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Sample records for 2-chloroethyl vesicants mustard

  1. Mustards and Vesicants

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    Young, Robert A [ORNL; Bast, Cheryl B [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Vesicants (sulfur mustards, lewisite, and nitrogen mustards) are chemicals that cause blistering of the skin. Developed as chemical warfare agents, their biological activity is complex and not fully understood. These vesicants in liquid or vapor form are capable of causing injury to most any tissue. Contact with the skin results in erythema and blistering. Exposure to vapors produces ocular and respiratory effects which occur at exposures below those causing dermal effects. Systemic and long-lasting effects may occur, especially following acute exposures that result in severe injury. Multi-organ involvement and fluid loss shock resulting in death may follow severe exposures. As alkylating agents, all of the mustards are known or potential carcinogens. The carcinogenic potential of lewisite in humans is equivocal. Toxicity data in animals are available for the vesicants although data on sulfur mustard and lewisite are more extensive than for the nitrogen mustards. Data from tests with human volunteers and occupational exposure information are also available. These data collectively have provided a basis for the development of exposure standards, guidelines, and criteria for use in emergency planning and emergency response, and remediation efforts. The mode of action of the vesicants is complex, not fully understood, and represents an ongoing area of investigation especially with respect to treatment of vesicant-induced injury. Prevention of exposure and decontamination are critical initial steps in eliminating or minimizing injury. With the exception of arsenic chelating antidotes (e.g., British anti-lewisite; BAL) for lewisite, no antidotes exist for the vesicant agents. Medical management currently focuses on palliative treatment of signs and symptoms.

  2. Degradation of the blister agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, on concrete

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    Brevett, Carol A.S. [GEO-CENTERS Operations, SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)]. E-mail: carol.brevett@us.army.mil; Sumpter, Kenneth B. [CDR USA RDECOM, ATTN: AMSRD-ECB-RT-PD, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States)]. E-mail: kenneth.sumpter@us.army.mil; Wagner, George W. [CDR USA RDECOM, ATTN: AMSRD-ECB-RT-PD, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States)]. E-mail: george.wagner@us.army.mil; Rice, Jeffrey S. [CDR USA RDECOM, ATTN: AMSRD-ECB-RT-PD, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States)]. E-mail: jeffrey.rice@us.army.mil

    2007-02-09

    The products formed from the degradation of the blister agent sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide] on concrete were identified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MSD), {sup 1}H NMR, 2D {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C NMR and {sup 13}C solid state magic angle spinning (SSMAS) NMR. In situ and extraction experiments were performed. Sulfur mustard was detected in the in situ {sup 13}C SSMAS samples for 12 weeks, whereas less than 5% of the sulfur mustard was detected in extracts from the concrete monoliths after 8 days. Sulfonium ions and (2-chloroethylthio)ethyl ether (T) were observed on the in situ samples after a period of 12 weeks, whereas vinyl species and bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfoxide were observed in the extracts of the concrete monoliths within 24 h. The differences between the extraction and the SSMAS data indicated that the sulfur mustard existed in the concrete in a non-extractable form prior to its degradation. Extraction methods alone were not sufficient to identify the products; methods to identify the presence of non-extractable degradation products were also required.

  3. Degradation of the blister agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, on concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevett, Carol A S; Sumpter, Kenneth B; Wagner, George W; Rice, Jeffrey S

    2007-02-01

    The products formed from the degradation of the blister agent sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide] on concrete were identified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MSD), (1)H NMR, 2D (1)H-(13)C NMR and (13)C solid state magic angle spinning (SSMAS) NMR. In situ and extraction experiments were performed. Sulfur mustard was detected in the in situ (13)C SSMAS samples for 12 weeks, whereas less than 5% of the sulfur mustard was detected in extracts from the concrete monoliths after 8 days. Sulfonium ions and (2-chloroethylthio)ethyl ether (T) were observed on the in situ samples after a period of 12 weeks, whereas vinyl species and bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfoxide were observed in the extracts of the concrete monoliths within 24h. The differences between the extraction and the SSMAS data indicated that the sulfur mustard existed in the concrete in a non-extractable form prior to its degradation. Extraction methods alone were not sufficient to identify the products; methods to identify the presence of non-extractable degradation products were also required.

  4. Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Adrienne T.; Joseph, Laurie B.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100-1000 μM) was found to cause marked increases in keratinocyte protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. This was correlated with increases in expression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase and the glutathione-S-transferases, GSTA1-2, GSTP1 and mGST2. CEES also upregulated several enzymes important in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) synthase. CEES readily activated keratinocyte JNK and p38 MAP kinases, signaling pathways which are known to regulate expression of antioxidants, as well as prostaglandin and leukotriene synthases. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase suppressed CEES-induced expression of GSTA1-2, COX-2, mPGES-2, PGDS, 5-LOX, LTA4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase, while JNK inhibition blocked PGDS and GSTP1. These data indicate that CEES modulates expression of antioxidants and enzymes producing inflammatory mediators by distinct mechanisms. Increases in antioxidants may be an adaptive process to limit tissue damage. Inhibiting the capacity of keratinocytes to generate eicosanoids may be important in limiting inflammation and protecting the skin from vesicant-induced oxidative stress and injury. PMID:20382172

  5. Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Prevost, Philippe; Maloni, Pascal; Torre, Franck; Asia, Laurence; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested on hair, combining showering and emergency decontamination (use of Fuller's earth or Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion RSDL(®)). Both simulants were recovered from hair after treatment, but contents were significantly reduced (42-85% content allowance). Showering alone was the least efficient protocol. Concerning 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide, protocols did not display significant differences in decontamination efficacy. For MeS, use of emergency decontaminants significantly increased showering efficacy (10-20% rise), underlining their usefulness before thorough decontamination. Our results highlighted the need to extensively decontaminate hair after chemical exposure. Residual amounts after decontamination are challenging, as their release from hair could lead to health issues. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

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    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Svoboda, Kathy K. [Texas A and M University, Baylor College of Dentistry, Center for Craniofacial Research 3302 Gaston Ave, Dallas, Texas 75246 (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gordon, Marion K. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM.

  7. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

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    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  8. Characterization of nitrogen mustard formamidopyrimidine adduct formation of bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine with calf thymus DNA and a human mammary cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppi, Francesca; Hejazi, Leila; Christov, Plamen P; Krishnamachari, Sesha; Turesky, Robert J; Rizzo, Carmelo J

    2015-09-21

    A robust, quantitative ultraperformance liquid chromatography ion trap multistage scanning mass spectrometric (UPLC/MS(3)) method was established to characterize and measure five guanine adducts formed by reaction of the chemotherapeutic nitrogen mustard (NM) bis(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine with calf thymus (CT) DNA. In addition to the known N7-guanine (NM-G) adduct and its cross-link (G-NM-G), the ring-opened formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) monoadduct (NM-FapyG) and cross-links in which one (FapyG-NM-G) or both (FapyG-NM-FapyG) guanines underwent ring-opening to FapyG units were identified. Authentic standards of all adducts were synthesized and characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry. These adducts were quantified in CT DNA treated with NM (1 μM) as their deglycosylated bases. A two-stage neutral thermal hydrolysis was developed to mitigate the artifactual formation of ring-opened FapyG adducts involving hydrolysis of the cationic adduct at 37 °C, followed by hydrolysis of the FapyG adducts at 95 °C. The limit of quantification values ranged between 0.3 and 1.6 adducts per 10(7) DNA bases when the equivalent of 5 μg of DNA hydrolysate was assayed on column. The principal adduct formed was the G-NM-G cross-link, followed by the NM-G monoadduct; the FapyG-NM-G cross-link adduct; and the FapyG-NM-FapyG was below the limit of detection. The NM-FapyG adducts were formed in CT DNA at a level ∼20% that of the NM-G adduct. NM-FapyG has not been previously quanitified, and the FapyG-NM-G and FapyG-NM-FapyG adducts have not been previously characterized. Our validated analytical method was then applied to measure DNA adduct formation in the MDA-MB-231 mammary tumor cell line exposed to NM (100 μM) for 24 h. The major adduct formed was NM-G (970 adducts per 10(7) bases), followed by G-NM-G (240 adducts per 10(7) bases), NM-FapyG (180 adducts per 10(7) bases), and, last, the FapyG-NM-G cross-link adduct (6.0 adducts per 10(7) bases). These lesions are expected to

  9. Free Radical Production from the Interaction of 2-Chloroethyl Vesicants (Mustard Gas) with Pyridine Nucleotide-Driven Flavoprotein Electron Transport Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    and chloroethyl methyl sulfide (CEMS), the spin trap 2-methyl-2- nitrosopropane dimer ( MNP ) and trimethylsulfonium iodide were purchased from Aldrich...see Fig. 7 for structures). The nitroso spin trap MNP forms adducts at the nitrogen which creates a close enough association between the magnetic nuclei...in the radical and the nitroso nitrogen of the MNP to provide the detail needed to allow deduction of the radical’s structure. We used CEES in place

  10. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

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    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  11. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep; Orlicky, David J; Agarwal, Chapla; White, Carl W; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51% reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. PMID:25791923

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of 2-phenethyl-2-chloroethyl sulfide in liquid and gas phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, Alexandre V; Panchenko, Alexander A; Savinov, Evgueni N; Lion, Claude; Smirniotis, Panagiotis G

    2002-12-01

    This work explores the ability of photocatalysis to decontaminate water and air from chemical warfare agent mustard using its simulant 2-phenethyl 2-chloroethyl sulfide (PECES). PECES like mustard slowly dissolves in water with hydrolysis, forming 2-phenethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulfide (PEHES). Irradiation of TiO2 suspension containing PECES with the unfiltered light of a mercury lamp (lambda > or = 254 nm) decomposed all PECES mostly via photolysis. Reaction under filtered light (lambda > 300 nm) proceeds mainly photocatalytically and requires longer time. Sulfur from starting PECES is completely transformed into sulfuric acid at the end of the reaction. Detected volatile, nonvolatile, surface products, and the suggested scheme of degradation are reported. The main volatile products are styrene and benzaldehyde, nonvolatile--hydroxylated PEHES, surface--2-phenethyl disulfide. Photolysis of PECES produced the same set of volatile products as photocatalysis. Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous PECES in air results in its mineralization but is accompanied by TiO2 deactivation. The highest rate of mineralization with minimum deactivation was observed at about room temperature and a water concentration of 27,500 ppm. No gaseous products except CO2 were detected. The main extracted surface product was styrene. It was concluded that PECES photocatalytic degradation proceeds mainly via C-S bond cleavage and further oxidation of the products. Hydrolysis of the C-S bond was detected only in gas-phase photocatalytic degradation. The quantum efficiency of gas-phase degradation (0.28%) was much higher than that of liquid-phase degradation (0.008%). The results demonstrate the ability of photocatalysis to decontaminate an aqueous and especially an air environment

  13. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R., E-mail: sunilvr@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS −/− mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS −/− mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS −/− mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS −/− mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS −/− mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. -- Highlights: ► Lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress are induced by the model vesicant CEES ► RNS generated via iNOS are important in the CEES-induced pulmonary toxicity ► iNOS −/− mice are protected from CEES-induced lung toxicity and

  14. Doxycycline loaded poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels for healing vesicant-induced ocular wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Anumolu, SivaNaga S.; DeSantis, Andrea S; Menjoge, Anupa R; Hahn, Rita A.; Beloni, John A; Gordon, Marion. K.; Sinko, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Half mustard (CEES) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are commonly used surrogates and vesicant analogs of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard. In the current study, in situ forming poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based doxycycline hydrogels are developed and evaluated for their wound healing efficacy in CEES and NM exposed rabbit corneas in organ culture. The hydrogels, characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, rheometry, and swelling kinetics, showed that the hydrogels are optically transparent,...

  15. Reactive removal of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide vapors under visible light irradiation by cerium oxide modified highly porous zirconium (hydr) oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joshua K.; Arcibar-Orozco, Javier A.; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2016-12-01

    Highly porous cerium oxide modified Zr(OH)4 samples were synthesized using a simple one stage urea precipitation method. The amorphicity level of zirconium hydroxide did not change upon addition of cerium oxide particles. A unique aspect of the cerium oxide-modified materials is the presence of both the oxide (CeO2) and hydroxide (Zr(OH)4) phases resulting in a unique microporous structure of the final material. Extensive characterization using various chemical and physical methods revealed significant differences in the surface features. All synthesized materials were microporous and small additions of cerium oxide affected the surface chemistry. These samples were found as effective catalysts for a decontamination of mustard gas surrogate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Cerium oxide addition significantly decreased the band gap of zirconium hydroxide. Ethyl vinyl sulfide and 1,2-bis (Ethyl thio) ethane were identified as surface reaction products.

  16. Silibinin attenuates sulfur mustard analog-induced skin injury by targeting multiple pathways connecting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Tewari-Singh

    Full Text Available Chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (HD inflicts delayed blistering and incapacitating skin injuries. To identify effective countermeasures against HD-induced skin injuries, efficacy studies were carried out employing HD analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES-induced injury biomarkers in skin cells and SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. The data demonstrate strong therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in attenuating CEES-induced skin injury and oxidative stress. In skin cells, silibinin (10 µM treatment 30 min after 0.35/0.5 mM CEES exposure caused a significant (p90%, and activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 (complete reversal. Similarly, silibinin treatment was also effective in attenuating CEES-induced oxidative stress measured by 4-hydroxynonenal and 5,5-dimethyl-2-(8-octanoic acid-1-pyrolline N-oxide protein adduct formation, and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine levels. Since our previous studies implicated oxidative stress, in part, in CEES-induced toxic responses, the reversal of CEES-induced oxidative stress and other toxic effects by silibinin in this study indicate its pleiotropic therapeutic efficacy. Together, these findings support further optimization of silibinin in HD skin toxicity model to develop a novel effective therapy for skin injuries by vesicants.

  17. Antileukemic and cytogenetic effects of modified and non-modified esteric steroidal derivatives of 4-methyl-3-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino benzoic acid (4-Me-CABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousteris, Manolis A; Koutsourea, Anna I; Arsenou, Evagelia S; Papageorgiou, Athanasios; Mourelato, Dionisis; Nikolaropoulos, Sotiris S

    2002-01-01

    The increase of the damaging effects on specific DNA sequences and the reduction of the subsequent toxicity of nitrogen mustards has been achieved by their chemical conjugation with modified steroids through an esteric bond. In an attempt to study the structure-activity relationships of these compounds, we synthesized eight steroidal esters of 4-methyl-3-bis(2-chloroethyl)aminobenzoic acid (4-Me-CABA). The anti-leukemic and cytogenetic effects of the parent alkylating agent were compared with those produced by the steroidal compounds, in vivo against leukemias P388 and L1210 and in vitro for induction of Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE) and on proliferation rate indices (PRI). The results demonstrate that the existence of the NH-CO group, either as an endocyclic lactamic or as an out of the ring amidic one but at axial conformation, at the steroid-carrier moiety is necessary for the expression of the antileukemic activity. The synthetic route for the preparation of the steroidal esters and their physicochemical data are also reported.

  18. [Giant inguinal scrotal vesical hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximiano Vásquez, R; Roca Suárez, A; Ramírez Chamorro, F; de Alba López, J R; Gordón Laporte, R

    1999-10-01

    Presentation of one case of scrotal hernia in a man of 64 years old patient. Diagnosed by cistography and ultrasound and treated by herniorraphy and posterior transuretral litolaplaxy of a vesical litiasis and RTU of prostate. Postoperative urography showed normal vesical morphology.

  19. Mustard Gas Surrogate, 2-Chloroethyl Ethylsulfide (2-CEES), Induces Centrosome Amplification and Aneuploidy in Human and Mouse Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    increase in aneuploidy in treated cells.      Methods and Materials    Cell Culture    Saos2 (human  osteosarcoma ) and NIH3T3 (murine embryonic...CEES as previously mentioned.  After 2‐  CEES  treatment , each well was trypsinized with 50 μl of TrypLE Express (Life Technologies) and  harvested with...for each 2‐CEES concentration  to act as  a blank.  After 2‐CEES  treatment , 4.4 mM resazurin (Sigma) was prepared fresh in water and  diluted 1:100 in

  20. A choline oxidase amperometric bioassay for the detection of mustard agents based on screen-printed electrodes modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Fabiana; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Covaia, Corrado; Amine, Aziz; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe

    2015-02-13

    In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (-50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl), thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethyl)amine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  1. Aminoalkylated Merrifield Resins Reticulated by Tris-(2-chloroethyl Phosphate for Cadmium, Copper, and Iron (II Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Dardouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to synthesize novel substituted polymers bearing functional groups to chelate heavy metals during depollution applications. Three polyamine functionalized Merrifield resins were prepared via ethylenediamine (EDA, diethylenetriamine (DETA, and triethylenetetramine (TETA modifications named, respectively, MR-EDA, MR-DETA, and MR-TETA. The aminoalkylated polymers were subsequently reticulated by tris-(2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP to obtain new polymeric resins called, respectively, MR-EDA-TCEP, MR-DETA-TCEP, and MR-TETA-TCEP. The obtained resins were characterized via attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, elemental analysis (EA, and thermogravimetric (TGA, thermodynamic (DTA, and differential thermogravimetric (DTG analysis. The synthesized resins were then assayed to evaluate their efficiency to extract metallic ions such as Cd2+, Cu2+, and Fe2+ from aqueous solutions.

  2. An Unusual Vesical Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 52 year old patient presenting with a bladder stone formed over a migrated intrauterine device (copper -T. Her history was pertinent for intrauterine contraceptive (IUCD device placement 10 years back. Investigations included plain ultrasound of abdomen, X-ray of abdomen, urinalysis, and urine culture. Ultrasound and plain X-ray of the pelvis confirmed a bladder stone formed over a migrated copper-T intrauterine device. The device was removed through suprapubic cystolithotomy. Of all the reported cases of vesical stone formation over a migrated IUCD, this case is unique as the patient was an elderly - 52 year old - female. All previously reported cases are of younger age.

  3. Reactions of 4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]benzenebutanoic acid (chlorambucil) with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea-Wang, Diana; Pawlowicz, Agnieszka J; Sinkkonen, Jari; Kronberg, Leif; Vilpo, Juhani; Hovinen, Jari

    2009-07-01

    4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]benzenebutanoic acid (=chlorambucil, 1; 2.5 mM) was allowed to react with single- and double-stranded calf thymus DNA at physiological pH (cacodylic acid, 50% base) at 37 degrees . The DNA-chlorambucil adducts were identified by analyzing the DNA hydrolysates by NMR, UV, HPLC, LC/ESI-MS/MS techniques as well as by spiking with authentic materials. ssDNA was more reactive than dsDNA, and the order of reactivity in ssDNA was Ade-N1>Gua-N7>Cyt-N3>Ade-N3. The most reactive site in dsDNA was Ade-N3. The Gua-N7 and Ade-N3 adducts were hydrolytically labile. Ade-N7 adduct could not be identified in the hydrolysates of ssDNA or dsDNA. The adduct Gua-N7,N7, which consists of two units of Gua bound together with a unit derived from chlorambucil, is a cross-linking adduct, and it was detected in the hydrolysates of ssDNA and dsDNA. Also several other adducts were detected which could be characterized by spiking with previously isolated authentic adducts or tentatively by MS. The role of chlorambucil-DNA adducts on the cytotoxicity and mutagenity of 1 is also discussed.

  4. N2,N2,N5,N5-Tetrakis(2-chloroethyl-3,4-dimethylthiophene-2,5-dicarboxamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Dan Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H22Cl4N2O2S, the two imide groups adopt a trans arrangement relative to the central thienyl ring, so the four terminal 2-chloroethyl arms adopt different orientations. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...Cl and C—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network.

  5. Vesical metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Antunes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic vesical tumors are rare, and constitute approximately 1% of all neoplasias affecting this organ. The authors report the case of a 63-year old woman with vesical metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma. Patient presented signs of cachexia and complained of left lumbar pain and dysuria unresponsive to antibiotic therapy for approximately 5 months. She reported a previous partial gastrectomy due to ulcerative undifferentiated gastric adenocarcinoma 1 year and 9 months before. Cystoscopy revealed an extensive vegetative lesion in bladder, occupying its entire mucosal surface. The biopsy revealed metastatic signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma.

  6. Inhibition of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by a mustard gas analog in murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Milton

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES is a sulphur vesicating agent and an analogue of the chemical warfare agent 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide, or sulphur mustard gas (HD. Both CEES and HD are alkylating agents that influence cellular thiols and are highly toxic. In a previous publication, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In the present investigation, we studied the influence of CEES on nitric oxide (NO production in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells since NO signalling affects inflammation, cell death, and wound healing. Murine macrophages stimulated with LPS produce NO almost exclusively via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity. We suggest that the influence of CEES or HD on the cellular production of NO could play an important role in the pathophysiological responses of tissues to these toxicants. In particular, it is known that macrophage generated NO synthesised by iNOS plays a critical role in wound healing. Results We initially confirmed that in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages NO is exclusively generated by the iNOS form of nitric oxide synthase. CEES treatment inhibited the synthesis of NO (after 24 hours in viable LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages as measured by either nitrite secretion into the culture medium or the intracellular conversion of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA or dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA. Western blots showed that CEES transiently decreased the expression of iNOS protein; however, treatment of active iNOS with CEES in vitro did not inhibit its enzymatic activity Conclusion CEES inhibits NO production in LPS stimulated macrophages by decreasing iNOS protein expression. Decreased iNOS expression is likely the result of CEES induced alteration in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signalling pathway. Since NO can act as an antioxidant, the CEES induced down-regulation of iNOS in LPS

  7. Immunochemical analysis of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by the mono-alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES): Impact of experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiak, Malgorzata; Lex, Kirsten; Ponath, Viviane; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Mangerich, Aswin; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent with a long history of use as a chemical weapon. Although its last military use is dated for the eighties of the last century, a potential use in terroristic attacks against civilians remains a significant threat. Thus, improving medical therapy of mustard exposed individuals is still of particular interest. PARP inhibitors were recently brought into the focus as a potential countermeasure for mustard-induced pathologies, supported by the availability of efficient compounds successfully tested in cancer therapy. PARP activation after SM treatment was reported in several cell types and tissues under various conditions; however, a detailed characterization of this phenomenon is still missing. This study provides the basis for such studies by developing and optimizing experimental conditions to investigate poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) in HaCaT keratinocytes upon treatment with the monofunctional alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide ("half mustard", CEES). By using an immunofluorescence-based approach, we show that optimization of experimental conditions with regards to the type of solvent, dilution factors and treatment procedure is essential to obtain a homogenous PAR staining in HaCaT cell cultures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different CEES treatment protocols significantly influence the cytotoxicity profiles of treated cells. Using an optimized treatment protocol, our data reveals that CEES induces a dose- and time-dependent dynamic PARylation response in HaCaT cells that could be completely blocked by treating cells with the clinically relevant pharmacological PARP inhibitor ABT888 (also known as veliparib). Finally, siRNA experiments show that CEES-induced PAR formation is predominantly due to the activation of PARP1. In conclusion, this study provides a detailed analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to study the

  8. Characterization and Modulation of Proteins Involved in Sulfur Mustard Vesication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Haustein, U. F., Jung, E. G., and et al. (1996). Human papillomavirus infections in nonmelanoma skin cancers from renal transplant recipients and...its less active structural analogue W-12 (N- (4-Aminobutyl)-2-naphthalenesulfonamide, HCl), the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA), as well... transplanted onto nude mice was also performed utilizing an end point of micro or macro blisters or SM-induced microvesication. d. Assays for In Vivo

  9. Characterization and Modulation of Proteins Involved in Sulfur Mustard Vesication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    p53 may negatively regulate p53-mediated transcriptional activation of genes important in the cell cycle and apoptosis ( Malanga and Althaus, 1997...differentiation in vitro. J. Cell. Physiol. 163, 105-114. Malanga , M., and Althaus, F. (1997). Poly(ADP-ribose): a negative regulator of p53 functions. In The 12th...Aggarwal, B. (1996) J. Interferon ribosylation Reactions, Cancun, Mexico Cytokine Res. 16, 259-267 59. Malanga , M., and Althaus, F. (1997) in The

  10. Induction of specific-locus and dominant lethal mutations in male mice by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehling, U H; Adler, I D; Favor, J; Neuhäuser-Klaus, A

    1997-10-06

    1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) induced dominant lethal and specific-locus mutations in male mice. For both compounds the germ cell stage sensitive to the induction of dominant lethal mutations was dose dependent. A dose of 5 mg BCNU per kg b.wt. induced dominant lethal mutations primarily in spermatocytes, whereas higher doses of BCNU induced dominant lethals in spermatids and spermatocytes. Following doses of 5 and 10 mg CCNU per kg b.wt. dominant lethals were induced in spermatids and spermatocytes similar to the results for higher doses of BCNU. Higher dose exposure to BCNU and CCNU was associated with dominant lethals expressed as pre-implantation loss (reduction in total number of implants). In addition, higher doses of CCNU showed a cytotoxic effect in differentiating spermatogonia. Both compounds induced specific-locus mutations in post-spermatogonial germ cell stages of mice. However, CCNU increased also the specific-locus mutation frequency in spermatogonia in two out of three experiments. We conclude in analogy with criteria developed by IARC, that BCNU and CCNU are potential human mutagens.

  11. Cytometric analysis of DNA changes induced by sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W.J.; Sanders, K.M.; Ruddle, S.E.; Gross, C.L.

    1993-05-13

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating agent which causes severe, potentially debilitating blisters following cutaneous exposure. Its mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown and no antidote exists to prevent its pathology. The biochemical basis of sulfur mustard's vesicating activity has been hypothesized to be a cascade of events beginning with alkylation of DNA. Using human cells in culture, we have assessed the effects of sulfur mustard on cell cycle activity using flow cytometry with propidium iodide. Two distinct patterns emerged, a Gl/S interface block at concentrations equivalent to vesicating doses (>50-micronM) and a G2 block at 10-fold lower concentrations. In addition, noticeable increases in amount of dye uptake were observed at 4 and 24 hours after sulfur mustard exposure. These increases are believed to be related to DNA repair activities and can be prevented by treatment of the cells with niacinamide, which inhibits DNA repair. Other drugs which provide alternate alkylating sites or inhibit cell cycle progression were shown to lower the cytotoxicity of sulfur mustard and to protect against its direct DNA damaging effects.

  12. The chemiluminescence determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide using luminol-AgNO3-silver nanoparticles system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Shamsi, Javad; Barsang, Mehran Jam; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) was presented. It was found that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) could inhibit the CL of the luminol-AgNO3 system in the presence of silver nanoparticles in alkaline solution, which made it applicable for determination of 2-CEES. The presented method is simple, convenient, rapid and sensitive. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.0001-1 ng mL-1, with the correlation coefficient of 0.992; while the limit of detection (LOD), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, was 6 × 10-6 ng mL-1. Also, the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) for determination of 2-CEES (0.50 ng mL-1) was 3.1%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of 2-CEES in environmental aqueous samples.

  13. Synthesis of highly reactive polyisobutylene catalyzed by EtAlCl 2/Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether soluble complex in hexanes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rajeev Ananda

    2014-03-25

    The polymerization of isobutylene (IB) to yield highly reactive polyisobutylene (HR PIB) with high exo-olefin content using GaCl3 or FeCl3·diisopropyl ether complexes has been previously reported.1 In an effort to further improve polymerization rates and exo-olefin content, we have studied ethylaluminum dichloride (EADC) complexes with diisopropyl ether, 2-chloroethyl ethyl ether (CEEE), and bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (CEE) as catalysts in conjunction with tert-butyl chloride as initiator in hexanes at different temperatures. All three complexes were readily soluble in hexanes. Polymerization, however, was only observed with CEE. At 0 °C polymerization was complete in 5 min at [t-BuCl] = [EADC·CEE] = 10 mM and resulted in PIB with ∼70% exo-olefin content. Studies on complexation using ATR FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that at 1:1 stoichiometry a small amount of EADC remains uncomplexed. By employing an excess of CEE, exo-olefin contents increased up to 90%, while polymerization rates decreased only slightly. With decreasing temperature, polymerization rates decreased while molecular weights as well as exo-olefin contents increased, suggesting that isomerization has a higher activation energy than β-proton abstraction. Density functional theory (DFT) studies on the Lewis acid·ether binding energies indicated a trend consistent with the polymerization results. The polymerization mechanism proposed previously for Lewis acid·ether complexes1 adequately explains all the findings. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. A Histological Assessment of Lung Injury in Rats Exposed to Inhaled Sulfur Mustard across Dose and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    presumptive evidence for type II hyperplasia includes positive immunoreactivity for surfactant apoprotein A and negative immunoreactivity for CC16 (which...J (2008) Health effects of exposure to vesicant agents. In: Chemical Warfare Agents – Chemistry , Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics. Eds...intratracheal exposure of guinea pigs to sulfur mustard aerosol: Therapeutic efficacy of exogenous lung surfactant curosurf and salbutamol

  15. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Sulfur Mustard in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K.; Sasser, L. B.

    1989-07-31

    The mutagenic potential of bis 2-chloroethyl sulfide (HD} a bifunctional sulfur mustard was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation version and the preincubation modification of the Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with and without 59 activation. HD-induced point mutations in strain TA102 and frameshift mutations in TA97 but showed little or no mutagenicity against strains TA98 and TA100. Extensive HD-induced cell killing was observed with the excision repair deficient strains (TA100, TA98 and TA97) but not with strain TA102, which is wild-activation by Aroc1or induced rat liver microsomes (S9).

  16. Detection of vesicant-induced upper airway mucosa damage in the hamster cheek pouch model using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Wilson, Marie J.; Nguyen, Vi; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Ahn, Yehchen; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Hamster cheek pouches were exposed to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide [CEES, half-mustard gas (HMG)] at a concentration of 0.4, 2.0, or 5.0 mg/ml for 1 or 5 min. Twenty-four hours post-HMG exposure, tissue damage was assessed by both stereomicrography and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Damage that was not visible on gross visual examination was apparent in the OCT images. Tissue changes were found to be dependent on both HMG concentration and exposure time. The submucosal and muscle layers of the cheek pouch tissue showed the greatest amount of structural alteration. Routine light microscope histology was performed to confirm the OCT observations.

  17. CLINICO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VESICAL CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vesical calculi are the most common manifestation of lower urinary tract lithiasis. Urinary infections play an important role in aetiopathogenesis of vesical calculi. OBJECTIVE Aim of this study was proposed to establish the bacteriology of stone and urine in an attempt to evaluate the role of infection in the formation of stone. Associated factors like age, sex, site of infection, obstruction, diet were also evaluated. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS The patients were admitted in surgical ward as provisional diagnosed cases of vesical calculus, were subjected to investigations including CBC, RBS, urine analysis, renal function test, x-ray KUB region and ultrasonography. Patients who were fit for surgery, various surgical procedures were done. Gross examination and core culture of stone was done to establish their aetiology. RESULTS Ninety-four patients with vesical calculus were evaluated. Incidence of vesical calculus was 1.13%. Majority of cases were from rural areas (92.55%. Urinary tract infection was present in 37.2% of cases, majority of cases urine culture was positive (30.95%. Core culture of stone was positive in 18 cases (25.17%. E. coli was the predominant organism both in urine culture (19.04% and core culture of stone (25.71%. CONCLUSIONS There is significant association regarding the presence of vesical calculi and the development of urinary infections. E. coli was the predominant organism found both in urine and core culture of stone.

  18. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.Tewari-Singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Jain, Anil K., E-mail: Anil.Jain@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Inturi, Swetha, E-mail: Swetha.Inturi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Ammar, David A., E-mail: David.Ammar@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla, E-mail: Chapla.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Tyagi, Puneet, E-mail: Puneet.Tyagi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Kompella, Uday B., E-mail: Uday.Kompella@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Enzenauer, Robert W., E-mail: Robert.Enzenauer@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Petrash, J. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Petrash@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  19. RARE CASE OF GIANT VESICAL CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Ramraj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Giant vesical calculus is a rare entity. Vesical calculi can be primary (stones form de novo in bladder or secondary to the migrated renal calculi, chronic UTI, bladder outlet obstruction, bladder diverticulum or carcinoma, foreign body and neurogenic bladder. We report a case of an 85year old male patient who presented with history of recurrent episodes of burning micturition, pain abdomen, straining at micturition and diminished stream. Ultrasonography and X ray KUB showed a large vesical calculus. Patient underwent a n Open Cystolithomy and a large calculus of size 9x13cm weighing 310gms was removed. Bladder wall hypertrophy was seen with signs of inflammation. Bladder mucosal biopsy was taken which was normal on histopathological examination. Post - operative recovery was uneventful

  20. Vesicant chemotherapy extravasation antidotes and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeister, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Oncology nurses and pharmacists often are given the responsibility of developing or updating institutional policies to manage vesicant chemotherapy extravasations. Antidote and treatment recommendations of vesicant chemotherapy manufacturers, antidotes and treatments approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and guidelines and recommendations made by professional oncology organizations are useful resources in this process. This article describes manufacturers' recommendations, lists antidotes and treatments approved by the FDA, and reviews published guidelines and recommendations. Available antidote and treatment formulations and their preparation and administration also are discussed.

  1. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengla, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2011-09-15

    Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr(4+) dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr(4+) to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr(4+) doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  2. Proceedings of the Vesicant Workshop, February 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    started. - The use of vesicants could produce big problems for the Navy, particularly if personnel are forced to go into MOPP-4. - With one exception...liquid chromatography. In the hepatic pathology study, rats received two doses of AFB 1 and were sacrificed at 4 months. aData are means+S.E.; five

  3. Synergistic inhibition of kale seed germination by coumarin and (2-chloroethyl)-trimethylammonium chloride, and its reversal by kinetin and gibberellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knypl, J S

    1966-09-01

    1. The retarding effect of (2-chloroethyl)trimethylammonium chloride (CCC) on germination of kale seeds is reduced and overcome by either kinetin or gibberellic acid (GA). 2. Coumarin inhibition of germination is reduced by kinetin but not by GA. 3. Germination of seeds treated with coumarin in combination with CCC is blocked; both kinetin and GA reduce the synergistic, inhibitory effect of coumarin and CCC. It is suggested that coumarin and CCC block alternative metabolic pathways which lead to germination in kale seed; these pathways are directly controlled by kinetin.

  4. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevett, Carol A.S. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)], E-mail: carol.brevett@us.army.mil; Sumpter, Kenneth B. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States); Nickol, Robert G. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using {sup 13}C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 deg. C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 deg. C ranged from 75 to 350 h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 deg. C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 deg. C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane.

  5. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevett, Carol A S; Sumpter, Kenneth B; Nickol, Robert G

    2009-02-15

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using (13)C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH(2)CH(2))(2)S(+)CH(2)CH(2)OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH(2)CH(2))(2)S(+)CH(2)CH(2)OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH(2)CH(2))(2)S(+)CH(2)CH(2)OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 degrees C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 degrees C ranged from 75 to 350h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 degrees C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 degrees C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane.

  6. Preparation and application of the sol-gel-derived acrylate/silicone co-polymer coatings for headspace solid-phase microextraction of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Zeng, Zhaorui; Fang, Huaifang

    2005-05-27

    Three types of novel acrylate/silicone co-polymer coatings, including co-poly(methyl acrylate/hydroxy-terminated silicone oil) (MA/OH-TSO), co-poly(methyl methacrylate/OH-TSO) (MMA/OH-TSO) and co-poly(butyl methacrylate/OH-TSO) (BMA/OH-TSO), were prepared for the first time by sol-gel method and cross-linking technology and subsequently applied to headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a surrogate of mustard, in soil. The underlying mechanisms of the coating process were discussed and confirmed by IR spectra. The selectivity of the three types of sol-gel-derived acrylate/silicone coated fibers was studied, and the BMA/OH-TSO coated fibers exhibited the highest extraction ability to CEES. The concentration of BMA and OH-TSO in sol solution was optimized, and the BMA/OH-TSO (3:1)-coated fibers possessed the highest extraction efficiency. Compared with commercially available polyacrylate (PA) fiber, the sol-gel-derived BMA/OH-TSO (3:1) fibers showed much higher extraction efficiency to CEES. Therefore, the BMA/OH-TSO (3:1)-coated fibers were chosen for the analysis of CEES in soil matrix. The reproducibility of coating preparation was satisfactory, with the RSD 2.39% within batch and 3.52% between batches, respectively. The coatings proved to be quite stable at high temperature (to 350 degrees C) and in different solvents (organic or inorganic), thus their lifetimes (to 150 times) are longer than conventional fibers. Extraction parameters, such as the volume of water added to the soil, extraction temperature and time, and the ionic strength were optimized. The linearity was from 0.1 to 10 microg/g, the limit of detection (LOD) was 2.7 ng/g, and the RSD was 2.19%. The recovery of CEES was 88.06% in agriculture soil, 92.61% in red clay, and 101.95% in sandy soil, respectively.

  7. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} New stechiometric materials for sulphur mustard degradation. {yields} High degree of degradation, more then 95% h{sup -1}. {yields} One-pot synthesis procedure. - Abstract: Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr{sup 4+} to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr{sup 4+} doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  8. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-increased protease activity by niacinamide, N-acetyl-L-cysteine or dexamethasone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, F.M.; Broomfield, C.A.; Smith, W.J.

    1991-03-11

    The pathologic mechanism of sulfur mustard-induced skin vesication is as yet undefined. Papirmeister et al. have postulated a biochemical mechanism for sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous injury involving sequelae of DNA alkylation, metabolic disruption resulting in NAD+ depletion and activation of protease. The authors have utilized a chromogenic peptide substrate assay to establish that human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed 24 hr previously to sulfur mustard exhibited an increase in proteolytic activity. Doses of compounds known to alter the biochemical events associated with sulfur mustard exposure or reduce protease activity were tested in this system for their ability to block the sulfur mustard-induced protease activity. Treatment with niacinamide 1 hr after or with N-acetyl-L-cysteine or dexamethasone 24 hr prior to sulfur mustard exposure resulted in a decrease of 39%, 33% and 42% respectively of sulfur mustard-increased protease activity. These data suggest that therapeutic intervention into the biochemical pathways that culminate in protease activation might serve as an approach to treatment of sulfur mustard-induced pathology.

  9. Bladder Cancer in an Inguinoscrotal Vesical Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Regis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 79-year-old male who, due to hematuria, underwent cystoscopy that showed a lesion in the bladder dome. Transurethral resection was attempted, but access to the tumor by this route was impossible. Given the findings, a body CT scan was performed showing an inguinoscrotal hernia with vesical carcinoma contained. Open surgical treatment of the vesical carcinoma contained within the inguinoscrotal hernia was performed in conjunction with the hernia repair. The anatomical pathology report confirmed a high-grade urothelial carcinoma (stage pT2b with a free resection margin of <1 mm. Adjuvant radiotherapy was selected for subsequent treatment. The presence of bladder tumor in an inguinoscrotal hernia is an uncommon finding and a diagnostic delay can be assumed. The initial therapeutic plan may need to be changed from the usual approaches due to the atypical presentation.

  10. Final report : multicomponent forensic signature development : interactions with common textiles; mustard precursors and simulants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-02-01

    2-Chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), a surrogate compound of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, was examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a novel method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. Various multivariate analysis schemes were employed to analyze the data. These methods may be able to discern different sources of CEPS. In addition, CEPS was applied to cotton, nylon, polyester, and silk swatches. These swatches were placed in controlled humidity chambers maintained at 23%, 56%, and 85% relative humidity. At regular intervals, samples were removed from each test swatch, and the samples analyzed using TD/GC-MS. The results were compared across fabric substrate and humidity.

  11. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Boulware, S. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, T.; McIvor, E.; Powell, K.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, J.; Vasquez, K.M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, M.C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  12. Effects of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) on alpha2-adrenoceptors which regulate the synthesis and release of noradrenaline in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M; Giralt, M T

    2001-03-01

    N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) induces a degeneration of noradrenergic axons originating in the locus coeruleus. The sensitivity of alpha2-adrenoceptors which regulate the synthesis and release of noradrenaline was investigated in three brain regions which receive an unequal innervation from locus coeruleus, 21 days after DSP4 (50 mg/kg) administration. After giving treated rats a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor, the in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase activity and the tissue concentrations of noradrenaline were also evaluated. Relevant reductions of noradrenaline levels were found in hippocampus and parietal cortex (91% and 77.5%, respectively; PDSP4 (10+/-5% vs 57+/-3% in the control group, PDSP4 for noradrenergic terminals arising from locus coeruleus and suggest a more severe lesioning of the hippocampus than the parietal cortex.

  13. URETERO-VESICAL ANASTOMOTIC COMPLICATIONS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shkodkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents statistical analysis of vesico-ureteric reflux and uretero-vesical obstruction incidence after kidney transplantation depending on technique mode. In this item prevalence of chronic pyelonephritis and spe- cies of causative agent data are analyzed. The necessity of effective methods to accomplish the uretero-vesical anastomosis is suggested. 

  14. Panceratic Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farshid Fayyaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard is one of the chemical warfare gases that has been known as a vesicant or blistering agents. It is a chemical alkylating compound agent that can be frequently absorbed through skin, respiratory system, genital tract, and ocular system. This study was done to pathologically analyze the microscopic pancreatic lesions in cadavers. Methods: This case series study was performed during 2007 to 2012 in Legal Medicine Organization. Exposure was confirmed by the written reports of the field hospitals, based on acute presentation of eye, skin and pulmonary symptoms of the exposure. Results: Pancreatic autopsy findings were chronic inflammation, fibrosis and duct ectasia; acinar atrophy was also seen in 4 cases. All 4 cases had chronic pancreatic disease with abdominal pain, steatorrhea and weight loss that was confirmed by sonography. CT scan and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP have also demonstrated the chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion: According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the mustard gas exposed people in chemical factories is necessary.

  15. Comparing models for vesicant responses in skin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mershon, M.M.; Rhoads, L.S.; Petrali, J.P.; Mills, K.R.; Kim, S.K.

    1993-05-13

    Vesicant challenges have been delivered to NHEK (normal human epidermal keratinocyes) and to artificial human epidermal tissues. Confluent NHEK, grown on plastic surfaces or gel-coated microporous membranes of Millicell CMR inserts, were challenged with vesicants diluted in cell culture medium. Testskin was provided on agarose nutrient gel as a cornified wafer of sufficient diameter to receive vesicant vapor from cups normally used to challenge animal skin. Stratum corneum of preproduction EpiDerm (PreEpiD) specimens were challenged with vesicant vapor from cups suspended inside of Millicells. Inverted phase contrast microscopy of NHEK on plastic revealed dose-related vesicant effects that could facilitate screening of antivesicants. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed vesicant effects in two distinctly different populations of NHEK on gel-coated inserts. SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of Testskin and PreEpiD disclosed structural differences between these models that became amplified in vesicant-challenged specimens. PreEpiD shows more promise than Testskin for screening of antivesicant topical skin protectants. However, both epidermal models lack the basal lamina that is needed for advanced antivesicant testing.

  16. A Model of Medical Countermeasures for Vesicant Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular Calcium Modulation on Sulfur Mustard Cytotoxicity in Cultured Human Neonatal Keratinocytes. Toxicology in Vitro , 149-157. Sawyer, T. H. (2000...Effect of intracellular calcium modulation on sulfur mustard cytotoxicity in cultured human neonatal keratinocytes. Toxicology In Vitro. , 14 (2...O. P. (2010). Comparative Toxic Effect of Nitrogen Mustards (HN-1, HN-2, and HN-3) and Sulfur Mustard on Hematological and Biochemical Variables

  17. Treatment for Sulphur Mustard Poisoning -A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sugendran

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard (SM is a chemical warfare agent of historical and current interest It is a wellknown blistering agent or vesicant SM was extensively used in world war I as a chemical weaponand has been stockpiled by several counbies since that time. SM serves as an ideal war gas and is favoured militarily for its ability to incapacitate rather than to kill. Its use resulted in large numbers ofcasualties requiring prolonged and intensive medical care. Despite Geneva Protocol of 1925, which categorically bnned the production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons in wars, SM has beenused in several wars, including the Iran-Irnq war during the 1980s, which renewed interest in it.Though, the chemical we'dpons convention was signed by more than 160 counbies in 1993 and wassubsequently ratified by several counbies, the threat from this agent persists due to its clandestineusage during war and also by teITOrist groups. There is no effective and specific antidote for local andsystemic toxicity of SM despite scientific research for more than 75 years. Many compounds weretested as antidotes for SM, but very few of them have been shown to provide some protection. The present review is aimed at evaluating the treatment regime and other clinical measures used to treat  SM victims and the various drugs and chemicals screened as antidotes for SM poisoning in experimental animals.

  18. Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Kelly A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Mukai, David S.; Su, Jianping; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Narula, Navneet; Guo, Shuguang; Wakida, Nicole; Raub, Chris; Berns, Michael W.; George, Steven C.; Chen, Zhongping; Brenner, Matthew

    2009-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution imaging technology capable of delivering real-time, near-histologic images of tissues. Mustard gas is a vesicant-blistering agent that can cause severe and lethal damage to airway and lungs. The ability to detect and assess airway injury in the clinical setting of mustard exposure is currently limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability to detect and monitor progression of half-mustard [2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES)] airway injuries with OCT techniques. A ventilated rabbit mustard exposure airway injury model is developed. A flexible fiber optic OCT probe is introduced into the distal trachea to image airway epithelium and mucosa in vivo. Progression of airway injury is observed over eight hours with OCT using a prototype time-domain superluminescent diode OCT system. OCT tracheal images from CEES exposed animals are compared to control rabbits for airway mucosal thickening and other changes. OCT detects the early occurrence and progression of dramatic changes in the experimental group after exposure to CEES. Histology and immunofluorescence staining confirms this finding. OCT has the potential to be a high resolution imaging modality capable of detecting, assessing, and monitoring treatment for airway injury following mustard vesicant agent exposures.

  19. Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Kelly A; Mahon, Sari B; Mukai, David S; Su, Jianping; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Narula, Navneet; Guo, Shuguang; Wakida, Nicole; Raub, Chris; Berns, Michael W; George, Steven C; Chen, Zhongping; Brenner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution imaging technology capable of delivering real-time, near-histologic images of tissues. Mustard gas is a vesicant-blistering agent that can cause severe and lethal damage to airway and lungs. The ability to detect and assess airway injury in the clinical setting of mustard exposure is currently limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability to detect and monitor progression of half-mustard [2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES)] airway injuries with OCT techniques. A ventilated rabbit mustard exposure airway injury model is developed. A flexible fiber optic OCT probe is introduced into the distal trachea to image airway epithelium and mucosa in vivo. Progression of airway injury is observed over eight hours with OCT using a prototype time-domain superluminescent diode OCT system. OCT tracheal images from CEES exposed animals are compared to control rabbits for airway mucosal thickening and other changes. OCT detects the early occurrence and progression of dramatic changes in the experimental group after exposure to CEES. Histology and immunofluorescence staining confirms this finding. OCT has the potential to be a high resolution imaging modality capable of detecting, assessing, and monitoring treatment for airway injury following mustard vesicant agent exposures.

  20. GIANT VESICAL CALCULUS – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthaiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Until 20th century, bladder stones were one of the most prevalent disorders among the poor class and the incidence was especially high in childhood and adolescent. 1 The decrease in incidence of bladder calculi is attributed mainly to dietary and nutritional progress especially in children. 2 A solitary bladder calculus is usual, although multiple stones are found in 25% of cases. 3 Bladder stones are rare, and they constitute about 5% of all urinary stones, 4, 5 it is classified as migrated from upper urinary tract, primary idiopathic, or secondary calculi. 6 Bladder stones are managed by Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL, endourology procedures, or open surgery. We report an unusual case of giant vesical calculus weighing 600grams in a 55 year old female with no evidence of hematuria, urinary retention, and dysuria.

  1. Crab Meat with Potherb Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Eight fresh crab. 75 grams of potherb mustard, two egg whites, scallions, ginger and cooking wine. Salt to the taste. Directions: 1. Slice and deep fry the potherb mustard till crisp. Place fried mustard on plate. 2. Steam the crab and remove meat. Stir fry meat with scallions, ginger, cooking wine and salt, Return meat to crab shells. 3. Beat egg white until stiff. Cover the crab meat with mixture and garnish. Steam meat for a few minutes. 4. Place the crab shells on fried mustard and serve. This attractive red and white dish features delicious crab meat with savory crisp mustard leaves.

  2. Long-term evaluation of the fate of sulfur mustard on dry and humid soils, asphalt, and concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Dana M; Goldvaser, Michael; Columbus, Ishay

    2011-04-15

    The long-term fate of the blister agent sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide) was determined in a variety of commercial and natural matrices. HD was found to be extremely stable in dry matrices for over a year. The addition of 5% water to the matrices induced slow degradation of HD, which lasted several months. The major degradation product in sands and asphalt was found to be a sulfonium salt, S[CH(2)CH(2)S(+)(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)](2) (H-2TG). Red loam soil, which has not been examined before, exhibited strong interaction with HD, both in dry form and in the presence of water. Humid red loam soil gave rise to unique oxidative degradation products. On humid concrete HD degraded to a complex mixture of products, including vinyls. This may be attributed to the basic sites incorporated in concrete.

  3. Solvent effects of N-nitroso, N-(2-chloroethyl), N',N'-dibenzylsulfamid and its copper(II) and cobalt(II) complexes: fluorescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensouilah, Nadjia; Fisli, Hassina; Dhaoui, Nabila; Benali-Cherif, Nourredine; Abdaoui, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The structure of N-nitroso, N-(2-chloroethyl), N',N'-dibenzylsulfamid (CENS) was established by X-ray crystallography. The atomic coordinates, factors of isotropic thermal agitation, bond lengths and valence angles were determined. The solvent effects on the electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of CENS were investigated at room temperature. The effects of solvent polarity and of hydrogen bonding were interpreted by means of linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the hydrogen donation properties of the solvent play an important role in determining the position of the absorption maximum, while the classical polarity of the medium is the only dominating parameter in determining the emission maximum and the Stokes' shift. Complexation of the investigated compound by two different transition metal ions was studied. Fluorescence measurements show that fluorescence quenching by cobalt(II) is more important than that by copper(II). This phenomenon can be attributed to good stereo-structural matching between the electronic configuration of the Co(2+) ion and the active site distribution of CENS in aqueous solution.

  4. Noradrenergic neurotoxin, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4), treatment eliminates estrogenic effects on song responsiveness in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Akshat; Harding, Cheryl; McGowan, Joseph; Snare, Randall; Bogdan, Diane

    2008-10-01

    Female songbirds use male songs as an important criterion for mate selection. Several studies have reported that female songbirds prefer complex songs to other song types. In a recent study, the authors found that song responsiveness in female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) is strongly modulated by circulating estrogen levels. The behavioral effects of estrogen are often mediated via norepinephrine (NE). The current study administered the noradrenergic neurotoxin, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4) to estradiol-treated female zebra finches to investigate if estrogenic effects on song responsiveness are mediated via NE. The authors tested song responsiveness of adult female zebra finches for three acoustically different song types--simple, long-bout, and complex--under three treatment conditions, untreated, estradiol-treated, and estradiol + DSP-4-treated. Females only showed differential song responsiveness when treated with estradiol alone, responding more to complex songs. DSP-4 treatment eliminated this differential responsiveness. The results are discussed in the light of evidence from functional, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical studies that suggest that estrogenic effects on song processing might be mediated by NE.

  5. Neonatal N-(-2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) treatment modifies the vulnerability to phenobarbital- and ethanol-evoked sedative-hypnotic effects in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortel, Aleksandra; Słomian, Lucyna; Nitka, Dariusz; Swierszcz, Michał; Jaksz, Mirella; Adamus-Sitkiewicz, Beata; Nowak, Przemysław; Jośko, Jadwiga; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-01-01

    To study the influence of the central noradrenergic system on sensitivity to sedative-hypnotic effects mediated by the aminobutyric acid (GABA) system, intact rats were contrasted with rats in which noradrenergic nerves were largely destroyed shortly after birth with the neurotoxin DSP-4 [N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine; 50 mg/kg sc x2, P1 and P3]. At 10 weeks, loss of the righting reflex (LORR) was used as an index to study the acute sedative-hypnotic effects of phenobarbital (100 mg/kg ip) and ethanol (4 g/kg ip, 25% v/v). Additionally, GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem was estimated by an HPLC/ED method. Neonatal DSP-4 treatment diminished the sedative-hypnotic effects of both phenobarbital and ethanol in adult rats. While the endogenous GABA content in the PFC, hippocampus, brainstem and cerebellum of DSP-4-treated rats was not altered, phenobarbital significantly decreased GABA content of both intact and DSP-4-lesioned rats by approximately 40% in the hippocampus and by approximately 20% in other brain regions at 1 h. Ethanol reduced GABA content by approximately 15-30% but only in the hippocampus and brainstem of both intact and lesioned rats. These findings indicate that the noradrenergic system exerts a prominent influence on sedative-hypnotics acting via GABAergic systems in the brain without directly altering GABA levels in the brain.

  6. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paromov, Victor; Kumari, Sudha; Brannon, Marianne; Kanaparthy, Naga S.; Yang, Hongsong; Smith, Milton G.; Stone, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD) and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-soluble antioxidants and/or lipid-soluble antioxidants were evaluated using in vitro model systems. Initially, we found that liposomes containing encapsulated glutathione (GSH-liposomes) increased cell viability and attenuated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT cells exposed to CEES. Next, GSH-liposomes were tested in a human epidermal model, EpiDerm. In the EpiDerm, GSH-liposomes administered simultaneously or 1 hour after CEES exposure (2.5 mM) increased cell viability, inhibited CEES-induced loss of ATP and attenuated changes in cellular morphology, but did not reduce caspase-3 activity. These findings paralleled the previously described in vivo protective effect of antioxidant liposomes in the rat lung and established the effectiveness of GSH-liposomes in a human epidermal model. This study provides a rationale for use of antioxidant liposomes against HD toxicity in the skin considering further verification in animal models exposed to HD. PMID:21776256

  7. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-soluble antioxidants and/or lipid-soluble antioxidants were evaluated using in vitro model systems. Initially, we found that liposomes containing encapsulated glutathione (GSH-liposomes increased cell viability and attenuated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in HaCaT cells exposed to CEES. Next, GSH-liposomes were tested in a human epidermal model, EpiDerm. In the EpiDerm, GSH-liposomes administered simultaneously or 1 hour after CEES exposure (2.5 mM increased cell viability, inhibited CEES-induced loss of ATP and attenuated changes in cellular morphology, but did not reduce caspase-3 activity. These findings paralleled the previously described in vivo protective effect of antioxidant liposomes in the rat lung and established the effectiveness of GSH-liposomes in a human epidermal model. This study provides a rationale for use of antioxidant liposomes against HD toxicity in the skin considering further verification in animal models exposed to HD.

  8. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard - a review. Final technical report, 29 September 1994-31 January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacre, J.C.; Beers, R.; Goldman, M.

    1995-04-05

    Sulfur mustard is a poisonous chemical agent which exerts a local action on the eyes, skin and respiratory tissue with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive and endocrine systems in man and laboratory animals causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, cardiac distress, and death. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison which causes disumption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities which are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas readily combines with various components of the cell such as amino acids, amines and proteins. Sulfur mustard has been shown to be mainly a lung carcinogen in various test animal species; this effect is highly dependent of size of the dose and the route of exposure. In the human, there is evidence of cancers of the respiratory tract in men exposed to mustard gas. Mutagenicity of sulfur mustard, due to the strong alkylating activity, has been reported to occur in many different species of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. There is no strong evidence that sulfur mustard is a teratogen but much further research, with particular emphasis on maternal and fetal toxicity, is needed and recommended.

  9. Implications of Protein Alkyation and Proteolysis on Vesication Caused by Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    150 mM NaCI, 3 mM EDTA and 0.1% nonidet - P40 (NP40), pH 7.4) and then for 10 min at 4 °C with an ice-cold high salt buffer (10 mM Tris-base, 150 mM...kDa kilodalton KGM keratinocyte growth medium MMP matrix metalloproteinase MT-i MMP membrane type-i matrix metalloproteinase -58- NP40 nonidet - P40

  10. MANEJO LAPAROSCÓPICO DE DISPOSITIVO INTRAUTERINO INCRUSTADO EN PARED VESICAL CON LITIASIS VESICAL SECUNDARIA

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el caso clínico de la migración intravesical de dispositivo intrauterino con litiasis vesical secundaria. El diagnóstico se realizó 20 años después de la inserción del dispositivo, por la aparición de síntomas urinarios bajos a repetición y hematuria. La ultrasonografía y la radiografía de pelvis son herramientas diagnósticas relevantes en la sospecha inicial de esta patología, que debe siempre completarse con tomografía pélvica y cistoscopia.

  11. 芥子气所致氧化应激相关生物标志物研究进展%Advances in biomarkers of oxidative stress under sulfur mustard exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅逸舟; 张小锐; 周文霞; 张永祥

    2014-01-01

    芥子气[bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, sulfur mustard, SM]是一种强效化学战剂,其作用机制复杂,尚无特效解毒剂。研究芥子气的中毒机制及病理生理学变化过程,是制定合理有效的治疗方案的关键。氧化应激作为芥子气中毒后的重要病理生理学改变,是芥子气产生毒性效应的重要原因之一,对其相应生物标志物的观察和研究能够更好地揭示氧化应激在芥子气中毒中的作用,从而对揭示芥子气中毒机制及制定具有针对性的防治措施产生重要意义。该文综述了芥子气氧化应激相关标志物的研究进展。%Sulfur mustard [bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide, sulfur mustard, SM] is considered a powerful chemical warfare agent.There is still no specific antidote due to its complex toxicological mechanism .An intimate knowledge of the toxic mechanisms and pathophysiological changes is important to the treatment of sulfur mustard injury .Oxidative stress is one of the most important pathophysiological processes involved in the toxic effect of sulfur mustard .The study of oxidative stress biomarkers induced by sulfur mustard can help to reveal the role of oxidative stress in sulfur mustard intoxication , which may contribute to better understanding of the toxic mechanism and development of therapeutic measures after sulfur mustard exposure.The research advances in oxidative stress biomarkers in sulfur mustard intoxication are reviewed .

  12. Miscoding properties of 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine, a DNA adduct derived from reaction with antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed; Singer, B.

    2003-03-05

    1,N{sup 6}-Ethanoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic adduct formed from DNA reaction with the antitumor agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). To understand the role of this adduct in the mechanism of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity by BCNU, an oligonucleotide with a site-specific EA was synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. We now report the in vitro miscoding properties of EA in translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) {alpha}, {beta}, {eta} and {iota}. These data were also compared with those obtained for the structurally related exocyclic adduct, 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using a primer extension assay, both pols {alpha} and {beta} were primarily blocked by EA or {var_epsilon}A with very minor extension. Pol {eta} a member of the Y family of polymerases, was capable of catalyzing a significant amount of bypass across both adducts. Pol {eta} incorporated all four nucleotides opposite EA and {var_epsilon}A, but with differential preferences and mainly in an error-prone manner. Human pol {iota}, a paralog of human pol {eta}, was blocked by both adducts with a very small amount of synthesis past {var_epsilon}A. It incorporated C and, to a much lesser extent, T, opposite either adduct. In addition, the presence of an A adduct, e.g. {var_epsilon}A, could affect the specificity of pol {iota} toward the template T immediately 3 feet to the adduct. In conclusion, the four polymerases assayed on templates containing an EA or {var_epsilon}A showed differential bypass capacity and nucleotide incorporation specificity, with the two adducts not completely identical in influencing these properties. Although there was a measurable extent of error-free nucleotide incorporation, all these polymerases primarily misincorporated opposite EA, indicating that the adduct, similar to {var_epsilon}A, is a miscoding lesion.

  13. [Determination of tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate in leather by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with mixed-mode sorbent solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiya; Zhu, Yuling; Wang, Chengyun; Li, Lixia; Zhang, Junqing; Xing, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Leather is one of the important exporting products to European Union (EU), and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) is a commonly used flame retardant in leather and leather products. Recently, TCEP has been classified as a kind of substance of very high concern (SVHC) by EU for its carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. But to date, there is not a recognized method for the determination of TCEP in leather and leather products due to the serious matrix interferences and relatively low recovery of TCEP. In this work, a home-made mixed-mode sorbent (Silica-WCX) with carboxyl and alkyl groups was tested as the sorbent of solid phase extraction (SPE) to extract TECP from leather. The results demonstrated that, making the carboxyl groups protonized under acidic condition, Silica-WCX exhibited better extraction performance towards TCEP over some frequently used commercial sorbents tested. After the optimization of the SPE conditions based on Silica-WCX, a method of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was established for the determination of TCEP in leather samples. The linear range for TCEP ranged from 0.10 to 100.0 μg/L and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) was 44.46 ng/kg. The recoveries of TCEP spiked in samples at varied levels were in the range of 91.45%-99.98% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.33%-5.97%. The method is simple, sensitive and reliable for the analysis of TCEP in leather and leather products.

  14. Giant vesical calculus in a ten year-old boy - a case report | Saleh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant vesical calculus in a ten year-old boy - a case report. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... revealed multiple radio-opaque calculi including a giant vesical calculus.

  15. Giant vesical diverticulum: A rare cause of defecation disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Akbulut; Bahri Cakabay; Arsenal Sezgin; Kenan Isen; Ayhan Senol

    2009-01-01

    Vesical diverticula frequently result from bladder outlet obstructions. However, giant vesical diverticula which cause acute abdomen or intestinal obstruction are very rare. Our review of the English medical literature found 3 cases of bladder diverticula which caused gastrointestinal symptoms. Here, we present a 57-yearold man with a giant diverticulum of the urinary bladder who complained of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting,constipation, no passage of gas or feces, and abdominal distension for 3 d. A 20 cm × 15 cm diverticulum was observed upon laparotomy. The colonic obstruction was secondary to external compression of the rectum against the sacrum by a distended vesical diverticulum.We performed a diverticulectomy and primary closure.Twelve months postoperatively, the patient had no difficulty with voiding or defecation.

  16. [Vesical endometriosis after cesarean section: diagnostico-therapeutic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, J I; Extramiana Cameno, J; Esteban Calvo, J M; Díez Rodríguez, J M; Esteban Artiaga, R; Arrizabalaga Moreno, M; Paniagua Andrés, P

    1997-09-01

    Endometriosis is a benign condition with an aggressive behaviour defined by the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue, outside the uterus. It occurs in 15-20% women with child bearing potential. Most commonly it affects organs such as the ovaries, uterine ligaments, fallopian tubes, rectum and the cervico-vaginal region. Involvement of the urinary tract, however, is rare. It can be seen in just about 1% cases, vesical location being the most frequent of these presentations (84% cases). We describe one case of vesical endometriosis that developed after a cesarean section. The intra-operative findings confirmed the existence of infiltration of the detrusor muscle and the vesical mucosa by endometrial tissue from the area of the uterine incision. A discussion of the different diagnostic and therapeutic options is also included.

  17. Implante uretero-vesical em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucci Jr. Silvio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentar os resultados obtidos com técnica de implante ureterovesical em ratos após obstrução ureteral ipsilateral. Treze ratos foram submetidos à obstrução ureteral distal à direita e, após uma semana, realizou-se o implante desse ureter na bexiga seguido da nefrectomia contralateral. No período de observação de 4 semanas foram estudados os níveis séricos semanais de uréia e creatinina e, na quarta semana, foi realizada cistografia para pesquisa de refluxo vésico-ureteral. Nove animais sobreviveram ao período de obstrução ureteral. Observou-se aumento significativo dos valores de uréia e creatinina sérica no segundo dia pós-operatório, que regrediram para níveis semelhantes aos basais já na terceira semana de seguimento. Não foi observado refluxo vésico-ureteral à cistografia. Após o sacrifício, a avaliação da junção uretero-vesical não mostrava sinais de obstrução, havendo regressão da hidronefrose presente antes do implante ureteral. A técnica de reimplante ureteral utilizada é eficaz em proporcionar adequada drenagem do trato urinário, evitando refluxovésico-ureteral, sendo adequada para ser utilizada no estudo da recuperação da função renal após período de obstrução ureteral.

  18. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    . 2. Vogel, S. Search to Resume near AU for WWI Chemicals; Washington Post, January 24, 1999, page C01. 3. Yperite is a trivial name for sulfur mustard or bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide. The name honors Ypres, Belgium, where the Germans first used sulfur mustard as a chemical weapon on July 12, 1917. 4. Zhao, L. Two Scenes of Poisonous Shells Left Over by Japan in Dunhua, Jilin Province; presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Sino-Japan relations over the past 100 years, Changchun, PRC, September 23-29, 1998.

  19. CATETERISMO VESICAL FEMININO EM POSIÇÃO DE CONFORTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Matsuko Myamoto

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an avaluation of the dorsal position with the legs stretched and separated, far away one from another, in the execution of thé feminine vesical catheterism.The informations that we have got show the facility of the execution, a lower danger of contamination, better physical and psychical comfort for the patient, besides a better stability.

  20. Optimization of alkylating agent prodrugs derived from phenol and aniline mustards: a new clinical candidate prodrug (ZD2767) for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, C J; Dowell, R; Burke, P J; Hadley, E; Davis, D H; Blakey, D C; Melton, R G; Niculescu-Duvaz, I

    1995-12-22

    Sixteen novel potential prodrugs derived from phenol or aniline mustards and their 16 corresponding drugs with ring substitution and/or different alkylating functionalities were designed. The [[[4-]bis(2-bromoethyl)-(1a), [[[4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)-(1b), and [[[4-[(2-chloroethyl)-[2-(mesyloxy)ethyl]amino]phenyl]oxy] carbonyl]-L-glutamic acids (1c), their [[[2- and 3-substituted-4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]oxy]carbonyl]-L- glutamic acids (1e-1), and the [[3-substituted-4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]carbamoyl]-L- glutamic acids (1o-r) were synthesized. They are bifunctional alkylating agents in which the activating effect of the phenolic hydroxyl or amino function is masked through an oxycarbonyl or a carbamoyl bond to a glutamic acid. These prodrugs were designed to be activated to their corresponding phenol and aniline nitrogen mustard drugs at a tumor site by prior administration of a monoclonal antibody conjugated to the bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) in antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT). The synthesis of the analogous novel parent drugs (2a-r) is also described. The viability of a colorectal cell line (LoVo) was monitored with the potential prodrugs and the parent drugs. The differential in the cytotoxicity between the potential prodrugs and their corresponding active drugs ranged between 12 and > 195 fold. Compounds 1b-d,f,o exhibited substantial prodrug activity, since a cytotoxicity differential of > 100 was achieved compared to 2b-d,f,o respectively. The ability of the potential prodrugs to act as substrates for CPG2 was determined (kinetic parameters KM and kcat), and the chemical stability was measured for all the compounds. The unsubstituted phenols with different alkylating functionalities (1a-c) proved to have the highest ratio of the substrates kcat:KM. From these studies [[[4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)amino]phenyl]oxy]carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid (1b) emerges as a new ADEPT clinical trial candidate due to its physicochemical and

  1. Photoassisted and photocatalytic degradation of sulfur mustard using TiO2 nanoparticles and polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Sarabadani, Mansour; Ashrafi, Davood; Saeidian, Hamdollah; Babri, Mehran

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition of highly toxic chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide or HD), has been studied by homogeneous photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation on titania nanoparticles. Direct photolysis degradation of HD with irradiation system was investigated. The photocatalytic degradation of HD was investigated in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles and polyoxometalates embedded in titania nanoparticles in liquid phase at room temperature (33 ± 2 °C). Degradation products during the treatment were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas apparent first-order kinetics of ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were slow (0.0091 min(-1)), the highest degradation rate is obtained in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles as nanophotocatalyst. Simultaneous photolysis and photocatalysis under the full UV radiation leads to HD complete destruction in 3 h. No degradation products observed in the presence of nanophotocatalyst without irradiation in 3 h. It was found that up to 90 % of agent was decomposed under of UV irradiation without TiO(2), in 6 h. The decontamination mechanisms are often quite complex and multiple mechanisms can be operable such as hydrolysis, oxidation, and elimination. By simultaneously carrying out photolysis and photocatalysis in hexane, we have succeeded in achieving faster HD decontamination after 90 min with low catalyst loading. TiO(2) nanoparticles proved to be a superior photocatalyst under UV irradiation for HD decontamination.

  2. Topical sulfur mustard induces changes in prostaglandins and interleukin-1 alpha in isolated perfused porcine skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Riviere, J.E.; Monteiro-Rivier, N.A.

    1995-12-01

    Su1fur mustard BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) SULFIDE, HD is an alkylating agent that causes severe cutaneous injury. The isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) is an in vitro model that has been utilized in cutaneous toxicity research. The objective of this study was to characterize the local IPPSF inflammatory response after topical exposure to 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml of I (n = 5/treatment, n = 5/control). Biochemical markers of viability CUMULATIVE GLUCOSE UTILIZATION (CGU), vascular resistance (VR), morphological parameters, and venous flux of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin F2% (PGF2%, and interleukin la (IL la)) were determined. HD caused a dose-related response in the formation of gross blisters, and epidermal-dermal separation. Decreases in CGU and an increase in VR were seen in all HD-treated IPPsFs. Increase of both PGE2 and PGF2a was observed only in 5.0 mg/ml HD treatment, which showed the greatest increase in VR, while the 10.0 mg/nil concentration of HD enhanced the release of IL-1a. These results suggest that HD is a potent dermal toxic agent that induces alterations in glucose metabolism and vascular resistance, which resulted in dose-specific patterns of PGE2, PGF2a and IL-la release.

  3. Vesical fistulae--an experience from a developing country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raut V

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses patients with vesical fistulae presenting at a teaching, referral hospital over the last ten years. There were 62 cases of vesical fistulae of which 60 were obstetric in origin (44 home and 16 hospital deliveries and 2 were following gynaecological surgery. Of the hospital deliveries which culminated in fistula formation, 8 were vaginal and 7 forceps deliveries. In one patient, lower segment caesarean section was carried out. After a thorough urological work-up, patients were subjected to standard technique of layered closure (61 by vaginal approach and one by abdominal. Repair was successful in 53 (87.09% patients. Of the 9 failures, 4 were repeat repairs.

  4. Laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula: a new surgical approach

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The standard treatment of colo-vesical fistula is the exeresis of fistula, suture of bladder wall, colic resection with or without temporary colostomy. Usually the approach is open because conversion rates and morbidity are lower than laparoscopy. The aim of video is to show the steps of a new mini-invasive approach of colo-vesical fistula without colic resection. Materials and Methods A 69 years old male underwent laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula due ...

  5. Colo-vesical fistula: Complete healing without surgical intervention

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Colo-vesical (CV) fistulae are the most common type of fistulae associated with diverticular disease. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, without which, CV fistulae rarely achieve complete healing. PRESENTATION OF CASE Herein, we report the case of a 62-year-old man who developed a CV fistula after reversal of Hartmann's procedure (initially for management of diverticular abscess), which healed with conservative management alone. DISCUSSION We discuss possibilities of the ...

  6. Superior vesical fissure concealed by giant omphalocele: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Hayek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect characterized by exteriorization of abdominal viscera that is covered by a membrane. Omphalocele has a well-known association with chromosome abnormalities. Here we present a case of a superior vesical fissure (SVF initially disguised as a giant omphalocele in a newborn with trisomy 18. We also show unique prenatal imaging and discuss the importance and limitations of prenatal genetic testing.

  7. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancourt, Raymond C., E-mail: raymond.rancourt@ucdenver.edu; Veress, Livia A., E-mail: livia.veress@ucdenver.edu; Ahmad, Aftab, E-mail: aftab.ahmad@ucdenver.edu; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B., E-mail: tara.hendry-hofer@ucdenver.edu; Rioux, Jacqueline S., E-mail: jacqueline.rioux@ucdenver.edu; Garlick, Rhonda B., E-mail: rhonda.garlick@ucdenver.edu; White, Carl W., E-mail: carl.w.white@ucdenver.edu

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O{sub 2} saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI

  8. In vitro release of 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea sustained-release microspheres and the distribution in rat brain tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Li; Liping Guo; Qin Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The implantation of released chemotherapeutic drugs, which takes biodegradable polymer as vector, into the tumor site can get high concentration and release the drug for a long time, it can directly act on the tumor cells, and reduce the general toxicity.OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vitro and in vivo course of 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) sustained-release from BCNU-loaded polylactide (PLA) microspheres (MS) and location in rat brain tissue.DESIGN: A repetitive measurement.SETTING: Central Pharmacy, General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces.MATERIALS: Thirty male SD rats were used. PLA (Mr5000, batch number: KSL8377) was produced by Wako Pure Chemical Inc.,Ltd. (Japan); BCNU (batch number: 021121) by Tianjin Jinyao Amino Acid Co., Ltd.;BCNU-PLA-MS was prepared by the method of solvent evaporation and pressed into tablets (10 mg/tablet).High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Agilent 1100 (USA); LS9800 liquid-scintillation radiometric apparatus (Beckman). Chromatographic conditions: Elite Hypersil ODS2 C18 chromatographic column (5 μm,4.6 mm ×150 mm); Mobile phase: methanol: water (50:50), flow rate was 1.0 mL per minute, wave length of ultraviolet detection was 237 nm, and the inlet amount of samples was 10 μL.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the experimental animal center of the General Hospital of Chinese Armed Police from May 2004 to July 2005. ① In vitro BCNU-PLA-MS release test: BCNU-PLA-MS was prepared by the method of solvent evaporation, then placed in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffered solution (PBS, pH 7.4, 37 ℃), part of MS were taken out at 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 and 15 days respectively, and the rest amount of BCNU in MS was determined by HPLC, then the curve of BCNU-PLA-MS release was drawn. ②In vivo BCNU-PLA-MS release and distribution test: The rats were anesthetized, then BCNU-PLA-MS were implanted to the site 1 mm inferior to the cortex of frontal lobe. Five rats were killed postoperatively

  9. N-Phenyl-N'-(2-chloroethyl)ureas (CEUs) as potential antineoplastic agents. Part 3: role of carbonyl groups in the covalent binding to the colchicine-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Emmanuel; Fortin, Sébastien; Lacroix, Jacques; Patenaude, Alexandre; Rousseau, Jean L C; C-Gaudreault, René

    2008-02-01

    In the course of the development of N-phenyl-N'-(2-chloroethyl)ureas (CEUs) as potential antineoplastic agents, we investigated the effect of carbonylated substituting chains of the aromatic ring of CEU on their covalent binding to the colchicine-binding site (C-BS). In this study, we found that CEU, 5e, 5f, 8e, and 8f substituted by either a methyl ester or a methyl ketyl group at the omega-position exhibited a significant antiproliferative activity on HT-29, M21, and MCF-7 tumor cells. SDS-PAGE assays and cell cycle analysis confirmed that 5e, 5f, 8e, and 8f covalently bind to the C-BS and arrest the cell division in G(2)/M phase. Surprisingly, the presence of omega-carboxyl, omega-ethyl esters or omega-amides decreased significantly both the antiproliferative activity and the specificity toward beta-tubulin.

  10. Influence of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases on DNA interstrand cross-link formation by 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine, the active anticancer moiety generated by laromustine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penketh, Philip G; Patridge, Eric; Shyam, Krishnamurthy; Baumann, Raymond P; Zhu, Rui; Ishiguro, Kimiko; Sartorelli, Alan C

    2014-08-18

    Prodrugs of 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine (90CE) are promising anticancer agents. The 90CE moiety is a readily latentiated, short-lived (t1/2 ∼ 30 s) chloroethylating agent that can generate high yields of oxophilic electrophiles responsible for the chloroethylation of the O-6 position of guanine in DNA. These guanine O-6 alkylations are believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of 90CE and its prodrugs. Thus, 90CE demonstrates high selectivity toward tumors with diminished levels of O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT), the resistance protein responsible for O(6)-alkylguanine repair. The formation of O(6)-(2-chloroethyl)guanine lesions ultimately leads to the generation of highly cytotoxic 1-(N(3)-cytosinyl),-2-(N(1)-guaninyl)ethane DNA interstrand cross-links via N(1),O(6)-ethanoguanine intermediates. The anticancer activity arising from this sequence of reactions is thus identical to this component of the anticancer activity of the clinically used chloroethylnitrosoureas. Herein, we evaluate the ability of glutathione (GSH) and other low molecular weight thiols, as well as GSH coupled with various glutathione S-transferase enzymes (GSTs) to attenuate the final yields of cross-links generated by 90CE when added prior to or immediately following the initial chloroethylation step to determine the major point(s) of interaction. In contrast to studies utilizing BCNU as a chloroethylating agent by others, GSH (or GSH/GST) did not appreciably quench DNA interstrand cross-link precursors. While thiols alone offered little protection at either alkylation step, the GSH/GST couple was able to diminish the initial yields of cross-link precursors. 90CE exhibited a very different GST isoenzyme susceptibility to that reported for BCNU, this could have important implications in the relative resistance of tumor cells to these agents. The protection afforded by GSH/GST was compared to that produced by MGMT.

  11. Mass Spectral Studies of 1-(2-Chloroethoxy)-2-[(2-chloroethyl)thio] Ethane and Related Compounds Using Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry and Gas ChromatographyTriple-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    spectral studies were performed to facilitate the development of a spectral database of mustard- related compounds for verification purposes in support of...development of a spectral database of mustard compounds for verification and identification purposes in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention...Andersson, G. Analysis of Two Chemical Weapons Samples from the Iran–Iraq War; NBC Defence and Technology International : New York, 1986; pp 62–65. 2

  12. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  13. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the

  14. in Patients with Mustard Lung

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    ShahrzadM Lari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD secondary to sulfur mustard exposure, known as mustard lung, is an important late pulmonary complication. The BODE (Body mass index, Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index has been established as a valuable tool for determining the adverse consequences of COPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the BODE index in patients with mustard lung.   Materials and Methods: Eighty-two consecutively stable patients with mustard lung with all levels of severity were entered this study. The following parameters were recorded in all patients: standard spirometry, pulse oximetry, health-related quality of life, the BODE index. Additionally, the severity of COPD was determined by GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease staging. The correlation of the BODE index with pulmonary parameters was determined. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47.30±7.08 SD years. The mean BODE index was 3.16±2.25 SD. There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between the BODE index and oxygen saturation (r=-0.30, p=0.007. Also a statistically significant correlation was found between the BODE index and quality of life (r=0.80, p=0.001. The BODE index was not correlated with age of the patients and duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the BODE index is correlated with important clinical parameters and can be used in clinical practice

  15. Primary Vesical Actinomycosis in a 23-Year-Old Man

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    Tevfik Ziypak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Actinomycosis can affect any organ of the body, although cutaneous fistulas are common in actinomycotic infections, and other organs such as the bladder are only rarely involved. Case Presentation. Herein we report and discuss a young male patient with primary vesical actinomycosis. A 23-year-old man was hospitalized complaining of intermittent gross hematuria over a 6-month duration. The patient underwent a cystoscopic examination under general anesthesia; an edematous, hyperemic, wide-based mass, which protruded from the dome of the bladder, was seen and incompletely resected. The histopathological examination of the material showed Actinomyces organisms surrounded by inflammation and a photomicrograph showed the microorganism. After confirmation of bladder actinomycosis, the patient received penicillin. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed no evidence of the mass at the postoperative 6th month. Cystoscopic examination showed complete healing of the transurethral resection area at the dome of the bladder. Conclusion. In conclusion, we believe that the gold standard treatment for vesical actinomycosis should include the combination of a transurethral resection of the mass and long-term penicillin treatment.

  16. In-Line Ozonation for Sensitive Air-Monitoring of a Mustard-Gas Simulant by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive method for real-time air-monitoring of mustard gas (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, HD), which is a lethal blister agent, is proposed. Humidified air containing a HD simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2CEES), was mixed with ozone and then analyzed by using an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometer. Mass-spectral ion peaks attributable to protonated molecules of intact, monooxygenated, and dioxygenated 2CEES (MH+, MOH+, and MO2H+, respectively) were observed. As ozone concentration was increased from zero to 30 ppm, the signal intensity of MH+ sharply decreased, that of MOH+ increased once and then decreased, and that of MO2H+ sharply increased until reaching a plateau. The signal intensity of MO2H+ at the plateau was 40 times higher than that of MH+ and 100 times higher than that of MOH+ in the case without in-line ozonation. Twenty-ppm ozone gas was adequate to give a linear calibration curve for 2CEES obtained by detecting the MO2H+ signal in the concentration range up to 60 μg/m3, which is high enough for hygiene management. In the low concentration range lower than 3 μg/m3, which is equal to the short-term exposure limit for HD, calibration plots unexpectedly fell off the linear calibration curve, but 0.6-μg/m3 vapor was actually detected with the signal-to-noise ratio of nine. Ozone was generated from instrumentation air by using a simple and inexpensive home-made generator. 2CEES was ozonated in 1-m extended sampling tube in only 1 s.

  17. Discrepancy between mRNA and Protein Expression of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Sulfur Mustard

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    Majid Ebrahimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a potent vesicant that has been employed as a chemical weapon in various conflicts during the 20th century. More recently, mustard was used in the Iraq conflict against Iranian troops and civilians. At the present time there are more than 40.000 people suffering from pulmonary lesions special bronchiolitis obliterans (BOs due to mustard gas. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2, NGAL is a member of the lipocalin superfamily for which a variety of functions such as cellular protection against oxidative stress have been reported. Ten normal and Twenty SM-induced COPD patient individuals were studied. Assessment of NGAL expressions in healthy and the patients endobrinchial biopsies were performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR, and Immunohistochemistry analysis. While Normal control samples expressed same level of mRNA NGAL, expression level of mRNA-NGAL was upregulated about 1.4- to 9.8-folds compared to normal samples. No significant immunoreactivity was revealed in both samples. As we are aware this is the first report of induction of NGAL in patients exposed to SM. NGAL may play an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress toxicity induced by mustard gas in airway wall of patients.

  18. A case of recurrent spontaneous vesical rupture subsequent to irradiation for uterine cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemura, Hiroshi; Baba, Katsuyuki; Yajima, Michitaka; Yamakawa, Katsunori; Nishida, Shigehito; Iwamoto, Teruaki [St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-04-01

    The patient, a 68-year-old woman, had undergone radical hysterectomy and post-operative radiotherapy for uterine cancer in 1974. She was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain in February, 1996. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan and cystography showed leakage of contrast medium around the bladder. We diagnosed her with spontaneous vesical rupture, and performed conservative therapy. Two months later, she was re-admitted with recurrent vesical rupture. We again performed conservative therapy. We consider that conservative therapy can be indicated for spontaneous vesical rupture with good general condition and no severe urinary tract infection. (author)

  19. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

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    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  20. Silibinin as a potential therapeutic for sulfur mustard injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balszuweit, Frank; John, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Kehe, Kai; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-05

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent causing skin blistering, ulceration, impaired wound healing, prolonged hospitalization and permanent lesions. Silibinin, the lead compound from Silybum marianum, has also been discussed as a potential antidote to SM poisoning. However, its efficacy has been demonstrated only with regard to nitrogen mustards. Moreover, there are no data on the efficacy of the water-soluble prodrug silibinin-bis-succinat (silibinin-BS). We investigated the effect of SIL-BS treatment against SM toxicity in HaCaT cells with regard to potential reduction of necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation including dose-dependency of any protective effects. We also demonstrated the biotransformation of the prodrug into free silibinin. HaCaT cells were exposed to SM (30, 100, and 300μM) for 30min and treated thereafter with SIL-BS (10, 50, and 100μM) for 24h. Necrosis and apoptosis were quantified using the ToxiLight BioAssay and the nucleosome ELISA (CDDE). Pro-inflammatory interleukins-6 and -8 were determined by ELISA. HaCaT cells, incubated with silibinin-BS were lysed and investigated by LC-ESI MS/MS. LC-ESI MS/MS results suggest that SIL-BS is absorbed by HaCaT cells and biotransformed into free silibinin. SIL-BS dose-dependently reduced SM cytotoxicity, even after 300μM exposure. Doses of 50-100μM silibinin-BS were required for significant protection. Apoptosis and interleukin production remained largely unchanged by 10-50μM silibinin-BS but increased after 100μM treatment. Observed reductions of SM cytotoxicity by post-exposure treatment with SIL-BS suggest this as a promising approach for treatment of SM injuries. While 100μM SIL-BS is most effective to reduce necrosis, 50μM may be safer to avoid pro-inflammatory effects. Pro-apoptotic effects after high doses of SIL-BS are in agreement with findings in literature and might even be useful to eliminate cells irreversibly damaged by SM. Further investigations will focus on the

  1. Neurotoxic compound N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP4) depletes endogenous norepinephrine and enhances release of (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine from rat cortical slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, M.E.; Rubio, M.C.; Jaim-Etcheverry, G.

    1984-10-01

    The alkylating compound N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP4) injected to rodents blocks norepinephrine (NE) uptake and reduces endogenous NE levels in the central nervous system and in the periphery. To investigate the processes leading to these alterations, rat cortical slices were incubated in the presence of DSP4. Cortical NE was depleted by 40% after incubation of slices in 10(-5) M DSP4 for 60 min and this was blocked by desipramine. The spontaneous outflow of radioactivity from cortical slices labeled previously with (/sup 3/H)NE was enhanced markedly both during exposure to DSP4 and during the subsequent washings, suggesting that NE depletion could be due to this stimulation of NE release. The radioactivity released by DSP4 was accounted for mainly by NE and its deaminated metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol. The enhanced release, independent of external Ca++, apparently originated from the vesicular pool as it was absent after reserpine pretreatment. Activities of the enzymes related to NE synthesis were not altered by DSP4 in vitro and only monoamine oxidase activity was inhibited at high concentrations. Thus, the depletion of endogenous NE produced by DSP4 is probably due to a persistent enhancement of its release from the vesicular pool. Fixation of DSP4 to the NE transport system is necessary but not sufficient to produce the acute NE depletion and the characteristic long-term actions of the compound.

  2. Acquisition of resistance to 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl) methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride in V79 cells through increased removal of O6-alkylguanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, M S; Huh, N H; Horie, Y; Thomale, J; Rajewsky, M F; Kuroki, T

    1987-10-01

    The molecular mechanism of acquisition of resistance to 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)-methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitroso ure a hydrochloride (ACNU) was investigated using ACNU-resistant clones (ACNUr-1-4) isolated from the V79 cell line. The binding level of alkyl cyanate, a decomposition product of ACNU, to protein in ACNUr-1 cells was not less than that in the parental V79 cells, indicating that the acquired resistance was not due to a reduced intracellular concentration of ACNU. Because O6-chloroethylguanine, an intermediate in cytotoxic interstrand cross-link formation by ACNU, is known to be repaired by the same mechanism as O6-ethyldeoxyguanosine (O6-EtdGuo), we quantitated O6-EtdGuo by radioimmunoassay at various times after exposure of cells to 100 micrograms/ml N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea for 20 min. In V79 cells, elimination of O6-EtdGuo was negligible, but in all four resistant clones, 30 to 59% of the O6-EtdGuo was removed within 24 hr after exposure. This increased removal of O6-EtdGuo among the resistant clones was associated with the activity of O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (O6-AGT) determined using cell extracts. The present results indicate that increased removal of O6-chloroethylguanine in ACNU-resistant clones by O6-AGT is mechanistically linked to the acquisition of resistance to ACNU.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure determination and computational study of a new Cu(II) complex of bis [2-{(E)-[2-chloroethyl)imino]methyl}phenolato)] copper(II) Schiff base complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivani, Gholamhossein; Vakili, Mohammad; Khalaji, Aliakbar Dehno; Bruno, Giuseppe; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Taghavi, Maedeh

    2016-07-01

    The copper (II) Schiff base complex of [CuL2] (1), HL = 2-{(E)-[2-chloroethyl) imino]methyl}phenol, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental (CHN) analysis, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The conformational analysis and molecular structures of CuL2 were investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP/6-311G* level. An excellent agreement was observed between theoretical and experimental results. The Schiff base ligand of HL acts as a chelating ligand and coordinates via one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom to the metal center. The copper (II) center is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms from two Schiff base ligands in an approximately square planar trans-[MN2O2] coordination geometry. Thermogravimetric analysis of CuL2 showed that it was decomposed in five stages. In addition, the CuL2 complex thermally decomposed in air at 660 °C and the XRD pattern of the obtained solid showed the formation of CuO nanoparticles with an average size of 34 nm.

  4. New Surgical Approach for treatment of complex vesicovaginal fistula. Vesical autoplasty; Avances en la cirugia de la fistula vesicovaginal compleja. Autoplastia vesical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Vernet Vila, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Although currently complex ve sico-vaginal fistulae are an uncommon finding, their solution still remains a problem since no effective surgical technique is yet available. We describe a new vesical autoplasty procedure for solving this entity. Once the fistulae has been thoroughly resected and its borders have been unfolded, a graft is obtained from the posterior-superior vesical wall, which is then slid down to the vesical neck thereby covering great extensions where tissue has been lost, even in the presence of low-capacity bladders. This new operation has led to a 100% cure rate of the 42 consecutive cases of vesico-vaginal fistulae operated on and that had undergone repeated surgery using other thecniques. (Author) 8 refs.

  5. Histiocytosis X: treatment with topical nitrogen mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, B; Chang, D L; Shupack, J L

    1980-07-01

    The case histories of two elderly patients with cutaneous histiocytosis X treated topically with nitrogen mustard are presented. The cutaneous lesions cleared within 2 to 3 weeks, and remission was maintained with daily topical administration of nitrogen mustard. The clinical impression of improvement was substantiated by light and electron microscopic studies prior to and after therapy.

  6. Zmiany w składzie chemicznym ściany komórkowej źdźbła pszenicy traktomanej chlorkiem chlorocholiny (CCC [Changes in the cell walls of wheat culms treated utith 2-chloroethyl-trime-thyl-ammonium chloride (CCC

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    Maria Przeszlakowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of 2-chloroethyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CCC on the content of various constituents of the cell wall of the wheat culms var. Eka Nowa was investigated. Chromatographic analysis of the polysaccharides obtained from the cell wall of the wheat culms has been carried out. The content of pectic substances (pectins and protopectins in nodes and internodes of the wheat culms treated with CCC was determined.

  7. Nrf2 Regulates the Sensitivity of Mouse Keratinocytes to Nitrogen Mustard via Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 (Mrp1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udasin, Ronald G; Wen, Xia; Bircsak, Kristin M; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Shakarjian, Michael P; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine, HN2) are potent vesicants developed as chemical warfare agents. These electrophilic, bifunctional alkylating agents cause skin injury, including inflammation, edema, and blistering. HN2 covalently modifies macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins or is scavenged by glutathione, forming adducts that can contribute to toxicity. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1/MRP1) is a transmembrane ATPase known to efflux glutathione-conjugated electrophiles. In the present studies, we examined the effects of modulating Mrp1-mediated transport activity on the sensitivity of primary and PAM212 mouse keratinocytes to HN2. Primary keratinocytes, and to a lesser extent, PAM212 cells, express Mrp1 mRNA and protein and possess Mrp1 functional activity, as measured by calcein efflux. Sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, increased Mrp1 mRNA, protein, and functional activity in primary keratinocytes and PAM212 cells and decreased their sensitivity to HN2-induced growth inhibition (IC(50) = 1.4 and 4.8 µM in primary keratinocytes and 1 and 13 µM in PAM212 cells, in the absence and presence of sulforaphane, respectively). The Mrp1 inhibitor, MK-571, reversed the effects of sulforaphane on HN2-induced growth inhibition in both primary keratinocytes and PAM212 cells. In primary keratinocytes from Nrf2(-/-) mice, sulforaphane had no impact on Mrp1 expression or activity, or on sensitivity to HN2, demonstrating that its effects depend on Nrf2. These data suggest that Mrp1-mediated efflux is important in regulating HN2-induced keratinocyte growth inhibition. Enhancing HN2 efflux from keratinocytes may represent a novel strategy for mitigating vesicant-induced cytotoxicity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Characterization and Modulation of Proteins Involved in SM Vesication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    glutathione levels affects sulfur mustard cytotoxicity. In Proceedings of the meeting of NATO Research Study Group, Panel VIII/RSG-3 (Washington, D.C...DUSP5 dual-specif. prot. phosphatase U15932 5.7 serum-inducible kinase AF059617 Stress response 2.5 microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 AF026977 3.3...Maruyama et al., 1999), testicular seminomas (Sablitzky et al., 1998), and squamous cell cancer (Langlands et al., 2000). With respect to Id2 in SCC

  9. THE PENETRATION OF VESICANT VAPORS INTO HUMAN SKIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, S M; Golumbic, C; Stein, W H; Fruton, J S; Bergmann, M

    1946-07-20

    Analytical methods which are accurate to about 1 per cent have been developed for the determination of small amounts (ca. 500 gamma) of bis(beta-chloroethyl)-sulfide (H), ethyl-bis(beta-chloroethyl)amine (EBA), tris(beta-chloroethyl)amine (TBA), beta-chloroethyl-benzylsulfide (benzyl-H), and beta-chloroethyl-ethylsulfide (ethyl-H). The determinations are made by micro titration of the HCl liberated upon complete hydrolysis of the vesicants. A description is given of an apparatus suitable for applying vapors of vesicants to unit areas of skin. A very precise and reproducible micropipetting technique is described for the introduction of the vesicants into the penetration apparatus. By means of this penetration apparatus studies have been made of several factors which may influence the rate at which vesicant vapors penetrate into skin. Model experiments have been performed in which H was allowed to vaporize and the vapor was absorbed on a surface such as that of diethylene glycol or vaseline. It has been found that if the surface of liquid H is increased by spreading the agent on filter paper, the rate of evaporation is markedly increased. Furthermore, if the vapor is agitated by means of a magnetically driven fan, the rate of absorption by diethylene glycol is greatly accelerated. With vaseline as the absorbing surface it has been found that the area of the absorbing surface has an effect on the rate of absorption of H vapor. More H is absorbed by vaseline spread on filter paper to give a rough surface than is absorbed by a smooth film of vaseline. Measurements of the rate of penetration into human skin of H, EBA, TBA, benzyl-H, and ethyl-H vapors have been performed at 21-23 degrees C. and 30-31 degrees C. by means of the penetration apparatus described in this paper. The measurements were carred out on human volunteers under conditions of controlled temperature and humidity. When human skin is exposed to air saturated with H vapor, the H penetrates the skin of the

  10. Endometriose Simulando Neoplasia Vesical Endometriosis Simulating Bladder Cancer

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    Marcos Tobias-Machado

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: o acometimento do trato urinário pela endometriose é raro e quando ocorre, a bexiga é o órgão mais freqüentemente afetado. Observamos que algumas pacientes têm sido encaminhadas com o diagnóstico clínico de neoplasia vesical. Em geral, a literatura mostra relatos isolados de casos, tornando difícil a padronização de condutas. Tivemos por objetivo apresentar nossa experiência, mostrando os principais aspectos diagnósticos e terapêuticos desta entidade clínica. Métodos: avaliamos retrospectivamente os casos com diagnóstico de endometriose vesical por meio do arquivo do Departamento de Patologia, fazendo revisão dos dados clínicos de prontuário e convocando as pacientes para seguimento ambulatorial após tratamento. Resultados: os principais sinais e sintomas apresentados pelas pacientes foram disúria cíclica, massa e dor pélvica crônica. O diagnóstico presuntivo foi realizado mediante ultra-sonografia (USG, tomografia computadorizada (TC de abdome, cistoscopia e laparoscopia. O diagnóstico definitivo com confirmação anátomo-patológica foi obtido pela ressecção endoscópica em 3 casos e biópsia laparoscópica em 1 caso. As opções terapêuticas foram o tratamento medicamentoso exclusivo e a ressecção da lesão empregando a via endoscópica ou cistectomia parcial, sempre complementados por tratamento clínico adjuvante. Conclusões: revisamos os principais aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos da endometriose do trato urinário, lembrando que esta representa um importante diagnóstico diferencial de tumor vesical em mulheres jovens na idade reprodutiva.Purpose: urinary tract involvement by endometriosis is uncommon and the bladder is the most common site. We observed that clinical misdiagnosis of bladder cancer frequently is made. Because the disease is generally described in case reports there is not a consensual management. We present and discuss our experience of diagnostic and therapeutic issues

  11. [Sacral hitch vesical pexy: a new ancillary technique for ureteroneocystostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Giovannalberto; Leoni, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    To describe the Sacral Hitch, vesical pexys to sacral promontory, an alternative technique to the Psoas Hitch when this is impossible to perform. We report intraoperative complications, and long-term functional results. From 1989 to date we performed 66 ureteroneocystostomies (UNCS) (transbladder technique and Politano-Leadbetter antireflux plasty): 51 with ancillary "Psoas Hitch" (11 Casati-Boari); 15 with "Sacral Hitch" because of the intraoperative finding of deficiency or lack of psoas tendon. Note of technique. Ureter and bladder are dissected as usual. Sacral Hitch: left lateralization of sigmoid and exposition of sacral promontory; longitudinal incision and divarication of peritoneum; smooth dissection of fat tissue, displacement of medium sacral vessels and visualization of neurovascular bundles. Direct fixation of the dome/posterior aspect of bladder to anterior longitudinal ligament above promontory. Among the patients who underwent the Psoas Hitch technique, 3 (5.4%) showed hypoesthesia, acute pain and impossible flexion of the thigh on hip with EMG positive for femoral (1) and genito-femoral (2) neuropathy. The re-operation in 2 cases solved the symptoms. One case resolved conservatively with corticoids, tricyclic antidepressants (Amitriptyline) and antiepileptics (gabapentin). Mean follow-up was 115 months (8-252); two stenosis of anastomosis. Sacral Hitch: (15 pts), mean follow-up: 47 months (range 4-110), no stenosis of anastomosis 0%; transfusion rate 0%. The psoas tendon deficiency or its congenital absence (children or women) requires the direct fixation to the muscle, an inadequate and weak target and housing of important sensitive-motor nerves (Genito-femoral, femoral and latero-cutaneous). A "Psoas-Syndrome" could be present in 5.1% and a re-operation could be necessary. The sacral promontory represents an affixation target already successfully adopted in other surgery specialties (Gynaecology, Orthopaedic and General Surgery) and gives to UNCS

  12. The effect of denervation of the locus coeruleus projections with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) on cocaine-induced locomotion and place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõiv, Kadri; Zobel, Rein; Raudkivi, Karita; Kivastik, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    The potential contribution of locus coeruleus (LC)-derived noradrenaline (NA) in the motor activating and rewarding effects of cocaine (15 mg/kg) were assessed following administration of the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4). In Experiment 1, administration of 10 mg/kg of DSP-4 similarly to substantial denervation with 50 mg/kg of DSP-4 significantly attenuated the activating effects of cocaine during the first cocaine-paired training session (30 min) in the conditioned place preference (CPP) apparatus. Only administration of the higher dose (50 mg/kg) of DSP-4 attenuated line crossings during the last training, while both doses reduced rearings. Thus, both minor and substantial denervation of LC reduced but did not abolish locomotion activating effect of cocaine. Cocaine CPP as measured by increment of time spent in the previously cocaine-paired chamber during drug-free conditions before and after cocaine-paired trainings was clearly revealed only in animals with intact projections from the LC, and was entirely absent after a large lesion of LC projections by DSP-4 (50 mg/kg). Because recovery of noradrenaline levels by the end of experiment did not allow assessment of the efficacy of the neurotoxin, the effect of DSP-4 pre-treatment on the acute psychomotor effect of cocaine was re-examined in an independent experiment (Experiment 2). Near complete denervation of the LC projections again reduced the effect of cocaine, but the lower dose of DSP-4 had no effect, suggesting that small lesions of the LC do not have a robust impact. Overall, this study demonstrates that both unconditioned and conditioned effects of cocaine depend upon the integrity of LC projections.

  13. The Mustard Consortium’s Elucidation of the Pathophysiology of Sulfur Mustard and Antidote Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Mustard agents are also harmful in long-term exposure at low doses. Long term exposure of mustard gas may lead to lung cancer as indicated by the studies...unclear [9], and the attempts to seek confirmatory and substantial evidence in laboratory animals for links between mustard gas exposure and cancer ... pulmonitis with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis, neutrophilic alveolities and increased amount of visualized collagen. CEES exposure caused

  14. Autocateterismo vesical intermitente na lesão medular

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    Gisela Maria Assis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O autocateterismo vesical intermitente-técnica limpa é uma técnica efetiva e segura para o tratamento e a prevenção das complicações vesico-urinárias decorrentes da lesão medular. Embora tenha sido descrita desde 1972, ainda existe resistência por parte dos profissionais de saúde em relação à sua utilização. Relataremos, no presente estudo, a metodologia utilizada no treinamento e na motivação dos pacientes para a utilização da técnica em um projeto de assistência de enfermagem clínica e voluntária, realizado em uma associação de caráter filantrópico, na cidade de Curitiba. Objetivamos divulgar a experiência adquirida a fim de que mais profissionais que atendem pessoas com lesão medular sejam motivados a indicar essa técnica.

  15. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  16. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  17. Electromyographic activity of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles during the vesical filling and evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shafik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: The role of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles (AAWMs during the vesical filling and evacuation has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. We have investigated the hypothesis that the AAWMs exhibit the increased electromyographic (EMG activity on the vesical distension and contraction which presumably assists vesical evacuation.

    METHODS: The effects of the vesical balloon distension on the vesical pressure (VP, vesical neck (VNP pressures and the AAWMs' EMG activity were studied in 28 healthy volunteers aged 40.7 ± 9.7 years (18 men, 10 women. These effects were tested after the individual anesthetization of the bladder and AAWMs and after saline infiltration.

    RESULTS: The VP and the VNP showed a gradual increase upon the incremental vesical balloon distension which started at a distending volume of 120–140 ml. At a mean volume of 364.6 ± 23.8 ml, the VP increased to a mean of 36.6 ± 3.2 cmH2O, the VNP decreased to 18.4 ± 2.4 cmH2O, and the AAWMs EMG registered a significant increase. This effect disappeared in the individual bladder and in the AAWMs' anesthetization. However, it did not disappear in the saline administration.

    CONCLUSIONS: The AAWMs appear to contract simultaneously with vesical contraction. This action presumably increases the IAP and it

  18. Repeated administration of the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4 modulates neuroinflammation and amyloid plaque load in mice bearing amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 mutant transgenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Jill C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data indicates anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-cognitive properties of noradrenaline and analyses of post-mortem brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients reveal major neuronal loss in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC, the main source of CNS noradrenaline (NA. The LC has projections to brain regions vulnerable to amyloid deposition and lack of LC derived NA could play a role in the progression of neuroinflammation in AD. Previous studies reveal that intraperitoneal (IP injection of the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4 can modulate neuroinflammation in amyloid over-expressing mice and in one study, DSP-4 exacerbated existing neurodegeneration. Methods TASTPM mice over-express human APP and beta amyloid protein and show age related cognitive decline and neuroinflammation. In the present studies, 5 month old C57/BL6 and TASTPM mice were injected once monthly for 6 months with a low dose of DSP-4 (5 mg kg-1 or vehicle. At 8 and 11 months of age, mice were tested for cognitive ability and brains were examined for amyloid load and neuroinflammation. Results At 8 months of age there was no difference in LC tyrosine hydroxylase (TH across all groups and cortical NA levels of TASTPM/DSP-4, WT/Vehicle and WT/DSP-4 were similar. NA levels were lowest in TASTPM/Vehicle. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA for various inflammatory markers were significantly increased in TASTPM/Vehicle compared with WT/Vehicle and by 8 months of age DSP-4 treatment modified this by reducing the levels of some of these markers in TASTPM. TASTPM/Vehicle showed increased astrocytosis and a significantly larger area of cortical amyloid plaque compared with TASTPM/DSP-4. However, by 11 months, NA levels were lowest in TASTPM/DSP-4 and there was a significant reduction in LC TH of TASTPM/DSP-4 only. Both TASTPM groups had comparable levels of amyloid, microglial activation and astrocytosis and mRNA for

  19. Mustard Gas: Its Pre-World War I History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2007-01-01

    The Meyer-Clarke synthetic method was used in the German process for large scale production of mustard gas during World War I, which clearly shows the historical connection of synthesis of mustard gas.

  20. Skin decontamination of mustards and organophosphates: comparative efficiency of RSDL and Fuller's earth in domestic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taysse, L; Daulon, S; Delamanche, S; Bellier, B; Breton, P

    2007-02-01

    Research in skin decontamination and therapy of chemical warfare agents has been a difficult problem due to the simultaneous requirement of rapid action and non-aggressive behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of two decontaminating systems: the Canadian Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) and the Fuller's Earth (FE). The experiment was conducted with domestic swine, as a good model for extrapolation to human skin. RSDL and FE were tested against sulphur mustard (SM), a powerful vesicant, and VX, a potent and persistent cholinesterase inhibitor. When used 5 min after contamination, the results clearly showed that both systems were active against SM (10.1 mg/cm(2)) and VX (0.06 mg/cm(2)). The potency of the RSDL/sponge was statistically better than FE against skin injury induced by SM, observed 3 days post-exposure. RSDL was rather more efficient than FE in reducing the formation of perinuclear vacuoles and inflammation processes in the epidermis and dermis. Against a severe inhibition (67%) of plasmatic cholinesterases induced by VX poisoning, the potencies of the RSDL/sponge and FE were similar. Both systems completely prevented cholinesterase inhibition, which indirectly indicates a prevention of toxic absorption through the skin.

  1. Tissue injury and repair following cutaneous exposure of mice to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurie B; Composto, Gabriella M; Heck, Diane E

    2016-08-01

    In mouse skin, sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant, damaging both the epidermis and the dermis. The extent of wounding is dependent on the dose of SM and the duration of exposure. Initial responses include erythema, pruritus, edema, and xerosis; this is followed by an accumulation of inflammatory leukocytes in the tissue, activation of mast cells, and the release of mediators, including proinflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipids. These proinflammatory mediators contribute to damaging the epidermis, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands and to disruption of the epidermal basement membrane. This can lead to separation of the epidermis from the dermis, resulting in a blister, which ruptures, leading to the formation of an eschar. The eschar stimulates the formation of a neoepidermis and wound repair and may result in persistent epidermal hyperplasia. Epidermal damage and repair is associated with upregulation of enzymes generating proinflammatory and pro-growth/pro-wound healing mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2, which generates prostanoids, inducible nitric oxide synthase, which generates nitric oxide, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, and galectin-3. Characterization of the mediators regulating structural changes in the skin during SM-induced tissue damage and wound healing will aid in the development of therapeutic modalities to mitigate toxicity and stimulate tissue repair processes. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Determination and prevention of cytotoxic effects induced in human lymphocytes by the alkylating agent 2,2`-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard, HD). (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.L.; Johnson, J.B.

    1992-12-31

    2,2`-Dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard), HD, 1,1`thiobis(2-chloroethane) is a potent vesicant which can cause severe lesions to skin, lung, and eyes. There is no convenient in vitro or in vivo method(s) to objectively measure the damage induced by HD; therefore, a simple in vitro method was developed using human peripheral lymphocytes to study HD-induced cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of HD was measured using dye exclusion as an indicator of human lymphocyte viability. Exposure to HD resulted in both a time- and a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect on human lymphocytes. Using this in vitro assay, the effectiveness of various therapeutics (niacin, niacinamide, and 3-aminobenzamide) in preventing HD-induced cytotoxicity was studied. Niacinamide and 3-aminobenzamide prevented the cytotoxic effects of HD for up to 2 days.

  3. Clear-Cell Adenocarcinoma of Vesical Origin: A Case Study of Metastatic Disease Treated with Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pena Álvarez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesical clear cell adenocarcinoma is an uncommon tumour. The description of nearly all published cases focuses on histological issues, providing few clinical particulars and limited followup. The treatment choice is resection. No publications have been found regarding systemic treatments for advanced disease. We present a case of metastatic clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder treated with chemotherapy.

  4. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards induce characteristic poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation responses in HaCaT keratinocytes with distinctive cellular consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangerich, Aswin; Debiak, Malgorzata; Birtel, Matthias; Ponath, Viviane; Balszuweit, Frank; Lex, Kirsten; Martello, Rita; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Strobelt, Romano; Siegert, Markus; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Mustard agents are potent DNA alkylating agents with mutagenic, cytotoxic and vesicant properties. They include bi-functional agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM) or nitrogen mustard (mustine, HN2), as well as mono-functional agents, such as "half mustard" (CEES). Whereas SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent, several nitrogen mustard derivatives, such as chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide, are being used as established chemotherapeutics. Upon induction of specific forms of genotoxic stimuli, several poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize the nucleic acid-like biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by using NAD(+) as a substrate. Previously, it was shown that SM triggers cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation (PARylation), but so far this phenomenon is poorly characterized. In view of the protective effects of PARP inhibitors, the latter have been proposed as a treatment option of SM-exposed victims. In an accompanying article (Debiak et al., 2016), we have provided an optimized protocol for the analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to further analyze mustard-induced PARylation and its functional consequences, in general. Thus, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the PARylation response in HaCaT cells after treatment with four different mustard agents, i.e., SM, CEES, HN2, and chlorambucil, on a qualitative, quantitative and functional level. In particular, we recorded substance-specific as well as dose- and time-dependent PARylation responses using independent bioanalytical methods based on single-cell immuno-fluorescence microscopy and quantitative isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we analyzed if and how PARylation contributes to mustard-induced toxicity by treating HaCaT cells with CEES, SM, and HN2 in combination with the clinically relevant PARP inhibitor ABT888. As evaluated by a novel immunofluorescence-based protocol for the detection of

  5. Fatores associados à bacteriúria após sondagem vesical na cirurgia ginecológica

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Determinar a frequência e os principais fatores associados à bacteriúria após a sondagem vesical em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo do tipo coorte em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica após sondagem vesical no Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, no período de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas até 24 horas após a retirada da sonda e 7/10 dias após a sondagem vesical. A análise estat...

  6. Protective role of spleen-derived macrophages in lung inflammation, injury, and fibrosis induced by nitrogen mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venosa, Alessandro; Malaviya, Rama; Gow, Andrew J; Hall, Leroy; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2015-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a vesicant that causes lung injury and fibrosis, accompanied by a persistent macrophage inflammatory response. In these studies we analyzed the spleen as a source of these cells. Splenectomized (SPX) and sham control rats were treated intratracheally with NM (0.125 mg/kg) or PBS control. Macrophage responses were analyzed 1-7 days later. Splenectomy resulted in an increase in lung macrophages expressing CCR2, but a decrease in ATR-1α(+) cells, receptors important in bone marrow and spleen monocyte trafficking, respectively. Splenectomy was also associated with an increase in proinflammatory M1 (iNOS(+), CD11b(+)CD43(+)) macrophages in lungs of NM-treated rats, as well as greater upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression. Conversely, a decrease in CD11b(+)CD43(-) M2 macrophages was observed in SPX rats, with no changes in CD68(+), CD163(+), CD206(+), or YM-1(+) M2 macrophages, suggesting distinct origins of M2 subpopulations responding to NM. Macrophage expression of M2 genes including IL-10, ApoE, PTX-2, PTX-3, 5-HT2α, and 5-HT7 was also reduced in NM-treated SPX rats compared with shams, indicating impaired M2 activity. Changes in lung macrophages responding to NM as a consequence of splenectomy were correlated with exacerbated tissue injury and more rapid fibrogenesis. These data demonstrate that the spleen is a source of a subset of M2 macrophages with anti-inflammatory activity; moreover, in their absence, proinflammatory/cytotoxic M1 macrophages predominate in the lung, resulting in heightened pathology. Understanding the origin of macrophages and characterizing their phenotype after vesicant exposure may lead to more targeted therapeutics aimed at reducing toxicity and disease pathogenesis.

  7. The influence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthesis in stimulated macrophages treated with a mustard gas analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Milton

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulphur mustard gas, 2, 2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide (HD, is a chemical warfare agent. Both mustard gas and its monofunctional analogue, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES, are alkylating agents that react with and diminish cellular thiols and are highly toxic. Previously, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and that CEES transiently inhibits nitric oxide (NO production via suppression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS protein expression. NO generation is an important factor in wound healing. In this paper, we explored the hypotheses that LPS increases CEES toxicity by increasing oxidative stress and that treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC would block LPS induced oxidative stress and protect against loss of NO production. NAC stimulates glutathione (GSH synthesis and also acts directly as a free radical scavenger. The potential therapeutic use of the antibiotic, polymyxin B, was also evaluated since it binds to LPS and could thereby block the enhancement of CEES toxicity by LPS and also inhibit the secondary infections characteristic of HD/CEES wounds. Results We found that 10 mM NAC, when administered simultaneously or prior to treatment with 500 μM CEES, increased the viability of LPS stimulated macrophages. Surprisingly, NAC failed to protect LPS stimulated macrophages from CEES induced loss of NO production. Macrophages treated with both LPS and CEES show increased oxidative stress parameters (cellular thiol depletion and increased protein carbonyl levels. NAC effectively protected RAW 264.7 cells simultaneously treated with CEES and LPS from GSH loss and oxidative stress. Polymyxin B was found to partially block nitric oxide production and diminish CEES toxicity in LPS-treated macrophages. Conclusion The present study shows that oxidative stress is an important mechanism contributing to CEES toxicity in LPS stimulated macrophages and

  8. Theoretical and Practical Considerations in Colo-Rectal Diverticulosis Complicated with Multiple Sigmoido-Recto-Vesical Fistulas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a complete anatomical separation between urinary and digestive tract, in certain pathological conditions, the direct proximity between the bladder and the sigmoid colon allows the development of entero-vesical fistulas. Colic diverticulosis is the second leading cause of entero-vesical fistulas, after malignancy. Usually, the enterovesical fistula is unique, on a single bowel segment; rarely is multiple, involving different intestinal segments. We present the case of a 41 ye...

  9. Novel Molecular Strategies Against Sulfur Mustard Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Ilker Kunak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the available chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM, also known as mustard gas, has been widely used chemical weapon. In our laboratory, we have shown that, acute toxicity of SM is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, DNA damage, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase activation and energy depletion within the affected cell. In spite of the knowledge about acute SM-induced cellular toxicity, unfortunately, it is not clear how mustard gas causes severe multi-organ damage years after even a single exposure. A variety of treatment modalities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs and others have resulted no promising results. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of mustard poisoning. The term epigenetic describes the study of inheritable alterations in gene expression that occur in the absence of changes in genome sequence. Therefore, epigenetic gene regulation requires molecular mechanisms that encode information in addition to the DNA base sequence and can be propagated through mitosis and meiosis. Our current understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression involves basically two classes of molecular mechanisms: histone modifications and DNA methylation. Preliminary evidence obtained from our laboratory reveals that exposure to mustards may not only cause nitro-oxidative stress and DNA (genetic damage, but epigenetic perturbations as well. Epigenetic therapy is a new and rapidly developing field in pharmacology. Epigenetic drugs alone or in combination with conventional drugs may prove to be a significant advance over the conventional drugs used to treat both acute and delayed SM toxicity. Future studies are urgently needed to clarify the mechanism of delayed SM-induced toxicity and novel treatment modalities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 231-236

  10. Vesical-ureteral reflux in children; Reflux vesico-ureteral chez l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desvignes, V.; Palcoux, J.B. [Hotel-Dieu, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cochat, P. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1995-12-31

    The vesical-ureteral reflux is the most frequent uropathy in children. The diagnosis is made by uretero-cystography, often after pyelonephritis, sometimes after ante-natal diagnosis from echographic abnormalities. Spontaneous recovery is possible in 50 to 80% of cases. This is especially true in grade 1, 2 and 3, however complications may occur. They are more frequent in the case of reflux nephropathy with a resulting risk of hypertension and chronic renal failure. The therapeutic choice is between the conservative management with urinary antiseptics ad the surgical treatment with ureters re-implantation or endoscopic treatment. The therapeutic indications take into account vesical-ureteral reflux grades, the child`s age, the associated diseases and the child`s and parents` compliance. (authors). 22 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Peri-Vesical Fat Interposition Flap Reinforcement in High Vesico-Vaginal Fistulas

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, R.B; Dalal, S.; Nanda, S

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim: The urinary bladder becomes small, contracted and is associated with excess pelvic fat in long standing cases of vesico-vaginal fistulas (VVFs). The aim of this new technique was to use this excess pelvic fat for harvesting an interposition flap. Materials and Methods: An interposition flap of peri-vesical fat was raised from the anterior, superior and posterior surfaces of the urinary bladder and was interposed between the right angle closed vaginal vault and the urinary ...

  12. Laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula: a new surgical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochetti Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The standard treatment of colo-vesical fistula is the exeresis of fistula, suture of bladder wall, colic resection with or without temporary colostomy. Usually the approach is open because conversion rates and morbidity are lower than laparoscopy. The aim of video is to show the steps of a new mini-invasive approach of colo-vesical fistula without colic resection. Materials and Methods A 69 years old male underwent laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula due to endoscopic polipectomy in sigmoid diverticulum. 12 mm trocar for the camera was placed at the umbilicus, two 10 mm trocars were placed along bisiliac line and 5 mm port was placed along left emiclavear line; Trendelenburg position was 20°. The fistulous loop was carefully isolated, clipped with Hem-o-lock® clips and removed. Since diverticular disease appeared slight and no inflammation signs were evident, colon resection was not performed. We sutured and sinked the sigmoid wall; after curettage of the fistula site, the bladder wall was sutured. Fat tissue was placed between sigmoid and bladder wall to reduce the risk of fistula recurrence. Results Operative time, estimated blood loss, catheterization time, time to flatus and hospital stay were respectively 210 minutes, 300 mL, 10 days, 48 h and 8 days. The histological examination showed colonic inflammatory and necrotic tissue. No complications or fistula recurrence occurred at 54 months follow-up. Conclusions The laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula is a safe and feasible technique, in particular when the diverticular disease is limited and the fistula is not due to diverticulitis.

  13. Urethro-vesical Reflux%尿道膀胱反流的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏辉; 刘唐彬

    1999-01-01

    Objective The study aims to evaluate if urethro-vesical reflux occur in children.Methods Nine children with recurrent urinary tract infection underwent imaging study by 99m technetium-labeled sulfur colloid.The image was captured with GCA-901A digital gamma camera system and processed with GMS-55u computer system.Results Urinary tract abnormality and spasm of external urethral sphincter may lead to urethro-vesical reflux.Conclusions Urethro-vesical reflux in turn contributes to urinary tract infection and a protracted course.%目的 探讨人体是否存在尿道膀胱反流及其临床意义.方法 首次应用同位索检查方法 对9例反复下尿路感染患儿和正常对照组3例儿童进行研究.结果 证实人体中尿道膀胱反流(UVR)的存在.结论 尿道器质或功能性异常所引起的尿流改变及尿道外括约肌(EUS)异常收缩是产生UVR的重要机制.UVR不但能诱发尿道感染(UTI),并且是UTI迁延不愈的重要因素.

  14. Lesiones anatomo-patologicas en cuyes intoxicados experimentalmente con Pteridium aquilinum como modelo animal para bovinos con hematuria vesical enzootica bovina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramos G., Mariella; Chavera C., Alfonso; Tabacchi N., Luis; Huaman U., Hector; Sandoval C., Nieves; Rodriguez G., Jose

    2012-01-01

    ...) intoxicados experimentalmente por via oral con pellets conteniendo Pteridium aquilinum (Pa) por 135 dias. El cuy se empleo como modelo experimental para bovinos con Hematuria Vesical Enzootica Bovina...

  15. Cutaneous injury-related structural changes and their progression following topical nitrogen mustard exposure in hairless and haired mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Tewari-Singh

    Full Text Available To identify effective therapies against sulfur mustard (SM-induced skin injuries, various animals have been used to assess the cutaneous pathology and related histopathological changes of SM injuries. However, these efforts to establish relevant skin injury endpoints for efficacy studies have been limited mainly due to the restricted assess of SM. Therefore, we employed the SM analog nitrogen mustard (NM, a primary vesicating and bifunctional alkylating agent, to establish relevant endpoints for efficient efficacy studies. Our published studies show that NM (3.2 mg exposure for 12-120 h in both the hairless SKH-1 and haired C57BL/6 mice caused clinical sequelae of toxicity similar to SM exposure in humans. The NM-induced cutaneous pathology-related structural changes were further analyzed in this study and quantified morphometrically (as percent length or area of epidermis or dermis of skin sections in mice showing these lesions. H&E stained skin sections of both hairless and haired mice showed that NM (12-120 h exposure caused epidermal histopathological effects such as increased epidermal thickness, epidermal-dermal separation, necrotic/dead epidermis, epidermal denuding, scab formation, parakeratosis (24-120 h, hyperkeratosis (12-120 h, and acanthosis with hyperplasia (72-120 h. Similar NM exposure in both mice caused dermal changes including necrosis, edema, increase in inflammatory cells, and red blood cell extravasation. These NM-induced cutaneous histopathological features are comparable to the reported lesions from SM exposure in humans and animal models. This study advocates the usefulness of these histopathological parameters observed due to NM exposure in screening and optimization of rescue therapies against NM and SM skin injuries.

  16. Evaluation of the pharmacoeconomics of drugs used for the treatment of long-term complications of sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur Mustard (SM, a cytotoxic vesicant chemical warfare agent, has powerful irritant and blistering effects on the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Since during the Iraq-Iran war, many Iranian soldiers and civilians were exposed to SM, there are several victims still suffering from long-term cutaneous, ocular and pulmonary complications. Currently, there is no definite treatment for long-term complications of SM, and only supportive medical care is being taken to minimize the symptoms. In this study, we compared the cost-effectiveness of common drugs that are used against long-term SM-induced complications in Iranian patients. In this review article, electronic databases were checked using the following key words: sulfur mustard, lung, skin, eye, cost-effectiveness, pharmacoeconomics and treatment. Abstracts of non-English papers and proceedings of congresses on SM were also assessed. Among the studied drugs, high-dose oral N-acetyl cysteine and long-acting inhaled corticosteroids against respiratory complications, topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines against cutaneous complications and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids ophthalmic drops against ocular complications were found to be cost-effective. Usage of different drugs in the treatment of SM injuries in Iran, have imposed a significant economic burden to patients and their families because many drugs that are effective against chemical injuries are not covered by insurance. In addition, the development of more effective drugs in this field is considered as an urgent demand that should be noticed by the pharmaceutical industry.

  17. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hall, LeRoy [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute

  18. Health effects of mustard gas and lewisite: Subject bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liverman, C.T.; Pechura, C.M.

    1992-12-01

    The subject bibliography covers the scientific, military, and technical literature written on animal studies and human exposure to the chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (mustard gas) and Lewisite. Primarily structured by organ system, the human studies are also organized by the type of exposure (i.e. combat, occupational, and experimental). The bibliography was compiled during the work of the Institute of Medicine's Committee to Survey the Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite and includes sources on the historical use of chemical warfare agents and on related chemical compounds including the nitrogen mustards.

  19. Dermal Toxicity Evaluation of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) with an Overview of the Dermal Toxicity of Vesicant Agents and their Degradation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    chloroform, nitrogen mustard (HN-l) (10%) in chloroform, or lewisite (5%) in chloroform; and " Sniff Set" containing sulfur mustard, nitrogen mustard...Exposure) Species LC,, (mg/m 3 ) Exposure Duration (Min) Mouse 120 (10) Rat 80 (10) Guinea Pig 170 (10) Rabbit 90 (10) Dog 60 (10) Goat 190 (10) Monkey 80...Carcinogenicity/Tumorigenicitv: Chronic exposure to sulfur mustard can cause cancer of the respiratory tract, skin and blood forming tissues. Sulfur mustard has

  20. A Facile Method for the Synthesis of 6-Aryl-1-(3-Chloropropanoyl-4-[(E-1-(2-FurylMethylidene]-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-3-Pyridazinones and 2-(2-Chloroethyl-5-[α-Aracyl-β-(2-Furyl]-(E-Vinyl-1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Hashem

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The 6-aryl-1-(3-chloropropanoyl-4-[(E-1-(2-furylmethylidene]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-3-pyridazinones (6a-d were synthesized by the reaction of acid chloride 3 with α-aracyl(β-2-furylacrylic acid hydrazides (2a-d in a high yield, one pot reaction. On the other hand, 2-(2-chloroethyl-5-[α-aracyl-β-(2-furyl]-(E-vinyl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (7a-d were also prepared by cyclodehydration of N1[α-aracyl-β-(2-furylacroyl-N2[3-chloro-propanoyl] hydrazine derivatives (4a-d. The proposed structures of the products were confirmed by elemental analysis, spectral data and chemical evidence.

  1. Graviditet efter Mustards operation for transpositio vasorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pank, Marie; Larsen, Signe Holm; Sørensen, Keld;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previously, the Mustard operation was the preferred surgical technique in patients with transposition of the great arteries. After this procedure the anatomical right ventricle remains the systemic ventricle, which entails long-term complications, especially heart failure. The Mustard....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on diagnosis, procedure, functional status, pregnancy, delivery and congenital heart disease in the off-spring were found in registers (The National Register of Health, The National Birth Register) and in medical records. Questionnaires were mailed to the 16 surviving...... women over 15 years of age. RESULTS: Four women gave birth to nine children. Two women temporally had heart symptoms during pregnancy and delivery, but this caused no objective changes. The women who had children were older than those who did not. None of the children had congenital heart disease nor...

  2. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianzhong; Chen, Linlin; Wu, Hongyuan; Lu, Yiming; Hu, Zhenlin; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Liming; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-10-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH), which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA) of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA) of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50) SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (ptotal of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  3. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D.; Hahn, Rita A.; Gordon, Marion K.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Heindel, Ned D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Young, Sherri C. [Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel steroid-linked nitrogen mustards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Bing Zhang; Ji Jun Xue; Xiao Long Zhao; De Gang Liu; Ying Li

    2009-01-01

    Two novel steroid-linked nitrogen mustard conjugates 1a and 1b were synthesized by using estrogenic acid 4 coupled with aniline mustard 8 and phenol mustard 13 in an esterification or amidation procedure. Preliminary cytotoxic screening on cancer cell lines in vitro showed that, the steroid-ester linked nitrogen mustard conjugate la exhibited obvious increasing of activities.

  5. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Sidell, F.R. (Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)); Leffingwell, S.S. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (United States). Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control)

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  6. Verrucous carcinoma of the bladder with koilocytosis unassociated with vesical schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lewin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Verrucous carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare malignant neoplasm, histologically similar to condyloma acuminatum. Usually it shows association with vesical schistosomiasis (bilharziasis. Only 13 cases unrelated to bilharziasis have been reported to date, and none of them reported koilocytosis, a typical finding in human papillomavirus infection. CASE REPORT: We report a case of verrucous carcinoma of the bladder that was unrelated to bilharziasis, with koilocytosis and absence of human papillomavirus. The literature relating to the topic is discussed.

  7. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sidell, F.R. [Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Leffingwell, S.S. [Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (United States). Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  8. Superselective embolization of the inferior vesical artery for the treatment of intractable hematuria from pelvic malignancy: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Jeon, Eui Yong [Hallym Univ. Sacred Heart Hospital/Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Anyang, (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sun Young [Ewha Womans Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kum Hyun [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital/Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Intractable hematuria in from pelvic malignancy can be managed with conservative treatment in most patients. However, when treatment fails, surgical intervention may be required. Unfortunately, in most cases, the general condition of most patients is unfavorable for major surgery, with many patients having an inoperable status. We present two cases where intractable hematuria was successfully controlled by bilateral embolization of the inferior vesical artery with polyvinyl alcohol particles. Hematuria did not recur during the subsequent period and no complication was observed. Thus, bilateral embolization of the inferior vesical artery should be considered as an alternative method for the treatment of massive intractable hematuria caused by pelvic malignancy.

  9. Impacto do cateterismo vesical intermitente na qualidade de vida da pessoa com lesão medular

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rafael Carmo

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A lesão medular é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de bexiga neurogénica na maioria dos doentes repercutindo-se em graves riscos para a saúde e sérias implicações na qualidade de vida da pessoa, pelo que o método de gestão vesical deve ser ponderado cuidadosamente em cada caso de acordo com as necessidades e funcionalidade de cada indivíduo. O objectivo geral deste trabalho foi explorar qual o impacto do cateterismo vesical intermitente na qualidade de vida de indiv...

  10. Infección urinaria en pacientes con cateterismo vesical con sistema de drenaje cerrado, utilizando un frasco colector recambiable.

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Rosario; Miyahira Arakaki, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Con el objetivo de determinar la incidencia de ITU asociado a cateterismo vesical con sistema de drenaje cerrado utilizando un frasco recambiable, fueron evaluados 20 pacientes no críticos, cateterizados por 5 días. Se encontró una incidencia de bacteriuria asociada a cateterismo vesical de 5%, mientras que la contaminación del frasco de drenaje se documento en el 10% de los pacientes. Tanto la bacteriuría, como la contaminación del frasco colector ocurrieron a las 96 horas de cateterismo ves...

  11. A técnica limpa do autocateterismo vesical intermitente: descrição do procedimento realizado pelos pacientes com lesão medular La tecnica limpia del autocateterismo vesical intermitente: descripción del preocdimento realizado por los pacientes com lesion medular The clean techinique of vesical autocatheterism inttermitent: description of the procedure accomphished by the pacient with medullar injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitiko Moroóka

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, as autoras descrevem a seqüência da técnica e os materiais utilizados na realização do autocateterismo vesical intermitente - técnica limpa. As informações foram obtidas junto aos pacientes que realizam este procedimento e que foram orientados no Serviço de Atendimento Interdisciplinar ao paciente com lesão medular traumática. Pretendemos, através da divulgação dos resultados, contribuir para a ampliação do conhecimento sobre o autocateterismo vesical e subsidiar a prática aos pacientes iniciantes neste processo terapêutico.En este trabajo, las autoras describen la secuencia de la técnica y los materiales utilizados en la realización del autocateterismo vesical intermitente-ténica limpia. Las informaciones fueron orientadas em el Servicio de Atendimiento Interdisciplinar al paciente con lesión medular traumática. Pretendemos, através de la divulgaciín de los resultados, contribuir para la ampliación del conocimiento sobre el autocateterismo vesical y subvencionar la práctica a los pacientes iniciantes en este procedimento terapéutico, paciente.The present study describes the sequence and its materials used in the vesical autocatheterism intermittent - clean technique. The information were obtained together with the patients, who go through such procedure and were directed to follow the instructions, given by the inter disciplinary Service, attending patients with traumatic medullar injury. The study intends to contribute to increase the knowledge about the vesical autocatheterism and provide to the patients this technique in a therapeutic way.

  12. Sulfur mustard-stimulated proteases and their inhibitors in a cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes model: A potential approach for anti-vesicant drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiannu Jin

    2016-01-01

    To summarize, our results in the NHEK model indicate the following: (a SM stimulates multiple proteases including serine protease(s, and metalloproteases; (b SM decreases the level of laminin-5 γ2, which is prevented by either a serine protease inhibitor or a metalloprotease inhibitor and (c MT-MMP-1 maybe one of the proteases that is involved in skin blistering due to SM exposure.

  13. Mustard Group Chemical War Agents from Preventive Medicine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214

  14. Studies on vesical schistosomiasis among rural Ezza farmers in the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosike, Jude C; Oguwuike, Uche; Nwoke, Bertram; Asor, Joe; Ikpeama, Chidinma; Nwosu, Dennis; Ogbusu, Fidelia

    2006-01-01

    Studies on vesical schistosomiasis and its snail vectors were carried out between October 2001-May 2002 among rural Ezza farmers inhabiting the southwestern border of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The people are predominantly farmers. Of the 2,104 urine specimens examined in 10 communities, 466 (22.1%) comprising 305 (23.7%) men and 161 (19.7%) women were infected with visible haematuria as the predominant presenting symptom. Ezza people associate bloody urine with sexually transmitted diseases. There were no significant differences in the prevalence rates amongst various villages and sexes (p > 0.05). There was a gradual increase in the disease prevalence as the subjects' age increases. About 78.3% of the infected persons are aged 0-20 years. Statistical analysis revealed that the prevalence, intensity and visible haematuria were significantly more ( p infected population, 183 (39.3%) and 283 (60.7%) were excreting 50 eggs/10 ml urine and above 50 eggs/10 ml urine respectively. Lack of visible haematuria is a more valid indicator of the absence of vesical schistosomiasis. Of the various snails collected during malacological survey, mainly B. globosus were infected. Possible control measures are discussed.

  15. Intra-vesical knot of bladder catheter in an extremely low birthweight neonate: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M.Y. Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Premature and extremely low birth weight (ELBW neonates are at high risk of developing multiple co-morbidities and often require urinary catheterization for various medical indications. Intra-vesical knotting of bladder catheter is a known but uncommon complication of this procedure. We report a case of an ELBW baby boy with a knotted bladder catheter requiring surgical retrieval. After an elective operation for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus, a 4 French urinary catheter was inserted into an ELBW baby boy for urine output monitoring and left in-situ. Resistance was encountered in attempt to remove the urinary catheter. Abdominal X Ray confirmed intra-vesical knotting of the tube. Knot unravelling by interventional radiology was attempted but was unsuccessful. Open extra-peritoneal bladder exploration was performed for the retrieval of the tightly knotted catheter. A 6 French transurethral Foley catheter was inserted for bladder drainage. Upon removal of the Foley's catheter on day 5 post op, the baby was able to void spontaneously. With literature review, we postulated the potential risk factors resulting in this potentially avoidable iatrogenic unusual complication. Recommendations were suggested to avoid further incidences.

  16. Effects of stimulation of vesical afferents on colonic motility in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, M; Grimaud, J C; Abysique, A

    1990-05-01

    The effects of distension and isovolumetric contraction of urinary bladder on colonic motility were studied in anesthetized cats. Distension and contraction of the urinary bladder induced an inhibition of spontaneous colonic electromyographic activity and a decrease in the amplitudes of the excitatory junction potentials evoked in the colon by stimulation of the distal end of the parasympathetic nerve fibers. This inhibition was blocked by guanethidine and phentolamine. Reversely, vesical emptying resulted in an increase in colonic motility, abolished by atropine, and an increase in the amplitude of the excitatory junction potentials. Both excitatory and inhibitory reflexes disappeared after hexamethonium. The inhibitory effects of bladder distension were abolished by bilateral section of the lumbar ventral or dorsal spinal roots and after bilateral section of the lumbar colonic or hypogastric nerves. These results indicate (a) that the vesical afferents responsible for the inhibitory and excitatory reflexes run in the hypogastric and pelvic nerves respectively and (b) that the inhibitory and excitatory effects are caused by the activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent nerve fibers, respectively. The supraspinal nervous structures were not implicated in these reflexes because they persisted in spinal cats.

  17. Can Mustard Gas Induce Late Onset Polyneuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ. Mousavi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Mustard gas, lethal in high doses, affects multiple organs such as skin, eye and respiratory system. We studied the development of late onset mustardinduced polyneuropathy among chemically wounded Iranian veterans.Methods:In this descriptive study,100 chemically wounded Iranian veterans with severe eye involvement were examined for any signs and symptoms of polyneuropathy by an internist.20 patients were suspected to have neurological symptoms or signs.These patients were examined by a neurologist again. 13 showed abnormal neurological symptoms. Electrodiagnostic exams were performed for this group by another physician.Results:13 veterans had abnormal neurological exam results with prominent sensory signs and symptoms in almost all of them. Brisk deep tendon reflexes were found in 3 cases. Electrodiagnostic studies were compatible with axonal type distal sensory polyneuropathy in 6 subjects. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of late onset polyneuropathy among chemically-wounded victims who were exposed to mustard gas. The pathophysiology of this form of neuropathy is still unknown. Unlike most toxic neuropathies,obvious clinical signs and symptoms appeared several years after exposure. No specific treatment for.polyneuropathy due to chemical weapons exposure has been described to date.

  18. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant.

  19. Kolonialism või kognitiivne kapitalism? / Jelena Vesic, Branislav Dimitrijevic ; interv. Rael Artel, tõlk. Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vesic, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Serbia-poolsed kuraatorid Jelena Vesic ja Branislav Dimitrijevic Belgradi Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumis avatud Briti Nõukogu initsieeritud briti kaasaegse kunsti näitusest "Breaking Step", kus osaleb 15 kunstnikku, näitusega seotud probleemidest, serbia kaasaegse kunsti näituse Londonis toimumise võimalikkusest

  20. Uso excessivo do cateter vesical em pacientes internados em enfermarias de hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieni de Oliveira Conterno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo de corte incluiu 254 pacientes adultos que usaram cateter vesical (CV durante a hospitalização em enfermarias de um hospital universitário. Foram avaliados: utilização do cateter, indicação, tempo de permanência, densidade de infecção urinária, mortalidade e permanência hospitalar. Durante o período de estudo, 14% dos pacientes internados usaram CV, totalizando 1.735 CV-dia. Em 23% dos casos, o procedimento não foi prescrito, nem sua indicação foi documentada. O tempo médio de uso do CV foi de 6,8 dias. Entre os pacientes clínicos, a indicação do CV foi inadequada em 29%; o tempo de permanência foi considerado inadequado em 49% dos pacientes clínicos e em 66,9% dos pacientes cirúrgicos. Pacientes com uso inadequado do CV tiveram mais infecção do trato urinário (RR 1,86 IC95% 1,4 a 3,04 e maior tempo de permanência hospitalar (11,9 e 8,9 dias, p=0,002. O estudo permitiu identificar no processo assistencial falhas potencialmente modificáveis e importantes para a prevenção da infecção do trato urinário por cateter vesical.

  1. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at pH 12. The purity of isolated proteins of black and yellow mustard cakes was 89.83% and 91.12% respectively and their pepsin digestibility was 89.67% and 90.17% respectively which assigned the absence of antinutritional compounds. It was found that essential amino acids isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan and non essential amino acids arginine and tyrosine were present in greater concentration in black mustard cake protein whereas other amino acids were higher in yellow mustard cake protein.

  2. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH, which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50 SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05 reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  3. Vesicant dermatitis: report of 19 cases and first record of Paederus sp. Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Molinari Veloso Fonseca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The disordered occupation and the synanthropy of urban environments increase the number of accidents of medical importance caused by arthropods in urban areas. After intense heat and rain, from October 2009 to April 2010 were identified in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 19 cases of dermatitis vesicant, with observation of correlation between the clinical histories, epidemiological and evolutionary clinical-morphological aspects of the dermatosis by pederin. Two beetles, identified at the Federal University of Viçosa, as Paederus sp. were collected during this period although not correlated to the occurrences. This case report aims to show the presence of the vesicant dermatitis, its clinical and therapeutic implications for human health and record the atypical occurrence of blistering agent in Viçosa, contributing with epidemiological and clinical aspects to the development of dermatosis research work in the region.

  4. Novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Ayala, Maria; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maroto, Aroa S; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-Garcia, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Perez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-09-15

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19±3mg/kg) where mustard content is not specified. Sin a 1, used as an internal standard, allowed quantification of this mustard allergen in foods. A novel LC/MS/MS SRM-based method has been developed to detect and quantify the presence of mustard. This method could help to detect mustard allergen Sin a 1 in processed foods and protect mustard-allergic consumers.

  5. Utilization of mustard waste isolates for improved production of astaxanthin by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoi, J; Rakariyatham, N; Deming, R L

    2006-04-01

    Astaxanthin production in the wild strain Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous TISTR 5730 was investigated using different mustard waste media, including mustard waste residue extract (MRE), mustard waste residue hydrolysate (MRH), mustard waste precipitated extract (MPE), and mustard waste precipitated hydrolysate (MPH). The growth of X. dendrorhous and the production of astaxanthin were dependent on the type and initial concentrations of mustard waste media. The MPH medium was the best substrate resulting in yields of biomass and astaxanthin of 19.6 g/L and 25.8 mg/L, respectively, under optimal conditions. MPH medium improved astaxanthin production 11-fold compared to the commonly used commercial yeast malt medium, and 1.3-2.1-fold compared to other mustard waste media.

  6. An improved method for retrospective quantification of sulfur mustard exposure by detection of its albumin adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, ChangCai; Liang, LongHui; Xiang, Yu; Yu, HuiLan; Zhou, ShiKun; Xi, HaiLing; Liu, ShiLei; Liu, JingQuan

    2015-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) adduct to human serum albumin (ALB) at Cys-34 residue has become an important and long-term retrospective biomarker of HD exposure. Here, a novel, sensitive, and convenient approach for retrospective quantification of HD concentration exposed to plasma was established by detection of the HD-ALB adduct using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with a novel non-isotope internal standard (IS). The HD-ALB adduct was isolated from HD-exposed plasma with blue Sepharose. The adduct was digested with proteinase K to form sulfur-hydroxyethylthioethyl ([S-HETE])-Cys-Pro-Phe tripeptide biomarker. The tripeptide adduct could be directly analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS without an additional solid phase extraction (SPE), which was considered as a critical procedure in previous methods. The easily available 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (2-CEES) as HD surrogate was first reported to be used as IS in place of traditional d8-HD for quantification of HD exposure. Furthermore, 2-CEES was also confirmed to be a good IS alternative for quantification of HD exposure by investigation of product ion spectra for their corresponding tripeptide adducts which exhibited identical MS/MS fragmentation behaviors. The method was found to be linear between 1.00 and 250 ng•mL(-1) HD exposure (R(2)>0.9989) with precision of <4.50% relative standard deviation (%RSD), accuracy range between 96.5% and 114%, and a calculated limit of detection (LOD) of 0.532 ng•mL(-1). The lowest reportable limit (LRL) is 1.00 ng•mL(-1), over seven times lower than that of the previous method. The entire method required only 0.1 mL of plasma sample and took under 7 h without special sample preparation equipment. It is proven to be a sensitive, simple, and rugged method, which is easily applied in international laboratories to improve the capabilities for the analysis of biomedical samples related to verification of the Chemical Weapon Convention (CWC).

  7. Vapor Pressure of Bis-(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine (HN1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    are delayed-casualty agents that produce conjunctivitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, hoarseness, coughing, elevated temperature, nausea, and vomiting on...AD-B960467). 3. Redemann, C. E.; Chaikin, S. W.; Fearing , R. B.; Van Hoesen, D.; Savitt, J.; Benedict, D.; Rotariu, G. J.; Geiling, E. M. K

  8. Mucoadhesion on pig vesical mucosa: influence of polycarbophil/calcium interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerec, M; Bogataj, M; Mugerle, B; Gasperlin, M; Mrhar, A

    2002-07-08

    The influence of polycarbophil/calcium interactions on the mucoadhesive properties of polycarbophil has been examined. Polycarbophil dispersions and films with different concentrations of calcium or sodium ions were prepared and the following parameters were measured: detachment force on pig vesical mucosa, zeta potential, pH and viscosity. Polycarbophil detachment force decreased significantly in the presence of calcium but not sodium. Both ions decrease the pH of polycarbophil dispersions. On the other hand, altering the pH of hydrated polycarbophil films in the absence of added ions had an insignificant effect on detachment force. Both ions reduce the absolute values of polycarbophil zeta potential, calcium more efficiently than sodium. We could conclude that decreased mucoadhesion strength of polycarbophil in the presence of calcium is due to the chelation of polycarbophil carboxylic groups by calcium and crosslinking of polymer. The crosslinked polymer chains would be expected to be less flexible, and therefore, interpenetrate to a lesser extent with the glycosaminoglycans of mucus. Additionally, the interactions between functional groups of polycarbophil and mucus glycosaminoglycans are lowered due to the calcium, blocking the carboxylic groups. The mechanism of calcium influence on viscosity of polycarbophil dispersions appears to be different: repulsion between ionised carboxylic groups of polycarbophil prevails over the crosslinking of polycarbophil by calcium.

  9. Extrofia vesical, una anomalía congénita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Rojas Rojas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo descriptivo y representativo de un caso, para el que se utilizó la entrevista, la ultrasonografía y la evaluación del grupo Multidisciplinario de Genética Provincial. La paciente con 23 años de edad, con historia obstetricia de G2 P1 eutócico, clasificado de riesgo genético bajo, se le detectó en el ultrasonido del segundo semestre en la semana de gestación 19.6 una anomalía congénita, diagnosticada como extrofia vesical. Después de encontrado este hallazgo, la gestante fue remitida al Centro Genético Provincial. El equipo facultativo evaluó el caso y decidió la interrupción electiva del embarazo, siendo un feto de 450 gramos del sexo femenino. El resultado final de la anatomía patológica fue: ausencia de fusión del hueso pelviano; malformación de la vulva, clítoris prominente, labios mayores cortos y abiertos; vejiga insertada en la pared abdominal.

  10. ¿Deben realizarse las ecografías renal y vesical en pacientes con mamelones preauriculares? Should renal and vesical ultrasound be performed in patients with preauricular tags?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Tombesi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los niños con malformaciones menores del pabellón auricular son estudiados habitualmente con ecografías renal y vesical, existiendo controversias en cuanto a la validez de esta práctica. Objetivo: Determinar si la prevalencia de malformaciones del tracto urinario es mayor entre niños con mamelones preauriculares aislados que entre aquellos que no los presentan. Población, material y métodos: Entre Junio de 1996 y Junio de 2006, 92 niños con mamelones preauriculares fueron estudiados con ecografía renal y vesical. Se incluyeron en la evaluación a niños sanos con mamelón preauricular aislado. Se excluyeron aquellos con hoyuelos preauriculares, una o más malformaciones menores asociadas, síndromes de malformaciones congénitas múltiples o anomalías mayores identificadas previamente. Ochenta y ocho niños cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Para la comparación estadística se utilizó un grupo control histórico de 300 lactantes sanos sin mamelón, estudiados en forma no concurrente con el grupo estudio y que mostró un prevalencia del 1% de malformaciones urinarias. Se realizó una prueba de hipótesis exacta para una proporción utilizando un nivel de significación del 5%, con el software Epidat 3.1. Resultados: Tres de los 88 niños (3,4% con mamelones preauriculares aislados presentaron malformaciones renales : ectopia renal derecha e hidroureteronefrosis, detectada prenatalmente; agenesia renal izquierda, existiendo antecedentes familiares de malformaciones renales y un quiste cortical simple. No se detectaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con el grupo considerado control histórico (p = 0.11. Conclusión: La prevalencia de malformaciones renales fue similar entre los niños sanos con y sin mamelones preauriculares aislados, por lo que la indicación rutinaria de ecografías renal y vesical no sería necesaria.Introduction: The renal and vesical ultrasound in every patient with

  11. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  12. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  13. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  14. Shrubby Reed-Mustard Habitat: Parent Material, Soil, and Landscape Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L. S.; Boettinger, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Shrubby reed-mustard (Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, a.k.a. Schoenocrambe suffrutescens, Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, or Hesperidanthus suffrutescens) is an endangered perennial shrub endemic to the southern Uinta Basin in northeast Utah. Only seven populations of shrubby reed-mustard have been identified. The arid area where the plant grows is rich in natural gas and oil deposits, as well as oil shale. Oil wells already dot the landscape, and there is significant concern that further development of these resources will threaten the continued existence of shrubby reed-mustard. Determination of the parent material, soil and landscape characteristics associated with shrubby reed-mustard habitat is imperative to facilitate conservation management. Shrubby reed-mustard grows where little else does and, based on field observations and remotely sensed spectral data, appears to occur in a particular type of strata. Our objective is to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of shrubby reed-mustard's environment. Site characteristics such as parent material and associated vegetation have been identified and documented. Soil properties such as water-soluble and total leachable elements, particle-size distribution, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium are being determined. During the course of this investigation, soils within four shrubby reed-mustard habitat areas were sampled. Soils from non-shrubby reed-mustard areas adjacent to the four shrubby reed-mustard populations were also sampled. Soil samples were collected from a total of twenty-five shrubby reed-mustard soil pits and twenty-four non-shrubby reed-mustard soil pits. The soil horizons of each pedon were delineated, and samples were collected from each horizon. Field data indicate that shrubby reed-mustard occurs exclusively in shale-derived, shallow soils on bedrock-controlled uplands. Although there is some overlap of plant species on both types

  15. Revisión bibliográfica de cáncer vesical de origen laboral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Suárez-Baena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y Objetivos: Realizamos una revisión bibliográfica para determinar la relación entre la exposición a determinadas sustancias en el ámbito laboral y el desarrollo de cáncer vesical, clarificar aquellas profesiones con mayor riesgo y si éste presenta diferencias entre géneros. Material y Métodos: Revisión sistemática. Bases de datos: MEDLINE (Medlars Online International Literature, vía PubMed, OSH UPDATE, IBECS e ILO (International Labour Organization.Se incluyeron los artículos publicados en Inglés o Español, estudios Internacionales o Nacionales, publicaciones dirigidas a relacionar efectos de exposición laboral con cáncer vesical, en los últimos 5 años (2009-2014. Resultados: Se localizaron 156 estudios. Sólo 18 cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se encontraron 3 estudios de cohortes, 9 de casos y controles, 3 meta-análisis,2 estudios descriptivos y una serie de casos. Las principales profesiones de riesgo son las relacionadas con la industria de hierro, acero y colorantes, minería de carbón, trabajadores del caucho, pintores, agricultores, peluqueros, conductores de camiones y profesionales en contacto con sustancias explosivas. Conclusiones: En nuestra búsqueda hemos encontrado varios estudios que evidencian relación entre la exposición laboral y el cáncer vesical, aunque se requiere más información, y de más calidad, que permita establecer resultados concluyentes.

  16. Coexistence of prostate neoplasia in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy due to vesical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of bladder carcinoma infiltrating the prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy due to bladder cancer, as well as to assess if the characteristics of the bladder neoplasia influence the prostatic involvement by this neoplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 60 male patients, who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy between July 1997 and December 2003. Mean age was 66.7 years (40 and 93 years. The product of radical cystoprostatectomies was checked for involvement of urethra and prostate parenchyma by the primary neoplasia, and for the presence of associated prostate adenocarcinoma. Bladder neoplasia characteristics, such as localization, size, multifocality, association with in situ carcinoma and histological grade, were studied in order to assess the possibility of using such characteristics as predictive factors of prostate infiltration by bladder urothelial carcinoma. RESULTS: We observed the presence of 20% of patients with bladder carcinoma infiltrating the prostatic urethra, 23.3% of patients with infiltration of the prostate parenchyma and 28.3% of patients with associate prostate adenocarcinoma, resulting in a total of 55% of patients with prostatic involvement (infiltrative bladder carcinoma and/or adenocarcinoma. We also observed a statistically significant correlation between tumor location in the trigone, the presence of in situ carcinoma and the histological grade of the bladder tumor with prostatic infiltration by the vesical neoplasia. CONCLUSION: The coexistence of prostatic neoplasia in patients operated for bladder neoplasia was frequent in our sample (55%. We observed that the prostatic infiltration by bladder tumors occurs more frequently with tumors located in the trigone, with associated in situ carcinoma and with high histological grade. There was no correlation between neoplastic infiltration of prostate and multifocality

  17. Prevenção da infeção na pessoa idosa hospitalizada com sonda vesical

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado, Enfermagem Médico-Cirurgica - Pessoa Idosa, 2014, Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Lisboa Tendo em conta as múltiplas mudanças decorrentes do processo de envelhecimento e à iatrogenia à qual o idoso é sujeito aquando da hospitalização, o risco de ocorrência de infeção nesta população é maior. Nesta medida, este projeto tem como finalidade a redução do risco de infeção na pessoa idosa com sonda vesical, num serviço de Urologia de um hospital de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo, mobilizando a...

  18. Evaluation of the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall obtained by transurethral intravesical echotomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Radovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is the most frequent tumor of the bladder and represents 95−98% of blader neoplasams and 2−3% of all carcinomas in the body. In urogenital oncology more frequent is only prostatic cancer. Evaluation of the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall represents the clinical base in treatment planning and prognosis. Clinical investigation and convential radiological procedures have a low level of accuracy in estimating the local growth of the tumor. The aims of our investigation were to determine the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall in the investigated group of patients by transurethral intravesical echotomography (TIE and computerised tomography (CT scan and to compare results obtained by both methods with pathohistological (PH results, and, based on the difference of the results determine which method was more accurate in the evaluation of the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall. Methods. Thirty patients with TCC of the bladder both genders, aged 51−81 years were involved in our investigation. In all of these patients, radical cystectomy (RC was performed. This was neccessary to provide the defintive PH result. Transurethral intravesical echotomography was performed by ultrasound scanner type 1846 Bruel and Kjaer, sond type 1850, and the CT scan was perfomed by Pace plus, General Electric, U.S.A. The specimen for the definitive PH result obtained by RC includes all standards of the TNM classification. Results. Using CT scan, the most frequent was T1 stage (17 patients or 56.68%. Using TIE, the most frequent was T2 stage (22 patients or 73.33%. After RC the most frequent was T2 stage (21 patients or 70%. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, showed a high significant difference between the results obtained using CT and definitive PH results after RC. The same test showed no statistically significant difference between

  19. Valoración del estudio vesical y del tracto urinario superior en pacientes con citología urinaria positiva y pruebas de imagen negativas

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Introducció: La citologia urinària positiva en context de cistoscopia sense evidència de tumor macroscòpic obliga a continuar el seu estudi. En el nostre centre es realitzen biòpsies vesicals múltiples normatitzades (BMN) i citologia ureteral selectiva en aquest casos. Material i mètodes: Estudi retrospectiu de 70 pacients amb citologia urinària positiva en absència de tumor macroscòpic. Es van avaluar els resultats de totes les biòpsies vesicals múltiples i les citologies ureterals selective...

  20. Perfil dos microrganismos isolados no trato urinário após sondagem vesical em cirurgia ginecológica

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: determinar os microrganismosfreqüentemente encontrados nas uroculturas apóssondagem vesical e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica com sondagem vesical, no Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP), em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas em dois períodos: até 24h da...

  1. Rotura vesical intraperitoneal y reparación laparoscópica: ¿Es éste el nuevo gold standard?

    OpenAIRE

    Troncoso C,Pablo; Saavedra Z.,Álvaro; Sarras J,Miguel; Rojas R,Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Actualmente la laparoscopia es el nuevo paradigma en muchos tratamientos quirúrgicos, pero su rol en trauma urológico es incipiente. Nuestro objetivo es mostrar una técnica factible y segura de cistorrafia laparoscópica por ruptura vesical intraperitoneal contusa. Caso: Un hombre de 28 años consulta por 6 horas de dolor hipogástrico, retención y globo vesical, después de una transgresión alcohólica. Ingresa con creatininemia y parámetros inflamatorios elevados. A pesar de un son...

  2. Infecções urinárias e uso de cateter vesical de demora em unidade pediátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Iranilda Queirós; Maria Aneuma Bastos Cipriano; Míria Conceição Lavinas Santos; Maria Vera Lúcla Moreira Leitão Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo fue identificar los agentes etiológicos de infección urinaria en niños sometidos al cateterismo vesical prolongado, ingresados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, el tiempo de uso y la indicación de ese catéter. La población estuvo constituida por niños atendidos en la Unidad Pedlátríca de un hospital escuela, de julio a diciembre/ 2006. Los datos fueron recogidos de los historiales médicos de 38 niños que usaban sonda vesical prolongada. La principal indicación del cateterismo ...

  3. Avaluació de la qualitat de vida dels pacients amb tumor vesical sotmesos a tractament amb BCG o Mitomicina endovesical

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El tumor vesical superficial és la neoplàsia més comuna de l'aparell genitourinari. El tractament d'elecció és la RTU vesical, però moltes vegades precisa d'adjuvància posterior, com les instil·lacions de BCG o Mitomicina C endovesicals. Aquests tractaments no estan exempts d'efectes adversos, que poden afectar la qualitat de vida dels pacients als quals se'ls administra. La qualitat de vida relacionada amb la salut és una eina important per valorar l'impacte que tenen alguns procediments ter...

  4. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  5. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance.

  6. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  7. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Naphthalimide Derived N-Mustards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Lou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of N-mustards, which was conjugated to mono- or bis-naphthalimides with a flexible amine link, were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines (HCT-116, PC-3, U87 MG, Hep G2 and SK-OV-3. Several compounds displayed better activities than the control compound amonafide. Further evaluations by fluorescence spectroscopy studies and DNA-interstrand cross-linking assays revealed that the derivatives showed both alkylating and intercalating properties. Among the derivatives, the bis-naphthalimide N-mustard derivative 11b was found to exhibit the highest cytotoxic activity and DNA cross-linking ability. Both 11b and 7b induce HCT-116 cell apoptosis by S phase arrest.

  8. Sulfur mustard toxicity: history, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Panahi, Yunes; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2011-05-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) and similar bifunctional agents have been used as chemical weapons for almost 100 years. Victims of high-dose exposure, both combatants and civilians, may die within hours or weeks, but low-dose exposure causes both acute injury to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other parts of the body, and chronic sequelae in these organs are often debilitating and have a serious impact on quality of life. Ever since they were first used in warfare in 1917, SM and other mustard agents have been the subjects of intensive research, and their chemistry, pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of toxic action are now fairly well understood. In the present article we review this knowledge and relate the molecular-biological basis of SM toxicity, as far as it has been elucidated, to the pathological effects on exposure victims.

  9. Effect of LED lamping on the chlorophylls of leaf mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Liang; Zhao, Fuli; Yang, Bowen; Chen, Zuxin; Cai, Ruhai; Chen, Jiansheng

    The absorption coefficients of chloroplast of leaf mustard were measured by a spectrophotometer. The leaves were collected from seven treatments with different lighting. The chlorophyll content was calculated following Arnon equation. LEDs for filling the light source can increase the conduction of plants. Compared with other treatments, Chlorophyll in the leaves got an higher concentration under the lamping of red LEDS to blue LEDS for 7:1 .

  10. Infecções urinárias e uso de cateter vesical de demora em unidade pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Iranilda Queirós

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar los agentes etiológicos de infección urinaria en niños sometidos al cateterismo vesical prolongado, ingresados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, el tiempo de uso y la indicación de ese catéter. La población estuvo constituida por niños atendidos en la Unidad Pedlátríca de un hospital escuela, de julio a diciembre/ 2006. Los datos fueron recogidos de los historiales médicos de 38 niños que usaban sonda vesical prolongada. La principal indicación del cateterismo fue el monitoreo del débito urinario. El tiempo de uso del catéter vesical 21 (55,3% fue de 7 a 30 días, 14 (36,8% 30 días. El principal agente etiológico evidenciado fue el Escheríchia con (2,6%. Se constató que los niños que utilizaron catéter vesical prolongado presentaron un considerable índice de infección urinaria de acuerdo con los datos de la literatura.

  11. Verification, Dosimetry and Biomonitoring of Mustard Gas Exposure via Immunochemical Detection of Mustard Gas Adducts to DNA and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    11.11.2. The samples resulting from the various treatments were tested in the competitive ELISA . Treatment Vih alkli Single-stranded calf-thymus DNA...exposure, Biomonitoring, Verification, Immunochemical detection, Competitive ELISA , Interstrand DNA crossslinking, Alkaline elution. Monoclonal antibodies...material at 50 ng per well. A competitive ELISA was developed in which mustard gas adducts to DNA could be detected with a minimum detectable amount of a few

  12. Effect of material properties on predicted vesical pressure during a cough in a simplified computational model of the bladder and urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirka, Thomas; Kenton, Kimberly; Brubaker, Linda; Damaser, Margot S

    2013-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence is a condition that affects mainly women and is characterized by the involuntary loss of urine in conjunction with an increase in abdominal pressure but in the absence of a bladder contraction. In spite of the large number of women affected by this condition, little is known regarding the mechanics associated with the maintenance of continence in women. Urodynamic measurements of the pressure acting on the bladder and the pressures developed within the bladder and the urethra offer a potential starting point for constructing computational models of the bladder and urethra during stress events. The measured pressures can be utilized in these models to provide information to specify loads and validate the models. The main goals of this study were to investigate the feasibility of incorporating human urodynamic pressure data into a computational model of the bladder and the urethra during a cough and determine if the resulting model could be validated through comparison of predicted and measured vesical pressure. The results of this study indicated that simplified models can predict vesical pressures that differ by less than 5 cmH(2)O (pressure measurements. In addition, varying material properties had a minimal impact on the vesical pressure and displacements predicted by the model. The latter finding limits the use of vesical pressure as a validation criterion since different parameters can yield similar results in the same model. However, the insensitivity of vesical pressure predictions to material properties ensures that the outcome of our models is not highly sensitive to tissue material properties, which are not well characterized.

  13. Phytocontact Dermatitis due to Mustard Seed Mimicking Burn Injury: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yabanoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustard seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine as a stimulant, diuretic, and purgative and to treat a variety of ailments including peritonitis and neuralgia. Mustards are still used today in mustard plasters to treat rheumatism, arthritis, chest congestion, aching back, and sore muscles. To make a mustard plaster, mix equal parts of flour and powdered mustard and spread it as a paste on a doubled piece of soft cloth. Apply mustard plaster to the affected area for a maximum of 15 minutes. Prolonged application can result in burns to the skin and nerve damage. Skin lesions occur within hours after exposure, and there is no significant therapy procedure. This case report is about a patient with second-degree burn, occurred when a mixture including mustard seed was exposed to her skin in the pain therapy of the osteoarthritis in her left knee. There are no studies analyzing treatment of skin burns induced by mustard seed in the literature. While in this type of burns our experience is limited, we think that conservative approach should be first choice of treatment.

  14. Effect of Different Concentration of Whole Yellow Mustard on Color of Commercial Tomato Ketchup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morvarid Yousefi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ketchup is one of most important of tomato products. To increase the consistency, some hydrocolloid such as Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC should be added into the final products. However, CMC is a chemical product and has been shown some defects in point of health view as well as functional properties. Therefore, some alternatives are introduced. In this study, the effect of different concentration whole Yellow mustard on color of ketchup has been considered. The control was modified with increasing the different concentration of yellow mustard. For each sample, the color parameters in CIELAB color space were determined. The results were compared with the control sample which includes nothing of mustard. Results have shown for a concentration of 1.5% of yellow mustard the color properties of the product didn’t differ very much from the standard color quality. This is an important point to replace CMC by yellow mustard.

  15. A RARE CASE OF LARGE VESICAL CALCULUS AROUND A PROL ONGED DOUBLE J STENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kr.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: D/J stents constitute an important armamentarium in the hands of an urosurgeon. During short term placement (4-12 weeks, they may c ause flank pain and irritative voiding symptoms, referred to as “stent syndrome.” Complicati ons occur in patients with long term placement of stents who do not come for follow-up - t he forgotten stent. We report a female case with something coming out from external meatus since 2 days with past history of open surgery for right PUJ obstruction with D/J stent in sertion 9 years ago. X-ray KUB & USG abdomen shows a huge vesical calculus around remain ing of the D/J stent. We operated the case with good outcome. This type of rare presentation o f D/J stent motivate us to report this case

  16. Qualidade de vida de pacientes com disfunções vesicoesfincterianas em programa de cateterismo vesical intermitente limpo

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Gonzalez Rodrigues Pereira

    2010-01-01

    O cateterismo vesical intermitente limpo é uma técnica terapêutica que vem sendo amplamente utilizada na prática urológica nos últimos trinta anos em pacientes com disfunção vesicoesfincteriana. Mesmo apresentando diversos benefícios, como: continência funcional, melhora da imagem corporal, diminuição do número de infecções do trato urinário, redução das complicações renais a longo prazo, promoção de um impacto positivo na qualidade de vida, é um procedimento que acarreta mudanças na vida dos...

  17. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Capsaicinoids, chloropicrin and sulfur mustard: Possibilities for exposure biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Pesonen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapacitating and irritating agents produce temporary disability persisting for hours to days after the exposure. One can be exposed to these agents occupationally in industrial or other working environments. Also general public can be exposed in special circumstances, like industrial accidents or riots. Incapacitating and irritating agents discussed in this review are chloropicrin and capsaicinoids. In addition, we include sulfur mustard, which is an old chemical warfare agent and known to cause severe long-lasting injuries or even death. Chloropicrin that was used as a warfare agent in the World War I is currently used mainly as a pesticide. Capsaicinoids, components of hot pepper plants, are used by police and other law enforcement personnel as riot control agents. Toxicity of these chemicals is associated particularly with the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Their acute effects are relatively well known but the knowledge of putative long-term effects is almost non-existent. Also, mechanisms of effects at cellular level are not fully understood. There is a need for further research to get better idea of health risks, particularly of long-term and low-level exposures to these chemicals. For this, exposure biomarkers are essential. Validated exposure biomarkers for capsaicinoids, chloropicrin and sulfur mustard do not exist so far. Metabolites and macromolecular adducts have been suggested biomarkers for sulfur mustard and these can already be measured qualitatively, but quantitative biomarkers await further development and validation. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing mechanistic and toxicokinetic information, to shed light on the possibilities for developing biomarkers for exposure biomonitoring of these compounds. It is also of interest to find ideas for early effect biomarkers considering the need for studies on subchronic and chronic toxicity.

  19. Interaction of sulfur mustard with rat liver salt fractionated chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahvash; Nateghi, M; Rabbani, A

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the interaction of an alkylating agent, sulfur mustard (SM) with rat liver active (S1 and S2) and inactive (P2) chromatin was investigated employing UV/vis spectroscopy and gel electrophoreses. The results show that SM affects the chromatin structure in a dose-dependent manner. The binding of SM to fractions is different. At lower concentrations (<500 microM), SM seems to unfold the structure and at higher concentrations, it induces aggregation and condensation of chromatin possibly via forming cross-links between the chromatin components. The extent of condensation in S2 is higher when compared to the P2 fraction.

  20. Enhancing effects of mustard oil on preneoplastic hepatic foci development in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Arora, Annu

    2003-02-01

    Dietary habits are known to be the major contributory factor in the development of cancer. Mustard oil, which is extensively used in India and elsewhere as a flying and cooking medium, is reported to induce an inflammatory response. The development of altered hepatic foci is an early carcinogenic change in rat liver in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, the development of preneoplastic lesions was observed following administration of mustard oil (0.5 mL/day for 8 weeks) in DEN-initiated and partially hepatomized Wistar rats. A significant decrease in the relative and absolute liver weight of mustard oil-exposed rats was recorded. The results revealed a significant increase in the number and area of placental glutathione-S-transferase (GST-P) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in mustard oil-administered animals. The GST-P- and GGT-positive foci were more prominent in the animals given boiled (up to 300 degrees C for 3 hours) mustard oil in comparison to the animals given fresh mustard oil. These results indicate the possible tumourigenic risk associated with mustard oil consumption.

  1. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. Cosson: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Shekhawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation of rapeseed-mustard becomes less remunerative to the farmers. This results in a big gap between requirement and production of mustard in India. Therefore site-specific nutrient management through soil-test recommendation based should be adopted to improve upon the existing yield levels obtained at farmers field. Effective management of natural resources, integrated approach to plant-water, nutrient and pest management and extension of rapeseed-mustard cultivation to newer areas under different cropping systems will play a key role in further increasing and stabilizing the productivity and production of rapeseed-mustard. The paper reviews the advances in proper land and seedbed preparation, optimum seed and sowing, planting technique, crop geometry, plant canopy, appropriate cropping system, integrated nutrient management and so forth to meet the ever growing demand of oil in the country and to realize the goal of production of 24 million tonnes of oilseed by 2020 AD through these advanced management techniques.

  2. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J. Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. subsp. maire) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Olukayode Adediran; Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70° C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less inactivation. For example, application of 300 MPa and 70 °C for 10 min retained 20%, 80% and 65% activity in yellow, black and brown mustard, respectively, whereas the corresponding activity retentions when applying only heat (70° C, 10 min) were 0%, 59% and 35%. Thus, application of moderate pressures (200-400 MPa) can potentially be used to retain myrosinase activity needed for subsequent glucosinolate hydrolysis.

  3. Recogida de urocultivo por sondaje vesical en niños: una observación sistemática/Coleta de urocultura por sonda vesical em criança: uma observação sistemática/Collect of uroculture by urinary catheter in child: a systematic observation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guimarães, Marcelle Sampaio de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    ... evaluativo, prospectivo y cuantitativo, tiene por objeto comparar los resultados de los urocultivos por sondaje vesical recogidos por enfermeras del Ambulatorio y Enfermería de un Hospital Universitario Pediátrico teniendo en cuenta el material y la técnica utilizada en el procedimiento.La población de estudio consistió en 12 enfermeros, 4 ...

  4. In-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Durge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of mustard cake (Brassica juncea L. levels in concentrate mixtures and in composite feed mixtures (CFMs on in-vitro fermentation characteristics and methane production. Materials and Methods: Five concentrate mixtures were prepared with containing 30% oil cake, where linseed cake was replaced by mustard cake at the rate of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30% in concentrate mixture. Mustard cake contained glucosinolate 72.58 μmol/g oil free dry matter (DM and contents in diet were 0, 5.4, 10.9, 16.3, and 21.8 μmol/g of concentrate mixture, respectively. Concentrate mixture containing 15.0% mustard cake was found to produced minimum methane which was then used for the preparation of CFM containing 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% levels with gram straw. Result: Increased levels of mustard cake in concentrate mixtures had a linear decrease (p<0.05 in the total gas production, and the 15% inclusion showed lowest methane concentration (quadratic, p<0.01. The degradability of DM and organic matter (OM of concentrate mixtures did not change, however, pH and NH3-N concentrations of the fermentation medium showed linear (p<0.05 reductions with increased mustard cake levels. Increased levels of 15% mustard cake containing concentrate mixture in CFMs exhibited a trend (p=0.052 of increased gas production, whereas methane concentration in total gas, methane produced and degradability of DM and OM were also displayed a linear increase (p<0.05. However, the pH, NH3-N, and total volatile fatty acid levels decreased linearly (p<0.05 with increased levels of concentrate in CFMs. Conclusion: Reduction in methane production was evidenced with the inclusion of mustard cake in concentrate mixture at 15% level, and the CFMs with 25% concentrate, which contained 15% mustard cake, exhibited an improved fermentation and reduced methane production.

  5. Mustard catch crop enhances denitrification in shallow groundwater beneath a spring barley field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, M M R; Minet, E P; Johnston, P; Premrov, A; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Richards, K G

    2014-05-01

    Over-winter green cover crops have been reported to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in groundwater, which can be used as an energy source for denitrifiers. This study investigates the impact of a mustard catch crop on in situ denitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an aquifer overlain by arable land. Denitrification rates and N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) mole fractions were measured in situ with a push-pull method in shallow groundwater under a spring barley system in experimental plots with and without a mustard cover crop. The results suggest that a mustard cover crop could substantially enhance reduction of groundwater nitrate NO3--N via denitrification without significantly increasing N2O emissions. Mean total denitrification (TDN) rates below mustard cover crop and no cover crop were 7.61 and 0.002 μg kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. Estimated N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) ratios, being 0.001 and 1.0 below mustard cover crop and no cover crop respectively, indicate that denitrification below mustard cover crop reduces N2O to N2, unlike the plot with no cover crop. The observed enhanced denitrification under the mustard cover crop may result from the higher groundwater DOC under mustard cover crop (1.53 mg L(-1)) than no cover crop (0.90 mg L(-1)) being added by the root exudates and root masses of mustard. This study gives insights into the missing piece in agricultural nitrogen (N) balance and groundwater derived N2O emissions under arable land and thus helps minimise the uncertainty in agricultural N and N2O-N balances.

  6. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  7. Preservation of the smooth muscular internal (vesical) sphincter and of the proximal urethra during retropubic radical prostatectomy: A technical modification to improve the early recovery of continence

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio Brunocilla; Riccardo Schiavina; Marco Borghesi; Cristian Pultrone; Matteo Cevenini; Valerio Vagnoni; Giuseppe Martorana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We describe our technique for preservation of the smooth muscular internal (vesical) sphincter and proximal urethra during radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and present our preliminary clinical results. Materials and methods: The first steps of the prostatectomy reflect the standard RRP, while for the final phases the procedure continues in an anterograde manner with incision of the fibers of the detrusor muscle at the insertion of the ventral surface of the base of the prosta...

  8. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  9. Effect of mustard seed and sodium isoascorbate on lipid oxidation and colour of ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karwowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the mustard seed in reducing lipid oxidation in ground beef compared to sodium isoascorbate. The research material were meat samples, prepared in four variants. The differentiating addition was ground white mustard (Sinapis alba, used in the native and autoclaved form. Reference were a control sample and a sample with the addition of sodium isoascorbate. The following were assayed during the study: TBARS value, redox potential, pH and colour parameters CIE L*a*b*. The addition of mustard had no effect on the pH value in comparison to the control sample and sodium isoascorbate. It has been shown that the use of mustard either native and autoclaved, decreased the value of TBARS ratio, and showed a similar effectiveness in preventing the oxidation of lipids as sodium isoascorbate.

  10. Ventricular assist device for failing systemic ventricle in an adult with prior mustard procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Robert C; Davis, Robert Patrick; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Takayama, Hiroo; Khalpey, Zain; Ginns, Jonathan; Lee, Sun Hi; Chen, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    The Mustard procedure is a palliative surgical procedure used to repair complete transposition of the great arteries. Cardiac transplantation remains the only definitive therapy for patients who develop heart failure after a Mustard procedure. However, pulmonary hypertension represents a major hemodynamic contraindication. The use of a ventricular assist device as destination therapy has not yet been established after a Mustard procedure. Here, we present the case of a 41-year-old patient who presented with systemic right ventricular failure following Mustard procedure complicated by pulmonary hypertension. The patient received a HeartMate II (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA) ventricular assist device as a bridge to decision. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella by combinations of oriental mustard, malic acid, and EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial activities of oriental mustard extract alone or combined with malic acid and EDTA were investigated against Salmonella spp. or Listeria monocytogenes at different temperatures. Five strain Salmonella or L. monocytogenes cocktails were separately inoculated in Brain Heart Infusion broth containing 0.5% (w/v) aqueous oriental mustard extract and incubated at 4 °C to 21 °C for 21 d. For inhibitor combination tests, Salmonella Typhimurium 02:8423 and L. monocytogenes 2-243 were individually inoculated in Mueller Hinton broth containing the mustard extract with either or both 0.2% (w/v) malic acid and 0.2% (w/v) EDTA and incubated at 10 °C or 21 °C for 10 to 14 d. Mustard extract inhibited growth of the L. monocytogenes cocktail at 4 °C up to 21 d (2.3 log10 CFU/mL inhibition) or at 10 °C for 7 d (2.4 log10 CFU/mL inhibition). Salmonella spp. viability was slightly, but significantly reduced by mustard extract at 4 °C by 21 d. Although hydrolysis of sinigrin in mustard extract by both pathogens was 2 to 6 times higher at 21 °C than at 4 °C to 10 °C, mustard was not inhibitory at 21 °C, perhaps because of the instability of its hydrolysis product (allyl isothiocyanate). At 21 °C, additive inhibitory effects of mustard extract with EDTA or malic acid led to undetectable levels of S. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 7 d and 10 d, respectively. At 10 °C, S. Typhimurium was similarly susceptible, but combinations of antimicrobials were not more inhibitory to L. monocytogenes than the individual agents.

  12. A Literature Review on the Mechanism of Action of Sulphur and Nitrogen Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    formation of a diglutathione conjugate between phenylalanine mustard and GSH has been demonstrated (Dulik et al, 1986). Reduction of GSH levels by buthione ...resistant to nitrogen mustard) have twice the GSH present in sensitive cells, the reduction of GSH by buthione sulphoximine did not affect the...L- buthione . S,R-sulfoximine on cytotoxicity and DNA cross-linking induced by bifunctional DNA-reactive cytostatic drugs in human melanoma cells

  13. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal formation of crucifer leaf mustard induced by flavonoids apigenin and daidzein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Changjin; ZHAO Bin

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoids from legume root secretion may probably act as signal molecules for expression of Rhizobial "nod" nodulation genes and AM fungal symbiotic gene. Leaf mustard is a non-mycorrhizal plant; it does not contain fiavonoids and other signal molecules. AM fungi could not infect the roots of leaf mustard and form a symbiont in nature,when it was treated with fiavonoids (apigenin or daidzein).The results of trypan blue staining showed that two kinds of AM fungi (G. intraradices and G mosseae) successfully infected the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant leaf mustard. AM fungi grew towards and colonized the roots of leaf mustard,producing young spores and completing the course of life.AM fungi are the only one kind of fungi with ALP activity.The result of ALP staining has also proved that AM fungi infected successfully the roots of leaf mustard. AM fungi (G.intraradices and G. mosseae) that existed in the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant leaf mustard were probed by nested PCR and special molecular probes. The above-mentioned proof chains have fully proved that fiavonoids induced AM fungi (G. intraradices and G mosseae) to infect non-mycorrhizal plant and establish symbiotic relationship.

  15. Serum Metabolomic Profiling of Sulphur Mustard-Exposed Individuals Using (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Zahra; Ghanei, Mostafa; Panahi, Yunus; Arjmand, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Mirkhani, Fatemeh; Parvin, Shahram; Salehi, Maryam; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Vahabi, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Sulphur mustard is an alkylating agent that reacts with different cellular components, causing acute and delayed complications that may remain for decades after exposure. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed metabolites between mustard-exposed individuals suffering from chronic complications compared with unexposed individuals as the control group. Serum samples were obtained from 15 mustard-exposed individuals and 15 apparently healthy unexposed individuals. Metabolomic profiling was performed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and analyses were carried out using Chenomex and MATLAB softwares. Metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database, and the main metabolic pathways were identified using MetaboAnalyst software. Chemometric analysis of serum samples identified 11 differentially expressed metabolites between mustard-exposed and unexposed groups. The main pathways that were influenced by sulphur mustard exposure were related to vitamin B6 (down-regulation), bile acid (up-regulation) and tryptophan (down-regulation) metabolism. Metabolism of vitamin B6, bile acids and tryptophan are the most severely impaired pathways in individuals suffering from chronic mustard-induced complications. These findings may find implications in the monitoring of exposed patients and identification of new therapeutic approaches.

  16. A case of rectovagino-vesical fistula due to radiation therapy for uterine cancer treated with covered expandable metallic stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsukasa, Shunroh; Okabe, Satoshi; Tanami, Hideaki [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2002-04-01

    A 65-year-old woman had received a panhysterectomy and radiation therapy for a uterine cancer in 1974 and underwent a drainage operation for a peritonitis due to rupture of the bladder associated with radiation cystitis in 1983. A rectovesical fistula was revealed and partial resection of the bladder and rectum was performed in 1996. In 1998, rectovesical fistula recurred and symptom of fecaluria and contact-type dermatitis at perineal region subsequently worsened. In February, 2000, colonoscopy and gastrograffin-enema revealed a giant recto-vagino-vesical fistula. Although we recommended ileostomy, the patient refused our offer. She gave informed consent to our proposal about the insertion of a covered expandable metallic stent (EMS) into the rectum to treat for fecaluria. After insertion of a covered EMS, fecaluria and contact-type dermatitis at perineal region subsequently improved. Three months later, fecaluria appeared again. Finally, seven months later, severe inflammation occurred at perineal and pubic region because of migration of the covered EMS into the bladder, then we removed the covered EMS and performed ileostomy. It is difficult to use the covered EMS treatment for benign rectovesical or rectovaginal fistula for a long term. (author)

  17. Eversión vesical completa a través de una fístula vesicovaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoan Aragón Charry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La eversión vesical completa es rara. Se presenta el caso de una eversión de vejiga urinaria a través de una fístula vesicovaginal acompañada de prolapso útero-vaginal concurrente. Se trata de paciente de 70 años que presentó una tumoración compatible con un prolapso vaginal grado IV y una tumoración edematosa, pegajosa y piriforme por delante del prolapso compatible con la vejiga con un orificio en la pared anterior de la vagina a través del cual la mucosa de la vejiga estaba evertida, procediendo al reposicionamiento y corrección manual de la eversión para luego ser corregida quirúrgicamente. Complete bladder eversion through vesicovaginal fistula Abstract Complete bladder eversion is rare. A case of bladder eversion trough vesicovaginal fistula accompanied with concomitant uterovaginal prolapse is presented. A 70 year-old patients presented a tumor compatible with vaginal prolapse type IV and an edematous, sticky and piriform tumor ahead of prolapse compatible with bladder with an orifice on anterior wall of vagina through bladder mucosa was everted, proceeding to reduction and manual correction of eversion and then was surgical corrected.

  18. Lipid Profile Status in Mustard Lung Patients and its Relation to Severity of Airflow Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD secondary to sulfur mustard gas poisoning, known as mustard lung, is a major late pulmonary complications in chemical warfare patients. Serious comorbidities like dyslipidemia are frequently encountered in COPD. The aim of this study was to measure the serum lipid profile and evaluate the relation of lipid parameters with the severity of airway obstruction in mustard lung patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six non-smoker mustard lung patients with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were entered into this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 36 healthy non-smoker men were considered in this study. Serum lipid profile was performed in the patients and the controls. Spirometry was done in mustard lung patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47±6.80 SD years. The mean duration of COPD was 18.50±7.75 SD years. There were statistically significant differences in mean serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels between patients and controls (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively.The mean levels of lipid parameters were not statistically significant different among the 4 stages of COPD severity (p>0.05. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol are elevated in mustard lung patients compared with the healthy controls. Since lipid profile abnormalities are considered as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especial attention to this matter is recommended in mustard lung patients

  19. Mesoporous binary metal oxide nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J., E-mail: praveenjella10@gmail.com; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Singh, Beer; Gopi, T.; Krishna, R.

    2016-04-15

    Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. They were synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive analysis of X rays, X ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption techniques. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption data indicated the presence of pores with diameter ranging from 10 to 70 nm in the binary metal oxide nanocomposites and these materials exhibited surface area values in the range of 76–134 m{sup 2}/g. These binary metal oxide nanocomposites demonstrated large decontamination efficiencies against sulfur mustard when compared to their single component metal oxide nanoparticles. The binary metal oxide nanocomposites effectively decontaminated sulfur mustard into relatively non toxic products such as chloro ethyl vinyl sulfide, divinyl sulfide, 1,4-oxathiane, etc. The promising decontamination properties of binary metal oxide nanocomposites against sulfur mustard were attributed to the basic sites, Lewis acid sites, and the presence of these sites was confirmed by CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} temperature programmed desorption. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. - Highlights: • Binary metal oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • They were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. • They decontaminated sulfur mustard into non toxic products. • MnO{sub 2}–ZnO and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO nanocomposites showed greater decontamination efficiency.

  20. 膀胱白斑四型法病理分型及临床意义%Pathological classification of vesical leukoplakia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐秀英; 叶章群; 官阳; 邢金春; 李良玉; 唐敏

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨膀胱自斑的病理分型及其临床意义.方法 经膀胱镜下活检病理确诊膀胱白斑患者726例.女710例,男16例.平均年龄41(17~78)岁.随机取白斑边缘旁1.0、1.5、2.0、2.5 cm处膀胱黏膜共121例次,同期50例慢性膀胱炎膀胱黏膜标本作为对照,根据膀胱白斑的病理特点进行病理分型.并与传统分型法比较.结果 726例标本根据细胞变异程度、鳞状细胞角化程度、基膜形状等不同分为4型:0型30例、Ⅰ型42例、Ⅱ型585例、Ⅲ型69例.而按传统分型法其中60例难以确切分型.101例白斑边缘旁2.0 cm内膀胱黏膜标本中已存在病理改变64例.结论 膀胱白斑4型病理分型法可较全面地反映膀胱自斑的病理特点及发生、发展过程.根据病理分型可考虑改进膀胱白斑的传统治疗方式.%Objective To discuss the pathological classification and clinical features of vesical leukoplakia.Methods Seven hundred and twenty-six consecutive cases diagnosed of vesical leukoplakia with cystoseopy and biopsy were reviewed.The mean age was 41 years(range 17 to 78),710 females and 16 males.Of these 726 cases,121 biopsies were undergone randomly at the sites of 1.0 cm,1.5 cm,2.0 cm and 2.5 cm away from vesical leukoplakia margins.The pathologic characteristics of vesical leukoplakia were observed and compared simultaneously with the results of 50 specimens of chronic cystitis.The new pathological classification system was carried out and compared with the traditional one.Results According to the difference in the degree of the cell variation,the degree of keratinizing squamous metaplasia and the shape of basement membrane,the lesions were divided into 4 types.Of these 726 cases,30 type 0(4.1%),42 type Ⅰ(5.8%),585 type Ⅱ(80.6 0A),and 69 type Ⅲ(9.5%).Sixty samples were difficult to be classified by traditional classification system.There were 101 biopsies within 2.0 cm para-leukoplakia area,and 64 of them had presented with

  1. Effects of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 inhibition on sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous injuries in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Early studies with first-generation poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors have already indicated some therapeutic potential for sulfur mustard (SM injuries. The available novel and more potential PARP inhibitors, which are undergoing clinical trials as drugs for cancer treatment, bring it back to the centre of interest. However, the role of PARP-1 in SM-induced injury is not fully understood. In this study, we selected a high potent specific PARP inhibitor ABT-888 as an example to investigate the effect of PARP inhibitor in SM injury. The results showed that in both the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM and HaCaT cell model, PARP inhibitor ABT-888 can reduce cell damage induced by severe SM injury. ABT-888 significantly reduced SM induced edema and epidermal necrosis in MEVM. In the HaCaT cell model, ABT-888 can reduce SM-induced NAD+/ATP depletion and apoptosis/necrosis. Then, we studied the mechanism of PARP-1 in SM injury by knockdown of PARP-1 in HaCaT cells. Knockdown of PARP-1 protected cell viability and downregulated the apoptosis checkpoints, including p-JNK, p-p53, Caspase 9, Caspase 8, c-PARP and Caspase 3 following SM-induced injury. Furthermore, the activation of AKT can inhibit autophagy via the regulation of mTOR. Our results showed that SM exposure could significantly inhibit the activation of Akt/mTOR pathway. Knockdown of PARP-1 reversed the SM-induced suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. In summary, the results of our study indicated that the protective effects of downregulation of PARP-1 in SM injury may be due to the regulation of apoptosis, necrosis, energy crisis and autophagy. However, it should be noticed that PARP inhibitor ABT-888 further enhanced the phosphorylation of H2AX (S139 after SM exposure, which indicated that we should be very careful in the application of PARP inhibitors in SM injury treatment because of the enhancement of DNA damage.

  2. Study of the Efficacy of CC-2 and Fuller's Earth Combination as a Decontaminant against Sulphur Mustard (Mustard Gas Dermal Intoxication in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Decontamination efficacy of Fuller's earth and CC-2 independently; and in different combinations was evaluated against toxicity of sulphur mustard applied percutaneously on mice. Maximum protection was obtained with Fuller's earth and CC-2 in a combination of 80:20(w/w.

  3. Cateterismo vesical de demora na UTI adulto: o papel do enfermeiro na prevenção de infecção do trato urinário

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Simone Aparecida Caetano; Maia, Luiz Faustino dos Santos; Faculdade Nossa Cidade - FNC. Faculdade Mario Schenberg - FMS.

    2014-01-01

    As infecções em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva estão associadas à gravidade clinica dos pacientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o papel do enfermeiro na prevenção de infecção do trato unário relacionado ao cateterismo vesical de demora na UTI adulto. Trata-se de um de revisão integrativa bibliográfica, onde foram usadas as bases de dados de Enfermagem da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. A importância de estudos para prevenção destas infecções relacionadas ao cateter vesical de demora, o ...

  4. Infecção do trato urinário relacionada com a utilização do catéter vesical de demora: resultados da bacteriúria e da microbiota estudadas

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão e Souza Neto; Oliveira,Frederico Vilela de; Kobaz,Alberto Kalil; Margareth N. P. Silva; Lima,Alcedir Raiser; Maciel,Luiz Carlos

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o momento do início da bacteriúria e o germe mais freqüentemente relacionado à infecção urinária nos pacientes submetidos à sondagem vesical de demora. MÉTODO: No período de setembro de 2003 a outubro de 2004, foram avaliados os pacientes com 13 anos ou mais, submetidos à operações eletivas com cateterismo vesical de demora. Na inserção do cateter foi colhida a primeira amostra de urina, denominada Amostra 1, e outras seqüencialmente a cada 12 horas. Estas foram analisadas q...

  5. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, specifically inactivates Mustard Trypsin Inhibitor 2 (MTI2) to overcome host plant defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, L.; Fang, Zhiyuan; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The mustard trypsin inhibitor family has so far only been described among cruciferous species which represent the host plants for the specialist diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. The performance of a Dutch and Chinese strain of DBM was assessed on transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Mustard

  6. Immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard-adducts with DNA and proteins: Exploratory research on adducts with proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Noort, D.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed two modes of a standard operating procedure (SOP) for immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard adducts to DNA in human blood and skin. In the shortened mode data could be generated within 9 h after in vitro exposure of human blood to > 1 μM sulfur mustard. The sensitive mode allo

  7. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis) on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajjad Mohebali; Mohammad Salarmoini; Neda Eskandarzade

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone) in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4) received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively) andtest groups (No. 5, 6 and 7) receivedFeSO4 (1%)-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively) on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15%FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions:We concluded that up to 10%FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  8. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  9. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Mohebali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4 received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively and test groups (No. 5, 6 and 7 received FeSO4 (1%-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15% FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions: We concluded that up to 10% FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Teratogenic effects of sulfur mustard on mice fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjarmoosavi, Nasrin; Sanjarmoosavi, Naser; Shahsavan, Marziyeh; Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi, Mohammad

    2012-05-01

    Sulfur Mustard (SM) has been used as a chemical warfare agent, in the World War I and more recently during Iraq-Iran war in early 1980s'. Its biological poisoning effect could be local or systemic and its effect depends on environmental conditions, exposed organs, and the extent and duration of exposure. It is considered as a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic, carcinogenic effects; although a few studies have been performed on its teratogenicity so far. Mice were administered with SM intraperitoneally with a dose of 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg in different periods of their gestation (gestational age of 11, 13 and 14 weeks). Control mice groups were included. Between 5 and 9 mice were used in each group. Dams underwent cesarean section on day 19 of their gestation. External examination was performed on the animals investigating craniofacial and septal defects and limb malformations such as adactyly and syndactyly. All data were analyzed by Chi-Square test and Fisher's exact test. The P- value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Craniofacial and septal defects as well as the limb malformations were the most common types of birth defects, displaying an extremely complex biomedical problem. This study confirms a significant correlation between SM exposure and its teratogenic effect. We postulated that the malformations could be caused by an uncontrolled migration of neural crest cells, causing developmental disorders. In addition to environmental factors, modifying genes could play an important role in the pathogenesis of the defects.

  11. Reduction and coordination of arsenic in Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, I J; Prince, R C; George, M J; Smith, R D; George, G N; Salt, D E

    2000-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an As(III)-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an As(III)-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from As(III)-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element.

  12. Mechanisms of sulfur mustard-induced metabolic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, M.E.; Smith, W.J.

    1993-05-13

    Studies on the mechanism of metabolic injury induced by sulfur mustard (2, 2'- dichlorodiethyl sulfide, HD) have demonstrated that exposure of human epidermal keratinocytes in culture to HD induces time- and dose-dependent NAD+ depletion and inhibition of glucose metabolism (Martens, Biochem. Pharmacol., in press). Both occurred relatively early after alkylation, preceding the loss of membrane integrity that is indicative of metabolic cell death. The inhibition of glycolysis induced by HD was only partially correlated with the depletion of NAD+ and, thus, was not simply of changes in the NAD+ level. Rather, HD appeared to induce complex shifts in the pattern of glucose metabolism that paralleled both the timing and degree of injury. In line with these findings, recent experiments have shown that partial protection against HD-induced NAD+ depletion by 1 mM niacinamide did not protect against the inhibition of glycolysis. In preliminary experiments examining the effect of HD-induced metabolic changes on the cellular energy state, dose-dependent depletion of ATP was seen at 24 hours after exposure, but not at 4 or 8 hours. As seen for glucose metabolism, 1 mM niacinamide did not prevent the loss of high-energy intermediate (ATP). We conclude from these studies that relationships among HD exposure, glucose metabolism, and intracellular NAD and ATP are more complex than originally proposed (Papirmeister et al, Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 5:S134, 1985).

  13. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  14. Litiasis vesical por cuerpo extraño en vejiga. Presentación de un caso clínico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norys Sofía Aguiar Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La litiasis vesical es una patología frecuente en el sexo masculino mayor de 50 años. Los cálculos vesicales en la mujer son muy raros y usualmente están asociados a divertículo uretral o a ureterocele (7,8 dentro de las causas de litiasis vesical está la presencia de cuerpos extraños, como en el caso de mujeres operadas de incontinencia urinaria y la formación de litiasis a partir de restos de suturas, es importante sospechar la presencia de cuerpo extraño en la vejiga ante una paciente en edad fértil, con disuria y sepsis urinaria a repetición. Se presenta un caso clínico de una mujer con sepsis urinaria rebelde a tratamiento y disuria mantenida. Se diagnostica por cistoscopía la presencia de una litiasis urinaria en vejiga, es intervenida quirúrgicamente encontrándose una litiasis a partir de una guía de un Dispositivo Intrauterino (DIU que perforó la vejiga.

  15. Assessment of vesical-ureteral reflux in transplant patients using radionuclide cystography; Exploration scintigraphique des reflux vesico-renaux chez les patients transplantes renaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampach, H.; Gibold, C.; Loboguerrero, A.; Bouchard, A.; Lepailleur, A.; Liehn, J.C. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer, 51 - Reims (France); Canivet, E.; Toupance, O.; Chanard, J.; Brandt, B.; Lardennois, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 51 - Reims (France)

    1995-12-31

    Direct radionuclide cystography is known to be sensitive and safe in children with suspected vesical-ureteral reflux. In this study we have investigated the utility of direct radionuclide cystography in renal transplant recipients with a recent history of pyelonephritis or recurrent urinary infections. Direct radionuclide cystography is a simple test, however it requires a rigorous methodology in order to obtain images during fill-in as well as during voiding in both men and women. The images must be interpreted using a rigorous image display methodology. Twenty-eight radionuclide cystographies were performed in 17 patients. Among the 17 tests performed for the initial diagnosis of reflux , 12 were positive. Four patients with positive results and four patients with negative results were also investigated by radiologic cystography. Similar results were obtained in those patients. Nine scintigraphies were done after treatment by surgery or teflon injection ; six of them were negative. Direct radionuclide cystography is a simple, safe and sensitive test which demonstrates a vesical-ureteral reflux. Such a defect has been documented in some 70% of real transplant recipients with a recent history of urinary tract infection. (authors). 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  17. Surface decontamination for blister agents Lewisite, sulfur mustard and agent yellow, a Lewisite and sulfur mustard mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Harry; See, David; Smiley, Autumn; Ellingson, Anthony; Schimmoeller, Jessica; Oudejans, Lukas

    2016-08-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use; Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3% solution; and EasyDECON(®) DF200). All decontaminants reduced the amount of L recovered from coupons. Application of dilute bleach showed little or no difference compared to natural attenuation in the amount of HD recovered from coupons. Full-strength bleach was the most effective of four decontaminants at reducing the amount of HD from coupons. Hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) and DF200 did decrease the amount of HD recovered from coupons more than natural attenuation (except DF200 against HD on metal), but substantial amounts of HD remained on some materials. Toxic HD by-products were generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. The effectiveness of decontaminants was found to depend on agent, material, and decontaminant. Increased decontaminant reaction time (60min rather than 30min) did not significantly increase effectiveness. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Validation and comparison of two commercial ELISA kits and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of potentially allergenic mustard in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Štumr, Stepan; Korycanova, Kveta; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-05-01

    The study compares the applicability of two commercial mustard ELISA kits (Mustard ELISA Kit-specific and Mustard ELISA Kit-total) and three in-house developed real-time PCR assays (singleplex assay for white mustard, singleplex assay for black/brown mustard and duplex assay for the detection of white, black and brown mustard). Analyses of raw and brewed model sausages containing white and black/brown mustard in the range from 1 to 50 ppm indicate that both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays allow the detection of traces of mustard in raw and in brewed sausages. The ELISAs were found to be more sensitive than the real-time PCR assays. When the ELISAs and real-time PCR assays were applied to the analysis of 15 commercial foodstuffs differing in their labelling concerning mustard, in one sample mustard was detected with both ELISAs and the three real-time PCR assays although mustard was not indicated on the food ingredient list.

  19. Influence of antiplatelet-anticoagulant drugs on the need of blood components transfusion after vesical transurethral resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Julio Virseda-Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of the antithrombotic preventive therapy on haemorrhage keeps uncertain. We investigate the influence of the antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs (AP/AC drugs on the transfusion requirement after vesical transurethral resection (VTUR. We also describe the epidemiology of the blood components transfusion in our department. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study of a series of patients needing blood transfusion at the Urology Department between June 2010 and June 2013. Selection of 100 consecutive patients who were transfused after VTUR due to bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC (group A = GA. Control group: 100 consecutive patients who underwent VTUR due to BTCC and were not transfused (group B = GB. Transfusion criteria: Haemoglobin < 8 g/dl + anaemia symptoms. Age, gender, associated AP/AC treatment, secondary diagnoses, toxics, tumour stage and grade were analysed. Results: 212 patients required transfusion of a blood component. 169 were men (79% and 43 women (21%. Median age 77.59 years (SD 9.42, range 50-92. Secondary diagnoses: Diabetes Mellitus 64%, high blood pressure 77%, dyslipidemia 52%. 60% of patients were previously treated with AP/AC drugs. Average Haemoglobin pre-transfusion values: 7.4 g/dl (DE ± 0.7. Average Haemoglobin post-transfusion values: 8.9 g/Dl (DE ± 0.72. Most frequent transfusion indications were bladder cancer (37%, kidney cancer (11%, prostate cancer (8%, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP (8%, other urological diagnoses (36%. Intraoperative transfusions indicated by the anaesthesiologist: kidney cancer (33%, BPH (28%. Patients who underwent VTUR due to BTCC were older in GA (77.59 years SD 9.42 than in GB (68.98 years SD 11.78 (p = 0.0001. Similar gender distribution (15 women in GA and 24 in GB. Less patients were asked to keep their treatment with ASA 100mg (AcetylSalicylicAcid in GA (25.64% than in GB (50% (p = 0.0330. More aggressive tumour grade in GA (p = 0.0003 and

  20. Quality characterization of pasta enriched with mustard protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alireza Sadeghi, M; Bhagya, S

    2008-06-01

    Mustard protein isolate (MPI) prepared by steam injection heating for removal of antinutritional factors was used at different levels, including 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, for supplementation of pasta products. The effects of supplementation levels on rheological properties of pasta dough and chemical composition, and cooking, nutritional, and color characteristics of dried samples were evaluated. The results showed that as the supplementation level increased, the dough development time (DDT) increased from 3.5 min in the control to 13.8 min in 10% supplementation level. Maximum consistency (MC) increased from 351 farinograph units (FU) in the control to 371 and 386 FU in 2.5% and 5% supplementation levels, respectively, but decreased to 346 FU in 10% supplementation level. Mixing tolerance index (MTI) decreased as the supplementation increased. The most pronounced effect of enrichment on chemical composition was the increase in protein content; the increase was around 4.5% with supplementation of each 5% MPI in pasta formulation. Study of cooking characteristics of enriched pasta samples showed that cooked weight, cooking loss, protein loss, and stickiness decreased and firmness increased as the supplementation level increased. The nutritional properties of sample showed that enrichment of semolina with MPI had a pronounced effect on lysine, cysteine, arginine, and histidine contents. All computed nutritional indices were higher in enriched samples compared to the control. Color measurement of sample showed that a and b values increased and L value decreased as the supplementation level increased. The SEM of different samples shows that enrichment of pasta with MPI increases the matrix around starch granules.

  1. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  2. 膀胱白斑不同病变部位超微病理及其临床意义%The ultrastructural pathological change and clinical significance of vesical leukoplakia lesions at different areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐秀英; 叶章群; 官阳; 唐敏; 李良玉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the uhrastruchural pathological change and clinical signifi-cance of veaical leukoplakia lesions at different areas. Methods We randomly selected 80 cases/times of the mucosa in central area of vesical leakoplakia,and 89 cases/times of the mucosa located respectively in marginal area of vesical ieukoplakia and 1. 0,2.0,2.5 cm away from the marginal area of vesical leukopla- kia. The mucoea in all cases was examined using the electron microscope by double blind method to study the ultrastructural characteristics m different areas of vesical leakoplakia lesions, and then compared with the ultrastructure of normal bladder mucosa from non-vesical leukoplakia. Results There were early path-ologica] changes in para-leaukoplasia areas that found by cystoscope. From 2 cm away from the marginal area of vesical leukoplakia to center of the lesions, the covering epithelia were altered gradually from transi-tional epithelia to interphase of transitional and squamous epithelia, squamous metaplusia, keratinizing squnmous metaplasia. The basement membrane of the epithelia was transformed gradually from flat to curved. Four types of, including 5 kinds,typical uhrastructural features in lesion areas could be seen. There were 5 eases of tpye 0 Ⅰ ,8 cases of type 0 Ⅱ , 12 cases of type Ⅰ ,42 cases of type Ⅲ ,and 13 cases of type Ⅲ in 80 central areas of vesical]eukoplakia. Conclusion According to the ultmstructural changes,lesion of vesical leukoplakia could be divided into 4 types,namely type 0(type 0 Ⅰ ,type 0 Ⅱ),tpye Ⅰ,type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ. This classification could help us to better understand the process of occurrence and develop- ment of vesical ieukoplakia, and it has also important value in the diagnosis of vesical leukoplakia and the selecfion of therapeutic methods for this disease.%目的 探讨膀胱白斑不同病变部位超微病理及其临床意义.方法 随机抽取膀胱白斑病变中部标本80例次,白

  3. Speciation and bioaccessibility of lead and cadmium in soil treated with metal-enriched Indian mustard leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanshan Cui; Jin Fu; Xiaochen Chen

    2011-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) has shown good potential for the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. However, there is little information about the speciation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil during the decomposition of metal-rich Indian mustard leaves. Incubation experiments (1-, 3-, and 6-month) were carried out in Beijing and Hunan soil with metal-rich Indian mustard leaves addition (1% and 3%) and the effects of mustard leaves addition on the speciation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals were studied. The results showed that the addition of mustard leaves led to significant increases in pH and DOC in the Hunan soil. Both 1% and 3% of mustard leaf amendment caused the percentage of the exchangeable (F1), precipitated with carbonates (F2), bound to Fe/Mn oxides (F3) and bound to organic matter (F4) fractions of Pb and Cd to increase dramatically, while the percentage of the residual fraction (F5) of Cd and Pb significantly dropped in both Beijing and Hunan soils. Mustard leaf addition caused the bioaccessibility of Pb to decrease in the gastric phase, whereas the values increased in the small intestinal phase. The Cd bioaccessibility increased with mustard leaf addition in both the gastric and small intestinal phases. In conclusion, the metal-enriched mustard leaves addition induces Pb and Cd concentrations and their mobility increasing in the Beijing and Hunan soils. Therefore, heavy metal risk in metal-enriched plant leaves should be considered in phytoremediation system in which heavy metal might be brought back to soil and changed over time.

  4. Use of mustard flour to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef under nitrogen flushed packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, D; Han, J H; Holley, R A

    2005-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the glucosinolates naturally present in non-deheated mustard flour could serve as a source of allyl and other isothiocyanates in sufficient quantity to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in ground beef at three different levels, during refrigerated storage of the meat under nitrogen. Mustard flour was mixed at 5%, 10% or 20% (w/w) with freshly ground beef, then the beef was inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 at either 3, 6 or gas liquid chromatography. By 21 days, the levels present in treatments were not significantly different. After 21 days storage, there were 0.5, 3 and 5.4 log10 decreases in numbers of E. coli O157:H7 from the initial levels of 6 log10 cfu/g in meat containing 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When inoculated at 3 log10 cfu/g, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced to undetectable levels after 18, 12 and 3 days with 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was used for E. coli recovery following its inoculation at vacuum packages was unaffected by the addition of 5% mustard flour but some inhibition was found at higher concentrations. Sensory evaluation of the cooked ground beef showed that there were no significant differences in the acceptability of meat treated with 5 or 10% mustard flour. However, panelists could distinguish untreated controls from mustard treatments, but considered the mustard-treated meat to be acceptable. These results showed that it is possible to use mustard flour at levels of >5-10% to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 from fresh ground beef.

  5. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities produced during the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reaction-produced impurities indicative of specific TEA and chloroform stocks were exclusively discovered in HN3 batches made with those reagent stocks. In addition, some reagent impurities were found in the HN3 batches that were presumably not altered during synthesis and believed to be indicative of reagent type regardless of stock. Supervised classification using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) on the impurity profiles of chloroform samples from seven stocks resulted in an average classification error by cross-validation of 2.4%. A classification error of zero was obtained using the seven-stock PLSDA model on a validation set of samples from an arbitrarily selected chloroform stock. In a separate analysis, all samples from two of seven chloroform stocks that were purposely not modeled had their samples matched to a chloroform stock rather than assigned a “no class” classification.

  6. [Fate and balance of bulk blending controlled release fertilizer nitrogen under continuous cropping of mustard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan-Pan; Fan, Xiao-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Under the conditions of applying water soluble fertilizer and its bulk blending with controlled release fertilizer (BB-CRF), and by using micro-lysimeter, this paper quantitatively studied the nitrogen (N) uptake by mustard, the soil N losses from N2O emission, leaching and others, and the N residual in soil in three rotations of continuously cropped mustard. In the treatment of BB-CRF with 25% of controlled release nitrogen, the N uptake by mustard increased with rotations, and the yield by the end of the experiment was significantly higher than that in the treatment of water soluble fertilizer. The cumulated N2O emission loss and the N leaching loss were obviously higher in treatment water soluble fertilizer than in treatment BB-CRF. NO3(-)-N was the primary form of N in the leachate. In relative to water soluble fertilizer, BB-CRF altered the fates of fertilizer nitrogen, i.e., the N uptake by mustard and the N residual in soil increased by 75.4% and 76.0%, and the N leaching loss and other apparent N losses decreased by 27.1% and 66.3%, respectively. The application of BB-CRF could be an effective way to reduce the various losses of fertilizer N while increase the fertilizer N use efficiency, and the controlled release fertilizer is the environmentally friendly fertilizer with the property of high N use efficiency.

  7. Impact of mustard seed meal applications on direct-seeded cucurbits and weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic production systems can be a labor intensive and expensive process. Mustard seed meal (MSM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings: unfortunately, MSM may also adversely imp...

  8. Mustard gas and American race-based human experimentation in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the risks of racialized science as revealed in the American mustard gas experiments of World War II. In a climate of contested beliefs over the existence and meanings of racial differences, medical researchers examined the bodies of Japanese American, African American, and Puerto Rican soldiers for evidence of how they differed from whites.

  9. Detection of sulfur mustard adducts in human callus by phage antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, F.J.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Schans, G.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research program to develop novel methods for diagnosis of sulfur mustard exposure in the human skin the suitability of phage display was explored. Phage display is a relative new method that enables researchers to quickly evaluate a huge range of potentially useful antibodies, thereby

  10. Effect of methionine and glucosamine conjugation on the anticancer activity of aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karmakar Subhendu; Sudipta Bhattacharyya; Arindam Mukherjee

    2016-03-01

    Certain nutrients viz.,glucose and methionine are consumed more by cancer cells. Hence, an anticancer agent conjugated to them may render more toxicity in cancer cells due to higher uptake. To probe this effect, methionine and glucosamine were conjugated to a series of well-known aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustards. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies performed to probe the effect of such conjugation showed that the conjugation of methionine and glucosamine to one of the dinitrobenzamide mustard led to more toxicity selectively in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. However, effect of functionalization cannot be generalized. Hypoxia based studies showed that IC50 value did not show much change from normoxic condition which is encouraging as many drugs deactivate in hypoxia. Among the glucosamine and methionine conjugated dinitrobenzamide mustards, the methionine conjugated aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustard of 2-chlorobenzoic acid is the most effective one. It acts by inducing apoptosis through G2/M phase arrest and encouragingly, is much less toxic to nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines in vitro.

  11. Covalent binding of nitrogen mustards to the cysteine-34 residue in human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Jansen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Covalent binding of various clinically important nitrogen mustards to the cysteine-34 residue of human serum albumin, in vitro and in vivo, is demonstrated. A rapid method for detection of these adducts is presented, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the adducted

  12. Effect of fatty acids isolated from edible oils like mustard, linseed or coconut on astrocytes maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardar, Anindita; Das, Sumantra

    2007-12-01

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) has been previously shown to facilitate some of the vital functions of astrocytes. Since some dietary oils contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), which is a precursor of DHA, we examined their effect on astrocyte development. Fatty acids (FAs) were isolated from commonly used oils and their compositions were determined by GLC. FAs from three oils, viz. coconut, mustard and linseed were studied for their effect on astrocyte morphology. Parallel studies were conducted with FAs from the same oils after heating for 72 h. Unlike coconut oil, FAs from mustard and linseed, both heated and raw, caused significant morphogenesis of astrocytes in culture. ss-AR binding was also substantially increased in astrocytes treated with FAs from raw mustard and linseed oils as compared to astrocytes grown in normal medium. The expression profile of the isoforms of GFAP showed that astrocyte maturation by FAs of mustard and linseed oil was associated with appearance of acidic variants of GFAP and disappearance of some neutral isoforms similar to that observed in cultures grown in serum containing medium or in the presence of DHA. Taken together, the study highlights the contribution of specific dietary oils in facilitating astrocyte development that can have potential impact on human health.

  13. [Relationship between tumorous stem mustard yield and soil fertility in Fuling, Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huan; Qin, Song; Wang, Zheng-Yin; Li, Hui-He; Lü, Hui-Feng

    2013-12-01

    By combining field investigation and indoor chemical analysis, the relationship between tumorous stem mustard yield and soil fertility factors was investigated in the main planting areas of tumorous stem mustard in Fuling, Southwest China. The results showed that available Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in the soil were rich (3034, 260, 11.2, 26.1, 1.15 and 1.50 mg x kg(-1), respectively), available P was moderate (19.3 mg x kg(-1)), and organic matter, available N, available K and available S were deficient (9.05 g x kg(-1), 89.2 mg x kg(-1), 106 mg x kg(-1) and 27.0 mg x kg(-1), respectively). The yield of tumorous stem mustard was significantly positively correlated with soil pH and available Ca, whilst significantly (P soil fertility factors on the yield of tumorous stem mustard was available Mn > available Cu > pH > available Fe > available K > available Ca > available Mg > available S > available N > available Zn > organic matter > available P. The linear equation (Y = 31636 + 3.63X(6)) of soil available Ca and the yield, was established by stepwise regression analysis.

  14. Selection by phage display of a mustard chymotrypsin inhibitor toxic to pea aphid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceci, L.R.; Volpicella, M.; Conti, S.; Gallerani, R.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The mustard trypsin inhibitor, MTI-2, is a potent inhibitor of trypsin with no activity towards chymotrypsin. MTI-2 is toxic for lepidopteran insects, but has low activity against aphids. In an attempt to improve the activity of the inhibitor towards aphids, a library of inhibitor variants was const

  15. Distribution of cadmium in oilseed rape and Indian mustard grown on cadmium contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-qing; SU De-chun

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal distribution in the specialized accumulating plants was important for phytoextraction technique. Hydroponic and pot experiment were conducted to investigated Cd phytoextraction ability and Cd distribution in the plant of oilseed rape species. The results showed that oilseed rape Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 was more effective in phytoexetraction Cd among 21 varieties of oilseed rape and indicator plant Indian mustard. Cd concentration in the shoot of Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 and Indian mustard gradually decreased with an increase in growth period, while the amount of Cd uptake increased with the increase of growth period. There was constantly decrease in Cd concentration from the base leaves to the top leaves of Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 and Indian mustard, the percentages of Cd uptake in older leaves were higher than those of younger leaves. Older leaves of Chuanyou Ⅱ -10 and Indian mustard extracted more Cd for the Cd contamination soil, leaves should as far as possible develop before they reached the soil and the older leaves were harvested in priority.

  16. [Toxic mustard plaster dematitis and phototoxic dematitis after application of bergamot oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenseel, P; Woitalla, S

    2005-12-15

    Two cases that illustrate the risks attendant on the therapeutic use of natural medications by laypersons are reported. In the first case, the application of a mustard plaster triggered toxic dermatitis. In the second case, a session in a solarium after the external application of bergamot oil resulted in a phototoxic reaction.

  17. Alterations in Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Mouse Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    vivo hairless guinea pig model, systemically ad- ministered niacinamide (NAM) and a systemic com- bination pretreatment with niacinamide , prometha... niacinamide [50]. Similarly, in an ex vivo isolated pig flap model, no protection against subepidermal blisters was observed following perfusion with... Niacinamide pre- treatment reduces microvesicle formation in hairless guinea pigs cutaneously exposed to sulfur mustard. Fund Appl Toxicol 1991;17

  18. Immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard adducts with keratins in the stratum corneum of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Noort, D.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Fidder, A.; Chau, L.F.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a program to develop methods for diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents, we developed immunochemical methods for detection of adducts of sulfur mustard to keratin in human skin. Three partial sequences of keratins containing glutamine or asparagine adducted with a

  19. CHARACTERISATION OF BIODIESEL DERIVED FROM WASTE COTTON SEED OIL AND WASTE MUSTARD OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative fuel is derived from the fats of animals and plants. As energy demand increases and fossil fuels are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. Properties of waste oil (cotton seed oil and mustard oil have been compared with the properties of petro-diesel, showing a comparable regimefor satisfactory optimized blend which is to be selected for the better performance of a C.I. engine with biodiesel. The work presented in this paper is the study of characteristics of biodiesel prepared from vegetable oils (waste cotton seed oil and waste mustard oil.The characteristics of biodiesel are to be checked at different blends (B10, B15, B20 and select the optimum blend based on these characteristics. The characteristics include free fatty acid value, density, viscosity, flash point and fire point, cloud point and pour point, carbon residue content and ash residue content. Different fuel properties of the cotton methyl ester and mustard methyl ester were also measured. Results show that the properties of methyl ester of cotton seed were more suitable as compared to properties of mustard methyl ester.

  20. Spinach and mustard greens response to soil type, sulfur addition and lithium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between Dec. 2006 and Feb 2007 to evaluate the effect of soil type, added sulfur and lithium level on the growth and leaf nutrients, particularly biofortified levels of Li and S, in spinach and mustard gree...

  1. Serum level of substance P in patients with lung injuries due to sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Najafian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The SP may have a role in pulmonary complications of mustard gas. The lower level of SP in the moderate to severe patients may be due to corticosteroid consumption in such severe cases. However, further studies are needed to clarify the roles and mechanism of SP in this setting.

  2. Effect of Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis Competition and Nitrogen Levels on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Soleymani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of wild mustard plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological characters, yield and yield components of canola a split-plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications was carried out in Bu-Ali Sina university of Hamedan, in 2009. 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (100, 150, 200 and 250 kgN h-1 were assigned to main-plots and plant density of wild mustard at 5 levels (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 plants m-2 to the sub-plots. Results showed that the effects of wild mustard competition on yield and components of canola was significant. 32 plants m-2 of wild mustard reduced grain and biologic yield, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod and 1000seed weight about 28.7, 30, 40.9, 22.2 and 16 percent respectively. With more nitrogen application, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000seed weight and grain yield was increased. By increasing nitrogen from 100 to 250 kg ha-1, grain yield was increased more than 53 percent. Increasing density of wild mustard significantly reduced all above mentioned morphological and qualitative characters, except protein percentage. By increasing nitrogen fertilizer, plant height, number of branches per plant, pod length, oil yield and protein percentage of canola were increased significantly. Overall nevertheless negative effect of weed on canola yield, seems that the application 200 kgN/ha in addition to increasing grain yield and canola oil, had less decline in weed interference.

  3. Use of acid whey and mustard seed to replace nitrites during cooked sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of sea salt, acid whey, native and autoclaved mustard seed on the physico-chemical properties, especially colour formation, microbial stability and sensory evaluation of non-nitrite cooked sausage during chilling storage. The cooked pork sausages were divided into 4 groups (group I--control sausages with curing salt (2.8%) and water (5%) added; group II--sausages with sea salt (2.8%) and acid whey (5%) added; group III--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and mustard seed (1%) added; group IV--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and autoclaved mustard seed (1%) added). Instrumental colour (L*, a*, b*), oxygenation index (ΔR), 650/570 nm ratio, heme iron, pH value and water activity (aw) were determined 1 day after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Sensory analysis was conducted immediately after production (day 1). Microbial analysis (lactic acid bacteria, total viable count, Clostridium spp.) was determinated at the end of storage (30 days). The autoclaved mustard with acid whey can be used at 1.0% (w/w) of model cooked sausages with beneficial effect on physico-chemical and sensory qualities of no-nitrite sausage. This product can be stored at refrigeration temperature for up to 30 days, in vacuum, with good acceptability. The colour, visual appearance and overall quality of samples with autoclaved mustard seed and acid whey were similar to the control with curing agent.

  4. Comportamiento de los marcadores de estrés oxidativo en la orina de pacientes con tumor vesical no músculo invasivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Medina, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    El carcinoma urotelial de vejiga constituye el tumor más frecuente del tracto urinario, siendo el séptimo cáncer más frecuente en varones, el decimoséptimo en mujeres y la octava causa de mortalidad cáncer específica en Europa. La clínica más habitual de presentación es la hematuria monosintomática, siendo otros síntomas posibles el tenesmo, disuria, polaquiuria y dolor pélvico. El diagnóstico y seguimiento del tumor vesical se basa en pruebas de imagen (principalmente ecografía y TAC) y, de...

  5. Extensive hypermetabolic pattern of brown adipose tissue activation on 18F-FDG PET/CT in a patient diagnosed of catecholamine-secreting para-vesical paraganglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzo, J; Ubieto, M A; Berisa, M F; Andrés, A; Mateo, M L; Tardín, L; Parra, A; Razola, P; Prats, E

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of (18)F-FDG PET-CT scanning in oncological patients has allowed to demonstrate the existence of metabolically active brown fat, also called brown adipose tissue (BAT), in adult humans, and specifying its anatomical distribution in vivo. As physiological determinants to BAT (18)F-FDG uptake has been identified gender, age, temperature, and body mass index. We have observed extensive activation of the BAT, including the mesenteric region, in a patient with a catecholamine-secreting para-vesical paranganglioma. The extensive BAT activation could be secondary to adrenergic stimulation due to excess of circulating norepinephrine concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. Preservation of the smooth muscular internal (vesical sphincter and of the proximal urethra during retropubic radical prostatectomy: A technical modification to improve the early recovery of continence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Brunocilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We describe our technique for preservation of the smooth muscular internal (vesical sphincter and proximal urethra during radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP and present our preliminary clinical results. Materials and methods: The first steps of the prostatectomy reflect the standard RRP, while for the final phases the procedure continues in an anterograde manner with incision of the fibers of the detrusor muscle at the insertion of the ventral surface of the base of the prostate. At this level, the inner circular muscle of the bladder neck forms a sphincteric ring of smooth muscle that covers the longitudinally oriented smooth muscle component of the urethral musculature that extends distally to the verumontanum. These two proximal structures represent the internal sphincter that envelops and locks the proximal urethra. A blunt dissection is continued until the ring shaped vesical sphincter is separated from the prostate and the longitudinally oriented smooth muscle component of the urethral musculature is identified. The base of the prostate is then gently separated from the urethra and from the bladder until the maximal length of the urethral musculature is isolated and preserved. Results: After 30 initial set-up procedures, 40 consecutive patients with organ confined prostate cancer were submitted to radical retropubic prostatectomy with the preservation of muscular internal sphincter and the proximal urethra and compared to 40 patients submitted to standard procedure who served as control group. The group of patients submitted to our technical modification had a faster recovery of early continence than control group at 3 and 7 days. Conclusions: The described technique is a feasible and safe method for preservation of the internal urethral sphincter and allows improving the early recovery of urinary continence. The technique does not increase the rate of positive margins and the duration of the procedure.

  7. Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Naval Scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Marmosets . Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jan P. Langenberg, Ph.D., Pharm.D. Henk C. Trap CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: TNO Prins...Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets . Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers 5b. GRANT...inhalation toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard were studied in more detail in the hairless guinea pig as well as in the marmoset . Hairless guinea pigs were 5

  8. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, A.; HR Koohestani; Z Roosta

    2008-01-01

    ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical ...

  9. Vascular hyperpermeability in response to inflammatory mustard oil is mediated by Rho kinase in mice systemically exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Liu, Chun-Chih; Huang, Shin-Yin; Chiou, Shean-Jaw

    2011-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease induced by chronic arsenic exposure are not completely understood. We have previously shown that mice chronically fed sodium arsenite are hypersensitive to the permeability-increasing effects of inflammatory mustard oil. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated vascular leakage (hyperpermeability) is induced by mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to arsenic. Animals were orally fed water (control group) or sodium arsenite for 8weeks. We compared the blood pressure and microvessel density of the ears between these two groups. Both control and arsenic groups exhibited a similar mean arterial pressure and microvessel density. Microvessel permeability changes that occurred following mustard oil treatment in the presence of Y-27632, a ROCK inhibitor, were quantified using the Evans blue (EB) technique and vascular labeling with carbon particles. Both the excessive leakiness of EB and the high density of carbon-labeled microvessels upon stimulation with mustard oil in the arsenic-fed mice were reduced by Y-27632 treatment. However, RhoA and ROCK2 expression levels were similar between control and arsenic-fed mice. We further investigated ROCK2 levels and ROCK activity in the ears following mustard oil challenge. ROCK2 levels in mouse ears treated with mustard oil were higher in the arsenic group as compared with the control group. Following mustard oil application, ROCK activity was significantly higher in the arsenic-fed mice compared with the control mice. These findings indicate that increased ROCK2 levels and enhanced ROCK activity are responsible for mustard oil-induced vascular hyperpermeability in arsenic-fed mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine specimens of sulfur mustard exposed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafaei Mostafa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas is a chemical alkylating agent that causes blisters in the skin (blister gas, burns the eyes and causes lung injury. Some major cellular pathways are involved in the damage caused by mustard gas such as NF-κb signaling, TGF-β signaling, WNT pathway, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (19–25 nucleotides that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and are found in two forms, extracellular and intracellular. Changes in the levels of extracellular microRNAs are directly associated with many diseases, it is thus common to study the level of extracellular microRNAs as a biomarker to determine the pathophysiologic status. In this study, 32 mustard gas injured patients and 32 healthy subjects participated. Comparative evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine samples was performed by Real Time PCR and Graph Pad software. The Mann Whitney t-test analysis of data showed that the expression level of miR-143 and miR-9 had a significant decrease in sulfur mustard individuals with the respective p-value of 0.0480 and 0.0272 compared to normal samples, with an imbalance of several above mentioned pathways. It seems that reducing the expression level of these genes has a very important role in the pathogenicity of mustard gas injured patients.

  11. Action of two alkalating agents, ethyl methyl sulfonate and nitrogenous mustard, on Jerusalem artichoke tissues cultivated in vitro. Protection of these tissues by cysteamin and restoration by kinetin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonard, R.

    1968-01-01

    Methane methyl sulfonate and nitrogenous mustard cause an inhibition of the proliferation of the Jerusalem artichoke tissues grown in vitro. The cysteamin which protects those tissues from the effect of X-rays, acts in a protective way solely as regards the toxic effect of nitrogenous mustard. Kinetin, which is an efficient radiorestorer for those tissues, brings back a proliferation of the samples subjected to the effect of nitrogenous mustard. 13 references, 2 tables.

  12. Contribution of endogenous plant myrosinase to the antimicrobial activity of deodorized mustard against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Roniele Peixoto; Wu, Chen; Holley, Richard Alan

    2014-10-17

    This work investigated the antimicrobial activity of residual endogenous plant myrosinase in Oriental and yellow mustard powders and a deoiled meal (which contained more glucosinolate than unextracted mustard powder of each type of mustard), against Escherichia coli O15:H7 during dry-fermented sausage ripening. When small amounts of "hot" mustard powder or meal containing endogenous plant myrosinase were added to fully-deodorized powders and a meal of the same type, pathogen reduction rates were enhanced. The higher glucosinolate level in the deoiled mustard meal enabled the use of 50% less mustard in dry sausage to achieve the mandatory ≥5logCFU/g reduction of E. coli O157:H7. The myrosinase-like activity present in E. coli O157:H7 contributed to glucosinolate hydrolysis in sausages with fully-deodorized, deoiled mustard meal, although the period necessary for a 5log pathogen reduction was 14d longer. Yellow mustard derivatives were more potently antimicrobial than Oriental mustard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliable screening technique for evaluation of wild crucifers against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Y P; Singh, Ram

    2014-12-01

    Wild crucifers namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica fruticulosa, B. rugosa, B. spinescens, B. tournefortii, Camelina sativa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Crambe abysinnica, Cronopus didymus, Diplotaxis assurgens, D. gomez-campoi, D. muralis, D. siettiana, D. tenuisiliqua, Enatharocarpus lyratus, Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba along with five cultivated Brassica species including B. rapa (BSH-1), B. juncea (Rohini), B. napus (GSC-6), B. carinata (DLSC-2) and Eruca sativa (T-27) were screened against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) with a standardized technique under definite level of aphid pressure developed using specially designed cages. Observations have revealed that B. fruticulosa, B. spinescens, Camelina sativa, Crambe abysinnica and Lepidium sativum were resistant to mustard aphid L. erysimi with aphid infestation index (AII) ≤ 1. Capsella bursa-pastoris was highly susceptible to bean aphid, Aphis fabae during its vegetative stage (with 100% mortality). Other genotypes were found in the range of 'susceptible' to 'highly susceptible' with AII ranging 3-5.

  14. Evidence of VX nerve agent use from contaminated white mustard plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Matthew R; Hopkins, Farrha B; Self, Adam J; Webb, Andrew J; Timperley, Christopher M; Baker, Matthew J

    2014-08-08

    The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of chemical weapons by Member States. Verification of compliance and investigations into allegations of use require accurate detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and their degradation products. Detection of CWAs such as organophosphorus nerve agents in the environment relies mainly upon the analysis of soil. We now present a method for the detection of the nerve agent VX and its hydrolysis products by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of ethanol extracts of contaminated white mustard plants (Sinapis alba) which retained the compounds of interest for up to 45 days. VX is hydrolysed by the plants to ethyl methylphosphonic acid and then to methylphosphonic acid. The utility of white mustard as a nerve agent detector and remediator of nerve agent-polluted sites is discussed. The work described will help deter the employment of VX in conflict.

  15. Cytoplasmic male sterility of tuber mustard is associated with the alternative spliced mitochondrial T gene transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yanxi; CHEN Zhujun; CAO Jiashu; CHEN Xuejun; LIU Xiaohui

    2004-01-01

    Two transcripts of T gene, T1170 and T1243, were obtained from the mitochondrial cDNA of tuber mustard CMS line. T1243 was a transcript with an intron unspliced, which has the basic characteristics of type Ⅱ intron. The expressions of the two transcripts were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The results showed that, at seedling stage, the expression of T gene was mainly in the form of T1170 but decreased with the development gradually, while the expression abundance of another transcript, T1243, increased gradually. The T1243 was prevalent at the profuse flowering stage. The expression pattern was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. These results suggested that the alternative spliced mitochondrial T gene transcripts were related to CMS of tuber mustard.

  16. Intervention of Sulfur Mustard Toxicity by Downregulation of Cell Proliferation and Metabolic Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    attenuating the apop- totic response due to HD.7 We reported that BAPTA AM does not affect the activation of DNA ligase (a DNA repair enzyme) in HD...R. DNA ligase activation fol- lowing sulfur mustard exposure in cultured human epi- dermal keratinocytes. In Vitro Mol. Toxicol. 1998; 11: 45-53. Published in 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Appl. Toxicol. 20, S87-S91 (2000)

  17. Treatment for sulfur mustard lung injuries; new therapeutic approaches from acute to chronic phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poursaleh Zohreh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries. Method This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment. Results Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  18. Treatment for Sulfur Mustard Lung Injuries; New Therapeutic Approaches from Acute to Chronic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Poursaleh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries.Method:This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment.Results:Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion:Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  19. Compatibility and Decontamination of High-Density Polyethylene Exposed to Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    and taken through the entire decontamination procedure. ***For coupons 11–20, the water temperature was ~65 oC when added. In all subsequent trials...the water temperature was ~ 95 oC. NA, not applicable. 11 Table 3. Decontamination Data–Pretreated Coupons Coupon Name and Number...COMPATIBILITY AND DECONTAMINATION OF HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE EXPOSED TO SULFUR MUSTARD ECBC-TR-1235

  20. Architectural and Biochemical Expressions of Mustard Gas Keratopathy: Preclinical Indicators and Pathogenic Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Nanoscale topography of the basement membrane underlying the corneal epithelium of the rhesus macaque. Cell Tissue Res 299: 39–46. 28. Pal-Ghosh S...with associated secondary pathologies, collectively referred to as mustard gas keratopathy (MGK). MGK involves a progressive corneal degeneration...resulting in chronic ocular discomfort and impaired vision for which clinical interventions have typically had poor outcomes. Using a rabbit corneal vapor

  1. The Role of NAD+ Depletion in the Mechanisms of Sulfur Mustard-Induced Metabolic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    reprint. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cell cultures, glycolysis, HD, keratinocytes, NAD+, niacinamide , sulfur mustard, toxicology 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...NAD+ depletion. To define tl,e role of NAD+ in mu.~tUl·d-induced metabolic injury, we examined the effects ofmustard ± niacinamide on energy metabolism...not earlier, and time- and concentration-dependent glycolytic inhibition and NAD+ depletion as early as 4 hours. Niacinamide partially protected NAD

  2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype and late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphries Steve E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to mustard gas frequently results in long-term respiratory complications. However the factors which drive the development and progression of these complications remain unclear. The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS has been implicated in lung inflammatory and fibrotic responses. Genetic variation within the gene coding for the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE, specifically the Insertion/Deletion polymorphism (I/D, is associated with variable levels of ACE and with the severity of several acute and chronic respiratory diseases. We hypothesized that the ACE genotype might influence the severity of late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure. Methods 208 Kurdish patients who had suffered high exposure to mustard gas, as defined by cutaneous lesions at initial assessment, in Sardasht, Iran on June 29 1987, underwent clinical examination, spirometric evaluation and ACE Insertion/Deletion genotyping in September 2005. Results ACE genotype was determined in 207 subjects. As a continuous variable, FEV1 % predicted tended to be higher in association with the D allele 68.03 ± 20.5%, 69.4 ± 21.4% and 74.8 ± 20.1% for II, ID and DD genotypes respectively. Median FEV1 % predicted was 73 and this was taken as a cut off between groups defined as having better or worse lung function. The ACE DD genotype was overrepresented in the better spirometry group (Chi2 4.9 p = 0.03. Increasing age at the time of exposure was associated with reduced FEV1 %predicted (p = 0.001, whereas gender was not (p = 0.43. Conclusion The ACE D allele is associated with higher FEV1 % predicted when assessed 18 years after high exposure to mustard gas.

  3. Effect of mustard gas hydrolysis products on the development of water-bloom forming cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Tatyana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mustard gas and its hydrolysis products (MGHP belong to stable organochlorine compounds with high toxicity and broad spectrum of activity. Since the Second World War many aquatic ecosystems including the Baltic and the Adriatic Sea as well as the coastal waters of Japan, the USA, the UK, Australia have been contaminated with mustard gas due to the dumping of chemical weapon. Mustard gas and its hydrolysis products have a negative impact on aquatic life including microbiota. The aim of this work was to define the effect of MGHP on the growth, photosynthetic activity and synthesis of secondary metabolites by water-bloom forming cyanobacteria Trichormus variabilis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, Nodularia spumigena. Microbiological, chromatographic, spectrophotometric methods were used. The growth inhibition test with MGHP on cyanobacteria showed influence on the concentration EC50 within the range of 5.5 – 11.2 mg of organochlorine compounds (ОCC per liter. The synthesis of chlorophyll a was also decreased. It was shown that the chlorophyll synthesis was more sensitive to MGHP than the growth of cyanobacteria. NGHP induced enhanced excretion of exopolysaccharides. Low concentration of MGHP – 0.3 mg OCC/l - promoted the growth of toxigenic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and increased microcystin-LR concentration in the environment. enhanced excretion of such metabolites as polysaccharides and cyanotoxins has a serious negative impact on water pollution due to MGHP.

  4. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štengl, Václav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomáš Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Bludská, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslařská 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  5. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  6. Sequence and expression characteristics of a nuclear-encoded chloroplast sigma factor from mustard (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestermann, M; Neukirchen, S; Kloppstech, K; Link, G

    1998-06-01

    Plant chloroplasts contain transcription factors that functionally resemble bacterial sigma factors. We have cloned the full-length cDNA from mustard (Sinapis alba) for a 53 kDa derived polypeptide that contains similarity to regions 1.2-4.2 of sigma70-type factors. The amino acid sequence at the N-terminus has characteristics of a chloroplast transit peptide. An in vitro synthesized polypeptide containing this region was shown to be imported into the chloroplast and processed. The recombinant factor lacking the N-terminal extension was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. It confers the ability on E.coli core RNA polymerase to bind specifically to a DNA fragment that contains the chloroplast psbA promoter. Transcription of the psbA template by E.coli core enzyme in the presence of recombinant SIG1 results in enhanced formation of transcripts of the size expected for correct initiation at the in vivo start site. Together, these data suggest that the mature protein acts as one of the chloroplast transcription factors in mustard. RNA gel blot hybridization reveals a transcript at approximately 1.8 kb, which is more abundant in light-grown than in dark-grown mustard seedlings.

  7. Development and characterization of Brassica juncea – fruticulosa introgression lines exhibiting resistance to mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atri Chhaya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard aphid is a major pest of Brassica oilseeds. No source for aphid resistance is presently available in Brassica juncea . A wild crucifer, Brassica fruticulosa is known to be resistant to mustard aphid. An artificially synthesized amphiploid, AD-4 (B. fruticulosa × B. rapa var. brown sarson was developed for use as a bridge species to transfer fruticulosa resistance to B. juncea. Using the selfed backcross we could select a large number of lines with resistance to mustard aphid. This paper reports cytogenetic stability of introgression lines, molecular evidence for alien introgression and their reaction to mustard aphid infestation. Results Majority of introgression lines had expected euploid chromosome number(2n= 36, showed normal meiosis and high pollen grain fertility. Well-distributed and transferable simple-sequence repeats (SSR markers for all the 18 B. juncea chromosomes helped to characterize introgression events. Average proportions of recipient and donor genome in the substitution lines were 49.72 and 35.06%, respectively. Minimum alien parent genome presence (27.29% was observed in the introgression line, Ad3K-280 . Introgressed genotypes also varied for their resistance responses to mustard aphid infestations under artificial release conditions for two continuous seasons. Some of the test genotypes showed consistent resistant reaction. Conclusions B.juncea-fruticulosa introgression set may prove to be a very powerful breeding tool for aphid resistance related QTL/gene discovery and fine mapping of the desired genes/QTLs to facilitate marker assisted transfer of identified gene(s for mustard aphid resistance in the background of commercial mustard genotypes.

  8. Elemental sulfur effects on Pb and Zn uptake by Indian mustard and winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yan-shan; WANG Qing-ren; DONG Yi-ting; LI Hai-feng

    2003-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of elemental sulfur to contaminated soil on plant uptake by a heavy metal hyperaccumulator, Indian mustard( Brassica juncea) and a field crop, winter wheat( Triticum. aestivum ). Elemental sulfur(S) with different rates was carried out, they were 0(S0), 20(S20), 40(S40), 80(S80), and 160(S160) mmol/kg respectively. Extra pots with the same rates of S but without plants were used for soil sampling to monitor pH and CaCl2-extractable heavy metal changes. The results showed that S enhanced phytoextraction of Pb and Zn from contaminated soil. Application S effectively decreased soil pH down to 1.1 as the most at the rate of S160.The concentrations of CaCl2-extractable Pb and Zn in soil and uptake of Pb and Zn by the plants were increased with soil pH decreased. A good correlation between CaCl2-extractable Pb/Zn and soil pH was found( R2Pb = 0.847 and R2Zn = 0.991, n = 25). With S application, soilCaCl2-extractable Pb and Zn concentrations, concentration of Pb and Zn in plants and the amount of removal by plant uptake were significantly higher than those without S. Under the treatment of S160, the highest CaCl2-extractable Pb and Zn were observed, they were 4.23 mg/kg and 0.40 mg/kg, 2.7 and 2.0 times as that of the control( S0 ) respectively. At the highest rates of S( S160 ), both Indian mustard and winter wheat reached the highest uptake of Pb and Zn. The highest Pb concentrations in wheat and Indian mustard were 32.8 mg/kg and 537.0 mg/kg, all 1.8 times as that of the control, and the highest Zn concentrations in wheat and Indian mustard were 215.5 mg/kg and 404.0 mg/kg, 2.4 and 2.0 times as that of the control respectively. The highest removals of Pb and Zn from the contaminated soil were 0.41 mg/pot and 0.31 mg/pot by Indian mustard in the treatment of S160 through 50 days growth.

  9. Smad Molecules Expression Pattern in Human Bronchial Airway Induced by Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Adelipour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Airway remodelling is characterized by the thickening and reorganization of the airways seen in mustard  lung patients. Mustard lung is the  general description  for  the  chronic obstructive  pulmonary  disease induced  by  sulfur  mustard(SM. Pulmonary  disease was diagnosed as the most important  disorder in individuals that had been exposed to sulfur mustard. Sulfur mustard is a chemical warfare agent developed during Wars. Iraqi forces frequently used it against Iranian during Iran –Iraq in the 1980–1988. Peribronchial fibrosis result  from  airway remodeling  that  include  excess  of  collagen of  extracellular matrix deposition  in  the  airway wall. Some of  Smads families in  association with TGF-β  are involved in airway remodeling due to lung fibrosis. In the present study we compared the mRNA expression of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 and Smad7 genes in airway wall biopsies of chemical-injured patients with non-injured patients as control.We used airway wall biopsies of ten unexposed patients and fifteen SM-induced patients. Smads expression was evaluated by RT-PCR followed by bands densitometry.Expression levels of Smad3 and Smad4 in SM exposed patients were upregulated but Smad2 and Smad7 was not significantly altered.Our results revealed that Smad3, and 4 may be involved in airway remodeling process in SM induced  patients  by  activation of  TGF-β.  Smad pathway is  the  most  represented signaling mechanism for  airway remodeling and  peribronchial fibrosis. The  complex of Smads in the nucleus affects a series of genes that results in peribronchial fibrosis in SM- induced patients.

  10. 2-Chloroethyl 2-(5-bromo-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H12BrClO4S, the O atom and the methyl group of the methylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran fragment. There is a mean deviation of 0.016 (4 Å from the least-squares plane defined by the nine constituent benzofuran atoms. The crystal structure is stabilized by aromatic π–π interactions between the benzene rings of neighbouring molecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.689 (7 Å]and by a weak C—H...π interaction between an H atom of the methylene group bonded to the carboxylate O atom and the benzene ring of an adjacent molecule. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits weak non-classical intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The chloroethyl group is disordered over two positions, with refined site-occupancy factors of 0.767 (6 and 0.233 (6.

  11. Cardiovascular performance in anesthetized rats pretreated with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-Nitrosourea (BCNU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, C L; Larson, R E

    1989-06-01

    Cardiovascular function was studied in anesthetized rats at weekly intervals following their pretreatment with single i.p. doses of BCNU (20 mg/kg). Over the first two weeks post-treatment the predominant effects were on total peripheral resistance. Femoral artery diastolic and mean pressures increased with a corresponding decrease in pulse pressure. Thereafter, apparent cardiac effects were also manifest by decreases in systolic and mean pressures, and possibly heartrate. Diastolic and pulse pressures also declined in this second phase. The water content of caudal artery segments from these rats decreased from 82.3 +/- 0.6% in controls to 78.4 +/- 0.6% (P less than 0.05) at 4 weeks post treatment. The total collagen content of these segments had increased 35% over controls as early as 2 weeks after BCNU while total protein content remained unchanged. Whole body responsiveness to the pressor effects of bolus injections of norepinephrine was significantly diminished only at the 4-week sampling time. The cardiovascular toxicity of BCNU may be a complex of direct effects of the drug on vascular endothelia and secondary effects associated with the cholestasis which develops over a similar time course.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER HYDROLYSIS PRODUCTS BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION GC/FT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas chromatography coupled to Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (GC/FT-IR) is rapidly becoming an accepted analytical technique complementary to GC/mass spectroscopy for identifying organic compounds in mixtures at low to moderate concentrations. irect aqueous injection (DA...

  13. Childhood physical abnormalities following paternal exposure to sulfur mustard gas in Iran: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khademolhosseini Seyyed M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard gas, a known chemical weapon, was used during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988. We aimed to determine if exposure to mustard gas among men was significantly associated with abnormalities and disorders among progenies. Methods Using a case-control design, we identified all progenies of Sardasht men (exposed group, n = 498, who were born at least nine months after the exposure, compared to age-matched controls in Rabat, a nearby city (non-exposed group, n = 689. We conducted a thorough medical history, physical examination, and appropriate paraclinical studies to detect any physical abnormality and/or disorder. Given the presence of correlated data, we applied Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE multivariable models to determine associations. Results The overall frequency of detected physical abnormalities and disorders was significantly higher in the exposed group (19% vs. 11%, Odds Ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.37-2.72, P = 0.0002. This was consistent across sexes. Congenital anomalies (OR 3.54, 95% CI, 1.58-7.93, P = 0.002 and asthma (OR, 3.12, 95% CI, 1.43-6.80, P = 0.004 were most commonly associated with exposure. No single abnormality was associated with paternal exposure to mustard gas. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a generational effect of exposure to mustard gas. The lasting effects of mustard gas exposure in parents effects fertility and may impact child health and development in the long-term.

  14. Evaluation of Growth Indices and Estimation Seed Yield Loss Threshold of Canola in Response to Various Densities of Crop and Wild Mustard

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    Z Anafjeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to study the effect of various densities of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. on growth indices of Canola (Brassica napus L. in climate of Molathani, Ahvaz, an experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, in 2006-2007. The split-plot set of treatments was arranged within randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included of wild mustard at five levels (0, 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants m2 and Canola at three densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. The results showed that the increase in mustard density rates lead to decreasing total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and mean pod dry matter in three canola densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. Somewhat the lowest growth indices was obtained in 35 plants mustard (that is the highest mustard density. In addition damage rate of mustard decreased canola seed yield for 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants mustard up to 61, 71, 76 and 91%, respectively. Keywords: Plant density, Competition, Yield loss threshold, Growth indices, Canola, Mustard

  15. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for hemoglobin adducts: Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) for determination of the sulfur mustard adduct to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin was developed. By using this SOP, it was found that the Nterminal valine adduct in globin of hairless guinea pigs and marmosets which had been exposed to sulfur mustard (0.5 LD5

  16. Clinical practice guidelines for prevention, diagnosis and management of early and delayed-onset ocular injuries due to mustard gas exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Considering the lack of CPGs for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of mustard gas-induced keratitis, these recommendations would be useful to prevent the serious ocular complications of mustard gas and standardize eye care services to the affected individuals.

  17. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS AND FORMS ON GROWTH AND ARSENIC UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION BY INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L. GENOTYPES

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    INDIRA CHATURVEDI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By using two Brassica juncea genotypes (Varuna and DHR-9504 a green house experiment was carried out during crop cycle (2003-2004, at Agricultural Farm, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India. In Indian mustard, arsenic extraction by plants increased signifi cantly with increasing arsenic concentrations in soils. Uptake of arsenite by Indian mustard genotypes was higher than that of arsenate. Stunted growth of the plants was also observed in this study. This experiment clearly demonstrated the existence of genotypical variations in tolerance to As toxicity among Brassica juncea genotypes.

  18. Nitrogen mustard (Chlorambucil) has a negative influence on early vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Annette; Bölck, Birgit; Jedig, Maria; Steinritz, Dirk; Balszuweit, Frank; Kehe, Kai; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2009-09-01

    The sulphur and nitrogen mustards are strong alkylating agents, which induces inflammations of the skin including blistering right up to ulcerations. Depending on the severity, the wounds may need weeks to heal. In the past it was shown that sulphur mustard has a destructive effect on endothelial precursor cells, which have been shown to play a pivotal role in the wound healing reaction by inducing neovascularisation. However, for these alkylating agents as well as for sulphur mustard nothing is known about their effects on endothelial precursors. Therefore, we investigated and compared the influence of Chlorambucil on proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of endothelial cells in intact mouse embryoid bodies (EB). EBs were treated at different developmental stages and with different periods of Chlorambucil treatment. It was found that in each developmental stage and under each treatment period's Chlorambucil has an extremely negative effect on the vascularisation with a vessel reduction of around 99%. Of particular importance was the negative effect of treatment around day 3 of the development. On this day we found 377 vessels under control conditions but only 1.6 vessels under 24h treatment of Chlorambucil. At this point in time many endothelial precursors can be found in the EB. Moreover, a negative effect on all stem cells was evident at this point in time, shown by an extreme reduction in EB size with 17.9 mm(2) for the control and only 1.55 mm(2) under Chlorambucil treatment. This negative effect on the vascularisation, on endothelial precursors but also on stem cells in general is of possible importance for impaired wound healing.

  19. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Douki, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.douki@cea.fr [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  20. Thermal requirement of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) at different phonological stages under late sown condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj Pratap; Lallu; Singh, N B

    2014-01-01

    Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.] is a long day plant, which requires fairly cool climatic condition during growth and development for obtaining better seed yield. Various workers have correlated crop growth and development with energy requirement parameters, such as growing degree days (GDD), photo-thermal unit (PTU), helios thermal unit (HTU), photo-thermal index (PTI) and heat use efficiency (HUE). Therefore, GDD requirement for different phenological stages of 22 newly developed Indian mustard varieties was studies during winter (rabi) seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at student instructional farm of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, (Utter Pradesh). Study revealed that RH-8814, NRCDR-02 and BPR-549-9 recorded higher GDD (1703.0, 1662.9 and 1648.0), PTU (19129.8, 18694.2 and 18379.8), HTU (11397.7, 11072.2 and 10876.0), PTI (13.25, 13.14 and 13.08) and HUE (4.11, 3.84 and 3.71) at physiological maturity, while higher HUE was recorded (9.62, 8.99 and 8.91 kg ha(-1) degrees-day) at days after sowing (DAS) to 50 % flowering. On the basis of study mustard genotypes RH-8814, NRCDR-02 and BPR-549-9 were identified as most heat-tolerant, as they maintained higher values for energy related parameters. Seed yield was highly positively correlated with GDD (r = 0.61, 0.65 and 0.75), PTU (r = 0.66, 0.64 and 0.74), HTU(r = 0.79, 0.68 and 0.73) at the above these three phenological stages, while negatively correlated with PTI at anthesis and at maturity. Hence, these parents could be used in crossing programme for achieving further improvement.

  1. Self-(in)compatibility inheritance and allele-specific marker development in yellow mustard (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fangqin; Cheng, Bifang

    2014-01-01

    Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) has a sporophytic self-incompatibility reproduction system. Genetically stable self-incompatible (SI) and self-compatible (SC) inbred lines have recently been developed in this crop. Understanding the S haplotype of different inbred lines and the inheritance of the self-(in)compatibility (SI/SC) trait is very important for breeding purposes. In this study, we used the S-locus gene-specific primers in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea to clone yellow mustard S-locus genes of SI lines Y514 and Y1130 and SC lines Y1499 and Y1501. The PCR amplification results and DNA sequences of the S-locus genes revealed that Y514 carried the class I S haplotype, while Y1130, Y1499, and Y1501 had the class II S haplotype. The results of our genetic studies indicated that self-incompatibility was dominant over self-compatibility and controlled by a one-gene locus in the two crosses of Y514 × Y1499 and Y1130 × Y1501. Of the five S-locus gene polymorphic primer pairs, Sal-SLGI and Sal-SRKI each generated one dominant marker for the SI phenotype of Y514; Sal-SLGII and Sal-SRKII produced dominant marker(s) for the SC phenotype of Y1501 and Y1499; Sal-SP11II generated one dominant marker for Y1130. These markers co-segregated with the SI/SC phenotype in the F2 populations of the two crosses. In addition, co-dominant markers were developed by mixing the two polymorphic primer pairs specific for each parent in the multiplex PCR, which allowed zygosity to be determined in the F2 populations. The SI/SC allele-specific markers have proven to be very useful for the selection of the desirable SC genotypes in our yellow mustard breeding program.

  2. Study on evaporation characteristics of a sessile drop of sulfur mustard on glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunsook; Myung, Sung Min; Park, Myung Kyu; Lee, Hae Wan; Ryu, Sam Gon

    2012-05-01

    The evaporation characteristics (evaporation rates and process) of a sessile drop of sulfur mustard on glass has been studied using a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, gas chromatograph mass spectrometry, and drop shape analysis. It showed that the evaporation rates of the droplet increased with temperature and air flow. The effect of temperature on the rates was more pronounced at lower air flow. Air flow was less effective at lower temperature. The contact angle of the droplet was initially observed as θ = 19.5° ± 0.7 and decreased linearly with time until it switched to a constant mode.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of "golden mustard" for treating vitamin A deficiency in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is an important nutritional problem in India, resulting in an increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is the WHO-recommended method to prevent VAD, since a single dose can compensate for reduced dietary intake or increased need over a period of several months. However, in India only 34 percent of targeted children currently receive the two doses per year, and new strategies are urgently needed. METHODOLOGY: Recent advancements in biotechnology permit alternative strategies for increasing the vitamin A content of common foods. Mustard (Brassica juncea, which is consumed widely in the form of oil by VAD populations, can be genetically modified to express high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. Using estimates for consumption, we compare predicted costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM fortification of mustard seed with high-dose vitamin A supplementation and industrial fortification of mustard oil during processing to alleviate VAD by calculating the avertable health burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all three interventions potentially avert significant numbers of DALYs and deaths. Expanding vitamin A supplementation to all areas was the least costly intervention, at $23-$50 per DALY averted and $1,000-$6,100 per death averted, though cost-effectiveness varied with prevailing health subcenter coverage. GM fortification could avert 5 million-6 million more DALYs and 8,000-46,000 more deaths, mainly because it would benefit the entire population and not just children. However, the costs associated with GM fortification were nearly five times those of supplementation. Industrial fortification was dominated by both GM fortification and supplementation. The cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention decreased with the prevalence of VAD and was sensitive to the efficacy rate of

  4. Effects of process variables and additives on mustard oil hydrolysis by porcine pancreas lipase

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Selective hydrolysis of brown mustard oil (from Brassica juncea) with regioselective porcine pancreas lipase was studied in this work. Buffer and oil phase were considered as the continuous and dispersed phases, respectively. Effects of speed of agitation, pH of the buffer phase, temperature, buffer-oil ratio and enzyme concentration on hydrolysis were observed. The best combination of process variables was: 900 rpm, pH 9, 35 ºC, buffer-oil ratio of 1:1 and enzyme concentration of 10 mg/g oil...

  5. Therapeutic Efficacy of Saline and Glucose Saline against Dermally applied Sulphur Mustard Intoxication in Mice

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    K. Sugendran

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A single dose of saline or glucose-saline (5 mg glucose/kg offered similar protection to mice against sulphur mustard intoxication, the extent of survival being 83 per cent as against 33 per cent without treatment. All the animals were protected when the treatment was extended by another two consecutive days in the glucose-saline treated group. Both saline and glucose-saline treatments could ameliorate the haemoconcentration as well as normalise pO/sub 2/ and % oxygen saturation. The protection conferred is attributed to the probable replenishment of fluid loss.

  6. Research programs on vesicant injury and progress in the USA%美国糜烂性毒剂损伤和救治研究项目及其进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹仲敏; 赵吉清; 赛燕; 但国蓉; 蔡颖; 赵远鹏; 叶枫; 程晋; 姜帆

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the American National Institutes of Health (NIH) has sponsored some major programs of vesicant research with a big budget. The programs are operating mainly in designated research centers with their specific re -0search interest and tasks in order to meet the needs of translational medicine research , which indicates the superior admin -istrative mechanism of NIH. Studies on vesicant counter measures involve the damaging mechanism , antidote development and regimen evaluation. Some candidate drugs , such as doxycycline hydrogel, antioxidants ( silibinin, monothiol, dithiol, AEOL10150), nucleophilic scavenger ( dithiopurines and ellagic acid), have shown promising effect in alleviating the damage from vesicant exposure .%近年美国国立卫生研究院(NIH)资助的项目中,以研究中心承担主要任务,但各有侧重,可以满足转化医学研究的条件需求,也体现了NIH的先进管理理念.对糜烂性毒剂损伤和救治的研究包括损伤机制、药物研发、疗法评估等重要环节.目前在研的候选药物主要有抗炎药多西环素水凝胶、抗氧化剂(单/双硫醇、水飞蓟宾、AEOL10150)、亲核性清除剂(二硫嘌呤类和柔花酸)等.

  7. Alkalinized lidocaine versus lidocaine gel as local anesthesia prior to intra-vesical botulinum toxin (BoNTA) injections: A prospective, single center, randomized, double-blind, parallel group trial of efficacy and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Arjun K; Younis, Ayman; Khan, Zainab A; Hildrup, Iona; Emery, Simon J; Lucas, Malcolm G

    2016-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and morbidity of alkalinized lidocaine solution compared to lidocaine gel for intra-vesical anesthesia during botulinum toxin (BoNTA) injections in a statistically powered, prospective, parallel group, double-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty-four patients of either sex were randomized to receive either alkalinized lidocaine (AL) solution (10 ml 8.4% sodium bicarbonate + 20 ml 2% lidocaine solution + 22 ml sterile Aquagel®) or lidocaine gel (LG) (22 ml standard 2% lidocaine gel Instillagel® + 30 ml 0.9% normal saline solution). Primary outcome was average pain (assessed by 100 mm visual analog score) felt during intra-vesical BoNTA injections performed at least 20 min after instillation. Secondary outcome was the rate of adverse events. Of 60 randomized patients 54 received the allocated intervention and were analyzed. Mean pain score in the AL group was 17.11 mm (95%CI 8.65-25.57 mm) and in the LG group was 19.53 mm (95%CI 13.03-26.03mm) with no significant difference between the groups. Cost of interventional medication in the AL group was almost double that of the LG group. No adverse events were attributable to local anesthetic instillation in either group. Alkalinized lidocaine solution is not superior to lidocaine gel for anesthesia during intra-vesical BoNTA injections, and the higher cost precludes its use over lidocaine gel at our centre. We have used the results of this study to adapt our local protocol for BoNTA injections and continue to use lidocaine gel as the local anesthetic of choice. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:522-527, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Potential in two types of collagen scaffolds for urological tissue engineering applications - Are there differences in growth behaviour of juvenile and adult vesical cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhäuser, D; Vogt, M; Tolba, R H; Grosse, J O

    2016-02-01

    The aging society has a deep impact on patient care in urology. The number of patients in need of partial or whole bladder wall replacement is increasing simultaneously with the number of cancer incidents. Therefore, urological research requires a model of bladder wall replacement in adult and elderly people. Two types of porcine collagen I/III scaffolds were used in vitro for comparison of cell growth of two different pig breeds at different growth stages. Scaffolds were characterised with scanning electron and laser scanning microscopy. Urothelial and detrusor smooth muscle cells were isolated from 15 adult Göttingen minipigs and 15 juvenile German Landrace pigs. Growth behaviour was examined in cell culture and seeded onto the collagen scaffolds via immunohistochemistry, two-photon laser scanning microscopy and a viability assay. The collagen scaffolds showed different structured surfaces which are appropriate for seeding of the two different cell types. Moisturisation of the scaffolds resulted in a change of the structure. Cell growth of German Landrace urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells was significantly higher than cell growth of the Göttingen minipig cells. Seeding of scaffolds with both cell types from both pig races was possible which could be shown by immunohistochemistry and two-photon laser scanning microscopy. Growth behaviour on the scaffolds was significantly increased for the German Landrace compared to Göttingen minipig. Nevertheless, seeding with the adult Göttingen minipig cells resulted in a closed layer on the surface and urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells showed increasing growth until day 14. The results show that these collagen scaffolds are adequate for the seeding with vesical cells. Moreover, they seem appropriate for the use as an in vitro model for the adult or elderly as the cells of the adult Göttingen minipig too, show good growth behaviour. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Influence of nicotine on healing of vesical sutures in rabbits A influência da nicotina na cicatrização de suturas vesicais em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Machado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects of nicotine on inflammatory cells, deposition of collagen and its interference on the strength of tissue in vesical sutures in rabbits. METHODS: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were used, randomized into two groups: group N, consisting of 10 animals, to which nicotine was administered in the dose of 2mg/kg of weight as a subcutaneous injection, diluted in 1ml of saline solution at 0.9% in a daily administration during the 28 days prior to the surgery; and group C, consisting of 10 animals, to which saline solution at 0.9% was administered in the same conditions and time intervals of the nicotine group. All the animals underwent cystotomy and suture of the bladder wall 28 days after the administration of nicotine or saline solution. The measurements were performed on the fourth and seventh day in each group after cystectomy and euthanasia of the animals. A fragment of bladder was removed and sent for a tensile strength test to evaluate the tissue strength and another fragment underwent a histological analysis of inflammatory process and deposition of collagen. RESULTS: There was a decrease of neutrophils on the fourth postoperative day (p=0.079 and an increase of plasmocytes on the seventh postoperative day (p=0.053 in the animals that were given nicotine, without statistical difference in relation to the control group. In the analysis of the proliferation of fibroblasts, deposition of collagen and tensile strength test, there was no statistical difference in relation to the control group. CONCLUSION: The administration of nicotine in rabbits did not influence the healing process of vesical suture in relation to the inflammatory cells, deposit of collagen and tissue strength of the suture.OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos da nicotina sobre as células inflamatórias, deposição de colágeno e sua interferência sobre a força tecidual em suturas vesicais de coelhos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 coelhos Nova Zel

  10. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Chen Wang; Chen Kai Chang; Shu Chang Chan; Jiunn Shiuh Shieh; Chih Kwang Chiu; Pin-Der Duh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro.Methods:The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method. The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt. Strains with lowering cholesterol activity, were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells. Results: Strain B0007, B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC 17010. The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3 h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains, with more than 108 CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1%oxigall in MRS. In addition, strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines.Conclusions:These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterol-lowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines.

  11. Cancer Events After Acute or Chronic Exposure to Sulfur Mustard: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Salamati, Payman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sulfur mustard (SM) has been considered as a carcinogen in the laboratory studies. However, its carcinogenic effects on human beings were not well discussed. The main purpose of our study is to assess carcinogenesis of SM following acute and/or chronic exposures in human beings. Methods: The valid scientific English and Persian databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, IranMedex, and Irandoc were searched and the collected papers reviewed. The used keywords were in two languages: English and Persian. The inclusion criteria were the published original articles indexed in above-mentioned databases. Eleven full-texts out of 296 articles were found relevant and then assessed. Results: Studies on the workers of the SM factories during the World Wars showed that the long-term chronic exposure to mustards can cause a variety of cancers in the organs such as oral cavity, larynx, lung, and skin. Respiratory system was the most important affected system. Acute single exposure to SM was assumed as the carcinogenic inducer in the lung and blood and for few cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: SM is a proven carcinogen in chronic situations although data are not enough to strongly conclude in acute exposure. PMID:27280012

  12. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  13. In-sights into the effect of heavy metal stress on the endogenous mustard cystatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shumaila; Khan, Nafees A; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-07-25

    Phytocystatins have been ascribed several protective roles against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It was, therefore, thought worthwhile to document the effect of heavy metal stress on the endogenous plant cystatin. The mustard cystatin, purified from Brassica juncea (B. juncea) seeds retained its functional property of cysteine proteinase inhibition, despite exposure to high concentrations of metal ions, Cd(2+) and Ni(2+). An increase in inhibitory activity, ∼26% for Ni(2+) and ∼16% for Cd(2+) was observed, suggesting changes in protein conformation upon metal ion interaction. Isothermal calorimetric (ITC) studies show formation of a 1:1 binary complex on interaction with both metal ions but suggest a higher affinity for Ni(2+). Fluorescence quenching data suggest a static quenching mechanism of interaction. Various spectroscopic analyses, namely, synchronous fluorescence, ANS fluorescence, far UV CD and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy show that the native mustard cystatin acquires a more ordered conformation upon interaction with metal ions. Differential Scanning Calorimetry indicates that the thermo-stability of the Ni(2+) bound protein (Tm=109.4°C) is greater than both, the Cd(2+) bound (Tm=104.5°C) and the native (Tm=99.5°C) forms. The B. juncea seed cystatin, is thus, identified as a potent and resilient member of the phytocystatin family with considerable inhibitory capacity despite exposure to heavy metal stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Kai; Chang; Shu-Chen; Wang; Chih-Kwang; Chiu; Shih-Ying; Chen; Zong-Tsi; Chen; Pin-Der; Duh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity Methods: One hundred and fifty nine strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Taiwan fermented mustard were evaluated for their immunopotentiating activity on a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.Results: Of the strains, pronounced increases in the levels of nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were observed in strains B0040, B0110 and B0145. Among them,strain B0145 had the highest NO and tumor necrosis factor-α generation in RAW 264.7 cells;strains B0040 and B0110 were also superior to that of Lactobacillus casei. These results demonstrated that NO and cytokines were effectively induced when the bacterial stimulants were treated with macrophages. In addition, strains B0040 and B0110 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, and B0145 as Weissella cibaria using 16 S rDNA analysis.Conclusions: The results implicated selected strains may be regarded as a biological response modifier and had a broad application prospects in exploiting new functional food or as a feed additive.

  15. The EDTA Amendment in Phytoextraction of (134)Cs From Soil by Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Roosmini, Dwina

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination with radiocaesium is a significant problem at any countries when a nuclear accident occurred. Recently, phytoextraction technique is developed to remediate the contaminated environment. However, the application is limited by the availability of the contaminant for root uptake. Therefore, a green house trial experiment of soil amendment with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been conducted to examine (134)Cs availability for root uptake. Two groups of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) were cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil. The soil in the first group was treated with EDTA amendment, while the other was not. Plant growth was observed gravimetrically and the (134)Cs concentration in soil as well as plants were determined using gamma spectrometry. The plant uptake capacity was determined as transfer factor (Fv), and the Fv values of 0.22 ± 0.0786 and 0.12 ± 0.039 were obtained for the soil treated with and without EDTA amendment, respectively. The phytoextraction efficiency of the plant cultivated in (134)Cs contaminated soil both with and without EDTA amendment was low. The EDTA amendment to the soil seems to enhance the (134)Cs availability for root uptake of Indian mustard and can still be considered to assist the field phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  16. Long Term Follow-Up of Sulfur Mustard Related Bronchiolitis Obliterans Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abtahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO is the most remarkable pulmonary sequels of war-related sulfur mustard inhalation. There is little if any data about long-term efficacy of associated BO treatment. Five years spirometric records of three groups of patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases (asthma, COPD, BO and documented sulfur mustard inhalation were evaluated. The BO patients were treated with inhaled Seretide 125-250/25 (2 puffs BID, azithromycin (250 mg, three times/week and N-acetylcysteine (1200-1800/day. Asthma and COPD patients were treated according to existing guidelines. Seventy-three (38 asthma, 16 COPD and 19 BO patients completed the 5 years follow-up. Basal and final FEV1 in BO patients (2.69±0.81 and 2.39±0.65 respectively were not significantly different from COPD patients (2.46±0.56 and 1.96±0.76 respectively. There was also no significant difference between the yearly FEV1 decline in BO patients compared to COPD patients (60±84 cc vs. 99±79 cc respectively, P=0.163. The non-significant difference of FEV1 decline in BO compared to COPD patients suggests the effectiveness of azithromycin, inhaled steroid and N-acetyl cysteine in BO patients. Considering safety and possible effectiveness, this treatment is recommended until more data is available from controlled clinical studies.

  17. Germination and seedling growth of Indian mustard exposed to cadmium and chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zerbi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To make phytoremediation a technically viable option for large-scale applications we need plants that are able to guarantee high biomass yield as well as high accumulation of heavy metals in their aerial parts. The aim of this investigation was to study the performance of aquacultured plants of Indian mustard in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium and chromium since seed germination. The effects on germination and growth of seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern cv. WNFP, Varuna and Barton, were investigated in/under hydroponic conditions during a 4-week experiment. Cadmium and chromium were provided since germination as cadmium nitrate Cd(NO32 and chromium bichromate K2Cr2O7 (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M. Plant biomass growth measured at the end of the experiments varied with the different metal concentrations in the nutrient solution and the accumulation of the elements in the plant fractions differed significantly among/between cultivars. Ability in the uptake of metals and their mobilization and storage in the aerial plant biomass, expressed by the bioconcentration factor (BCF and translocation factor (TF, respectively, are the most important traits of plants with phytoextraction potential. Brassica juncea was confirmed as being a highly tolerant species, but poor metal translocation values were registered, therefore the high amount of Cd and Cr concentrated in the root systems did not migrate to the aerial, harvestable, part of the plant.

  18. Optimization of process parameters for heavy metals biosorption onto mustard waste biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemeş Lăcrămioara (Negrilă

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustard waste biomass was tested as a biosorbent for the removal of Pb(II, Zn(II and Cd(II from aqueous solution. This strategy may be a sustainable option for the utilization of such wastes. The influence of the most important operating parameters of the biosorption process was analyzed in batch experiments, and optimal conditions were found to include initial solution pH 5.5, 5.0 g biosorbent/L, 2 hours of contact time and high temperature. Kinetics analyses show that the maximum of biosorption was quickly reached and could be described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir model, and the highest values of maximum biosorption capacity were obtained with Pb(II, followed by Zn(II and Cd(II. The thermodynamic parameters of the biosorption process (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were also evaluated from isotherms. The results of this study suggest that mustard waste biomass can be used for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous media.

  19. Nanoencapsulation Enhances the Post-Emergence Herbicidal Activity of Atrazine against Mustard Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley Caixeta Oliveira

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL nanocapsules have been recently developed as a modified release system for atrazine, an herbicide that can have harmful effects in the environment. Here, the post-emergence herbicidal activity of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine was evaluated using mustard (Brassica juncea as target plant species model. Characterization of atrazine-loaded PCL nanocapsules by nanoparticle tracking analysis indicated a concentration of 7.5 x 10(12 particles mL(-1 and an average size distribution of 240.7 nm. The treatment of mustard plants with nanocapsules carrying atrazine at 1 mg mL(-1 resulted in a decrease of net photosynthesis and PSII maximum quantum yield, and an increase of leaf lipid peroxidation, leading to shoot growth inhibition and the development of severe symptoms. Time course analysis until 72 h after treatments showed that nanoencapsulation of atrazine enhanced the herbicidal activity in comparison with a commercial atrazine formulation. In contrast to the commercial formulation, ten-fold dilution of the atrazine-containing nanocapsules did not compromise the herbicidal activity. No effects were observed when plants were treated with nanocapsules without herbicide compared to control leaves sprayed with water. Overall, these results demonstrated that atrazine-containing PCL nanocapsules provide very effective post-emergence herbicidal activity. More importantly, the use of nanoencapsulated atrazine enables the application of lower dosages of the herbicide, without any loss of efficiency, which could provide environmental benefits.

  20. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu; Chen; Wang; Chen; Kai; Chang; Shu; Chang; Chan; Jiunn; Shiuh; Shieh; Chih; Kwang; Chiu; Pin-Der; Duh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria(LAB)strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro.Methods:The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method.The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt.Strains with lowering cholesterol activity,were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells.Results:Strain B0007,B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC17010.The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains,with more than 10~s CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1%oxigall in MRS.In addition,strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines.Conclusions:These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterollowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines.

  1. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent.

  2. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Hosseini, S.K. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Alavi, S.A. [Medical Center for Chemical Warfare Victims Foundation, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury.

  3. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 μg/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 μm and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation.

  4. Mutations induced by monofunctional and bifunctional phosphoramide mustards in supF tRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudipalli, A; Maccubbin, A E; Nadadur, S S; Struck, R F; Gurtoo, H L

    1997-11-19

    The relative mutagenicity, nature of the mutations and the sequence specificity of mutations induced by the bifunctional alkylating agent, phosphoramide mustard (PM) and a monofunctional derivative, dechloroethyl phosphoramide mustard (dePM), were analyzed by the Ames test and by an in vitro shuttle vector mutagenesis assay. Both PM and dePM increased the mutation frequency above background in either assay. However, on an equimolar basis, dePM was less mutagenic than PM. In the in vitro shuttle vector mutagenesis assay, sequencing demonstrated that about 40% of the mutant plasmids contained more than one mutation in the supF tRNA gene segment of the plasmid. About 70% of the mutations observed in dePM-treated plasmids were single base substitutions with A:T and G:C base pairs being mutated at equivalent rates. In contrast, only about 50% of the mutations observed in PM-treated plasmids were single base substitutions, 80% of which involved G:C base pairs. Single base deletions and insertions were found in approximately equal proportions with both compounds; however, these lesions were in greater abundance in PM-treated plasmids. Putative hot-spots for mutation in the supF tRNA gene included base pairs at position 102 and 110 for PM and positions 170 and 171 for dePM.

  5. Protection of human upper respiratory tract cell lines against sulphur mustard toxicity by hexamethylenetetramine (HMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, D J; Lindsay, C D

    1998-07-01

    1. Sulphur mustard ('mustard gas', HD) is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent which affects the skin and respiratory tract. The primary targets of inhaled HD are the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) has been shown to protect human lung cells against HD toxicity and has also been shown to be effective in vivo against the chemical warfare agent phosgene. The ability of HMT to protect against the toxicity of HD was investigated in the human upper respiratory tract cell lines BEAS-2B and RPMI 2650. 2. HD was highly toxic to both cell lines, with LC50 values of 15-30 microM. HMT, at a concentration of 10 mM, was shown to protect the cell lines against the toxic effects of 20 microM and 40 microM HD. Results demonstrated that it was necessary for HMT to be in situ at the time of exposure to HD for effective cytoprotection. No protection was seen when cells were treated with HMT following exposure to HD, or where HMT was removed prior to HD exposure. 3. Results suggest that HMT may be effective prophylaxis for exposure to HD by inhalation.

  6. Nanoencapsulation Enhances the Post-Emergence Herbicidal Activity of Atrazine against Mustard Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia Bueno Reis; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been recently developed as a modified release system for atrazine, an herbicide that can have harmful effects in the environment. Here, the post-emergence herbicidal activity of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine was evaluated using mustard (Brassica juncea) as target plant species model. Characterization of atrazine-loaded PCL nanocapsules by nanoparticle tracking analysis indicated a concentration of 7.5 x 1012 particles mL-1 and an average size distribution of 240.7 nm. The treatment of mustard plants with nanocapsules carrying atrazine at 1 mg mL-1 resulted in a decrease of net photosynthesis and PSII maximum quantum yield, and an increase of leaf lipid peroxidation, leading to shoot growth inhibition and the development of severe symptoms. Time course analysis until 72 h after treatments showed that nanoencapsulation of atrazine enhanced the herbicidal activity in comparison with a commercial atrazine formulation. In contrast to the commercial formulation, ten-fold dilution of the atrazine-containing nanocapsules did not compromise the herbicidal activity. No effects were observed when plants were treated with nanocapsules without herbicide compared to control leaves sprayed with water. Overall, these results demonstrated that atrazine-containing PCL nanocapsules provide very effective post-emergence herbicidal activity. More importantly, the use of nanoencapsulated atrazine enables the application of lower dosages of the herbicide, without any loss of efficiency, which could provide environmental benefits. PMID:26186597

  7. Estimación de la capacidad vesical de la población pediátrica de la Comunidad Valenciana mediante la realización de diarios miccionales.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez García, José Roberto

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción: El uso de los diarios miccionales se recomienda actualmente como la herramienta clínica no invasora indispensable para la evaluación de la función del aparato urinario inferior. La capacidad vesical se puede estimar a través de los volúmenes miccionales máximos (VMM (de 24 horas), VMMN (nocturno) y VMMD (diurno), este último especialmente importante en la valoración de la enuresis). Hipótesis fundamental: Los valores de referencia actuales para el cálculo de la cap...

  8. Análise dos achados urodinâmicos pré e pós-operatórios em crianças submetidas a ampliação vesical através de enterocistoplastias

    OpenAIRE

    Amarante, Antonio Carlos Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Foram estudados, retrospectivamente, os exames urodinâmicos pré e pósoperatórios de 17 crianças incontinentes, 11 do sexo feminino e seis do sexo masculino, 12 com bexiga neurogênica de etiologias diversas e cinco com extrofia vesical, com idades que variaram de dois a 15 anos, submetidas a enterocistoplastia com cólon sigmóide em nove, segmento ileocecal ("Indiana pouch" modificado) em sete e estômago em um paciente. O estudo urodinâmico analisado foi a cistometria de enchimento com ...

  9. Intravenous toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard and its DNA-adducts in the hairless guinea pig and marmoset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Spruit, W.E.T.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Mars, R.H.; Helden, H.P.M. van; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    ln order to provide a quantitative basis for pretreatment and therapy of intoxications with sulfur mustard the toxicokinetics of this agent as well as its major DNA-adducts are being studied in male hairless guinea pigs for the intravenous, respiratory and percutaneous routes. A highly sensitive met

  10. Effect of cytokinins on shoot regeneration from cotyledon and leaf segment of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, D.P.; Zhu, Z.J.; Hu, X.X.; Zheng Sijun, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cotyledon and leaf segments of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations of different cytokinins [6-benzyladenine (BA), N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-n-phenylurea (CPPU), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KT) and thidiazuron (TDZ)

  11. Effect of cytokinins on shoot regeneration from cotyledon and leaf segment of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, D.P.; Zhu, Z.J.; Hu, X.X.; Zheng Sijun, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cotyledon and leaf segments of stem mustard (Brassica juncea var. tsatsai) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with various concentrations of different cytokinins [6-benzyladenine (BA), N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-n-phenylurea (CPPU), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KT) and thidiazuron (TDZ)

  12. First report of natural occurrence of Turnip vein-clearing virus in garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2011-2013 plants of the invasive weed species Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) were observed with virus-like disease symptoms in three separate locations in Ramsey and Anoka counties, Minnesota. Symptoms consisted of conspicuous mosaic, leaf deformation and stunting. Numerous virus-like pa...

  13. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOSWAMI Bijoy Kumar; PANDEY Rajesh Kumar; RATHOUR Kabindra Singh; BHATTACHARYA Chaitali; SINGH Lokendra

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil.

  14. Infecção do trato urinário relacionada com a utilização do catéter vesical de demora: resultados da bacteriúria e da microbiota estudadas Urinary tract infection related to the use of catheter-delay bladder: results of bacteriuria and microbiota studied

    OpenAIRE

    João Leão e Souza Neto; Frederico Vilela de Oliveira; Alberto Kalil Kobaz; Margareth N. P. Silva; Alcedir Raiser Lima; Luiz Carlos Maciel

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o momento do início da bacteriúria e o germe mais freqüentemente relacionado à infecção urinária nos pacientes submetidos à sondagem vesical de demora. MÉTODO: No período de setembro de 2003 a outubro de 2004, foram avaliados os pacientes com 13 anos ou mais, submetidos à operações eletivas com cateterismo vesical de demora. Na inserção do cateter foi colhida a primeira amostra de urina, denominada Amostra 1, e outras seqüencialmente a cada 12 horas. Estas foram analisadas q...

  15. Immunomodulatory Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Can Mitigate Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Process in Human Mustard Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad-Moghaddam, Amir; Ajdary, Sohiela; Tahmasbpour, Eisa; Rad, Farhad Riazi; Panahi, Yunes; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are one of the main pathological consequences of sulfur mustard on human lungs. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment to mitigate pathological effects of sulfur mustard in mustard lungs. Here, we aimed to evaluate potential efficacy of systemic mesenchymal stem cells administration on expression of oxidative stress- and inflammation-related genes in sulfur mustard-exposed patients. Our patient received 100 million cells per injection, which was continued for four injections within 2 months. Sputum samples were provided after each injection. Oxidative stress was evaluated by determining sputum levels of malondialdehyde and glutathione. Furthermore, changes in expression of several oxidative stress- (metallothionein 3, glutathione reductase, oxidative stress responsive 1, glutathione peroxidase 2, lacto peroxidase, forkhead box M1) and inflammation-related genes (matrix metallopeptidase 2, matrix metallopeptidase 9, transforming growth factor-β1, vascular endothelial growth factor, metallopeptidase inhibitor 1, metallopeptidase inhibitor 2) were also evaluated using real-time PCR after treatments. Two-lung epithelial-specific proteins including Clara cell protein 16 and Mucin-1 protein levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay method. No significant differences were found between serum levels of Clara cell protein 16 and serum Mucin-1 protein in patient before and after cell therapy. Most of the oxidative stress responsive genes, particularly oxidative stress responsive 1, were overexpressed after treatments. Expressions of antioxidants genes such as metallothionein 3, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase 2 were increased after cell therapy. Upon comparison of inflammation-related genes, we observed upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metallopeptidase 9 after mesenchymal stem cells therapy. Additionally, a trend for increased value of glutathione and decreased levels of

  16. Diagnóstico y tratamiento de la esquistosomiasis vesical desde la atención primaria penitenciaria: a propósito de un caso Diagnosis and treatment of bladder schistosomiasis from penitentiary primary care: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bedoya del Campillo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso clínico de un paciente procedente de Senegal con síndrome miccional y hematuria microscópica que fue diagnosticado y tratado de esquistosomiasis vesical en los servicios médicos del Centro Penitenciario de Jóvenes de Barcelona. Según nuestra información en la base de datos Medline no existen casos de esquistosomiasis vesical abordados en atención primaria fuera de áreas endémicas. Los pacientes pueden diagnosticarse y tratarse antes de ser derivados a la asistencia especializada para continuar estudio de posibles complicaciones.We describe a case of a patient from Senegal with voiding symptoms and microscopic hematuria diagnosed and treated for bladder schistosomiasis in the medical services of the Youth Prison in Barcelona. According to our information in the Medline database no bladder schistosomiasis cases have been seen in primary care outside endemic areas. Patients can be diagnosed andtreated before referral to specialized care for further study of possible complications.

  17. Fatores associados à bacteriúria após sondagem vesical na cirurgia ginecológica Factors associated with bacteriuria after indwelling urethral catheterization in gynecologic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cristina Araújo Hinrichsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a frequência e os principais fatores associados à bacteriúria após a sondagem vesical em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo do tipo coorte em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica após sondagem vesical no Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, no período de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas até 24 horas após a retirada da sonda e 7/10 dias após a sondagem vesical. A análise estatística bivariada e multivariada foi realizada calculando-se a razão de risco e os seus intervalos de confiança a 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas no estudo 249 mulheres. A frequência de uroculturas positivas até 24 horas depois da retirada da sonda foi de 23,6%, diminuindo para 11,1% 7/10 dias após a sondagem. Destas, apenas 2,4% eram sintomáticas. Verificou-se menor risco de bacteriúria com 7/10 dias após a sondagem vesical quando a paciente referiu vulvovaginite tratada nos últimos três meses, não permanecendo estatisticamente significativa após a análise multivariada. Não houve associação significativa com idade, escolaridade, número de gestações, paridade, fase da vida reprodutiva, tipo e duração da cirurgia, tipo da anestesia, uso de antibiótico profilático, profissional que colocou a sonda e o tempo de permanência da sonda vesical. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência de bacteriúria foi de 23,6% e 11,1% com 24 horas e 7/10 dias, respectivamente. Não se encontrou associação significativa das variáveis pesquisadas com a bacteriúria evidenciada na urocultura com 7/10 dias.OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and risk factors associated to bacteriuria after urinary catheterization in women submitted to elective gynecological surgery. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out among women submitted to gynecological surgery after urinary catheterization. This study took place at the "Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor

  18. Clinical Observation on moxibustion combined with intermittent urethral catheterization for treatment of neurogenic vesical dysfunction%灸法配合间歇导尿治疗神经原性膀胱功能障碍疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓东; 任亚锋; 韦大文; 刘承梅

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of moxibustion combined with intermittent urethral catheterization on vesical function in the patient of neurogenic vesical dysfunction. Methods Seventy-six cases were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 38 cases in each group. The control group was treated with routine intermittent urethral catheterization and the observation group with the intermittent urethral catheterization and moxibustion on Guanyuan (CV 4), Mingmen (GV 4), Zusanli (ST 36), etc. Changes of residual urine volume, white cell count and the balance state of the urinary bladder were selected as the indexes of therapeutic effect and the therapeutic effects were compared between the two groups. Results The total effective rate was 97. 4% in the observation group and 79. 0% in the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (P0. 05). Conclusion Moxibustion combined with intermittent urethral catheterization can significantly improve vesical function in the patient of neurogenic vesical dysfunction, reducing residual urine volume, increasing volume of bladder, promoting the balance state of vesical function, but it is basically same as intermittent urethral catheterization in prevention of urinary infection and therapeutic effect.%目的:观察灸法配合间歇导尿对神经原性膀胱功能障碍患者膀胱功能的影响.方法:将76例患者随机分为观察组和对照组,各38例.对照组采用常规间歇导尿法,观察组在此基础上加灸法,穴取关元、命门、足三里等.选择残余尿量、尿内白细胞数的定量变化及膀胱平衡状态为观察指标,比较两组的疗效.结果:观察组总有效率为97.4%,对照组为79.0%,两组疗效比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组治疗后残余尿量、膀胱容量及达到膀胱功能平衡状态例数比较,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);两组治疗后白细胞数的定量变化比较,P>0.05,差异无统计学意

  19. Induction and repair of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard in the A-549 cell line followed by a comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Petr; Svobodova, Hana; Stetina, Rudolf

    2015-07-25

    Sulfur mustard is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent with devastating impact on intoxicated tissues. DNA cross-links are probably the most toxic DNA lesions induced in the cell by sulfur mustard. The comet assay is a very sensitive method for measuring DNA damage. In the present study using the A-549 lung cell line, the comet assay protocol was optimized for indirect detection of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard. The method is based on the additional treatment of the assayed cells containing cross-links with the chemical mutagen, styrene oxide. Alkali-labile adducts of styrene oxide cause DNA breaks leading to the formation of comets. A significant dose-dependent reduction of DNA migration of the comet's tail was found after exposing cells to sulfur mustard, indicative of the amount of sulfur mustard induced cross-links. The remarkable decrease of % tail DNA could be observed as early as 5min following exposure to sulfur mustard and the maximal effect was found after 30min, when DNA migration was reduced to the minimum. Sulfur mustard preincubated in culture medium without cells lost its ability to induce cross-links and had a half-life of about 15min. Pre-incubation longer than 30min does not lead to a significant increase in cross-links when applied to cells. However, the amount of cross-links is decreased during further incubation due to repair. The current modification of the comet assay provides a useful tool for detecting DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard and could be used for detection of other DNA cross-linking agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs.

  20. Lesión vesical iatrogénica: experiencia de diez años, tratamiento y resultados entre 1999-2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher CK Ho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Esta serie del casos es una revisión retrospectiva de heridas iatrogénicas de vejiga tratadas en la Universidad Nacional de Malasia entre 1999 y 2009. Métodos: Se hizo una revisión retrospectiva de la base de datos de la sala de cirugía del  Centro Médico de  la Universidad Nacional de Malasia, en individuos a quienes se les realizó cirugía de heridas de vejiga. Se excluyeron los pacientes que presentaron heridas de vejiga sin cirugía como heridas traumáticas debido a fracturas pélvicas, trauma cerrado o heridas penetrantes en la  pelvis. Resultados: Se encontraron 12 casos de herida de vejiga iatrogénica tratados entre 1999 y 2009. Ocho heridas ocurrieron durante cirugía ginecológica, 5 durante cesárea segmentaria baja, 2 durante histerectomía abdominal total y  salpingo-ooforectomía bilateral y 1 herida durante colposuspensión de Burch. Las 4 heridas restantes no ginecológicas fueron: 2 heridas por iatrogenia ocurrida durante una hernioplastia, una durante exploración de una fístula entero-cutánea y la otra se presentó durante una apendectomía laparoscópica. Conclusión: La herida iatrogénica de la vejiga debe ser anticipada en pacientes que experimentan cesárea que han tenido múltiples cesáreas previas. Las heridas iatrogénicas deben ser identificadas intra-operatoriamente para permitir reparación temprana y obtener el mejor resultado. Obtuvo mejores resultados la reparación continua con suturas absorbibles junto con drenaje vesical mediante catéter. La cistografía ascendente con 300 ml de contraste es la mejor opción para el diagnóstico de herida iatrogénica de vejiga y también para la evaluación de la reparación total.

  1. A novel technique to collect root exudates from mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Kunal; Narula, Neeru

    2012-10-01

    A very simple, novel, cost effective, easy to use technique has been developed for the collection of root exudates from small seeded plants, under laboratory conditions. 200-1000 μl micro tips (Tarsons), kept in 100 ml glass beakers, were used as holders for the small seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and the exudates were trapped in liquid culture medium. The exudates, so obtained, were authenticated and analyzed for organic compounds such as sugars, amino acids and organic acids, as well as chemotactic response towards rhizobacteria. Method was found to be suitable and easy to handle for small seeds. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Yellow mustard bran attenuates glycaemic response of a semi-solid food in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Aron M; Thondre, Pariyarath S; Rosenthal, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p soup.

  3. Combined effects of diphenyliodonium chloride, pine oils, and mustard oil soaps on certain microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Z; Siddiqui, M A; Khan, I

    1969-06-01

    Bactericidal and bacteriostatic activities of an emulsion containing 10.0% (v/v) terpineol, 0.5% (w/v) diphenyliodonium chloride, 11.0% (v/v) ethyl alcohol, and 5.62% saponified mustard oil were tested against a number of different types of organisms. The bactericidal concentration for Salmonella typhosa was 1:400. In the presence of 5.0% horse serum, it increased to 1:250. The bacteriostatic concentration varied from organism to organism; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus required 4,000 mug/ml for complete bacteriostasis, whereas Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Salmonella paratyphi-A, and Shigella required only 2,000 mug/ml for complete inhibition. A 4.0% concentration of the emulsion killed the spores of Bacillus subtilis within 6 hr.

  4. Effects of process variables and additives on mustard oil hydrolysis by porcine pancreas lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Goswami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Selective hydrolysis of brown mustard oil (from Brassica juncea with regioselective porcine pancreas lipase was studied in this work. Buffer and oil phase were considered as the continuous and dispersed phases, respectively. Effects of speed of agitation, pH of the buffer phase, temperature, buffer-oil ratio and enzyme concentration on hydrolysis were observed. The best combination of process variables was: 900 rpm, pH 9, 35 ºC, buffer-oil ratio of 1:1 and enzyme concentration of 10 mg/g oil. These standard conditions led to 50% hydrolysis and selective production of 55% erucic acid in 6 h. Cations like Mg2+ and Ca2+ increased hydrolysis, but Cu2+ strongly inhibited it. Organic solvents decreased hydrolysis, though the decrease was minimum for isooctane. A mixed surfactant comprising of Span 80 and Tween 80 increased erucic acid production by 57% at a buffer-oil ratio of 0.2:1.

  5. Bullous pemphigoid. Occurrence in a patient with mycosis fungoides receiving PUVA and topical nitrogen mustard therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, J.W.; Ali, M.; Murray, J.C.; Hazra, T.A.

    1985-04-01

    A 57-year-old woman with mycosis fungoides developed blisters within cutaneous plaques while receiving PUVA therapy and topical nitrogen mustard. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies showed the findings of bullous pemphigoid. Her bullous disease was controlled after cessation of these therapies and institution of prednisone and methotrexate. During the 5 months following completion of a course of electron-beam therapy, she has been free of the cutaneous manifestations of both diseases. Previous instances of PUVA-related pemphigoid have occurred in psoriatics. The role of ultraviolet light in the induction of pemphigoid is discussed, particularly with regard to its possible interaction with the altered skin of psoriasis or mycosis fungoides. Some of the rare cases of bullous mycosis fungoides might actually have represented ultraviolet-unmasked bullous pemphigoid.

  6. Genotypic variation in phytoremediation potential of Indian mustard exposed to nickel stress: a hydroponic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Kafeel Ahmad; Ahmad, Altaf; Umar, Shahid; Zia, Munir Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad; Owens, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Ten Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) genotypes were screened for their nickel (Ni) phytoremediation potential under controlled environmental conditions. All ten genotypes were grown hydroponically in aqueous solution containing Ni concentrations (as nickel chloride) ranging from 0 to 50 μM and changes in plant growth, biomass and total Ni uptake were evaluated. Of the ten genotypes (viz. Agrini, BTO, Kranti, Pusa Basant, Pusa Jai Kisan, Pusa Bahar, Pusa Bold, Vardhan, Varuna, and Vaibhav), Pusa Jai Kisan was the most Ni tolerant genotype accumulating up to 1.7 μg Ni g(-1) dry weight (DW) in its aerial parts. Thus Pusa Jai Kisan had the greatest potential to become a viable candidate in the development of practical phytoremediation technologies for Ni contaminated sites.

  7. RELATIVE TOXICITY OF MUSTARD ESSENTIAL OIL TO INSECT-PESTS OF STORED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALBERTO HIPÓLITO SOUSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative toxicity of the mustard (Brassica rapa L. essential oil (MEO on young and old larvae, pupae, and adults of Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus was determined using concen- tration-response bioassays. The respiration rate of adults was measured to determine its influence on its toxic- ity. Different developmental stages of both species differed significantly in their response to MEO, with the adults being much more susceptible than the immature stages. Although adult mortality did not differ between species, the adult respiration rate of C. maculatus was significantly higher than that of S. zeamais. Thus, the toxicity oil for adults was not influenced by natural respiration rate of species investigated.

  8. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard.

  9. Comparative transcriptional and translational analysis of heme oxygenase expression in response to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent which reacts with nucleophilic groups on DNA, RNA and proteins. It is capable of inducing cellular toxicity and oxidative stress via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The accumulation of high amounts of the reactive species causes harmful effects such as DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, inflammation and apoptosis. Although SM (also known as mustard gas) and its derivatives are rapidly removed from the body, long-term damages are much more serious than the short-term effects and may be correlated with the subsequent changes occurred on the genome. In order to defend against oxidative properties of this toxic molecule, cells trigger several anti-oxidant pathways through up-regulating the corresponding genes. Enzymes like heme oxygenase-1, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase are the examples of such genes. These enzymes produce anti-oxidant substances that are able to scavenge the reactive species, alleviate their noxious effects and protect the cells. Following SM gas exposure, gene transcription (mRNA levels) of these enzymes are ramped up to help detoxify the cells. Yet, some studies have reported that the up-regulated transcription does not necessarily translate into higher protein expression levels. The exact reason why this phenomenon happens is not clear. Creation of mutations in the genome sequence may lead to protein structure changes. Phosphorylation or other post-translational alterations of proteins upon SM exposure are also considered as possible causes. In addition, alterations in some microRNAs responsible for regulating post-translation events may inhibit the expression of the anti-oxidant proteins in the poisoned cells at translational level.

  10. Genotypic Variation in the Phytoremediation Potential of Indian Mustard for Chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2008-05-01

    The term “phytoremediation” is used to describe the cleanup of heavy metals from contaminated sites by plants. This study demonstrates phytoremediation potential of Indian mustard ( Brasicca juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss.) genotypes for chromium (Cr). Seedlings of 10 genotypes were grown hydroponically in artificially contaminated water over a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of Cr (VI), and the responses of genotypes in the presence of Cr, with reference to Cr accumulation, its phytotoxity and anti-oxidative system were investigated. The Cr accumulation potential varied largely among Indian mustard genotypes. At 100 μM Cr treatment, Pusa Jai Kisan accumulated the maximum amount of Cr (1680 μg Cr g-1 DW) whereas Vardhan accumulated the minimum (107 μg Cr g-1 DW). As the tolerance of metals is a key plant characteristic required for phytoremediation purpose, effects of various levels of Cr on biomass were evaluated as the gross effect. The extent of oxidative stress caused by Cr stress was measured as rate of lipid peroxidation. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was enhanced at all Cr treatments when compared to the control. Inductions of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants were monitored as metal-detoxifying responses. All the genotypes responded to Cr-induced oxidative stress by modulating nonenzymatic antioxidants [glutathione (GSH) and ascorbate (Asc)] and enzymatic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR)]. The level of induction, however, differed among the genotypes, being at its maximum in Pusa Jai Kisan and its minimum in Vardhan. Pusa Jai Kisan was grown under natural field conditions with various Cr treatments, and Cr-accumulation capacity was studied. The results confirmed that Pusa Jai Kisan is a hyperaccumulator of Cr and hypertolerant to Cr-induced stress, which makes this genotype a viable candidate for use in the development of

  11. Black and Garlic Mustard Plants Are Highly Suitable for the Development of Two Native Pierid Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Robin; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-22

    In multivoltine insects that oviposit and develop on short-lived plants, different herbivore generations across a growing season often exploit different plant species. Here, we compare the development time, pupal mass, and survival of two closely related oligophagous herbivore species on two species of brassicaceous plants that grow in different habitats and which exhibit little overlap in temporal growth phenology. In central Europe, the green-veined white butterfly, Pieris napi L., is bivoltine, whereas the small cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae L., has two to three generations a year. Moreover, P. napi is primarily found in moist, open (e.g., meadow), and forest habitats, whereas P. rapae prefers drier, open habitats. Both butterflies were reared on Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), which is shade-tolerant and grows early in spring in forest undergrowth, and Black mustard (Brassica nigra), which prefers open disturbed habitats and is most common in summer. Both host plant species differ in other traits such as secondary chemistry. We hypothesized that, owing to habitat preference, P. napi would develop equally well on both plants but that P. rapae would perform better on B. nigra The results provide partial support for this hypothesis, as both herbivores performed equally well on A. petiolata and B. nigra However, there were differences in these parameters that were species-specific: on both plants P. rapae developed faster and had larger pupae than P. napi Our results show that specialized herbivores can exploit different species of related plants that grow at different times of the season, enabling them to have multiple generations.

  12. Accumulation, detoxification, and genotoxicity of heavy metals in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, C S; Misra, V; Chauhan, L K S

    2012-01-01

    Plants of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) were exposed to different concentrations (15, 30, 60, 120 microM) of (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb) for 28 and 56 d for accumulation and detoxification studies. Metal accumulation in roots and shoots were analyzed and it was observed that roots accumulated a significant amount of Cd (1980 microg g(-1) dry weight), Cr (1540 microg g(-1) dry weight), Cu (1995 microg g(-1) dry weight), and Pb (2040 microg g(-1) dry weight) after 56 d of exposure, though in shoot this was 1110, 618, 795, and 409 microg g(-1) dry weight of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In order to assess detoxification mechanisms, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) were analyzed in plants. An increase in the quantity of NP-SH (9.55), GSH (8.30), and PCs (1.25) micromol g(-1) FW were found at 15 microM of Cd, however, a gradual decline in quantity was observed from 15 microM of Cd onwards, after 56 d of exposure. For genotoxicity in plants, cytogenetic end-points such as mitotic index (MI), micronucleus formation (MN), mitotic aberrations (MA) and chromosome aberrations (CA) were examined in root meristem cells of B. juncea. Exposure of Cd revealed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of MI, induction of MA, CA, and MN in the root tips for 24 h. However, cells examined at 24 h post-exposure showed concentration-wise recovery in all the endpoints. The data revealed that Indian mustard could be used as a potential accumulator of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb due to a good tolerance mechanisms provided by combined/concerted action of NP-SH, GSH, and PCs. Also, exposure of Cd can cause genotoxic effects in B. juncea L. through chromosomal mutations, MA, and MN formation.

  13. Architectural and biochemical expressions of mustard gas keratopathy: preclinical indicators and pathogenic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick McNutt

    Full Text Available A subset of victims of ocular sulfur mustard (SM exposure develops an irreversible, idiotypic keratitis with associated secondary pathologies, collectively referred to as mustard gas keratopathy (MGK. MGK involves a progressive corneal degeneration resulting in chronic ocular discomfort and impaired vision for which clinical interventions have typically had poor outcomes. Using a rabbit corneal vapor exposure model, we previously demonstrated a clinical progression with acute and chronic sequelae similar to that observed in human casualties. However, a better understanding of the temporal changes that occur during the biphasic SM injury is crucial to mechanistic understanding and therapeutic development. Here we evaluate the histopathologic, biochemical and ultrastructural expressions of pathogenesis of the chronic SM injury over eight weeks. We confirm that MGK onset exhibits a biphasic trajectory involving corneal surface regeneration over the first two weeks, followed by the rapid development and progressive degeneration of corneal structure. Preclinical markers of corneal dysfunction were identified, including destabilization of the basal corneal epithelium, basement membrane zone abnormalities and stromal deformation. Clinical sequelae of MGK appeared abruptly three weeks after exposure, and included profound anterior edema, recurring corneal erosions, basement membrane disorganization, basal cell necrosis and stromal degeneration. Unlike resolved corneas, MGK corneas exhibited frustrated corneal wound repair, with significantly elevated histopathology scores. Increased lacrimation, disruption of the basement membrane and accumulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in the aqueous humor provide several mechanisms for corneal degeneration. These data suggest that the chronic injury is fundamentally distinct from the acute lesion, involving injury mechanisms that operate on different time scales and in different corneal tissues. Corneal edema

  14. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  15. Impacts of mustard gas exposure on veterans mental health: A study on the role of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-Reza Karami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mustard gas (MG exposure can impair physical health and therefore increase the probability of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and psychological disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate long-term effects of MG exposure on veterans′ mental health. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. In order to assess prevalence of mental health and PTSD of 100 MG victims 25 years after the exposure to MG in Iran-Iraq conflict, the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28 and Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively was administered. Results: The mean (±standard deviation (SD age of participants was 40.63 (±5.86 years. The mean GHQ-28 (47.34 of the study group was higher compared to standardized cutoff point (23 of the Iranian community. Also, it was found that 38 participants (38% suffer from PTSD. The results of this study showed that academic education in the PTSD group was less than that in the non-PTSD group (P=0.03. In addition, in multivariate analysis it was found that only education level of the veterans and their wives were effective on the mental health score (adjusted P=0.036 and 0.041, respectively. The mean score of depression and psychosocial activity subscale in patients at higher education level was lower than patients at lower education level (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study found that sulfur mustard (SM exposure can be effect on mental health even 25 years after exposure. Therefore, the psychological state should be more considered in chemical injured veterans and it is important that providing more mental health centers for this community.

  16. Association of mustard oil as cooking media with carcinoma of the gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ruhi; Srivastava, Piyush; Basu, Somprakas; Srivastava, Pradeep; Mishra, Pradeep Kumar; Shukla, Vijay Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Carcinoma of the gallbladder (CaGB) is a common health problem in Northern India. Exact causative factors are still obscure. Dietary habits are also known to be a major factor in the gallbladder carcinogenesis. Mustard oil is mostly used as cooking media, which is adulterated by sanguinarine, diethylnitrosamine and repeated frying. We tried to find out the association of mustard oil as cooking media with CaGB. Twenty patients each of CaGB (group I) and cholelithiasis (group II) were included in the study. Sanguinarine and diethylnitrosamine (DEN) were extracted from the tissue and blood samples from both groups. Mean and standard error of mean of the concentration of the sanguinarine and DEN were calculated. Mann-Whitney U test was applied to test the level of significance between the two groups. The mean concentration of tissue sanguinarine in both groups (I and II) was 195.18 ng/mg and 24.05 ng/mg, respectively, and the difference was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). The estimated concentration of blood sanguinarine was 230.96 ng/mL and 14.0 ng/mL in group I and II, respectively, and the difference was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). The concentration of DEN in the tissue sample was 38.08 ng/mg in CaGB and 2.51 ng/mg in cholelithiasis patient, and these values were statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). Similarly, blood DEN concentration was 119.05 ng/mL and 4.22 ng/mL in group I and II, respectively, and the difference was statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). There is an increase in concentration of sanguinarine and diethylnitrosamine in CaGB blood and tissue in comparison to the cholelithiasis group suggesting an association with carcinoma of the gallbladder.

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 745 - Schedules of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Me, Et, n-Pr or i-Pr) phosphonothiolates and corresponding alkylated or protonated salts e.g. VX: O...-Chloroethylchloromethylsulfide 2625-76-5 Mustard gas: Bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide 505-60-2 Bis(2-chloroethylthio)methane...

  18. Vapor Pressure of Methyl Salicylate and n-Hexadecane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and n-hexadecane are similar to those of sulfur mustard (HD) and VX , respectively. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Methyl salicylate Vapor pressure Volatility...2- chloroethyl) sulfide (HD) and O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate ( VX ), respectively. Vapor pressure similarities make... gas chromatographic (GC) equipment and methodology, and as before, the GC was equipped with a flame-ionization detector. Saturator calibration and

  19. Nitrogen Mustards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  20. Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  1. Dissipation kinetics of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Dissipation of simultaneously applied insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was studied in a minor crop, aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD/NPD) was used to determine insecticide residues. Analytical performances were very satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties not higher than 14% (coverage factor k = 2, confidence level 95%). Dissipation of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in white mustard followed first-order kinetics (R(2) between 0.953 and 0.995), with half-lives of 3.1-4.6 and 2.9-3.7 days respectively. Based on the results of this two-year study and the relevant residue regulation, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments can be considered safe for crop protection, feeding animals and the environment.

  2. Changes in 14CO2 absorption rates by the successive leaves in buckwheat and white mustard plants of various ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments with different-aged buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. plants showed that the sub-apical and middle leaves, before they had reached their approximate final sizes, had the highest rates of 14CO2 absorption. The intensity of this process decreases in each leaf with age of the plant. White mustard leaves showed a little higher absorption rate of 14CO2 than analogous leaves of buckwheat plants. In the investigated leaves no close relationship between the intensity of 14CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a and b concentration was observed. Some possible reasons for the higher intensity of photosynthesis in the sub-apical leaves are discussed.

  3. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  4. Mutations in the IMD Pathway and Mustard Counter Vibrio cholerae Suppression of Intestinal Stem Cell Division in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, ZHIPENG; Hang, Saiyu; Purdy, Alexandra E.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium and an intestinal pathogen of humans that causes severe epidemic diarrhea. In the absence of adequate mammalian models in which to study the interaction of V. cholerae with the host intestinal innate immune system, we have implemented Drosophila melanogaster as a surrogate host. We previously showed that immune deficiency pathway loss-of-function and mustard gain-of-function mutants are less susceptible to V. cholerae infection. We find that ...

  5. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  6. Transvenous cardiac resynchronization therapy in complex congenital heart diseases: dextrocardia with transposition of the great arteries after Mustard operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartner, Peter A; Wiebe, Walter; Volkmer, Marius; Thomas, Daniel; Schneider, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy revealed first promising results in patients with a congenital heart disease and a systemic right ventricle. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed accessibility of the coronary sinus in an 18-year-old male patient with mirror dextrocardia, d-transposition of the great arteries and ventricular septal defect (VSD) after Mustard operation and VSD patch closure. In literatures, transvenous lead placement is discussed in this anatomical setting, with opposed position of the ventricular leads and reliable lead characteristics.

  7. Infecção do trato urinário relacionada com a utilização do catéter vesical de demora: resultados da bacteriúria e da microbiota estudadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Leão e Souza Neto

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o momento do início da bacteriúria e o germe mais freqüentemente relacionado à infecção urinária nos pacientes submetidos à sondagem vesical de demora. MÉTODO: No período de setembro de 2003 a outubro de 2004, foram avaliados os pacientes com 13 anos ou mais, submetidos à operações eletivas com cateterismo vesical de demora. Na inserção do cateter foi colhida a primeira amostra de urina, denominada Amostra 1, e outras seqüencialmente a cada 12 horas. Estas foram analisadas quanto a bacteriúria, leucocitúria, e cultura. A infecção do trato urinário foi definida como a presença de 100.000 unidades formadoras de colônias ou mais, após o isolamento da mesma bactéria ou fungo em culturas de urina de amostras distintas, desde a inserção até a remoção do cateter urinário; a leucocitúria como contagem de leucócitos igual ou superior a 10.000 leucócitos/mm³; e bacteriúria como presença de bactéria de uma única espécie na amostra analisada. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 63 pacientes, 46 sexo masculino (73% e 17 sexo feminino (27%. Apenas três deles apresentaram leucocitúria na primeira coleta. Nas Amostras 1 houve variação de 1.000 a 20.000 leucócitos/mm³, todas com cultura negativa. O número de amostras variou de 1 a 8 (84h após a realização do cateterismo vesical. As leucocitúrias nas amostras finais variaram de 1.000 a 204.000 leucócitos/mm³, todas com urocultura e bacteriúria negativa. 62 pacientes (98,4% utilizaram antibioticoterapia de curta duração para o sítio cirúrgico. CONCLUSÃO: Até 84h - 3,5 dias - não houve Infecção em nenhuma das amostras coletadas e cultivadas. A antibioticoterapia de curta duração pode ter contribuído para o resultado observado.

  8. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquène, L; Vandenhove, H; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg(-1) dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  9. Design, synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity study of benzodiazepine-mustard conjugates as potential brain anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of two pharmacological entities in a single compound has been utilized as a promising drug design strategy for site-specificity. So two nitrogen mustard agents were synthesized by conjugating mustard with the benzodiazepine nucleus in the hope to obtain central nervous system (CNS antitumor agents. The benzodiazepine part is aimed to serve as a CNS active carrier enabling the alkylating moiety to cross the BBB by altering its physicochemical properties. Structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR (1H & 13C, mass spectral and elemental studies. The benzodiazepine-mustard conjugates are oily at room temperature and quite stable when stored in refrigerator for 2 months. Both compounds when evaluated for NBP alkylating activity against chlorambucil, proved to be active alkylating agents. The compounds were markedly active when subjected to in vitro biological evaluation using an MTT colorimetric assay against four human cancer cell lines (A-549, COLO 205, U-87 MG and IMR-32. The physicochemical ADME studies were also analyzed using Qikprop 2.5 tools of Schodinger software which further indicates that both compounds can be potential candidates for the treatment of brain tumor.

  10. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Tack, F.; Meers, E. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baeten, J. [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Department of Health-Care and Chemistry, Kleinhoefstraat 4, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  11. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane.

  12. Instalación de sonda vesical posterior a la intervención educativa en un modelo de simulación. Estudio comparativo en modelo de simulación y pacientes reales. Estudio piloto

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El desarrollo de habilidades clínicas a través de modelos de simulación, es recomendable para un desempeño profesional con el mínimo de error en pacientes reales. Objetivo: Determinar si hay diferencias significativas en la instalación de sonda vesical, por un grupo de estudiantes del cuarto año de la Licenciatura de Medicina de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, en modelos de simulación y en pacientes reales. Método: Estudio piloto de intervención educativa, se aplicó un progr...

  13. Perfil dos microrganismos isolados no trato urinário após sondagem vesical em cirurgia ginecológica Profile of microorganisms found in urocultures after urinary catheterization in patients undergoing elective gynecological surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cristina Hinrichsen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar os microrganismosfreqüentemente encontrados nas uroculturas apóssondagem vesical e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica com sondagem vesical, no Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP, em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas em dois períodos: até 24h da retirada do cateter e após sete/10 dias. RESULTADOS: amostras de urina foram colhidas em 249 mulheres. Encontrouse 23,6% (n=46 de uroculturas positivas com até 24h da retirada da sonda e 11,1% (n=25 com sete/10 dias após sondagem vesical. Não foi observada diferença significativa em relação aos microrganismos, quando se compararamas duas uroculturas. A Klebsiella spp. foi o principal microrganismo em ambas uroculturas (até 24h=47,8% vs sete/10 dias=44,0%; p=0,76, seguido de Escherichia coli e outros Gram-negativos. Os antibióticos amicacina, cefepima, ciprofloxacina, meropenem e ticarcilina-clavulanato foram os que apresentaram sensibilidade igual ou superior a 75%para os principais microrganismos isolados. CONCLUSÕES: Klebsiella spp. foi o microrganismo mais encontrado nas uroculturas após sondagem vesical em cirurgias ginecológicas e o antibiótico com sensibilidade igual ou maior a 95% com via de administração oral foi a ciprofloxacina.OBJECTIVES: to determine the microorganisms mostfrequently found in urocultures after urinary catheterization and their antibiotic sensitivities in women undergoing elective gynecological surgery. METHODS: the study was carried out at theInstituto de Medicina Integral Professor FernandoFigueira, IMIP, in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, between January and May 2007. Urine cultures wereobtained from these patients on two occasions subsequent to the removal of the catheter: within the first 24h and 710 days

  14. 冬菜肉酱调料的开发研究%Development of Mustard Greens Meat Sauce Seasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文亭; 徐文俊; 肖龙泉; 李杉杉; 李俊英; 刘达玉

    2014-01-01

    Recipes of raw materials are optimized;the effects of frying time and temperature on mince dehydration and aroma enhancement of bean paste are studied.Recipes of mustard greens meat sauce seasoning are identified;based on the initial raw materials,the ratios of mustard greens-meat sauce are as follows:mustard greens of 40%,minced meat of 15%~20%,rapeseed oil of 26%,bean paste of 8%,sesame paste of 4%;paprika of 2.0%,meat flavor of 1.0%,pepper powder of 0.4% and spices powder of 2.0%.The yield of mustard greens meat sauce is about 70%.The quality and pro-duction efficiency of products are improved by using the method for frying minced meat,bean paste and mustard greens respectively.%为提高冬菜竞争力,提高其附加值,扩大消费群体和运用领域,开发了冬菜肉酱调料。通过优化原辅料配方,研究了炒制温度、时间对肉末脱水和豆瓣酱增香的影响,确定了冬菜肉酱的调味料配方。以最初原辅料为基准,添加量配比为冬菜40%,肉末15%~20%,菜籽油26%,豆瓣酱8%,芝麻酱4%;辣椒粉添加量为2.0%,肉味香精为1.0%,花椒粉为0.4%,香料粉为2.0%,冬菜肉酱加工得率为70%左右。采用肉末、豆瓣酱、冬菜分别油炸脱水,然后集中混合调味的方式,提升了产品质量,提高了生产效率。

  15. Bipyridine (2,2′-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alencar, T.A.M.; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T.C.; Vidal, L.S.; Fortunato, R.S.; Leitão, A.C. [Laboratório de Radiobiologia Molecular (Brazil); Lage, C., E-mail: claudia_lage_dna@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Radiações em Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Reduction of Fe{sup 2+} ensues a respiratory burst to reduce the oxidized iron pool. • Through Harber–Weiss recycling, superoxide electrons can reduce oxidized iron. • Redox imbalance sensitized repair proficient Escherichia coli to mustard lethal crosslinks. • A stronger synergism impacted survival of a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain. • Anti-cancer cocktails added of an iron chelator may impact hypoxia and genotoxicity. - Abstract: Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains

  16. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2015-11-13

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  17. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: savio.alv@gmail.com [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  18. Effect of ionic strength and cationic DNA affinity binders on the DNA sequence selective alkylation of guanine N7-positions by nitrogen mustards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.A.; Forrow, S.M.; Souhami, R.L. (Univ. College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London (England))

    1990-03-27

    Large variations in alkylation intensities exist among guanines in a DNA sequence following treatment with chemotherapeutic alkylating agents such as nitrogen mustards, and the substituent attached to the reactive group can impose a distinct sequence preference for reaction. In order to understand further the structural and electrostatic factors which determine the sequence selectivity of alkylation reactions, the effect of increase ionic strength, the intercalator ethidium bromide, AT-specific minor groove binders distamycin A and netropsin, and the polyamine spermine on guanine N7-alkylation by L-phenylalanine mustard (L-Pam), uracil mustard (UM), and quinacrine mustard (QM) was investigated with a modification of the guanine-specific chemical cleavage technique for DNA sequencing. The result differed with both the nitrogen mustard and the cationic agent used. The effect, which resulted in both enhancement and suppression of alkylation sites, was most striking in the case of netropsin and distamycin A, which differed from each other. DNA footprinting indicated that selective binding to AT sequences in the minor groove of DNA can have long-range effects on the alkylation pattern of DNA in the major groove.

  19. Study of Canopy Structure and Growth Characters Role of Two Wheat Cultivars in Competition, on Economic Threshold and Yield of Rye and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saadatian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of effective factors on competition of two wheat cultivars against two species of narrow leaf and broad leaf weeds this study was conducted as two separated experiments based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2008-2009. In both Experiments, Alvand and Sayson cultivars were planted with densities of 450 plants m-2. In the 1st experiment, rye with densities of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 plants m-2 were planted in inter-rows of wheat. In the 2nd experiment, wild mustard densities were 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 plants m-2. The results showed that characters such as vertical distribution of leaf area index and dry matter, height and its increase rate in interference, emergence rate, rate of canopy development and precocity led to increasing competitive ability of Alvand than Sayson in competition with two weed species. These factors were effective in reduction seed production of weeds and economic threshold in Alvand. Despite of lower height of wild mustard than rye, distribution of leaf area and canopy structure of wild mustard increased light competition ability and shadow on crop, so that harmful effects of individual plant of wild mustard in different densities was more than rye. Increasing rate of wild mustard seed bank was more than ray.

  20. What to Do After You've Gotten the Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agent and Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning Sarin Soman Tabun VX Nicotine Case Definition: Nicotine Poisoning Nitrogen mustard (HN- ... Poisoning Unidentified chemical Vesicants/blister agents Vomiting agents VX Facts About VX Case Definition: Nerve Agents or ...

  1. Side Effects of Smallpox Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agent and Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning Sarin Soman Tabun VX Nicotine Case Definition: Nicotine Poisoning Nitrogen mustard (HN- ... Poisoning Unidentified chemical Vesicants/blister agents Vomiting agents VX Facts About VX Case Definition: Nerve Agents or ...

  2. Someone You Are Close to May Get the Smallpox Vaccine: What You Should Know and Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agent and Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning Sarin Soman Tabun VX Nicotine Case Definition: Nicotine Poisoning Nitrogen mustard (HN- ... Poisoning Unidentified chemical Vesicants/blister agents Vomiting agents VX Facts About VX Case Definition: Nerve Agents or ...

  3. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agent and Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning Sarin Soman Tabun VX Nicotine Case Definition: Nicotine Poisoning Nitrogen mustard (HN- ... Poisoning Unidentified chemical Vesicants/blister agents Vomiting agents VX Facts About VX Case Definition: Nerve Agents or ...

  4. Smallpox Vaccine Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agent and Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning Sarin Soman Tabun VX Nicotine Case Definition: Nicotine Poisoning Nitrogen mustard (HN- ... Poisoning Unidentified chemical Vesicants/blister agents Vomiting agents VX Facts About VX Case Definition: Nerve Agents or ...

  5. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agent and Organophosphate Pesticide Poisoning Sarin Soman Tabun VX Nicotine Case Definition: Nicotine Poisoning Nitrogen mustard (HN- ... Poisoning Unidentified chemical Vesicants/blister agents Vomiting agents VX Facts About VX Case Definition: Nerve Agents or ...

  6. Chronic health effects of sulphur mustard exposure with special reference to Iranian veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Balali-Mood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of sulphur mustard (SM as an incapacitating chemical warfare agent in the past century has proved its long-lasting toxic effects. It may also be used as a chemical terrorist agent. Therefore, all health professionals should have sufficient knowledge and be prepared for any such chemical attack. SM exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tissue, with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, immunological, haematological, digestive, and reproductive systems. SM is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis, and, thus, delayed complications have been seen since the First World War. Cases of malignancies in the target organs, particularly in haematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systems, have been reported. Important delayed respiratory complications include chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deteriorate with time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction of natural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infections and malignancies are also among the most distressing long-term consequences of SM intoxication. However, despite a lot of research over the past decades on Iranian veterans, there are still major gaps in the SM literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunction, as well as the relationship between SM exposure and mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity are important fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranian veterans with chronic health effects of SM poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on the medical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of SM poisoning—a subject that greatly challenges health care specialists.

  7. Impacts of mustard gas exposure on veterans mental health: A study on the role of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam-Reza; Ameli, Javad; Roeintan, Rahim; Jonaidi-Jafari, Nematollah; Saburi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    The mustard gas (MG) exposure can impair physical health and therefore increase the probability of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term effects of MG exposure on veterans' mental health. This was a cross-sectional study. In order to assess prevalence of mental health and PTSD of 100 MG victims 25 years after the exposure to MG in Iran-Iraq conflict, the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively was administered. The mean (±standard deviation (SD)) age of participants was 40.63 (±5.86) years. The mean GHQ-28 (47.34) of the study group was higher compared to standardized cutoff point (23) of the Iranian community. Also, it was found that 38 participants (38%) suffer from PTSD. The results of this study showed that academic education in the PTSD group was less than that in the non-PTSD group (P=0.03). In addition, in multivariate analysis it was found that only education level of the veterans and their wives were effective on the mental health score (adjusted P=0.036 and 0.041, respectively). The mean score of depression and psychosocial activity subscale in patients at higher education level was lower than patients at lower education level (Pchemical injured veterans and it is important that providing more mental health centers for this community.

  8. Acute and chronic respiratory lesions induced by sulfur mustard in guinea pigs: Role of tachykinins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, J.H.; Trouiller, G.; Harf, A.

    1993-05-13

    We investigated in anesthetized guinea pigs the involvement of tachykinins in respiratory alterations after an airway intoxication by sulfur mustard (SM). Early lesions were evaluated after 5h. Respiratory system resistance (R) and compliance were measured by the occlusion method and airway microvascular permeability by measuring the Evans Blue dye concentration in the trachea and main bronchi. Two groups of animals were studied treated with capsaicin (which induces a tachykinin depletion) or by its vehicle. Capsaicin pretreatment had no effect on the measured parameters. We also measured 14 J after the intoxication tracheal epithelium neutral endopeptidase (NEP) (the main enzyme which degrades tachykinins). In addition bronchial responsiveness to exogenous substance P was studied in two groups of animals intoxicated with SM or not. Tracheal epithelium NEP activity was decreased from 0.448 + or 0.027 nmol.min- 1.mg protein- 1 in controls to 0. 182 + or 0.038 in intoxicated animals. Response to substance P was greater in intoxicated animals with R=2.98 + or - 1.57 cmH20.MI-1.s versus 0.35 + or 0.02 in controls, after 5.10-5 M aerosolized substance P These results suggest tachykinins are not preponderant in the early stage lesions but that bronchial hyperactivity is present at recovery, related to epithelium NEP depletion.

  9. The effect of vitamin E on lung pathology in sulfur mustard-exposed guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Amery, Sediqa; Vahedi, Nassim; Tabatabaei, Abass; Boskabady, Morteza; Shahriary, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary complications of exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) gas range from no effect or mild symptoms to severe bronchial stenosis. In the present study, the protective effect of vitamin E on the lung inflammation of SM-exposed guinea pigs was examined. Guinea pigs (n = 5 for each group) were exposed to ethanol (control group), 40 mg/m(3) inhaled SM (SME group), SME treated with vitamin E (SME + E), SME treated with dexamethasone (SME + D), and SME treated with both treatments (SME + E + D). Pathological evaluation of the lung was done 14 days postexposure. The epithelial desquamation of trachea and other pathologic changes in the lung of the SME group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, the pathological changes of trachea and lung in the SME + E and SME + E + D groups were significantly improved compared with those of SME group. In addition, the pathological changes of trachea and lung of SME + E and SME + E + D animals were significantly less than those of SME + D group.

  10. Relationship of oxidative stress with male infertility in sulfur mustard-exposed injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a cytotoxic and chemical agent that targets different tissues such as reproductive system. SM causes a wide variety of pathological effects on reproductive system such as disturbance in reproductive hormones, testis atrophy, spermatogenesis deficiency, low quality of sperm and fertility problem. However, molecular and cellular mechanisms of its adverse effects are still not well known. General events such as tissue damage, inflammation, DNA alkylation, cell membrane defects, apoptosis and cell death are observed frequently in SM-exposed subjects. Oxidative stress (OS and antioxidants depletion induced by SM seem to be one of the main factors that lead to low sperm quality and male infertility among exposed patients. It is believed that SM can trigger several molecular and cellular pathways linked to OS and inflammation in reproductive system that can cause impaired spermatogenesis, sperm apoptosis and poor sperm quality as well as loss of tissue structure and function. Identification of these signaling pathways and molecules gives us valuable information regarding the mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive dysfunction and the way for developing a better clinical treatment. Therefore, in this review we aimed to discuss the proposed cellular and molecular mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive system, the significance of oxidative stress and the mechanisms by which SM induces OS and antioxidants depletion in SM exposed men.

  11. Plastic antibody for the recognition of chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, M; Suryanarayana, M V S; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Pandey, Pratibha; Ganesan, K; Singh, Beer; Sekhar, K

    2006-06-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) known as plastic antibodies (PAs) represent a new class of materials possessing high selectivity and affinity for the target molecule. Since their discovery, PAs have attracted considerable interest from bio- and chemical laboratories to pharmaceutical institutes. PAs are becoming an important class of synthetic materials mimicking molecular recognition by natural receptors. In addition, they have been utilized as catalysts, sorbents for solid-phase extraction, stationary phase for liquid chromatography and mimics of enzymes. In this paper, first time we report the preparation and characterization of a PA for the recognition of blistering chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM). The SM imprinted PA exhibited more surface area when compared to the control non-imprinted polymer (NIP). In addition, SEM image showed an ordered nano-pattern for the PA of SM that is entirely different from the image of NIP. The imprinting also enhanced SM rebinding ability to the PA when compared to the NIP with an imprinting efficiency (alpha) of 1.3.

  12. Impregnated silica nanoparticles for the reactive removal of sulphur mustard from solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Beer; Saxena, Amit; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Ganesan, Kumaran; Pandey, Pratibha

    2009-01-30

    High surface area (887.3m(2)/g) silica nanoparticles were synthesized using aerogel route and thereafter, characterized by N(2)-Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), SEM and TEM techniques. The data indicated the formation of nanoparticles of silica in the size range of 24-75 nm with mesoporous characteristics. Later, these were impregnated with reactive chemicals such as N-chloro compounds, oxaziridines, polyoxometalates, etc., which have already been proven to be effective against sulphur mustard (HD). Thus, developed novel mesoporous reactive sorbents were tested for their self-decontaminating feature by conducting studies on kinetics of adsorptive removal of HD from solution. Trichloroisocyanuric acid impregnated silica nanoparticles (10%, w/w)-based system was found to be the best with least half-life value (t(1/2)=2.8 min) among prepared systems to remove and detoxify HD into nontoxic degradation products. Hydrolysis, dehydrohalogenation and oxidation reactions were found to be the route of degradation of HD over prepared sorbents. The study also inferred that 10% loading of impregnants over high surface area and low density silica nanoparticles enhances the rate of reaction kinetics and seems to be useful in the field of heterogeneous reaction kinetics.

  13. The capsaicin receptor TRPV1 is a crucial mediator of the noxious effects of mustard oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaerts, Wouter; Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Farre, Ricard; Leten, Cindy; Apetrei, Aurelia; Dewachter, Ilse; van Leuven, Fred; Vennekens, Rudi; De Ridder, Dirk; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2011-02-22

    Mustard oil (MO) is a plant-derived irritant that has been extensively used in experimental models to induce pain and inflammation. The noxious effects of MO are currently ascribed to specific activation of the cation channel TRPA1 in nociceptive neurons. In contrast to this view, we show here that the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 has a surprisingly large contribution to aversive and pain responses and visceral irritation induced by MO. Furthermore, we found that this can be explained by previously unknown properties of this compound. First, MO has a bimodal effect on TRPA1, producing current inhibition at millimolar concentrations. Second, it directly and stably activates mouse and human recombinant TRPV1, as well as TRPV1 channels in mouse sensory neurons. Finally, physiological temperatures enhance MO-induced TRPV1 stimulation. Our results refute the dogma that TRPA1 is the sole nocisensor for MO and motivate a revision of the putative roles of these channels in models of MO-induced pain and inflammation. We propose that TRPV1 has a generalized role in the detection of irritant botanical defensive traits and in the coevolution of multiple mammalian and plant species.

  14. Behavior of sulfur mustard in sand, concrete, and asphalt matrices: Evaporation, degradation, and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunsook; Choi, Seungki

    2017-07-24

    The evaporation, degradation, and decontamination of sulfur mustard on environmental matrices including sand, concrete, and asphalt are described. A specially designed wind tunnel and thermal desorber in combination with gas chromatograph (GC) produced profiles of vapor concentration obtained from samples of the chemical agent deposited as a drop on the surfaces of the matrices. The matrices were exposed to the chemical agent at room temperature, and the degradation reactions were monitored and characterized. A vapor emission test was also performed after a decontamination process. The results showed that on sand, the drop of agent spread laterally while evaporating. On concrete, the drop of the agent was absorbed immediately into the matrix while spreading and evaporating. However, the asphalt surface conserved the agent and slowly released parts of the agent over an extended period of time. The degradation reactions of the agent followed pseudo first order behavior on the matrices. Trace amounts of the residual agent present at the surface were also released as vapor after decontamination, posing a threat to the exposed individual and environment.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of water-soluble carbon nanotubes from mustard soot

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prashant Dubey; Devarajan Muthukumaran; Subhashis Dash; Rupa Mukhopadhyay; Sabyasachi Sarkar

    2005-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been synthesized by pyrolysing mustard oil using an oil lamp. It was made water-soluble (wsCNT) through oxidative treatment by dilute nitric acid and was characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthesized wsCNT showed the presence of several junctions and defects in it. The presence of curved graphene structure (sp2) with frequent sp3 hybridized carbon is found to be responsible for the observed defects. These defects along with the presence of di- and tri-podal junctions showed interesting magnetic properties of carbon radicals formed by spin frustration. This trapped carbon radical showed ESR signal in aqueous solution and was very stable even under drastic treatment by strong oxidizing or reducing agents. Oxidative acid treatment of CNT introduced several carboxylic acid group functionalities in wsCNT along with the nicking of the CNT at different lengths with varied molecular weight. To evaluate molecular weights of these wsCNTs, an innovative method like gel electrophoresis using high molecular weight DNA as marker was introduced.

  16. New mustard prodrugs for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: alternatives to the amide link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, R I; Springer, C J; Davies, D H; Hadley, E M; Burke, P J; Boyle, F T; Melton, R G; Connors, T A; Blakey, D C; Mauger, A B

    1996-03-01

    Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT) is a two-step approach for the treatment of cancer which seeks to generate a potent cytotoxic agent selectively at a tumor site. In this work described the cytotoxic agent is generated by the action of an enzyme CPG2 on a relatively nontoxic prodrug. The prodrug 1 currently on clinical trial is a benzamide and is cleaved by CPG2 to a benzoic acid mustard drug 1a. We have synthesized a series of new prodrugs 3-8 where the benzamide link has been replaced by, for example, carbamate or ureido. Some of these alternative links have been shown to be good substrates for CPG2 and therefore new candidates for ADEPT. The active drugs 3a and 4a derived from the best of these prodrugs are potent cytotoxic agents (1-2 microM) some 100 times more than 1a. The prodrugs 3 and 4 are some 100-200-fold less cytotoxic, in a proliferating cell assay, than their corresponding active drugs 3a and 4a.

  17. UTILIZATION OF MUSTARD OIL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Javed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the unnecessary use of plastics and cumulative pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Bioplastic production from mustard oil was considered relatively cheap, easily available, included in vegetable oil and don’t having much volatile characteristics. Total of 67 bacterial strains were isolated and purified from different regions of the Pakistan, and were checked for Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA production by Sudan black and Nile blue staining. Quantitative analysis for biodegradable plastic produced by different bacterial species was performed by Modified surfactant hypochlorite method. High PHA production was detected in 35 strains belonging to different genera including Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia and Enterobacter. Fermentation and PHA production was done in batch culture. The PHA production of P. aeruginosa by mustered oil cultivation was studied under six experimental conditions, such as air flow rates, pH, Temperature, optical density, substrates concentration and cell dry weight. PHA production of Pseudomonas species were subsequently authenticated at molecular level by PCR amplifications and sequence analysis. PHA polymerase 1 (PhaC1 and PHA polymerase 2 (PhaC2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were amplified, sequenced and submitted to gene bank.

  18. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-12

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes.

  19. The mustard trypsin inhibitor 2 affects the fertility of Spodoptera littoralis larvae fed on transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, F; Gallerani, R

    2002-05-01

    The effects of mustard trypsin inhibitor MTI-2 expressed at different levels in transgenic tobacco lines have been evaluated by feeding the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis throughout its larval life. Specific conditions were selected to study the long-term effects of feeding larvae on transgenic plants expressing the inhibitor at various levels. The data obtained led to the establishment of three relevant parameters to be considered during the experimentation: (i) the PI content of the plant lines to be used; (ii) the developmental stage of larvae sensitive to that PI content; (iii) the ratio of MTI-2/proteases sufficient to inhibit gut proteases. The experimental data obtained from feeding S. littoralis larvae using these conditions led to two main results. First, when L2 S. littoralis larvae were fed on high MTI-2 expressing tobacco plants, no effects on larval development were detected but there was a significantly reduced fertility. When the same larvae were fed on low expressing MTI-2 tobacco plants, only a less marked lowering of fertility was observed. Second, after the first generation, no differences in protease activity were observed in insects derived from larvae fed on high or low MTI-2 expressing tobacco lines, suggesting that genetic traits observed in previous studies were not inherited.

  20. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted.

  1. Pepsin and bile acid concentrations in sputum of mustard gas exposed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Karbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Gastro-esophageal reflux has been suggested to be associated with several pulmonary complications such as asthma, and post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans (BO. Pepsin or bile salts in the sputum is shown to be an optimal molecular marker of gastric contents macro/micro aspiration. In this study, we investigated sputum pepsin as a marker of micro-aspiration in sulfur mustard (SM exposed cases compared to healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In a case controlled study, 26 cases with BO and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited and all cases were symptomatic and their exposure to SM was previously documented during Iran-Iraq conflict. Pepsin levels in sputum and total bile acids were measured using enzymatic assay. The severity of respiratory disorder was categorized based upon the spirometric values. Result: The average concentration of pepsin in sputum was higher in the case group (0.29 ± 0.23 compared with healthy subjects (0.13 ± 0.07; P ± 0.003. Moreover, the average concentration of bile acids in the sputum cases was not significantly different in comparison to the controls ( P = 0.5. Conclusion: Higher pepsin concentrations in sputum of SM exposed patients compared with healthy control subjects indicate the occurrence of significantly more gastric micro-aspiration in SM exposed patients.

  2. External urethral stenosis: a latent effect of sulfur mustard two decades post-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, Seyed Naser; Hosseini-Khalili, Alireza; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Ardakani, Mohammadreza Khodaei; Ghassemi-Broumand, Mohammad; Davoodi, Seyed Masoud; Amirani, Omolbanin; Haines, David

    2009-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical weapon used widely during World War I and against Iranians during the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s, causes massive inflammatory tissue damage in the immediate post-exposure period, resulting in debilitating chronic disease in years to decades following contact with the agent. These syndromes most often are pathologies of the lungs, eyes, and skin, the primary target organs of SM. Typically, they are characterized by severe and increasingly painful inflammation, often accompanied by fibrosis and constriction of the anatomic channels needed for normal life, such as the small airways of the lungs and, in the present report, the urethra. The present case study is a 43-year-old man with a history of heavy SM exposure to the groin in 1984. Within 1 year after exposure, the patient was found to have developed meatal stricture, occlusion of the external urethral meatus, and difficulty in urination. Two years post-exposure, he underwent ventral meatotomy and meatoplasty. This case presents a unique example of the latent effects of SM exposure to the groin, and will be of value in the prevention of similar injury and complications to persons at risk of SM exposure in the future.

  3. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  4. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Srivastava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Refined rice bran oil (RBO was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO, MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV, p-Anisidine value (p-AV, Total polar component (TPC and oil stability index (OSI for the RBO and its blends. In general, frying stability of RBO was improved by the blending, the Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio of the blend of RPM and RSM was in the recommended range (1:5-10, and in both cases it was observed to be 1:6. The OSI of RBO deteriorates 66% and it improved by blending with POO and it decline only 53% and 54% for the blend RP and RPM respectively. It was concluded that the blend having more than two oils (RBO+PO+MO was better in oxidative stability, nutritional value and also contain sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid than that of the RBO and its other blends.

  5. Nitric oxide alleviates salt stress inhibited photosynthetic response by interacting with sulfur assimilation in mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehar eFatma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of nitric oxide (NO and/or sulfur (S on stomatal and photosynthetic responses was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L. in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 µM NO (as sodium nitroprusside and 200 mg S kg-1 soil (excess-S more prominently influenced stomatal behaviour, photosynthetic and growth responses in the absence of salt stress and alleviated salt stress effects on photosynthesis. Plants receiving combined treatment of NO plus excess-S showed well-developed thylakoid membrane and properly stacked grana lamellae under salt stress, while the chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized thylakoids. Moreover, the leaves from the NO and excess-S treated plants exhibited lower superoxide ion accumulation under salt stress, induced activity of ATP-sulfurylase (ATPS, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR and optimized NO generation that helped in minimizing oxidative stress. The enhanced S-assimilation of these plants resulted in increased production of cysteine (Cys and glutathione (GSH reduced. These findings indicated that NO influenced photosynthesis under salt stress by regulating oxidative stress and its effects on S-assimilation, an antioxidant system and NO generation.The results suggest that NO improves photosynthetic responses of plants grown under salt stress more effectively when plants received excess-S. Thus, excess-S conditions may be adopted for higher impact of NO in the reversal of salt stress effects on photosynthesis.

  6. Bronchiolitis obliterans following exposure to sulfur mustard: chest high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanei, Mostafa E-mail: m.ghanei@bmsu.ac.ir; Mokhtari, Majid; Mohammad, Mehdi Mir; Aslani, Jafar

    2004-11-01

    Background: Pulmonary complications are known to occur in over half of the patients exposed to sulfur mustard (SM). Chemical weapons of mass destruction (WMD) including SM were used by Iraq during Iran-Iraq war between 1983 and 1989. We undertook this study to evaluate the chest high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) as a diagnostic tool in patients with documented exposure to SM and chronic respiratory symptoms. Method: The medical records of 155 patients exposed to SM during Iran-Iraq war and suffered respiratory complications were reviewed. Chest HRCTs of these patients were examined. Ten healthy controls with no history of exposure to HD were matched for age, gender, and chest HRCT protocol applied. Results: Fifty chest HRCTs of these patients were randomly selected for this study. The most frequent findings were; air trapping 38 (76%), bronchiectasis 37 (74%), mosaic parenchymal attenuation (MPA) 36 (72%), irregular and dilated major airways 33 (66%) bronchial wall thickening (BWT) 45 (90%), and interlobular septal wall thickening (SWT) 13 (26%), respectively. Air trapping in one patient (10%) was the only positive finding in the control group. Conclusions: Chest HRCT findings of bronchiectasis, air trapping, MPA, SWT, and BWT were seen in our patients 15 years after exposure to HD. These findings suggest the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). We did not encounter chest HRCT features consistent with pulmonary fibrosis.

  7. [Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cataplasm of white mustard seed varnish to prevent asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li-Na; Zhu, Wei-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Wen-Yang; Yu, Xiang; Li, Miao; Jin, Yi-Guang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the manuscript was to optimize formulations and preparation technologies of cataplasm of white mustard seed varnish, and to evaluate its anti-asthma effect on rats. The single factor experiments included spreading thickness, types of crosslinking agents, dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate amount, sodium polyacrylate amount, types of adhesive agents with human sense as the evaluation index. Blank cataplasm matrix was optimized by the orthogonal experiment with the amount of glycerine, citric acid, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose as the major influential factors. Initial adhesive force, peeling strength and human sense were as the evaluation index. The optimized formulation of blank cataplasm were as followings: glycerine-water-ethanol-PEG400-dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate-citric acid-sodium carboxymethylcellulose-sodium carboxymethylcellulose 2 : 8 : 0.8 : 0.4 : 0.07: 0.15 : 0.1 : 0.5. The active ingredients of white mustard seed, corydalis, and gansui root were extracted by alcohol extraction method. Asiasarum volatile oil was extracted by oil extractor. The optimized drug loading amount was 11% with initial adhesive force, peeling strength and human sense as the evaluation index. Asthma rats model were established by sensitized with ovalbumin and nose-scratching time as the evaluation index. High dose (17%) group of drug-loaded cataplasm had the obvious inhibition effect on nose-scratching time of rats (P = 0.037 < 0.05). In comparison, middle dose (11%), low dose (4%) and positive-control groups had no obvious inhibitive effect on rats. White mustard seed cataplasm supplied a novel choice for anti-asthma therapy. And the overall pharmacodynamics assessment will be carried out on molecular level in near future.

  8. GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY, HERITABILITY AND GENETIC ADVANCE IN ETHIOPIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA CARINATA A.BRAUN. GENOTYPES AT NORTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye W. Mekonnen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of genetic variability is fundamental for the purpose of to identify the most important traits in Ethiopian mustard breeding program. The objective of the study was to estimate variability, heritability and genetic advance on thirty six morphological characters of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata genotypes were evaluated Adet Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out in simple lattice design. ANOVA of the experiment showed highly significant (p<0.01 for Day of maturity, grain filling period, number of pod per plot, secondary branches  per plant, harvest index, seed yield per plot, seed yield per hectare and oil content. Significant differences (p<0.01 were noted for day of flowering, plant height, primary branch per plant, biomass per plot, oil yield per plot. High phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV was recorded for days to flowering, grain filling period, plant height, secondary branches per plant, harvest index, oil yield per plot, seed yield per plot and hectare. The magnitudes of PCV and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV were high for grain filling period, plant height and secondary branches per plant. Heritability estimates were high for days to maturity, grain-filling period, days to flowering, plant height, biomass per plot, secondary branches per plant, primary branches per plant, oil content and oil yield per plot. High heritability was coupled with high genetic advance as percent of mean for plant height, grain filling period, secondary branches per plant were recorded. The study showed that there are variation in the extent of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in traits under study which can facilitate selection for further improvement of important traits of Ethiopian mustard.

  9. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mansour Razavi; Mostafa Ghanei; Payman Salamati; Mehdi Safiabadi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone IraqIran war.Electronic databases of Scopus,Medline,ISI,IranMedex,and Irandoc sites.were searched.We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators.Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%.The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea.Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,bronchiectasis,and asthma.Spirometry resuits can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease.Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases.High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi.There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung.The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration,use of vaporized moist air,respiratory physiotherapy,administration of mucolytic agents,bronchodilators,corticosteroids,and long-acting beta-2 agonists,antioxidants,surfactant,magnesium ions,therapeutic bronchoscopy,laser therapy,placement of respiratory stents,early tracheostomy in laryngospasm,and ultimately lung transplantation.High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi.The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic,upper or lower respiratory tract involvement).There are various treatment protocols,but unfortunately none of them is defmitely curable.

  10. Influence of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) on rhizosphere soil solution chemistry in long-term contaminated soils: a rhizobox study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary; Kwon, Soon-lk

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) root exudation on soil solution properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), metal solubility) in the rhizosphere using a rhizobox. Measurement was conducted following the cultivation of Indian mustard in the rhizobox filled four different types of heavy metal contaminated soils (two alkaline soils and two acidic soils). The growth of Indian mustard resulted in a significant increase (by 0.6 pH units) in rhizosphere soil solution pH of acidic soils and only a slight increase (alkaline soils. Furthermore, the DOC concentration increased by 17-156 mg/L in the rhizosphere regardless of soil type and the extent of contamination, demonstrating the exudation of DOC from root. Ion chromatographic determination showed a marked increase in the total dissolved organic acids (OAs) in rhizosphere. While root exudates were observed in all soils, the amount of DOC and OAs in soil solution varied considerably amongst different soils, resulting in significant changes to soil solution metals in the rhizosphere. For example, the soil solution Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations increased in the rhizosphere of alkaline soils compared to bulk soil following plant cultivation. In contrast, the soluble concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in acidic soils decreased in rhizosphere soil when compared to bulk soils. Besides the influence of pH and DOC on metal solubility, the increase of heavy metal concentration having high stability constant such as Cu and Pb resulted in a release of Cd and Zn from solid phase to liquid phase.

  11. Site Plan Safety Submission for Sampling, Monitoring, and Decontamination of Mustard Agent - South Plant, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    South Plant - Mustard 3-1 U.S. Army O.t t, G B 1 NORTH PLANT tpit ,1~~ TRASH I I . REA~TR $ESDI *O~t’.ST RATA ’.ION o~cp’.Rim "I . V RU MRO AR SlISS...cause anemia and hemopoetic system disturbances, kidney damage, central nervous system damage, and reproductive problems (decreased sperm production...Constipation. (7) Abdominal pains. (8) Decreased appetite. (9) Irritability. (d) Symptoms: Long Term Effects: (1) Anemia . (2) Pallor. (3) Lead line on gums

  12. Vapor-phase toxicity of butylbenzyl phthalate to three plant species: white mustard, chinese cabbage, and white clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, J W; Staples, C A; Brown, D; Enste-Diefenbach, R

    2008-08-01

    During the manufacture of products containing butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), low emissions to the air may occur. Due to potential exposure of terrestrial communities to BBP vapors, phytotoxicity tests were conducted using Chinese cabbage, white mustard, and white clover. No significant effects on shoot growth were observed at the higher BBP vapor-phase concentration tested, which measured 5.7 microg/m(3). The overall practicality of vapor-phase testing of chemicals with very low vapor pressures is reviewed. These study results suggest that environmental risk from exposure to BBP vapor is negligible for plants.

  13. Delayed neurological complications of sulphur mustard and tabun poisoning in 43 Iranian veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Nemati-Karimooy, Habibollah; Hasanabadi, Hosein; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-12-01

    Delayed neurotoxic complications of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as sulphur mustard (SM) and tabun, in human beings have not been reported in detail. We thus aimed to investigate possible neurotoxic complications of these agents in Iranian veterans 22-27 years after exposure. After co-ordination with the veteran foundation and obtaining the approval of the medical research ethics committee, 43 Iranian veterans with late complications of CWA exposure during the Iran-Iraq conflict were studied after obtaining signed written informed consent. Demographic and clinical findings were recorded on pre-designed forms. Neurological examination was performed by a neurologist. Routine biochemical tests were performed for all the patients. Electromyography (EMG), nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and electroencephalography (EEG) were carried out as clinically indicated. The majority of the patients (38) had been exposed to SM and only five patients to tabun. Hyperaesthesia was the most objective finding (72.1%). Fatigue (93%), paraesthesia (88.3%) and headache (83.7%) were the most common subjective findings in the patients. Sensory nerve impairments, including paraesthesia (88.3%), hyperaesthesia (72.1%) and hypoesthesia (11.6%), were the most common observed clinical complications. EMG and NCV were impaired in seven patients (16.3%) who were all SM-exposed patients but did not show any significant correlation with organ complications. EEG was negative even in the seized patients. Cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly above the normal ranges. Late neurological complications of CWA, particularly SM poisoning, are considerable even after three decades of exposure and require medical attention.

  14. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning.

  15. Myocardial imaging in patients with transposition of the great arteries. Comparison between Mustard and Rastelli operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yasuo; Tanimoto, Takeshi (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)); Kohata, Tohru

    1982-12-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial imaging was performed in 21 patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA). In the 13 patients with preoperative TGA, it was possible to differentiate TGA with the intact ventricular septum from TGA with associated anomalies such as patent ductus arteriosus or ventricular septal defect, and also TGA with pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary stenosis from TGA without them by evaluating the degree of thallium uptake in the free wall of the pulmonary ventricle (anatomical left ventricle). The degree of thallium uptake was well correlated with systolic pressure of the pulmonary ventricle (r = 0.98). In the 13 patients with postoperative TGA, it was less correlated with the pulmonary ventricular systolic pressure (r = 0.83). Four cases sequentially studied showed a marked decrease in thallium uptake in the pulmonary ventricle 10 to 16 months after Rastelli operation. But the corrected thallium uptake (thallium activity/ventricular systolic pressure) was more increased compared with the uptake of the systemic ventricle after the surgery. This was probably related to a decrease of the pressure load to the pulmonary ventricle following the surgery and to the fact that there should be some delay of a decrease of the ventricular mass. An increased lung uptake of thallium was noted in the cases of tricuspid regurgitation after Mustard operation, but the degree of regurgitation was not clearly correlated with the increase of thallium uptake in the lung. In five cases after Rastelli operation, one patient showed a high degree of thallium uptake of the pulmonary ventricle (anatomical right ventricle), and the conduit valve calcification and severe pulmonary stenosis were confirmed by cardiac catheterization and angiography. Thus myocardial imaging provides a reliable means for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of TGA before and after operation.

  16. Evaluation of CC2 as a Decontaminant in Various Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Formulations Against Sulphur Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate CC2 (N, N' -dichloro-bis [2, 4, 6-trichlorophenyl] urea) in various hydrophilic and lipophilic formulations as a personnel decontaminant for sulphur mustard (SM). Methods Twenty percent of CC2 was prepared as a suspension or ointment with various chemical agents and its stability was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated in mice by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM (LD50 =8.1 mg/kg dermally) and decontaminating it after 2 min with 200 mg of the formulation.Studies were also carried out with 10% and 20% CC2 in acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose,and the suspensions were stored in polyethylene containers. The stability of the suspensions was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM in mice and 12 LD50 of SM in rats (LD50 = 2.4 mg/kg dermally), and decontaminating it with the formulations. LD50 by different routes and primary skin irritation test of CC2 were also carried out. Results CC2 reacted with peanut oil and neem oil, and was unstable in povidone iodine and Fuller's earth. Good stability was achieved with petroleum jelly, honey, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, calamine lotion, acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose. Though CC2 was stable in lipophilic formulations, it did not protect the animals. The hydrophilic formulations particularly acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose gave very good protection and was stable in the polyethylene containers for a period of 1 year. The efficacy of 20% CC2 was better than 10% CC2. The oral and dermal LD50 of CC2 was found to be above 5.0 g/kg. CC2 was also found to be nonirritant.Conclusion Twenty percent of CC2 in hydroxypropyl cellulose is better with respect to stability, efficacy and ease of decontamination. CC2 is also a safe chemical.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of a petal anthocyanin polymorphism in the arctic mustard, Parrya nudicaulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Butler

    Full Text Available Angiosperms are renown for their diversity of flower colors. Often considered adaptations to pollinators, the most common underlying pigments, anthocyanins, are also involved in plants' stress response. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is well characterized across many angiosperms and is composed of a few candidate genes, the consequences of blocking this pathway and producing white flowers has not been investigated at the transcriptome scale. We take a transcriptome-wide approach to compare expression differences between purple and white petal buds in the arctic mustard, Parrya nudicaulis, to determine which genes' expression are consistently correlated with flower color. Using mRNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome assembly, we assembled an average of 722 bp per gene (49.81% coding sequence based on the A. thaliana homolog for 12,795 genes from the petal buds of a pair of purple and white samples. Our results correlate strongly with qRT-PCR analysis of nine candidate genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway where chalcone synthase has the greatest difference in expression between color morphs (P/W = ∼7×. Among the most consistently differentially expressed genes between purple and white samples, we found 3× more genes with higher expression in white petals than in purple petals. These include four unknown genes, two drought-response genes (CDSP32, ERD5, a cold-response gene (GR-RBP2, and a pathogen defense gene (DND1. Gene ontology analysis of the top 2% of genes with greater expression in white relative to purple petals revealed enrichment in genes associated with stress responses including cold, drought and pathogen defense. Unlike the uniform downregulation of chalcone synthase that may be directly involved in the loss of petal anthocyanins, the variable expression of several genes with greater expression in white petals suggest that the physiological and ecological consequences of having white petals may be

  18. Influence of sulfur and cadmium on antioxidants, phytochelatins and growth in Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Humayra; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Bagheri, Rita; Ahmad, Javed; Arif, Ibrahim A; Baig, M Affan; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2015-01-12

    Soils in many parts of the world are contaminated with heavy metals, leading to multiple, deleterious effects on plants and threats to world food production efficiency. Cadmium (Cd) is one such metal, being toxic at relatively low concentrations as it is readily absorbed and translocated in plants. Sulfur-rich compounds are critical to the impact of Cd toxicity, enabling plants to increase their cellular defence and/or sequester Cd into vacuoles mediated by phytochelatins (PCs). The influence of sulfur on Cd-induced stress was studied in the hyperaccumulator plant Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) using two sulfur concentrations (+S, 300 µM [Formula: see text] and S-deficient -S, [Formula: see text]) with and without the addition of Cd (100 µM CdCl2) at two different time intervals (7 and 14 days after treatment). Compared with control plants (+S/-Cd), levels of oxidative stress were higher in S-deficient (-S/-Cd) plants, and greatest in S-deficient Cd-treated (-S/+Cd) plants. However, additional S (+S/+Cd) helped plants cope with oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase emerged as a key player against Cd stress under both -S and +S conditions. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase declined in Cd-treated and S-deficient plants, but was up-regulated in the presence of sulfur. Sulfur deficiency mediated a decrease in ascorbate and glutathione (GSH) content but changes in ascorbate (reduced : oxidized) and GSH (reduced : oxidized) ratios were alleviated by sulfur. Our data clearly indicate that a sulfur pool is needed for synthesis of GSH, non-protein thiols and PCs and is also important for growth. Sulfur-based defence mechanisms and the cellular antioxidant pathway, which are critical for tolerance and growth, collapsed as a result of a decline in the sulfur pool.

  19. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  20. Structural changes in hair follicles and sebaceous glands of hairless mice following exposure to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurie B; Heck, Diane E; Cervelli, Jessica A; Composto, Gabriella M; Babin, Michael C; Casillas, Robert P; Sinko, Patrick J; Gerecke, Donald R; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2014-06-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent causing skin inflammation, edema and blistering. A hallmark of SM-induced toxicity is follicular and interfollicular epithelial damage. In the present studies we determined if SM-induced structural alterations in hair follicles and sebaceous glands were correlated with cell damage, inflammation and wound healing. The dorsal skin of hairless mice was treated with saturated SM vapor. One to seven days later, epithelial cell karyolysis within the hair root sheath, infundibulum and isthmus was apparent, along with reduced numbers of sebocytes. Increased numbers of utriculi, some with connections to the skin surface, and engorged dermal cysts were also evident. This was associated with marked changes in expression of markers of DNA damage (phospho-H2A.X), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3), and wound healing (FGFR2 and galectin-3) throughout pilosebaceous units. Conversely, fatty acid synthase and galectin-3 were down-regulated in sebocytes after SM. Decreased numbers of hair follicles and increased numbers of inflammatory cells surrounding the utriculi and follicular cysts were noted within the wound 3-7 days post-SM exposure. Expression of phospho-H2A.X, cleaved caspase-3, FGFR2 and galectin-3 was decreased in dysplastic follicular epidermis. Fourteen days after SM, engorged follicular cysts which expressed galectin-3 were noted within hyperplastic epidermis. Galectin-3 was also expressed in basal keratinocytes and in the first few layers of suprabasal keratinocytes in neoepidermis formed during wound healing indicating that this lectin is important in the early stages of keratinocyte differentiation. These data indicate that hair follicles and sebaceous glands are targets for SM in the skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Jill A. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Devine, Patrick J. [INRS—Institut Armand-Frappier Research Centre, University of Quebec, Laval, QC H7V 1B7 (Canada); Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles.

  2. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  3. Infecção do trato urinário relacionada ao cateter vesical de demora: incidência e fatores de risco Urinary tract infection associated with indwelling catheters: incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.N. de F. Stamm

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a incidência e os fatores de risco relacionados a infecção do trato urinário (ITU em pacientes submetidos à sondagem vesical de demora (SVD. MÉTODOS E CASUÍSTICA: Cento e trinta e seis pacientes submetidos à SVD entre maio e dezembro de 1993 no Hospital Universitário(HU da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC. Estudo observacional de coorte contemporânea, não-controlado, em pacientes submetidos a SVD, que foram seguidos desde a inserção até a remoção da sonda. Culturas de urina no ato da inserção e da retirada foram realizadas em meios convencionais para bactérias aeróbicas; também foi cultivado material obtido com "swab" do meato uretral. Na análise estatística usou-se métodos paramétricos para variáveis categóricas e contínuas, e análise multivariada para determinação de fatores de risco para ITU. RESULTADOS: A incidência de ITU associada a SVD nesta amostra foi de 11 % . Na análise univariada três fatores foram significativos estatisticamente: a doença de base (clínica ou cirúrgica (p=0,01, a permanência em uma clínica durante a internação(p=0,02 e a duração (em dias da cateterização (p= 0,00003 Na análise multivariada, somente a duração da sondagem vesical foi preditiva para ITU (p = 0,03. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de ITU relacionada a SVD na amostra analisada foi de 11,0%, porque no HU da UFSC existe um controle dos fatores de risco alteráveis. A duração da sondagem vesical é um importante fator de risco para este problema. Recomenda-se limitar ao mínimo necessário o tempo de cateterização em pacientes internados.BACKGROUND: To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with urinary tract infection (UTI in patients submitted to long-term urinary (bladder catheterization. One hundred and thirty-six patients who had urinary catheterization during the period of may to december 1993 at an University Hospital in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD

  4. Utilização da submucosa de intestino delgado porcino como retalho para aumento da capacidade vesical em cães The use of porcine small intestine submucosa as a graft for urinary bladder augmentation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a biocompatibilidade de um enxerto xenogênico de SID como meio de ampliação da capacidade vesical. Métodos: Oito cães mestiços foram submetidos à laparotomia e abertura da bexiga por incisão mediana de 3cm em sua face ventral. Para aumento da capacidade vesical, bem como sua reconstituição, foi interposto um segmento de submucosa porcina, fixando-o à parede vesical. No 30°dia de pós-operatório os animais foram sacrificados e procedeu-se à análise macroscópica. As peças foram então encaminhadas para fixação, coloração e análise microscópica. Resultados: Não se observou seroma, hematoma, abscesso, fístula, deiscência, aderências, litíase e a não incorporação do enxerto. Microscopicamente observou-se em todos os casos uma proliferação do urotélio que recobriu toda a superfície do enxerto, além da presença de fibras musculares lisas no local do implante. Verificou-se proliferação conjuntiva, principalmente às custas de colágeno imaturo do tipo III e reação inflamatória crônica em todos os animais. A proliferação vascular foi acentuada e a reabsorção da membrana foram também observadas. Conclusão: Asubmucosa de intestino delgado porcino participou como um substrato para a regeneração da bexiga e pode ser uma futura alternativa na reconstrução do trato urinário.Purpose: To evaluate the biocompability and histological changes of the porcine intestine submucosa (SIS used for bladder augmentation in dogs. Methods: eight mongrel dogs underwent laparotomy and a 3cm full-thickness midline cistotomy was performed in its ventral surface. In order to produce an immediate augmentation of the bladder, a porcine SIS patch graft was implanted. On the 30th post-operative day the animals were submitted to a second operation for a grossly evaluation of the implanted graft. Results: there was no finding of seroma, hematoma, abscess, fistula, adhesion and stone formation. The bladder was then

  5. 膀胱白斑膀胱镜影像系统显像特点及临床意义%Imaging characteristic and clinical significance of vesical leukoplakia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐秀英; 叶章群; 邢金春; 官阳; 唐敏; 文定军; 王欢; 李良玉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the imaging characteristics of vesical leukoplakia under the cys-toscope imaging system. Methods The characteristics of vesical leukoplakia were observed under the cystoscope imaging system in 556 cases. After anti-infection treatment to these patients, the chan-ges of the characteristic under the cystoseope imaging system were re-observed and compared before and after treatment. SPSS 11.0 software package x2 teat for statistical analysis was used. Results Under the cystoscope imaging system, there were four different imaging manifestations in the 556 pa-tients. These were, from mild to severe, congestive type in 42 cases, spots type in 56 cases, thin macular type in 399 cases and thick macular type in 59 cases. One type could transform to another af-ter anti-infection treatment. When reexamination by the cystoscope, 131 cases got improved, 304 cases had no changes and 121 cases were aggravated. Statistical analysis showed the transformation among the 4 types had significant difference (x2 = 130.92, v=6, P<0.001). From congestive type to spots type, thin macular type and thick macular type, after anti-infection treatment, the ratio of improved cases decreased gradually, however the ratio of aggravated cases and cases without changes increased gradually. Conclusion Vesical leukoplakia could be classified into 4 types initially: congestive type,spots type, thin macular type, thick macular type. The different clinical treatments should be provid-ed.%目的 探讨膀胱白斑在膀胱镜影像系统的显像特点及临床意义.方法 采用双盲随机法抽取经病理检查确诊的膀胱白斑患者556例,观察膀胱镜影像系统中病变的显像特点.患者均予抗感染治疗1~2周,复查膀胱镜,对比观察治疗前后的变化.结果 556例患者膀胱镜显像中膀胱白斑病变呈4种表现,按病情轻到重分别为:充血型42例、斑点型56例、薄斑型399例、厚斑型59例.抗感染治疗后,病变各

  6. Prostatic hyperplasia and congenital bladder diverticulum. A case report Hiperplasia de próstata y divertículo vesical congénito. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Raquel Abreu Santana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital diverticula in adults are typically associated with bladder outlet obstruction and their manifestation is most commonly by urinary sepsis. The case of a 69 years old male patient who attended consultation because of nocturia, thin urine stream, pushing, urgent urination and sense of incomplete emptying is presented. Through rectal examination grade I prostate with discrete grade I asymmetry consistent with right nodular lobe that did not rise to the surface was detected. During the physical examination tumor mass was palpated in the lower abdomen region. It was painless. Ultrasound and cystography showed giant bladder diverticulum with a narrow neck into the right lateral wall of the bladder. Cystoscopy confirmed the diagnosis and the patient was treated trough surgery. Histology revealed mucosal layers and muscle and adventitia in the wall, thus confirming congenital origin. Recovering after surgery was satisfactor.Los divertículos congénitos en el adulto se detectan normalmente asociados a factores obstructivos a la salida vesical, se manifiestan mayormente por sepsis urinarias. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 69 años que asistió a consulta por nocturia, chorro fino, pujo, urgencia miccional y sensación de vaciamiento incompleto. Mediante tacto rectal se detectó próstata en grado I con asimetría discreta de la consistencia del lóbulo derecho en forma nodular que no se levantaba de la superficie; al examen físico se palpó masa tumoral en la región de hipogastrio, no dolorosa. El ultrasonido y la cistografía mostraron divertículo vesical gigante de cuello estrecho hacia la pared lateral derecha de la vejiga. Se confirmó mediante la cistoscopia y se procedió a la intervención quirúrgica. La histología reveló la existencia de capas mucosas, muscular y adventicia en su pared, corroborándose su origen congénito. El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente después de la operación.

  7. Attenuation of Nitrogen Mustard-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Fibrosis by Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R; Venosa, Alessandro; Verissimo, Vivianne L; Cervelli, Jessica A; Vayas, Kinal N; Hall, LeRoy; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes acute injury to the lung that progresses to fibrosis. This is accompanied by a prominent infiltration of macrophages into the lung and upregulation of proinflammatory/profibrotic cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α. In these studies, we analyzed the ability of anti-TNFα antibody to mitigate NM-induced lung injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. Treatment of rats with anti-TNFα antibody (15 mg/kg, iv, every 9 days) beginning 30 min after intratracheal administration of NM (0.125 mg/kg) reduced progressive histopathologic alterations in the lung including perivascular and peribronchial edema, macrophage/monocyte infiltration, interstitial thickening, bronchiolization of alveolar walls, fibrin deposition, emphysema, and fibrosis. NM-induced damage to the alveolar-epithelial barrier, measured by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and cell content, was also reduced by anti-TNFα antibody, along with expression of the oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase-1. Whereas the accumulation of proinflammatory/cytotoxic M1 macrophages in the lung in response to NM was suppressed by anti-TNFα antibody, anti-inflammatory/profibrotic M2 macrophages were increased or unchanged. Treatment of rats with anti-TNFα antibody also reduced NM-induced increases in expression of the profibrotic mediator, transforming growth factor-β. This was associated with a reduction in NM-induced collagen deposition in the lung. These data suggest that inhibiting TNFα may represent an efficacious approach to mitigating lung injury induced by mustards.

  8. Intramuscular administration of morphine reduces mustard-oil-induced craniofacial-muscle pain behavior in lightly anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung R; Lee, Min K; Lim, Koang H; Yang, Gwi Y; Jeon, Hye J; Ju, Jin S; Yoon, Young W; Kim, Sung K; Ahn, Dong K

    2008-04-01

    The present study investigated the role of peripheral opioid receptors in mustard oil-induced nociceptive behavior and inflammation in the masseter muscles of lightly anesthetized rats. Experiments were carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 300 and 400 g. After initial anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i.p.), one femoral vein was cannulated and connected to an infusion pump for the intravenous infusion of sodium pentobarbital. The rate of infusion was adjusted to provide a constant level of anesthesia. Mustard oil (MO, 30 microl) was injected into the mid-region of the left masseter muscle via a 30-gauge needle. Intramuscularly-administered morphine significantly reduced shaking behavior but not MO-induced inflammation. Intramuscular pretreatment with naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, reversed antinociception produced by intramuscularly-administered morphine, while intracisternal administration of naloxone did not affect the antinociception of peripheral morphine. Pretreatment with d-Pen-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP), a mu opioid receptor antagonist, but not naltrindole, a delta opioid receptor antagonist, nor norbinaltorphimine (nor-BNI), a kappa opioid receptor antagonist, reversed intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception. These results indicate that intramuscularly-administered morphine produces antinociception in craniofacial muscle nociception and that this intramuscularly-administered morphine-induced antinociception is mediated by a peripheral mu opioid receptor. Our observations further support the clinical approach of administering opioids in the periphery for the treatment of craniofacial muscle nociception.

  9. A purification strategy for analysis of the DNA/RNA-associated sub-proteome from chloroplasts of mustard cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne eSchröter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant cotyledons are a tissue that is particularly active in plastid gene expression in order to develop functional chloroplasts from pro-plastids, the plastid precursor stage in plant embryos. Cotyledons, therefore, represent a material being ideal for the study of composition, function and regulation of protein complexes involved in plastid gene expression. Here, we present a pilot study that uses heparin-Sepharose and phospho-cellulose chromatography in combination with isoelectric focussing and denaturing SDS gel electrophoresis (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for investigating the nucleotide binding proteome of mustard chloroplasts purified from cotyledons. We describe the technical requirements for a highly resolved biochemical purification of several hundreds of protein spots obtained from such samples. Subsequent mass spectrometry of peptides isolated out of cut spots that had been treated with trypsin identified 58 different proteins within 180 distinct spots. Our analyses indicate a high enrichment of proteins involved in transcription and translation and, in addition, the presence of massive post-translational modification of this plastid protein sub-fraction. The study provides an extended catalogue of plastid proteins from mustard being involved in gene expression and its regulation and describes a suitable purification strategy for further analysis of low abundant gene expression related proteins.

  10. The Cytotoxicity of Benzaldehyde Nitrogen Mustard-2-Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone Being Involved in Topoisomerase IIα Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antitumor property of iron chelators and aromatic nitrogen mustard derivatives has been well documented. Combination of the two pharmacophores in one molecule in drug designation is worth to be explored. We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC50 for HepG2: 26.1 ± 3.5 μM , HCT-116: 57.5 ± 5.3 μM, K562: 48.2 ± 4.0 μM, and PC-12: 19.4 ± 2.2 μM were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. In vitro experimental data showed that the BNMPH chelating Fe2+ caused a large number of ROS formations which led to DNA cleavage, and this was further supported by comet assay, implying that ROS might be involved in the cytotoxicity of BNMPH. The ROS induced changes of apoptosis related genes, but the TFR1 and NDRG1 metastatic genes were not obviously regulated, prompting that BNMPH might not be able to deprive Fe2+ of ribonucleotide reductase. The BNMPH induced S phase arrest was different from that of iron chelators (G1 and alkylating agents (G2. BNMPH also exhibited its inhibition of human topoisomerase IIα. Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation.

  11. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  12. EVALUATIO OF MICROBIAL AGENTS AND BIO-PRODUCTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MUSTARD APHID, LIPAPHIS ERYSIMI (KALT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJENDRA NAGAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial agents (Verticillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water,plant products (Tobacco, onion and neem seed kernel extract @ 5%, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha and dimethoate30EC @ 300 g a.i/ha were evaluated against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt. and their safety to naturalenemies and pollinators. Significantly higher aphid reduction was recorded under these treatments over thecontrol without any phytotoxic effect and found safe to natural enemies of mustard aphid and honeybee. Mostfavourable cost-benefit ratio was obtained under the treatment i.e. dimethoate 30 EC @ 300 g a.i/ha (1:38followed by neem seed kernel extract @ 5% (1:18, onion extract @ 5% (1:17, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha (1:11,Beauveria bassiana @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Verticillium lecanii @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Metarhiziumanisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water (1:8, tobacco extract @ 5% (1:6 and water spray (1:2.

  13. Protective effects of dietary glycine and glutamic acid toward the toxic effects of oxidized mustard oil in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Saleem Ur

    2017-01-25

    The protective role of glycine and glutamic acid against the toxic effects of oxidized oil was studied for the first time. Mustard seed oil was thermally oxidized and characterized for quality characteristics and polyphenolic composition using reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Significant changes in the quality characteristics occurred with thermal oxidation. Fourteen polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified in oils. Quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-feruloylsophoroside, catechin, quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, sinapic acid and vanillic acid hexoside were the major compounds in the fresh and oxidized oil. Oxidized, un-oxidized mustard oils, glycine and glutamic acid were given to rabbits alone or in combination. The biochemical responses were studied in terms of haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology. It has been observed that biochemical and haematological parameters were adversely affected by the oxidized oil, while supplementation of both amino acids was beneficial in normalizing these parameters. Both amino acids alone have no significant effects, however, oxidized oil affected the liver by enhancing fat accumulation, causing hepatitis, reactive Kupffer cells and necrosis. The co-administration of oxidized oils with glycine or glutamic acid revealed significant recovery of the liver structure and function. In conclusion, glycine or glutamic acid is beneficial and protective against food toxicity and can be considered as an ameliorative food supplement.

  14. The effect of vitamin E on tracheal responsiveness and lung inflammation in sulfur mustard exposed guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Amery, Sediqa; Vahedi, Nassim; Khakzad, Mohammad Reza

    2011-02-01

    Pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard (SM) range from mild respiratory symptoms to even severe bronchial stenosis. In the present study, the protective effect of vitamin E on tracheal responsiveness (TR) and lung inflammation of SM-exposed guinea pigs were examined. Guinea pigs were exposed to ethanol (control group), 40 mg/m(3) inhaled SM and ethanol vehicle (sulfur mustard exposed (SME) group), SME treated with vitamin E (SME + E), SME with dexamethasone (SME + D) and both drugs (SME + E + D), (n = 8 for each group). TR to methacholine, total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count of lung lavage and serum cytokines were evaluated 14 days post-exposure. TR, WBC, interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon gamma (INF-γ), eosinophil, and monocyte levels in SME guinea pigs were significantly higher, but lymphocyte was lower than those of controls (P SME + E, SME + D and SME + E + D, INF-γ in SME + E and SME + E + D and WBC in SME + E were significantly decreased compared to that of the SME group (P SME + D + E was significantly higher than that of SME + E (P SME + D (P SME guinea pigs.

  15. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in suan-tsai and fu-tsai, traditional fermented mustard products of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiou-Huei; Wu, Ruei-Jie; Watanabe, Koichi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2009-11-15

    Fu-tsai and suan-tsai are spontaneously fermented mustard products traditionally prepared by the Hakka tribe of Taiwan. We chose 5 different processing stages of these products for analysis of the microbial community of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From 500 LAB isolates we identified 119 representative strains belonging to 5 genera and 18 species, including Enterococcus (1 species), Lactobacillus (11 species), Leuconostoc (3 species), Pediococcus (1 species), and Weissella (2 species). The LAB composition of mustard fermented for 3 days, known as the Mu sample, was the most diverse, with 11 different LAB species being isolated. We used sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify the LAB strains and analysis of the dnaA, pheS, and rpoA genes to identify 13 LAB strains for which identification by 16S rRNA gene sequences was not possible. These 13 strains were found to belong to 5 validated known species: Lactobacillus farciminis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Weissella cibaria, and Weissella paramesenteroides, and 5 possibly novel Lactobacillus species. These results revealed that there is a high level of diversity in LAB at the different stages of fermentation in the production of suan-tsai and fu-tsai.

  16. The cytotoxicity of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone being involved in topoisomerase IIα inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Liu, Youxun; Yang, Yingli; Sun, Xingzhi; Li, Changzheng

    2014-01-01

    The antitumor property of iron chelators and aromatic nitrogen mustard derivatives has been well documented. Combination of the two pharmacophores in one molecule in drug designation is worth to be explored. We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH) as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC50 for HepG2: 26.1 ± 3.5 μM, HCT-116: 57.5 ± 5.3 μM, K562: 48.2 ± 4.0 μM, and PC-12: 19.4 ± 2.2 μM) were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. In vitro experimental data showed that the BNMPH chelating Fe(2+) caused a large number of ROS formations which led to DNA cleavage, and this was further supported by comet assay, implying that ROS might be involved in the cytotoxicity of BNMPH. The ROS induced changes of apoptosis related genes, but the TFR1 and NDRG1 metastatic genes were not obviously regulated, prompting that BNMPH might not be able to deprive Fe(2+) of ribonucleotide reductase. The BNMPH induced S phase arrest was different from that of iron chelators (G1) and alkylating agents (G2). BNMPH also exhibited its inhibition of human topoisomerase IIα. Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation.

  17. Collard, mustard and turnip greens: Effects of varieties and leaf position on concentrations of ascorbic acid, folate, B-carotene, lutein and phylloquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafy Brassica crops: collard (Brassica oleracea L.), mustard (B. juncea L.) and turnip (B. rapa) greens are important commercial and culinary vegetables; especially in the southern United States. However, almost no information on essential human-health vitamins [ascorbic acid (vit C), folate (vit...

  18. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for mass spectrometric analysis of haemoglobin adducts - Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to develop a standard operating procedure for analysis of sulfur mustard adducts to the N-terminal valine in haemoglobin and to explore adduct formation with albumin and keratin. In the first approach, gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (GC

  19. Transgenic Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants expressing an Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) exhibit enhanced As and Cd tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Ksenija; Korban, Schuyler S

    2007-07-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are post-translationally synthesized thiol reactive peptides that play important roles in detoxification of heavy metal and metalloids in plants and other living organisms. The overall goal of this study is to develop transgenic plants with increased tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids from soil by expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana AtPCS1 gene, encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A FLAG-tagged AtPCS1 gDNA, under its native promoter, is expressed in Indian mustard, and transgenic pcs lines have been compared with wild-type plants for tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As). Compared to wild type plants, transgenic plants exhibit significantly higher tolerance to Cd and As. Shoots of Cd-treated pcs plants have significantly higher concentrations of PCs and thiols than those of wild-type plants. Shoots of wild-type plants accumulated significantly more Cd than those of transgenic plants, while accumulation of As in transgenic plants was similar to that in wild type plants. Although phytochelatin synthase improves the ability of Indian mustard to tolerate higher levels of the heavy metal Cd and the metalloid As, it does not increase the accumulation potential of these metals in the above ground tissues of Indian mustard plants.

  20. Use of a mustard trap crop to study efficacy of Beauveria bassiana treatments to corn and soybean for control of tarnished plant bug in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary field study was conducted in 2012 to measure impact of spraying tassel-stage corn and blooming early-maturity-group soybean with Beauveria bassiana on tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) populations before they colonize cotton. Four-row strips of mustard (total...

  1. A comparative analysis to quantify the biogeochemical and biogeophysical cooling effects on climate of a white mustard cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric; Brut, Aurore; Tallec, Tiphaine; Carrer, Dominique; Pique, Gaetan; Ferroni, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    During the COP21, agriculture was recognised as a strategic sector and an opportunity to strengthen climate mitigation. In particular, the "4 per 1000" initiative relies upon solutions that refer to agro-ecology, conservation agriculture, … that could lead to increase carbon storage. Among those agro-ecology practices, including cover crops during fallow periods is considered as a fundamental agronomic lever for storing carbon. However, if biogeochemical benefits of cover-crops (CC) have already been addressed, their biogeophysical effects on climate have never been quantified and compared to biogeochemical effects. This comparative study (CC vs. bare soil), quantified and compared biogeochemical (including carbon storage) and biophysical effects (albedo and energy partitioning effect) of CC on climate. An experimental campaign was performed in 2013 in Southwest France, during the fallow period following a winter-wheat crop (and before a maize). The experimental plot was divided in two: the northern part was maintained in bare soil (BS) while white-mustard (WM) was grown during 3-months on the southern part. On each subplot, continuous measurements of CO2, latent and sensible fluxes (by eddy covariance) and solar radiation were acquired. Also, N2O emissions were measured by means of automatic chambers on each subplots. Moreover, by using a Life-Cycle-Analysis approach, each component of the greenhouse gas budget (GHGB) was quantified for each subplot, including emissions associated to field operations (FO). To quantify the albedo induced radiative forcing (RFα) caused by the white-mustard, the bare soil subplot was used as a reference state (IPCC, 2007). Finally, the net radiative forcing for each subplot was calculated as the sum of biogeochemical and biogeophysical (albedo effect) radiative forcing. The white-mustard allowed a net CO2 fixation of 63 g C-eq.m-2, corresponding to 20% of the net annual CO2 flux that year (-332 g C-eq.m-2). Through the WM seeds

  2. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  3. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut) but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2. PMID:23231956

  4. Control of Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract plus EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Control of Salmonella in poultry is a public health concern as salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. This study aimed to screen the ability of 5 Salmonella serovars to degrade the mustard glucosinolate, sinigrin (by bacterial myrosinase) in Mueller-Hinton broth at 25 °C for 21 d and to reduce Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by developing an edible 0.2% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coating containing Oriental mustard extract, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), EDTA or their combinations. Individual Salmonella serovars degraded 50.2%-55.9% of the sinigrin present in 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g or 50 μl AITC/g reduced the numbers of Salmonella on chicken breasts 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d at 4 °C. However, when either mustard extract or AITC was combined with 15 mg/g EDTA in κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings, Salmonella numbers were reduced 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 5 d and 3.0 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. Moreover, these treatments reduced numbers of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria by 2.5-3.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing either 50 μl AITC/g or 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g plus 15 mg EDTA/g have the potential to reduce Salmonella on raw chicken.

  5. Listeria monocytogenes inhibition by defatted mustard meal-based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hahn-Bit; Noh, Bong Soo; Min, Sea C

    2012-02-01

    An antimicrobial edible film was developed from defatted mustard meal (Sinapis alba) (DMM), a byproduct from the bio-fuel industry, without incorporating external antimicrobials and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and physical properties were investigated. The DMM colloidal solution consisting of 184 g water, 14 g DMM, and 2g glycerol was homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 0.2, 0.5, 24 or 48 h to prepare a film-forming solution. The pH of a portion of the film-forming solution (pH 5.5) was adjusted to 2.0 or 4.0. Films were formed by drying the film-forming solutions at 23°C for 48 h. The film-forming solution incubated for 48 h inhibited L. monocytogenes in broth and on agar media. Antimicrobial effects of the film prepared from the 48 h-incubated solution increased with decrease in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 2.0. The film from the film forming solution incubated for 48 h (pH 2.0) initially inhibited more than 4.0 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes inoculated on film-coated salmon. The film-coating retarded the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon at 5, 10, and 15°C and the antimicrobial effect during storage was more noticeable when the coating was applied before inoculation than when it was applied after inoculation. The tensile strength, percentage elongation, solubility in watercxu, and water vapor permeability of the anti microbial film were 2.44 ± 0.19 MPa, 6.40 ± 1.13%, 3.19 ± 0.90%, and 3.18 ± 0.63 gmm/kPa hm(2), respectively. The antimicrobial DMM films have demonstrated a potential to be applied to foods as wraps or coatings to control the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  6. Biology of 11-Spotted Beetle Coccinella undicimpunctata L. (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) on Mustard Aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solangi, Bhai Khan; Ghani Lanjar, Abdul; Lohar, Mohammad Khan

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the biology of 11-spotted beetle Coccinella undecimpunctata L. on mustard aphid during the year 2006. The oviposition, fecundity, adult emergence, fertility percentage, sex ratio, longevity and mortality were studied in the laboratory on 10 separately reared pairs of beetles. The results indicated that average pre-copulation period was 4.1±1.28 days post copulation period 3.6±1.26 days, oviposition period, 37.7±6.88 days and post oviposition period 4.0±1.63 days. The mean fecundity was 593.4±86.5 eggs, fertile eggs were 531.80±76.16 with the fertility percentage of 89.63±3.44. the incubation was 3.1±1.19 and 3.1±0.94 days while 1st and 2nd instar larva period was 3.1±1.19 and 3.1±0.87 days and for 3rd and 4th instar larvae averaged 3.5±1.26 and 3.3±0.94 days, respectively whereas the total larval period was 12.9±1.28 days and pupal period 5.6±0.96 days. The average number of pupae observed were 19.9±6.69, while the male emergence was 7.4±2.63 (38.50±13.12%) and the female emergence was 8.9±3.66 (43.48±8.24%). The sex ratio (male: female) averaged 1:1.25±1: 0.45. thus the total male + female emergence was 81.99±13.37 per beetle pair. The mortality recorded was 3.7±3.43 beetles showing an averaged mortality of 17.57±14.51%. Longevity of the male was 36.5±4.17 days and the female longevity of 46.0±9.14 days. It was recorded that longevity period was significantly greater in case of female ladybird beetles as compared to their males. Adult emergence was greater in females of 11-spotted beetles as compared to males and thus the sex ratio was higher in females as compared to males. The longevity was comparably higher in case of females than in male beetles.

  7. Small intestinal cannabinoid receptor changes following a single colonic insult with oil of mustard in mice

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    Edward S Kimball

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids are known to be clinically beneficial for control of appetite disorders and nausea/vomiting, with emerging data that they can impact other GI disorders, such as inflammation. Post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS is a condition of perturbed intestinal function that occurs subsequent to earlier periods of intestinal inflammation. Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R and CB2R alterations in GI inflammation have been demonstrated in both animal models and clinically, but their continuing role in the post-inflammatory period has only been implicated to date. Therefore, to provide direct evidence for CBR involvement in altered GI functions in the absence of overt inflammation, we used a model of enhanced upper GI transit that persists for up to 4 weeks after a single insult by intracolonic 0.5% oil of mustard (OM in mice. In mice administered OM, CB1R immunostaining in the myenteric plexus was reduced at day 7, when colonic inflammation is subsiding, and then increased at 28 days, compared to tissue from age-matched vehicle-treated mice. In the lamina propria CB2R immunostaining density was also increased at day 28. In mice tested 28 day after OM, either a CB1R-selective agonist, ACEA (1 and 3 mg/kg, s.c. or a CB2R-selective agonist, JWH-133 (3 and 10 mg/kg, s.c. reduced the enhanced small intestinal transit in a dose-related manner. Doses of ACEA and JWH-133 (1 mg/kg, alone or combined, reduced small intestinal transit of OM-treated mice to a greater extent than control mice. Thus, in this post-colonic inflammation model, both CBR subtypes are up-regulated and there is increased efficacy of both CB1R and CB2R agonists. We conclude that CBR remodeling occurs not only during GI inflammation but continues during the recovery phase. Thus, either CB1R- or CB2-selective agonists could be efficacious for modulating GI motility in individuals experiencing diarrhea-predominant PI-IBS.

  8. Serum cytokine profiles of Khorasan veterans 23 years after sulfur mustard exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Mousavi, Seyed-Reza; Karimi, Gholamreza; Sadeghi, Mahmood; Shirmast, Elham; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2014-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent that was used against Iranian soldiers during the period from 1983 to 1988. We have investigated serum cytokines profiles of Khorasan veterans who were exposed to SM >23 years earlier. Forty-four male Iranian veterans who had >40% disabilities due to delayed complications of SM poisoning and had disabilities were investigated. A total of 30 healthy male volunteers (relatives of the veterans) were selected as the control group. Cytokine levels were measured in the serum of case and control subjects using commercial ELISA kits. Hematologic parameters (white/red blood cell counts, hemoglobin levels, immune cell differentials) were also performed on blood samples from the study subjects. The results indicated that serum levels of ICAM-1 were significantly higher in the samples from SM-exposed veterans (772.8 [± 15.1] ng/ml [p=0.014] vs. control values of 710.2 [± 20.0] ng/ml). On the other hand, serum IL-1β, IL-8 levels and TNFα, were significantly lower for the veterans than the controls (IL-1β: 3.8 [± 0.1] vs. 4.3 [± 0.2] pg/ml, p=0.037; IL-8: 21.0 [± 6.1] vs. 84.6 [± 20.3] pg/ml, p=0.002; TNFα: 4.5 [± 0.1] vs. 5.5 [± 0.1] pg/ml, p=0.027). Levels of other assayed cytokines, e.g., IL-2, -4, -5, -6, -10, and -12, IFNγ, TNFβ, and sVCAM-1 were not significantly different between the study populations. None of the assayed hematologic parameters appeared to differ as well. It seems possible that dysfunctions could have been induced in the innate immune functions of the SM-exposed veterans as a result of these changes in cytokine expression and that these, in turn, may have contributed to the increased incidence of a myriad of diseases that have been documented in these veterans, including cancers. Future studies must focus on examining the significance of these changes in circulating cytokines and their potential contribution to the development of different diseases in veterans exposed to SM.

  9. Investigation of the nutraceutical potential of monofloral Indian mustard bee pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer S.Ketkar; Atul S.Rathore; Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan; Lakshmi Rao; Anant R.Paradkar; Kakasaheb R.Mahadik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the nutraceutical potential of monolforal Indian mustard bee pollen (MIMBP). METHODS: The nutritional value of MIMBP was examined in terms of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and energy value. Its chemical composition in terms of total polyphenol and lfavonoid content was determined. MIMBP was screened for free lfavonoid aglycones by developing and validating a high-performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA) method. MIMBP was analyzed forin vitro antioxidant effect in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. RESULTS: MIMBP was found to be comprised of proteins ((182.2±5.9) g/kg), fats ((137.7±6.8) g/kg) and carbohydrates ((560.6±17.4) g/kg), which result in its high energy value ((17 616.7±78.6) kJ/kg). MIMBP was found to contain polyphenols ((18 286.1±374.0) mg gallic acid equivalent/kg) and lfavonoids ((1 223.5±53.1) mg quercetin equivalent/kg). The HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the presence of kaempferol ((65.4±0.5) mg/kg) and quercetin ((51.4±0.4) mg/kg) in MIMBP, which can be used as markers for determining the quality of bee pollen. The MIMBP extract showed DPPH free radical-scavenging activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 54.79 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: The MIMBP was found to be a rich source of nutrients providing high caloric value, which makes it a candidate for a potential nutraceutical agent. The study also illustrated the high antioxidant content of MIMBP, especially in the principle polyphenols and lfavonoids, which suggests its potential role in the prevention of free radical-implicated diseases. The DPPH-scavenging effect of MIMBP further conifrmed its antioxidant potential. Additionally, we developed a simple, speciifc and accurate HPLC-PDA method for the identiifcation and quantiifcation of free lfavonoid aglycones. This can be applied in future screenings of the quality of pollen collected by honeybees.

  10. Protection of A549 cells against the toxic effects of sulphur mustard by hexamethylenetetramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C D; Hambrook, J L

    1997-02-01

    The A549 cell line was used as a model of the deep lung to study the toxicity and mechanism of action of sulphur mustard (HD), using the neutral red (NR) dye retention and gentian violet (GV) assays as indices of cell viability. It was found that exposure to concentrations in excess of 40 microM HD resulted in a rapid onset of toxicity. Exposure to 1000 microM HD reduced viability in A549 cell cultures to 61% after 2 h (control cultures = 100%), whereas exposure to 40 microM HD did not result in deleterious effects until 26 h at which point viability fell to only 84% (NR assay). Agarose gel electrophoresis of cell cultures exposed to 40 and 1000 microM HD and harvested at 4.5, 19 and 43 h after exposure to HD, indicated that cell death was due to necrosis, despite the observation that at the higher concentration of HD cells displayed many of the features common to cells undergoing apoptotic death. The ability of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) to protect A549 cells against the effects of an LC50 challenge dose of HD was assessed using the GV and NR assays. It was found that HMT (15 mM) could protect cells against the effects of HD though HMT had to be present at the time of HD challenge. Cultures treated with HD only were 49% viable at 48 h after HD challenge, compared to 101% for protected cultures (NR assay) and 58% and 91% for unprotected and protected cultures respectively using the GV assay. Morphological observations of GV and NR stained cultures confirmed these findings. HMT concentrations of 2.5 to 25 mM were used. Maximal protection against the toxic effects of HD (LC50) was found at 10 to 25 mM HMT. Over this concentration range, HMT did not exert any toxic effects on A549 cells. Pretreatment of A549 cultures with HMT followed by its removal prior to HD challenge had no protective effect. Similarly, treating cultures with HD followed by addition of HMT did not increase the viability of the cultures, even if the HMT was added immediately after HD exposure

  11. TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF LEWISITE AND SULFUR MUSTARD AGENTS:GENETIC TOXICITY OF LEWISITE (L) IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostes,R.F. Jr.; Sasser, LB; Rausch, R.J.

    1989-05-31

    The cytotoxic clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the arsenic containing vesicant, Lewisite (L) [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine], have been investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cells. One hour exposures to Lewisite were cytotoxic in uM amounts. The cell survival response yields a D37 of 0.6 uM and an extrapolation number of 2.5. The mutagenic response at the hypoxantnine-guanine phosporibosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus was sporadic and not significantly greater than control values when cells were exposed over a range of 0.125 to2.0 uM. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction, a measure of chromosomal rearrangement, was weakly positive over a range of 0.25 to 1.0 uM but the values were not significantly greater than the control response. Chromosomal aberrations were induced at 0.75 and 1.0 UMin one experiment and 0.5 and 0.75 uM in another experiment. The Induced values were significantly greater than the control values. Lewisite appears to be cytotoxic and clastogenic in our investigations but SCE and mutation at the HGPRT locus are not significantly greater than control values. Lewisita toxicity was in some ways similar to radiomimetic chemicals such as bleomycin.

  12. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus, Indian mustard (Brassica juncea and sunflower (Helianthus annuus.

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    Motior M Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil contamination by copper (Cu and lead (Pb is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF, translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹ in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54% and Cu (34-38% followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3-4.3 and 1.8-3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. CONCLUSIONS: Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  13. Characterizing harmful advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and ribosylated aggregates of yellow mustard seed phytocystatin: Effects of different monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are at the core of variety of diseases ranging from diabetes to renal failure and hence gaining wide consideration. This study was aimed at characterizing the AGEs of phytocystatin isolated from mustard seeds (YMP) when incubated with different monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and mannose) using fluorescence, ultraviolet, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and microscopy. Ribose was found to be the most potent glycating agent as evident by AGEs specific fluorescence and absorbance. YMP exists as a molten globule like structure on day 24 as depicted by high ANS fluorescence and altered intrinsic fluorescence. Glycated YMP as AGEs and ribose induced aggregates were observed at day 28 and 32 respectively. In our study we have also examined the anti-aggregative potential of polyphenol, resveratrol. Our results suggested the anti-aggregative behavior of resveratrol as it prevented the in vitro aggregation of YMP, although further studies are required to decode the mechanism by which resveratrol prevents the aggregation.

  14. Structural features of dilute acid, steam exploded, and alkali pretreated mustard stalk and their impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Manali; Raj, Tirath; Vijayaraj, M; Chopra, Anju; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2015-06-25

    To overcome the recalcitrant nature of biomass several pretreatment methodologies have been explored to make it amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. These methodologies alter cell wall structure primarily by removing/altering hemicelluloses and lignin. In this work, alkali, dilute acid, steam explosion pretreatment are systematically studied for mustard stalk. To assess the structural variability after pretreatment, chemical analysis, surface area, crystallinity index, accessibility of cellulose, FT-IR and thermal analysis are conducted. Although the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis varies upon the methodologies used, nevertheless, cellulose conversion increases from pretreatment. Glucose yield at 2 and 72h are well correlated with surface area and maximum adsorption capacity. However, no such relationship is observed for xylose yield. Mass balance of the process is also studied. Dilute acid pretreatment is the best methodology in terms of maximum sugar yield at lower enzyme loading.

  15. Lactobacillus futsaii sp. nov., isolated from fu-tsai and suan-tsai, traditional Taiwanese fermented mustard products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiou-Huei; Kudo, Yuko; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Watanabe, Koichi

    2012-03-01

    Three Gram-stain-positive strains were isolated from fermented mustard and were rod-shaped, non-motile, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic, homofermentative and did not exhibit catalase activity. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the type strains of Lactobacillus crustorum (98.7% similarity), Lactobacillus farciminis (98.9%) and Lactobacillus mindensis (97.9%) were the closest neighbours. However, DNA-DNA reassociation values with these strains were less than 50%. Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus futsaii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is YM 0097(T) (=JCM 17355(T)=BCRC 80278(T)).

  16. Rhizospheric bacterial strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a colonizes plant tissues and enhances Cd, Zn, Cu phytoextraction by white mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz ePłociniczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants.The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%, Zn (86% and Cu (39% in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  17. SPATIAL TEMPORAL SOWING PATTERN OF RAPESEED-MUSTARD CROP IN INDIA USING MULTI-DATE IRS AWIFS DATA

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    D. R. Rajak

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the results on spatial pattern of sowing of rapeseed/mustard in four major states in India using multidate Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS data for 2010-11 crop season. Geo-referenced, calibrated AWiFS data acquired during October 2010 to February 2011 were used to generate the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI image sets. Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA based clustering of the multi date NDVI dataset for mustard crop pixels was performed. The clusters were segregated to spectral emergence classes using a spectral profile matching approach with reference to ground truth data. The sowing dates were derived from the spectral emergence data using a lag period based on field observation. Analysis showed the sowing pattern in the study states is spread over around 60 days from mid October to mid December. Three distinct clusters of sowing pattern were observed. The major one (around 40% is sown between mid October and first week of November. Around 25% area is sown from last week of November to mid December. The other 35% area is sown in between these two periods. Analysis of temperature, a key weather variable influencing the growth of this crop, showed that the crop sowing in northern Rajasthan and Haryana is delayed by about one month to avoid the frost damage during reproductive phase. In the parts of Gujarat, southern parts of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (MP, an early sowing in the second fortnight of October was observed, mainly to avoid higher mean temperatures during the month of March.

  18. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

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    A Abedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical warfare victims with respiratory diseases were selected. Chest physiotherapy including postural drainage percussion and vibration were used in four positions for all patients. Pulmonary function test (PFT was obtained before (baseline, immediately and 20 minute after the chest physiotherapy. The SPSS software was used for the data analysis of the collected data. Results: Results of this study showed the significant effect (p<0.01 of chest physiotherapy upon forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 (baseline mean, 44.19 immediately after intervention mean 47.3 and 20 minute after intervention mean 48.3 and forced vital capacity (FVC (baseline mean, 69.37 immediately after intervention mean, 73.67 20 minute after intervention 75.74. Chest physiotherapy had significant effect (p<0.01 in asthmatic bronchitis group and also had significant effect (p<0.05 in both severe and moderate groups. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy was able to improve pulmonary function test indices in chemical warfare victims suffering from respiratory problems. The effect on asthmatic bronchitis group, as well as both severe and moderate groups, was significant.

  19. Downregulation of super oxide dismutase level in protein might be due to sulfur mustard induced toxicity in lung.

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    Leila Mirbagheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM has been identified as an important chemical weapon. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, the extensive usage of SM against Iranian civilians and military forces was proven. This agent has been shown to cause severe damage mainly in the skin, eyes, lungs,  and  respiratory  tract  in  Iranian  veterans.  The  most  common  disease  is bronchiolitis obliterans (BO. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Superoxide dismutases (SODs are known as protective antioxidants against the harmful effects of ROS.Twenty exposed SM individuals (43.2±6.4 years, and 10 normal controls (41.3±2.5 years were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of SODs was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and mmunohistochemistry.Our  results  demonstrated  that  CuZnSOD   and  MnSOD  mRNA  were  up-regulated 2.79±1.09  and  2.49±1.11  folds, respectively in SM-injured patients  in comparison  with control  levels. In  contrast,  Immunohistochemistry  results  showed  downregulation  of CuZnSOD protein expression in SM injured patients.Our results revealed that SODs may play an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress due to mustard gas toxicity in airway wall of SM exposed patients.

  20. Nivel de pensamiento crítico de los profesionales de enfermería en la técnica de manejo de cateterismo vesical en los servicios de emergencia, hospitalización de medicina y cirugía del Hospital Vitarte

    OpenAIRE

    Barboza Núñez, Luz Yanet; Chura Muñuico, Ruth Yenny

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de pensamiento crítico de los profesionales de enfermería en la técnica de manejo de cateterismo vesical en los servicios de emergencia, hospitalización de medicina y cirugía del Hospital Vitarte. Material y Métodos: El diseño de investigación fue cuantitativo, descriptivo, de corte transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 45 enfermeras (os) de los servicios de emergencia (25), hospitalización de medicina(12) y cirugía (8), del Hospital Vitarte. Se utilizó e...

  1. Structure-based design, synthesis and biological testing of etoposide analog epipodophyllotoxin-N-mustard hybrid compounds designed to covalently bind to topoisomerase II and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Arun A; Wu, Xing; Patel, Daywin; Yalowich, Jack C; Hasinoff, Brian B

    2014-11-01

    Drugs that target DNA topoisomerase II isoforms and alkylate DNA represent two mechanistically distinct and clinically important classes of anticancer drugs. Guided by molecular modeling and docking a series of etoposide analog epipodophyllotoxin-N-mustard hybrid compounds were designed, synthesized and biologically characterized. These hybrids were designed to alkylate nucleophilic protein residues on topoisomerase II and thus produce inactive covalent adducts and to also alkylate DNA. The most potent hybrid had a mean GI(50) in the NCI-60 cell screen 17-fold lower than etoposide. Using a variety of in vitro and cell-based assays all of the hybrids tested were shown to target topoisomerase II. A COMPARE analysis indicated that the hybrids had NCI 60-cell growth inhibition profiles matching both etoposide and the N-mustard compounds from which they were derived. These results supported the conclusion that the hybrids displayed characteristics that were consistent with having targeted both topoisomerase II and DNA.

  2. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Two-Generation Reproduction Study of Lewisite in Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Mellick, P. W.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-07-15

    Occupational health standards have not been established for Lewisite [bis(2-chlorethyl)arsine], a potent toxic vesicant which reacts with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins through its arsenic group. The purposes of this study were to determine the reproductive consequences and dose~response of continuing Lewisite exposure of parental males and females and their offspring in a 42-week two-generation study. Solutions of Lewisite were prepared for administration by diluting the neat agent with sesame oil. Rats were administered Lewisite (0, 0.10, 0.25 or 0.60 mg/kg/day for 5 days a week) via intragastric intubation prior to mating, during mating and after mating until the birth of their offspring. The dams continued to receive Lewisite during lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring of each group were selected to continue on the study; rece1v1ng Lewisite during adolescence, mating and throughout gestation. Again, the dams continued to receive Lewisite until weaning of the offspring. Lewisite had no adverse effect on reproduction performance, fertility or reproductive organ weights of male or female rats through two consecutive generations. No adverse effect to offspring were attributed to Lewisite exposure. Minor changes in growth was the only maternal effect observed. Lewisite exposure of parental rats caused no gross or microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, uterus or vagina. Severe inflammation of the lung was observed at necropsy in cases in which Lewisite gained access to the respiratory system from accidental dosing or reflux and aspiration; this usually caused early death of the animal. The NOEL for reproductive effects in this study was greater than 0.60 mg/kg/day.

  3. Incorrect ventricular lead placement into the systemic right ventricle of a patient with D-transposition of the great vessels after Mustard procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam W; Kimball, Thomas R

    2017-03-01

    Incorrect pacemaker lead placement into the systemic ventricle is a complication that has rarely been described in patients with D-transposition status after atrial baffle palliation. We present a case of ventricular lead misplacement in the systemic right ventricle of a patient with D-transposition of the great arteries after Mustard procedure. This case demonstrates the challenges with proper imaging of lead placement in patients with atrial baffles and long-term management of a lead in the systemic ventricle.

  4. Loss of expression of TGF-βs and their receptors in chronic skin lesions induced by sulfur mustard as compared with chronic contact dermatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panahi Yunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM is a blister-forming agent that has been used as a chemical weapon. Sulfur mustard can cause damage in various organs, especially the skin, respiratory system, and eyes. Generally, the multiple complications of mustard gas result from its alkalizing potency; it reacts with cellular components like DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipid membranes. TGF-β is a multi-functional cytokine with multiple biological effects ranging from cell differentiation and growth inhibition to extracellular matrix stimulation, immunosuppression, and immunomodulation. TGF-β has 3 isoforms (TGF-β 1, 2, 3 and its signaling is mediated by its receptors: R1, R2 and intracellular Smads molecules. TGF-β has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. TGF-βs and their receptors also have an important role in modulation of skin inflammation, proliferation of epidermal cells, and wound healing, and they have been implicated in different types of skin inflammatory disorders. Methods Seventeen exposed SM individuals (48.47 ± 9.3 years, 17 chronic dermatitis patients (46.52 ± 14.6 years, and 5 normal controls (44.00 ± 14.6 years were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of TGF-βs and their receptors expressions was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Only TGF1was analyzed immunohistochemically. Results Our results showed significant decreases in the expression percentages of TGF-β 1, 2 and R1, R2 in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal subjects and significant decreases in the intensity of R1 and R2 expressions in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal controls. (P value Conclusions TGF-βs and their receptors appear to have a noticeable role in chronic inflammatory skin lesions caused by sulfur mustard.

  5. In vitro transcription and DNA binding characteristics of chloroplast and etioplast extracts from mustard (Sinapis alba) indicate differential usage of the psbA promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisermann, A; Tiller, K; Link, G

    1990-01-01

    The psbA gene which is differentially expressed in vivo in chloroplasts and etioplasts has an unusual promoter, containing both prokaryotic-type '-35' and '-10' elements and a sequence motif that resembles the nuclear TATA box. Single base pair substitutions were introduced into the mustard psbA promoter and the mutants were tested in transcription and DNA binding experiments, using extracts from either chloroplasts or etioplasts. Positions within the '-35' region appear to play an essential ...

  6. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Early and Delayed-onset Ocular Injuries Due to Mustard Gas Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Safi, Sare; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Jafarinasab, Mohammad Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Moghadam, Mohammadreza Sedighi; Jadidi, Khosrow; Babaei, Mahmoud; Shirvani, Armin; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Mohammad-Rabei, Hossein; Ziaei, Hossein; Ghassemi-Broumand, Mohammad; Baher, Siamak Delfaza; Naderi, Mostafa; Panahi-Bazaz, Mahmoodreza; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; Hanjani, Shahriar; Ghasemi, Hassan; Salouti, Ramin; Pakbin, Mojgan; Kheiri, Bahareh

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To develop clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for prevention, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of ocular injuries caused by exposure to mustard gas. Methods: The clinical questions were designed by the guideline team. Websites and databases including National Guidelines Clearinghouse, National Institute for Clinical Excellence, Cochrane, and PubMed were searched to find related CPGs and explore possible answers to the clinical questions. Since there were no relevant CPGs in the literature, related articles in Persian and English languages were extracted. Each article along with its level of evidence was summarized. Additionally, hand search was performed by looking the reference list of each article. Consequently, recommendations were developed considering the clinical benefits and side effects of each therapeutic modality. The recommendations were re-evaluated in terms of customization criteria. All recommendations along with the related evidence were scored from 1 to 9 by experts from all medical universities of Iran. The level of agreement among the experts was evaluated by analyzing the given scores. Results: The agreement was achieved for all recommendations. The experts suggested a number of minor modifications which were applied to the recommendations. Finally, CPGs were developed with 98 recommendations under three major domains including prevention of injury, diagnosis and management of the acute and delayed-onset mustard gas ocular injuries. Conclusion: Considering the lack of CPGs for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of mustard gas-induced keratitis, these recommendations would be useful to prevent the serious ocular complications of mustard gas and standardize eye care services to the affected individuals.

  7. Comparative study on the effect of chemicals on Alternaria blight in Indian mustard--a multi-location study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, P D; Chattopadhyay, C; Kumar, A; Awasthi, R P; Singh, R; Kaur, S; Thomas, L; Goyal, P; Chand, P

    2011-05-01

    High severity of Altemaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in India. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive potential of chemicals viz., zinc sulphate, borax, sulphur, potash and calcium sulphate, aqueous extracts viz., Eucalyptus globosus (50 g l-1) leaf extract and garlic (Allium sativum) bulb (20 g l-1) extract, cow urine and bio-agents Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescence in comparison with the recommended chemical fungicide (mancozeb), against foliar disease Alternaria blight of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss] under five different geographical locations of India. Mancozeb recorded the lowest mean severity (leaf: 33.1%; pod: 26.3%) of Alternaria blight with efficacy of garlic bulb extract alone (leaf = 34.4%; pod = 27.3%) or in combination with cow urine (leaf = 34.2%; pod = 28.6%) being statistically at par with the recommended chemical fungicide. Chemicals also proved effective in reducing Alternaria blight severity on leaves and pods of Indian mustard (leaf = 36.3-37.9%; pod = 27.5-30.1%). The effective treatments besides providing significant reduction in disease severity also enabled increase in dry seed yield of the crop (mancozeb = 2052 kg ha-1; garlic = 2006 kg ha-1; control = 1561 kg ha-1).

  8. Mitochondrial atpA gene is altered in a new orf220-type cytoplasmic male-sterile line of stem mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Hua; Huai, Yan; Zhang, Ming-Fang

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the probable mitochondrial factor associated with cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) by comparative analysis of cms and its isogenic maintainer lines in stem mustards. Dramatic variations in the morphology of floral organs were observed in cms stem mustard. Mitochondrial atpA gene was shown to be altered in cms compared with that in its maintainer line, of which mitochondrial atpA gene from its maintainer line was sequenced to encode 507 amino acids. It was indicative of high homology with mitochondrial atpA genes from other species, even as high as 94% in similarity with Oryza sativa in terms of amino acid constituents. However, only 429 amino acids were deduced in cms showing 83% similarity with atpA gene from its maintainer line. Two copies were observed in its maintainer line, but only one was found in cms. Such numerous differences of mitochondrial atpA gene between cms and its maintainer lines may not be the results of evolutionary divergence but the rearrangements of mitochondria. Expression of mitochondrial atpA gene was shown to be down-regulated in cms by using Northern blot. Consequently, mitochondrial ATP synthesis was severely decreased more than one fold in cms stem mustard indicating deficiency in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in this type of cms. Therefore, we deduced that mitochondrial atpA gene altered in cms could be associated with male-sterility in this type of cms.

  9. Effect of light conditions on the contents of glucosinolates in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna; Kozłowska, Halina

    2008-10-08

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of light conditions on contents of glucosinolates (GLS) in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed. The seeds were germinated in light and dark, at 25 degrees C, for up to 7 days. As compared to the nongerminated seeds, in seeds exposed to light and germinated for 4, 5, 6, and 7 days the content of total GLS was observed to decrease by 30 to 70% depending on the species. Germination in conducted the dark for the respective periods of time resulted in decreases of total GLS not exceeding 25%. The changes in the concentration of total GLS were attributed to aliphatic GLS predominating in seeds, yet in the case of white mustard to sinalbin belonging to aralkyl glucosinolates. Although seeds germinated in the dark, as compared to those exposed to light, were characterized by a higher total content of indole GLS, the percentage contribution of that group of compounds in white mustard, red radish, and white radish remained at a similar level, irrespective of germination time. Only in the case of rapeseed was the percentage of the sum of indole GLS observed to increase from 17 to up to 45% once the seeds were exposed to light and to 50% once they were germinated in the dark.

  10. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  11. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  12. Nitrogen-Efficient and Nitrogen-Inefficient Indian Mustard Showed Differential Expression Pattern of Proteins in Response to Elevated CO2 and Low Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Peerzada Y.; Ganie, Arshid H.; Khan, Ishrat; Qureshi, Mohammad I.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Sarwat, Maryam; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2], and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard. PMID:27524987

  13. Nitrogen-Efficient and Nitrogen-Inefficient Indian Mustard Showed Differential Expression Pattern of Proteins in Response to Elevated CO2 and Low Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Peerzada Y; Ganie, Arshid H; Khan, Ishrat; Qureshi, Mohammad I; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Sarwat, Maryam; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2], and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard.

  14. Nitrogen-efficient and nitrogen-inefficient Indian mustard cultivars show differential protein expression in response to elevated CO2 and low nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerjada Yasir Yousof

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon (C and nitrogen (N are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2] and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF. The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard.

  15. The Findings of HRCT of the Lung in Chemical Warfare Veterans with Previous Sulfur Mustard (SM Gas Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Naghibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: To identify the findings of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT of the lung in chemical warfare veterans with previous sulfur mustard (SM gas exposure. "nMaterials and Methods: 93 patients were studied prospectively 22 years after exposure. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. HRCT of the lung was performed during expiration and was reported double blinded by two radiologists. HRCT findings include air trapping, mosaic attenuation, ground glass attenuation, nodules, signet ring, fibrosis, bronchial wall thickening, bronchodilation, tree in bud, interlobular wall thickening, bulla, cavity, air consolidation, honey comb and mediastinal and pleural abnormalities that were analyzed. Final diagnosis was identified according to HRCT findings. The relation between HRCT findings, final diagnosis and the distribution of the abnormalities with duration after exposure were evaluated. Distribution of each finding was also evaluated. "nb The most frequent HRCT finding was air trapping (56.7%. Other common findings were mosaic attenuation (35.1%, ground glass attenuation (20.6%, nodules (17.5%, signet ring (15.5% and fibrosis(12.4%. Distribution of the abnormalities were mostly local (79.4% and bilateral (73%. Abnormalities were mostly in the lower lobe (61.3%. No significant correlation was found between the HRCT findings and the duration after exposure or distribution of the abnormalities. The respiratory complications diagnosed according to HRCT included bronchiolitis obliterans (43%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (27.9%, asthma (23.6%, bronchiectasis (13.9%, interstitial lung disease (ILD (9.6%. All abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients with lesser duration of exposure.( P-value < 0.05. "nConclusion: Focal bilateral air trapping was the most common finding seen in expiratory HRCT in this study, and it is highly suggestive of bronchiolitis obliterance (BO. BO can be a late complication of SM

  16. Preactivated oxazaphosphorines designed for isophosphoramide mustard delivery as bulk form or nanoassemblies: synthesis and proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarbek, Charles; Lesueur, Lea L; Chapuis, Hubert; Deroussent, Alain; Pioche Durieu, Catherine; Daville, Aurore; Caron, Joachim; Rivard, Michael; Martens, Thierry; Bertrand, Jean-Rémi; Le Cam, Eric; Vassal, Gilles; Couvreur, Patrick; Desmaele, Didier; Paci, Angelo

    2015-01-22

    Oxazaphosphorines are alkylating agents used in routine clinical practices for treatment of cancer for many years. They are antitumor prodrugs that require cytochrome P450 bioactivation leading to 4-hydroxy derivatives. In the case of ifosfamide (IFO), the bioactivation produces two toxic metabolites: acrolein, a urotoxic compound, concomitantly generated with the isophosphoramide mustard; and chloroacetaldehyde, a neurotoxic and nephrotoxic compound, arising from the oxidation of the side chains. To improve the therapeutic index of IFO, we have designed preactivated IFO derivatives with the covalent binding of several O- and S-alkyl moieties including polyisoprenoid groups at the C-4 position of the oxazaphosphorine ring to avoid cytochrome bioactivation favoring the release of the active entity and limiting the chloroacetaldehyde release. Thanks to the grafted terpene moieties, some of these new conjugates demonstrated spontaneous self-assembling properties into nanoassemblies when dispersed in water. The cytotoxic activities on a panel of human tumor cell lines of these novel oxazaphosphorines, in bulk form or as nanoassemblies, and the release of 4-hydroxy-IFO from these preactivated IFO analogues in plasma are reported.

  17. Hybridization study of developmental plastid gene expression in mustard (Sinapsis alba L.) with cloned probes for most plastid DNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, G

    1984-07-01

    An approach to assess the extent of developmental gene expression of various regions of plastid (pt)DNA in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) is described. It involves cloning of most ptDNA regions. The cloned regions then serve as hybridization probes to detect and assess the abundance of complementary RNA sequences represented in total plastid RNA. By comparison of the hybridization pattern observed with plastid RNA from either dark-grown or light-grown plants it was found that many ptDNA regions are constitutively expressed, while several 'inducible' regions account for much higher transcript levels in the chloroplast than in the etioplast stage. The reverse situation, i.e. 'repressed' regions which would account for higher transcript levels in the etioplast, was not observed. The hybridization results obtained with RNA from 'intermediatetype' plastids suggest that transient gene expression is a common feature during light-induced chloroplast development. The time-course of gene expression differs for various ptDNA regions.

  18. Histomorphological and Histochemical Alterations Following Short-term Inhalation Exposure to Sulfur Mustard on Visceral Organs of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. PANT; R. VIJAYARAGHAVAN

    1999-01-01

    Toxic effects of inhaled sulfur mustard (SM) on the histology of visceral organs was investigated by exposing mice to 84.6mg/m3 for 1 h duration, using controlled single exposure conditions. A progressive fall in body weight from third day onwards was noticed. Light microscopic examination of the pulmonary tissue of these animals at 6 h post exposure revealed that the tracheobronchial epithelium remained intact, but was infiltrated by inflammatorv cells. By 24 h post exposure, the mucosecretory cells were destroyed. The inflammatory reaction was maximum at 48 h. Bv 7th day post exposure there was swelling and vacuolation of lung parenchymal cells and thrombi formation. In addition SM caused congestion and hemorrhage at alveolar level. SM also caused granulovacuolar degeneration with perinuclear clumping of the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and renal parenchymal cells. Renal lesions were characterized by congestion and hemorrhage. Among visceral tissues, maximum atrophy was observed in spleen. Distribution of lesions increased with post exposure period. The maximum lesions were observed at 7th day post-exposure.

  19. Effects of Trang Phuc Linh Plus-Food Supplement on Irritable Bowel Syndrome Induced by Mustard Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thong T; Dau, Duong T; Nguyen, Dung C; Nguyen, Huong T T G; Ngo, Phuong T B; Nguyen, Thai Q; Han, Bo; Hoang, Ba X

    2017-04-01

    Trang phuc linh plus (TPLP) is a food supplement product derived from dried extracts of herbal agents Atractylodes macrocephala, Poria cocos, Paeonia lactiflora, Phellodendron amurense, and added lactobacillus fermentum lysate (ImmuneGamma(®)) and 5-hydroxytryptophan. TPLP is a functional food used as adjunctive treatment for treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However the biological effect and its mechanism of action in IBS have not been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine the pharmacological activities and mode of action of TPLP on IBS animal models. Mice were given a single administration of 5% mustard oil (MO) intracollonically. Acute colitis induction by MO resulted in later development of an IBS-like accelerated upper gastrointestinal transit in mice. Mice were treated with different does of TPLP and controls. Results showed that TPLP at the dose of 654 mg/kg/day given orally significantly decreased intestinal motility (IM) compared with the control animals. The effect was similar to Duspatalin (80 mg/kg/day) (Mebeverine Hydrochloride, an antispasmodic that helps to relieve the pain and discomfort associated with gastrointestinal spasms). Increased TPLP dose (1962 mg/kg/day) had a better effect on relief of IM than Duspatalin (80 mg/kg/day). TPLP also reduced peristalsis frequency and decreased fluid volume and electrolytes excretion in intestine tested in ex vivo models. Overall, TPLP may be an effective nutraceutical supplement for IBS.

  20. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Shanthi; Keating, Aileen F

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6μM) for 24 or 48h. Cell viability was reduced (Padduct was detected after 24h of 6μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response.

  1. 3-D QSAR CoMFA study of nitrogen mustards possessing new chemical entities as possible anticancer agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work is an investigation of anticancer activities of the nitrogen mustards possessing quinazolinone, benzimidazole, benzoxazole, and benzothiazole nuclei by the three-dimensional Quantitative Structure Activity paradigm, Comparative Molecular Field Analysis. A total of 39 compounds were modelled in SYBYL 6.7 (Tripos, USA. The molecules were aligned by root-mean-square fit of atoms and field fit of the steric and electrostatic molecular fields and the resulting databases analysed by partial least squares analysis with cross-validation, leave-one-out and no validation to extract the optimum number of components. The analysis was then repeated with bootstrapping to give the final Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship models. Eight compounds, which were kept separately as test set, were used to test the predictive ability of the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis models. Out of the two models generated, one was found to be useful. The predicted activities of the test set were in good agreement with experimentally determined values.

  2. Pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in Iranian veterans with sulfur mustard toxicity and different levels of pulmonary disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakht M Gh, B Fatemeh; Oskouie, Afsaneh Arefi; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Tavallaie, Shima; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh; Taheri, Salman; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Alamdari, Daryoush Hamidi

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong alkylating agent that primarily targets the skin, eye and lung. The current study evaluated the pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) assay in human serum of SM-exposed patients. sera of 35 SM-exposed patients and 19 healthy volunteers were recruited. Both groups had nonsmoker and nonalcoholic people with no diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and other pulmonary diseases (COPD because of smoking, asthma and so on). All patients had documented exposure to SM. The PAB was measured. SM-exposed patients with normal values for pulmonary function test and severe obstructive pulmonary disease demonstrated a significant increase in PAB value in compared with healthy volunteers (the PAB values in healthy volunteers, normal and severe patients were 48.74 ± 21.07 HK, 101.45 ± 32.68 HK and 120.23 ± 31.55 HK, respectively). However, the level of oxidation is not related to the severity of disease defined by spirometry findings. A significant negative correlation was established between the PAB value and FEV1. The increased PAB value in chemical casualties showed that these patients are exposed to oxidative stress.

  3. Prediction of acute mammalian toxicity using QSAR methods: a case study of sulfur mustard and its breakdown products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Begluitti, Gino; Tincher, Terry; Wheeler, John; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2012-07-27

    Predicting toxicity quantitatively, using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR), has matured over recent years to the point that the predictions can be used to help identify missing comparison values in a substance's database. In this manuscript we investigate using the lethal dose that kills fifty percent of a test population (LD₅₀) for determining relative toxicity of a number of substances. In general, the smaller the LD₅₀ value, the more toxic the chemical, and the larger the LD₅₀ value, the lower the toxicity. When systemic toxicity and other specific toxicity data are unavailable for the chemical(s) of interest, during emergency responses, LD₅₀ values may be employed to determine the relative toxicity of a series of chemicals. In the present study, a group of chemical warfare agents and their breakdown products have been evaluated using four available rat oral QSAR LD₅₀ models. The QSAR analysis shows that the breakdown products of Sulfur Mustard (HD) are predicted to be less toxic than the parent compound as well as other known breakdown products that have known toxicities. The QSAR estimated break down products LD₅₀ values ranged from 299 mg/kg to 5,764 mg/kg. This evaluation allows for the ranking and toxicity estimation of compounds for which little toxicity information existed; thus leading to better risk decision making in the field.

  4. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants.

  5. Capture of nerve agents and mustard gas analogues by hydrophobic robust MOF-5 type metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Carmen; Linares, Fátima; Procopio, Elsa Quartapelle; Senkovska, Irena; Kaskel, Stefan; Galli, Simona; Masciocchi, Norberto; Barea, Elisa; Navarro, Jorge A R

    2011-08-10

    In this communication, a series of observations and data analyses coherently confirms the suitability of the novel metal-organic framework (MOF) [Zn(4)(μ(4)-O)(μ(4)-4-carboxy-3,5-dimethyl-4-carboxy-pyrazolato)(3)] (1) in the capture of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It is worthy of attention that 1, whose crystal structure resembles that of MOF-5, exhibits remarkable thermal, mechanical, and chemical stability, as required if practical applications are sought. In addition, it selectively captures harmful VOCs (including models of Sarin and mustard gas, which are chemical warfare agents), even in competition with ambient moisture (i.e., under conditions mimicking operative ones). The results can be rationalized on the basis of Henry constant and adsorption heat values for the different essayed adsorbates as well as H(2)O/VOC partition coefficients as obtained from variable-temperature reverse gas chromatography experiments. To further strengthen the importance of 1, its performance in the capture of harmful VOCs has been compared with those of well-known materials, namely, a MOF with coordinatively unsaturated metal sites, [Cu(3)(btc)(2)] and the molecular sieve active carbon Carboxen. The results of this comparison show that coordinatively unsaturated metal sites (preferential guest-binding sites) are ineffective for the capture of VOCs in the presence of ambient moisture. Consequently, we propose that the driving force of the VOC-MOF recognition process is mainly dictated by pore size and surface hydrophobicity. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-01

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  7. Niacinamide pretreatment reduces microvesicle formation in hairless guinea pigs cutaneously exposed to sulfur mustard. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yourick, J.J.; Clark, C.R.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1991-12-31

    It has been proposed that sulfur mustard (HD) may indirectly activate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PADPRP) by alkylating cellular DNA (Papirmeister et al., 1985). Activation of PADPRP results in the depletion of cellular NAD+ which initiates a series of biochemical processes that have been proposed to culminate in blister formation. Preventing PADPRP activation and NAD+ depletion should inhibit blister formation. Niacinamide is both an inhibitor of PADPRP and a precursor for NAD+ synthesis. The present study was undertaken to determine whether niacinamide can protect against HD-induced microvesication in cutaneously exposed hairless guinea pigs. Each site was exposed to HD for 8 min by means of a vapor cup. Niacinamide (750 mg/kg, ip) given as a 30-min pretreatment inhibited microvesicle formation by 50% after HD application. However, niacinamide given 2 hr after HD application did not reduce microvesicle formation. There was no benefit when niacinamide was given as both a pretreatment and treatment when compared to niacinamide given only as a pretreatment. The reduction in microvesication 24 hr after HD did not correlate with skin NAD+ content. Niacinamide did not reduce the degree of erythema or edema. Ballooning degeneration of basal epidermal cells was present in some niacinamide pretreated HD exposure sites.

  8. Urethral catheter removal 7 or 14 days after radical retropubic prostatectomy: clinical implications and complications in a randomized study Sete ou quatorze dias para a retirada da sonda vesical de demora após prostatectomia radical retropúbica: implicações clínicas e complicações em um estudo randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ary Vargas Souto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the hypothesis that a 7-day period of indwelling catheter after radical retropubic prostatectomy is effective and safe without the need of performing cystography. METHODS: In the period from January of 2000 to July of 2002, 73 patients underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy, and these patients were prospectively randomized in 2 groups: Group 1-37 patients who had the urethral catheter removed 7 days after the procedure, and Group 2-36 patients who had the catheter removed 14 days after the surgery. The 2 groups were similar, the surgeons and the technique were the same, and no cystography was performed to evaluate the presence of leaks. RESULTS: Two patients in Group 1 had bleeding and clot retention after having the catheter taken out in the seventh postoperative day and were managed by putting the catheter back in for 7 more days. Two patients in Group 2 developed bladder neck stricture and were treated by bladder neck incision with success. The continence rate was the same, with 2 cases of incontinence in each group. About 2 pads a day were used by the patients with incontinence. The average follow-up was 17.5 months (12-36 months. No urinary fistula, urinoma, or pelvic abscesses developed after catheter removal. Two patients were excluded from the analysis of this series: 1 died with a pulmonary embolus in the third postoperative day, and 1 developed a urinary suprapubic fistula before catheter withdrawal, which was maintained for 16 days. CONCLUSION: Withdrawal of the urethral catheter 7 days after radical retropubic prostatectomy, without performing cystography, has a low rate of short-term complications that are equivalent to withdrawal 14 days after the surgery.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a hipótese de que um período de sete dias de sonda vesical de demora após prostatectomia radical retropúbica é efetivo e seguro, sem a necessidade da realização de cistografia. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 2000 e julho de 2002

  9. Hydrogen peroxide alleviates nickel-inhibited photosynthetic responses through increase in use-efficiency of nitrogen and sulfur, and glutathione production in mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Iqbal R Khan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The response of two mustard (Brassica juncea L. cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or nickel (Ni was evaluated. Further, the effect of H2O2 on photosynthetic responses of the mustard cultivars grown with or without Ni stress was studied. Application of 50 µM H2O2 increased photosynthesis and growth more prominently in high photosynthetic capacity cultivar (Varuna than low photosynthetic capacity cultivar (RH30 grown without Ni stress. The H2O2 application also resulted in alleviation of photosynthetic inhibition induced by 200 mg Ni kg-1 soil through increased photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE, sulfur-use efficiency (SUE, and glutathione (GSH reduced production together with decreased lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in both the cultivars. However, the effect of H2O2 was more pronounced in Varuna than RH30. The greater increase in photosynthetic-NUE and SUE and GSH production with H2O2 in Varuna resulted from higher increase in activity of nitrogen (N and sulfur (S assimilation enzymes, nitrate reductase and ATP-sulfurylase, respectively resulting in enhanced N and S assimilation. The increased N and S content contributed to the higher activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco under Ni stress. Application of H2O2 also regulated PS II activity and stomatal movement under Ni stress for maintaining higher photosynthetic potential in Varuna. Thus, H2O2 may be considered as a potential signaling molecule for augmenting photosynthetic potential of mustard plants under optimal and Ni stress conditions. It alleviates Ni stress through the regulation of stomatal and non-stomotal limitations, and photosynthetic-NUE and -SUE and GSH production.

  10. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Emami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 mg twice daily omeprazole-placebo (OP or matching placebo (placebo-omeprazole [PO] for 4 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and the alternative treatment for 4 months. Assessments included GERD and cough, quality of life, and pulmonary function using spirometry. Leicester Cough Questionnaire and SF-36 were used for measuring quality of life. Results: Patients in the OP group experienced a more decrease than those in the PO group in severity of Leicester cough scores during the first 4-month of trial. After crossing the groups, the OP group experienced an increase (P = 0.036 and the PO group experienced a nonsignificant decrease (P = 0.104 in the severity of scores. The OP group also experienced improvement in GERD symptoms and quality of life at the end of the trial, but changes in the PO group was not significant. There was no significant change in respiratory function indices in any groups. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with high-dose omeprazole improved GERD as well as cough, and quality of life, but not changed respiratory function indices in sulfur mustard injured cases with respiratory symptoms.

  11. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species

  12. Development of a dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for on-site analysis of sulfur mustard degradation products in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, R; Nordlander, T; Östin, A

    2016-01-15

    Sampling teams performing work at sea in areas where chemical munitions may have been dumped require rapid and reliable analytical methods for verifying sulfur mustard leakage from suspected objects. Here we present such an on-site analysis method based on dynamic headspace GC-MS for analysis of five cyclic sulfur mustard degradation products that have previously been detected in sediments from chemical weapon dumping sites: 1,4-oxathiane, 1,3-dithiolane, 1,4-dithiane, 1,4,5-oxadithiephane, and 1,2,5-trithiephane. An experimental design involving authentic Baltic Sea sediments spiked with the target analytes was used to develop an optimized protocol for sample preparation, headspace extraction and analysis that afforded recoveries of up to 60-90%. The optimized method needs no organic solvents, uses only two grams of sediment on a dry weight basis and involves a unique sample presentation whereby sediment is spread uniformly as a thin layer inside the walls of a glass headspace vial. The method showed good linearity for analyte concentrations of 5-200 ng/g dw, good repeatability, and acceptable carry-over. The method's limits of detection for spiked sediment samples ranged from 2.5 to 11 μg/kg dw, with matrix interference being the main limiting factor. The instrumental detection limits were one to two orders of magnitude lower. Full-scan GC-MS analysis enabled the use of automated mass spectral deconvolution for rapid identification of target analytes. Using this approach, analytes could be identified in spiked sediment samples at concentrations down to 13-65 μg/kg dw. On-site validation experiments conducted aboard the research vessel R/V Oceania demonstrated the method's practical applicability, enabling the successful identification of four cyclic sulfur mustard degradation products at concentrations of 15-308μg/kg in sediments immediately after being collected near a wreck at the Bornholm Deep dumpsite in the Baltic Sea.

  13. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%.

  14. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm{sup 2}) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation.

  15. The allelopathic effect of the black nut leaves (Juglans nigra L. over the species of moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina CORBU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment is a research on the effect of the allelopathic substances in the leaves of the black nut (Juglans nigra L. over the species of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and the moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.. We have prepared a watery extract of a concentration of 5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the leaves in different seasons (spring, autumn and winter. The watery extract presents an inhibitory effect over the germination and growth of the plants subdued to experiments, especialy over the leaves collected in spring.

  16. Treatment of Mustard Wastewater with Coagulation and Sedimentation%榨菜废水的混凝处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江国; 陈玉成; 杨志敏; 谢德体; 田伟

    2011-01-01

    An experiment, in which mustard tuber wastewater was treated with the coagulation method, showed that coagulant dosage and variety, agitation rate and sedimentation time all played an important role. Used as the coagulant, CaO gave better results than the other coagulants studied. Addition of CaO at 700mg/L in combination with PAM as coagulant aid at 5mg/L and agitation at 250 r/min for 30 min gave a removal efficiency of COD, TP and turbidity of 36. 54%, 52. 03% and 97. 85%, respectively, with a relatively low cost. The results in a pilot test were consistent with the test parameters of the small test. Combined treatment of mustard tuber wastewater with CaO and PAM could automatically adjust Ph of the wastewater, decrease the cost of the coagulants, reduce irritating odour of the wastewater and improve its biodegradability and lighten the burden of the follow-up treatment system. The floes formed by settlement were relatively large and, therefore, easy to recover for the manufacture of animal fodder or organic fertilizer.%采用混凝法对榨菜废水进行了处理试验.结果表明,混凝剂投加量、混凝剂种类、搅拌速率及沉降时间等对处理效果都起着重要作用.选用CaO作混凝剂,聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)作助凝剂,其处理效果明显优于其他几种混凝剂.当Ca(),PAM的投加量分别为700,5 mg/L,以250 r/min的速度搅拌30 min,则COD,TP,浊度的去除率分别为36.54%,52.03%和97.85%,处理成本较低,中试试验结果与小试试验参数相吻合;用CaO,PAM联合处理榨菜废水能自动调节废水pH值,节省混凝剂的用量、减轻废水的刺激性气味、提高榨菜废水的可生化性,减轻后续处理系统的负担,同时沉降形成的絮体较大,易于被回收开发成饲料或有机肥料,为榨菜废水的处理提供了依据.

  17. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer