira et al. (2005 and were evaluated in terms of RMSE (% and the correlation coefficient between estimated and observed values. All fitting to the data presented adherence by the KS test. All equations fitted for the recovery of the diameter distribution showed high correlation coefficients and can be used for modeling the diameter distribution of eucalyptus.

  2. Multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing Clostridium botulinum group III organisms and their mosaic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Woudstra, Cédric; Fach, Patrick; Fiore, Alfonsina; Skarin, Hanna; Bano, Luca; Segerman, Bo; Knutsson, Rickard; De Medici, Dario

    2013-09-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease that can occur in all warm-blooded animals, birds, and fishes. The disease in animals is mainly caused by toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum strains belonging to group III, although outbreaks due to toxins produced by group I and II organisms have been recognized. Group III strains are capable of producing botulinum toxins of type C, D, and C/D and D/C mosaic variants. Definitive diagnosis of animal botulism is made by combining clinical findings with laboratory investigations. Detection of toxins in clinical specimens and feed is the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis. Since toxins may be degraded by organisms contained in the gastrointestinal tract or may be present at levels below the detection limit, the recovery of C. botulinum from sick animal specimens is consistent for laboratory confirmation. In this article we report the development and in-house validation of a new multiplex real-time PCR for detecting and typing the neurotoxin genes found in C. botulinum group III organisms. Validation procedures have been carried out according to ISO 16140, using strains and samples recovered from cases of animal botulism in Italy and France.

  3. Fine specificity and cross-reactions of monoclonal antibodies to group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincus, Seth H; Moran, Emily; Maresh, Grace

    2012-01-01

    ) is considered the dominant "protective" immune mediator. Here we study the fine specificity and potential host reactivity of a panel of well-characterized murine monoclonal Abs against the type III CPS by examining the binding of the Abs to intact and neuraminidase-digested GBS, purified CPS, synthetic...... carbohydrate structures, and cells. The results showed marked differences in the fine specificity among these mAbs to a single carbohydrate structure. Cross-reactions with synthetic GD3 and GT3 carbohydrates, representing structures found on surfaces of neural and developing cells, were demonstrated using...... serendipitously demonstrated cross-reactions of some anti-CPS(III) mAbs with antigens, likely carbohydrates, found on human leukocytes. These studies suggest caution in the development of a maternal vaccine to prevent infection by this important human pathogen....

  4. A human β-III-spectrin spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 mutation causes high-affinity F-actin binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Adam W.; Crain, Jonathan; Thomas, David D.; Hays, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) is a human neurodegenerative disease that stems from mutations in the SPTBN2 gene encoding the protein β-III-spectrin. Here we investigated the molecular consequence of a SCA5 missense mutation that results in a L253P substitution in the actin-binding domain (ABD) of β-III-spectrin. We report that the L253P substitution in the isolated β-III-spectrin ABD causes strikingly high F-actin binding affinity (Kd = 75.5 nM) compared to the weak F-actin binding affinity of the wild-type ABD (Kd = 75.8 μM). The mutation also causes decreased thermal stability (Tm = 44.6 °C vs 59.5 °C). Structural analyses indicate that leucine 253 is in a loop at the interface of the tandem calponin homology (CH) domains comprising the ABD. Leucine 253 is predicted to form hydrophobic contacts that bridge the CH domains. The decreased stability of the mutant indicates that these bridging interactions are probably disrupted, suggesting that the high F-actin binding affinity of the mutant is due to opening of the CH domain interface. These results support a fundamental role for leucine 253 in regulating opening of the CH domain interface and binding of the ABD to F-actin. This study indicates that high-affinity actin binding of L253P β-III-spectrin is a likely driver of neurodegeneration. PMID:26883385

  5. Activation of Type I and III Interferon Response by Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal MAVS and Inhibition by Hepatitis C Virus.

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    Silke Bender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensing viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRR triggers the innate immune system of the host cell and activates immune signaling cascades such as the RIG-I/IRF3 pathway. Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, also known as IPS-1, Cardif, and VISA is the crucial adaptor protein of this pathway localized on mitochondria, peroxisomes and mitochondria-associated membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Activation of MAVS leads to the production of type I and type III interferons (IFN as well as IFN stimulated genes (ISGs. To refine the role of MAVS subcellular localization for the induction of type I and III IFN responses in hepatocytes and its counteraction by the hepatitis C virus (HCV, we generated various functional and genetic knock-out cell systems that were reconstituted to express mitochondrial (mito or peroxisomal (pex MAVS, exclusively. Upon infection with diverse RNA viruses we found that cells exclusively expressing pexMAVS mounted sustained expression of type I and III IFNs to levels comparable to cells exclusively expressing mitoMAVS. To determine whether viral counteraction of MAVS is affected by its subcellular localization we employed infection of cells with HCV, a major causative agent of chronic liver disease with a high propensity to establish persistence. This virus efficiently cleaves MAVS via a viral protease residing in its nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 and this strategy is thought to contribute to the high persistence of this virus. We found that both mito- and pexMAVS were efficiently cleaved by NS3 and this cleavage was required to suppress activation of the IFN response. Taken together, our findings indicate comparable activation of the IFN response by pex- and mitoMAVS in hepatocytes and efficient counteraction of both MAVS species by the HCV NS3 protease.

  6. Using weakly conserved motifs hidden in secretion signals to identify type-III effectors from bacterial pathogen genomes.

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    Xiaobao Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As one of the most important virulence factor types in gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, type-III effectors (TTEs play a crucial role in pathogen-host interactions by directly influencing immune signaling pathways within host cells. Based on the hypothesis that type-III secretion signals may be comprised of some weakly conserved sequence motifs, here we used profile-based amino acid pair information to develop an accurate TTE predictor. RESULTS: For a TTE or non-TTE, we first used a hidden Markov model-based sequence searching method (i.e., HHblits to detect its weakly homologous sequences and extracted the profile-based k-spaced amino acid pair composition (HH-CKSAAP from the N-terminal sequences. In the next step, the feature vector HH-CKSAAP was used to train a linear support vector machine model, which we designate as BEAN (Bacterial Effector ANalyzer. We compared our method with four existing TTE predictors through an independent test set, and our method revealed improved performance. Furthermore, we listed the most predictive amino acid pairs according to their weights in the established classification model. Evolutionary analysis shows that predictive amino acid pairs tend to be more conserved. Some predictive amino acid pairs also show significantly different position distributions between TTEs and non-TTEs. These analyses confirmed that some weakly conserved sequence motifs may play important roles in type-III secretion signals. Finally, we also used BEAN to scan one plant pathogen genome and showed that BEAN can be used for genome-wide TTE identification. The webserver and stand-alone version of BEAN are available at http://protein.cau.edu.cn:8080/bean/.

  7. IM-1662 Attenuates Radiation-Induced Fibroblast Differentiation through Restoration of TGF-beta type III Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sa Rah; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Hyoung; Lim, Min Jin; Lee, Sae Loom; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institue of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Although pulmonary fibrosis occurs 5-20% of lung cancer patients who underwent radiotherapy, clinically standard treatment for fibrotic disease has not been developed yet. Among fibrosis mediating factors such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), interleukin-13 (IL-13), IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), TGF-beta is considered as a critical mediator in normal wound healing as well as pathological fibrogenic processes. The TGF-beta transmits signals either directly or indirectly through types I, II and III (TbetaRI, II, and III) receptor complexes and activates downstream Smad signaling. The type III TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRIII or betaglycan) is a transmembrane proteoglycan without a functional kinase domain, and is regarded as a co-receptor to increase the affinity of ligand binding to TbetaRII. In addition, TbetaRIII act as a regulator in cell migration, invasion and cell growth in cancer models. However, in contrast to a great number of studies about TGF-beta ligand and TbetaRII signaling, the relationship between TGF-beta and TbetaRIII (or betaglycan) remains largely unknown. In this study, we searched for a new compound which inhibited TGF-beta responses using cell-based chemical screening and investigated the effects of the novel compound on radiation induced myofibroblast differentiation. We suggest that a novel small molecule, pyrazolopyrimidine compound IM-1662, can act as an anti-fibrotic agent through inhibiting expression of TGF-beta receptor type I and type II whereas, preserving the levels of TbetaRIII which seems to act as a negative regulator in TGF-beta signaling

  8. Analysis of viral protein-2 encoding gene of avian encephalomyelitis virus from field specimens in Central Java region, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Avian encephalomyelitis (AE is a viral disease which can infect various types of poultry, especially chicken. In Indonesia, the incidence of AE infection in chicken has been reported since 2009, the AE incidence tends to increase from year to year. The objective of this study was to analyze viral protein 2 (VP-2 encoding gene of AE virus (AEV from various species of birds in field specimen by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR amplification using specific nucleotides primer for confirmation of AE diagnosis. Materials and Methods: A total of 13 AEV samples are isolated from various species of poultry which are serologically diagnosed infected by AEV from some areas in central Java, Indonesia. Research stage consists of virus samples collection from field specimens, extraction of AEV RNA, amplification of VP-2 protein encoding gene by RT-PCR, separation of RT-PCR product by agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing and data analysis. Results: Amplification products of the VP-2 encoding gene of AEV by RT-PCR methods of various types of poultry from field specimens showed a positive results on sample code 499/4/12 which generated DNA fragment in the size of 619 bp. Sensitivity test of RT-PCR amplification showed that the minimum concentration of RNA template is 127.75 ng/μl. The multiple alignments of DNA sequencing product indicated that positive sample with code 499/4/12 has 92% nucleotide homology compared with AEV with accession number AV1775/07 and 85% nucleotide homology with accession number ZCHP2/0912695 from Genbank database. Analysis of VP-2 gene sequence showed that it found 46 nucleotides difference between isolate 499/4/12 compared with accession number AV1775/07 and 93 nucleotides different with accession number ZCHP2/0912695. Conclusions: Analyses of the VP-2 encoding gene of AEV with RT-PCR method from 13 samples from field specimen generated the DNA fragment in the size of 619 bp from one sample with

  9. Differential expression of type III effector BteA protein due to IS481 insertion in Bordetella pertussis.

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    Hyun-Ja Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bordetella pertussis is the primary etiologic agent of the disease pertussis. Universal immunization programs have contributed to a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of pertussis; however, incidence of the disease, especially in adolescents and adults, has increased in several countries despite high vaccination coverage. During the last three decades, strains of Bordetella pertussis in circulation have shifted from the vaccine-type to the nonvaccine-type in many countries. A comparative proteomic analysis of the strains was performed to identify protein(s involved in the type shift. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Proteomic analysis identified one differentially expressed protein in the B. pertussis strains: the type III cytotoxic effector protein BteA, which is responsible for host cell death in Bordetella bronchiseptica infections. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the prominent expression of BteA protein in the nonvaccine-type strains but not in the vaccine-type strains. Sequence analysis of the vaccine-type strains revealed an IS481 insertion in the 5' untranslated region of bteA, -136 bp upstream of the bteA start codon. A high level of bteA transcripts from the IS481 promoter was detected in the vaccine-type strains, indicating that the transcript might be an untranslatable form. Furthermore, BteA mutant studies demonstrated that BteA expression in the vaccine-type strains is down-regulated by the IS481 insertion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The cytotoxic effector BteA protein is expressed at higher levels in B. pertussis nonvaccine-type strains than in vaccine-type strains. This type-dependent expression is due to an insertion of IS481 in B. pertussis clinical strains, suggesting that augmented expression of BteA protein might play a key role in the type shift of B. pertussis.

  10. Training improves oxidative capacity, but not function, in spinal muscular atrophy type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karen Lindhardt; Hansen, Regitze Sølling; Preisler, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    a 12-week training program, performing 42 30-minute sessions exercising at 65-70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ). VO2max , muscle strength, functional tests, and self-reported activities of daily living were assessed before and after the training. RESULTS: Training induced a 27 ± 3% increase in VO2......max (17 ± 2 to 21 ± 2 ml/kg/min, P VO2max in SMA III without causing muscle...

  11. Kubas-type hydrogen storage in V(III) polymers using tri- and tetradentate bridging ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tuan K A; Hamaed, Ahmad; Moula, Golam; Aroca, Ricardo; Trudeau, Michel; Antonelli, David M

    2011-04-01

    Oxalic acid, oxamide, glycolic acid, and glycolamide were employed as 2-carbon linkers to synthesize a series of one-dimensional V(III) polymers from trismesityl vanadium(III)·THF containing a high concentration of low-valent metal sites that can be exploited for Kubas binding in hydrogen storage. Synthesized materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), nitrogen adsorption (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. Because each of these organic linkers possesses a different number of protons and coordinating atoms, the products in each case were expected to have different stoichiometries with respect to the number of mesityl groups eliminated and also a different geometry about the V(III) centers. For example, the oxalate and glycolate polymers contained residual mesityl groups; however, these could be exchanged with hydride via hydrogenolysis. The highest adsorption capacity was recorded on the product of trismesityl vanadium(III)·THF with oxamide (3.49 wt % at 77 K and 85 bar). As suggested by the high enthalpy of adsorption (17.9 kJ/mol H(2)), a substantial degree of performance of the vanadium metal centers was retained at room temperature (25%), corresponding to a gravimetric adsorption of 0.87 wt % at 85 bar, close to the performance of MOF-177 at this temperature and pressure. This is remarkable given the BET surface area of this material is only 9 m(2)/g. A calculation on the basis of thermogravimetric results provides 0.88 hydrogen molecule per vanadium center under these conditions. Raman studies with H(2) and D(2) showed the first unequivocal evidence for Kubas binding on a framework metal in an extended solid, and IR studies demonstrated H(D) exchange of the vanadium hydride with coordinated D(2). These spectroscopic observations are sufficient to assign the rising trends in isosteric heats of hydrogen adsorption observed

  12. [Medium-term outcome, follow-up, and quality of life in children treated for type III esophageal atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeytre, C; De Lagausie, P; Merrot, T; Baumstarck, K; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium-term outcome (health status, medical and surgical French National Health Authority-recommended follow-up, and quality of life) of children born with type III esophageal atresia (EA). Previous events (during the perinatal period, associated abnormalities, respiratory and digestive complications) of children treated for type III EA at the Marseille university hospitals between 1999 and 2009 were noted. Parents completed a standardized questionnaire concerning the health of their children during the previous year, and a quality-of-life questionnaire (PedsQL 4.0) was also completed by children aged more than 8 years. Among the 68 children treated, 44 responded to our solicitation (mean age, 7.6 years; range, 3-12.8 years). Previous important events were : pneumonia(s) (65%), asthma before the age of 3 years (66%), hospitalization for a respiratory event (45%), fundoplication (20%), and esophageal dilatation (45%). We noted current chronic cough (16%), asthma (30%), dysphagia (39%), and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (9%). National guidelines were not respected, except for the surgical indications in children aged less than 6 years. The quality-of-life scores (n=43 children) were similar to healthy controls but were negatively influenced by a gastrostomy procedure (P=0.020), pneumonia (P=0.013), and hospitalization due to a respiratory event (P=0.006) or a digestive event (P=0.010), and also by current asthma (P=0.004). In conclusion, despite recurrent respiratory or digestive symptoms and inadequate recommended follow-up, the quality of life of children treated for type III of EA is good.

  13. Accurate prediction of secreted substrates and identification of a conserved putative secretion signal for type III secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Samudrala

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system is an essential component for virulence in many Gram-negative bacteria. Though components of the secretion system apparatus are conserved, its substrates--effector proteins--are not. We have used a novel computational approach to confidently identify new secreted effectors by integrating protein sequence-based features, including evolutionary measures such as the pattern of homologs in a range of other organisms, G+C content, amino acid composition, and the N-terminal 30 residues of the protein sequence. The method was trained on known effectors from the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and validated on a set of effectors from the animal pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium after eliminating effectors with detectable sequence similarity. We show that this approach can predict known secreted effectors with high specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, by considering a large set of effectors from multiple organisms, we computationally identify a common putative secretion signal in the N-terminal 20 residues of secreted effectors. This signal can be used to discriminate 46 out of 68 total known effectors from both organisms, suggesting that it is a real, shared signal applicable to many type III secreted effectors. We use the method to make novel predictions of secreted effectors in S. Typhimurium, some of which have been experimentally validated. We also apply the method to predict secreted effectors in the genetically intractable human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, identifying the majority of known secreted proteins in addition to providing a number of novel predictions. This approach provides a new way to identify secreted effectors in a broad range of pathogenic bacteria for further experimental characterization and provides insight into the nature of the type III secretion signal.

  14. Accurate prediction of secreted substrates and identification of a conserved putative secretion signal for type III secretion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samudrala, Ram; Heffron, Fred; McDermott, Jason E.

    2009-04-24

    The type III secretion system is an essential component for virulence in many Gram-negative bacteria. Though components of the secretion system apparatus are conserved, its substrates, effector proteins, are not. We have used a machine learning approach to identify new secreted effectors. The method integrates evolutionary measures, such as the pattern of homologs in a range of other organisms, and sequence-based features, such as G+C content, amino acid composition and the N-terminal 30 residues of the protein sequence. The method was trained on known effectors from Salmonella typhimurium and validated on a corresponding set of effectors from Pseudomonas syringae, after eliminating effectors with detectable sequence similarity. The method was able to identify all of the known effectors in P. syringae with a specificity of 84% and sensitivity of 82%. The reciprocal validation, training on P. syringae and validating on S. typhimurium, gave similar results with a specificity of 86% when the sensitivity level was 87%. These results show that type III effectors in disparate organisms share common features. We found that maximal performance is attained by including an N-terminal sequence of only 30 residues, which agrees with previous studies indicating that this region contains the secretion signal. We then used the method to define the most important residues in this putative secretion signal. Finally, we present novel predictions of secreted effectors in S. typhimurium, some of which have been experimentally validated, and apply the method to predict secreted effectors in the genetically intractable human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. This approach is a novel and effective way to identify secreted effectors in a broad range of pathogenic bacteria for further experimental characterization and provides insight into the nature of the type III secretion signal.

  15. Deep vein thrombosis, an unreported first manifestation of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Horsey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman with severe right lower leg pain, edema and erythema was presented to the Emergency Department and was found to have an extensive deep vein thrombosis (DVT confirmed by ultrasound. She underwent an extensive evaluation due to her prior history of malignancy and new hypercoagulable state, but no evidence of recurrent disease was detected. Further investigation revealed pernicious anemia (PA, confirmed by the presence of a macrocytic anemia (MCV=115.8fL/red cell, Hgb=9.0g/dL, decreased serum B12 levels (56pg/mL, with resultant increased methylmalonic acid (5303nmol/L and hyperhomocysteinemia (131μmol/L, the presumed etiology of the DVT. The patient also suffered from autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD, and both antithyroglobulin and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were detected. She responded briskly to anticoagulation with heparin and coumadin and treatment of PA with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections. Our case suggests that a DVT secondary to hyperhomocystenemia may represent the first sign of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III-B (PAS III-B, defined as the coexistent autoimmune conditions AITD and PA. It is important to recognize this clinical entity, as patients may not only require acute treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation and prolonged anticoagulation, as in this patient, but may also harbor other autoimmune diseases.

  16. Crystal structures of type III{sub H} NAD-dependent D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from two thermophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Pampa, K.J. [Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Manjula, M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Hemantha Kumar, G. [Department of Studies in Computer Science, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Kunishima, Naoki [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Lokanath, N.K., E-mail: lokanath@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Determined the crystal structures of PGDH from two thermophiles. • Monomer is composed of nucleotide binding domain and substrate binding domain. • Crystal structures of type III{sub H} PGDH. - Abstract: In the L-Serine biosynthesis, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) catalyzes the inter-conversion of D-3-phosphoglycerate to phosphohydroxypyruvate. PGDH belongs to 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases family. We have determined the crystal structures of PGDH from Sulfolobus tokodaii (StPGDH) and Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhPGDH) using X-ray diffraction to resolution of 1.77 Å and 1.95 Å, respectively. The PGDH protomer from both species exhibits identical structures, consisting of substrate binding domain and nucleotide binding domain. The residues and water molecules interacting with the NAD are identified. The catalytic triad residues Glu-His-Arg are highly conserved. The residues involved in the dimer interface and the structural features responsible for thermostability are evaluated. Overall, structures of PGDHs with two domains and histidine at the active site are categorized as type III{sub H} and such PGDHs structures having this type are reported for the first time.

  17. Two-Higgs-Doublet type-II and -III models and $t\\to c h$ at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arhrib, A; Chen, Chuan-Hung; Gomez-Bock, M; Semlali, S

    2015-01-01

    Based on the updated $8$ TeV LHC data for the Higgs searches, we study the constraints of generic two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) type-III and the impacts of the new Yukawa couplings. For comparisons, we revisit the analysis in 2HDM type-II. For understanding the influence of all involving free parameters and realizing their correlations, we employ $\\chi$-square fitting approach by including theoretical and experimental constraints, such as $B\\to X_s \\gamma$, $B_q-\\bar B_q$ mixing, S, T and U oblique parameters, the production of standard model Higgs and its decay to $\\gamma\\gamma$, $WW^*/ZZ^*$, $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, etc. The errors of analysis are taken at $68\\%$, $95.5\\%$ and $99.7\\%$ confidence level. Due to the new Yukawa couplings being associated with $\\cos(\\alpha-\\beta)$ and $\\sin(\\alpha-\\beta)$, we find that the allowed regions for $\\sin\\alpha$ and $\\tan\\beta$ in type-III could be broader when the dictated parameter $\\chi_F$ is positive; however, for negative $\\chi_F$, the limits are more strict than those ...

  18. Stochastic gradient boosting classification trees for forest fuel types mapping through airborne laser scanning and IRS LISS-III imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirici, G.; Scotti, R.; Montaghi, A.; Barbati, A.; Cartisano, R.; Lopez, G.; Marchetti, M.; McRoberts, R. E.; Olsson, H.; Corona, P.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents an application of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data in conjunction with an IRS LISS-III image for mapping forest fuel types. For two study areas of 165 km2 and 487 km2 in Sicily (Italy), 16,761 plots of size 30-m × 30-m were distributed using a tessellation-based stratified sampling scheme. ALS metrics and spectral signatures from IRS extracted for each plot were used as predictors to classify forest fuel types observed and identified by photointerpretation and fieldwork. Following use of traditional parametric methods that produced unsatisfactory results, three non-parametric classification approaches were tested: (i) classification and regression tree (CART), (ii) the CART bagging method called Random Forests, and (iii) the CART bagging/boosting stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) approach. This contribution summarizes previous experiences using ALS data for estimating forest variables useful for fire management in general and for fuel type mapping, in particular. It summarizes characteristics of classification and regression trees, presents the pre-processing operation, the classification algorithms, and the achieved results. The results demonstrated superiority of the SGB method with overall accuracy of 84%. The most relevant ALS metric was canopy cover, defined as the percent of non-ground returns. Other relevant metrics included the spectral information from IRS and several other ALS metrics such as percentiles of the height distribution, the mean height of all returns, and the number of returns.

  19. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion in a baby with Saethre-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 3-months old baby of Austrian origin and product of non-consanguineous parents. Abnormal craniofacial contour was the main deformity. The overall clinico-radiographic features were consistent with Saether-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome. Bi-directional sequencing of the exon 8 and of the FGFR3-genes, exons 7 of FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor3) genes, the exon 5 of the FGFR1 gene, revealed no mutations. Sagittal MRI imaging of the spine showed anterior ...

  20. H-1 and N-15 resonance assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiselyov, Vladislav V; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth;

    2008-01-01

    We report here the NMR assignment of the second fibronectin type III module of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). This module has previously been shown to interact with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), and the FGFR-binding site was mapped by NMR to the FG-loop region...... of the module. The FG-loop region also contains a putative nucleotide-binding motif, which was shown by NMR to interact with ATP. Furthermore, ATP was demonstrated to inhibit binding of the second F3 module of NCAM to FGFR....

  1. Arabidopsis HFR1 Is a Potential Nuclear Substrate Regulated by the Xanthomonas Type III Effector XopD Xcc8004

    OpenAIRE

    Choon Meng Tan; Meng-Ying Li; Pei-Yun Yang; Shu Heng Chang; Yi-Ping Ho; Hong Lin; Wen-Ling Deng; Jun-Yi Yang

    2015-01-01

    XopD Xcc8004, a type III effector of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) 8004, is considered a shorter version of the XopD, which lacks the N-terminal domain. To understand the functions of XopD Xcc8004, in planta, a transgenic approach combined with inducible promoter to analyze the effects of XopD Xcc8004 in Arabidopsis was done. Here, the expression of XopD Xcc8004, in Arabidopsis elicited the accumulation of host defense-response genes. These molecular changes were dependent on sa...

  2. Self-assembly synthesis, structural features, and photophysical properties of dilanthanide complexes derived from a novel amide type ligand: energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) in a heterodinuclear derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cunji; Kirillov, Alexander M; Dou, Wei; Tang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Liangliang; Yan, Xuhuan; Xie, Yujie; Zang, Peixian; Liu, Weisheng; Tang, Yu

    2014-01-21

    A novel amide type ligand benzyl-N,N-bis[(2'-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl)ethyl]-amine (L) has been designed and applied for the self-assembly generation of homodinuclear lanthanide coordination compounds [Ln2(μ2-L)2(NO3)6(EtOH)2] [Ln = Eu (1), Tb (2), and Gd (3)] and a heterodinuclear derivative [EuTb(μ2-L)2(NO3)6(EtOH)2] (4). All the complexes have been characterized by the X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses. They are isostructural, crystallize in a monoclinic space group P21/c, and form [2 + 2] rectangular macrocycle structures. Compound 4 is the first example of a [2 + 2] rectangular macrocycle heterodinuclear EuTb complex assembled from an amide type ligand. In 4, the discrete 0D dimeric [EuTb(μ2-L)2(NO3)6(EtOH)2] units are extended, via the multiple N-H···O hydrogen bonds, into a 2D supramolecular network that has been topologically classified as a uninodal 4-connected underlying net with the sql [Shubnikov tetragonal plane net] topology. The triplet state ((3)ππ*) of L studied by the Gd(III) complex 3 demonstrated that the ligand beautifully populates Tb(III) emission (Φ = 52%), whereas the corresponding Eu(III) derivative 1 shows weak luminescence efficiency (Φ = 0.7%) because the triplet state of L has a poor match with (5)D1 energy level of Eu(III). Furthermore, the photoluminescent properties of heterodinuclear complex 4 have been compared with those of the analogous homodinuclear compounds. The quantum yield and lifetime measurements prove that energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) is being achieved, namely, that the Tb(III) center is also acting to sensitize the Eu(III) and enhancing Eu(III) emission in 4.

  3. The matlockite-type praseodymium(III oxide bromide PrOBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Talmon-Gros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the praseodymium(III oxide bromide, PrOBr, can be best described with layers of agglomerated square antiprisms [PrO4Br4]9−. These slabs are stacked along the c axis and linked via two different secondary contacts between Pr3+ and Br−. The Pr3+ cations occupy the Wyckoff site 2c with 4mm symmetry and carry four O2− anions as well as four primary Br− anions, yielding a coordination number of 8. While the Br− anions exhibit the same site symmetry as the Pr3+ cations, the oxide anions are located at the Wyckoff position 2a with site symmetry overline{4}m2 and have four Pr3+ cations as neighbours, defining a tetrahedron.

  4. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynda, W J; Lobner, P R; Powell, R W; Straker, E A

    1978-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems.

  5. Deep vein thrombosis, an unreported first manifestation of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P; Oliver, T

    2016-01-01

    Summary A 71-year-old woman with severe right lower leg pain, edema and erythema was presented to the Emergency Department and was found to have an extensive deep vein thrombosis (DVT) confirmed by ultrasound. She underwent an extensive evaluation due to her prior history of malignancy and new hypercoagulable state, but no evidence of recurrent disease was detected. Further investigation revealed pernicious anemia (PA), confirmed by the presence of a macrocytic anemia (MCV=115.8fL/red cell, Hgb=9.0g/dL), decreased serum B12 levels (56pg/mL), with resultant increased methylmalonic acid (5303nmol/L) and hyperhomocysteinemia (131μmol/L), the presumed etiology of the DVT. The patient also suffered from autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), and both antithyroglobulin and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies were detected. She responded briskly to anticoagulation with heparin and coumadin and treatment of PA with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections. Our case suggests that a DVT secondary to hyperhomocystenemia may represent the first sign of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome III-B (PAS III-B), defined as the coexistent autoimmune conditions AITD and PA. It is important to recognize this clinical entity, as patients may not only require acute treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation and prolonged anticoagulation, as in this patient, but may also harbor other autoimmune diseases. Learning points A DVT can be the first physical manifestation of a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. Hyperhomocysteinemia secondary to pernicious anemia should be considered as an etiology of an unprovoked DVT in a euthyroid patient with autoimmune thyroid disease. Patients with DVT secondary to hyperhomocysteinemia should undergo screening for the presence of co-existent autoimmune diseases in addition to treatment with B12 supplementation and anticoagulation to prevent recurrent thromboembolism. PMID:27482386

  6. Crystal structure of the Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex in the type III-A CRISPR-Cas interference complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomoyuki; Inanaga, Hideko; Sato, Chikara; Osawa, Takuo

    2015-01-30

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci play a pivotal role in the prokaryotic host defense system against invading genetic materials. The CRISPR loci are transcribed to produce CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), which form interference complexes with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to target the invading nucleic acid for degradation. The interference complex of the type III-A CRISPR-Cas system is composed of five Cas proteins (Csm1-Csm5) and a crRNA, and targets invading DNA. Here, we show that the Csm1, Csm3, and Csm4 proteins from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii form a stable subcomplex. We also report the crystal structure of the M. jannaschii Csm3-Csm4 subcomplex at 3.1Å resolution. The complex structure revealed the presence of a basic concave surface around their interface, suggesting the RNA and/or DNA binding ability of the complex. A gel retardation analysis showed that the Csm3-Csm4 complex binds single-stranded RNA in a non-sequence-specific manner. Csm4 structurally resembles Cmr3, a component of the type III-B CRISPR-Cas interference complex. Based on bioinformatics, we constructed a model structure of the Csm1-Csm4-Csm3 ternary complex, which provides insights into its role in the Csm interference complex.

  7. The inner rod protein controls substrate switching and needle length in a Salmonella type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebre, Matthew D; Galán, Jorge E

    2014-01-14

    Type III secretion machines are essential for the biology of many bacteria that are pathogenic or symbiotic for animals, plants, or insects. They exert their function by delivering bacterial effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells. The core component of these machines is the needle complex, a multiprotein structure that spans the bacterial envelope and serves as a conduit for proteins that transit this secretion pathway. The needle complex is composed of a multiring base embedded in the bacterial envelope and a filament-like structure, the needle, that projects from the bacterial surface and is linked to the base by the inner rod. Assembly of the needle complex proceeds in a step-wise fashion that is initiated by the assembly of the base and is followed by the export of the building subunits for the needle and inner rod substructures. Once assembled, the needle complex reprograms its specificity and becomes competent for the secretion of effector proteins. Here through genetic, biochemical, and electron microscopy analyses of the Salmonella inner rod protein subunit PrgJ we present evidence that the assembly of the inner rod dictates the timing of substrate switching and needle length. Furthermore, the identification of mutations in PrgJ that specifically alter the hierarchy of protein secretion provides additional support for a complex role of the inner rod substructure in type III secretion.

  8. Re-evaluating the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis during initiation of DNA sliding by Type III restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; Bollins, Jack; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2015-12-15

    DNA cleavage by the Type III restriction enzymes requires long-range protein communication between recognition sites facilitated by thermally-driven 1D diffusion. This 'DNA sliding' is initiated by hydrolysis of multiple ATPs catalysed by a helicase-like domain. Two distinct ATPase phases were observed using short oligoduplex substrates; the rapid consumption of ∼10 ATPs coupled to a protein conformation switch followed by a slower phase, the duration of which was dictated by the rate of dissociation from the recognition site. Here, we show that the second ATPase phase is both variable and only observable when DNA ends are proximal to the recognition site. On DNA with sites more distant from the ends, a single ATPase phase coupled to the conformation switch was observed and subsequent site dissociation required little or no further ATP hydrolysis. The overall DNA dissociation kinetics (encompassing site release, DNA sliding and escape via a DNA end) were not influenced by the second phase. Although the data simplifies the ATP hydrolysis scheme for Type III restriction enzymes, questions remain as to why multiple ATPs are hydrolysed to prepare for DNA sliding.

  9. Dissociation from DNA of Type III Restriction-Modification enzymes during helicase-dependent motion and following endonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Júlia; van Aelst, Kara; Salmons, Hannah; Szczelkun, Mark D

    2012-08-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III Restriction-Modification (RM) enzymes requires the binding of a pair of RM enzymes at two distant, inversely orientated recognition sequences followed by helicase-catalysed ATP hydrolysis and long-range communication. Here we addressed the dissociation from DNA of these enzymes at two stages: during long-range communication and following DNA cleavage. First, we demonstrated that a communicating species can be trapped in a DNA domain without a recognition site, with a non-specific DNA association lifetime of ∼ 200 s. If free DNA ends were present the lifetime became too short to measure, confirming that ends accelerate dissociation. Secondly, we observed that Type III RM enzymes can dissociate upon DNA cleavage and go on to cleave further DNA molecules (they can 'turnover', albeit inefficiently). The relationship between the observed cleavage rate and enzyme concentration indicated independent binding of each site and a requirement for simultaneous interaction of at least two enzymes per DNA to achieve cleavage. In light of various mechanisms for helicase-driven motion on DNA, we suggest these results are most consistent with a thermally driven random 1D search model (i.e. 'DNA sliding').

  10. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Characterization of the Type III Secretion System Tip Chaperone Protein PcrG of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sukanya; Nordhues, Bryce A; Kaur, Kawaljit; Zhang, Na; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2015-11-01

    Lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of death among cystic fibrosis patients. To initiate infection, P. aeruginosa assembles a protein nanomachine, the type III secretion system (T3SS), to inject bacterial proteins directly into target host cells. An important regulator of the P. aeruginosa T3SS is the chaperone protein PcrG, which forms a complex with the tip protein, PcrV. In addition to its role as a chaperone to the tip protein, PcrG also regulates protein secretion. PcrG homologues are also important in the T3SS of other pathogens such as Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague. The atomic structure of PcrG or any member of the family of tip protein chaperones is currently unknown. Here, we show by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that PcrG lacks a tertiary structure. However, it is not completely disordered but contains secondary structures dominated by two long α-helices from residue 16 to 41 and from residue 55 to 76. The helices of PcrG are partially formed, have similar backbone dynamics, and are flexible. NMR titrations show that the entire length of PcrG residues from position 9 to 76 is involved in binding to PcrV. PcrG adds to the growing list of partially folded or unstructured proteins with important roles in type III secretion.

  11. Asphalt fume dermal carcinogenicity potential: II. Initiation-promotion assay of Type III built-up roofing asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James J; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Beazley, S; Burnett, Donald M; Clark, Charles R; Mahagaokar, Suneeta; Parker, Craig M; Stewart, Christopher W; Swanson, Mark S; Arp, Earl W

    2011-10-01

    Clark et al. (accepted for publication) reported that a sample of field-matched fume condensate from a Type III built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) resulted in a carcinogenic response in a mouse skin bioassay, with relatively few tumor-bearing animals, long tumor latency and chronic skin irritation. This mouse skin initiation/promotion study was conducted to assess possible mechanisms, i.e., genotoxic initiation vs. tumor promotion subsequent to repeated skin injury and repair. The same Type III BURA fume condensate sample was evaluated in groups of 30 male Crl:CD1® mice by skin application twice per week (total dose of 50 mg/week) for 2 weeks during the initiation phase and for 26 weeks during the promotion phase. Positive control substances were 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA, 50 μg applied once) as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA, 5 μg, applied twice weekly) during the promotion phase. During the 6 months of study with the asphalt fume condensate, eight skin masses were observed when tested for initiation, five of which were confirmed microscopically to be benign squamous cell papillomas. Only two papillomas were observed when tested for promotion. There was no apparent relationship between skin irritation and tumor development in this study. These results are more indicative of genotoxicity rather than a non-genotoxic mode of action.

  12. Functional insights into the Shigella type III needle tip IpaD in secretion control and cell contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavolin, Lionel; Meghraoui, Alaeddine; Cherradi, Youness; Biskri, Latéfa; Botteaux, Anne; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaïm

    2013-04-01

    Type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) are complex nanomachines that insert a translocation pore into the host cell membrane through which effector proteins are injected into the cytosol. In Shigella, the pore is inserted by a needle tip complex that also controls secretion. IpaD is the key protein that rules the composition of the tip complex before and upon cell contact or Congo red (CR) induction. However, how IpaD is involved in secretion control and translocon insertion remains not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotypic analysis of 20 10-amino acids deletion variants all along the coiled-coil and the central domains of IpaD (residues 131-332). Our results highlight three classes of T3S phenotype; (i) wild-type secretion, (ii) constitutive secretion of all classes of effectors, and (iii) constitutive secretion of translocators and early effectors, but not of late effectors. Our data also suggest that the composition of the tip complex defines both the T3SA inducibility state and late effectors secretion. Finally, we shed light on a new aspect regarding the contact of the needle tip with cell membrane by uncoupling the Shigella abilities to escape macrophage vacuole, and to insert the translocation pore or to invade non-phagocytic cells.

  13. Clonal structure of Trypanosoma cruzi Colombian strain (biodeme Type III: biological, isoenzymic and histopathological analysis of seven isolated clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camandaroba Edson Luiz Paes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The clonal structure of the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi, biodeme Type III and zymodeme 1, was analyzed in order to characterize its populations and to establish its homogeneity or heterogeneity. Seven isolated clones presented the basic characteristics of Biodeme Type III, with the same patterns of parasitemic curves, tissue tropism to skeletal muscle and myocardium, high pathogenicity with extensive necrotic-inflammatory lesions from the 20th to 30th day of infection. The parental strain and its clones C1, C3, C4 and C6, determined the higher levels of parasitemia, 20 to 30 days of infection, with high mortality rate up to 30 days (79 to 100%; clones C2, C5 and C7 presented lower levels of parasitemia, with low mortality rates (7.6 to 23%. Isoenzymic patterns, characteristic of zymodeme 1, (Z1 were similar for the parental strain and its seven clones. Results point to a phenotypic homogeneity of the clones isolated from the Colombian strain and suggest the predominance of a principal clone, responsible for the biological behavior of the parental strain and clones.

  14. Axonal Type III Nrg1 Controls Glutamate Synapse Formation and GluA2 Trafficking in Hippocampal-Accumbens Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmentin, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Altered neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)/ErbB signaling and glutamatergic hypofunction have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Here, we employed gene chimeric ventral hippocampus (vHipp)-nucleus accumbens (nAcc) coculture from mouse, electrophysiology, immunocytochemistry, FM1-43 vesicle fusion, and electron microscopy techniques to examine the pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms of genetic deficits in Nrg1/ErbB signaling-induced glutamatergic dysfunctions. Reduced presynaptic type III Nrg1 expression along vHipp axons decreases the number of glutamate synapses and impairs GluA2 trafficking in the postsynaptic nAcc neurons, resulting in decreased frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs). Reduced expression of axonal type III Nrg1 along vHipp projections also decreases functional synaptic vesicle (SV) clustering and vesicular trafficking to presynaptic vHipp axonal terminals. These findings suggest that Nrg1/ErbB signaling modulate glutamatergic transmission via both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. PMID:28275713

  15. IgG kappa monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance presenting as acquired type III Von Willebrand syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christin R; Lin, Tara L; Cunningham, Mark T; Lipe, Brea C

    2014-09-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder associated with hematoproliferative disorders, autoimmune conditions, neoplasia and cardiovascular disorders that often present a diagnostic challenge. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is one of the most common causes of AVWS that typically presents later in life with mucocutaneous or postsurgical bleeding and multimers consistent with type I or II von Willebrand disease (VWD). Here, we present the case of a patient with a 32-year history of type III VWD that was ultimately found to be AVWS related to an IgG MGUS. In this case report, we highlight the diagnostic challenges of AVWS to ensure proper identification and potentially lifesaving treatment of this rare disorder.

  16. The noncanonical type III secretion system of Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis is essential for forage grass infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Hersemann, Lena; Widmer, Franco; Blom, Jochen; Niehaus, Karsten; Reinhard, Sonja; Conradin, Constanze; Kölliker, Roland

    2013-08-01

    Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is a gammaproteobacterium that causes bacterial wilt on a wide range of forage grasses. To gain insight into the host-pathogen interaction and to identify the virulence factors of Xtg, we compared a draft genome sequence of one isolate (Xtg29) with other Xanthomonas spp. with sequenced genomes. The type III secretion system (T3SS) encoding a protein transport system for type III effector (T3E) proteins represents one of the most important virulence factors of Xanthomonas spp. In contrast with other Xanthomonas spp. assigned to clade 1 on the basis of phylogenetic analyses, we identified an hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) gene cluster encoding T3SS components and a representative set of 35 genes encoding putative T3Es in the genome of Xtg29. The T3SS was shown to be divergent from the hrp gene clusters of other sequenced Xanthomonas spp. Xtg mutants deficient in T3SS regulating and structural genes were constructed to clarify the role of the T3SS in forage grass colonization. Italian ryegrass infection with these mutants led to significantly reduced symptoms (P < 0.05) relative to plants infected with the wild-type strain. This showed that the T3SS is required for symptom evocation. In planta multiplication of the T3SS mutants was not impaired significantly relative to the wild-type, indicating that the T3SS is not required for survival until 14 days post-infection. This study represents the first major step to understanding the bacterial colonization strategies deployed by Xtg and may assist in the identification of resistance (R) genes in forage grasses.

  17. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 additional O-type systems

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz; Arias, J I; Barbá, R H; Walborn, N R; Simón-Díaz, S; Negueruela, I; Marco, A; Leão, J R S; Herrero, A; Gamen, R C; Alfaro, E J

    2016-01-01

    This is the third installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R~2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s), of which 6 are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary (SB3) of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. (2016).

  18. The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). III. 142 Additional O-type Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.; Sota, A.; Arias, J. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Walborn, N. R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Leão, J. R. S.; Herrero, A.; Gamen, R. C.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2016-05-01

    This is the third installment of the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS), a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ˜ 2500 digital observations selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog. In this paper, we present 142 additional stellar systems with O stars from both hemispheres, bringing the total of O-type systems published within the project to 590. Among the new objects, there are 20 new O stars. We also identify 11 new double-lined spectroscopic binaries, 6 of which are of O+O type and 5 of O+B type, and an additional new tripled-lined spectroscopic binary of O+O+B type. We also revise some of the previous GOSSS classifications, present some egregious examples of stars erroneously classified as O-type in the past, introduce the use of luminosity class IV at spectral types O4-O5.5, and adapt the classification scheme to the work of Arias et al. The GOSSS spectroscopic data in this article were gathered with five facilities: the 1.5 m Telescope at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (OSN), the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO), the 3.5 m Telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA), and the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM).

  19. Type 1 AGN at low z. III. The optical narrow line ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We present the optical narrow line ratios in an SDSS based sample of 3,175 broad Ha selected type 1 AGN, and explore their positions in the BPT diagrams as a function of the AGN and the host properties. We find the following: 1. The luminosities of all measured narrow lines (Ha, Hb, [OIII], [NII], [SII], [OI]) show a Baldwin relation relative to the broad Ha luminosity L_bHa, with slopes in the range of 0.53-0.72. 2. About 20% of the type 1 AGN reside within the `Composite' and `SF' regions of the BPT diagrams. These objects also show excess narrow Ha and UV luminosities, for their L_bHa, consistent with contribution from star formation which dominates the narrow lines emission, as expected from their positions in the BPT diagrams. 3. The type 1 which reside within the AGN region in the BPT diagrams, are offset to lower [SII]/Ha and [NII]/Ha luminosity ratios, compared to type 2 AGN. This offset is a selection effect, related to the lower AGN/host luminosity selection of the type 2 AGN selected from the SDSS ...

  20. DETERMINATION OF CORROSION INHIBITOR CRITERIA FOR TYPE III/IIIA TANKS DURING SALT DISSOLUTION OPERATIONS SUMMARY DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.

    2009-10-01

    Dissolution of salt from Type III/IIIA waste tanks at the Savannah River Site may create solutions with inhibitor concentrations below those currently required (0.6M OH{sup -} and 1.1M OH{sup -} + NO{sub 2}{sup -}) per the Corrosion Control Program for high nitrate salt solutions (5.5 to 8.5M NO{sub 3}{sup -}). An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of grade A537 carbon steel for waste simulants containing 4.5-8.5M NaNO{sub 3} with maximum inhibitor concentrations of 0.6M NaOH and 0.2M NaNO{sub 2}. These maximum inhibitor concentrations used in this program are at a reduced level from those currently required. Current requirements were initially established for the Types I, II and IV tanks made of A285 carbon steel. The experimental program involved corrosion testing to evaluate the pitting and stress corrosion stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of the Type III/IIIA waste tank materials. The program was conducted in two phases; the results of the first phase were reported previously (WSRC-STI-2006-00029). In this second phase, the corrosion specimens were modified to represent the 'as-fabricated' condition of the tank wall, and included specimens with mill scale, ground welds and stress-relief heat treatments. The complete description of the corrosion testing and the results are reported herein. The collective corrosion test results for A537 carbon steel in high nitrate waste simulants (4.5 - 8.5M) with the maximum inhibitor concentrations of 0.6M NaOH and 0.2M NaNO{sub 2} were as follows: (1) In long-term non-polarized U-bend testing, heat treatment, similar to the waste tank stress relief regime, reduced the incidence of cracking over the 18-month test period. Vapor space SCC was found to initiate on non-heat treated U-bend coupons. (2) In polarized U-bend testing, cracking occurred on U-bend coupons that had welds prepared similar to those in the waste tanks, i.e. ground and heat treated. (3) In

  1. Acute downregulation of Type II and Type III iodothyronine deiodinases by photoperiod in peripubertal male and female Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf-Lassin, August; Prendergast, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Availability of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in the mediobasal hypothalamus plays a central role in seasonal reproductive responses to photoperiod. Across many vertebrates, Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2) is elevated under reproductively stimulatory long days (LD) and synthesizes the conversion of thyroxine to T3; Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) reduces T3 production and signaling, and is upregulated under reproductively-inhibitory short days (SD). In Siberian hamsters, regulation of hypothalamic T3 is dominated by dio3 expression, whereas dio2 expression is less-consistently affected by photoperiod. In adult hamsters, changes in deiodinase mRNA expression typically require several weeks to manifest, but it is not known whether or how quickly these mechanisms are engaged during the rapid responses to photoperiod observed in young, peri-pubertal hamsters. This experiment tested the hypotheses that (1) deiodinase responses to photoperiod are accelerated in juvenile hamsters and (2) photoperiodic downregulation of deiodinase expression occurs more rapidly than upregulation. Hypothalamic dio2 and dio3 mRNA expression was quantified in male and female Siberian hamsters that were weaned on postnatal day 18 (PND 18) into SD or remained in their natal LD, and on PND 31 were exposed to a single long or short day. In SD males and females, a single long day inhibited dio3 mRNA expression, but did not increase dio2 mRNA. In LD males, a single short day rapidly inhibited dio2 mRNA expression, but did not stimulate expression of dio3 mRNA. Downregulation of dio2 and dio3 mRNAs precedes gonadotrophin responses to day length. Rapid photoperiodic inhibition of deiodinase mRNAs may initiate changes in thyroid hormone signaling in advance of longer-term, melatonin-dependent, responses.

  2. Galaxy populations in the Antlia cluster - III. Properties of faint early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Castelli, Analia V Smith; Faifer, Favio R; Bassino, Lilia P; Richtler, Tom; Romero, Gisela A; Calderon, Juan Pablo; Caso, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    (Abridge) We present a new analysis of the early-type galaxy population in the central region of the Antlia cluster, focusing on the faint systems like dwarf ellipticals (dE) and dwarf spheroidals (dSph). We confirm 22 early-type galaxies as Antlia members, using GEMINI-GMOS and MAGELLAN-MIKE spectra. Among them, 2 belong to the rare type of compact ellipticals (cE), and 5 are new faint dwarfs that had never been catalogued before. In addition, we present 16 newly identified low surface brightness galaxy candidates, almost half of them displaying morphologies consistent with being Antlia's counterparts of Local Group dSphs, that extend the faint luminosity limit of our study down to MB = -10.1 (BT = 22.6) mag. We built an improved CMR in the Washington photometric system, i.e. integrated T1 magnitudes versus (C - T1) colours, which extends \\sim 4 mag faintwards the limit of spectroscopically confirmed Antlia members. When only confirmed early-type members are considered, this relation extends over 10 mag in l...

  3. High Dispersion Spectroscopy of Solar-type Superflare Stars. III. Lithium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    We report on the abundance analysis of Li in solar-type (G-type main sequence) superflare stars which were found by the analysis of Kepler photometric data. Li is a key element to understand the evolution of the stellar convection zone which reflects the age of solar-type stars. We performed the high dispersion spectroscopy of solar-type superflare stars with Subaru/HDS, and confirmed that 34 stars show no evidence of binarity in our previous study. In this study, we derived the Li abundances of these 34 objects. We investigate correlations of Li abundance with stellar atmospheric parameters, rotational velocity, and superflare activities to understand the nature of superflare stars and the possibility of the nucleosynthesis of Li by superflares. We confirm the large dispersion in the Li abundance, and the correlation with stellar parameters is not seen. As compared with the Li abundance in Hyades cluster which is younger than the Sun, it is suggested that half of the observed stars are younger than Hyades cl...

  4. Type III interferon protects swine against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years we have developed novel strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) including the use of biotherapeutics such as interferons (IFN) delivered by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Swine can be sterilely protected after vaccination with an Ad5 that encodes po...

  5. Altered spatiotemporal expression of collagen types I, III, IV, and VI in Lpar3-deficient peri-implantation mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Honglu; Aplin, John D; Xiao, Shuo; Chun, Jerold; Li, Zuguo; Chen, Shiyou; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2011-02-01

    Lpar3 is upregulated in the preimplantation uterus, and deletion of Lpar3 leads to delayed uterine receptivity in mice. Microarray analysis revealed that there was higher expression of Col3a1 and Col6a3 in the Preimplantation Day 3.5 Lpar3(-/-) uterus compared to Day 3.5 wild-type (WT) uterus. Since extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is indispensable during embryo implantation, and dynamic spatiotemporal alteration of specific collagen types is part of this process, this study aimed to characterize the expression of four main uterine collagen types: fibril-forming collagen (COL) I and COL III, basement membrane COL IV, and microfibrillar COL VI in the peri-implantation WT and Lpar3(-/-) uterus. An observed delay of COL III and COL VI clearance in the Lpar3(-/-) uterus may be associated with higher preimplantation expression of Col3a1 and Col6a3. There was also delayed clearance of COL I and delayed deposition of COL IV in the decidual zone in the Lpar3(-/-) uterus. These changes were different from the effects of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on uterine collagen expression in ovariectomized WT uterus, indicating that the altered collagen expression in Lpar3(-/-) uterus is unlikely to be a result of alterations in ovarian hormones. Decreased expression of several genes encoding matrix-degrading metallo- and serine proteinases was observed in the Lpar3(-/-) uterus. These results demonstrate that pathways downstream of LPA3 are involved in the dynamic remodeling of ECM in the peri-implantation uterus.

  6. Neonatal infection with neurotropic influenza A virus affects working memory and expression of type III Nrg1 in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Linnéa; Beraki, Simret; Kristensson, Krister; Ogren, Sven Ove; Karlsson, Håkan

    2009-08-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that early life infections may contribute to the development of psychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive deficits. Here, we studied the effects of a neonatal influenza A/WSN/33 virus infection on locomotor activity, working memory and emotional behavior in adult mice. In addition to wild type mice, immunodeficient (Tap1(-/-)) mice lacking functional CD8(+) T cells, were included in the study to model the potential influence of a genetic deficit relating to virus clearance. Three to four months after the infection, infected Tap1(-/-) mice, but not wild type mice, exhibited deficits in working memory as well as increased rearing activity and anxiety. In the medial prefrontal cortices of these infected Tap1(-/-) mice reduced levels of type III Nrg1 transcripts were observed supporting a role for neuregulin 1 signaling in neuronal circuits involved in working memory. Virus replication, distribution or clearance did not differ between the two genotypes. The lack of CD8(+) T cells, however, appeared to contribute to a more pronounced glia response in Tap1(-/-) than in wild type mice. Thus, the present study suggest that the risk of developing deficits in cognitive and emotional behavior following a CNS infection during brain development is influenced by genetic variation in genes involved in the immune response.

  7. Type III frontal sinusotomy: surgical technique, indications, outcomes, a multi-university retrospective study of 120 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, P; Vlaminck, S; Jorissen, M; Hellings, P; Timmermans, M; Daele, J; Ransky, P; Hassid, S; Van Zele, T; Bachert, C; Poirrier, A L; Bertrand, B

    2011-01-01

    Draf in 1991. The procedure--which is also known as the modified endoscopic Lothrop procedure--aims to create the largest possible anteroposterior and lateral to lateral opening between both frontal sinuses and the nasal cavities. This requires the resection of the medial floor of both frontal sinuses, the intersinus septum and the superior nasal septum. The authors present a retrospective study including a cohort of 120 patients who underwent surgery in six Belgian university ENT departments. Mean follow-up was 24.6 months (range: 5-36 months). This paper describes the surgical procedure and reviews the indications, comorbidities, outcomes and complications of the type III frontal sinusotomy. Some correlations are also established with the data published in the worldwide literature. The authors conclude that the Draf III is a demanding procedure requiring considerable expertise in endoscopic sinus surgery. The procedure is effective with a success rate of 87.5%. Indeed, 12.5% of patients only experienced closure of the neoostium while 20% of all the patients had unchanged or worse symptomatology. The percentage of post-operative complications is 7.5%. All complications were managed successfully.

  8. Reemergence of dengue virus type-3 (subtype-III in India: Implications for increased incidence of DHF & DSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewari KN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus infection has recently taken endemic proportion in India implicating all the four known dengue serotypes. There was a major dengue outbreak in northern India including Delhi in October- December, 2003 and again in 2004. We have carried out a detailed investigation of the 2004 outbreak by Serosurveillance, RT-PCR, nested PCR, virus isolation and genotyping. We also report the molecular epidemiological investigation of these outbreaks. Results The serological investigation of 162 suspected serum samples using an in-house dengue dipstick ELISA revealed 11%-IgM, 51%-IgG and 38%-both IgM and IgG antibody positivity. The RT-PCR analysis revealed presence of dengue RNA in 17 samples. Further subtyping and genotyping by nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing of C-prM gene junction revealed the association of subtype III of dengue virus type 3 in the outbreak. Conclusion The sudden shifting and dominance of the dengue virus serotype-3 (subtype III replacing the earlier circulating serotype-2 (subtype IV is a point of major concern and may be attributed to increased incidence of DHF and DSS in India.

  9. On the molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein deficiency type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija L Mehtälä

    Full Text Available Molecular basis of D-bifunctional protein (D-BP deficiency was studied with wild type and five disease-causing variants of 3R-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase fragment of the human MFE-2 (multifunctional enzyme type 2 protein. Complementation analysis in vivo in yeast and in vitro enzyme kinetic and stability determinants as well as in silico stability and structural fluctuation calculations were correlated with clinical data of known patients. Despite variations not affecting the catalytic residues, enzyme kinetic performance (K(m, V(max and k(cat of the recombinant protein variants were compromised to a varying extent and this can be judged as the direct molecular cause for D-BP deficiency. Protein stability plays an additional role in producing non-functionality of MFE-2 in case structural variations affect cofactor or substrate binding sites. Structure-function considerations of the variant proteins matched well with the available data of the patients.

  10. STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE INDUCING TRANSFORMATION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES : INDUCTION OF TRANSFORMATION BY A DESOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID FRACTION ISOLATED FROM PNEUMOCOCCUS TYPE III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, O T; Macleod, C M; McCarty, M

    1944-02-01

    1. From Type III pneumococci a biologically active fraction has been isolated in highly purified form which in exceedingly minute amounts is capable under appropriate cultural conditions of inducing the transformation of unencapsulated R variants of Pneumococcus Type II into fully encapsulated cells of the same specific type as that of the heat-killed microorganisms from which the inducing material was recovered. 2. Methods for the isolation and purification of the active transforming material are described. 3. The data obtained by chemical, enzymatic, and serological analyses together with the results of preliminary studies by electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and ultraviolet spectroscopy indicate that, within the limits of the methods, the active fraction contains no demonstrable protein, unbound lipid, or serologically reactive polysaccharide and consists principally, if not solely, of a highly polymerized, viscous form of desoxyribonucleic acid. 4. Evidence is presented that the chemically induced alterations in cellular structure and function are predictable, type-specific, and transmissible in series. The various hypotheses that have been advanced concerning the nature of these changes are reviewed.

  11. Tissue elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the characteristics of collagen type I and type III in prostatic stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prostate elasticity displayed by elastography and its correlation with the content and distribution of collagen type I (Col1 and type III (Col3. A total of 62 patients underwent transrectal real-time tissue elastography (TRTE examinations. Targeted biopsies were performed after 12-core systematic biopsy. The tissues corresponding to the elastograms were stained with picric acid-sirius red. The distribution of Col1 and type Col3 was observed, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF of these two types of collagen fibers was calculated. The CVFs of Col1 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.01 (P = 0.002, respectively. The CVFs of Col3 in the stiff and soft groups were 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P = 0.13, respectively. The circular analysis results showed that collagen fibers were disorganized both in the soft and stiff groups. Col1 and Col3 were mainly cross-linked, and some parallelization was observed in the sections. The distributions of Col1 and Col3 were different between the stiff and soft groups (P = 0.03. In conclusion, the texture of the prostate is due to the content of Col1 and its relative correlation with Col3.

  12. An archaeal CRISPR type III-B system exhibiting distinctive RNA targeting features and mediating dual RNA and DNA interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang; Feng, Mingxia; Feng, Xu

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide a small RNA-based mechanism to defend against invasive genetic elements in archaea and bacteria. To investigate the in vivo mechanism of RNA interference by two type III-B systems (Cmr-α and Cmr-β) in Sulfolobus islandicus, a genetic assay was developed using plasmids...... carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR (AC) locus with a single spacer. After pAC plasmids were introduced into different strains, Northern analyses confirmed that mature crRNAs were produced from the plasmid-borne CRISPR loci, which then guided gene silencing to target gene expression. Spacer mutagenesis....... islandicus Cmr-α mediated transcription-dependent DNA interference, the Cmr-α constitutes the first CRISPR system exhibiting dual targeting of RNA and DNA....

  13. Physeal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula (Salter-Harris Type I, II, III, and IV fractures).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeszwa, David A; Mubarak, Scott J

    2012-06-01

    Physeal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula are common and can be seen at any age, although most are seen in the adolescent. An understanding of the unique anatomy of the skeletally immature ankle in relation to the mechanism of injury will help one understand the injury patterns seen in this population. A thorough clinical exam is critical to the diagnosis and treatment of these injuries and the avoidance of potentially catastrophic complications. Nondisplaced physeal fractures of the distal tibia and fibula can be safely treated nonoperatively. Displaced fractures should undergo a gentle reduction with appropriate anesthesia while multiple reduction attempts should be avoided. Gapping of the physis >3 mm after reduction should raise the suspicion of entrapped periosteum that will increase the risk of premature physeal closure. Open reduction of displaced Salter-Harris type III and IV fractures is critical to maintain joint congruity and minimize the risk of physeal arrest.

  14. Utilizing avidity to improve antifreeze protein activity: a type III antifreeze protein trimer exhibits increased thermal hysteresis activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Özge; Holland, Nolan B

    2013-12-03

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are ice growth inhibitors that allow the survival of several species living at temperatures colder than the freezing point of their bodily fluids. AFP activity is commonly defined in terms of thermal hysteresis, which is the difference observed for the solution freezing and melting temperatures. Increasing the thermal hysteresis activity of these proteins, particularly at low concentrations, is of great interest because of their wide range of potential applications. In this study, we have designed and expressed one-, two-, and three-domain antifreeze proteins to improve thermal hysteresis activity through increased binding avidity. The three-domain type III AFP yielded significantly greater activity than the one- and two-domain proteins, reaching a thermal hysteresis of >1.6 °C at a concentration of hysteresis activity.

  15. An archaeal CRISPR type III-B system exhibiting distinctive RNA targeting features and mediating dual RNA and DNA interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang; Feng, Mingxia; Feng, Xu;

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide a small RNA-based mechanism to defend against invasive genetic elements in archaea and bacteria. To investigate the in vivo mechanism of RNA interference by two type III-B systems (Cmr-α and Cmr-β) in Sulfolobus islandicus, a genetic assay was developed using plasmids....... islandicus Cmr-α mediated transcription-dependent DNA interference, the Cmr-α constitutes the first CRISPR system exhibiting dual targeting of RNA and DNA....... carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR (AC) locus with a single spacer. After pAC plasmids were introduced into different strains, Northern analyses confirmed that mature crRNAs were produced from the plasmid-borne CRISPR loci, which then guided gene silencing to target gene expression. Spacer mutagenesis...

  16. Content and technical evaluation of Type III Iranian medical universities\\' websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadejeh Shabankareh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Besides the role that universities websites have in reflection of universities’ educational and research activities, they have also significant importance in promotion of universities’ national and international ranking in webometrics ranking of world universities and also in webometric ranking of Islamic world Science Citation and subsequently obtaining national and international credibility and gaining student and funding. So, continuous evaluation of universities websites in different aspects, especially based on considering index of these ranking systems, is important. Therefore, present study aimed to review the situation of Type 3 Iranian medical universities’ websites based on content and technical features effecting on promotion of webometric rank. Materials and Methods : Present study is a survey with descriptive approach which descriptive the present situation of Type 3 Iranian medical universities’ websites. Data were collected using a researcher-made checklist which was consisted of two parts including content criteria effecting on webometric ranking (50 criteria and technical criteria of search engines optimization (52 criteria. Content evaluation of websites was done by researcher direct referring and observing. In order to evaluation of these websites, based on technical criteria of search engines optimization, automatic tools about website evaluation were used. Data were analyzed by SPSS20. Results: The finding of this study showed that, Gonabad, Bushehr & Shahrekord universities of medical sciences have the most accommodation with the research checklist.  Bam, Dezful & Jiroft universities of medical sciences have the least accommodation. According to research findings less than 50 percent of the research community, reached more than 50 percent of the criteria in checklist. Conclusion: Evaluation of studied websites indicated that whole websites are far from ideal situation. So type 3 medical universities

  17. Travelling wave solutions for higher-order wave equations of kdv type (iii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jibin; Rui, Weigou; Long, Yao; He, Bin

    2006-01-01

    By using the theory of planar dynamical systems to the travelling wave equation of a higher order nonlinear wave equations of KdV type, the existence of smooth solitary wave, kink wave and anti-kink wave solutions and uncountably infinite many smooth and non-smooth periodic wave solutions are proved. In different regions of the parametric space, the sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of the above solutions are given. In some conditions, exact explicit parametric representations of these waves are obtain.

  18. Skeletal muscle metabolism is impaired during exercise in glycogen storage disease type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforêt, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSDIIIa) is classically regarded as a glycogenosis with fixed weakness, but we hypothesized that exercise intolerance in GSDIIIa is related to muscle energy failure and that oral fructose ingestion could improve exercise tolerance in this metabolic...... myopathy. METHODS: We challenged metabolism with cycle-ergometer exercise and measured substrate turnover and oxidation rates using stable isotope methodology and indirect calorimetry in 3 patients and 6 age-matched controls on 1 day, and examined the effect of fructose ingestion on exercise tolerance...

  19. Lambda interferon (IFN-lambda), a type III IFN, is induced by viruses and IFNs and displays potent antiviral activity against select virus infections in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ank, Nina; West, Hans; Bartholdy, Christina;

    2006-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) (interleukin-28/29 or lambda interferon [IFN-lambda]) are cytokines with IFN-like activities. Here we show that several classes of viruses induce expression of IFN-lambda1 and -lambda2/3 in similar patterns. The IFN-lambdas were-unlike alpha/beta interferon (IFN......-alpha/beta)-induced directly by stimulation with IFN-alpha or -lambda, thus identifying type III IFNs as IFN-stimulated genes. In vitro assays revealed that IFN-lambdas have appreciable antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) but limited activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), whereas IFN...... had a more modest antiviral activity. Finally, pretreatment with IFN-lambda enhanced the levels of IFN-gamma in serum after HSV-2 infection. Thus, type III IFNs are expressed in response to most viruses and display potent antiviral activity in vivo against select viruses. The discrepancy between...

  20. Lambda Interferon (IFN-gamma), a Type III IFN, is induced by viruses and IFNs and displays potent antiviral activity against select virus infections in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ank, Nina; West, Hans; Bartholdy, C.;

    2006-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) (interleukin-28/29 or lambda interferon [IFN-lambda]) are cytokines with IFN-like activities. Here we show that several classes of viruses induce expression of IFN-lambda1 and -lambda2/3 in similar patterns. The IFN-lambdas were-unlike alpha/beta interferon (IFN......-alpha/beta)-induced directly by stimulation with IFN-alpha or -lambda, thus identifying type III IFNs as IFN-stimulated genes. In vitro assays revealed that IFN-lambdas have appreciable antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) but limited activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), whereas IFN...... had a more modest antiviral activity. Finally, pretreatment with IFN-lambda enhanced the levels of IFN-gamma in serum after HSV-2 infection. Thus, type III IFNs are expressed in response to most viruses and display potent antiviral activity in vivo against select viruses. The discrepancy between...

  1. Global transcriptional profiling of Burkholderia pseudomallei under salt stress reveals differential effects on the Bsa type III secretion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singsuksawat Ekapot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis where the highest reported incidence world wide is in the Northeast of Thailand, where saline soil and water are prevalent. Moreover, recent reports indicate a potential pathogenic role for B. pseudomallei in cystic fibrosis lung disease, where an increased sodium chloride (NaCl concentration in airway surface liquid has been proposed. These observations raise the possibility that high salinity may represent a favorable niche for B. pseudomallei. We therefore investigated the global transcriptional response of B. pseudomallei to increased salinity using microarray analysis. Results Transcriptome analysis of B. pseudomallei under salt stress revealed several genes significantly up-regulated in the presence of 320 mM NaCl including genes associated with the bsa-derived Type III secretion system (T3SS. Microarray data were verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR. Western blot analysis confirmed the increased expression and secretion of the invasion-associated type III secreted proteins BipD and BopE in B. pseudomallei cultures at 170 and 320 mM NaCl relative to salt-free medium. Furthermore, salt-treated B. pseudomallei exhibited greater invasion efficiency into the lung epithelial cell line A549 in a manner partly dependent on a functional Bsa system. Conclusions B. pseudomallei responds to salt stress by modulating the transcription of a relatively small set of genes, among which is the bsa locus associated with invasion and virulence. Expression and secretion of Bsa-secreted proteins was elevated in the presence of exogenous salt and the invasion efficiency was enhanced. Our data indicate that salinity has the potential to influence the virulence of B. pseudomallei.

  2. Functional interaction between type III-secreted protein IncA of Chlamydophila psittaci and human G3BP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, Nicole; Litsche, Katrin; Franke, Claudia; Sachse, Konrad; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank

    2011-01-31

    Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans, is the most important zoonotic pathogen of the family Chlamydiaceae. These obligate intracellular bacteria are distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle, which includes proliferation in a membrane-bound compartment termed inclusion. All Chlamydiaceae spp. possess a coding capacity for core components of a Type III secretion apparatus, which mediates specific delivery of anti-host effector proteins either into the chlamydial inclusion membrane or into the cytoplasm of target eukaryotic cells. Here we describe the interaction between Type III-secreted protein IncA of Cp. psittaci and host protein G3BP1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. In GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments both in vitro and in vivo interaction between full-length IncA and G3BP1 were shown. Using fluorescence microscopy, the localization of G3BP1 near the inclusion membrane of Cp. psittaci-infected Hep-2 cells was demonstrated. Notably, infection of Hep-2 cells with Cp. psittaci and overexpression of IncA in HEK293 cells led to a decrease in c-Myc protein concentration. This effect could be ascribed to the interaction between IncA and G3BP1 since overexpression of an IncA mutant construct disabled to interact with G3BP1 failed to reduce c-Myc concentration. We hypothesize that lowering the host cell c-Myc protein concentration may be part of a strategy employed by Cp. psittaci to avoid apoptosis and scale down host cell proliferation.

  3. The Structures of Coiled-Coil Domains from Type III Secretion System Translocators Reveal Homology to Pore-Forming Toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, Michael L.; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Patil, Mrinalini; Keightley, Andrew; Wyckoff, Gerald J.; Picking, William D.; Picking, Wendy L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V. (UMKC); (OKLU)

    2012-03-26

    Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria utilize type III secretion systems (T3SSs) to alter the normal functions of target cells. Shigella flexneri uses its T3SS to invade human intestinal cells to cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) that is responsible for over one million deaths per year. The Shigella type III secretion apparatus is composed of a basal body spanning both bacterial membranes and an exposed oligomeric needle. Host altering effectors are secreted through this energized unidirectional conduit to promote bacterial invasion. The active needle tip complex of S. flexneri is composed of a tip protein, IpaD, and two pore-forming translocators, IpaB and IpaC. While the atomic structure of IpaD has been elucidated and studied, structural data on the hydrophobic translocators from the T3SS family remain elusive. We present here the crystal structures of a protease-stable fragment identified within the N-terminal regions of IpaB from S. flexneri and SipB from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium determined at 2.1 {angstrom} and 2.8 {angstrom} limiting resolution, respectively. These newly identified domains are composed of extended-length (114 {angstrom} in IpaB and 71 {angstrom} in SipB) coiled-coil motifs that display a high degree of structural homology to one another despite the fact that they share only 21% sequence identity. Further structural comparisons also reveal substantial similarity to the coiled-coil regions of pore-forming proteins from other Gram-negative pathogens, notably, colicin Ia. This suggests that these mechanistically separate and functionally distinct membrane-targeting proteins may have diverged from a common ancestor during the course of pathogen-specific evolutionary events.

  4. Inhibition of a type III secretion system by the deletion of a short loop in one of its membrane proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshcheryakov, Vladimir A. [Okinawa Instiute of Science and Technology, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Kitao, Akio [University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Matsunami, Hideyuki; Samatey, Fadel A., E-mail: f.a.samatey@oist.jp [Okinawa Instiute of Science and Technology, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Crystal structures of the cytoplasmic domain of FlhB from S. typhimurium and A. aeolicus were solved at 2.45 and 2.55 Å resolution, respectively. The deletion of a short loop in the cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella FlhB completely abolishes secretion by the type III secretion system. A molecular-dynamics simulation shows that the deletion of the loop affects the flexibility of a linker between the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of FlhB. The membrane protein FlhB is a highly conserved component of the flagellar secretion system. It is composed of an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (FlhB{sub C}). Here, the crystal structures of FlhB{sub C} from Salmonella typhimurium and Aquifex aeolicus are described at 2.45 and 2.55 Å resolution, respectively. These flagellar FlhB{sub C} structures are similar to those of paralogues from the needle type III secretion system, with the major difference being in a linker that connects the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of FlhB. It was found that deletion of a short flexible loop in a globular part of Salmonella FlhB{sub C} leads to complete inhibition of secretion by the flagellar secretion system. Molecular-dynamics calculations demonstrate that the linker region is the most flexible part of FlhB{sub C} and that the deletion of the loop reduces this flexibility. These results are in good agreement with previous studies showing the importance of the linker in the function of FlhB and provide new insight into the relationship between the different parts of the FlhB{sub C} molecule.

  5. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Yersinia pestis Type III secretion system YscN ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieslaw Swietnicki

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram negative zoonotic pathogen responsible for causing bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. The pathogen uses a type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver virulence factors directly from bacterium into host mammalian cells. The system contains a single ATPase, YscN, necessary for delivery of virulence factors. In this work, we show that deletion of the catalytic domain of the yscN gene in Y. pestis CO92 attenuated the strain over three million-fold in the Swiss-Webster mouse model of bubonic plague. The result validates the YscN protein as a therapeutic target for plague. The catalytic domain of the YscN protein was made using recombinant methods and its ATPase activity was characterized in vitro. To identify candidate therapeutics, we tested computationally selected small molecules for inhibition of YscN ATPase activity. The best inhibitors had measured IC(50 values below 20 µM in an in vitro ATPase assay and were also found to inhibit the homologous BsaS protein from Burkholderia mallei animal-like T3SS at similar concentrations. Moreover, the compounds fully inhibited YopE secretion by attenuated Y. pestis in a bacterial cell culture and mammalian cells at µM concentrations. The data demonstrate the feasibility of targeting and inhibiting a critical protein transport ATPase of a bacterial virulence system. It is likely the same strategy could be applied to many other common human pathogens using type III secretion system, including enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei species.

  6. Functional and computational analysis of amino acid patterns predictive of type III secretion system substrates in Pseudomonas syringae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Schechter

    Full Text Available Bacterial type III secretion systems (T3SSs deliver proteins called effectors into eukaryotic cells. Although N-terminal amino acid sequences are required for translocation, the mechanism of substrate recognition by the T3SS is unknown. Almost all actively deployed T3SS substrates in the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato strain DC3000 possess characteristic patterns, including (i greater than 10% serine within the first 50 amino acids, (ii an aliphatic residue or proline at position 3 or 4, and (iii a lack of acidic amino acids within the first 12 residues. Here, the functional significance of the P. syringae T3SS substrate compositional patterns was tested. A mutant AvrPto effector protein lacking all three patterns was secreted into culture and translocated into plant cells, suggesting that the compositional characteristics are not absolutely required for T3SS targeting and that other recognition mechanisms exist. To further analyze the unique properties of T3SS targeting signals, we developed a computational algorithm called TEREE (Type III Effector Relative Entropy Evaluation that distinguishes DC3000 T3SS substrates from other proteins with a high sensitivity and specificity. Although TEREE did not efficiently identify T3SS substrates in Salmonella enterica, it was effective in another P. syringae strain and Ralstonia solanacearum. Thus, the TEREE algorithm may be a useful tool for identifying new effector genes in plant pathogens. The nature of T3SS targeting signals was additionally investigated by analyzing the N-terminus of FtsX, a putative membrane protein that was classified as a T3SS substrate by TEREE. Although the first 50 amino acids of FtsX were unable to target a reporter protein to the T3SS, an AvrPto protein substituted with the first 12 amino acids of FtsX was translocated into plant cells. These results show that the T3SS targeting signals are highly mutable and that secretion may be directed by multiple

  7. Research Advances on Xanthomonas Type III Secretion System Effectors%黄单胞菌 III 型分泌系统效应蛋白的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易杰祥; 景晓辉; 吴伦英

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenicity of Xanthomonas and most other Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria depends on a conserved type III secretion (T3S) system which injects several different effector proteins into the plant cell. Extensive studies in the last years on the molecular mechanisms of type III effector function revealed that effector proteins with enzymatic functions seem to play important roles in the interaction of Xanthomonas with its host plants. In addition, Xanthomonas express a unique class of type III effectors to pursue another strategy. Effectors of the AvrBs3 family, so far only identified in Xanthomonas spp. and Ralstonia solanacearum, mimic plant transcriptional activators and manipulate the plant transcriptome.%黄单胞菌借助保守的 III 型分泌系统,将多个效应蛋白注入植物细胞,克服宿主的防卫,利于黄单胞菌在植物体内发挥毒性功能。最近对 III 型效应蛋白致病机理开展了大量研究,结果发现具有酶功能的效应蛋白在黄单胞菌及其宿主间的相互作用中发挥非常重要的作用。此外,黄单胞菌存在一类独特的 III 型效应蛋白(AvrBs3家族)。迄今为止,仅在黄单胞菌和雷尔氏菌(Ralstonia solanacearum)中发现 AvrBs3家族效应蛋白, AvrBs3家族通过模拟转录激活子来操纵寄主植物易感基因的表达。

  8. Electron beams and Langmuir turbulence in solar type III radio bursts observed in the interplanetary medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of in situ observations of electron beams, plasma waves, and associated solar type II radio emission in the interplanetary medium near 1 AU, which were provided by the ISEE-3 spacecraft. It is shown that electron beams are formed by the faster electrons arriving before the slower ones, following an impulsive injection at the sun. The resulting bump-on-tail in the reduced 1D distribution function is unstable to the growth of electrostatic electron plasma (Langmuir) waves. The Langmuir waves are observed to be highly impulsive in nature. The onset and temporal variations of the observed plasma waves are in good qualitative agreement with the wave growth expected from the evolution of the measured 1D distribution function. The lack of obvious plateauing of the bump-on-tail suggests that the waves were removed from resonance with the beam electrons by some wave-wave interaction.

  9. Substitution of cysteine for glycine at residue 415 of one allele of the alpha 1(I) chain of type I procollagen in type III/IV osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, A C; Oliver, J; Renouf, D V; Keston, M; Pope, F M

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the type I collagen in a patient with type III/IV osteogenesis imperfecta. Two forms of alpha 1(I) chain were produced, one normal and the other containing a cysteine residue within the triple helical domain of the molecule. Cysteine is not normally present in this domain of type I collagen. Peptide mapping experiments localised the mutation to peptide alpha 1(I)CB3 which spans residues 403 to 551 of the triple helix. Subsequent PCR amplification of cDNA covering this region followed by sequencing showed a G to T single base change in the GGC codon for glycine 415 generating TGC, the codon for cysteine. The effect of the mutation on the protein is to delay secretion from the cell, reduce the thermal stability of the molecule by 2 degrees C, and cause excessive post-translational modification of all chains in molecules containing one or more mutant alpha 1(I) chains. The clinical phenotype observed in this patient and the position of the mutation conform to the recent prediction of Starman et al that Gly----Cys mutations in the alpha 1(I) chain have a gradient of severity decreasing from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Images PMID:1770532

  10. [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus III. Momordica (Momordica charantia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudá-Kučerová, Jana; Kotolová, Hana; Koupý, David

    2015-09-01

    Momordica charantia is a thermophilic voluble plant from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. In central Europe, momordica requires greenhouse plantations. Mature fruits resemble a cucumber or a pumpkin and can be used as other similar vegetables. Crude fruits are very bitter and refreshing. For centuries the plant has been known in Chinese traditional medicine for its antidiabetic effects as well as for the treatment of cancer or infections caused by worms, viruses and malaria. Antidiabetic effects are attributed namely to cucurbitane type triterpenoids, charantin, p-insulin and 9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid. These substances in momordica preparations show antidiabetic effectiveness in clinical studies by increasing insulin secretion and deceasing insulin resistance or glucose absorption from the gut. Beside this main effect the extract possesses certain neuroprotective and antioxidant effects (especially p9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid) and contributes to normalize blood lipid and adipokine levels which results in the normalization of metabolic syndrome. Antidiabetic effectiveness of momordica was compared to active treatment with several oral antidiabetic drugs and proved comparable effects. However, the number of studies is limited and their methodological approach variable. Therefore, the evidence is so far inconclusive.

  11. IFU spectroscopy of 10 early-type galactic nuclei - III. Properties of the circumnuclear gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, T V; Menezes, R B

    2015-01-01

    Many Early-type galaxies (ETG) have ionized gas emission in their centres that extends to scales of ~ 1kpc. The majority of such objects are classified as LINERs, but the nature of their ionizing source is still not clear. The kinematics associated with these gaseous structures usually shows deviations from a pure rotational motion due to non-gravitational effects or to non-axisymmetric potentials. This is the third of a series of papers that describes a sample of 10 nearby and massive ETG observed with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph in Integral Field mode installed on the Gemini-South telescope. In paper II, we performed spectral synthesis to subtract the stellar components from the data cubes of the sample galaxies in order to study their nuclear spectra. Here, we analyse the circumnuclear gas emission (scales of ~ 100 pc) of the sample galaxies. Circumnuclear gas emission was detected in seven galaxies, all of them classified as LINERs. Pure gaseous discs are found in three galaxies. In two objects, ...

  12. Evidence for the presence of a type III secretion system in diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, C M; De Araujo, C R; Lima, M R; Gondim, E G S; Brígido, M M; Giugliano, L G

    2003-07-01

    Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains (DAEC) represent a potential cause of diarrhoea in infants, and the detection of type three secretion system (TTSS) genes in DAEC would substantiate their pathogenic nature. In this work, four isolates of DAEC, recovered from stools of diarrhoeic children, were analysed by PCR, in order to detect the presence of TTSS genes. Primers targeted to the escC, escJ, escN and escV, some of the most conserved TTSS genes in enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC), were used in order to verify the occurrence of homologous genes in our DAEC isolates. By this approach, we were able to characterise DNA fragments corresponding to putative escJ and escN genes in all DAEC isolates. Furthermore, DNA fragments homologous to the escC and escV genes were also amplified from all isolates. Besides the similarity found among the DAEC esc homologues with EPEC and EHEC esc genes, the nucleotide sequence analysis of the flanking regions of the amplified DNA fragments suggests that the putative DAEC esc genes are organised in the same manner as observed in EPEC and in EHEC strains. The results described here provide strong evidence for the presence of a TTSS in the DAEC strains analysed, implicating a pathogenic nature of these isolates.

  13. A De Vries-type Duality Theorem for Locally Compact Spaces -- III

    CERN Document Server

    Dimov, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we prove some new Stone-type duality theorems for some subcategories of the category $\\ZLC$ of locally compact zero-dimensional Hausdorff spaces and continuous maps. These theorems are new even in the compact case. They concern the cofull subcategories $\\SkeZLC$, $\\QPZLC$, $\\OZLC$ and $\\OPZLC$ of the category $\\ZLC$ determined, respectively, by the skeletal maps, by the quasi-open perfect maps, by the open maps and by the open perfect maps. In this way, the zero-dimensional analogues of Fedorchuk Duality Theorem and its generalization are obtained. Further, we characterize the injective and surjective morphisms of the category $\\HLC$ of locally compact Hausdorff spaces and continuous maps, as well as of the category $\\ZLC$, and of some their subcategories, by means of some properties of their dual morphisms. This generalizes some well-known results of M. Stone and de Vries. An analogous problem is investigated for the homeomorphic embeddings, dense embeddings, LCA-embeddings etc., and a generali...

  14. Type III secretion system of Aeromonas salmonicida undermining the host’s immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Frey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is an important pathogen in salmonid aquaculture and is responsible for furunculosis, a common infectious disease in salmon, trout and char. The type-three secretion system (T3SS is considered as the major virulence attribute of A. salmonicida. It is used by the bacterium to secrete and translocate a large number of toxins and effector proteins into the host cell. Some of these factors such as the bi-functional ADP ribosylating – GTPase activating protein AexT have been shown to have a detrimental impact on the integrity of the cell cytoskeleton, and hence contribute to impair phagocytosis. Other effector proteins that are injected to the host cell such as AopP act by inhibiting the NF-κB signalling pathway blocking the translocation of NF-κB (p65 into the nucleus, thus influencing the host’s inflammatory response. Several additional effectors that are secreted and translocated via the T3SS including Ati2, AopN and ExsE have been suggested to modulate the host’s immune response in particular by down regulating the inflammatory reaction. The analysis of the immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with virulent, T3SS harbouring A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida revealed that the infection leads to a rapid and strong downregulation of several immune-relevant markers affecting both the innate and the adaptive immune response, leading to mortality of the infected fish. In contrast, infection with a T3SS deficient mutant causes a normal immune reaction and clearing of the pathogen. These findings show that T3SS-delivered effector molecules and toxins of A. salmonicida do not only impair the host’s cytoskeleton thus damaging cell physiology and phagocytosis, but also affect the transcription of critical immune markers including the shut-down of important warning signals to recognize infection and induce immune defense.

  15. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Burkholderia pseudomallei Bsa type III secretion system effectors using hypersecreting mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Broek, Charles W; Chalmers, Kevin J; Stevens, Mark P; Stevens, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals. One of the virulence factors critical for early stages of infection is the Burkholderia secretion apparatus (Bsa) Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS), a molecular syringe that injects bacterial proteins, called effectors, into eukaryotic cells where they subvert cellular functions to the benefit of the bacteria. Although the Bsa T3SS itself is known to be important for invasion, intracellular replication, and virulence, only a few genuine effector proteins have been identified and the complete repertoire of proteins secreted by the system has not yet been fully characterized. We constructed a mutant lacking bsaP, a homolog of the T3SS "gatekeeper" family of proteins that exert control over the timing and magnitude of effector protein secretion. Mutants lacking BsaP, or the T3SS translocon protein BipD, were observed to hypersecrete the known Bsa effector protein BopE, providing evidence of their role in post-translational control of the Bsa T3SS and representing key reagents for the identification of its secreted substrates. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ), a gel-free quantitative proteomics technique, was used to compare the secreted protein profiles of the Bsa T3SS hypersecreting mutants of B. pseudomallei with the isogenic parent strain and a bsaZ mutant incapable of effector protein secretion. Our study provides one of the most comprehensive core secretomes of B. pseudomallei described to date and identified 26 putative Bsa-dependent secreted proteins that may be considered candidate effectors. Two of these proteins, BprD and BapA, were validated as novel effector proteins secreted by the Bsa T3SS of B. pseudomallei.

  16. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in DYNC2H1 in a patient with severe short-rib polydactyly syndrome type III phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Toshio; Nagaya, Ken; Kawata, Yumi; Asai, Hiroko; Tsuchida, Etsushi; Nohara, Fumikatsu; Okajima, Kazuki; Azuma, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Short-rib polydactyly syndrome type III is an autosomal recessive lethal skeletal ciliopathy, which is phenotypically similar to nonlethal asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy. Mutations in DYNC2H1 have been identified in both of these disorders, indicating that they are variants of a single disorder. However, short-rib polydactyly syndrome type III is the more severe variant. Here, we report novel compound heterozygous mutations in DYNC2H1 (p.E1894fsX10 and p.R3004C) in a patient with typical short-rib polydactyly syndrome type III phenotype. R3004 is located within the microtubule-binding domain of DYNC2H1, and its substitution is predicted to disrupt the interaction with microtubules. Considering the severe phenotype of our patient, our findings suggest that R3004 may be a key residue for the microtubule-binding affinity of dynein.

  17. Search for heavy lepton partners of neutrinos in proton-proton collisions in the context of the type III seesaw mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.

    2012-12-01

    A search is presented in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 7 TeV for fermionic triplet states expected in type III seesaw models. The search is performed using final states with three isolated charged leptons and an imbalance in transverse momentum. The data, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 fb-1. No excess of events is observed above the background predicted by the standard model, and the results are interpreted in terms of limits on production cross sections and masses of the heavy partners of the neutrinos in type III seesaw models. Depending on the considered scenarios, lower limits are obtained on the mass of the heavy partner of the neutrino that range from 180 to 210 GeV. These are the first limits on the production of type III seesaw fermionic triplet states reported by an experiment at the LHC.

  18. Myocardial repair with long-term and low-dose administration of a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor. Myofibroblasts, type III collagen and fibronectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessanha Mônica Gomes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the healing process of the myocardium in hypertensive rats undergoing inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. METHODS: Two groups of animals were studied: one received L-NAME, 12mg/kg/day, and the other was a control group. The presence of type III collagen, fibronectin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Fibronectin was seen in both early and late lesions, while type III collagen was seen mainly in areas of incomplete healing, situated among myocytes and around the intramyocardial branches of the coronary arteries. Areas representing early and late lesions showed a population of spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemistry showed that these cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin. CONCLUSION: In the myocardium of hypertensive rats, the alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells are related to the accumulation of type III collagen and fibronectin in the areas of myocardial damage.

  19. The neo-epitope specific PRO-C3 ELISA measures true formation of type III collagen associated with liver and muscle parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette J; Nedergaard, Anders F; Sun, Shu;

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The present study describes the assessment of true formation of type III collagen in different pathologies using a neo-epitope specific competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) towards the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (PRO-C3). METHODS: The monoclonal antibody...... was raised against the N-protease mediated cleavage site of the N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen and a competitive ELISA was developed using the selected antibody. The assay was evaluated in relation to neo-epitope specificity, technical performance, and as a marker for liver fibrosis and muscle...... mass using the rat carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) model and a study of immobilization induced muscle loss in humans, respectively. RESULTS: The ELISA was neo-epitope specific, technically stable and can be assessed in serum and plasma samples. In the CCl4 liver fibrosis model it was observed that serum...

  20. Search for heavy lepton partners of neutrinos in proton-proton collisions in the context of the type III seesaw mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc

    2012-01-01

    A search is presented in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV for fermionic triplet states expected in type III seesaw models. The search is performed using final states with three isolated charged leptons and an imbalance in transverse momentum. The data, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 inverse femtobarns. No excess of events is observed above the background predicted by the standard model, and the results are interpreted in terms of limits on production cross sections and masses of the heavy partners of the neutrinos in type III seesaw models. Depending on the considered scenarios, lower limits are obtained on the mass of the heavy partner of the neutrino that range from 180 to 210 GeV. These are the first limits on the production of type III seesaw fermionic triplet states reported by an experiment at the LHC.

  1. Outcomes of Patients With Acute Type B (DeBakey III) Aortic Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Rana O.; Sandhu, Harleen K.; Leake, Samuel S.; Boutrous, Mina L.; Kumar, Varsha; Azizzadeh, Ali; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M.; Saqib, Naveed U.; Nguyen, Tom C.; Miller, Charles C.; Safi, Hazim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background— Aortic dissection remains the most common aortic catastrophe. In the endovascular era, the management of acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) is undergoing dramatic changes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients with ATBAD who were treated at our center over a 13-year period. Methods and Results— We reviewed patients with ATBAD between 2001 and 2014, analyzing variables based on status (complicated [c] versus uncomplicated [u]) and treatment modalities. We defined cATBAD as rupture, expansion of diameter on imaging during the admission, persistent pain, or clinical malperfusion leading to a deficit in cerebral, spinal, visceral, renal, or peripheral vascular territories at presentation or during initial hospitalization. Postoperative outcomes were defined as deficits not present before the intervention. Outcomes were compared between the groups by use of Kaplan-Meier and descriptive statistics. We treated 442 patients with ATBAD. Of those 442, 60.6% had uATBAD and were treated medically, and 39.4% had cATBAD, of whom 39.0% were treated medically to 30.0% with open repair, 21.3% with thoracic endovascular aortic repair, and 9.7% with other open peripheral procedures. Intervention-free survival at 1 and 5 years was 84.8% and 62.7% for uATBAD, 61.8% and 44.0% for cATBAD-medical, 69.2% and 47.2% for cATBAD-open, and 68.0% and 42.5% for cATBAD–thoracic endovascular aortic repair, respectively (P=0.001). Overall survival was significantly related primarily to complicated presentation. Conclusions— In our experience, early and late outcomes of ATBAD were dependent on the presence of complications, with cATBAD faring worse. Although uATBAD was associated with favorable early survival, late complications still occurred, mandating radiographic surveillance and open or endovascular interventions. Prospective trials are required to better determine the optimal therapy for uATBAD. PMID:26304666

  2. Asymptotic behavior of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity of type III

    KAUST Repository

    Rahali, Radouane

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the decay property of a Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity of type III in the whole space where the heat conduction is given by the Green and Naghdi theory. Surprisingly, we show that the coupling of the Timoshenko system with the heat conduction of Green and Naghdi\\'s theory slows down the decay of the solution. In fact we show that the L-2-norm of the solution decays like (1 + t)(-1/8), while in the case of the coupling of the Timoshenko system with the Fourier or Cattaneo heat conduction, the decay rate is of the form (1 + t)(-1/4) [25]. We point out that the decay rate of (1 + t)(-1/8) has been obtained provided that the initial data are in L-1 (R) boolean AND H-s (R); (s >= 2). If the wave speeds of the fi rst two equations are di ff erent, then the decay rate of the solution is of regularity-loss type, that is in this case the previous decay rate can be obtained only under an additional regularity assumption on the initial data. In addition, by restricting the initial data to be in H-s (R) boolean AND L-1,L-gamma (R) with gamma is an element of [0; 1], we can derive faster decay estimates with the decay rate improvement by a factor of t(-gamma/4).

  3. Protection of epithelial cells from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis invasion by antibodies against the SPI-1 type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desin, Taseen S; Mickael, Claudia S; Lam, Po-King S; Potter, Andrew A; Köster, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is one of the major causes of bacterial food-borne illness in humans. During the course of infection, Salmonella Enteritidis uses 2 type III secretion systems (T3SS), one of which is encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). SPI-1 plays a major role in the invasion process. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of sera against the SPI-1 T3SS components on invasion in vitro using polarized human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2). Antisera to SipD protected Caco-2 cells against entry of wild-type Salmonella Enteritidis. On the other hand, sera against InvG, PrgI, SipA, SipC, SopB, SopE, and SopE2 did not affect Salmonella Enteritidis entry. To illustrate the specificity of anti-SipD mediated inhibition, SipD-specific antibodies were depleted from the serum. Antiserum depleted of SipD-specific antibodies lost its capacity to inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis entry. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that antibodies against the SPI-1 needle tip protein (SipD) inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis invasion and that the SipD protein may be an important target in blocking SPI-1 mediated virulence of Salmonella Enteritidis.

  4. Change in muscle strength over time in spinal muscular atrophy types II and III. A long-term follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, U; Vissing, J; Steffensen, B F

    2012-01-01

    Whether muscle strength deteriorates with time in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) types II and III is still debated. We present a long-term follow-up study on muscle strength in 30 patients with SMA types II and III. Median follow-up time was 17 years. Median number of assessments was four. All pat...... patients were assessed by Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), Brooke upper limb scale and EK scale. There was a difference in muscle strength of the upper limbs from first to last assessment in SMA II (p...

  5. Plasma Pro-C3 (N-terminal type III collagen propeptide) predicts fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette J.; Veidal, Sanne S.; Karsdal, Morten A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibrogenesis results in release of certain extracellular matrix protein fragments into the circulation. We evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic performance of two novel serological markers, the precisely cleaved N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen (Pro-C3) and a peptide...... of helical collagen type III degradation (C3M), in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHOD: Pro-C3 and C3M were measured by ELISA in plasma from CHC patients (n = 194) from a prior phase II antifibrotic trial (NCT00244751). Plasma samples and paired liver biopsies were obtained at baseline and after 1...

  6. Involvement of RNA2-encoded proteins in the specific transmission of Grapevine fanleaf virus by its nematode vector Xiphinema index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, C; Schmitt, C; Demangeat, G; Komar, V; Pinck, L; Fuchs, M

    2001-12-01

    The nepovirus Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is specifically transmitted by the nematode Xiphinema index. To identify the RNA2-encoded proteins involved in X. index-mediated spread of GFLV, chimeric RNA2 constructs were engineered by replacing the 2A, 2B(MP), and/or 2C(CP) sequences of GFLV with their counterparts in Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), a closely related nepovirus which is transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum but not by X. index. Among the recombinant viruses obtained from transcripts of GFLV RNA1 and chimeric RNA2, only those which contained the 2C(CP) gene (504 aa) and 2B(MP) contiguous 9 C-terminal residues of GFLV were transmitted by X. index as efficiently as natural and synthetic wild-type GFLV, regardless of the origin of the 2A and 2B(MP) genes. As expected, ArMV was not transmitted probably because it is not retained by X. index. These results indicate that the determinants responsible for the specific spread of GFLV by X. index are located within the 513 C-terminal residues of the polyprotein encoded by RNA2.

  7. Specific maceration and induction of PR-3 gene in potato tuber tissue by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum type III secretion system mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghabozorgy, Sohrab; Niakan, Mohammad

    2009-12-15

    The exact function of type III secretion system in some phytopathogenes including Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. atrosepticum (Pca) is not understood and is a matter of debate. The aim of this study were to determine specific effect of type III secretion system on potato tubers and to reveal the connection of this system with potato resistant genes such as PR-3. A Pca hrpW fragment was subcloned into a low-copy-number cloning vector (pZH448). The resulting plasmid (pAS19) was then conjugated into the wild-type and mutant strains of Pca by type III secretion system. The virulence property of different Pca strains was studied and the influence of over expression of hrpW on maceration activity was also investigated. Furthermore, the effect of mentioned mutation on the maceration of carrot-root was evaluated. Finally, using real-time PCR, the copy-number of PR-3 gene in potato tuber tissue was assessed. In conclusion, for type III secretion system mutant strains, in contrast with the wild-type, the maceration amount of potato tuber tissue decreased after over expression of hrpW while inoculation of tubers by mutants, increased this amount. In the case of potato, HrpN and DspE proteins appeared to be avirulent factors. Compared with the wild-type strains, Pca nominated mutants significantly reduced potato PR-3 expression thus, PR-3 expression level in potato tuber tissue in answer to infiltration by Pca, depends on functional type III secretion system in the bacterium.

  8. Crystal structure of Legionella DotD: insights into the relationship between type IVB and type II/III secretion systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Nakano

    Full Text Available The Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4BSS is a pivotal determinant of Legionella pneumophila pathogenesis. L. pneumophila translocate more than 100 effector proteins into host cytoplasm using Dot/Icm T4BSS, modulating host cellular functions to establish a replicative niche within host cells. The T4BSS core complex spanning the inner and outer membranes is thought to be made up of at least five proteins: DotC, DotD, DotF, DotG and DotH. DotH is the outer membrane protein; its targeting depends on lipoproteins DotC and DotD. However, the core complex structure and assembly mechanism are still unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of DotD at 2.0 Å resolution. The structure of DotD is distinct from that of VirB7, the outer membrane lipoprotein of the type IVA secretion system. In contrast, the C-terminal domain of DotD is remarkably similar to the N-terminal subdomain of secretins, the integral outer membrane proteins that form substrate conduits for the type II and the type III secretion systems (T2SS and T3SS. A short β-segment in the otherwise disordered N-terminal region, located on the hydrophobic cleft of the C-terminal domain, is essential for outer membrane targeting of DotH and Dot/Icm T4BSS core complex formation. These findings uncover an intriguing link between T4BSS and T2SS/T3SS.

  9. The GAP Portion of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Type III Secreted Toxin ExoS Upregulates Total and Surface Levels of Wild Type CFTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali N. Tukaye

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA infections account for a large percentage of fatal hospital acquired pneumonias. One of the PA Type III secreted toxin (TTST ExoS, a bifunctional protein with N-terminal GTPase activating protein (GAP and C-terminal ADP rybosyl transferase (ADPRT activities, significantly contributes to PA virulence by targeting small molecular weight G-proteins (SMWGP. In this study, we have looked at one of the mechanisms by which the GAP portion of ExoS (ExoS-GAP mediates cellular toxicity. Methods: The effects of ExoS-GAP on CFTR trafficking were studied in CFBE41o- Kir 2.2 and MDCK cell lines stably expressing CFTR using a transient transfection system. Results: Transient transfection of ExoS-GAP increased the total and surface protein levels of mature wild type CFTR in epithelial cells stably expressing wild type (WT CFTR. The effect of ExoS-GAP was specific to CFTR in bronchial epithelial cells since it did not affect the total protein levels of Na+/K+ATPase, another membrane protein. A point mutation in the ExoS GAP domain (R146K, known to disrupt its catalytic GAP activity, abolished the effect of ExoS-GAP on WT CFTR. Lysosomal inhibition studies with Bafilomycin A1 indicate that ExoS-GAP decreased lysosomal degradation of the mature WT CFTR with concomitant increase in the total levels of mature WT CFTR. However, ExoS-GAP did not increase the total protein levels of ∆F508CFTR. Conclusion: The GAP portion of the PA TTST ExoS increases the total and surface levels of wild type CFTR in vitro mammalian cell system. The effect of ExoS-GAP on WT CFTR total protein levels provides new insight into understanding the virulent pathophysiology of PA infections.

  10. Combinative effects of a bacterial type-III effector and a biocontrol bacterium on rice growth and disease resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiying Ren; Ganyu Gu; Juying Long; Qian Yin; Tingquan Wu; Tao Song; Shujian Zhang; Zhiyi Chen; Hansong Dong

    2006-12-01

    Expression of HpaGXoo, a bacterial type-III effector, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. In both cases, plant growth is often promoted. Here we address whether biocontrol bacteria and HpaGXoo can act together to provide better results in crop improvement. We studied effects of Pseudomonas cepacia on the rice variety R109 and the hpaGXoo-expressing rice line HER1. Compared to R109, HER1 showed increased growth, grain yield, and defense responses toward diseases and salinity stress. Colonization of roots by P. cepacia caused 20% and 13% increase, in contrast to controls, in root growth of R109 and HER1. Growth of leaves and stems also increased in R109 but that of HER1 was inhibited. When P. cepacia colonization was subsequent to plant inoculation with Rhizoctonia solani, a pathogen that causes sheath blight, the disease was less severe than controls in both R109 and HER1; HER1, nevertheless, was more resistant, suggesting that P. cepacia and HpaGXoo cooperate in inducing disease resistance. Several genes that critically regulate growth and defense behaved differentially in HER1 and R109 while responding to P. cepacia. In R109 leaves, the OsARF1 gene, which regulates plant growth, was expressed in consistence with growth promotion by P. cepacia. Inversely, OsARF1 expression was coincident with inhibition in growth of HER1 leaves. In both plants, the expression of OsEXP1, which encodes an expansin protein involved in plant growth, was concomitant with growth promotion in leaves instead of roots, in response to P. cepacia. We also studied OsMAPK, a gene that encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase and controls defense responses toward salinity and infection by pathogens in rice. In response to P. cepacia, an early expression of OsMAPK was coincident with R109 resistance to the disease, while HER1 expressed the gene similarly whether P. cepacia was present or not. Evidently, P. cepacia and GXoo

  11. MODIFIKASI PATI GARUT (Marantha arundinacea) DENGAN PERLAKUAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN SUHU TINGGI-PENDINGINAN ( AUTOCLAVING-COOLING CYCLING) UNTUK MENGHASILKAN PATI RESISTEN TIPE III [Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea) Starch Modification Through Autoclaving-Cooling Cycling Treatment to Produce Resistant Starch Type III

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiyono*; Ratih Pratiwi2); Didah Nur Faridah

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to modify arrowroot starch to produce resistant starch type III by autoclaving-cooling cycling and to characterize the modified arrowroot starches according to their chemical properties. The research consisted of three steps : arrowroot extraction, starch modification, and chemical characterization. The extraction of arrowroot produced 10.78% starch. Starch modification by autoclaving-cooling cycle(s) was run in 6 different treatments with the aim of obser...

  12. Decreased abundance of type III secretion system-inducing signals in Arabidopsis mkp1 enhances resistance against Pseudomonas syringae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Wan, Ying; Kim, Young-Mo; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Peck, Scott C.

    2014-04-21

    Many phytopathogenic bacteria use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject defense-suppressing effector proteins into host cells. Genes encoding the T3SS are induced at the start of infection, yet host signals that initiate T3SS gene expression are poorly understood. Here we identify several plant-derived metabolites that induce the T3SS in the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. In addition, we report that mkp1 (mapk phosphatase 1), an Arabidopsis mutant that is more resistant to bacterial infection, produces decreased levels of these T3SS-inducing metabolites. Consistent with the observed decrease in these metabolites, T3SS effector delivery by DC3000 was impaired in mkp1. Addition of the bioactive metabolites to the mkp1-DC3000 interaction fully restored T3SS effector delivery and suppressed enhanced resistance in mkp1. Together, these results demonstrate that DC3000 perceives multiple signals derived from plants to initiate their virulence program, and reveal a new layer of molecular communication between plants and these pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Small-molecule inhibitors suppress the expression of both type III secretion and amylovoran biosynthesis genes in Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Korban, Schuyler S; Pusey, P Lawrence; Elofsson, Michael; Sundin, George W; Zhao, Youfu

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran are two essential pathogenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the serious bacterial disease fire blight. In this study, small molecules that inhibit T3SS gene expression in E. amylovora under hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing conditions were identified and characterized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These compounds belong to salicylidene acylhydrazides and also inhibit amylovoran production. Microarray analysis of E. amylovora treated with compounds 3 and 9 identified a total of 588 significantly differentially expressed genes. Among them, 95 and 78 genes were activated and suppressed by both compounds, respectively, when compared with the dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) control. The expression of the majority of T3SS genes in E. amylovora, including hrpL and the avrRpt2 effector gene, was suppressed by both compounds. Compound 3 also suppressed the expression of amylovoran precursor and biosynthesis genes. However, both compounds induced significantly the expression of glycogen biosynthesis genes and siderophore biosynthesis, regulatory and transport genes. Furthermore, many membrane, lipoprotein and exported protein-encoding genes were also activated by both compounds. Similar expression patterns were observed for compounds 1, 2 and 4. Using crab apple flower as a model, compound 3 was capable of reducing disease development in pistils. These results suggest a common inhibition mechanism shared by salicylidene acylhydrazides and indicate that small-molecule inhibitors that disable T3SS function could be explored to control fire blight disease.

  14. Transcriptional profiling of Bordetella pertussis reveals requirement of RNA chaperone Hfq for Type III secretion system functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibova, Ilona; Hot, David; Keidel, Kristina; Amman, Fabian; Slupek, Stephanie; Cerny, Ondrej; Gross, Roy; Vecerek, Branislav

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of human whooping cough (pertussis) produces a complex array of virulence factors in order to establish efficient infection in the host. The RNA chaperone Hfq and small regulatory RNAs are key players in posttranscriptional regulation in bacteria and have been shown to play an essential role in virulence of a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. This study represents the first attempt to characterize the Hfq regulon of the human pathogen B. pertussis under laboratory conditions as well as upon passage in the host and indicates that loss of Hfq has a profound effect on gene expression in B. pertussis. Comparative transcriptional profiling revealed that Hfq is required for expression of several virulence factors in B. pertussis cells including the Type III secretion system (T3SS). In striking contrast to the wt strain, T3SS did not become operational in the hfq mutant passaged either through mice or macrophages thereby proving that Hfq is required for the functionality of the B. pertussis T3SS. Likewise, expression of virulence factors vag8 and tcfA encoding autotransporter and tracheal colonization factor, respectively, was strongly reduced in the hfq mutant. Importantly, for the first time we demonstrate that B. pertussis T3SS can be activated upon contact with macrophage cells in vitro.

  15. Function of the conserved FHIPEP domain of the flagellar type III export apparatus, protein FlhA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S; Inoue, Tomoharu; Meshcheryakova, Irina V; Kitanobo, Seiya; Samatey, Fadel A

    2016-04-01

    The Type III flagellar protein export apparatus of bacteria consists of five or six membrane proteins, notably FlhA, which controls the export of other proteins and is homologous to the large family of FHIPEP export proteins. FHIPEP proteins contain a highly-conserved cytoplasmic domain. We mutagenized the cloned Salmonella flhA gene for the 692 amino acid FlhA, changing a single, conserved amino acid in the 68-amino acid FHIPEP region. Fifty-two mutations at 30 positions mostly led to loss of motility and total disappearance of microscopically visible flagella, also Western blot protein/protein hybridization showed no detectable export of hook protein and flagellin. There were two exceptions: a D199A mutant strain, which produced short-stubby flagella; and a V151L mutant strain, which did not produce flagella and excreted mainly un-polymerized hook protein. The V151L mutant strain also exported a reduced amount of hook-cap protein FlgD, but when grown with exogenous FlgD it produced polyhooks and polyhook-filaments. A suppressor mutant in the cytoplasmic domain of the export apparatus membrane protein FlhB rescued export of hook-length control protein FliK and facilitated growth of full-length flagella. These results suggested that the FHIPEP region is part of the gate regulating substrate entry into the export apparatus pore.

  16. Arabidopsis HFR1 is a potential nuclear substrate regulated by the Xanthomonas type III effector XopD(Xcc8004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon Meng; Li, Meng-Ying; Yang, Pei-Yun; Chang, Shu Heng; Ho, Yi-Ping; Lin, Hong; Deng, Wen-Ling; Yang, Jun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    XopDXcc8004, a type III effector of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) 8004, is considered a shorter version of the XopD, which lacks the N-terminal domain. To understand the functions of XopDXcc8004, in planta, a transgenic approach combined with inducible promoter to analyze the effects of XopDXcc8004 in Arabidopsis was done. Here, the expression of XopDXcc8004, in Arabidopsis elicited the accumulation of host defense-response genes. These molecular changes were dependent on salicylic acid and correlated with lesion-mimic phenotypes observed in XVE::XopDXcc8004 transgenic plants. Moreover, XopDXcc8004 was able to desumoylate HFR1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in photomorphogenesis, through SUMO protease activity. Interestingly, the hfr1-201 mutant increased the expression of host defense-response genes and displayed a resistance phenotype to Xcc8004. These data suggest that HFR1 is involved in plant innate immunity and is potentially regulated by XopDXcc8004.

  17. Arabidopsis HFR1 Is a Potential Nuclear Substrate Regulated by the Xanthomonas Type III Effector XopDXcc8004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon Meng; Li, Meng-Ying; Yang, Pei-Yun; Chang, Shu Heng; Ho, Yi-Ping; Lin, Hong; Deng, Wen-Ling; Yang, Jun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    XopDXcc8004, a type III effector of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) 8004, is considered a shorter version of the XopD, which lacks the N-terminal domain. To understand the functions of XopDXcc8004, in planta, a transgenic approach combined with inducible promoter to analyze the effects of XopDXcc8004 in Arabidopsis was done. Here, the expression of XopDXcc8004, in Arabidopsis elicited the accumulation of host defense-response genes. These molecular changes were dependent on salicylic acid and correlated with lesion-mimic phenotypes observed in XVE::XopDXcc8004 transgenic plants. Moreover, XopDXcc8004 was able to desumoylate HFR1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in photomorphogenesis, through SUMO protease activity. Interestingly, the hfr1-201 mutant increased the expression of host defense-response genes and displayed a resistance phenotype to Xcc8004. These data suggest that HFR1 is involved in plant innate immunity and is potentially regulated by XopDXcc8004. PMID:25647296

  18. Arabidopsis HFR1 is a potential nuclear substrate regulated by the Xanthomonas type III effector XopD(Xcc8004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Meng Tan

    Full Text Available XopDXcc8004, a type III effector of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc 8004, is considered a shorter version of the XopD, which lacks the N-terminal domain. To understand the functions of XopDXcc8004, in planta, a transgenic approach combined with inducible promoter to analyze the effects of XopDXcc8004 in Arabidopsis was done. Here, the expression of XopDXcc8004, in Arabidopsis elicited the accumulation of host defense-response genes. These molecular changes were dependent on salicylic acid and correlated with lesion-mimic phenotypes observed in XVE::XopDXcc8004 transgenic plants. Moreover, XopDXcc8004 was able to desumoylate HFR1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in photomorphogenesis, through SUMO protease activity. Interestingly, the hfr1-201 mutant increased the expression of host defense-response genes and displayed a resistance phenotype to Xcc8004. These data suggest that HFR1 is involved in plant innate immunity and is potentially regulated by XopDXcc8004.

  19. An archaeal CRISPR type III-B system exhibiting distinctive RNA targeting features and mediating dual RNA and DNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenfang; Feng, Mingxia; Feng, Xu; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide a small RNA-based mechanism to defend against invasive genetic elements in archaea and bacteria. To investigate the in vivo mechanism of RNA interference by two type III-B systems (Cmr-α and Cmr-β) in Sulfolobus islandicus, a genetic assay was developed using plasmids carrying an artificial mini-CRISPR (AC) locus with a single spacer. After pAC plasmids were introduced into different strains, Northern analyses confirmed that mature crRNAs were produced from the plasmid-borne CRISPR loci, which then guided gene silencing to target gene expression. Spacer mutagenesis identified a trinucleotide sequence in the 3'-region of crRNA that was crucial for RNA interference. Studying mutants lacking Cmr-α or Cmr-β system showed that each Cmr complex exhibited RNA interference. Strikingly, these analyses further revealed that the two Cmr systems displayed distinctive interference features. Whereas Cmr-β complexes targeted transcripts and could be recycled in RNA cleavage, Cmr-α complexes probably targeted nascent RNA transcripts and remained associated with the substrate. Moreover, Cmr-β exhibited much stronger RNA cleavage activity than Cmr-α. Since we previously showed that S. islandicus Cmr-α mediated transcription-dependent DNA interference, the Cmr-α constitutes the first CRISPR system exhibiting dual targeting of RNA and DNA.

  20. Manipulation of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Function by the Cell Contact-Dependent Type III Secretion Systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky eO'Boyle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus elicits gastroenteritis by deploying Type III Secretion Systems (TTSS to deliver effector proteins into epithelial cells of the human intestinal tract. The bacteria must adhere to the human cells to allow colonization and operation of the TTSS translocation apparatus bridging the bacterium and the host cell. This article first reviews recent advances in identifying the molecules responsible for intercellular adherence. V. parahaemolyticus possesses two TTSS, each of which delivers an exclusive set of effectors and mediates unique effects on the host cell. TTSS effectors primarily target and alter the activation status of host cell signalling proteins, thereby bringing about changes in the regulation of cellular behaviour. TTSS1 is responsible for the cytotoxicity of V. parahaemolyticus, while TTSS2 is necessary for the enterotoxicity of the pathogen. Recent publications have elucidated the function of several TTSS effectors and their importance in the virulence of the bacterium. This review will explore the ability of the TTSS to manipulate activities of human intestinal cells and how this modification of cell function favours bacterial colonization and persistence of V. parahaemolyticus in the host.

  1. Genetic Ablation of Type III Adenylyl Cyclase Exerts Region-Specific Effects on Cilia Architecture in the Mouse Nose.

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    Rosemary C Challis

    Full Text Available We recently reported that olfactory sensory neurons in the dorsal zone of the mouse olfactory epithelium exhibit drastic location-dependent differences in cilia length. Furthermore, genetic ablation of type III adenylyl cyclase (ACIII, a key olfactory signaling protein and ubiquitous marker for primary cilia, disrupts the cilia length pattern and results in considerably shorter cilia, independent of odor-induced activity. Given the significant impact of ACIII on cilia length in the dorsal zone, we sought to further investigate the relationship between cilia length and ACIII level in various regions throughout the mouse olfactory epithelium. We employed whole-mount immunohistochemical staining to examine olfactory cilia morphology in phosphodiesterase (PDE 1C-/-;PDE4A-/- (simplified as PDEs-/- hereafter and ACIII-/- mice in which ACIII levels are reduced and ablated, respectively. As expected, PDEs-/- animals exhibit dramatically shorter cilia in the dorsal zone (i.e., where the cilia pattern is found, similar to our previous observation in ACIII-/- mice. Remarkably, in a region not included in our previous study, ACIII-/- animals (but not PDEs-/- mice have dramatically elongated, comet-shaped cilia, as opposed to characteristic star-shaped olfactory cilia. Here, we reveal that genetic ablation of ACIII has drastic, location-dependent effects on cilia architecture in the mouse nose. These results add a new dimension to our current understanding of olfactory cilia structure and regional organization of the olfactory epithelium. Together, these findings have significant implications for both cilia and sensory biology.

  2. Search for heavy lepton partners of neutrinos in the context of type III seesaw mechanism in 2012 LHC CMS data

    CERN Document Server

    Gozzelino, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the thesis the analysis performed for the search for seesaw mechanism with heavy fermionweak triplets mediators (type III) is presented. The search is based on the process of seesaw mediators via virtual charged boson with the subsequent decay in real vector boson and standardcharged leptons. The considered final states host exactly three charged standard leptons andmissing transverse energy, which displays indirectly standard neutrinos, and jets. The investigated electric charge sum of three leptons has unit value, both signs. The analyzed data sample has been recorded by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN LargeHadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland, during the 2012 proton-proton collisions datataking period. The data sample consists of a total integrated luminosity of 19.7 f b−1 at center ofmass energy 8 TeV. The selected trigger algorithms require two charged leptons (dilepton) withtransverse momentum above thresholds of 17 GeV and 8 GeV, respectively. The backgroundcontribu...

  3. New results on interplanetary type III radio storms from multi-spacecraft combined STEREO-A/B and WIND observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, C.; Belyaev, V.; Bougeret, J. H.; Krupar, V.; Bonnin, X.; Cecconi, B.; Hoang, S.

    2011-12-01

    Interplanetary (IP) type III radio storms were intensively studied in the 80's (Bougeret et al. 1984a,b) using observations from a single radio instrument on the ISEE-3 spacecraft located at the Lagrange point L1. These studies showed that the IP storms trace long lasting (several days) streams of energetic electrons occurring in corotating regions of enhanced density, appearing to be the extension of active regions through the IP space at levels 0.05 - 0.8 AU. These studies were consistent with the hypothesis of steady conditions in the storm region over periods of several days. We propose the hypothesis that the overall duration of an IP storm observed from one vantage point directly results from the beaming of the radio radiation when the steady radio source corotates with the Sun. The goal of the present study is to track the evolution of the IP radio storms observed from three vantage points separated by about 90 degrees and spanning 180 degrees (STEREO-B, WIND, STEREO-A), over a time period of the order of a solar rotation, in order to test the limits of the above hypothesis and to track the evolution of the IP radio storms over periods close to a solar rotation.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilises its type III secretion system to kill the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd, Hadi; Wretlind, Bengt; Saeed, Amir; Idsund, Eva; Hultenby, Kjell; Sandström, Gunnar

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a free-living and common environmental bacterium. It is an opportunistic and nosocomial pathogen causing serious human health problems. To overcome its predators, such as macrophages and environmental phagocytes, it utilises different survival strategies, such as the formation of microcolonies and the production of toxins mediated by a type III secretion system (TTSS). The aim of this study was to examine interaction of TTSS effector proteins of P. aeruginosa PA103 with Acanthamoeba castellanii by co-cultivation, viable count, eosin staining, electron microscopy, apoptosis assay, and statistical analysis. The results showed that P. aeruginosa PA103 induced necrosis and apoptosis to kill A. castellanii by the effects of TTSS effector proteins ExoU, ExoS, ExoT, and ExoY. In comparison, Acanthamoeba cultured alone and co-cultured with P. aeruginosa PA103 lacking the known four TTSS effector proteins were not killed. The results are consistent with P. aeruginosa being a strict extracellular bacterium that needs TTSS to survive in the environment, because the TTSS effector proteins are able to kill its eukaryotic predators, such as Acanthamoeba.

  5. Membrane topology of conserved components of the type III secretion system from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Carolin; Robin, Guillaume P; Bonas, Ulla; Koebnik, Ralf

    2010-07-01

    Type III secretion (T3S) systems play key roles in the assembly of flagella and the translocation of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Eleven proteins which are conserved among gram-negative plant and animal pathogenic bacteria have been proposed to build up the basal structure of the T3S system, which spans both inner and outer bacterial membranes. We studied six conserved proteins, termed Hrc, predicted to reside in the inner membrane of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The membrane topology of HrcD, HrcR, HrcS, HrcT, HrcU and HrcV was studied by translational fusions to a dual alkaline phosphatase-beta-galactosidase reporter protein. Two proteins, HrcU and HrcV, were found to have the same membrane topology as the Yersinia homologues YscU and YscV. For HrcR, the membrane topology differed from the model for the homologue from Yersinia, YscR. For our data on three other protein families, exemplified by HrcD, HrcS and HrcT, we derived the first topology models. Our results provide what is believed to be the first complete model of the inner membrane topology of any bacterial T3S system and will aid in elucidating the architecture of T3S systems by ultrastructural analysis.

  6. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  7. Angiogenic inhibitors delivered by the type III secretion system of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium safely shrink tumors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yu, Bin; Cai, Chun-Hui; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Despite of a growing number of bacterial species that apparently exhibit intrinsic tumor-targeting properties, no bacterium is able to inhibit tumor growth completely in the immunocompetent hosts, due to its poor dissemination inside the tumors. Oxygen and inflammatory reaction form two barriers and restrain the spread of the bacteria inside the tumors. Here, we engineered a Salmonella typhimurium strain named ST8 which is safe and has limited ability to spread beyond the anaerobic regions of tumors. When injected systemically to tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice, ST8 accumulated in tumors at levels at least 100-fold greater than parental obligate anaerobic strain ST4. ST8/pSEndo harboring therapeutic plasmids encoding Endostatin fused with a secreted protein SopA could target vasculature at the tumor periphery, can stably maintain and safely deliver a therapeutic vector, release angiogenic inhibitors through a type III secretion system (T3SS) to interfere with the pro-angiogenic action of growth factors in tumors. Mice with murine CT26 colon cancer that had been injected with ST8/pSEndo showed efficient tumor suppression by inducing more severe necrosis and inhibiting blooding vessel density within tumors. Our findings provide a therapeutic platform for indirectly acting therapeutic strategies such as anti-angiogenesis and immune therapy.

  8. A review of the oro-dento-facial characteristics of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (familial dysautonomia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Eliyahu

    2012-01-01

    The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunction of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III, known as familial dysautonomia or Riley-Day syndrome, was first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include dental trauma; dental and soft tissue self-mutilation; normal dental age; normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth; smaller tooth size; different and disproportional tooth components; normal alveolar bone height; small jaws, mild crowding, and malocclusions. These persons have craniofacial morphology that is different from accepted norms but they resemble norms of their ethnic origin. The subjects can have gray, pale, shiny faces with an asymmetric suffering expression; frontal bossing, with eventual hypertelorism and narrow lips; a low-caries rate; drooling, and hypersalivation. They can have changes in salivary composition and content, which influences plaque and calculus and increases the risk of gingival and periodontal diseases. They also have difficulty in controlling oral muscles; a progressive decrease in number of tongue fungiform papillae, accompanied by lack of taste buds; and specific dysgeusia, but a normal sense of smell.

  9. A Type III protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin system from Bacillus thuringiensis promotes plasmid retention during spore development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Francesca L; Monson, Rita E; Salmond, George P C

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group of bacteria often contain multiple large plasmids, including those encoding virulence factors in B. anthracis. Bacillus species can develop into spores in response to stress. During sporulation the genomic content of the cell is heavily compressed, which could result in counterselection of extrachromosomal genomic elements, unless they have robust stabilization and segregation systems. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are near-ubiquitous in prokaryotes and have multiple biological roles, including plasmid stabilization during vegetative growth. Here, we have shown that a Type III TA system, based on an RNA antitoxin and endoribonuclease toxin, from plasmid pAW63 in Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki HD-73 can dramatically promote plasmid retention in populations undergoing sporulation and germination, and we provide evidence that this occurs through the post-segregational killing of plasmid-free forespores. Our findings show how an extremely common genetic module can be used to ensure plasmid maintenance during stress-induced developmental transitions, with implications for plasmid dynamics in B. cereus s.l. bacteria.

  10. NMR characterization of the interaction of the Salmonella type III secretion system protein SipD and bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Nordhues, Bryce A; Zhong, Dalian; De Guzman, Roberto N

    2010-05-18

    Salmonella and Shigella bacteria require the type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence proteins into their hosts and initiate infections. The tip proteins SipD and IpaD are critical components of the Salmonella and Shigella T3SS, respectively. Recently, SipD and IpaD have been shown to interact with bile salts, which are enriched in the intestines, and are hypothesized to act as environmental sensors for these enteric pathogens. Bile salts activate the Shigella T3SS but repress the Salmonella T3SS, and the mechanism of this differing response to bile salts is poorly understood. Further, how SipD binds to bile salts is currently unknown. Computer modeling predicted that IpaD binds the bile salt deoxycholate in a cleft formed by the N-terminal domain and the long central coiled coil of IpaD. Here, we used NMR methods to determine which SipD residues are affected by the interaction with the bile salts deoxycholate, chenodeoxycholate, and taurodeoxcholate. The bile salts perturbed nearly the same set of SipD residues; however, the largest chemical shift perturbations occurred away from what was predicted for the bile salt binding site in IpaD. Our NMR results indicate that that bile salt interaction of SipD will be different from what was predicted for IpaD, suggesting a possible mechanism for the differing response of Salmonella and Shigella to bile salts.

  11. A global role for Fis in the transcriptional control of metabolism and type III secretion in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Arlene; Goldberg, Martin D; Carroll, Ronan K; Danino, Vittoria; Hinton, Jay C D; Dorman, Charles J

    2004-07-01

    Fis is a key DNA-binding protein involved in nucleoid organization and modulation of many DNA transactions, including transcription in enteric bacteria. The regulon of genes whose expression is influenced by Fis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) has been defined by DNA microarray analysis. These data suggest that Fis plays a central role in coordinating the expression of both metabolic and type III secretion factors. The genes that were most strongly up-regulated by Fis were those involved in virulence and located in the pathogenicity islands SPI-1, SPI-2, SPI-3 and SPI-5. Similarly, motility and flagellar genes required Fis for full expression. This was shown to be a direct effect as purified Fis protein bound to the promoter regions of representative flagella and SPI-2 genes. Genes contributing to aspects of metabolism known to assist the bacterium during survival in the mammalian gut were also Fis-regulated, usually negatively. This category included components of metabolic pathways for propanediol utilization, biotin synthesis, vitamin B(12) transport, fatty acids and acetate metabolism, as well as genes for the glyoxylate bypass of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Genes found to be positively regulated by Fis included those for ethanolamine utilization. The data reported reveal the central role played by Fis in coordinating the expression of both housekeeping and virulence factors required by S. typhimurium during life in the gut lumen or during systemic infection of host cells.

  12. Cholesterol binding by the bacterial type III translocon is essential for virulence effector delivery into mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Richard D; Cain, Robert J; McGhie, Emma J; Phillips, Neil; Garner, Matthew J; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2005-05-01

    A ubiquitous early step in infection of man and animals by enteric bacterial pathogens like Salmonella, Shigella and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is the translocation of virulence effector proteins into mammalian cells via specialized type III secretion systems (TTSSs). Translocated effectors subvert the host cytoskeleton and stimulate signalling to promote bacterial internalization or survival. Target cell plasma membrane cholesterol is central to pathogen-host cross-talk, but the precise nature of its critical contribution remains unknown. Using in vitro cholesterol-binding assays, we demonstrate that Salmonella (SipB) and Shigella (IpaB) TTSS translocon components bind cholesterol with high affinity. Direct visualization of cell-associated fluorescently labelled SipB and parallel immunogold transmission electron microscopy revealed that cholesterol levels limit both the amount and distribution of plasma membrane-integrated translocon. Correspondingly, cholesterol depletion blocked effector translocation into cultured mammalian cells by not only the related Salmonella and Shigella TTSSs, but also the more divergent EPEC system. The data reveal that cholesterol-dependent association of the bacterial TTSS translocon with the target cell plasma membrane is essential for translocon activation and effector delivery into mammalian cells.

  13. Vibrio type III effector VPA1380 is related to the cysteine protease domain of large bacterial toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Calder

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium and one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis. Its genome harbors two Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2, but only T3SS2 is required for enterotoxicity seen in animal models. Effector proteins secreted from T3SS2 have been previously shown to promote colonization of the intestinal epithelium, invasion of host cells, and destruction of the epithelial monolayer. In this study, we identify VPA1380, a T3SS2 effector protein that is toxic when expressed in yeast. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that VPA1380 is highly similar to the inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6-inducible cysteine protease domains of several large bacterial toxins. Mutations in conserved catalytic residues and residues in the putative IP6-binding pocket abolished toxicity in yeast. Furthermore, VPA1380 was not toxic in IP6 deficient yeast cells. Therefore, our findings suggest that VPA1380 is a cysteine protease that requires IP6 as an activator.

  14. BEAN 2.0: an integrated web resource for the identification and functional analysis of type III secreted effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaobao; Lu, Xiaotian; Zhang, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria inject type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) into host cells to sabotage their immune signaling networks. Because T3SEs constitute a meeting-point of pathogen virulence and host defense, they are of keen interest to host-pathogen interaction research community. To accelerate the identification and functional understanding of T3SEs, we present BEAN 2.0 as an integrated web resource to predict, analyse and store T3SEs. BEAN 2.0 includes three major components. First, it provides an accurate T3SE predictor based on a hybrid approach. Using independent testing data, we show that BEAN 2.0 achieves a sensitivity of 86.05% and a specificity of 100%. Second, it integrates a set of online sequence analysis tools. Users can further perform functional analysis of putative T3SEs in a seamless way, such as subcellular location prediction, functional domain scan and disorder region annotation. Third, it compiles a database covering 1215 experimentally verified T3SEs and constructs two T3SE-related networks that can be used to explore the relationships among T3SEs. Taken together, by presenting a one-stop T3SE bioinformatics resource, we hope BEAN 2.0 can promote comprehensive understanding of the function and evolution of T3SEs.

  15. Hijacking of the pleiotropic cytokine interferon-γ by the type III secretion system of Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Gendrin

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, employs its type III secretion system to inject toxins into target cells, a crucial step in infection establishment. LcrV is an essential component of the T3SS of Yersinia spp, and is able to associate at the tip of the secretion needle and take part in the translocation of anti-host effector proteins into the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm. Upon cell contact, LcrV is also released into the surrounding medium where it has been shown to block the normal inflammatory response, although details of this mechanism have remained elusive. In this work, we reveal a key aspect of the immunomodulatory function of LcrV by showing that it interacts directly and with nanomolar affinity with the inflammatory cytokine IFNγ. In addition, we generate specific IFNγ mutants that show decreased interaction capabilities towards LcrV, enabling us to map the interaction region to two basic C-terminal clusters of IFNγ. Lastly, we show that the LcrV-IFNγ interaction can be disrupted by a number of inhibitors, some of which display nanomolar affinity. This study thus not only identifies novel potential inhibitors that could be developed for the control of Yersinia-induced infection, but also highlights the diversity of the strategies used by Y. pestis to evade the immune system, with the hijacking of pleiotropic cytokines being a long-range mechanism that potentially plays a key role in the severity of plague.

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of diabetic nephropathy stage III in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus therapy with sulodexide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kadzharyan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes mellitus (DM - takes the main place in the structure of endocrine diseases, and the third after cardiovascular and cancer pathology. In Ukraine 1.2 million of people suffer from diabetes and type 2 diabetes occurs in 85-90% of them. In 2004, 3.4 million of people died from diabetes complications. Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a serious chronic complication of diabetes that leads to the formation of nodular or diffuse glomerulosclerosis. It is the most frequent cause of terminal chronic renal failure (CRF in the world, accounting for over 25% of all cases of CRF. The generally accepted classification is Moggensen`s classification (1983, WHO, according to which five stages of diabetic nephropathy are identified, the first two stages of them are preclinical. Leading role in the pathogenesis of DN takes hyperglycemia, which is implemented by the phenomenon of glucosetoxicity. A lot of facts underscore the importance of inflammatory mechanisms triggered by cytokines. There's immune and non-immune theory of DN. The basis of non-immune theory is a violation of the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs that are a major component of the glomerular basement membrane (GMB. GAGs create its negative charge, which prevents the passage through the renal filter small negatively charged molecules, including albumin. In hemodynamic regulation leading role belongs to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS. The blockade of the RAAS system with ACE inhibitors is the basis of a treatment strategy of DN. All mentioned above became a reason for study of the possibility of a new direction in the treatment of DN using the drug sulodexid, which is a natural mixture of GAGs. Objective of the research. Evaluating the effectiveness of sulodexide therapy of DN stage III in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I consisted of 24 patients aged 40 to 68 years. 5 of them were women and 19

  17. Profile of differentially expressed genes mediated by the type III epidermal growth factor receptor mutation expressed in a small-cell lung cancer cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.W.; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær; Ørntoft, Torben Falck;

    2001-01-01

    understanding of how the EGFRvIII contributes to the malignant phenotype is of major importance for future therapy. The GeneChip Hu6800Set developed by Affymetrix was used to identify changes in gene expression caused by the expression of EGFRvIII. The cell line selected for the study was an EGF receptor......Previous studies have shown a correlation between expression of the EGF receptor type III mutation (EGFRvIII) and a more malignant phenotype of various cancers including: non-small-cell lung cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, prostate cancer and breast cancer. Thus, a detailed molecular genetic...... negative small-cell-lung cancer cell line, GLC3, stably transfected with the EGFRvIII gene in a Tet-On system. By comparison of mRNA levels in EGFRvIII-GLC3 with those of Tet-On-GLC3, it was found that the levels of mRNAs encoding several transcription factors (ATF-3, JunD, and c-Myb), cell adhesion...

  18. Key steps in type III secretion system (T3SS) towards translocon assembly with potential sensor at plant plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongtao; Dong, Hansong

    2015-09-01

    Many plant- and animal-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins from bacterial cells into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. The effector translocation occurs through an integral component of T3SS, the channel-like translocon, assembled by hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteinaceous translocators in a two-step process. In the first, hydrophilic translocators localize to the tip of a proteinaceous needle in animal pathogens, or a proteinaceous pilus in plant pathogens, and associate with hydrophobic translocators, which insert into host plasma membranes in the second step. However, the pilus needs to penetrate plant cell walls in advance. All hydrophilic translocators so far identified in plant pathogens are characteristic of harpins: T3SS accessory proteins containing a unitary hydrophilic domain or an additional enzymatic domain. Two-domain harpins carrying a pectate lyase domain potentially target plant cell walls and facilitate the penetration of the pectin-rich middle lamella by the bacterial pilus. One-domain harpins target plant plasma membranes and may play a crucial role in translocon assembly, which may also involve contrapuntal associations of hydrophobic translocators. In all cases, sensory components in the target plasma membrane are indispensable for the membrane recognition of translocators and the functionality of the translocon. The conjectural sensors point to membrane lipids and proteins, and a phosphatidic acid and an aquaporin are able to interact with selected harpin-type translocators. Interactions between translocators and their sensors at the target plasma membrane are assumed to be critical for translocon assembly.

  19. Preservation of condyle and disc in the surgical treatment of type III temporomandibular joint ankylosis: a long-term follow-up clinical study of 111 joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhar, S K; Agarwal, M; Gupta, D K; Tiwari, A D

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the role of retaining the condyle and disc in the treatment of type III ankylosis, by clinical and computed tomography (CT) evaluation. A total of 90 patients with type III ankylosis met the inclusion criteria; 42 patients had left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis, 27 patients had right TMJ ankylosis, and 21 had bilateral TMJ ankylosis, thus a total 111 joints were treated. Considerable improvements in mandibular movement and maximum mouth opening were noted in all patients. At the end of a minimum follow-up of 2 years, the mean inter-incisal mouth opening was 30.7 mm. Postoperative occlusion was normal in all patients, and open bite did not occur in any case because the ramus height was maintained through preservation of the pseudo-joint. Only three patients had recurrence of ankylosis, which was due to a lack of postoperative physiotherapy. The advantages of condyle and disc preservation in type III ankylosis are: (1) surgery is relatively safe; (2) the disc helps to prevent recurrence of ankylosis; (3) the existing ramus height is maintained; (4) the growth site is preserved; and (5) there is no need to reconstruct the joint with autogenous or alloplastic material. It is recommended that the disc and condyle are preserved in type III TMJ ankylosis.

  20. Further Characterization of a Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and of a New Effector Protein from a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas Hydrophila - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A type III secretion system (T3SS)-associated cytotoxin, AexT, with ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa bifuncational toxins ExoT/S, was recently identified from a fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. In this study, we reported the molecular cha...

  1. Fibronectin type III (FN3) modules of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 interact directly with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Li, Shizhong; Hinsby, Anders Mørkeberg

    2008-01-01

    The neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1 promotes axonal outgrowth, presumably through an interaction with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). The present study demonstrates a direct interaction between L1 fibronectin type III (FN3) modules I-V and FGFR1 immunoglobulin (Ig) modules ...

  2. Search for type-III Seesaw heavy leptons in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= 8$ TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    A search for the pair-production of heavy leptons ($N^0,L^{\\pm}$) predicted by the type-III seesaw theory formulated to explain the origin of small neutrino masses is presented. The decay channels $N^0\\rightarrow W^{\\pm}l^{\\mp}$ ($\\ell = e, \\mu, \\tau$) and $L^{\\pm}\\rightarrow W^\\pm \

  3. The 33 carboxyl-terminal residues of Spa40 orchestrate the multi-step assembly process of the type III secretion needle complex in Shigella flexneri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botteaux, Anne; Kayath, Christian A.; Page, Anne-Laure; Jouihri, Nouredine; Sani, Musa; Boekema, Egbert; Biskri, Latefa; Parsot, Claude; Allaoui, Abdelmounaaim

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) is a central virulence factor of many Gram-negative bacteria. Its overall morphology consists of a cytoplasmic region, inner- and outer-membrane sections and an extracellular needle. In Shigella, the length of the needle is regulated by Spa32. To understand be

  4. Development of a plate-type fuel model for the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupled code - SIMMER-III - and its application to the analyses of SPERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ping, E-mail: ping.liu@areva.co [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gabrielli, Fabrizio; Rineiski, Andrei; Maschek, Werner [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET), P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bruna, Giovanni B. [Reactor Safety Division, French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), B.P. 17, 92262 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15

    SIMMER-III, a neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupled code, was originally developed for core disruptive accident analyses of liquid metal cooled fast reactors. Due to its versatility in investigating scenarios of core disruption, the code has also been extended to the simulation of transients in thermal neutron systems such as the criticality accident at the JCO fuel fabrication plant, and, in recent years, applied to water-moderated thermal research reactor transient studies, too. Originally, SIMMER considered only cylindrical fuel pin geometry. Therefore, implementation of a plate-type fuel model to the SIMMER-III code is of importance for the analysis of research reactors adopting this kind of fuel. Furthermore, validation of the SIMMER-III modeling of light water-cooled thermal reactor reactivity initiated transients is of necessity. This paper presents the work carried out on the SIMMER-III code in the framework of a KIT and IRSN joint activity aimed at providing the code with experimental reactor transient study capabilities. The first step of the job was the implementation of a new fuel model in SIMMER-III. Verification on this new model indicates that it can well simulate the steady-state temperature profile in the fuel. Secondly, three cases with the shortest reactor periods of 5.0 ms, 4.6 ms and 3.2 ms among the Special Power Excursion Reactor Tests (SPERT) performed in the SPERT I D-12/25 facility have been simulated. Comparison of the results between the SIMMER-III simulation and the reported SPERT results indicates that although there is space for further improvement on the modeling of negative feedback mechanisms, with this plate-type fuel model SIMMER-III can well represent the transient phenomena of reactivity driven power excursion.

  5. AGP2 encodes the major permease for high affinity polyamine import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouida, Mustapha; Leduc, Anick; Poulin, Richard; Ramotar, Dindial

    2005-06-24

    Polyamines play essential functions in many aspects of cell biology. Plasma membrane transport systems for the specific uptake of polyamines exist in most eukaryotic cells but have been very recently identified at the molecular level only in the parasite Leishmania. We now report that the high affinity polyamine permease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is identical to Agp2p, a member of the yeast amino acid transporter family that was previously identified as a carnitine transporter. Deletion of AGP2 dramatically reduces the initial velocity of spermidine and putrescine uptake and confers strong resistance to the toxicity of exogenous polyamines, and transformation with an AGP2 expression vector restored polyamine transport in agp2delta mutants. Yeast mutants deficient in polyamine biosynthesis required >10-fold higher concentrations of exogenous putrescine to restore cell proliferation upon deletion of the AGP2 gene. Disruption of END3, a gene required for an early step of endocytosis, increased the abundance of Agp2p, an effect that was paralleled by a marked up-regulation of spermidine transport velocity. Thus, AGP2 encodes the first eukaryotic permease that preferentially uses spermidine over putrescine as a high affinity substrate and plays a central role in the uptake of polyamines in yeast.

  6. Fraturas supracondilares tipo III do úmero em crianças: tratamento com braço reto Type III supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children: straight-arm treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamish Gandhi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As fraturas supracondilares de Gartland tipo III são as lesões comuns em crianças. Apresentamos um método de redução manipulativa, imobilização e fixação usando gesso-de-Paris, com o cotovelo em extensão total (braço reto. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo analisando todos os pacientes com fraturas supracondilares de Gartland tipo III no Wellington Public Hospital, durante o período de fevereiro de 1999 a março de 2007. Os sete pacientes foram tratados pela técnica do braço reto, e os desfechos clínicos foram revisados neste estudo. RESULTADO: Todos os pais ficaram satisfeitos com os resultados. Usando os critérios de Flynn,6 seis pacientes atingiram excelentes resultados e um teve resultado bom quando se analisou o ângulo de alinhamento. Ao verificar a amplitude de movimento, quatro pacientes tiveram resultados bons, um moderado e dois, ruim. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com braço reto das fraturas supracondilares de Gartland tipo III parece ser uma alternativa não-invasiva e segura da fixação com fio K.OBJECTIVE: Gartland type III supracondylar fractures are a common injury in children. We present a method of manipulative reduction, immobilization and fixation using Plaster of Paris with the elbow in full extension (straight-arm. METHOD: Retrospective study analyzing all patients with Gartland type III supracondylar fractures at the Wellington Public Hospital during the period from February 1999 to March 2007. The seven patients had been treated with the straight-arm technique, and the clinical outcomes are reviewed in this study. RESULT: All the parents were satisfied with the results. Using the Flynn criteria6, six patients achieved excellent results and one good, in relation to the carrying angle. With regard to the range of motion, four patients had good results, one fair, and two poor. CONCLUSION: Straight-arm treatment of Gartland type III supracondylar fractures appears to be a non-invasive and safe

  7. Off-diagonal terms in Yukawa textures of the Type-III 2-Higgs doublet model and light charged Higgs boson phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Sánchez, J; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Rosado, A

    2013-01-01

    We discuss flavor-violating constraints and consequently possible charged Higgs boson phenomenology emerging from a four-zero Yukawa texture embedded within the Type-III 2-Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM-III). Firstly, we show in detail how we can obtain several kinds of 2HDMs when some parameters in the Yukawa texture are absent. Secondly, we present a comprehensive study of the main $B$-physics constraints on such parameters induced by flavor-changing processes, in particular on the off-diagonal terms of such a texture: i.e., from $\\mu -e$ universality in $\\tau$ decays, several leptonic B-decays ($B \\to \\tau \

  8. OmcB, a c-Type Polyheme Cytochrome, Involved in Fe(III) Reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Microorganisms in the family Geobacteraceae are the predominant Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in a variety of subsurface environments in which Fe(III) reduction is an important process, but little is known about the mechanisms for electron transport to Fe(III) in these organisms. The Geobacter sulfurreducens genome was found to contain a 10-kb chromosomal duplication consisting of two tandem three-gene clusters. The last genes of the two clusters, designated omcB and omcC, encode putative o...

  9. Advanced Gastric Cancer: Differentiation of Borrmann Type IV versus Borrmann Type III by Two-Phased Dynamic Multi-Detector Row CT with Use of the Water Filling Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Yu, Jeong Sik; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Joo Hee; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Ki Whang [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hae Youn [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    To characterize Borrmann type IV from Borrmann type III advanced gastric cancer (AGC) by two-phased multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) using the water filling method. A total of 143 patients (pathologically confirmed Borrmann type III and IV - 100 and 43 patients), who underwent preoperative MDCT, were enrolled. Two radiologists, retrospectively and independently, determined tumor enhancement pattern using a 5-grade scale without clinical information. A weighted kappa test was applied for interobserver variability. The score of tumor enhancement pattern correlated with Borrmann type as determined by Spearman's correlation coefficient. The accuracy of differentiation of Borrmann type using MDCT was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. Interobserver agreement (weighted kappa = 0.683) was substantial. The tumor enhancement pattern score showed a significant correlation with Borrmann type (reviewer 1, r = 0.591, p < 0.001; reviewer 2, r = 0.616, p < 0.001). The accuracy for differentiation of Borrmann type on MDCT was 0.86 (p < 0.001) in both reviewers. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of Borrmann type IV were 79% and 82% in reviewer 1, and 88% and 78% in reviewer 2, respectively. Dual-phased MDCT using the water filling method can differentiate between Borrmann type IV and III AGC with high accuracy.

  10. Extensive remodeling of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. avellanae type III secretome associated with two independent host shifts onto hazelnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Brien Heath E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazelnut (Corylus avellana decline disease in Greece and Italy is caused by the convergent evolution of two distantly related lineages of Pseudomonas syringae pv. avellanae (Pav. We sequenced the genomes of three Pav isolates to determine if their convergent virulence phenotype had a common genetic basis due to either genetic exchange between lineages or parallel evolution. Results We found little evidence for horizontal transfer (recombination of genes between Pav lineages, but two large genomic islands (GIs have been recently acquired by one of the lineages. Evolutionary analyses of the genes encoding type III secreted effectors (T3SEs that are translocated into host cells and are important for both suppressing and eliciting defense responses show that the two Pav lineages have dramatically different T3SE profiles, with only two shared putatively functional T3SEs. One Pav lineage has undergone unprecedented secretome remodeling, including the acquisition of eleven new T3SEs and the loss or pseudogenization of 15, including five of the six core T3SE families that are present in the other Pav lineage. Molecular dating indicates that divergence within both of the Pav lineages predates their observation in the field. This suggest that both Pav lineages have been cryptically infecting hazelnut trees or wild relatives for many years, and that the emergence of hazelnut decline in the 1970s may have been due to changes in agricultural practice. Conclusions These data show that divergent lineages of P. syringae can converge on identical disease etiology on the same host plant using different virulence mechanisms and that dramatic shifts in the arsenal of T3SEs can accompany disease emergence.

  11. Genetic inviability is a major driver of type III survivorship in experimental families of a highly fecund marine bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, L V; Shin, G; Hedgecock, D

    2016-02-01

    The offspring of most highly fecund marine fish and shellfish suffer substantial mortality early in the life cycle, complicating prediction of recruitment and fisheries management. Early mortality has long been attributed to environmental factors and almost never to genetic sources. Previous work on a variety of marine bivalve species uncovered substantial genetic inviability among the offspring of inbred crosses, suggesting a large load of early-acting deleterious recessive mutations. However, genetic inviability of randomly bred offspring has not been addressed. Here, genome-wide surveys reveal widespread, genotype-dependent mortality in randomly bred, full-sib progenies of wild-caught Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Using gene-mapping methods, we infer that 11-19 detrimental alleles per family render 97.9-99.8% of progeny inviable. The variable genomic positions of viability loci among families imply a surprisingly large load of partially dominant or additive detrimental mutations in wild adult oysters. Although caution is required in interpreting the relevance of experimental results for natural field environments, we argue that the observed genetic inviability corresponds with type III survivorship, which is characteristic of both hatchery and field environments and that our results, therefore, suggest the need for additional experiments under the near-natural conditions of mesocosms. We explore the population genetic implications of our results, calculating a detrimental mutation rate that is comparable to that estimated for conifers and other highly fecund perennial plants. Genetic inviability ought to be considered as a potential major source of low and variable recruitment in highly fecund marine animals.

  12. Biosynthesis of biphenyls and benzophenones--evolution of benzoic acid-specific type III polyketide synthases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerhues, Ludger; Liu, Benye

    2009-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) generate a diverse array of secondary metabolites by varying the starter substrate, the number of condensation reactions, and the mechanism of ring closure. Among the starter substrates used, benzoyl-CoA is a rare starter molecule. Biphenyl synthase (BIS) and benzophenone synthase (BPS) catalyze the formation of identical linear tetraketide intermediates from benzoyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA but use alternative intramolecular cyclization reactions to form 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone, respectively. In a phylogenetic tree, BIS and BPS group together closely, indicating that they arise from a relatively recent functional diversification of a common ancestral gene. The functionally diverse PKSs, which include BIS and BPS, and the ubiquitously distributed chalcone synthases (CHSs) form separate clusters, which originate from a gene duplication event prior to the speciation of the angiosperms. BIS is the key enzyme of biphenyl metabolism. Biphenyls and the related dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae. This subfamily of the Rosaceae includes a number of economically important fruit trees, such as apple and pear. When incubated with ortho-hydroxybenzoyl (salicoyl)-CoA, BIS catalyzes a single decarboxylative condensation with malonyl-CoA to form 4-hydroxycoumarin. A well-known anticoagulant derivative of this enzymatic product is dicoumarol. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia also formed 4-hydroxycoumarin when fed with the N-acetylcysteamine thioester of salicylic acid (salicoyl-NAC). BPS is the key enzyme of benzophenone metabolism. Polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives with bridged polycyclic skeletons are widely distributed in the Clusiaceae (Guttiferae). Xanthones are regioselectively cyclized benzophenone derivatives. BPS was converted into a functional phenylpyrone synthase (PPS) by a single amino acid substitution in the initiation/elongation cavity. The

  13. Type III effector diversification via both pathoadaptation and horizontal transfer in response to a coevolutionary arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenbo; Dong, Frederick F T; Stavrinides, John; Guttman, David S

    2006-12-01

    The concept of the coevolutionary arms race holds a central position in our understanding of pathogen-host interactions. Here we identify the molecular mechanisms and follow the stepwise progression of an arms race in a natural system. We show how the evolution and function of the HopZ family of type III secreted effector proteins carried by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are influenced by a coevolutionary arms race between pathogen and host. We surveyed 96 isolates of P. syringae and identified three homologs (HopZ1, HopZ2, and HopZ3) distributed among approximately 45% of the strains. All alleles were sequenced and their expression was confirmed. Evolutionary analyses determined that the diverse HopZ1 homologs are ancestral to P. syringae, and have diverged via pathoadaptive mutational changes into three functional and two degenerate forms, while HopZ2 and HopZ3 have been brought into P. syringae via horizontal transfer from other ecologically similar bacteria. A PAML selection analysis revealed that the C terminus of HopZ1 is under strong positive selection. Despite the extensive genetic variation observed in this family, all three homologs have cysteine-protease activity, although their substrate specificity may vary. The introduction of the ancestral hopZ1 allele into strains harboring alternate alleles results in a resistance protein-mediated defense response in their respective hosts, which is not observed with the endogenous allele. These data indicate that the P. syringae HopZ family has undergone allelic diversification via both pathoadaptive mutational changes and horizontal transfer in response to selection imposed by the host defense system. This genetic diversity permits the pathogen to avoid host defenses while still maintaining a virulence-associated protease, thereby allowing it to thrive on its current host, while simultaneously impacting its host range.

  14. Type III effector diversification via both pathoadaptation and horizontal transfer in response to a coevolutionary arms race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Ma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the coevolutionary arms race holds a central position in our understanding of pathogen-host interactions. Here we identify the molecular mechanisms and follow the stepwise progression of an arms race in a natural system. We show how the evolution and function of the HopZ family of type III secreted effector proteins carried by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are influenced by a coevolutionary arms race between pathogen and host. We surveyed 96 isolates of P. syringae and identified three homologs (HopZ1, HopZ2, and HopZ3 distributed among approximately 45% of the strains. All alleles were sequenced and their expression was confirmed. Evolutionary analyses determined that the diverse HopZ1 homologs are ancestral to P. syringae, and have diverged via pathoadaptive mutational changes into three functional and two degenerate forms, while HopZ2 and HopZ3 have been brought into P. syringae via horizontal transfer from other ecologically similar bacteria. A PAML selection analysis revealed that the C terminus of HopZ1 is under strong positive selection. Despite the extensive genetic variation observed in this family, all three homologs have cysteine-protease activity, although their substrate specificity may vary. The introduction of the ancestral hopZ1 allele into strains harboring alternate alleles results in a resistance protein-mediated defense response in their respective hosts, which is not observed with the endogenous allele. These data indicate that the P. syringae HopZ family has undergone allelic diversification via both pathoadaptive mutational changes and horizontal transfer in response to selection imposed by the host defense system. This genetic diversity permits the pathogen to avoid host defenses while still maintaining a virulence-associated protease, thereby allowing it to thrive on its current host, while simultaneously impacting its host range.

  15. Supramolecular structure and functional analysis of the type III secretion system in Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system (T3SS of plant and animal bacterial pathogens directs the secretion and injection of proteins into host cells. Some homologous genes of T3SS were found also in nonpathogenic bacteria, but the organization of its machinery and basic function are still unknown. In this study, we identified a T3SS gene cluster from the plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24 and isolated the corresponding T3SS apparatus. The T3SS gene cluster of strain 2P24 is similar organizationally to that of pathogenic P. syringae, except that it lacks the regulator hrpR and the hrpK1 and hrpH genes, which are involved in translocation of proteins. Electron microscopy revealed that the T3SS supramolecular structure of strain 2P24 was comprised of two distinctive substructures: a long extracellular, filamentous pilus and a membrane-embedded base. We show that strain 2P24 deploys a harpin homologue protein, RspZ1, to elicit a hypersensitive response when infiltrated into Nicotiana tabacum cv. xanthi leaves with protein that is partially purified, and by complementing the hrpZ1 mutation of pHIR11. The T3SS of strain 2P24 retained ability to secrete effectors, whereas its effector translocation activity appeared to be excessively lost. Mutation of the rscC gene from 2P24 T3SS abolished the secretion of effectors, but the general biocontrol properties were unaffected. Remarkably, strain 2P24 induced functional MAMP-triggered immunity that included a burst of reactive oxygen species, strong suppression of challenge cell death, and disease expansion, while it was not associated with the secretion functional T3SS.

  16. Interactions between Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases and growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases regulate tracheal tube formation in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili Jeon

    2012-04-01

    The respiratory (tracheal system of the Drosophila melanogaster larva is an intricate branched network of air-filled tubes. Its developmental logic is similar in some ways to that of the vertebrate vascular system. We previously described a unique embryonic tracheal tubulogenesis phenotype caused by loss of both of the Type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs, Ptp4E and Ptp10D. In Ptp4E Ptp10D double mutants, the linear tubes in unicellular and terminal tracheal branches are converted into bubble-like cysts that incorporate apical cell surface markers. This tube geometry phenotype is modulated by changes in the activity or expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr tyrosine kinase (TK. Ptp10D physically interacts with Egfr. Here we demonstrate that the Ptp4E Ptp10D phenotype is the consequence of the loss of negative regulation by the RPTPs of three growth factor receptor TKs: Egfr, Breathless and Pvr. Reducing the activity of any of the three kinases by tracheal expression of dominant-negative mutants suppresses cyst formation. By competing dominant-negative and constitutively active kinase mutants against each other, we show that the three RTKs have partially interchangeable activities, so that increasing the activity of one kinase can compensate for the effects of reducing the activity of another. This implies that SH2-domain downstream effectors that are required for the phenotype are likely to be able to interact with phosphotyrosine sites on all three receptor TKs. We also show that the phenotype involves increases in signaling through the MAP kinase and Rho GTPase pathways.

  17. Efficient isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion translocators and assembly of heteromeric transmembrane pores in model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Fabian B; Rossi, Kyle C; Savva, Christos G; Holzenburg, Andreas; Clerico, Eugenia M; Heuck, Alejandro P

    2011-08-23

    Translocation of bacterial toxins or effectors into host cells using the type III secretion (T3S) system is a conserved mechanism shared by many Gram-negative pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa injects different proteins across the plasma membrane of target cells, altering the normal metabolism of the host. Protein translocation presumably occurs through a proteinaceous transmembrane pore formed by two T3S secreted protein translocators, PopB and PopD. Unfolded translocators are secreted through the T3S needle prior to insertion into the target membrane. Purified PopB and PopD form pores in model membranes. However, their tendency to form heterogeneous aggregates in solution had hampered the analysis of how these proteins undergo the transition from a denatured state to a membrane-inserted state. Translocators were purified as stable complexes with the cognate chaperone PcrH and isolated from the chaperone using 6 M urea. We report here the assembly of stable transmembrane pores by dilution of urea-denatured translocators in the presence of membranes. PopB and PopD spontaneously bound liposomes containing anionic phospholipids and cholesterol in a pH-dependent manner as observed by two independent assays, time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer and sucrose-step gradient ultracentrifugation. Using Bodipy-labeled proteins, we found that PopB interacts with PopD on the membrane surface as determined by excitation energy migration and fluorescence quenching. Stable transmembrane pores are more efficiently assembled at pH <5.0, suggesting that acidic residues might be involved in the initial membrane binding and/or insertion. Altogether, the experimental setup described here represents an efficient method for the reconstitution and analysis of membrane-inserted translocators.

  18. The Burkholderia pseudomallei type III secretion system and BopA are required for evasion of LC3-associated phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Gong

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a fatal infectious disease endemic in tropical regions worldwide, and especially prevalent in southeast Asia and northern Australia. This intracellular pathogen can escape from phagosomes into the host cytoplasm, where it replicates and infects adjacent cells. We previously demonstrated that, in response to B. pseudomallei infection of macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, a subset of bacteria co-localized with the autophagy marker protein, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3, implicating autophagy in host cell defence against infection. Recent reports have suggested that LC3 can be recruited to both phagosomes and autophagosomes, thereby raising questions regarding the identity of the LC3-positive compartments in which invading bacteria reside and the mechanism of the autophagic response to B. pseudomallei infection. Electron microscopy analysis of infected cells demonstrated that the invading bacteria were either free in the cytosol, or sequestered in single-membrane phagosomes rather than double-membrane autophagosomes, suggesting that LC3 is recruited to B. pseudomallei-containing phagosomes. Partial or complete loss of function of type III secretion system cluster 3 (TTSS3 in mutants lacking the BopA (effector or BipD (translocator proteins respectively, resulted in delayed or no escape from phagosomes. Consistent with these observations, bopA and bipD mutants both showed a higher level of co-localization with LC3 and the lysosomal marker LAMP1, and impaired survival in RAW264.7 cells, suggesting enhanced killing in phagolysosomes. We conclude that LC3 recruitment to phagosomes stimulates killing of B. pseudomallei trapped in phagosomes. Furthermore, BopA plays an important role in efficient escape of B. pseudomallei from phagosomes.

  19. Characterization of the N-terminal domain of BteA: a Bordetella type III secreted cytotoxic effector.

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    Chen Guttman

    Full Text Available BteA, a 69-kDa cytotoxic protein, is a type III secretion system (T3SS effector in the classical Bordetella, the etiological agents of pertussis and related mammalian respiratory diseases. Currently there is limited information regarding the structure of BteA or its subdomains, and no insight as to the identity of its eukaryotic partners(s and their modes of interaction with BteA. The mechanisms that lead to BteA dependent cell death also remain elusive. The N-terminal domain of BteA is multifunctional, acting as a docking platform for its cognate chaperone (BtcA in the bacterium, and targeting the protein to lipid raft microdomains within the eukaryotic host cell. In this study we describe the biochemical and biophysical characteristics of this domain (BteA287 and determine its architecture. We characterize BteA287 as being a soluble and highly stable domain which is rich in alpha helical content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR experiments combined with size exclusion and analytical ultracentrifugation measurements confirm these observations and reveal BteA287 to be monomeric in nature with a tendency to oligomerize at concentrations above 200 µM. Furthermore, diffusion-NMR demonstrated that the first 31 residues of BteA287 are responsible for the apparent aggregation behavior of BteA287. Light scattering analyses and small angle X-ray scattering experiments reveal a prolate ellipsoidal bi-pyramidal dumb-bell shape. Thus, our biophysical characterization is a first step towards structure determination of the BteA N-terminal domain.

  20. Fitness Cost of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Differs by Type III Secretion Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Melissa; Finkel, Steven E.; Wong-Beringer, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is highly prevalent among clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, limiting treatment options. We have reported previously that highly virulent strains containing the exoU gene of the type III secretion system are more likely to be FQ-resistant than strains containing the exoS gene, as well as more likely to acquire resistance-conferring mutations in gyrA/B and parC/E. We hypothesize that FQ-resistance imposes a lower fitness cost on exoU compared to exoS strains, thus allowing for better adaptation to the FQ-rich clinical environment. We created isogenic mutants containing a common FQ-resistance conferring point mutation in parC from three exoU to three exoS clinical isolates and tested fitness in vitro using head-to-head competition assays. The mutation differentially affected fitness in the exoU and exoS strains tested. While the addition of the parC mutation dramatically increased fitness in one of the exoU strains leaving the other two unaffected, all three exoS strains displayed a general decrease in fitness. In addition, we found that exoU strains may be able to compensate for the fitness costs associated with the mutation through better regulation of supercoiling compared to the exoS strains. These results may provide a biological explanation for the observed predominance of the virulent exoU genotype in FQ-resistant clinical subpopulations and represent the first investigation into potential differences in fitness costs of FQ-resistance that are linked to the virulence genotype of P. aeruginosa. Understanding the fitness costs of antibiotic resistance and possibilities of compensation for these costs is essential for the rational development of strategies to combat the problem of antibiotic resistance.

  1. AGEs and Glucose Levels Modulate Type I and III Procollagen mRNA Synthesis in Dermal Fibroblasts Cells Culture

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    Serban Iren Andreea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dermis, fibroblasts play an important role in the turnover of the dermal extracellular matrix. Collagen I and III, the most important dermal proteins of the extracellular matrix, are progressively altered during ageing and diabetes. For mimicking diabetic conditions, the cultured human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with increasing amounts of AGE-modified BSA and D-glucose for 24 hours. The expression of procollagen α2(I and procollagen α1(III mRNA was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our data revealed that the treatment of fibroblasts with AGE-modified BSA upregulated the expression of procollagen α2(I and procollagen α1(III mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. High glucose levels mildly induced a profibrogenic pattern, increasing the procollagen α2(I mRNA expression whereas there was a downregulation tendency of procollagen α1(III mRNA.

  2. Accelerated split-course (Type B) thoracic radiation therapy plus vinorelbine/carboplatin combination chemotherapy in Stage III inoperable non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iaffaioli, R.V.; Tortoriello, A.; Facchini, G.; Maccauro, M.; Dimitri, P. [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Ist. Medicina Interna; Caponigro, F. [Istituto Medico Legale, Milan (Italy); Ravo, V.; Muto, P. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Ist. Scienze Radiologiche; Crovella, F. [Ospedale Oliveto, Citra (Italy). Div. Chirurgia Generale

    1996-10-01

    43 patients with stage III NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) entered a phase II study aimed at evaluating the toxicity and the activity of a combined modality programme including an accelerated split-course schedule (type B) of thoracic radiation therapy and a combination chemotherapy with vinorelbine and carboplatin. An objective response was achieved in 18/42 evaluable patients (5 complete and 13 partial responses), for an overall response rate of 43% (95% confidence interval, 28-58%). Four complete responses had a duration which exceeded 16 months. Treatment was well tolerated; grade III myelotoxicity occurred in only 14% of patients and treatment was delayed in only 2 cases because of grade 3 oesophagitis. Both tolerability and efficacy data suggest that this regimen holds promise for the treatment of patients with stage III NSCLC. (author).

  3. Effect of obesity and exercise on the expression of the novel myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5

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    Jonathan M. Peterson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle is a major contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Endurance exercise training has long been established as an effective means to directly restore skeletal muscle glucose and lipid uptake and metabolism. However, in addition to the direct effects of skeletal muscle on glucose and lipids, there is renewed interest in the ability of skeletal muscle to coordinate metabolic activity of other tissues, such as adipose tissue and liver. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of endurance exercise on the expression level of two novel muscle-derived secreted factors, or myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5, the precursor for Irisin.Methods. We performed immunoblot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Myonectin and FNDC5 in the diaphragm muscles of obese Zucker rat (OZR and lean Zucker rat (LZR with 9 weeks of aerobic training on a motorized treadmill.Results. We show that myonectin gene expression is increased in the OZR model of obesity and decreases with exercise in both lean and obese Zucker rats. Conversely, myonectin protein concentration was elevated with exercise. Similarly, FNDC5 mRNA levels are significantly higher in the OZR, however exercise training had no effect on the expression level of FNDC5 in either the LZR or OZR. We did not observe any difference in muscle protein content of Irisin with obesity or exercise.Conclusion. Our data shows that exercise training does not increase either FNDC5 or myonectin gene expression, indicating that increased transcriptional regulation of these myokines is not induced by exercise. However, our data also indicates a yet to be explored disconnect between myonectin gene expression and protein content. Further, this report highlights the importance of verifying reference genes when completing gene expression analysis. We found that many commonly used reference genes varied significantly by

  4. Effect of obesity and exercise on the expression of the novel myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Ryan; Bond, Cherie E.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle is a major contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Endurance exercise training has long been established as an effective means to directly restore skeletal muscle glucose and lipid uptake and metabolism. However, in addition to the direct effects of skeletal muscle on glucose and lipids, there is renewed interest in the ability of skeletal muscle to coordinate metabolic activity of other tissues, such as adipose tissue and liver. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of endurance exercise on the expression level of two novel muscle-derived secreted factors, or myokines, Myonectin and Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5), the precursor for Irisin. Methods. We performed immunoblot analysis and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Myonectin and FNDC5 in the diaphragm muscles of obese Zucker rat (OZR) and lean Zucker rat (LZR) with 9 weeks of aerobic training on a motorized treadmill. Results. We show that myonectin gene expression is increased in the OZR model of obesity and decreases with exercise in both lean and obese Zucker rats. Conversely, myonectin protein concentration was elevated with exercise. Similarly, FNDC5 mRNA levels are significantly higher in the OZR, however exercise training had no effect on the expression level of FNDC5 in either the LZR or OZR. We did not observe any difference in muscle protein content of Irisin with obesity or exercise. Conclusion. Our data shows that exercise training does not increase either FNDC5 or myonectin gene expression, indicating that increased transcriptional regulation of these myokines is not induced by exercise. However, our data also indicates a yet to be explored disconnect between myonectin gene expression and protein content. Further, this report highlights the importance of verifying reference genes when completing gene expression analysis. We found that many commonly used reference genes varied significantly by obesity and

  5. In vitro Starch Hydrolysis Rate, Physico-chemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Butter Cake Prepared Using Resistant Starch Type III Substituted for Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongjanta, J; Utaipattanaceep, A; Naivikul, O; Piyachomkwan, K

    2008-09-01

    Resistant starch type III (RS III) derived from enzymatically debranched high amylose rice starch was prepared and used to make butter cake at different levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) in place of wheat flour. Physico-chemical properties, sensory evaluation, and in vitro starch hydrolysis rate of the developed butter cake were investigated. This study showed that the content of resistant starch in butter cake increased significantly (Pstarch hydrolysis rate compared to the control cake (0% RS III). The rates of starch hydrolysis from 0 to 180 min digestion time for 0, 5, 10 15, and 20% RS III in place of wheat flour in butter cakes were 3.70 to 67.65%, 2.97 to 64.86%, 2.86 to 59.99%, 2.79 to 55.96 and 2.78 to 53.04% respectively. The physico-chemical properties of 5 to 10% RS III substituted with wheat flour in the butter cake were not significantly different from the control cake and were moderately accepted by panellists in the sensory evaluation test.

  6. Low-level light-emitting diode therapy increases mRNA expressions of IL-10 and type I and III collagens on Achilles tendinitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Murilo; de Souza, Renato Aparecido; Pires, Viviane Araújo; Santos, Ana Paula; Aimbire, Flávio; Silva, José Antônio; Albertini, Regiane; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of low-level light-emitting diode (LED) therapy (880 ± 10 nm) on interleukin (IL)-10 and type I and III collagen in an experimental model of Achilles tendinitis. Thirty male Wistar rats were separated into six groups (n = 5), three groups in the experimental period of 7 days, control group, tendinitis-induced group, and LED therapy group, and three groups in the experimental period of 14 days, tendinitis group, LED therapy group, and LED group with the therapy starting at the 7th day after tendinitis induction (LEDT delay). Tendinitis was induced in the right Achilles tendon using an intratendinous injection of 100 μL of collagenase. The LED parameters were: optical power of 22 mW, spot area size of 0.5 cm(2), and irradiation time of 170 s, corresponding to 7.5 J/cm(2) of energy density. The therapy was initiated 12 h after the tendinitis induction, with a 48-h interval between irradiations. The IL-10 and type I and III collagen mRNA expression were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction at the 7th and 14th days after tendinitis induction. The results showed that LED irradiation increased IL-10 (p < 0.001) in treated group on 7-day experimental period and increased type I and III collagen mRNA expression in both treated groups of 7- and 14-day experimental periods (p < 0.05), except by type I collagen mRNA expression in LEDT delay group. LED (880 nm) was effective in increasing mRNA expression of IL-10 and type I and III collagen. Therefore, LED therapy may have potentially therapeutic effects on Achilles tendon injuries.

  7. MODIFIKASI PATI GARUT (Marantha arundinacea DENGAN PERLAKUAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN SUHU TINGGI-PENDINGINAN ( AUTOCLAVING-COOLING CYCLING UNTUK MENGHASILKAN PATI RESISTEN TIPE III [Arrowroot (Marantha arundinacea Starch Modification Through Autoclaving-Cooling Cycling Treatment to Produce Resistant Starch Type III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyono1

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to modify arrowroot starch to produce resistant starch type III by autoclaving-cooling cycling and to characterize the modified arrowroot starches according to their chemical properties. The research consisted of three steps : arrowroot extraction, starch modification, and chemical characterization. The extraction of arrowroot produced 10.78% starch. Starch modification by autoclaving-cooling cycle(s was run in 6 different treatments with the aim of observing optimal yield of resistant starch. Resistant starch (RS was produced through 1, 3, 5 cycle(s of autoclaving-cooling treatment with different gelatinization periods (15 and 30 minutes autoclaving for each cycle. Properties analyzed were starch digestibility, fat content, protein content, resistant starch content, and dietary fiber content. Native starch and commercial RS type III (Novelose 330 were also analyzed as a comparison. Based on the starch digestibility, modified starch from 5 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period had the lowest digestibility while modified starch from 3 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period had no significant difference with commercial RS type III. Those two modified starches, native starch, and Novelose 330 were chosen for further chemical analysis. The fat content and protein content of the four samples were below 1% (db. Low fat and protein content were required to optimize the RS yield. The modification treatment increased the dietary fiber content. The RS content of native starch, Novelose 330, modified starch 3 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period, and modified starch 5 cycles, 15 minutes gelatinization period were 2.12% (db, 20.80% (db, 10.91% (db, and 12.15% (db, respectively. It means that repeating autoclaving-cooling cycling could increase RS yield up to 6 times.

  8. Single-molecule magnet behavior in heterometallic M(II)-Mn(III)(2)-M(II) tetramers (M(II) = Cu, Ni) containing Mn(III) salen-type dinuclear core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi-Terajima, Chihiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Ayumi; Shirakawa, Naoki; Yamashita, Masahiro; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2007-07-23

    The linear-type heterometallic tetramers, [Mn(III)(2)(5-MeOsaltmen)(2)M(II)(2)(L)(2)](CF(3)SO(3))(2) x 2H(2)O (MII = Cu, 1a; Ni, 2a), where 5-MeOsaltmen(2-) = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene) bis(5-methoxysalicylideneiminate), and H(2)L = 3-{2-[(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]-2-methyl-propylimino}-butan-2-one oxime, have been synthesized and characterized from structural and magnetic points of view. These two compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the same monoclinic P2(1)/n space group. The structure has a [M(II)-NO-Mn(III)-(O)(2)-Mn(III)-ON-M(II)] skeleton, where -NO- is a linking oximato group derived from the non-symmetrical Schiff-base complex [M(II)(L)] and -(O)(2)- is a biphenolato bridge in the out-of-plane [Mn(2)(5-MeOsaltmen)(2)](2+) dimer. The solvent-free compounds, 1b and 2b, have also been prepared by drying of the parent compounds, 1a and 2a, respectively, at 100 degrees C under dried nitrogen. After this treatment, the crystallinity is preserved, and 1b and 2b crystallize in a monoclinic P2(1)/c space group without significant changes in their structures in comparison to 1a and 2a. Magnetic measurements on 1a and 1b revealed antiferromagnetic Mn(III)---Cu(II) interactions via the oximato group and weak ferromagnetic Mn(III)---Mn(III) interactions via the biphenolato bridge leading to an S(T) = 3 ground state. On the other hand, the diamagnetic nature of the square planar Ni(II) center generates an S(T) = 4 ground state for 2a and 2b. At low temperature, these solvated (a) and desolvated (b) compounds display single-molecule magnet behavior modulated by their spin ground state.

  9. A STUDY OF PNEUMOCOCCI REACTING WITH ANTIPNEUMOCOCCUS SERA OF TYPES I, II, AND III, WITH AN OBSERVATION OF A MUTATION OF ONE OF THE STRAINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, M C

    1919-08-01

    In this paper are reported the results of a study of nine strains of pneumococci agglutinating with antipneumococcus sera of all three types (Nos. I, II, and III). Seven of the strains were the cause of serious or fatal infections in human beings. Morphologically they were typical pneumococci with characteristic growth on ordinary media. Most of the strains were soluble in bile, fermented inulin, and caused no precipitation on glucose ascitic fluid agar. Two of the strains, however, resembled streptococci in these three cultural characteristics, but have been regarded as pneumococci on account of their serological reactions. Variations in the cultural reactions occurred with several strains while they were under observation. The virulence of the strains varied greatly, some strains being almost non-pathogenic, and others killing mice in doses of 0.000001 cc. of a 24 hour broth culture. Antipneumococcus Sera I, II, and III agglutinated all the strains in fairly high dilution (1:8 to 1:64 or higher), while normal horse serum caused no agglutination. Antipneumococcus Sera I, II, and III stimulated active phagocytosis of all the strains, while no phagocytosis occurred in control preparations with normal horse serum. These strains elaborated a soluble substance in the body of inoculated mice which caused the formation of a precipitate when the peritoneal washings, cleared by centrifugalization, were added to the antipneumococcus sera of all three types. Antipneumococcus Sera I, II, and III protected mice equally well against 1,000 to 10,000 times the minimal lethal dose of the two strains with which protection tests could be carried out. Absorption of serum of Types I and II with the homologous pneumococcus removed the agglutinins and the bacteriotropins for all these strains. Absorption of these sera with Strains T and N removed the agglutinins and the bacteriotropins for the homologous strain only, and not for typical members of Type I or II, or for the other

  10. Negative Autogenous Control of the Master Type III Secretion System Regulator HrpL in Pseudomonas syringae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Christopher; Schumacher, Jörg; Jovanovic, Milija; Bennett, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a principal virulence determinant of the model bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. T3SS effector proteins inhibit plant defense signaling pathways in susceptible hosts and elicit evolved immunity in resistant plants. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor HrpL coordinates the expression of most T3SS genes. Transcription of hrpL is dependent on sigma-54 and the codependent enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS for hrpL promoter activation. hrpL is oriented adjacently to and divergently from the HrpL-dependent gene hrpJ, sharing an intergenic upstream regulatory region. We show that association of the RNA polymerase (RNAP)-HrpL complex with the hrpJ promoter element imposes negative autogenous control on hrpL transcription in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. The hrpL promoter was upregulated in a ΔhrpL mutant and was repressed by plasmid-borne hrpL. In a minimal Escherichia coli background, the activity of HrpL was sufficient to achieve repression of reconstituted hrpL transcription. This repression was relieved if both the HrpL DNA-binding function and the hrp-box sequence of the hrpJ promoter were compromised, implying dependence upon the hrpJ promoter. DNA-bound RNAP-HrpL entirely occluded the HrpRS and partially occluded the integration host factor (IHF) recognition elements of the hrpL promoter in vitro, implicating inhibition of DNA binding by these factors as a cause of negative autogenous control. A modest increase in the HrpL concentration caused hypersecretion of the HrpA1 pilus protein but intracellular accumulation of later T3SS substrates. We argue that negative feedback on HrpL activity fine-tunes expression of the T3SS regulon to minimize the elicitation of plant defenses. PMID:28119474

  11. Quantification of the physiochemical constraints on the export of spider silk proteins by Salmonella type III secretion

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    Voigt Christopher A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type III secretion system (T3SS is a molecular machine in gram negative bacteria that exports proteins through both membranes to the extracellular environment. It has been previously demonstrated that the T3SS encoded in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1 can be harnessed to export recombinant proteins. Here, we demonstrate the secretion of a variety of unfolded spider silk proteins and use these data to quantify the constraints of this system with respect to the export of recombinant protein. Results To test how the timing and level of protein expression affects secretion, we designed a hybrid promoter that combines an IPTG-inducible system with a natural genetic circuit that controls effector expression in Salmonella (psicA. LacO operators are placed in various locations in the psicA promoter and the optimal induction occurs when a single operator is placed at the +5nt (234-fold and a lower basal level of expression is achieved when a second operator is placed at -63nt to take advantage of DNA looping. Using this tool, we find that the secretion efficiency (protein secreted divided by total expressed is constant as a function of total expressed. We also demonstrate that the secretion flux peaks at 8 hours. We then use whole gene DNA synthesis to construct codon optimized spider silk genes for full-length (3129 amino acids Latrodectus hesperus dragline silk, Bombyx mori cocoon silk, and Nephila clavipes flagelliform silk and PCR is used to create eight truncations of these genes. These proteins are all unfolded polypeptides and they encompass a variety of length, charge, and amino acid compositions. We find those proteins fewer than 550 amino acids reliably secrete and the probability declines significantly after ~700 amino acids. There also is a charge optimum at -2.4, and secretion efficiency declines for very positively or negatively charged proteins. There is no significant correlation with hydrophobicity

  12. Two Translation Products of Yersinia yscQ Assemble To Form a Complex Essential to Type III Secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzymek, Krzysztof P.; Hamaoka, Brent Y.; Ghosh, Partho (UCSD)

    2012-07-11

    The bacterial flagellar C-ring is composed of two essential proteins, FliM and FliN. The smaller protein, FliN, is similar to the C-terminus of the larger protein, FliM, both being composed of SpoA domains. While bacterial type III secretion (T3S) systems encode many proteins in common with the flagellum, they mostly have a single protein in place of FliM and FliN. This protein resembles FliM at its N-terminus and is as large as FliM but is more like FliN at its C-terminal SpoA domain. We have discovered that a FliN-sized cognate indeed exists in the Yersinia T3S system to accompany the FliM-sized cognate. The FliN-sized cognate, YscQ-C, is the product of an internal translation initiation site within the locus encoding the FliM-sized cognate YscQ. Both intact YscQ and YscQ-C were found to be required for T3S, indicating that the internal translation initiation site, which is conserved in some but not all YscQ orthologs, is crucial for function. The crystal structure of YscQ-C revealed a SpoA domain that forms a highly intertwined, domain-swapped homodimer, similar to those observed in FliN and the YscQ ortholog HrcQ{sub B}. A single YscQ-C homodimer associated reversibly with a single molecule of intact YscQ, indicating conformational differences between the SpoA domains of intact YscQ and YscQ-C. A 'snap-back' mechanism suggested by the structure can account for this. The 1:2 YscQ-YscQ-C complex is a close mimic of the 1:4 FliM-FliN complex and the likely building block of the putative Yersinia T3S system C-ring.

  13. LcrV delivered via type III secretion system of live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enhances immunogenicity against pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Sanapala, Shilpa; Henderson, Jeremy C; Sam, Shandiin; Olinzock, Joseph; Trent, M Stephen; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-10-01

    Here, we constructed a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mutant strain with arabinose-dependent regulated and delayed shutoff of crp expression (araC P(BAD) crp) and replacement of the msbB gene with the Escherichia coli msbB gene to attenuate it. Then, we inserted the asd mutation into this construction to form χ10057 [Δasd-206 ΔmsbB868::P(msbB) msbB(EC) ΔP(crp21)::TT araC P(BAD) crp] for use with a balanced-lethal Asd-positive (Asd(+)) plasmid to facilitate antigen synthesis. A hybrid protein composed of YopE (amino acids [aa]1 to 138) fused with full-length LcrV (YopE(Nt138)-LcrV) was synthesized in χ10057 harboring an Asd(+) plasmid (pYA5199, yopE(Nt138)-lcrV) and could be secreted through a type III secretion system (T3SS) in vitro and in vivo. Animal studies indicated that mice orally immunized with χ10057(pYA5199) developed titers of IgG response to whole-cell lysates of Y. pestis (YpL) and subunit LcrV similar to those seen with χ10057(pYA3332) (χ10057 plus an empty plasmid). However, only immunization of mice with χ10057(pYA5199) resulted in a significant secretory IgA response to LcrV. χ10057(pYA5199) induced a higher level of protection (80% survival) against intranasal (i.n.) challenge with ~240 median lethal doses (LD50) (2.4 × 10(4) CFU) of Y. pestis KIM6+(pCD1Ap) than χ10057(pYA3332) (40% survival). Splenocytes from mice vaccinated with χ10057(pYA5199) produced significant levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) after restimulation with LcrV and YpL antigens. Our results suggest that it is possible to use an attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain delivering the LcrV antigen via the T3SS as a potential vaccine candidate against pneumonic plague.

  14. Purification, crystal structure determination and functional characterization of type III antifreeze proteins from the European eelpout Zoarces viviparus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilkens, Casper; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Ramløv, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are essential components of many organisms adaptation to cold temperatures. Fish type III AFPs are divided into two groups, SP isoforms being much less active than QAE1 isoforms. Two type III AFPs from Zoarces viviparus, a QAE1 (ZvAFP13) and an SP (ZvAFP6) isoform......, are here characterized and their crystal structures determined. We conclude that the higher activity of the QAE1 isoforms cannot be attributed to single residues, but rather a combination of structural effects. Furthermore both ZvAFP6 and ZvAFP13 crystal structures have water molecules around T18...... equivalent to the tetrahedral-like waters previously identified in a neutron crystal structure. Interestingly, ZvAFP6 forms dimers in the crystal, with a significant dimer interface. The presence of ZvAFP6 dimers was confirmed in solution by native electrophoresis and gel filtration. To our knowledge...

  15. Novel polycarboxylated EDTA-type cyclodextrins as ligands for lanthanide binding: study of their luminescence, relaxivity properties of Gd(iii) complexes, and PM3 theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeo, Davide; Lampropoulou, Maria; Fardis, Michael; Lazarou, Yannis G; Mavridis, Irene M; Mavridou, Despoina A I; Urso, Elena; Pratsinis, Harris; Kletsas, Dimitris; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina

    2010-04-21

    Novel -type cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives, , and , bearing 6, 7 and 8 bis(carboxymethyl)amino (iminodiacetic acid) groups, respectively, were prepared, and their complexation with Eu(iii), Tb(iii) and Gd(iii) ions was studied. Luminescence titrations and mass spectrometry showed formation of multimetal complexes ( 2 to 3, mainly 3 and exactly 4 metal ions), whereas luminescence lifetime measurements revealed the presence of exchangeable water molecules. Semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations, performed by the PM3 method and assessed by DFT calculations on model ligands, indicated efficient multi-metal complexation, in agreement with the experiment. The structures showed coordination of the metal ions in the outer primary side of the CDs via 4 carboxylate O atoms, 2 N atoms and a glucopyranose O atom per metal ion. Coordination of water molecules was also predicted, in accordance with experimental results. Calculated bond lengths and angles were in agreement with literature experimental values of lanthanide complexes. Calculated energies showed that complex stability decreases in the order > > . (1)H NMR molecular relaxivity measurements for the Gd(iii) complexes of , or in water afforded values 4 to 10 times higher than the relaxivity of a commercial contrast agent at 12 MHz, and 6 to 20 times higher at 100 MHz. Solutions of and Gd(iii) complexes in human blood plasma displayed relaxivity values at 100 MHz 7 and 12 times, respectively, higher than the commercial agent. MTT tests of the Gd(iii) complexes using human skin fibroblasts did not show toxicity. Attempts to supramolecularly sensitize the luminescence of the lanthanide complexes using various aromatic CD guests were ineffective, evidently due to large guest-metal distances and inefficient inclusion. The described lanthanide complexes, could be useful as contrast agents in MRI.

  16. Molecular cloning and differential expressions of two cDNA encoding Type III polyketide synthase in different tissues of Curcuma longa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmi, M S; Soniya, E V

    2012-01-10

    Type III polyketide synthase family of enzymes play an important role in the biosynthesis of flavonoids and a variety of plant polyphenols by condensing multiple acetyl units derived from malonyl Co-A to thioester linked starter molecules covalently bound in the PKS active site. Turmeric (Curucma longa L.) through diverse metabolic pathways produces a large number of metabolites, of which curcuminoids had gained much attention due to its immense pharmaceutical value. Recent identification of multiple curcuminoid synthases from turmeric lead us to look for additional Type III PKS from this plant. The current study describes the occurrence of a multigene family of Type III PKS enzymes in C. longa by RT-PCR based genomic screening. We have also isolated two new Type III PKS, ClPKS9 and ClPKS10 using homology based RT-PCR and data mining. The comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two PKSs belong to different groups with only 56% sequence similarity at their amino acid level. ClPKS9 shows all possible sequence requirements for a typical chalcone synthase whereas ClPKS10 shows promising variation at amino acid level and high similarity to reported curcuminoid synthases. ClPKS9 and ClPKS10 exhibited distinct tissue specific expression pattern in C. longa with the ClPKS9 transcript abundant in shoot and rhizome than leaves whereas ClPKS10 transcript was found to be high in leaf and very low in rhizome and root. Therefore it was concluded that ClPKS9 and ClPKS10 may have divergent function in planta, with possible role in typical chalcone forming reaction and curcuminoid scaffold biosynthetic pathway respectively.

  17. Evidence for the co-circulation of dengue virus type 3 genotypes III and V in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics

    OpenAIRE

    Meri Bordignon Nogueira; Vanessa Stella; Juliano Bordignon; Weber Cheli Batista; Luana de Borba; Luis Hildebrando Pereira da Silva; Federico Guillermo Hoffmann; Christian Macagnan Probst; Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    The reintroduction of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) in Brazil in 2000 and its subsequent spread throughout the country was associated with genotype III viruses, the only DENV-3 genotype isolated in Brazil prior to 2002. We report here the co-circulation of two different DENV-3 genotypes in patients living in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics. Complete genomic sequences of viral RNA were determined from these epidemics, and viruses belonging to genotypes V (Southeast ...

  18. Revisiting ISEE-3-Voyager Observations of Back-Side Type III Radio Bursts in View of the Stereo/Waves observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeret, J.; Lecacheux, A.; Hoang, S.; Maksimovic, M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, we revisit old observations of interplanetary type III radio bursts made simultaneously by the radio instruments on the ISEE-3 spacecraft and on the Voyager spacecraft, in view of the new opportunities offered by the Stereo mission.. Type III radio emission is produced by beams of supra-thermal electrons believed to be accelerated during the flare process and traveling along open interplanetary field lines. Their observation can help trace the large scale structure of the interplanetary medium. Lecacheux et al. (1989) analyzed the properties of such radio bursts originating behind the Sun as viewed from the Earth and still also observed by the ISEE-3 spacecraft located at the L1 libration point. Information on the beaming of the radiation can be deduced from these observations. Lecacheux et al. also measured anomalous delays in burst arrival time at one spacecraft relative to the other. These anomalous delays could be explained by the presence of both the fundamental and harmonic radiation modes with different beaming properties. Such an hypothesis can be checked by the Stereo/Waves observations. Finally, we discuss previous radio wave propagation models in the interplanetary medium and emphasize their importance for the interpretation of the radio observations. Lecacheux, A., J.-L. Steinberg, S. Hoang, and G. A. Dulk, Characteristics of type III bursts in the solar wind from simultaneous observations on board ISEE-3 and Voyager, Astron. Astrophys. 217, 237-250, 1989.

  19. Search for evidence of Type-III seesaw mechanism in multilepton final states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A search for a type-III seesaw signal in events with three or more electrons or muons is presented. The data sample corresponds to $35.9~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016. The signal is sought after in final states with at least three leptons, and has diverse kinematic properties. The primary selection is based on the number of leptons and the invariant mass of opposite-sign lepton pairs, and helps discriminate the signal against the standard model background. The final optimization for the type-III seesaw signal is based on the sum of leptonic transverse momenta and missing transverse energy, as well as the transverse mass. The observations are consistent with expectations from standard model processes. The results are used to exclude heavy fermions of the type-III seesaw model with masses below $850~\\mathrm{GeV}$ for the lepton-flavor democratic scenario.

  20. A catalogue of the Coelenterate type specimens of the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam. III. Antipatharia, Pennatulacea, Stolonifera, Telestacea, Alcyonacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1977-01-01

    This third part of the Coelenterate type catalogue of the Zoological Museum lists 124 nominal types (27 Antipatharia, 30 Pennatulacea, 4 Stolonifera, 3 Telestacea and 60 Alcyonacea). Seventeen not previously depicted types are represented by photographic illustrations of their habit.

  1. Cloning and Expression of Genes for Dengue Virus Type-2 Encoded-Antigens for Rapid Diagnosis and Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-31

    fractionated by electrophoresis on an agarose gel. The cDNA fragments were cloned at the EcoRl site of pUCI 8 (Vieira and Messing, 1982...the viral RNA species of prototype dengue viruses. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 29 (1980) 643-652. Vicira, J. and Messing, J.: The pUC plasmids , ain

  2. Cloning and Expression of Genes for Dengue Virus Type-2 Encoded Antigens for Rapid Diagnosis and Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-26

    DNA polymerase I, and 10 units/ml of E.coli DNA ligase . The reaction was stopped by the addition of EDTA to 20 mM. The double-stranded cDNA was... DNA ligase . It was then purified by LMP-agarose gel to remove the excess free EcoRI linkers. The cDNA ligated to EcoRl linkers were eluted from the

  3. Cloning and Expression of Genes for Dengue Virus Type-2 Encoded-Antigens for Rapid Diagnosis and Vaccine Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-17

    TGAC__ACATGG AAGATPA’AGA AA. r ’’ SI AAAAGCI C ACTGGCCAAA GTCAC-ACACC _-TCIGGAG Ii F, ;A 1 441 ATGATAA-,?C I-AAAGAid’T C’X’,TG:] ACCA GTGTCACAAC A. I...34,-AAt , 6541 TCCGGGAACA TAGTGTCATfC AG1’GAACATG ATTTC; ACCA T3_TTGA’l -A CA(_’ AT 6601 ATGAGACACA AGAAAGCCAC TTACGAGCC:A CA TG’IA G ACC’ T CGG AAGCGG...I A~l 61 QHGT IViRVQ YEGDGSPCK I P’EIMDLEFR HVLGRLlITVN P1 VTEKL;,ST’ V N I EAEPFFCL) 121 SYIIIGVEPG ULKLNW{FKKG- Z1 GQM IE TT MRGAKRMdAIL GDTAWDF

  4. Mucolipidosis types II and III and non-syndromic stuttering are associated with different variants in the same genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, M Hashim; Domingues, Carlos E F; Webster, Ronald; Sainz, Eduardo; Paris, Emily; Rahn, Rachel; Gutierrez, Joanne; Chow, Ho Ming; Mundorff, Jennifer; Kang, Chang-Soo; Riaz, Naveeda; Basra, Muhammad A R; Khan, Shaheen; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Braun, Allen; Drayna, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Homozygous mutations in GNPTAB and GNPTG are classically associated with mucolipidosis II (ML II) alpha/beta and mucolipidosis III (ML III) alpha/beta/gamma, which are rare lysosomal storage disorders characterized by multiple pathologies. Recently, variants in GNPTAB, GNPTG, and the functionally related NAGPA gene have been associated with non-syndromic persistent stuttering. In a worldwide sample of 1013 unrelated individuals with non-syndromic persistent stuttering we found 164 individuals who carried a rare non-synonymous coding variant in one of these three genes. We compared the frequency of these variants with those in population-matched controls and genomic databases, and their location with those reported in mucolipidosis. Stuttering subjects displayed an excess of non-synonymous coding variants compared to controls and individuals in the 1000 Genomes and Exome Sequencing Project databases. We identified a total of 81 different variants in our stuttering cases. Virtually all of these were missense substitutions, only one of which has been previously reported in mucolipidosis, a disease frequently associated with complete loss-of-function mutations. We hypothesize that rare non-synonymous coding variants in GNPTAB, GNPTG, and NAGPA may account for as much as 16% of persistent stuttering cases, and that variants in GNPTAB and GNPTG are at different sites and may in general, cause less severe effects on protein function than those in ML II alpha/beta and ML III alpha/beta/gamma.

  5. Evidence for the co-circulation of dengue virus type 3 genotypes III and V in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meri Bordignon Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The reintroduction of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3 in Brazil in 2000 and its subsequent spread throughout the country was associated with genotype III viruses, the only DENV-3 genotype isolated in Brazil prior to 2002. We report here the co-circulation of two different DENV-3 genotypes in patients living in the Northern region of Brazil during the 2002-2004 epidemics. Complete genomic sequences of viral RNA were determined from these epidemics, and viruses belonging to genotypes V (Southeast Asia/South Pacific and III were identified. This recent co-circulation of different DENV-3 genotypes in South America may have implications for pathological and epidemiological dynamics.

  6. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santatra Ravelomanantsoa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening

  7. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelomanantsoa, Santatra; Robène, Isabelle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR) loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST) were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid) and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening of RSSC

  8. New lethal disease involving type I and III collagen defect resembling geroderma osteodysplastica, De Barsy syndrome, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukkola, A; Kauppila, S; Risteli, L; Vuopala, K; Risteli, J; Leisti, J; Pajunen, L

    1998-06-01

    We describe the clinical findings and biochemical features of a male child suffering from a so far undescribed lethal connective tissue disorder characterised by extreme hypermobility of the joints, lax skin, cataracts, severe growth retardation, and insufficient production of type I and type III procollagens. His features are compared with Ehlers-Danlos type IV, De Barsy syndrome, and geroderma osteodysplastica, as these disorders show some symptoms and signs shared with our patient. The child died because of failure of the connective tissue structures joining the skull and the spine, leading to progressive spinal stenosis. The aortic valve was translucent and insufficient. The clinical symptoms and signs, together with histological findings, suggested a collagen defect. Studies on both skin fibroblast cultures and the patient's serum showed reduced synthesis of collagen types I and III at the protein and RNA levels. The sizes of the mRNAs and newly synthesised proteins were normal, excluding gross structural abnormalities. These findings are not in accordance with any other collagen defect characterised so far.

  9. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli requires N-WASP for efficient type III translocation but not for EspFU-mediated actin pedestal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Vingadassalom

    Full Text Available Upon infection of mammalian cells, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC O157:H7 utilizes a type III secretion system to translocate the effectors Tir and EspF(U (aka TccP that trigger the formation of F-actin-rich 'pedestals' beneath bound bacteria. EspF(U is localized to the plasma membrane by Tir and binds the nucleation-promoting factor N-WASP, which in turn activates the Arp2/3 actin assembly complex. Although N-WASP has been shown to be required for EHEC pedestal formation, the precise steps in the process that it influences have not been determined. We found that N-WASP and actin assembly promote EHEC-mediated translocation of Tir and EspF(U into mammalian host cells. When we utilized the related pathogen enteropathogenic E. coli to enhance type III translocation of EHEC Tir and EspF(U, we found surprisingly that actin pedestals were generated on N-WASP-deficient cells. Similar to pedestal formation on wild type cells, Tir and EspF(U were the only bacterial effectors required for pedestal formation, and the EspF(U sequences required to interact with N-WASP were found to also be essential to stimulate this alternate actin assembly pathway. In the absence of N-WASP, the Arp2/3 complex was both recruited to sites of bacterial attachment and required for actin assembly. Our results indicate that actin assembly facilitates type III translocation, and reveal that EspF(U, presumably by recruiting an alternate host factor that can signal to the Arp2/3 complex, exhibits remarkable versatility in its strategies for stimulating actin polymerization.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Solar-type stars from SDSS-III MARVELS. VI. HD 87646 (Ma+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, B.; Ge, J.; Wolszczan, A.; Muterspaugh, M. W.; Lee, B.; Henry, G. W.; Schneider, D. P.; Martin, E. L.; Niedzielski, A.; Xie, J.; Fleming, S. W.; Thomas, N.; Williamson, M.; Zhu, Z.; Agol, E.; Bizyaev, D.; da Costa, L. N.; Jiang, P.; Fiorenzano, A. F. M.; Hernandez, J. I. G.; Guo, P.; Grieves, N.; Li, R.; Liu, J.; Mahadevan, S.; Mazeh, T.; Nguyen, D. C.; Paegert, M.; Sithajan, S.; Stassun, K.; Thirupathi, S.; van Eyken, J. C.; Wan, X.; Wang, J.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Zhao, B.; Zucker, S.

    2016-11-01

    We have obtained a total of 16 observations of HD87646 using the W.M. Keck Exoplanet Tracker (KeckET) from 2006 December to 2007 June. The radial velocities obtained are listed in Table1. The KeckET instrument was constructed in 2005 August-2006 February with support from the Keck Foundation. It was coupled with a wide field Sloan Digital Sky Survey telescope (SDSS) and used for the pilot Multi-Object APO RV Exoplanet Large-Area Survey (MARVELS). This is the sixth paper in this series, examining the low-mass companions around solar-type stars from the SDSS-III MARVELS survey (Wisniewski et al. 2012, Cat. J/AJ/143/107; Fleming et al. 2012AJ....144...72F; Ma et al. 2013AJ....145...20M; Jiang et al. 2013AJ....146...65J; De Lee et al. 2013AJ....145..155D). The KeckET instrument consists of eight subsystems-a multi-object fiber feed, an iodine cell, a fixed-delay interferometer system, a slit, a collimator, a grating, a camera, and a 4k*4k CCD detector. In addition, it contains four auxiliary subsystems: the interferometer control, an instrument calibration system, a photon flux monitoring system, and a thermal probe and control system. The instrument is fed with 60 fibers with 200μm core diameters, which are coupled to 180μm core diameter short fibers from the SDSS telescope, corresponding to 3arcsec on the sky at f/5. The resolving power for the spectrograph is R=5100, and the wavelength coverage is ~900Å, centered at 5400Å. KeckET has one spectrograph and one 4k*4k CCD camera that captures one of the two interferometer outputs, and has a 5.5% detection efficiency from the telescope to the detector without the iodine cell under the typical APO seeing conditions (~1.5arcsec seeing). The CCD camera records fringing spectra from 59 objects in a single exposure. Subsequent observations were performed using the Exoplanet Tracker (ET) instrument at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). Initial follow-up was performed in 2007 November. Additional data points were

  11. Tratamiento de una lesión endoperiodontal tipo III (combinada o verdadera: reporte de un caso Treatment of type III periodontal-endodontic lesion (combined or true: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Alcota

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de una lesión endoperiodontal tipo III (combinada o verdadera en un paciente de sexo femenino de 41 años de edad sin antecedentes sistémicos. La paciente fue derivada del Curso de Especialización en Periodoncia de la Escuela de Graduados de la Universidad de Chile debido a una lesión periapical en la pieza 3.6. El pronóstico en este tipo de lesiones es dudoso, ya que es necesario que se efectúe el tratamiento endodóntico así como el periodontal, y el resultado recae más en el tratamiento periodontal. La pieza fue tratada endodónticamente dejando medicamento intraconducto a base de Clorhexidina al 2% en gel por 7 días. Una vez obturado el diente se citó a la paciente 3 meses después para un control radiográfico. Actualmente el diente está totalmente asintomático, sin movilidad y con señales de reparación.We report a case of a type III periodontal-endodontic lesion (combined or true in a 41-year-old female patient without systemic history. The patient was transferred from the Specialization Course in Periodontology at the Graduate School of the University of Chile due to a periapical lesion in the tooth 3.6. The prognosis for this type of lesion is uncertain, since it is necessary to perform endodontic and periodontal treatment, and the result depends more on the periodontal treatment. The piece was treated endodontically leaving intracanal medication based on 2% Chlorhexidine gel for 7 days. Once the tooth obturated, we gave the patient an appointment 3 months later for a control radiography. Currently, the tooth is completely asymptomatic, without mobility and with signs of repair.

  12. Bacteriophage ΦM1 of Pectobacterium evolves to escape two bifunctional Type III toxin-antitoxin and abortive infection systems through mutations in a single viral gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Tim R; Chai, Ray; Przybilski, Rita; Chindhy, Shahzad; Fang, Xinzhe; Kidman, Samuel E; Tan, Hui; Luisi, Ben F; Fineran, Peter C; Salmond, George P C

    2017-02-03

    Some bacteria, when infected by their viral parasites (bacteriophages), undergo a suicidal response that also terminates productive viral replication (abortive infection; Abi). This response can be viewed as an altruistic act protecting the uninfected bacterial clonal population. Abortive infection can occur through the action of Type III protein-RNA toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, such as ToxINPa from the phytopathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum Rare spontaneous mutants evolved in the generalized transducing phage, ΦM1, which escaped ToxINPa-mediated abortive infection in P. atrosepticum ΦM1 is a member of the Podoviridae and member of the "KMV-like viruses", a subset of the T7 supergroup. Genomic sequencing of ΦM1 escape mutants revealed single-base changes which clustered in a single open reading frame. The "escape" gene product, M1-23, was highly toxic to the host bacterium when over-expressed, but mutations in M1-23 that enabled an escape phenotype caused M1-23 to be less toxic. M1-23 is encoded within the DNA metabolism modular section of the phage genome, and when it was over-expressed, it co-purified with the host nucleotide excision repair protein, UvrA. While the M1-23 protein interacted with UvrA in co-immunoprecipitation assays, a UvrA mutant strain still aborted ΦM1, suggesting that the interaction is not critical for the Type III TA Abi activity. Additionally, ΦM1 escaped a heterologous Type III TA system (TenpINPl) from Photorhabdus luminescens (reconstituted in P. atrosepticum) through mutations in the same protein, M1-23. The mechanistic action of M1-23 is currently unknown but further analysis of this protein could provide insights into the mode of activation of both systems.

  13. An external loop region of domain III of dengue virus type 2 envelope protein is involved in serotype-specific binding to mosquito but not mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jan-Jong; Hsieh, Meng-Ti; Young, Ming-Jer; Kao, Chuan-Liang; King, Chwan-Chuen; Chang, Wen

    2004-01-01

    Dengue virus (DV) is a flavivirus and infects mammalian cells through mosquito vectors. This study investigates the roles of domain III of DV type 2 envelope protein (EIII) in DV binding to the host cell. Recombinant EIII interferes with DV infection to BHK21 and C6/36 cells by blocking dengue virion adsorption to these cells. Inhibition of EIII on BHK21 cells was broad with no serotype specificity; however, inhibition of EIII on C6/36 cells was relatively serotype specific. Soluble heparin completely blocks binding of EIII to BHK21 cells, suggesting that domain III binds mainly to cell surface heparan sulfates. This suggestion is supported by the observation that EIII binds very weakly to gro2C and sog9 mutant mammalian cell lines that lack heparan sulfate. In contrast, heparin does not block binding of EIII to mosquito cells. Furthermore, a synthetic peptide that includes amino acids (aa) 380 to 389 of EIII, IGVEPGQLKL, inhibits binding of EIII to C6/36 but not BHK21 cells. This peptide corresponds to a lateral loop region on domain III of E protein, indicating a possible role of this loop in binding to mosquito cells. In summary, these results suggest that EIII plays an important role in binding of DV type 2 to host cells. In addition, EIII interacts with heparan sulfates when binding to BHK21 cells, and a loop region containing aa 380 to 389 of EIII may participate in DV type 2 binding to C6/36 cells.

  14. Oral delivery of the Sj23LHD-GST antigen by Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system protects against Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease and oral vaccine delivery system would be benefit for prevention of this disease. Although attenuated salmonella has been used as an antigen expression vector for oral vaccine development, the membrane-bound vacuoles in which bacteria reside hinders the presentation of expressed heterologous antigens to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. The present work used an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain VNP20009 to secretory expression of Sj23LHDGST bivalent antigen from Schistosoma japonicum and tested the protective efficacy against S. japonicum infection in orally immunized mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Promoters (nirB or pagC were used to express the antigen (Sj23LHDGST and the Salmonella type III or α-hemolysin secretion system was employed to secrete it. The immunoblotting analysis and fluorescent microscopy revealed that the antigen was effectively expressed and delivered to the cytosol of macrophages in vitro. Among recombinant vaccine strains, an engineered VNP20009 which expressed the antigen by nirB promoter and secreted it through type III secretion system (nirB-sopE(1-104-Sj23LHD-GST efficiently protected against S. japonicum infection in a mouse model. This strain elicited a predominantly IgG(2a antibody response and a markedly increase in the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that this strain caused T cell activation as evidenced by significantly increased expression of CD44 and CD69. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Oral delivery of antigen by nirB-driven Salmonella typhimurium type III secretion system is a novel, safe, inexpensive, efficient and convenient approach for schistosome vaccine development.

  15. Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies novel compound heterozygous mutations of DYNC2H1 in a fetus with short rib-polydactyly syndrome, type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Libin; Huang, Yanru; Pan, Qian; Su, Wei; Quan, Yi; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2015-07-20

    A 26-year-old woman with a past history of fetal skeletal dysplasia was referred to our institution at 24weeks of gestation following a routine sonographic diagnosis of short limbs in the fetus. A fetal ultrasound showed short limbs, a narrow thorax, short ribs with marginal spurs, and polydactyly. Conventional cytogenetics analysis of cultured amniocytes demonstrated that the fetal karyotype was normal. Using targeted exome sequencing of 226 known genes implicated in inherited skeletal dysplasia, we identified compound heterozygous mutations in the DYNC2H1 gene in the fetus with short rib-polydactyly syndrome, type III (SRPS III), c.1151 C>T(p.Ala384Val) and c.4351 C>T (p.Gln1451*), which were inherited from paternally and maternally, respectively. These variants were further confirmed using Sanger sequencing and have not been previously reported. To our knowledge, this is the first report of DYNC2H1 mutations causing SRPS III, in the Chinese population. Our findings expand the number of reported cases of this rare disease, and indicate that targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) is an accurate, rapid, and cost-effective method in the genetic diagnosis of fetal skeletal dysplasia.

  16. The Type III Secretion System (T3SS) is a Determinant for Rice-Endophyte Colonization by Non-Photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piromyou, Pongdet; Songwattana, Pongpan; Greetatorn, Teerana; Okubo, Takashi; Kakizaki, Kaori Chiba; Prakamhang, Janpen; Tittabutr, Panlada; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Teaumroong, Neung; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    Plant associations by bradyrhizobia have been detected not only in leguminous plants, but also in non-leguminous species including rice. Bradyrhizobium sp. SUTN9-2 was isolated from Aeschynomene americana L., which is a leguminous weed found in the rice fields of Thailand. This strain promoted the highest total rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivar Pathum Thani 1) dry weight among the endophytic bradyrhizobial strains tested, and was, thus, employed for the further characterization of rice-Bradyrhizobium interactions. Some known bacterial genes involved in bacteria-plant interactions were selected. The expression of the type III secretion component (rhcJ), type IV secretion component (virD4), and pectinesterase (peces) genes of the bacterium were up-regulated when the rice root exudate was added to the culture. When SUTN9-2 was inoculated into rice seedlings, the peces, rhcJ, virD4, and exopolysaccharide production (fliP) genes were strongly expressed in the bacterium 6-24 h after the inoculation. The gene for glutathione-S-transferase (gst) was slightly expressed 12 h after the inoculation. In order to determine whether type III secretion system (T3SS) is involved in bradyrhizobial infections in rice plants, wild-type SUTN9-2 and T3SS mutant strains were inoculated into the original host plant (A. americana) and a rice plant (cultivar Pathum Thani 1). The ability of T3SS mutants to invade rice tissues was weaker than that of the wild-type strain; however, their phenotypes in A. americana were not changed by T3SS mutations. These results suggest that T3SS is one of the important determinants modulating rice infection; however, type IV secretion system and peces may also be responsible for the early steps of rice infection.

  17. A Geobacter sulfurreducens strain expressing pseudomonas aeruginosa type IV pili localizes OmcS on pili but is deficient in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R; Vargas, Madeline

    2014-02-01

    The conductive pili of Geobacter species play an important role in electron transfer to Fe(III) oxides, in long-range electron transport through current-producing biofilms, and in direct interspecies electron transfer. Although multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens have a metal-like conductivity, independent of the presence of c-type cytochromes, this claim is still controversial. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, a strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated strain PA, was constructed in which the gene for the native PilA, the structural pilin protein, was replaced with the PilA gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Strain PA expressed and properly assembled P. aeruginosa PilA subunits into pili and exhibited a profile of outer surface c-type cytochromes similar to that of a control strain expressing the G. sulfurreducens PilA. Surprisingly, the strain PA pili were decorated with the c-type cytochrome OmcS in a manner similar to the control strain. However, the strain PA pili were 14-fold less conductive than the pili of the control strain, and strain PA was severely impaired in Fe(III) oxide reduction and current production. These results demonstrate that the presence of OmcS on pili is not sufficient to confer conductivity to pili and suggest that there are unique structural features of the G. sulfurreducens PilA that are necessary for conductivity.

  18. Structure and dynamics of Type III periplasmic proteins VcFhuD and VcHutB reveal molecular basis of their distinctive ligand binding properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shubhangi; Dey, Sanjay; Ghosh, Biplab; Biswas, Maitree; Dasgupta, Jhimli

    2017-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms of xenosiderophore and heme acquisitions using periplasmic binding protein (PBP) dependent ATP-binding cassette transporters to scavenge the essential nutrient iron are elusive yet in Vibrio cholerae. Our current study delineates the structures, dynamics and ligand binding properties of two Type III PBPs of V. cholerae, VcFhuD and VcHutB. Through crystal structures and fluorescence quenching studies we demonstrate unique features of VcFhuD to bind both hydroxamate and catecholate type xenosiderophores. Like E. coli FhuD, VcFhuD binds ferrichrome and ferri-desferal using conserved Tryptophans and R102. However, unlike EcFhuD, slightly basic ligand binding pocket of VcFhuD could favour ferri-enterobactin binding with plausible participation of R203, along with R102, like it happens in catecholate binding PBPs. Structural studies coupled with spectrophotometric and native PAGE analysis indicated parallel binding of two heme molecules to VcHutB in a pH dependent manner, while mutational analysis established the relative importance of Y65 and H164 in heme binding. MD simulation studies exhibited an unforeseen inter-lobe swinging motion in Type III PBPs, magnitude of which is inversely related to the packing of the linker helix with its neighboring helices. Small inter-lobe movement in VcFhuD or dramatic twisting in VcHutB is found to influence ligand binding.

  19. The Erwinia amylovora PhoPQ system is involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptide and suppresses gene expression of two novel type III secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakka, Sridevi; Qi, Mingsheng; Zhao, Youfu

    2010-10-20

    The PhoPQ system is a pleiotropic two-component signal transduction system that controls many pathogenic properties in several mammalian and plant pathogens. Three different cues have been demonstrated to activate the PhoPQ system including a mild acidic pH, antimicrobial peptides, and low Mg(2+). In this study, our results showed that phoPQ mutants were more resistant to strong acidic conditions (pH 4.5 or 5) than that of the wild-type (WT) strain, suggesting that this system in Erwinia amylovora may negatively regulate acid resistance gene expression. Furthermore, the PhoPQ system negatively regulated gene expression of two novel type III secretion systems in E. amylovora. These results are in contrast to those reported for the PhoPQ system in Salmonella and Xanthomonas, where it positively regulates type III secretion system and acid resistance. In addition, survival of phoPQ mutants was about 10-fold lower than that of WT when treated with cecropin A at pH 5.5, suggesting that the PhoPQ system renders the pathogen more resistant to cecropin A.

  20. Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System 2 ATPase EivC Is Involved in the Motility and Virulence of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Xin; Xu, Xuan; Yang, Denghui; Wang, Dong; Han, Xiangan; Shi, Yonghong; Tian, Mingxing; Ding, Chan; Peng, Daxin; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are crucial for bacterial infections because they deliver effector proteins into host cells. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is present in the majority of E. coli strains, and although it is degenerate, ETT2 regulates bacterial virulence. An ATPase is essential for T3SS secretion, but the function of the ETT2 ATPase has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that EivC is homologous to the β subunit of F0F1 ATPases and it possesses ATPase activity. To investigate the effects of ETT2 ATPase EivC on the phenotype and virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), eivC mutant and complemented strains were constructed and characterized. Inactivation of eivC led to impaired flagella production and augmented fimbriae on the bacterial surface, and, consequently, reduced bacterial motility. In addition, the eivC mutant strain exhibited attenuated virulence in ducks, diminished serum resistance, reduced survival in macrophage cells and in ducks, upregulated fimbrial gene expression, and downregulated flagellar and virulence gene expression. The expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 were increased in HD-11 macrophages infected with the eivC mutant strain, compared with the wild-type strain. These virulence-related phenotypes were restored by genetic complementation. These findings demonstrate that ETT2 ATPase EivC is involved in the motility and pathogenicity of APEC. PMID:27630634