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Sample records for 2-chloroethyl vesicants mustard

  1. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FTTM, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 μM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 μM), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE2 synthases, leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  2. Role of TNFR1 in lung injury and altered lung function induced by the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung toxicity induced by sulfur mustard is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. To elucidate mechanisms mediating pulmonary damage, we used 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. Male mice (B6129) were treated intratracheally with CEES (3 or 6 mg/kg) or control. Animals were sacrificed 3, 7 or 14 days later and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue collected. Treatment of mice with CEES resulted in an increase in BAL protein, an indication of alveolar epithelial damage, within 3 days. Expression of Ym1, an oxidative stress marker also increased in the lung, along with inducible nitric oxide synthase, and at 14 days, cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, inflammatory proteins implicated in tissue injury. These responses were attenuated in mice lacking the p55 receptor for TNFα (TNFR1-/-), demonstrating that signaling via TNFR1 is key to CEES-induced injury, oxidative stress, and inflammation. CEES-induced upregulation of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and MnSOD was delayed or absent in TNFR1-/- mice, relative to WT mice, suggesting that TNFα mediates early antioxidant responses to lung toxicants. Treatment of WT mice with CEES also resulted in functional alterations in the lung including decreases in compliance and increases in elastance. Additionally, methacholine-induced alterations in total lung resistance and central airway resistance were dampened by CEES. Loss of TNFR1 resulted in blunted functional responses to CEES. These effects were most notable in the airways. These data suggest that targeting TNFα signaling may be useful in mitigating lung injury, inflammation and functional alterations induced by vesicants.

  3. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450’s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroe...

  4. Free radical production from the interaction of 2-chloroethyl vesicants (mustard gas) with pyridine nucleotide-driven flavoprotein electron transport systems*

    OpenAIRE

    Brimfield, A.A.; Mancebo, A.M.; Mason, R P; Jiang, J.J.; Siraki, A.G.; Novak, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    The biochemical sequelae to chloroethyl mustard exposure correspond very well to toxic processes initiated by free radicals. Additionally, mustard solutions contain spontaneously formed cyclic onium ions which produce carbon free radicals when reduced electrochemically. Therefore, we hypothesized that the onium ions of sulfur or nitrogen mustards might produce carbon free radicals upon being reduced enzymatically, and that these radicals might constitute a metabolic activation. We set out to ...

  5. Mustards and Vesicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Robert A [ORNL; Bast, Cheryl B [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Vesicants (sulfur mustards, lewisite, and nitrogen mustards) are chemicals that cause blistering of the skin. Developed as chemical warfare agents, their biological activity is complex and not fully understood. These vesicants in liquid or vapor form are capable of causing injury to most any tissue. Contact with the skin results in erythema and blistering. Exposure to vapors produces ocular and respiratory effects which occur at exposures below those causing dermal effects. Systemic and long-lasting effects may occur, especially following acute exposures that result in severe injury. Multi-organ involvement and fluid loss shock resulting in death may follow severe exposures. As alkylating agents, all of the mustards are known or potential carcinogens. The carcinogenic potential of lewisite in humans is equivocal. Toxicity data in animals are available for the vesicants although data on sulfur mustard and lewisite are more extensive than for the nitrogen mustards. Data from tests with human volunteers and occupational exposure information are also available. These data collectively have provided a basis for the development of exposure standards, guidelines, and criteria for use in emergency planning and emergency response, and remediation efforts. The mode of action of the vesicants is complex, not fully understood, and represents an ongoing area of investigation especially with respect to treatment of vesicant-induced injury. Prevention of exposure and decontamination are critical initial steps in eliminating or minimizing injury. With the exception of arsenic chelating antidotes (e.g., British anti-lewisite; BAL) for lewisite, no antidotes exist for the vesicant agents. Medical management currently focuses on palliative treatment of signs and symptoms.

  6. Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Adrienne T.; Joseph, Laurie B.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100...

  7. Degradation of the blister agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, on concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevett, Carol A S; Sumpter, Kenneth B; Wagner, George W; Rice, Jeffrey S

    2007-02-01

    The products formed from the degradation of the blister agent sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide] on concrete were identified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MSD), (1)H NMR, 2D (1)H-(13)C NMR and (13)C solid state magic angle spinning (SSMAS) NMR. In situ and extraction experiments were performed. Sulfur mustard was detected in the in situ (13)C SSMAS samples for 12 weeks, whereas less than 5% of the sulfur mustard was detected in extracts from the concrete monoliths after 8 days. Sulfonium ions and (2-chloroethylthio)ethyl ether (T) were observed on the in situ samples after a period of 12 weeks, whereas vinyl species and bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfoxide were observed in the extracts of the concrete monoliths within 24h. The differences between the extraction and the SSMAS data indicated that the sulfur mustard existed in the concrete in a non-extractable form prior to its degradation. Extraction methods alone were not sufficient to identify the products; methods to identify the presence of non-extractable degradation products were also required.

  8. Mustard vesicating agent-induced toxicity in the skin tissue and silibinin as a potential countermeasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to the vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) causes severe skin injury with delayed blistering. Depending upon the dose and time of their exposure, edema and erythema develop into blisters, ulceration, necrosis, desquamation, and pigmentation changes, which persist weeks and even years after exposure. Research advances have generated data that have started to explain the probable mechanism of action of vesicant-induced skin toxicity; however, despite these advances, effective and targeted therapies are still deficient. This review highlights studies on two SM analogs, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) and NM, and CEES- and NM-induced skin injury mouse models that have substantially added to the knowledge on the complex pathways involved in mustard vesicating agent-induced skin injury. Furthermore, employing these mouse models, studies under the National Institutes of Health Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats program have identified the flavanone silibinin as a novel therapeutic intervention with the potential to be developed as an effective countermeasure against skin injury following exposure to mustard vesicating agents. PMID:27326543

  9. Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100-1000 μM) was found to cause marked increases in keratinocyte protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. This was correlated with increases in expression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTA1-2, GSTP1 and mGST2. CEES also upregulated several enzymes important in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) synthase. CEES readily activated keratinocyte JNK and p38 MAP kinases, signaling pathways which are known to regulate expression of antioxidants, as well as prostaglandin and leukotriene synthases. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase suppressed CEES-induced expression of GSTA1-2, COX-2, mPGES-2, PGDS, 5-LOX, LTA4 hydrolase and LTC4 synthase, while JNK inhibition blocked PGDS and GSTP1. These data indicate that CEES modulates expression of antioxidants and enzymes producing inflammatory mediators by distinct mechanisms. Increases in antioxidants may be an adaptive process to limit tissue damage. Inhibiting the capacity of keratinocytes to generate eicosanoids may be important in limiting inflammation and protecting the skin from vesicant-induced oxidative stress and injury.

  10. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Svoboda, Kathy K. [Texas A and M University, Baylor College of Dentistry, Center for Craniofacial Research 3302 Gaston Ave, Dallas, Texas 75246 (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gordon, Marion K. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM.

  11. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM

  12. A Role for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Sulfur Mustard Analog 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide-Induced Lung Cell Injury and Antioxidant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Neal S; White, Carl W; Day, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur mustards (SMs) have been used as warfare agents since World War I and still pose a significant threat against civilian and military personnel. SM exposure can cause significant blistering of the skin, respiratory injury, and fibrosis. No antidote currently exists for SM exposure, but recent studies, using the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), have focused on the ability of antioxidants to prevent toxicity. Although antioxidants can prevent CEES-induc...

  13. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  14. Zinc oxide nanocubes as a destructive nanoadsorbent for the neutralization chemistry of 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide: A sulfur mustard simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Armin; Dastafkan, Kamran

    2016-09-15

    Zinc oxide nanocubes were surveyed for their destructive turn-over to decontaminate 2-chloro ethyl phenyl sulfide, a sulfur mustard simulant. Prior to the reaction, nanocubes were prepared through sol-gel method using monoethanolamine, diethylene glycol, and anhydrous citric acid as the stabilizing, cross linking/structure directing agents, respectively. The formation of nanoscale ZnO, the cubic morphology, crystalline structure, and chemical-adsorptive characteristics were certified by FESEM-EDS, TEM-SAED, XRD, FTIR, BET-BJH, H2-TPR, and ESR techniques. Adsorption and destruction reactions were tracked by GC-FID analysis in which the effects of polarity of the media, reaction time, and temperature on the destructive capability of the surface of nanocubes were investigated and discussed. Results demonstrated that maximum neutralization occurred in n-heptane solvent after 1/2h at 55°C. Kinetic study construed that the neutralization reaction followed the pseudo-second order model with a squared correlation coefficient and rate constant of 0.9904 and 0.00004gmg(-1)s(-1), respectively. Furthermore, GC-MS measurement confirmed the formation of 2-hydroxy ethyl phenyl sulfide (2-HEPS) and phenyl vinyl sulfide (PVS) as neutralization products that together with Bronsted and Lewis acid/base approaches exemplify the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the surface of zinc oxide nanocubes. PMID:27309947

  15. Gene expressions in Jurkat cells poisoned by a sulphur mustard vesicant and the induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Ng, Patrick; Caridha, Diana; Leach, Richard A; Asher, Ludmila V; Novak, Mark J; Smith, William J; Zeichner, Steven L; Chiang, Peter K

    2002-09-01

    1. The sulphur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethylethyl sulphide (CEES) induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. 2. Akt (PKB), a pivotal protein kinase which can block apoptosis and promotes cell survival, was identified to be chiefly down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner following CEES treatment. Functional analysis showed that the attendant Akt activity was simultaneously reduced. 3. PDK1, an upstream effector of Akt, was also down-regulated following CEES exposure, but two other upstream effectors of Akt, PI3-K and PDK2, remained unchanged. 4. The phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473) and Thr(308) was significantly decreased following CEES treatment, reflecting the suppressed kinase activity of both PDK1 and PDK2. 5. Concurrently, the anti-apoptotic genes, Bcl family, were down-regulated, in sharp contrast to the striking up-regulation of some death executioner genes, caspase 3, 6, and 8. 6. Based on these findings, a model of CEES-induced apoptosis was established. These results suggest that CEES attacked the Akt pathway, directly or indirectly, by inhibiting Akt transcription, translation, and post-translation modification. 7. Taken together, upon exposure to CEES, apoptosis was induced in Jurkat cells via the down-regulation of the survival factors that normally prevent the activation of the death executioner genes, the caspases. PMID:12208782

  16. Inhibition of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by a mustard gas analog in murine macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Milton; Yang Hongsong; Paromov Victor M; Qui Min; Stone William L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) is a sulphur vesicating agent and an analogue of the chemical warfare agent 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide, or sulphur mustard gas (HD). Both CEES and HD are alkylating agents that influence cellular thiols and are highly toxic. In a previous publication, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In the present investigation, we studied the influence of CEES on nitric oxide...

  17. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  18. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R., E-mail: sunilvr@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS −/− mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS −/− mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS −/− mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS −/− mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS −/− mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. -- Highlights: ► Lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress are induced by the model vesicant CEES ► RNS generated via iNOS are important in the CEES-induced pulmonary toxicity ► iNOS −/− mice are protected from CEES-induced lung toxicity and

  19. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS −/− mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS −/− mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS −/− mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS −/− mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS −/− mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. -- Highlights: ► Lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress are induced by the model vesicant CEES ► RNS generated via iNOS are important in the CEES-induced pulmonary toxicity ► iNOS −/− mice are protected from CEES-induced lung toxicity and

  20. Sulfur Mustard Toxicity Following Dermal Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Paromov, Victor; Suntres, Zacharias; Smith, Milton; Stone, William L

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Sulfur mustard (bis-2-(chloroethyl) sulfide) is a chemical warfare agent (military code: HD) causing extensive skin injury. The mechanisms underlying HD-induced skin damage are not fully elucidated. This review will critically evaluate the evidence showing that oxidative stress is an important factor in HD skin toxicity. Oxidative stress results when the production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS) exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense mec...

  1. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Paromov; Sudha Kumari; Marianne Brannon; Kanaparthy, Naga S.; Hongsong Yang; Smith, Milton G.; Stone, William L

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD) and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-sol...

  2. Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Matters What's New A - Z Index Facts About Sulfur Mustard What sulfur mustard is Sulfur mustard is a type of ... it is in liquid or solid form. Where sulfur mustard is found and how it is used ...

  3. N-4-(二氯乙基)丁胺-1,8-萘酰亚胺对人肝癌HepG2细胞的抑制作用及其机制研究%Inhibition effect and mechanism of novel nitrogen mustard derivative 2 -(4 -di (2-chloroethyl) aminobutylamino)-1H-benz-[ de] isoquinoline-1,3(2H) -dione on human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗久旺; 张忠泉; 谢松强

    2015-01-01

    目的:体外评价N-4-(二氯乙基)丁胺-1,8-萘酰亚胺( XHH)对HepG2细胞的抑制作用及其作用机制。方法采用MTT法检测细胞增殖,高内涵筛选分析仪结合Annexin V-FITC/Hoechst33342, PI/Hoechst33342和Rh123/Hoechst33342双染色法检测细胞形态及膜电位;免疫荧光法检测caspase-3, caspase-9, Bcl-2, Bax的表达水平。结果 XHH能抑制HepG2细胞增殖,诱导细胞凋亡,降低线粒体膜电位,提高Bax/Bcl-2,使caspase-3, caspase-9表达增加。结论 XHH具有较好的抗HepG2肿瘤细胞作用,可通过线粒体途径诱导细胞凋亡。%Objective To investigate the effects of 2-(4-di(2-chlo-roethyl) aminobutylamino)-1H-benz-[de]isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione( XHH) , a novel nitrogen mustard derivative, on the growth and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells in vitro.Methods Cell pro-liferative effect was assessed by MTT assay.Changes of morphology and mitochondrial membrane potential ( MMP) were assessed by AnnexinV-FITC/Hoechst33342 , PI/Hoecsht33342 and Rh123/Hoechst33342 double staining using high content screening ( HCS ) .The expression of caspase-3 , caspase-9 , Bcl-2 , Bax was assessed by immunofluores-cence method using HCS. Results The results indicated that XHH could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, induce apoptosis, lose MMP, up-regulate the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, increase the expression of caspase-3 , caspase-9.Conclusion XHH could inhibit proliferative of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and induce cell apoptosis via mitochon-drial pathway.

  4. Aminoalkylated Merrifield Resins Reticulated by Tris-(2-chloroethyl Phosphate for Cadmium, Copper, and Iron (II Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Dardouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to synthesize novel substituted polymers bearing functional groups to chelate heavy metals during depollution applications. Three polyamine functionalized Merrifield resins were prepared via ethylenediamine (EDA, diethylenetriamine (DETA, and triethylenetetramine (TETA modifications named, respectively, MR-EDA, MR-DETA, and MR-TETA. The aminoalkylated polymers were subsequently reticulated by tris-(2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP to obtain new polymeric resins called, respectively, MR-EDA-TCEP, MR-DETA-TCEP, and MR-TETA-TCEP. The obtained resins were characterized via attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, elemental analysis (EA, and thermogravimetric (TGA, thermodynamic (DTA, and differential thermogravimetric (DTG analysis. The synthesized resins were then assayed to evaluate their efficiency to extract metallic ions such as Cd2+, Cu2+, and Fe2+ from aqueous solutions.

  5. An Unusual Vesical Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Mahmood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 52 year old patient presenting with a bladder stone formed over a migrated intrauterine device (copper -T. Her history was pertinent for intrauterine contraceptive (IUCD device placement 10 years back. Investigations included plain ultrasound of abdomen, X-ray of abdomen, urinalysis, and urine culture. Ultrasound and plain X-ray of the pelvis confirmed a bladder stone formed over a migrated copper-T intrauterine device. The device was removed through suprapubic cystolithotomy. Of all the reported cases of vesical stone formation over a migrated IUCD, this case is unique as the patient was an elderly - 52 year old - female. All previously reported cases are of younger age.

  6. The influence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on oxidative stress and nitric oxide synthesis in stimulated macrophages treated with a mustard gas analogue

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Milton; Yang Hongsong; Qui Min; Paromov Victor; Stone William L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulphur mustard gas, 2, 2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide (HD), is a chemical warfare agent. Both mustard gas and its monofunctional analogue, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES), are alkylating agents that react with and diminish cellular thiols and are highly toxic. Previously, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and that CEES transiently inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production via suppression ...

  7. Epigenetic: A missing paradigm in cellular and molecular pathways of sulfur mustard lung: a prospective and comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Imani; Yunes Panahi; Jafar Salimian; Junjiang Fu; Mostafa Ghanei

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis- (2-chloroethyl) sulphide) is a chemical warfare agent that causes DNA alkylation, protein modification and membrane damage. SM can trigger several molecular pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, which cause cell necrosis and apoptosis, and loss of cells integrity and function. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a growing research topic and is addressed by DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs express...

  8. Discrepancy between mRNA and Protein Expression of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Sulfur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Ebrahimi; Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi; Raheleh Halabian; Mostafa Ghanei; Hisatake Kondo; Mohammad Reza Nourani

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent vesicant that has been employed as a chemical weapon in various conflicts during the 20th century. More recently, mustard was used in the Iraq conflict against Iranian troops and civilians. At the present time there are more than 40.000 people suffering from pulmonary lesions special bronchiolitis obliterans (BOs) due to mustard gas. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2, NGAL...

  9. Synthesis of highly reactive polyisobutylene catalyzed by EtAlCl 2/Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether soluble complex in hexanes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rajeev Ananda

    2014-03-25

    The polymerization of isobutylene (IB) to yield highly reactive polyisobutylene (HR PIB) with high exo-olefin content using GaCl3 or FeCl3·diisopropyl ether complexes has been previously reported.1 In an effort to further improve polymerization rates and exo-olefin content, we have studied ethylaluminum dichloride (EADC) complexes with diisopropyl ether, 2-chloroethyl ethyl ether (CEEE), and bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (CEE) as catalysts in conjunction with tert-butyl chloride as initiator in hexanes at different temperatures. All three complexes were readily soluble in hexanes. Polymerization, however, was only observed with CEE. At 0 °C polymerization was complete in 5 min at [t-BuCl] = [EADC·CEE] = 10 mM and resulted in PIB with ∼70% exo-olefin content. Studies on complexation using ATR FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that at 1:1 stoichiometry a small amount of EADC remains uncomplexed. By employing an excess of CEE, exo-olefin contents increased up to 90%, while polymerization rates decreased only slightly. With decreasing temperature, polymerization rates decreased while molecular weights as well as exo-olefin contents increased, suggesting that isomerization has a higher activation energy than β-proton abstraction. Density functional theory (DFT) studies on the Lewis acid·ether binding energies indicated a trend consistent with the polymerization results. The polymerization mechanism proposed previously for Lewis acid·ether complexes1 adequately explains all the findings. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. Covalent DNA-Protein Cross-Linking by Phosphoramide Mustard and Nornitrogen Mustard in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groehler, Arnold; Villalta, Peter W; Campbell, Colin; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2016-02-15

    N,N-Bis-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphorodiamidic acid (phosphoramide mustard, PM) and N,N-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-amine (nornitrogen mustard, NOR) are the two biologically active metabolites of cyclophosphamide, a DNA alkylating drug commonly used to treat lymphomas, breast cancer, certain brain cancers, and autoimmune diseases. PM and NOR are reactive bis-electrophiles capable of cross-linking cellular biomolecules to form covalent DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). In the present work, a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to characterize PM- and NOR-mediated DNA-protein cross-linking in human cells. Following treatment of human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) with cytotoxic concentrations of PM, over 130 proteins were found to be covalently trapped to DNA, including those involved in transcriptional regulation, RNA splicing/processing, chromatin organization, and protein transport. HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis of proteolytic digests of DPC-containing DNA from NOR-treated cells revealed a concentration-dependent formation of N-[2-[cysteinyl]ethyl]-N-[2-(guan-7-yl)ethyl]amine (Cys-NOR-N7G) conjugates, confirming that it cross-links cysteine thiols of proteins to the N7 position of guanines in DNA. Cys-NOR-N7G adduct numbers were higher in NER-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells (XPA) as compared with repair proficient cells. Furthermore, both XPA and FANCD2 deficient cells were sensitized to PM treatment as compared to that of wild type cells, suggesting that Fanconi anemia and nucleotide excision repair pathways are involved in the removal of cyclophosphamide-induced DNA damage. PMID:26692166

  11. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  12. CLINICO-BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VESICAL CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vesical calculi are the most common manifestation of lower urinary tract lithiasis. Urinary infections play an important role in aetiopathogenesis of vesical calculi. OBJECTIVE Aim of this study was proposed to establish the bacteriology of stone and urine in an attempt to evaluate the role of infection in the formation of stone. Associated factors like age, sex, site of infection, obstruction, diet were also evaluated. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS The patients were admitted in surgical ward as provisional diagnosed cases of vesical calculus, were subjected to investigations including CBC, RBS, urine analysis, renal function test, x-ray KUB region and ultrasonography. Patients who were fit for surgery, various surgical procedures were done. Gross examination and core culture of stone was done to establish their aetiology. RESULTS Ninety-four patients with vesical calculus were evaluated. Incidence of vesical calculus was 1.13%. Majority of cases were from rural areas (92.55%. Urinary tract infection was present in 37.2% of cases, majority of cases urine culture was positive (30.95%. Core culture of stone was positive in 18 cases (25.17%. E. coli was the predominant organism both in urine culture (19.04% and core culture of stone (25.71%. CONCLUSIONS There is significant association regarding the presence of vesical calculi and the development of urinary infections. E. coli was the predominant organism found both in urine and core culture of stone.

  13. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  14. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.Tewari-Singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Jain, Anil K., E-mail: Anil.Jain@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Inturi, Swetha, E-mail: Swetha.Inturi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Ammar, David A., E-mail: David.Ammar@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla, E-mail: Chapla.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Tyagi, Puneet, E-mail: Puneet.Tyagi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Kompella, Uday B., E-mail: Uday.Kompella@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Enzenauer, Robert W., E-mail: Robert.Enzenauer@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Petrash, J. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Petrash@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  15. Potentiation in the intact rat of the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, D; Oakes, J W; Farber, J L

    1988-12-01

    Studies of the killing of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen indicate that the cells are injured by an oxidative stress that accompanies the metabolism of the toxin (J. L. Farber et al. (1988) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 267, 640-650). The present report documents that the essential features of the killing of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen are reproduced in the intact animal. Male rats had no evidence of liver necrosis 24 h after administration of up to 1000 mg/kg of acetaminophen. Induction of mixed function oxidase activity by 3-methylcholanthrene increased the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen. Inhibition of glutathione reductase by 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) potentiated the hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen in male rats induced with 3-methylcholanthrene. Whereas the pretreatment with BCNU reduced the GSH content by 40%, a comparable depletion of GSH by diethylmaleate did not potentiate the toxicity of acetaminophen. The antioxidant diphenylphenylenediamine (25 mg/kg) and the ferric iron chelator deferoxamine (1000 mg/kg) prevented the liver necrosis produced by 500 mg/kg acetaminophen in rats pretreated with BCNU. Neither protective agent prevented the fall in GSH produced by acetaminophen. It is concluded the conditions of the irreversible injury of cultured hepatocytes by acetaminophen previously reported are not necessarily different from those that obtain in the intact rat with this toxin. PMID:3214175

  16. Pigment Changes Associated with Application of Ethephon ((2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic Acid) to Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, A A; Rebeiz, C A; Crane, J C

    1976-04-01

    The application of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (Ethephon) to ;Mission' fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) during late period II of their development stimulated ripening and change in color from green to bluish black within 8 days. Chlorophylls a and b decreased rapidly within 4 days after Ethephon treatment, and degradation continued at a decreasing rate for an additional 4 days, at which time the fruits had attained their maximum diameter and were considered fully ripe. Levels of beta-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin decreased in a pattern similar to that of chlorophylls a and b. The rates of beta-carotene and lutein degradation were initially greater than those of the xanthophyll pigments. Degradation rates of the various carotenoids were comparable 4 to 8 days after treatment.There was no measurable anthocyanin synthesis during a 2- to 4-day period following Ethephon treatment. Beyond this lag phase, anthocyanin accumulation was linear, and the amount of pigment synthesized was a function of both light intensity and duration. Although Ethephon promoted the rate of anthocyanin accumulation, it did not increase the total amount of pigment synthesized in treated fruits. Etiolation of fruits from the time of Ethephon treatment until maturity stimulated an increase in growth and completely inhibited anthocyanin production in the skin. Ethephon-treated fruits which ripened while etiolated were larger in diameter and higher in both fresh and dry weights than nonetiolated controls.

  17. Endoscopic treatment of large vesical calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the efficiency and safety of endoscopic treatment of large vesical calculi with the available modern endoscopic instruments. Methology: In case series, patients were collected randomly from 2007 to 2014. Patients were diagnosed with ultrasound and Nephroscope with Swiss pneumatic lithoclast, lithotrite and stone punch were used for treatment. Results: Majority of the patient could be managed with the method adopted. Stone size, hardness or softness, gender were the factors affecting treatment. Associated prostate pathology was seen in four patients. Postoperative complications included hemorrhage, perforation, residual stone and transurethral resection of prostate syndrome. Conclusion: Overall, it is a safe procedure except in patients with large enlarged prostate and large vesical calculi. Very hard vesical calculus may need vesicolithotomy. (author)

  18. In vivo potentiation of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea by the radiation sensitizer benznidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies in mouse tumor systems have indicated a potential therapeutic advantage in combining the radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO) with cancer chemotherapy drugs. One agent the antitumor activity of which has been enhanced to a greater extent than its hematological or gastrointestinal toxicities is the nitrosourea, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU). Recently, sensitizers more lipophylic than MISO have been reported to give greater tumor response enhancement when combined with CCNU. The present studies compared the potential therapeutic benefit of combining MISO (partition coefficient, 0.43) or benznidazole (BENZO) (partition coefficient, 8.5) in KHT sarcoma or RIF-1 tumor-bearing C3H mice. Both sensitizers were administered i.p. and given either 30 min before (BENZO) or simultaneously with (MISO) the chemotherapeutic agent. Survival of clonogenic tumor cells assessed 22 to 24 hr after treatment or in situ tumor growth delay were used as assays of tumor response. Normal tissue toxicity was determined using the drug dose yielding 50% animal lethality in 30 days end point. When combined with CCNU, doses of MISO (5.0 mmol/kg) or BENZO (0.3 mmol/kg) were found to yield approximately equivalent increases in both the tumor effect (enhancement ratio, approximately 1.8 to 2.0) and normal tissue toxicity (enhancement ratio approximately 1.3 to 1.4). Both sensitizers therefore led to a therapeutic benefit. However, although a approximately 10-fold lower dose of the more lipophylic sensitizer BENZO proved to be as effective as MISO at enhancing the tumoricidal effects of CCNU, this dose reduction did not result in a greater therapeutic gain for BENZO

  19. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Mutagenicity of Sulfur Mustard in the Salmonella Histidine Reversion Assay Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. L.; Sass, E. J.; Fritz, L. K.; Sasser, L. B.

    1989-07-31

    The mutagenic potential of bis 2-chloroethyl sulfide (HD} a bifunctional sulfur mustard was evaluated in the standard plate incorporation version and the preincubation modification of the Salmonella/microsomal assay with tester strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102, with and without 59 activation. HD-induced point mutations in strain TA102 and frameshift mutations in TA97 but showed little or no mutagenicity against strains TA98 and TA100. Extensive HD-induced cell killing was observed with the excision repair deficient strains (TA100, TA98 and TA97) but not with strain TA102, which is wild-activation by Aroc1or induced rat liver microsomes (S9).

  20. Preparation and application of the sol-gel-derived acrylate/silicone co-polymer coatings for headspace solid-phase microextraction of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Zeng, Zhaorui; Fang, Huaifang

    2005-05-27

    Three types of novel acrylate/silicone co-polymer coatings, including co-poly(methyl acrylate/hydroxy-terminated silicone oil) (MA/OH-TSO), co-poly(methyl methacrylate/OH-TSO) (MMA/OH-TSO) and co-poly(butyl methacrylate/OH-TSO) (BMA/OH-TSO), were prepared for the first time by sol-gel method and cross-linking technology and subsequently applied to headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a surrogate of mustard, in soil. The underlying mechanisms of the coating process were discussed and confirmed by IR spectra. The selectivity of the three types of sol-gel-derived acrylate/silicone coated fibers was studied, and the BMA/OH-TSO coated fibers exhibited the highest extraction ability to CEES. The concentration of BMA and OH-TSO in sol solution was optimized, and the BMA/OH-TSO (3:1)-coated fibers possessed the highest extraction efficiency. Compared with commercially available polyacrylate (PA) fiber, the sol-gel-derived BMA/OH-TSO (3:1) fibers showed much higher extraction efficiency to CEES. Therefore, the BMA/OH-TSO (3:1)-coated fibers were chosen for the analysis of CEES in soil matrix. The reproducibility of coating preparation was satisfactory, with the RSD 2.39% within batch and 3.52% between batches, respectively. The coatings proved to be quite stable at high temperature (to 350 degrees C) and in different solvents (organic or inorganic), thus their lifetimes (to 150 times) are longer than conventional fibers. Extraction parameters, such as the volume of water added to the soil, extraction temperature and time, and the ionic strength were optimized. The linearity was from 0.1 to 10 microg/g, the limit of detection (LOD) was 2.7 ng/g, and the RSD was 2.19%. The recovery of CEES was 88.06% in agriculture soil, 92.61% in red clay, and 101.95% in sandy soil, respectively.

  1. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengla, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2011-09-15

    Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr(4+) dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr(4+) to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr(4+) doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  2. Functional and inflammatory alterations in the lung following exposure of rats to nitrogen mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen mustard is a vesicant that causes damage to the respiratory tract. In these studies, we characterized the acute effects of nitrogen mustard on lung structure, inflammatory mediator expression, and pulmonary function, with the goal of identifying mediators potentially involved in toxicity. Treatment of rats (male Wistar, 200-225 g) with nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine hydrochloride, i.t., 0.25 mg/kg) resulted in marked histological changes in the respiratory tract, including necrotizing bronchiolitis, thickening of alveolar septa, and inflammation which was evident within 24 h. This was associated with increases in bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, confirming injury to alveolar epithelial regions of the lung. Nitrogen mustard administration also resulted in increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, pro-inflammatory proteins implicated in lung injury, in alveolar macrophages and alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Expression of connective tissue growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9, mediators regulating extracellular matrix turnover was also increased, suggesting that pathways leading to chronic lung disease are initiated early in the pathogenic process. Following nitrogen mustard exposure, alterations in lung mechanics and function were also observed. These included decreases in baseline static compliance, end-tidal volume and airway resistance, and a pronounced loss of methacholine responsiveness in resistance, tissue damping and elastance. Taken together, these data demonstrate that nitrogen mustard induces rapid structural and inflammatory changes in the lung which are associated with altered lung functioning. Understanding the nature of the injury induced by nitrogen mustard and related analogs may aid in the development of efficacious therapies for treatment of pulmonary injury resulting from exposure to vesicants.

  3. URETERO-VESICAL ANASTOMOTIC COMPLICATIONS AFTER KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Shkodkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents statistical analysis of vesico-ureteric reflux and uretero-vesical obstruction incidence after kidney transplantation depending on technique mode. In this item prevalence of chronic pyelonephritis and spe- cies of causative agent data are analyzed. The necessity of effective methods to accomplish the uretero-vesical anastomosis is suggested. 

  4. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bludska, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  5. Epigenetic: A missing paradigm in cellular and molecular pathways of sulfur mustard lung: a prospective and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Imani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM, bis- (2-chloroethyl sulphide is a chemical warfare agent that causes DNA alkylation, protein modification and membrane damage. SM can trigger several molecular pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, which cause cell necrosis and apoptosis, and loss of cells integrity and function. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a growing research topic and is addressed by DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs expression. It seems SM can induce the epigenetic modifications that are translated into change in gene expression. Classification of epigenetic modifications long after exposure to SM would clarify its mechanism and paves a better strategy for the treatment of SM-affected patients. In this study, we review the key aberrant epigenetic modifications that have important roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and compared with mustard lung.

  6. Significance of porous structure on degradatin of 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide and 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide on the surface of vanadium oxide nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of the king of chemical warfare agent, 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide (HD), and its simulant 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were investigated on the surface of porous vanadium oxide nanotubes at room temperature (30 ± 2°C ). Reaction kinetics was monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products were characterized by GC-MS. Data indicates that HD degraded faster relative to CEES inside the solid decontaminant compared to the reported liquid phase degradation of CEES and HD. Data explores the role of hydrolysis, elimination and oxidation reactions in the detoxification of HD and CEES and the first order rate constant and t1/2 were calculated to be 0.026 h-1, 26.6 h for CEES and 0.052 h-1, 13.24 h for HD. In this report faster degradation of HD compared to CEES was explained on the basis of porous structure.

  7. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevett, Carol A S; Sumpter, Kenneth B; Nickol, Robert G

    2009-02-15

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using (13)C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH(2)CH(2))(2)S(+)CH(2)CH(2)OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH(2)CH(2))(2)S(+)CH(2)CH(2)OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH(2)CH(2))(2)S(+)CH(2)CH(2)OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 degrees C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 degrees C ranged from 75 to 350h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 degrees C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 degrees C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane.

  8. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} New stechiometric materials for sulphur mustard degradation. {yields} High degree of degradation, more then 95% h{sup -1}. {yields} One-pot synthesis procedure. - Abstract: Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr{sup 4+} to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr{sup 4+} doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  9. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation by the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin in human respiratory epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Barker Peter E; Xiao Yan; Ray Radharaman; Gao Xiugong; Ray Prabhati

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent chemical vesicant warfare agent that remains a significant military and civilian threat. Inhalation of SM gas causes airway inflammation and injury. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of the effectiveness of macrolide antibiotics in treating chronic airway inflammatory diseases. In this study, the anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a representative macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, were tested in vitro using ...

  10. GIANT VESICAL CALCULUS – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthaiah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Until 20th century, bladder stones were one of the most prevalent disorders among the poor class and the incidence was especially high in childhood and adolescent. 1 The decrease in incidence of bladder calculi is attributed mainly to dietary and nutritional progress especially in children. 2 A solitary bladder calculus is usual, although multiple stones are found in 25% of cases. 3 Bladder stones are rare, and they constitute about 5% of all urinary stones, 4, 5 it is classified as migrated from upper urinary tract, primary idiopathic, or secondary calculi. 6 Bladder stones are managed by Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy (ESWL, endourology procedures, or open surgery. We report an unusual case of giant vesical calculus weighing 600grams in a 55 year old female with no evidence of hematuria, urinary retention, and dysuria.

  11. Final report : multicomponent forensic signature development : interactions with common textiles; mustard precursors and simulants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-02-01

    2-Chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), a surrogate compound of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, was examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a novel method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. Various multivariate analysis schemes were employed to analyze the data. These methods may be able to discern different sources of CEPS. In addition, CEPS was applied to cotton, nylon, polyester, and silk swatches. These swatches were placed in controlled humidity chambers maintained at 23%, 56%, and 85% relative humidity. At regular intervals, samples were removed from each test swatch, and the samples analyzed using TD/GC-MS. The results were compared across fabric substrate and humidity.

  12. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Boulware, S. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, T.; McIvor, E.; Powell, K.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, J.; Vasquez, K.M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, M.C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  13. 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles with dual magnetic resonance–fluorescence imaging for tracking of chemotherapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Feng-Wei; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Chen, Ju-Yu; Feng, Li-Ying; Yang, Hung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To date, knowing how to identify the location of chemotherapeutic agents in the human body after injection is still a challenge. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a drug delivery system with molecular imaging tracking ability to accurately understand the distribution, location, and concentration of a drug in living organisms. In this study, we developed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanoparticles (NPs) with dual magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence imaging modalities (fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-BSA-Gd/1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea [BCNU] NPs) to deliver BCNU for inhibition of brain tumor cells (MBR 261-2). These BSA-based NPs are water dispersible, stable, and biocompatible as confirmed by XTT cell viability assay. In vitro phantoms and in vivo MR and fluorescence imaging experiments show that the developed FITC-BSA-Gd/BCNU NPs enable dual MR and fluorescence imaging for monitoring cellular uptake and distribution in tumors. The T1 relaxivity (R1) of FITC-BSA-Gd/BCNU NPs was 3.25 mM−1 s−1, which was similar to that of the commercial T1 contrast agent (R1 =3.36 mM−1 s−1). The results indicate that this multifunctional drug delivery system has potential bioimaging tracking of chemotherapeutic agents ability in vitro and in vivo for cancer therapy. PMID:27601895

  14. 1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles with dual magnetic resonance-fluorescence imaging for tracking of chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Feng-Wei; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Ma, Chen-Chi M; Chen, Ju-Yu; Feng, Li-Ying; Yang, Hung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To date, knowing how to identify the location of chemotherapeutic agents in the human body after injection is still a challenge. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a drug delivery system with molecular imaging tracking ability to accurately understand the distribution, location, and concentration of a drug in living organisms. In this study, we developed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanoparticles (NPs) with dual magnetic resonance (MR) and fluorescence imaging modalities (fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-BSA-Gd/1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea [BCNU] NPs) to deliver BCNU for inhibition of brain tumor cells (MBR 261-2). These BSA-based NPs are water dispersible, stable, and biocompatible as confirmed by XTT cell viability assay. In vitro phantoms and in vivo MR and fluorescence imaging experiments show that the developed FITC-BSA-Gd/BCNU NPs enable dual MR and fluorescence imaging for monitoring cellular uptake and distribution in tumors. The T1 relaxivity (R1) of FITC-BSA-Gd/BCNU NPs was 3.25 mM(-1) s(-1), which was similar to that of the commercial T1 contrast agent (R1 =3.36 mM(-1) s(-1)). The results indicate that this multifunctional drug delivery system has potential bioimaging tracking of chemotherapeutic agents ability in vitro and in vivo for cancer therapy. PMID:27601895

  15. O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity correlates with the therapeutic response of human rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts to 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immune-deprived female CBA/CaJ mice bearing xenografts of six different human rhabdomyosarcoma lines were treated with 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea (MeCCNU). Tumor responses were compared with levels of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity because of evidence indicating that repair of DNA interstrand cross-link precursors, mediated by the transferase, may be an important determinant of MeCCNU cytotoxicity. Levels of methyltransferase in tumor extracts were measured by determining the loss of O6-methylguanine from 3H-labeled methylated DNA. Five of the six tumor lines examined showed either no response to MeCCNU or regrowth after an incomplete response. In each instance, the extent of tumor regression correlated with the level of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in tumor extracts. These results suggest that O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase levels in human tumor cells may be a clinically useful predictor of sensitivity to the chloroethylnitrosoureas

  16. Detection and monitoring of early airway injury effects of half-mustard (2-chloroethylethylsulfide) exposure using high-resolution optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Kelly A; Mahon, Sari B; Mukai, David S; Su, Jianping; Jung, Woong-Gyu; Narula, Navneet; Guo, Shuguang; Wakida, Nicole; Raub, Chris; Berns, Michael W; George, Steven C; Chen, Zhongping; Brenner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, high-resolution imaging technology capable of delivering real-time, near-histologic images of tissues. Mustard gas is a vesicant-blistering agent that can cause severe and lethal damage to airway and lungs. The ability to detect and assess airway injury in the clinical setting of mustard exposure is currently limited. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability to detect and monitor progression of half-mustard [2-chloroethylethylsulfide (CEES)] airway injuries with OCT techniques. A ventilated rabbit mustard exposure airway injury model is developed. A flexible fiber optic OCT probe is introduced into the distal trachea to image airway epithelium and mucosa in vivo. Progression of airway injury is observed over eight hours with OCT using a prototype time-domain superluminescent diode OCT system. OCT tracheal images from CEES exposed animals are compared to control rabbits for airway mucosal thickening and other changes. OCT detects the early occurrence and progression of dramatic changes in the experimental group after exposure to CEES. Histology and immunofluorescence staining confirms this finding. OCT has the potential to be a high resolution imaging modality capable of detecting, assessing, and monitoring treatment for airway injury following mustard vesicant agent exposures. PMID:19725748

  17. Giant vesical diverticulum: A rare cause of defecation disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Akbulut; Bahri Cakabay; Arsenal Sezgin; Kenan Isen; Ayhan Senol

    2009-01-01

    Vesical diverticula frequently result from bladder outlet obstructions. However, giant vesical diverticula which cause acute abdomen or intestinal obstruction are very rare. Our review of the English medical literature found 3 cases of bladder diverticula which caused gastrointestinal symptoms. Here, we present a 57-yearold man with a giant diverticulum of the urinary bladder who complained of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting,constipation, no passage of gas or feces, and abdominal distension for 3 d. A 20 cm × 15 cm diverticulum was observed upon laparotomy. The colonic obstruction was secondary to external compression of the rectum against the sacrum by a distended vesical diverticulum.We performed a diverticulectomy and primary closure.Twelve months postoperatively, the patient had no difficulty with voiding or defecation.

  18. Miscoding properties of 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine, a DNA adduct derived from reaction with antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed; Singer, B.

    2003-03-05

    1,N{sup 6}-Ethanoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic adduct formed from DNA reaction with the antitumor agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). To understand the role of this adduct in the mechanism of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity by BCNU, an oligonucleotide with a site-specific EA was synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. We now report the in vitro miscoding properties of EA in translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) {alpha}, {beta}, {eta} and {iota}. These data were also compared with those obtained for the structurally related exocyclic adduct, 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using a primer extension assay, both pols {alpha} and {beta} were primarily blocked by EA or {var_epsilon}A with very minor extension. Pol {eta} a member of the Y family of polymerases, was capable of catalyzing a significant amount of bypass across both adducts. Pol {eta} incorporated all four nucleotides opposite EA and {var_epsilon}A, but with differential preferences and mainly in an error-prone manner. Human pol {iota}, a paralog of human pol {eta}, was blocked by both adducts with a very small amount of synthesis past {var_epsilon}A. It incorporated C and, to a much lesser extent, T, opposite either adduct. In addition, the presence of an A adduct, e.g. {var_epsilon}A, could affect the specificity of pol {iota} toward the template T immediately 3 feet to the adduct. In conclusion, the four polymerases assayed on templates containing an EA or {var_epsilon}A showed differential bypass capacity and nucleotide incorporation specificity, with the two adducts not completely identical in influencing these properties. Although there was a measurable extent of error-free nucleotide incorporation, all these polymerases primarily misincorporated opposite EA, indicating that the adduct, similar to {var_epsilon}A, is a miscoding lesion.

  19. [Determination of tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate in leather by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with mixed-mode sorbent solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiya; Zhu, Yuling; Wang, Chengyun; Li, Lixia; Zhang, Junqing; Xing, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Leather is one of the important exporting products to European Union (EU), and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) is a commonly used flame retardant in leather and leather products. Recently, TCEP has been classified as a kind of substance of very high concern (SVHC) by EU for its carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. But to date, there is not a recognized method for the determination of TCEP in leather and leather products due to the serious matrix interferences and relatively low recovery of TCEP. In this work, a home-made mixed-mode sorbent (Silica-WCX) with carboxyl and alkyl groups was tested as the sorbent of solid phase extraction (SPE) to extract TECP from leather. The results demonstrated that, making the carboxyl groups protonized under acidic condition, Silica-WCX exhibited better extraction performance towards TCEP over some frequently used commercial sorbents tested. After the optimization of the SPE conditions based on Silica-WCX, a method of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was established for the determination of TCEP in leather samples. The linear range for TCEP ranged from 0.10 to 100.0 μg/L and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) was 44.46 ng/kg. The recoveries of TCEP spiked in samples at varied levels were in the range of 91.45%-99.98% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.33%-5.97%. The method is simple, sensitive and reliable for the analysis of TCEP in leather and leather products.

  20. HILIC-MS Determination of Genotoxic Impurity of 2-Chloro-N-(2-Chloroethyl)Ethanamine in the Vortioxetine Manufacturing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douša, Michal; Klvaňa, Robert; Doubský, Jan; Srbek, Jan; Richter, Jindřich; Exner, Marek; Gibala, Petr

    2016-02-01

    In the last decade, pharmaceutical regulatory agencies are focused on monitoring and evaluation of trace-level genotoxic impurities (GTIs) in drug substances, which requires manufacturers to deliver innovative approaches for their analysis and control. GTIs in the low p.p.m. level rising from the process of drug production have to be positively identified and quantified. Therefore, sensitive and selective analytical methods are necessary for required quantification level of these GTIs. Unfortunately, general guidance on how to develop strategy of the analysis and control of GTIs is currently missing in the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, practical example of the analytical control of 2-chloro-N-(2-chloroethyl)ethanamine GTI in the vortioxetine (VOR) manufacturing process was demonstrated in this work. QDa mass detection with electrospray ionization in selected-ion recording mode was utilized for quantitation of GTIs. The method of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (HILIC-MS) was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and was able to quantitate GTIs at 75 p.p.m. with respect to VOR. The HILIC-MS method was achieved using a Primesep B column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 µm; Sielc, USA) using mobile phase consisting of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer pH 3.0 and acetonitrile (5 : 95, v/v) at 0.8 mL/min flow rate. The QDa mass detector was operated in the positive ion mode. Quadrupole mass analyzer was employed in selected-ion monitoring mode using target ion at m/z 142 as [M+H](+). PMID:26223463

  1. Crab Meat with Potherb Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: Eight fresh crab. 75 grams of potherb mustard, two egg whites, scallions, ginger and cooking wine. Salt to the taste. Directions: 1. Slice and deep fry the potherb mustard till crisp. Place fried mustard on plate. 2. Steam the crab and remove meat. Stir fry meat with scallions, ginger, cooking wine and salt, Return meat to crab shells. 3. Beat egg white until stiff. Cover the crab meat with mixture and garnish. Steam meat for a few minutes. 4. Place the crab shells on fried mustard and serve. This attractive red and white dish features delicious crab meat with savory crisp mustard leaves.

  2. Long-term evaluation of the fate of sulfur mustard on dry and humid soils, asphalt, and concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Dana M; Goldvaser, Michael; Columbus, Ishay

    2011-04-15

    The long-term fate of the blister agent sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide) was determined in a variety of commercial and natural matrices. HD was found to be extremely stable in dry matrices for over a year. The addition of 5% water to the matrices induced slow degradation of HD, which lasted several months. The major degradation product in sands and asphalt was found to be a sulfonium salt, S[CH(2)CH(2)S(+)(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)](2) (H-2TG). Red loam soil, which has not been examined before, exhibited strong interaction with HD, both in dry form and in the presence of water. Humid red loam soil gave rise to unique oxidative degradation products. On humid concrete HD degraded to a complex mixture of products, including vinyls. This may be attributed to the basic sites incorporated in concrete.

  3. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-soluble antioxidants and/or lipid-soluble antioxidants were evaluated using in vitro model systems. Initially, we found that liposomes containing encapsulated glutathione (GSH-liposomes increased cell viability and attenuated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in HaCaT cells exposed to CEES. Next, GSH-liposomes were tested in a human epidermal model, EpiDerm. In the EpiDerm, GSH-liposomes administered simultaneously or 1 hour after CEES exposure (2.5 mM increased cell viability, inhibited CEES-induced loss of ATP and attenuated changes in cellular morphology, but did not reduce caspase-3 activity. These findings paralleled the previously described in vivo protective effect of antioxidant liposomes in the rat lung and established the effectiveness of GSH-liposomes in a human epidermal model. This study provides a rationale for use of antioxidant liposomes against HD toxicity in the skin considering further verification in animal models exposed to HD.

  4. Toxicology and pharmacology of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard - a review. Final technical report, 29 September 1994-31 January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacre, J.C.; Beers, R.; Goldman, M.

    1995-04-05

    Sulfur mustard is a poisonous chemical agent which exerts a local action on the eyes, skin and respiratory tissue with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, cardiac, and digestive and endocrine systems in man and laboratory animals causing lacrimation, malaise, anorexia, salivation, respiratory distress, vomiting, hyperexcitability, cardiac distress, and death. Sulfur mustard is a cell poison which causes disumption and impairment of a variety of cellular activities which are dependent upon a very specific integral relationship. These cytotoxic effects are manifested in widespread metabolic disturbances whose variable characteristics are observed in enzymatic deficiencies, vesicant action, abnormal mitotic activity and cell division, bone marrow disruption, disturbances in hematopoietic activity and systemic poisoning. Indeed, mustard gas readily combines with various components of the cell such as amino acids, amines and proteins. Sulfur mustard has been shown to be mainly a lung carcinogen in various test animal species; this effect is highly dependent of size of the dose and the route of exposure. In the human, there is evidence of cancers of the respiratory tract in men exposed to mustard gas. Mutagenicity of sulfur mustard, due to the strong alkylating activity, has been reported to occur in many different species of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi. There is no strong evidence that sulfur mustard is a teratogen but much further research, with particular emphasis on maternal and fetal toxicity, is needed and recommended.

  5. Mustard meal weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic production systems can be a labor intensive and expensive process. Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings. Unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact s...

  6. Vesical fistulae--an experience from a developing country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raut V

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses patients with vesical fistulae presenting at a teaching, referral hospital over the last ten years. There were 62 cases of vesical fistulae of which 60 were obstetric in origin (44 home and 16 hospital deliveries and 2 were following gynaecological surgery. Of the hospital deliveries which culminated in fistula formation, 8 were vaginal and 7 forceps deliveries. In one patient, lower segment caesarean section was carried out. After a thorough urological work-up, patients were subjected to standard technique of layered closure (61 by vaginal approach and one by abdominal. Repair was successful in 53 (87.09% patients. Of the 9 failures, 4 were repeat repairs.

  7. Vesical nephrogenic adenoma: an unusual presentation of a bladder tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Sanchíz, Carlos; Martínez-Ruiz, Jesús; Anguita-Fernandez, Pedro J.; Giménez-Bachs, José M.; Atiénzar-Tobarra, Manuel; Rodríguez, Julio Antonio Virseda; Salinas-Sánchez, Antonio S

    2011-01-01

    Vesical nephrogenic adenoma is a rare, benign entity that appears most commonly in middle-aged males. Its etiology is unknown, but it has been linked to chronic irritating factors, such as infection, trauma, urological surgery, kidney stones, foreign bodies and chemical agents, such as Bacille Calmette-Guerin. We report 2 new cases with a history of transurethral resection of the bladder and the prostate and a history of prolonged voiding symptoms. In both cases, the findings of encysted tubu...

  8. In vitro release of 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea sustained-release microspheres and the distribution in rat brain tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Li; Liping Guo; Qin Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The implantation of released chemotherapeutic drugs, which takes biodegradable polymer as vector, into the tumor site can get high concentration and release the drug for a long time, it can directly act on the tumor cells, and reduce the general toxicity.OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vitro and in vivo course of 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) sustained-release from BCNU-loaded polylactide (PLA) microspheres (MS) and location in rat brain tissue.DESIGN: A repetitive measurement.SETTING: Central Pharmacy, General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces.MATERIALS: Thirty male SD rats were used. PLA (Mr5000, batch number: KSL8377) was produced by Wako Pure Chemical Inc.,Ltd. (Japan); BCNU (batch number: 021121) by Tianjin Jinyao Amino Acid Co., Ltd.;BCNU-PLA-MS was prepared by the method of solvent evaporation and pressed into tablets (10 mg/tablet).High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Agilent 1100 (USA); LS9800 liquid-scintillation radiometric apparatus (Beckman). Chromatographic conditions: Elite Hypersil ODS2 C18 chromatographic column (5 μm,4.6 mm ×150 mm); Mobile phase: methanol: water (50:50), flow rate was 1.0 mL per minute, wave length of ultraviolet detection was 237 nm, and the inlet amount of samples was 10 μL.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the experimental animal center of the General Hospital of Chinese Armed Police from May 2004 to July 2005. ① In vitro BCNU-PLA-MS release test: BCNU-PLA-MS was prepared by the method of solvent evaporation, then placed in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffered solution (PBS, pH 7.4, 37 ℃), part of MS were taken out at 1, 2, 3, 7, 10 and 15 days respectively, and the rest amount of BCNU in MS was determined by HPLC, then the curve of BCNU-PLA-MS release was drawn. ②In vivo BCNU-PLA-MS release and distribution test: The rats were anesthetized, then BCNU-PLA-MS were implanted to the site 1 mm inferior to the cortex of frontal lobe. Five rats were killed postoperatively

  9. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    . 2. Vogel, S. Search to Resume near AU for WWI Chemicals; Washington Post, January 24, 1999, page C01. 3. Yperite is a trivial name for sulfur mustard or bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide. The name honors Ypres, Belgium, where the Germans first used sulfur mustard as a chemical weapon on July 12, 1917. 4. Zhao, L. Two Scenes of Poisonous Shells Left Over by Japan in Dunhua, Jilin Province; presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Sino-Japan relations over the past 100 years, Changchun, PRC, September 23-29, 1998.

  10. Balloon-occluded percutaneous transheptic obliteration of isolated vesical varices causing gross hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices.

  11. Optimization of alkylating agent prodrugs derived from phenol and aniline mustards: a new clinical candidate prodrug (ZD2767) for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, C J; Dowell, R; Burke, P J; Hadley, E; Davis, D H; Blakey, D C; Melton, R G; Niculescu-Duvaz, I

    1995-12-22

    Sixteen novel potential prodrugs derived from phenol or aniline mustards and their 16 corresponding drugs with ring substitution and/or different alkylating functionalities were designed. The [[[4-]bis(2-bromoethyl)-(1a), [[[4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)-(1b), and [[[4-[(2-chloroethyl)-[2-(mesyloxy)ethyl]amino]phenyl]oxy] carbonyl]-L-glutamic acids (1c), their [[[2- and 3-substituted-4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]oxy]carbonyl]-L- glutamic acids (1e-1), and the [[3-substituted-4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]carbamoyl]-L- glutamic acids (1o-r) were synthesized. They are bifunctional alkylating agents in which the activating effect of the phenolic hydroxyl or amino function is masked through an oxycarbonyl or a carbamoyl bond to a glutamic acid. These prodrugs were designed to be activated to their corresponding phenol and aniline nitrogen mustard drugs at a tumor site by prior administration of a monoclonal antibody conjugated to the bacterial enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) in antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT). The synthesis of the analogous novel parent drugs (2a-r) is also described. The viability of a colorectal cell line (LoVo) was monitored with the potential prodrugs and the parent drugs. The differential in the cytotoxicity between the potential prodrugs and their corresponding active drugs ranged between 12 and > 195 fold. Compounds 1b-d,f,o exhibited substantial prodrug activity, since a cytotoxicity differential of > 100 was achieved compared to 2b-d,f,o respectively. The ability of the potential prodrugs to act as substrates for CPG2 was determined (kinetic parameters KM and kcat), and the chemical stability was measured for all the compounds. The unsubstituted phenols with different alkylating functionalities (1a-c) proved to have the highest ratio of the substrates kcat:KM. From these studies [[[4-[bis(2-iodoethyl)amino]phenyl]oxy]carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid (1b) emerges as a new ADEPT clinical trial candidate due to its physicochemical and

  12. Influence of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases on DNA interstrand cross-link formation by 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine, the active anticancer moiety generated by laromustine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penketh, Philip G; Patridge, Eric; Shyam, Krishnamurthy; Baumann, Raymond P; Zhu, Rui; Ishiguro, Kimiko; Sartorelli, Alan C

    2014-08-18

    Prodrugs of 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine (90CE) are promising anticancer agents. The 90CE moiety is a readily latentiated, short-lived (t1/2 ∼ 30 s) chloroethylating agent that can generate high yields of oxophilic electrophiles responsible for the chloroethylation of the O-6 position of guanine in DNA. These guanine O-6 alkylations are believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of 90CE and its prodrugs. Thus, 90CE demonstrates high selectivity toward tumors with diminished levels of O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT), the resistance protein responsible for O(6)-alkylguanine repair. The formation of O(6)-(2-chloroethyl)guanine lesions ultimately leads to the generation of highly cytotoxic 1-(N(3)-cytosinyl),-2-(N(1)-guaninyl)ethane DNA interstrand cross-links via N(1),O(6)-ethanoguanine intermediates. The anticancer activity arising from this sequence of reactions is thus identical to this component of the anticancer activity of the clinically used chloroethylnitrosoureas. Herein, we evaluate the ability of glutathione (GSH) and other low molecular weight thiols, as well as GSH coupled with various glutathione S-transferase enzymes (GSTs) to attenuate the final yields of cross-links generated by 90CE when added prior to or immediately following the initial chloroethylation step to determine the major point(s) of interaction. In contrast to studies utilizing BCNU as a chloroethylating agent by others, GSH (or GSH/GST) did not appreciably quench DNA interstrand cross-link precursors. While thiols alone offered little protection at either alkylation step, the GSH/GST couple was able to diminish the initial yields of cross-link precursors. 90CE exhibited a very different GST isoenzyme susceptibility to that reported for BCNU, this could have important implications in the relative resistance of tumor cells to these agents. The protection afforded by GSH/GST was compared to that produced by MGMT.

  13. Photoassisted and photocatalytic degradation of sulfur mustard using TiO2 nanoparticles and polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Sarabadani, Mansour; Ashrafi, Davood; Saeidian, Hamdollah; Babri, Mehran

    2013-02-01

    The decomposition of highly toxic chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide or HD), has been studied by homogeneous photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation on titania nanoparticles. Direct photolysis degradation of HD with irradiation system was investigated. The photocatalytic degradation of HD was investigated in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles and polyoxometalates embedded in titania nanoparticles in liquid phase at room temperature (33 ± 2 °C). Degradation products during the treatment were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whereas apparent first-order kinetics of ultraviolet (UV) photolysis were slow (0.0091 min(-1)), the highest degradation rate is obtained in the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles as nanophotocatalyst. Simultaneous photolysis and photocatalysis under the full UV radiation leads to HD complete destruction in 3 h. No degradation products observed in the presence of nanophotocatalyst without irradiation in 3 h. It was found that up to 90 % of agent was decomposed under of UV irradiation without TiO(2), in 6 h. The decontamination mechanisms are often quite complex and multiple mechanisms can be operable such as hydrolysis, oxidation, and elimination. By simultaneously carrying out photolysis and photocatalysis in hexane, we have succeeded in achieving faster HD decontamination after 90 min with low catalyst loading. TiO(2) nanoparticles proved to be a superior photocatalyst under UV irradiation for HD decontamination. PMID:22707206

  14. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI had

  15. Preclinical activity of 17 beta-[N-[N'-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl]-L-alanyl]-5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (E91) against tumour colony forming units and haematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, P; Peter, R; Depenbrock, H; Eisenbrand, G; Schmid, P; Pitzl, H; Hanauske, A R

    1999-06-01

    E91 (17 beta-[N-[N'-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl]-L-alanyl]-5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone) (CNC-ala-DHT) is a newly synthesised alkylating compound consisting of N-[N'-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl]-L-alanine (CNC-ala) as the alkylating moiety and of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as a steroid carrier molecule. We studied the antitumour activity of E91 (final concentrations: 0.1, 1, 10 and 30 mumol/l) against freshly explanted human tumours, using an in vitro soft agar cloning system. A total of 54 tumour samples was evaluated using 1 h-exposure and 51 tumour specimens were studied using a continuous exposure for 21-28 days. In addition, the compound's activity was compared with other clinically used anticancer agents. After short-term exposure, 49 of 53 evaluable specimens (92%) had adequate colony formation, as compared with 49 of 50 (98%) after long-term exposure. After short-term exposure, E91 exhibited only marginal antitumour activity. However, in long-term exposure experiments, E91 had marked and concentration-dependent antitumour activity (P 10 mumol/l, E91 was as active as the other clinically used antineoplastic agents and at 30 mumol/l, E91 was significantly more active than 5-fluorouracil (P = 0.041). E91 showed activity against a wide spectrum of tumour types. The highest activity was observed against colorectal carcinomas (3/4 tumour specimens inhibited at 30 mumol/l). Sensitivity was also high remarkable in breast cancer specimens with 3/6 specimens inhibited at 30 mumol/l. In vitro myelotoxicity was less than that of doxorubicin. At 30 mumol/l, E91 induced a reduction of colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) to only 53% of control and of CFU-GEMM to 20% of control. We conclude that because of broad activity and reduced myelotoxicity further clinical development of E91 appears warranted. PMID:10533486

  16. New Surgical Approach for treatment of complex vesicovaginal fistula. Vesical autoplasty; Avances en la cirugia de la fistula vesicovaginal compleja. Autoplastia vesical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Vernet Vila, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    Although currently complex ve sico-vaginal fistulae are an uncommon finding, their solution still remains a problem since no effective surgical technique is yet available. We describe a new vesical autoplasty procedure for solving this entity. Once the fistulae has been thoroughly resected and its borders have been unfolded, a graft is obtained from the posterior-superior vesical wall, which is then slid down to the vesical neck thereby covering great extensions where tissue has been lost, even in the presence of low-capacity bladders. This new operation has led to a 100% cure rate of the 42 consecutive cases of vesico-vaginal fistulae operated on and that had undergone repeated surgery using other thecniques. (Author) 8 refs.

  17. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the

  18. THE PENETRATION OF VESICANT VAPORS INTO HUMAN SKIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, S M; Golumbic, C; Stein, W H; Fruton, J S; Bergmann, M

    1946-07-20

    Analytical methods which are accurate to about 1 per cent have been developed for the determination of small amounts (ca. 500 gamma) of bis(beta-chloroethyl)-sulfide (H), ethyl-bis(beta-chloroethyl)amine (EBA), tris(beta-chloroethyl)amine (TBA), beta-chloroethyl-benzylsulfide (benzyl-H), and beta-chloroethyl-ethylsulfide (ethyl-H). The determinations are made by micro titration of the HCl liberated upon complete hydrolysis of the vesicants. A description is given of an apparatus suitable for applying vapors of vesicants to unit areas of skin. A very precise and reproducible micropipetting technique is described for the introduction of the vesicants into the penetration apparatus. By means of this penetration apparatus studies have been made of several factors which may influence the rate at which vesicant vapors penetrate into skin. Model experiments have been performed in which H was allowed to vaporize and the vapor was absorbed on a surface such as that of diethylene glycol or vaseline. It has been found that if the surface of liquid H is increased by spreading the agent on filter paper, the rate of evaporation is markedly increased. Furthermore, if the vapor is agitated by means of a magnetically driven fan, the rate of absorption by diethylene glycol is greatly accelerated. With vaseline as the absorbing surface it has been found that the area of the absorbing surface has an effect on the rate of absorption of H vapor. More H is absorbed by vaseline spread on filter paper to give a rough surface than is absorbed by a smooth film of vaseline. Measurements of the rate of penetration into human skin of H, EBA, TBA, benzyl-H, and ethyl-H vapors have been performed at 21-23 degrees C. and 30-31 degrees C. by means of the penetration apparatus described in this paper. The measurements were carred out on human volunteers under conditions of controlled temperature and humidity. When human skin is exposed to air saturated with H vapor, the H penetrates the skin of the

  19. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity studies of DRDE-07 and its analogs against sulfur mustard in the in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vinod; Pathak, Uma; Meshram, Ghansham Pundilikji

    2014-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM), a chemical warfare agent, is classified as a class I human carcinogen by IARC. No effective antidote against this agent is available. The synthetic aminothiol, amifostine, earlier known as WR-2721, has been extensively used as a chemical radioprotector for normal tissues in cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy. SM is a radiomimetic agent; this prompted us to evaluate the protective efficacy of amifostine and three of its analogs, DRDE-07 [S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethyl phenyl sulphide], DRDE-30 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl propyl sulphide] and DRDE-35 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl butyl sulphide], against sulfur mustard-induced mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. The antidotes were also evaluated for possible mutagenic activity. DRDE-07 was mutagenic in strain TA104 in the absence of S9; DRDE-30 was mutagenic in strain TA100; amifostine and DRDE-35 did not show mutagenic activity in any of the five tester strains used. SM is mutagenic in strains TA97a and TA102, with or without S9 activation. In the antimutagenicity studies, DRDE-07 and DRDE-35 showed promising antimutagenic activity against SM in the absence of S9, in comparison to amifostine. DRDE-07 and DRDE-35 are promising protective agents against SM-induced mutagenicity.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure determination and computational study of a new Cu(II) complex of bis [2-{(E)-[2-chloroethyl)imino]methyl}phenolato)] copper(II) Schiff base complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivani, Gholamhossein; Vakili, Mohammad; Khalaji, Aliakbar Dehno; Bruno, Giuseppe; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri; Taghavi, Maedeh

    2016-07-01

    The copper (II) Schiff base complex of [CuL2] (1), HL = 2-{(E)-[2-chloroethyl) imino]methyl}phenol, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental (CHN) analysis, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The molecular structure of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The conformational analysis and molecular structures of CuL2 were investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations at B3LYP/6-311G* level. An excellent agreement was observed between theoretical and experimental results. The Schiff base ligand of HL acts as a chelating ligand and coordinates via one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom to the metal center. The copper (II) center is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms from two Schiff base ligands in an approximately square planar trans-[MN2O2] coordination geometry. Thermogravimetric analysis of CuL2 showed that it was decomposed in five stages. In addition, the CuL2 complex thermally decomposed in air at 660 °C and the XRD pattern of the obtained solid showed the formation of CuO nanoparticles with an average size of 34 nm.

  1. Discrepancy between mRNA and Protein Expression of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ebrahimi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a potent vesicant that has been employed as a chemical weapon in various conflicts during the 20th century. More recently, mustard was used in the Iraq conflict against Iranian troops and civilians. At the present time there are more than 40.000 people suffering from pulmonary lesions special bronchiolitis obliterans (BOs due to mustard gas. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2, NGAL is a member of the lipocalin superfamily for which a variety of functions such as cellular protection against oxidative stress have been reported. Ten normal and Twenty SM-induced COPD patient individuals were studied. Assessment of NGAL expressions in healthy and the patients endobrinchial biopsies were performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR, and Immunohistochemistry analysis. While Normal control samples expressed same level of mRNA NGAL, expression level of mRNA-NGAL was upregulated about 1.4- to 9.8-folds compared to normal samples. No significant immunoreactivity was revealed in both samples. As we are aware this is the first report of induction of NGAL in patients exposed to SM. NGAL may play an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress toxicity induced by mustard gas in airway wall of patients.

  2. Zmiany w składzie chemicznym ściany komórkowej źdźbła pszenicy traktomanej chlorkiem chlorocholiny (CCC [Changes in the cell walls of wheat culms treated utith 2-chloroethyl-trime-thyl-ammonium chloride (CCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Przeszlakowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of 2-chloroethyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CCC on the content of various constituents of the cell wall of the wheat culms var. Eka Nowa was investigated. Chromatographic analysis of the polysaccharides obtained from the cell wall of the wheat culms has been carried out. The content of pectic substances (pectins and protopectins in nodes and internodes of the wheat culms treated with CCC was determined.

  3. Inflammatory effects of inhaled sulfur mustard in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes severe lung damage, is a significant threat to both military and civilian populations. The mechanisms mediating its cytotoxic effects are unknown and were investigated in the present studies. Male rats Crl:CD(SD) were anesthetized, and then intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.7-1.4 mg/kg SM by vapor inhalation. Animals were euthanized 6, 24, 48 h or 7 days post-exposure and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue collected. Exposure of rats to SM resulted in rapid pulmonary toxicity, including focal ulceration and detachment of the trachea and bronchial epithelia from underlying mucosa, thickening of alveolar septal walls and increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the tissue. There was also evidence of autophagy and apoptosis in the tissue. This was correlated with increased BAL protein content, a marker of injury to the alveolar epithelial lining. SM exposure also resulted in increased expression of markers of inflammation including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), each of which has been implicated in pulmonary toxicity. Whereas COX-2, TNFα and iNOS were mainly localized in alveolar regions, MMP-9 was prominent in bronchial epithelium. In contrast, expression of the anti-oxidant hemeoxygenase, and the anti-inflammatory collectin, surfactant protein-D, decreased in the lung after SM exposure. These data demonstrate that SM-induced oxidative stress and injury are associated with the generation of cytotoxic inflammatory proteins which may contribute to the pathogenic response to this vesicant.

  4. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  5. Electromyographic activity of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles during the vesical filling and evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shafik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: The role of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles (AAWMs during the vesical filling and evacuation has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. We have investigated the hypothesis that the AAWMs exhibit the increased electromyographic (EMG activity on the vesical distension and contraction which presumably assists vesical evacuation.

    METHODS: The effects of the vesical balloon distension on the vesical pressure (VP, vesical neck (VNP pressures and the AAWMs' EMG activity were studied in 28 healthy volunteers aged 40.7 ± 9.7 years (18 men, 10 women. These effects were tested after the individual anesthetization of the bladder and AAWMs and after saline infiltration.

    RESULTS: The VP and the VNP showed a gradual increase upon the incremental vesical balloon distension which started at a distending volume of 120–140 ml. At a mean volume of 364.6 ± 23.8 ml, the VP increased to a mean of 36.6 ± 3.2 cmH2O, the VNP decreased to 18.4 ± 2.4 cmH2O, and the AAWMs EMG registered a significant increase. This effect disappeared in the individual bladder and in the AAWMs' anesthetization. However, it did not disappear in the saline administration.

    CONCLUSIONS: The AAWMs appear to contract simultaneously with vesical contraction. This action presumably increases the IAP and it

  6. Histiocytosis X: treatment with topical nitrogen mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, B; Chang, D L; Shupack, J L

    1980-07-01

    The case histories of two elderly patients with cutaneous histiocytosis X treated topically with nitrogen mustard are presented. The cutaneous lesions cleared within 2 to 3 weeks, and remission was maintained with daily topical administration of nitrogen mustard. The clinical impression of improvement was substantiated by light and electron microscopic studies prior to and after therapy.

  7. "Immunobiological Consequences of Sulfur Mustard Contamination "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Mohammad Hassan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard has been employed in chemical warfare in certain regions including Iran. The short and long term biological effects of sulfur mustard contamination have been studied in both basic and clinical aspects. Sulfur mustard has been shown to induce a vast array of pathological effects in affected persons. In addition to skin, lung, eyes and gastrointestinal disturbances, sulfur mustard has been shown to induce hematological complications and a severe suppression of the immune system. The short and long term immunological (both cellular and humoral, hematological, genetic and biochemical consequences of persons exposed to sulfur mustard are extensively reviewed here. The long term complications of these patients indicate the need to develop effective preventive and therapeutic strategies in the clinic. These strategies may be based upon immunopotentiating intervention and therapy.

  8. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen Tatjana; Krivokapić Mirjana; Zlatković Branislav; Antić Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  9. Natural occurrence of bisphenol F in mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Otmar; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Magnin, Roxane; Reinhard, Hans; Rhyn, Peter; Rupp, Heinz; Zeltner, Silvia; Felleisen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol F (BPF) was found in mustard up to a concentration of around 8 mg kg(-1). Contamination of the raw products or caused by the packaging could be ruled out. Also, the fact that only the 4,4'-isomer of BPF was detected spoke against contamination from epoxy resin or other sources where technical BPF is used. Only mild mustard made of the seeds of Sinapis alba contained BPF. In all probability BPF is a reaction product from the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucosinalbin with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as an important intermediate. Hot mustard made only from brown mustard seeds (Brassica juncea) or black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra) contained no BPF. BPF is structurally very similar to bisphenol A and has a similar weak estrogenic activity. The consumption of a portion of 20 g of mustard can lead to an intake of 100-200 µg of BPF. According to a preliminary risk assessment, the risk of BPF in mustard for the health of consumers is considered to be low, but available toxicological data are insufficient for a conclusive evaluation. It is a new and surprising finding that BPF is a natural food ingredient and that this is the main uptake route. This insight sheds new light on the risk linked to the family of bisphenols. PMID:26555822

  10. Natural occurrence of bisphenol F in mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoller, Otmar; Brüschweiler, Beat J.; Magnin, Roxane; Reinhard, Hans; Rhyn, Peter; Rupp, Heinz; Zeltner, Silvia; Felleisen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bisphenol F (BPF) was found in mustard up to a concentration of around 8 mg kg−1. Contamination of the raw products or caused by the packaging could be ruled out. Also, the fact that only the 4,4ʹ-isomer of BPF was detected spoke against contamination from epoxy resin or other sources where technical BPF is used. Only mild mustard made of the seeds of Sinapis alba contained BPF. In all probability BPF is a reaction product from the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucosinalbin with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol as an important intermediate. Hot mustard made only from brown mustard seeds (Brassica juncea) or black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra) contained no BPF. BPF is structurally very similar to bisphenol A and has a similar weak estrogenic activity. The consumption of a portion of 20 g of mustard can lead to an intake of 100–200 µg of BPF. According to a preliminary risk assessment, the risk of BPF in mustard for the health of consumers is considered to be low, but available toxicological data are insufficient for a conclusive evaluation. It is a new and surprising finding that BPF is a natural food ingredient and that this is the main uptake route. This insight sheds new light on the risk linked to the family of bisphenols. PMID:26555822

  11. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Sharma; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Uma Pathak; K. Ganesan

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3) and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 ...

  12. Wound Healing of Cutaneous Sulfur Mustard Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, John S.; Chilcott, Robert P.; Rice, Paul; Milner, Stephen M.; Hurst, Charles G.; Maliner, Beverly I.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is an alkylating chemical warfare agent that primarily affects the eyes, skin, and airways. Sulfur mustard injuries can take several months to heal, necessitate lengthy hospitalizations, and result in significant cosmetic and/or functional deficits. Historically, blister aspiration and/or deroofing (epidermal removal), physical debridement, irrigation, topical antibiotics, and sterile dressings have been the main courses of action in the medical management of cutaneous sulfur m...

  13. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  14. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  15. Vesical-ureteral reflux in children; Reflux vesico-ureteral chez l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desvignes, V.; Palcoux, J.B. [Hotel-Dieu, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cochat, P. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1995-12-31

    The vesical-ureteral reflux is the most frequent uropathy in children. The diagnosis is made by uretero-cystography, often after pyelonephritis, sometimes after ante-natal diagnosis from echographic abnormalities. Spontaneous recovery is possible in 50 to 80% of cases. This is especially true in grade 1, 2 and 3, however complications may occur. They are more frequent in the case of reflux nephropathy with a resulting risk of hypertension and chronic renal failure. The therapeutic choice is between the conservative management with urinary antiseptics ad the surgical treatment with ureters re-implantation or endoscopic treatment. The therapeutic indications take into account vesical-ureteral reflux grades, the child`s age, the associated diseases and the child`s and parents` compliance. (authors). 22 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula: a new surgical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochetti Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The standard treatment of colo-vesical fistula is the exeresis of fistula, suture of bladder wall, colic resection with or without temporary colostomy. Usually the approach is open because conversion rates and morbidity are lower than laparoscopy. The aim of video is to show the steps of a new mini-invasive approach of colo-vesical fistula without colic resection. Materials and Methods A 69 years old male underwent laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula due to endoscopic polipectomy in sigmoid diverticulum. 12 mm trocar for the camera was placed at the umbilicus, two 10 mm trocars were placed along bisiliac line and 5 mm port was placed along left emiclavear line; Trendelenburg position was 20°. The fistulous loop was carefully isolated, clipped with Hem-o-lock® clips and removed. Since diverticular disease appeared slight and no inflammation signs were evident, colon resection was not performed. We sutured and sinked the sigmoid wall; after curettage of the fistula site, the bladder wall was sutured. Fat tissue was placed between sigmoid and bladder wall to reduce the risk of fistula recurrence. Results Operative time, estimated blood loss, catheterization time, time to flatus and hospital stay were respectively 210 minutes, 300 mL, 10 days, 48 h and 8 days. The histological examination showed colonic inflammatory and necrotic tissue. No complications or fistula recurrence occurred at 54 months follow-up. Conclusions The laparoscopic conservative treatment of colo-vesical fistula is a safe and feasible technique, in particular when the diverticular disease is limited and the fistula is not due to diverticulitis.

  17. Intra-vesical knot of bladder catheter in an extremely low birthweight neonate: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Paula M.Y. Tang; Kenneth L.Y. Chung; Yvonne C.L. Leung; Judy W.S. Hung; Clarence C.W. Liu; Nicholas S.Y. Chao; Michael W.Y. Leung; Kelvin K.W. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Premature and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates are at high risk of developing multiple co-morbidities and often require urinary catheterization for various medical indications. Intra-vesical knotting of bladder catheter is a known but uncommon complication of this procedure. We report a case of an ELBW baby boy with a knotted bladder catheter requiring surgical retrieval. After an elective operation for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus, a 4 French urinary catheter was inserte...

  18. Mustard Gas: Its Pre-World War I History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchovic, Ronald J.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2007-01-01

    The Meyer-Clarke synthetic method was used in the German process for large scale production of mustard gas during World War I, which clearly shows the historical connection of synthesis of mustard gas.

  19. 7 CFR 457.168 - Mustard crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Any other uninsurable mustard production that is delivered to fulfill the processor contract. (d... applicable, it will be made prior to any adjustment for quality. (1) Mustard production will be reduced by 0... of the production to determine the moisture content. (2) Mustard production will be eligible...

  20. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Tris(2-chloroethyl) Phosphate (CAS No. 115-96-8) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TRCP), a flame-retardant plasticizer used in plastics, polymeric foams, and synthetic fibers, was studied as part of the National Toxicology Program's class study of trisalkyl phosphate flame retardants. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering TRCP (approximately 98% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 16 days, 16 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were performed in Salmonella typhimurium and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. 16-Day Studies: There were no chemical-related deaths, differences in final mean body weight, or histopathological lesions in rats receiving 22 to 350 mg/kg TRCP or in mice receiving 44 to 700 mg/kg TRCP for 12 doses over 16 days. Serum cholinesterase activity in female rats receiving 175 or 350 mg/kg TRCP was reduced slightly (80% of control levels), but enzyme activity in dosed male rats and in mice was similar to that in controls. 16-Week Studies: Rats received 22 to 350 mg/kg TRCP for 16 weeks (female) or 18 weeks (male). Several male and female rats in the 175 or 350 mg/kg dose groups died from chemical toxicity. Final mean body weights of female rats receiving 350 mg/kg were 20% greater than those of controls; final mean body weights of the remaining groups of dosed female rats and dosed male rats were similar. Chemical-related neuronal necrosis occurred in the hippocampus and thalamus of female rats and, to a lesser extent, of male rats. Serum cholinesterase activity was reduced in females receiving 175 or 350 mg/kg TRCP. There were no chemical-related deaths, differences in final mean body weight, or differences in cholinesterase activity in mice receiving 44 to 700 mg/kg TRCP for 16 weeks. Tubule epithelial cells with enlarged nuclei (cytomegaly and karyomegaly) were observed in the kidneys of high-dose (700 mg/kg) male and female mice. 2-Year Studies: The 2-year studies in rats were conducted by administering 0

  1. Protective effects of amifostine and its analogues on sulfur mustard toxicity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R; Rao, P V; Pant, S C; Kumar, P; Tulsawani, R K; Pathak, U; Kulkarni, A; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2001-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent that forms sulfonium ions in the body. SM alkylates DNA, leading to DNA strand breaks and cell death in a variety of cell types and tissues. Although several approaches have been proposed to challenge the toxic action(s) of SM, no satisfactory treatment regimen has evolved. The synthetic aminothiol amifostine, earlier known as WR-2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioate), has been extensively used as a chemical radioprotector for the normal tissues in cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy. SM is known as a radiomimetic agent and this prompted us to evaluate the protective efficacy of amifostine (2.5 mM) and three of its analogues, DRDE-06 (S-2 (3-aminopropylamino) ethyl phenyl sulfide), DRDE-07 (S-2 (2-aminoethylamino) ethyl phenyl sulfide), and DRDE-08 (S-2 (4-aminobutylamino) ethyl phenyl sulfide), against SM toxicity in rat liver slices. Of the four agents tested, a 30-min pretreatment of amifostine and DRDE-07 enhanced the LC50 (a concentration producing 50% leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) of SM by 5.9- and 3.3-fold for LDH and 10.2- and 5.5-fold for ALT, respectively. Except DNA fragmentation, both these agents significantly attenuated the loss of intracellular K(+) and mitochondrial integrity (MTT assay), depletion of GSH levels, and histopathology produced by a toxic concentration (80 microM) of SM. However, when amifostine and DRDE-07 were introduced 2 h after SM, no significant protection was observed. SM (77.5 or 155 mg/kg) was also applied dermally on female albino mice and challenged by 0.20 LD50 (po) of amifostine, DRDE-06, DRDE-07, or DRDE-08 at -30 min, 0 min, or +6 h. Protection was observed only when the agents were administered at -30 min or 0 min; posttreatment (+6 h) did not offer any protection. The magnitude of in vivo protection was in the following order: DRDE-07 >or= amifostine > DRDE-08

  2. Natural occurrence of bisphenol F in mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Zoller, Otmar; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Magnin, Roxane; Reinhard, Hans; Rhyn, Peter; Rupp, Heinz; Zeltner, Silvia; Felleisen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bisphenol F (BPF) was found in mustard up to a concentration of around 8 mg kg−1. Contamination of the raw products or caused by the packaging could be ruled out. Also, the fact that only the 4,4ʹ-isomer of BPF was detected spoke against contamination from epoxy resin or other sources where technical BPF is used. Only mild mustard made of the seeds of Sinapis alba contained BPF. In all probability BPF is a reaction product from the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucosinalbin with 4-...

  3. General guidelines for medically screening mixed population groups potentially exposed to nerve or vesicant agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Sidell, F.R. (Army Medical Research Inst. of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)); Leffingwell, S.S. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (United States). Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control)

    1992-01-01

    A number of state and local planners have requested guidance on screening protocols and have expressed interest in sampling body fluids from exposed or potentially exposed individuals as a means of estimating agent dose. These guidelines have been developed to provide a clear statement that could be used by state and local emergency response personnel in the event of a nerve or vesicant agent incident resulting in off-post contamination; maximum protection from harm is the goal. The assumption is that any population group so exposed would be heterogeneous for age, gender, reproductive status, and state of health.

  4. Mustard meal as an organic herbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings: unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact seedling survival of certain direct-seeded vegetable crops. Field research was conducted in s...

  5. Novel Molecular Strategies Against Sulfur Mustard Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Ilker Kunak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the available chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM, also known as mustard gas, has been widely used chemical weapon. In our laboratory, we have shown that, acute toxicity of SM is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, DNA damage, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase activation and energy depletion within the affected cell. In spite of the knowledge about acute SM-induced cellular toxicity, unfortunately, it is not clear how mustard gas causes severe multi-organ damage years after even a single exposure. A variety of treatment modalities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs and others have resulted no promising results. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of mustard poisoning. The term epigenetic describes the study of inheritable alterations in gene expression that occur in the absence of changes in genome sequence. Therefore, epigenetic gene regulation requires molecular mechanisms that encode information in addition to the DNA base sequence and can be propagated through mitosis and meiosis. Our current understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression involves basically two classes of molecular mechanisms: histone modifications and DNA methylation. Preliminary evidence obtained from our laboratory reveals that exposure to mustards may not only cause nitro-oxidative stress and DNA (genetic damage, but epigenetic perturbations as well. Epigenetic therapy is a new and rapidly developing field in pharmacology. Epigenetic drugs alone or in combination with conventional drugs may prove to be a significant advance over the conventional drugs used to treat both acute and delayed SM toxicity. Future studies are urgently needed to clarify the mechanism of delayed SM-induced toxicity and novel treatment modalities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 231-236

  6. Comparison of fixation and processing methods for hairless guinea pig skin following sulfur mustard exposure. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, M.A.; Braue Jr, E.H.

    1992-12-31

    Ten anesthetized hairless guinea pigs Crl:IAF(HA)BR were exposed to 10 pi of neat sulfur mustard (HD) in a vapor cup on their skin for 7 min. At 24 h postexposure, the guinea pigs were euthanatized and skin sections taken for histologic evaluation. The skin was fixed using either 10% neutral buffered formalin (NBF), McDowell Trump fixative (4CF-IG), Zenker`s formol-saline (Helly`s fluid), or Zenker`s fluid. Fixed skin sections were cut in half: one half was embedded in paraffin and the other half in plastic (glycol methacrylate). Paraffin-embedded tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin; plastic-embedded tissue was stained with Lee`s methylene blue basic fuchsin. Skin was also frozen unfixed, sectioned by cryostat, and stained with pinacyanole. HD-exposed skin was evaluated histologically for the presence of epidermal and follicular necrosis, microblister formation, epidermitis, and intracellular edema to determine the optimal fixation and embedding method for lesion preservation. The percentage of histologic sections with lesions varied little between fixatives and was similar for both paraffin and plastic embedding material. Plastic-embedded sections were thinner, allowing better histologic evaluation, but were more difficult to stain. Plastic embedding material did not infiltrate tissue fixed in Zenker`s fluid or Zenker`s formol-saline. Frozen tissue sections were prepared in the least processing time and lesion preservation was comparable to fixed tissue. It was concluded that standard histologic processing using formalin fixation and paraffin embedding is adequate for routine histopathological evaluation of HD skin lesions in the hairless guinea pig.... Sulfur mustard, Vesicating agents, Pathology, Hairless guinea pig model, Fixation.

  7. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS+ and cyclooxygenase-2+) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1+ and galectin-3+) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute lung injury induced by

  8. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hall, LeRoy [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute

  9. Effects of stimulation of vesical afferents on colonic motility in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, M; Grimaud, J C; Abysique, A

    1990-05-01

    The effects of distension and isovolumetric contraction of urinary bladder on colonic motility were studied in anesthetized cats. Distension and contraction of the urinary bladder induced an inhibition of spontaneous colonic electromyographic activity and a decrease in the amplitudes of the excitatory junction potentials evoked in the colon by stimulation of the distal end of the parasympathetic nerve fibers. This inhibition was blocked by guanethidine and phentolamine. Reversely, vesical emptying resulted in an increase in colonic motility, abolished by atropine, and an increase in the amplitude of the excitatory junction potentials. Both excitatory and inhibitory reflexes disappeared after hexamethonium. The inhibitory effects of bladder distension were abolished by bilateral section of the lumbar ventral or dorsal spinal roots and after bilateral section of the lumbar colonic or hypogastric nerves. These results indicate (a) that the vesical afferents responsible for the inhibitory and excitatory reflexes run in the hypogastric and pelvic nerves respectively and (b) that the inhibitory and excitatory effects are caused by the activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic efferent nerve fibers, respectively. The supraspinal nervous structures were not implicated in these reflexes because they persisted in spinal cats.

  10. Modeling the spinal pudendo-vesical reflex for bladder control by pudendal afferent stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meredith J; Grill, Warren M

    2016-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve (PN) is a promising approach to restore continence and micturition following bladder dysfunction resulting from neurological disease or injury. Although the pudendo-vesical reflex and its physiological properties are well established, there is limited understanding of the specific neural mechanisms that mediate this reflex. We sought to develop a computational model of the spinal neural network that governs the reflex bladder response to PN stimulation. We implemented and validated a neural network architecture based on previous neuroanatomical and electrophysiological studies. Using synaptically-connected integrate and fire model neurons, we created a network model with realistic spiking behavior. The model produced expected sacral parasympathetic nucleus (SPN) neuron firing rates from prescribed neural inputs and predicted bladder activation and inhibition with different frequencies of pudendal afferent stimulation. In addition, the model matched experimental results from previous studies of temporal patterns of pudendal afferent stimulation and selective pharmacological blockade of inhibitory neurons. The frequency- and pattern-dependent effects of pudendal afferent stimulation were determined by changes in firing rate of spinal interneurons, suggesting that neural network interactions at the lumbosacral level can mediate the bladder response to different frequencies or temporal patterns of pudendal afferent stimulation. Further, the anatomical structure of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the network model was necessary and sufficient to reproduce the critical features of the pudendo-vesical reflex, and this model may prove useful to guide development of novel, more effective electrical stimulation techniques for bladder control. PMID:26968615

  11. Kolonialism või kognitiivne kapitalism? / Jelena Vesic, Branislav Dimitrijevic ; interv. Rael Artel, tõlk. Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vesic, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Serbia-poolsed kuraatorid Jelena Vesic ja Branislav Dimitrijevic Belgradi Kaasaegse Kunsti Muuseumis avatud Briti Nõukogu initsieeritud briti kaasaegse kunsti näitusest "Breaking Step", kus osaleb 15 kunstnikku, näitusega seotud probleemidest, serbia kaasaegse kunsti näituse Londonis toimumise võimalikkusest

  12. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, collards, garden cress, upland cress, water cress, kale, Chinese kale, Siberian kale, kohlrabi, mustard, pakchoi, radish, rape, rutabaga, and turnip. (a) General description....

  13. Graviditet efter Mustards operation for transpositio vasorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pank, Marie; Larsen, Signe Holm; Sørensen, Keld;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previously, the Mustard operation was the preferred surgical technique in patients with transposition of the great arteries. After this procedure the anatomical right ventricle remains the systemic ventricle, which entails long-term complications, especially heart failure. The Mustard....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on diagnosis, procedure, functional status, pregnancy, delivery and congenital heart disease in the off-spring were found in registers (The National Register of Health, The National Birth Register) and in medical records. Questionnaires were mailed to the 16 surviving...... women over 15 years of age. RESULTS: Four women gave birth to nine children. Two women temporally had heart symptoms during pregnancy and delivery, but this caused no objective changes. The women who had children were older than those who did not. None of the children had congenital heart disease nor...

  14. Proteomic assessment of sulfur mustard-induced protein adducts and other protein modifications in human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although some toxicological mechanisms of sulfur mustard (HD) have been uncovered, new knowledge will allow for advanced insight in the pathways that lead towards epidermal-dermal separation in skin. In the present investigation, we aimed to survey events that occur at the protein level in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) during 24 h after exposure to HD. By using radiolabeled 14C-HD, it was found that proteins in cultured HEK are significant targets for alkylation by HD. HD-adducted proteins were visualized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Several type I and II cytokeratins, actin, stratifin (14-3-3σ) and galectin-7 were identified. These proteins are involved in the maintenance of the cellular cytoskeleton. Their alkylation may cause changes in the cellular architecture and, in direct line with that, be determinative for the onset of vesication. Furthermore, differential proteomic analysis was applied to search for novel features of the cellular response to HD. Partial breakdown of type I cytokeratins K14, K16 and K17 as well as the emergence of new charge variants of the proteins heat shock protein 27 and ribosomal protein P0 were observed. Studies with caspase inhibitors showed that caspase-6 is probably responsible for the breakdown of type I cytokeratins in HEK. The significance of the results is discussed in terms of toxicological relevance and possible clues for therapeutic intervention

  15. Use of epr spin-trapping techniques to detect radicals from rat lung lavage fluid following sulfur mustard vapor exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Yourick, J.J.; Arroyo, C.M.; Young, G.D.; Harris, L.W.

    1993-05-13

    Although well known for skin vesicating properties, pulmonary damage and associated infections account for most of the mortality associated with sulfur mustard (HD). We have employed an in vivo HD vapor exposure model, bronchoalveolar lavage and histopathology in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques to provide evidence for HD-induced (free radical/lipid peroxidation associated) lung injury. Anesthetized rats were intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.35 mg HD vapor over 50 min. Immediately, 1 hr or 24 hr after exposure, lungs were lavaged with the spin trap, alpha-phenyl-t-butyl nitrone (PBN; 0.35 mg/ml). Recovered lavage fluid was assayed by EPR spectroscopy for radical spin adducts. Airway lipid extracts were assayed for thiobarbituric acid reactive products (TBARs); while separate groups of rats were used to evaluate histopathology. EPR results show the presence of an ascorbyl radical at 1 and 24 hr, and a carbon centered PBN spin adduct at 24 hr, both indicative of lipid peroxidation. TBAR (A532nm) formation was also detected at 24 hr. Histopathology revealed multifocal separation of the bronchial epithelium from the submucosa with little or no alveolar involvement at 24 hrs. These studies provide evidence that HD may affect lungs by a free radical mechanism which produces membrane and other tissue damage.

  16. Efeito do cloridrato de oxibutinina na hiperatividade vesical conseqüente a cistite hemorrágica Effects of oxybutynin in bladder hyperactivity caused by hemorrhagic cystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuma EK; MS Takeshita; Haylton Jorge Suaid; Antonio Carlos Pereira Martins; Silvio Tucci Jr; Adaulto José Cologna; MA Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A oxibutinina atua como agente anticolinérgico que tem ação anti-muscarínica e, principalmente, ação antiespasmódica na musculatura lisa vesical. Assim, ela causa aumento da capacidade vesical e diminui a frequência miccional e bloqueia o estímulo inicial da micção. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a oxibutinina atua sobre a hiperatividade vesical causada pela cistite hemorrágica, dependente do óxido nítrico. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados dois grupos de animais. O controle com 5 ratas e o experi...

  17. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  18. Therapeutic potential of a non-steroidal bifunctional anti-inflammatory and anti-cholinergic agent against skin injury induced by sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D.; Hahn, Rita A.; Gordon, Marion K.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Heindel, Ned D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Young, Sherri C. [Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM) is a highly reactive bifunctional alkylating agent inducing edema, inflammation, and the formation of fluid-filled blisters in the skin. Medical countermeasures against SM-induced cutaneous injury have yet to be established. In the present studies, we tested a novel, bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH 4338) designed to target cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), an enzyme that generates inflammatory eicosanoids, and acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme mediating activation of cholinergic inflammatory pathways in a model of SM-induced skin injury. Adult SKH-1 hairless male mice were exposed to SM using a dorsal skin vapor cup model. NDH 4338 was applied topically to the skin 24, 48, and 72 h post-SM exposure. After 96 h, SM was found to induce skin injury characterized by edema, epidermal hyperplasia, loss of the differentiation marker, keratin 10 (K10), upregulation of the skin wound marker keratin 6 (K6), disruption of the basement membrane anchoring protein laminin 322, and increased expression of epidermal COX2. NDH 4338 post-treatment reduced SM-induced dermal edema and enhanced skin re-epithelialization. This was associated with a reduction in COX2 expression, increased K10 expression in the suprabasal epidermis, and reduced expression of K6. NDH 4338 also restored basement membrane integrity, as evidenced by continuous expression of laminin 332 at the dermal–epidermal junction. Taken together, these data indicate that a bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug stimulates repair of SM induced skin injury and may be useful as a medical countermeasure. - Highlights: • Bifunctional anti-inflammatory prodrug (NDH4338) tested on SM exposed mouse skin • The prodrug NDH4338 was designed to target COX2 and acetylcholinesterase. • The application of NDH4338 improved cutaneous wound repair after SM induced injury. • NDH4338 treatment demonstrated a reduction in COX2 expression on SM injured skin. • Changes of skin repair

  19. Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human glioblastoma cells by the DNA N-mustard alkylating agent BO-1051 through augmented and sustained DNA damage response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background 1-{4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl}-3-[2-methyl-5-(4-methylacridin-9-ylamino)phenyl]urea (BO-1051) is an N-mustard DNA alkylating agent reported to exhibit antitumor activity. Here we further investigate the effects of this compound on radiation responses of human gliomas, which are notorious for the high resistance to radiotherapy. Methods The clonogenic assay was used to determine the IC50 and radiosensitivity of human glioma cell lines (U87MG, U251MG and GBM-3) following BO-1051. DNA histogram and propidium iodide-Annexin V staining were used to determine the cell cycle distribution and the apoptosis, respectively. DNA damage and repair state were determined by γ-H2AX foci, and mitotic catastrophe was measure using nuclear fragmentation. Xenograft tumors were measured with a caliper, and the survival rate was determined using Kaplan-Meier method. Results BO-1051 inhibited growth of human gliomas in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using the dosage at IC50, BO-1051 significantly enhanced radiosensitivity to different extents [The sensitizer enhancement ratio was between 1.24 and 1.50 at 10% of survival fraction]. The radiosensitive G2/M population was raised by BO-1051, whereas apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe were not affected. γ-H2AX foci was greatly increased and sustained by combined BO-1051 and γ-rays, suggested that DNA damage or repair capacity was impaired during treatment. In vivo studies further demonstrated that BO-1051 enhanced the radiotherapeutic effects on GBM-3-beared xenograft tumors, by which the sensitizer enhancement ratio was 1.97. The survival rate of treated mice was also increased accordingly. Conclusions These results indicate that BO-1051 can effectively enhance glioma cell radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. It suggests that BO-1051 is a potent radiosensitizer for treating human glioma cells. PMID:21244709

  20. Enhancement of radiosensitivity in human glioblastoma cells by the DNA N-mustard alkylating agent BO-1051 through augmented and sustained DNA damage response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1-{4-[Bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl}-3-[2-methyl-5- (4-methylacridin-9-ylamino)phenyl]urea (BO-1051) is an N-mustard DNA alkylating agent reported to exhibit antitumor activity. Here we further investigate the effects of this compound on radiation responses of human gliomas, which are notorious for the high resistance to radiotherapy. The clonogenic assay was used to determine the IC50 and radiosensitivity of human glioma cell lines (U87MG, U251MG and GBM-3) following BO-1051. DNA histogram and propidium iodide-Annexin V staining were used to determine the cell cycle distribution and the apoptosis, respectively. DNA damage and repair state were determined by γ-H2AX foci, and mitotic catastrophe was measure using nuclear fragmentation. Xenograft tumors were measured with a caliper, and the survival rate was determined using Kaplan-Meier method. BO-1051 inhibited growth of human gliomas in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Using the dosage at IC50, BO-1051 significantly enhanced radiosensitivity to different extents [The sensitizer enhancement ratio was between 1.24 and 1.50 at 10% of survival fraction]. The radiosensitive G2/M population was raised by BO-1051, whereas apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe were not affected. γ-H2AX foci was greatly increased and sustained by combined BO-1051 and γ-rays, suggested that DNA damage or repair capacity was impaired during treatment. In vivo studies further demonstrated that BO-1051 enhanced the radiotherapeutic effects on GBM-3-beared xenograft tumors, by which the sensitizer enhancement ratio was 1.97. The survival rate of treated mice was also increased accordingly. These results indicate that BO-1051 can effectively enhance glioma cell radiosensitivity in vitro and in vivo. It suggests that BO-1051 is a potent radiosensitizer for treating human glioma cells

  1. Symptomatic treatment of ascites with a peritoneo-vesical automated fluid shunt system in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzin, C; Kook, P; Jenni, S; Wilhelm, S; Degen, T; Braun, A; Rütten, M; Glaus, T M

    2012-02-01

    A six-year-old Rottweiler with chronic ascites and moderate panhypoproteinaemia that had been treated with large volume paracentesis over several months duration was diagnosed with a large bi-atrial mass and hepatic fibrosis. For palliative treatment, a peritoneo-vesical automated fluid shunt system with an integrated chargeable battery and an integrated computer to control pump function and to transmit data transcutaneously was implanted by coeliotomy. The pump was left in place for 10 weeks, eliminating the need for further paracentesis during this time. At the end of this period, no ascites was discernible and serum protein concentrations had returned to their respective reference intervals. As a complication, decubitus with skin perforation had developed above the pump. Besides palliative treatment of chronic refractory ascites, this pump may have application in other conditions characterised by chronic cavity effusion or in peritoneal dialysis. PMID:22106956

  2. The role of climate on prevalence or eradication of vesical schistosomiasis in Khuzestan Province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidinia, Dariush; Maraghi, Sharif; Azimi, Farideh; Ai, Armin; Shirian, Sadegh

    2016-06-01

    Climate is defined as the combination of climate and air elements of a given region which is usually measured for a period of decades. De-marton climate classification has been established based on many factors, including elements such as temperature and rainfall. Vesicle schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium. This parasite lives in the blood vessels of the bladder. The parasite can cause hematuria in human and if not treated properly can lead to vesicale carcinoma. The parasite is distributed only in certain parts of the province and it is highly dispersed along the rivers of Dez, Karkheh and Karun with high emissions. In 1970, the prevalence of infection in infected foci was 23.8 %. Campaign against the parasite began in 1958 but it did not encompass all centers of infection. Preventive measures include diagnosis and treatment of patients, public health promotion, health education, drying swamps and ponds, improving the environment, cementing the irrigation canals, and the use of moluscocide eventually leads to changing the ecological and conditions of parasite and snail inhabits. Application of preventive measures resulted in the reduction of infection level to 0.7 % in 1979. By continuing struggle and intensifying preventive measures and changing ecological and climatic environment, in 2008, the examination of 3400 urine samples of students in Andimeshk district revealed no cases of the vesical schistosomiasis. It is concluded that S. haematobium and vesical schistosomiasis is eliminated from Khuzestan province southwest Iran, but the disease is still prevalent in neighboring Iran's western border country (Iraq) and due to the special conditions of its facilities and the traffic between the two countries, it is necessary to control and eradicate the disease in Iraq by using the experiences of Iran in eliminating the disease. PMID:27413310

  3. Steamed Sliced Pork with Dried Mustard Cabbage (Meigancai Kourou)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    500 grams pork with skin75 grams dried mustard cabbage10 grams Shaoxing wine50 grams sugar100 grams soy sauce2 grams salt5 grams spring onions5 grams ginger500 grams clear stockClean the pork, soak the dried mustard cabbage until soft, and clean and slice the spring onion and ginger.Braise the pork in a wok, then

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel steroid-linked nitrogen mustards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Bing Zhang; Ji Jun Xue; Xiao Long Zhao; De Gang Liu; Ying Li

    2009-01-01

    Two novel steroid-linked nitrogen mustard conjugates 1a and 1b were synthesized by using estrogenic acid 4 coupled with aniline mustard 8 and phenol mustard 13 in an esterification or amidation procedure. Preliminary cytotoxic screening on cancer cell lines in vitro showed that, the steroid-ester linked nitrogen mustard conjugate la exhibited obvious increasing of activities.

  5. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to detect mustard protein in mustard seed oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Vlooswijk, R.; Bottger, G.; Duijn, G. van; Schaft, P. van der; Dekker, J.; Bemgen, H. van

    2007-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of mustard protein was developed. The assay is based on a polyclonal antiserum directed against a mixture of mustard proteins raised in rabbits. The assay has a detection limit of 1.5 ppm (milligrams per kilogram) and is suitable for the detecti

  6. Inhibition of sulfur mustard-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation by the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin in human respiratory epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Peter E

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM is a potent chemical vesicant warfare agent that remains a significant military and civilian threat. Inhalation of SM gas causes airway inflammation and injury. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence of the effectiveness of macrolide antibiotics in treating chronic airway inflammatory diseases. In this study, the anti-cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of a representative macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin, were tested in vitro using SM-exposed normal human small airway epithelial (SAE cells and bronchial/tracheal epithelial (BTE cells. Cell viability, expression of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF, and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS were examined, since these proinflammatory cytokines/mediators are import indicators of tissue inflammatory responses. We suggest that the influence of roxithromycin on SM-induced inflammatory reaction could play an important therapeutic role in the cytotoxicity exerted by this toxicant. Results MTS assay and Calcein AM/ethidium homodimer (EthD-1 fluorescence staining showed that roxithromycin decreased SM cytotoxicity in both SAE and BTE cells. Also, roxithromycin inhibited the SM-stimulated overproduction of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF at both the protein level and the mRNA level, as measured by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or real-time RT-PCR. In addition, roxithromycin inhibited the SM-induced overexpression of iNOS, as revealed by immunocytochemical analysis using quantum dots as the fluorophore. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that roxithromycin has inhibitory effects on the cytotoxicity and inflammation provoked by SM in human respiratory epithelial cells. The decreased cytotoxicity in roxithromycin-treated cells likely depends on the ability of the macrolide to down-regulate the production of proinflammatory

  7. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  8. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay

    2005-01-01

    A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant. PMID:16394442

  9. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant.

  10. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md. Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at...

  11. Subcutaneous nephro-vesical bypass in the treatment of ureteral obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-guo YANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To sum up the experiences on treating ureteral obstruction in patients with terminal tumor by subcutaneous nephro-vesical bypass.Methods A total of 16 subcutaneous prosthetic ureters were percutaneously implanted into 12 patients(8 unilateral and 4 bilateral for the treatment of ureteral obstruction due to terminal tumor.The tube was inserted into the renal pelvis,tunnelled subcutaneously and introduced in the bladder through a small suprapubic incision.Serum creatinine and renal ultrasonography were evaluated during follow up.Results No operative or immediate postoperative death occurred.The patients were alive with the prosthesis without occurrence of encrustation,infection,or obstruction,and the renal function was normal.The serum creatinine level decreased significantly from 232.2±18.1μmol/L(preoperation to 115.2±17.1μmol/L(postoperation.Conclusions The subcutaneous urinary diversion using Ureteral Bypass Set is an efficient and minimally invasive way to bypass malignant obstructions of the ureters that otherwise would necessitate permanent nephrostomy drainage.With the operation patients may get a better quality of life due to increased independence and activity during their final stage of life.

  12. Extrofia vesical, una anomalía congénita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Rojas Rojas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo descriptivo y representativo de un caso, para el que se utilizó la entrevista, la ultrasonografía y la evaluación del grupo Multidisciplinario de Genética Provincial. La paciente con 23 años de edad, con historia obstetricia de G2 P1 eutócico, clasificado de riesgo genético bajo, se le detectó en el ultrasonido del segundo semestre en la semana de gestación 19.6 una anomalía congénita, diagnosticada como extrofia vesical. Después de encontrado este hallazgo, la gestante fue remitida al Centro Genético Provincial. El equipo facultativo evaluó el caso y decidió la interrupción electiva del embarazo, siendo un feto de 450 gramos del sexo femenino. El resultado final de la anatomía patológica fue: ausencia de fusión del hueso pelviano; malformación de la vulva, clítoris prominente, labios mayores cortos y abiertos; vejiga insertada en la pared abdominal.

  13. Mucoadhesion on pig vesical mucosa: influence of polycarbophil/calcium interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerec, M; Bogataj, M; Mugerle, B; Gasperlin, M; Mrhar, A

    2002-07-01

    The influence of polycarbophil/calcium interactions on the mucoadhesive properties of polycarbophil has been examined. Polycarbophil dispersions and films with different concentrations of calcium or sodium ions were prepared and the following parameters were measured: detachment force on pig vesical mucosa, zeta potential, pH and viscosity. Polycarbophil detachment force decreased significantly in the presence of calcium but not sodium. Both ions decrease the pH of polycarbophil dispersions. On the other hand, altering the pH of hydrated polycarbophil films in the absence of added ions had an insignificant effect on detachment force. Both ions reduce the absolute values of polycarbophil zeta potential, calcium more efficiently than sodium. We could conclude that decreased mucoadhesion strength of polycarbophil in the presence of calcium is due to the chelation of polycarbophil carboxylic groups by calcium and crosslinking of polymer. The crosslinked polymer chains would be expected to be less flexible, and therefore, interpenetrate to a lesser extent with the glycosaminoglycans of mucus. Additionally, the interactions between functional groups of polycarbophil and mucus glycosaminoglycans are lowered due to the calcium, blocking the carboxylic groups. The mechanism of calcium influence on viscosity of polycarbophil dispersions appears to be different: repulsion between ionised carboxylic groups of polycarbophil prevails over the crosslinking of polycarbophil by calcium.

  14. Suppression of Hyperactive Immune Responses Protects against Nitrogen Mustard Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Liemin; Meisch, Jeffrey P.; Das, Lopa M; Binko, Amy M; Boxer, Rebecca S.; Wen, Amy M.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lu, Kurt Q.

    2015-01-01

    DNA alkylating agents like nitrogen mustard (NM) are easily absorbed through the skin and exposure to such agents manifest not only in direct cellular death but also in triggering inflammation. We show that toxicity resulting from topical mustard exposure is mediated in part by initiating exaggerated host innate immune responses. Using an experimental model of skin exposure to NM we observe activation of inflammatory dermal macrophages that exacerbate local tissue damage in an inducible nitri...

  15. ¿Deben realizarse las ecografías renal y vesical en pacientes con mamelones preauriculares? Should renal and vesical ultrasound be performed in patients with preauricular tags?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Tombesi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los niños con malformaciones menores del pabellón auricular son estudiados habitualmente con ecografías renal y vesical, existiendo controversias en cuanto a la validez de esta práctica. Objetivo: Determinar si la prevalencia de malformaciones del tracto urinario es mayor entre niños con mamelones preauriculares aislados que entre aquellos que no los presentan. Población, material y métodos: Entre Junio de 1996 y Junio de 2006, 92 niños con mamelones preauriculares fueron estudiados con ecografía renal y vesical. Se incluyeron en la evaluación a niños sanos con mamelón preauricular aislado. Se excluyeron aquellos con hoyuelos preauriculares, una o más malformaciones menores asociadas, síndromes de malformaciones congénitas múltiples o anomalías mayores identificadas previamente. Ochenta y ocho niños cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Para la comparación estadística se utilizó un grupo control histórico de 300 lactantes sanos sin mamelón, estudiados en forma no concurrente con el grupo estudio y que mostró un prevalencia del 1% de malformaciones urinarias. Se realizó una prueba de hipótesis exacta para una proporción utilizando un nivel de significación del 5%, con el software Epidat 3.1. Resultados: Tres de los 88 niños (3,4% con mamelones preauriculares aislados presentaron malformaciones renales : ectopia renal derecha e hidroureteronefrosis, detectada prenatalmente; agenesia renal izquierda, existiendo antecedentes familiares de malformaciones renales y un quiste cortical simple. No se detectaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con el grupo considerado control histórico (p = 0.11. Conclusión: La prevalencia de malformaciones renales fue similar entre los niños sanos con y sin mamelones preauriculares aislados, por lo que la indicación rutinaria de ecografías renal y vesical no sería necesaria.Introduction: The renal and vesical ultrasound in every patient with

  16. The Mixture of Salvianolic Acids from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Total Flavonoids from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Attenuate Sulfur Mustard-Induced Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a vesicating chemical warfare agent used in numerous military conflicts and remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. Exposure to SM causes the depletion of cellular antioxidant thiols, mainly glutathione (GSH, which may lead to a series of SM-associated toxic responses. MSTF is the mixture of salvianolic acids (SA of Salvia miltiorrhiza and total flavonoids (TFA of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. SA is the main water-soluble phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza. TFA mainly includes mangiferin, isomangiferin and neomangiferin. SA and TFA possess diverse activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In this study, we mainly investigated the therapeutic effects of MSTF on SM toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. Treatment with MSTF 1 h after subcutaneous injection with 3.5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.7 LD50 SM significantly increased the survival levels of rats and attenuated the SM-induced morphological changes in the testis, small intestine and liver tissues. Treatment with MSTF at doses of 60 and 120 mg/kg caused a significant (p < 0.05 reversal in SM-induced GSH depletion. Gene expression profiles revealed that treatment with MSTF had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by SM. Treatment with MSTF prevented SM-induced differential expression of 93.8% (973 genes of 1037 genes. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 36 pathways, such as the MAPK signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, antigen processing and presentation. These data suggest that MSTF attenuates SM-induced injury by increasing GSH and targeting multiple pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway, as well as antigen processing and presentation. These results suggest that MSTF has the potential to be used as a potential therapeutic agent against SM injuries.

  17. Eversión vesical completa a través de una fístula vesicovaginal

    OpenAIRE

    Jhoan Aragón Charry; Eduardo Reyna Villasmil; Joel Santos Bolívar

    2013-01-01

    La eversión vesical completa es rara. Se presenta el caso de una eversión de vejiga urinaria a través de una fístula vesicovaginal acompañada de prolapso útero-vaginal concurrente. Se trata de paciente de 70 años que presentó una tumoración compatible con un prolapso vaginal grado IV y una tumoración edematosa, pegajosa y piriforme por delante del prolapso compatible con la vejiga con un orificio en la pared anterior de la vagina a través del cual la mucosa de la vejiga estaba evertida, proc...

  18. Evaluation of the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall obtained by transurethral intravesical echotomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Radovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC is the most frequent tumor of the bladder and represents 95−98% of blader neoplasams and 2−3% of all carcinomas in the body. In urogenital oncology more frequent is only prostatic cancer. Evaluation of the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall represents the clinical base in treatment planning and prognosis. Clinical investigation and convential radiological procedures have a low level of accuracy in estimating the local growth of the tumor. The aims of our investigation were to determine the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall in the investigated group of patients by transurethral intravesical echotomography (TIE and computerised tomography (CT scan and to compare results obtained by both methods with pathohistological (PH results, and, based on the difference of the results determine which method was more accurate in the evaluation of the depth of infiltration of urothelial carcinoma in the vesical wall. Methods. Thirty patients with TCC of the bladder both genders, aged 51−81 years were involved in our investigation. In all of these patients, radical cystectomy (RC was performed. This was neccessary to provide the defintive PH result. Transurethral intravesical echotomography was performed by ultrasound scanner type 1846 Bruel and Kjaer, sond type 1850, and the CT scan was perfomed by Pace plus, General Electric, U.S.A. The specimen for the definitive PH result obtained by RC includes all standards of the TNM classification. Results. Using CT scan, the most frequent was T1 stage (17 patients or 56.68%. Using TIE, the most frequent was T2 stage (22 patients or 73.33%. After RC the most frequent was T2 stage (21 patients or 70%. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, showed a high significant difference between the results obtained using CT and definitive PH results after RC. The same test showed no statistically significant difference between

  19. [Mustard gas bombs found astray in the Faxaflói bay. Mustard gas: usage and poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsson, Jakop; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2009-05-01

    The finding in 1972 of two World War II mustard gas artillery shells in crushed shell sediment dredged in the Faxaflói Bay and transported as raw material for cement production at Akranes (Western Iceland) is reported. One of the shells was wedged in a stone crusher in the raw material processing line and was ruptured. As a result dark fluid with a garlic like smell seeped out from the metal canister. The attending employees believed the metal object to be inert and tried to cut it out with a blow torch. This resulted in the explosion of the shell charge and in the exposure of four employees to mustard gas. All suffered burns on their hands and two of them in the eyes also. The second shell was detonated in the open at a distance from the factory. Emphasis is given to the fact that instant, or at least as soon as possible, cleansing and washing is the most efficient measure to be taken against the debilitating effects of mustard gas. It is also pointed out that the active principle in mustard gas (dichlorodiethyl sulphide) can easily be synthesized and none of the precursor substances are subjected to any restrictions of use. The authors conclude that mustard gas bombs may still be found in the arsenals of some military powers in spite of an international convention that prohibits the production, stockpiling and the use of chemical weapons. Terrorist groups have also seemingly tried to aquire mustard gas bombs and other chemical weapons. Therefore cases of mustard gas poisoning might still occur. PMID:19430031

  20. Novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Ayala, Maria; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maroto, Aroa S; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-Garcia, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Perez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-09-15

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19±3mg/kg) where mustard content is not specified. Sin a 1, used as an internal standard, allowed quantification of this mustard allergen in foods. A novel LC/MS/MS SRM-based method has been developed to detect and quantify the presence of mustard. This method could help to detect mustard allergen Sin a 1 in processed foods and protect mustard-allergic consumers.

  1. Infecções urinárias e uso de cateter vesical de demora em unidade pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Iranilda Queirós

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue identificar los agentes etiológicos de infección urinaria en niños sometidos al cateterismo vesical prolongado, ingresados en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, el tiempo de uso y la indicación de ese catéter. La población estuvo constituida por niños atendidos en la Unidad Pedlátríca de un hospital escuela, de julio a diciembre/ 2006. Los datos fueron recogidos de los historiales médicos de 38 niños que usaban sonda vesical prolongada. La principal indicación del cateterismo fue el monitoreo del débito urinario. El tiempo de uso del catéter vesical 21 (55,3% fue de 7 a 30 días, 14 (36,8% 30 días. El principal agente etiológico evidenciado fue el Escheríchia con (2,6%. Se constató que los niños que utilizaron catéter vesical prolongado presentaron un considerable índice de infección urinaria de acuerdo con los datos de la literatura.

  2. Characterization of mustard seeds and paste by DART ionization with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchalová, Jana; Kovařík, František; Ševčík, Rudolf; Čížková, Helena; Rajchl, Aleš

    2014-09-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) is a novel technique with great potential for rapid screening analysis. The DART ionization method coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) has been used for characterization of mustard seeds and table mustard. The possibility to use DART to analyse glucosinolates was confirmed on determination of sinalbin (4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate). The DART-TOF-MS method was optimized and validated. A set of samples of mustard seeds and mustard products was analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography and DART-TOF-MS were used to determine glucosinolates in mustard seeds and compared. The correlation equation between these methods was DART = 0.797*HPLC + 6.987, R(2)  = 0.972. The DART technique seems to be a suitable method for evaluation of the quality of mustard seeds and mustard products. PMID:25230177

  3. Fatores associados à bacteriúria após sondagem vesical na cirurgia ginecológica Factors associated with bacteriuria after indwelling urethral catheterization in gynecologic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Cristina Araújo Hinrichsen; Alex Sandro Rolland Souza; Aurélio Costa; Melania Maria Ramos Amorim; Maria Gabriela M.L. Hinrichsen; Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Determinar a frequência e os principais fatores associados à bacteriúria após a sondagem vesical em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo do tipo coorte em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica após sondagem vesical no Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, no período de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas até 24 horas após a retirada da sonda e 7/10 dias após a sondagem vesical. A análise estat...

  4. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3 and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 mg/kg was used and for other analogues, equimolar dose of DRDE-07 was used. For amifostine, N-acetyl cysteine, melatonin and sodium thiosulphate, oral dose was 185 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg respectively. The animals were observed for mortality for 14 days. The protection index (PI was calculated as a ratio of LD50 with treatment to LD50 without treatment. The protection of the antidotes was also determined by intraperitoneal route and half of the oral dose of the antidotes was given. The estimated percutaneous LD50 of HN-1, HN-2, HN-3 and sulphur mustard was 11.9 mg/kg, 20.0 mg/kg, 7.1 mg/kg and 7.1 mg/kg, respectively. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-1 were DRDE-10 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-2 were amifostine, DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-30, DRDE-35 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-3 were amifostine, DRDE-30, DRDE-35, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin with a PI of 1.7. In the case of sulphur mustard, DRDE-07, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30, and DRDE-35 gave a good protection with a PI of more than 5.0. Amifostine and sodium thiosulphate gave a PI of 4.5 and 4.0, respectively, while DRDE-09, N-acetyl cysteine and melatonin gave less protection against sulphur mustard. Intraperitoneally administered amifostine, DRDE-30, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin gave marginal protection against HN-2 with a PI of 1.2, while

  5. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  6. A RARE CASE OF LARGE VESICAL CALCULUS AROUND A PROL ONGED DOUBLE J STENT: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kr.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: D/J stents constitute an important armamentarium in the hands of an urosurgeon. During short term placement (4-12 weeks, they may c ause flank pain and irritative voiding symptoms, referred to as “stent syndrome.” Complicati ons occur in patients with long term placement of stents who do not come for follow-up - t he forgotten stent. We report a female case with something coming out from external meatus since 2 days with past history of open surgery for right PUJ obstruction with D/J stent in sertion 9 years ago. X-ray KUB & USG abdomen shows a huge vesical calculus around remain ing of the D/J stent. We operated the case with good outcome. This type of rare presentation o f D/J stent motivate us to report this case

  7. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  8. Shrubby Reed-Mustard Habitat: Parent Material, Soil, and Landscape Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L. S.; Boettinger, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Shrubby reed-mustard (Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, a.k.a. Schoenocrambe suffrutescens, Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, or Hesperidanthus suffrutescens) is an endangered perennial shrub endemic to the southern Uinta Basin in northeast Utah. Only seven populations of shrubby reed-mustard have been identified. The arid area where the plant grows is rich in natural gas and oil deposits, as well as oil shale. Oil wells already dot the landscape, and there is significant concern that further development of these resources will threaten the continued existence of shrubby reed-mustard. Determination of the parent material, soil and landscape characteristics associated with shrubby reed-mustard habitat is imperative to facilitate conservation management. Shrubby reed-mustard grows where little else does and, based on field observations and remotely sensed spectral data, appears to occur in a particular type of strata. Our objective is to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of shrubby reed-mustard's environment. Site characteristics such as parent material and associated vegetation have been identified and documented. Soil properties such as water-soluble and total leachable elements, particle-size distribution, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium are being determined. During the course of this investigation, soils within four shrubby reed-mustard habitat areas were sampled. Soils from non-shrubby reed-mustard areas adjacent to the four shrubby reed-mustard populations were also sampled. Soil samples were collected from a total of twenty-five shrubby reed-mustard soil pits and twenty-four non-shrubby reed-mustard soil pits. The soil horizons of each pedon were delineated, and samples were collected from each horizon. Field data indicate that shrubby reed-mustard occurs exclusively in shale-derived, shallow soils on bedrock-controlled uplands. Although there is some overlap of plant species on both types

  9. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  10. Efficacy of Treatments against Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Effects on Forest Understory Plant Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew J. Storer; Shartell, Lindsey M.; Nagel, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    Garlic mustard, an invasive exotic biennial herb, has been identified in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, but is not yet widely distributed. We tested the effectiveness and impact of management tools for garlic mustard in northern hardwood forests. Six treatment types (no treatment control, hand-pull, herbicide, hand-pull/herbicide, scorch, and hand-pull/scorch) were applied within a northern hardwood forest invaded by garlic mustard. We sampled understory vegetation within plots to compare g...

  11. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  12. Resource Use Efficiency of Mustard Production in Chitwan District of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    S.C. Dhakal; Regmi, P.P.; R.B. Thapa; S.K. Sah; D.B. Khatri-Chhetri

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the profitability and resource use efficiency of mustard production in Chitwan. The study used 159 mustard growers from 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data which were collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.43) indicates that mustard production was profitable with productivity of 0.81 ton per ha. T...

  13. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  14. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. PMID:24025044

  15. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance.

  16. Sulfur mustard toxicity: history, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Panahi, Yunes; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2011-05-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) and similar bifunctional agents have been used as chemical weapons for almost 100 years. Victims of high-dose exposure, both combatants and civilians, may die within hours or weeks, but low-dose exposure causes both acute injury to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other parts of the body, and chronic sequelae in these organs are often debilitating and have a serious impact on quality of life. Ever since they were first used in warfare in 1917, SM and other mustard agents have been the subjects of intensive research, and their chemistry, pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of toxic action are now fairly well understood. In the present article we review this knowledge and relate the molecular-biological basis of SM toxicity, as far as it has been elucidated, to the pathological effects on exposure victims.

  17. Sulfur mustard toxicity: history, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Panahi, Yunes; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2011-05-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) and similar bifunctional agents have been used as chemical weapons for almost 100 years. Victims of high-dose exposure, both combatants and civilians, may die within hours or weeks, but low-dose exposure causes both acute injury to the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other parts of the body, and chronic sequelae in these organs are often debilitating and have a serious impact on quality of life. Ever since they were first used in warfare in 1917, SM and other mustard agents have been the subjects of intensive research, and their chemistry, pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of toxic action are now fairly well understood. In the present article we review this knowledge and relate the molecular-biological basis of SM toxicity, as far as it has been elucidated, to the pathological effects on exposure victims. PMID:21329486

  18. Optimized verification method for detection of an albumin-sulfur mustard adduct at Cys(34) using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer after direct plasma proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Siegert, Markus; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; Kranawetvogl, Andreas; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-02-26

    The vesicant sulfur mustard (SM) is a banned chemical warfare agent that is controlled by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). Bioanalytical procedures are mandatory for proving an alleged use and incorporation of SM into the body. We herein present the development and application of a novel optimized procedure suitable for qualitative verification analysis of plasma targeting the SM-adduct of human serum albumin (HSA) alkylated at the cysteine(34) residue. Diluted human plasma is directly mixed with pronase in an ultrafiltration device (10kDa cut-off) for proteolysis (4h, 37°C). Following ultrafiltration the filtrate is diluted and analyzed by microbore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization high resolution tandem-mass spectrometry (μLC-ESI HR MS/MS) targeting the alkylated dipeptide hydroxyethylthioethyl-CysPro (HETE-CP). A hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer provided high mass spectrometric resolution in the MS/MS mode enabling highest selectivity and sensitivity (lower limit of detection corresponding to 9.8nM SM in plasma). Kinetics of HETE-CP formation from heparin-, citrate-, and EDTA-plasma as well as serum are presented and the influence of different EDTA and pronase concentrations was characterized. The novel procedure was applied to plasma samples provided by the OPCW as well as to patientś plasma derived from real cases of SM-poisoning. PMID:26449527

  19. Seasonal changes in radiation penetration within mustard crop canopy

    OpenAIRE

    Adak, Tarun; Chakravarty, NVK

    2012-01-01

    Green leaf area index, dry matter production and economic seed yield are significantly influenced by dynamics of radiation penetration within oilseed crop canopy. Keeping this in view, following a two years field experiment with Indian mustard cultivars in IARI research farm, it was revealed that the radiation penetration at the early crop growth stage was high and then decreased within the canopy as the leaf area developed. The study indicated significant seasonal changes in radiation penetr...

  20. Determination of tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate in leather by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with mixed-mode sorbent solid phase extraction%混合模式吸附剂固相萃取-气相色谱-质谱法测定皮革中的磷酸三(2-氯乙基)酯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟亚; 朱玉玲; 王成云; 李丽霞; 张珺清; 邢钧

    2014-01-01

    磷酸三(2-氯乙基)酯(TCEP)是一种皮革生产中常用的加工助剂,其具有致癌、神经毒性和生殖毒性,被欧洲化学品管理局列入禁用的第二批授权物质清单。由于皮革产品基质复杂,采用常用的固相萃取( SPE)方法提取对TCEP的回收率不高。Silica-WCX是一种自制的含有羧基与烷基的新型混合模式吸附剂。研究表明,通过在酸性条件下使其羧基保持质子化状态,能有效增强 Silica-WCX 对极性化合物 TCEP 的萃取性能,使 TCEP 的回收率得到明显提高。本文以 Silica-WCX为 SPE材料,建立了测定皮革中 TCEP的 SPE-GC-MS方法。该方法的线性范围为0.10~100.0μg/L,定量限( S/N=10)为44.46 ng/kg,不同添加水平下 TCEP的平均回收率在91.45%~99.98%之间,相对标准偏差( RSD)在4.33%~5.97%之间。该方法简便快捷,灵敏度高,定量限低于欧盟《化学品的注册、评估、授权和限制》( registration,evaluation,authorization and restriction of chemicals,REACH)法规的限量要求,适用于皮革及其制品中 TCEP的测定。%Leather is one of the important exporting products to European Union( EU ),and tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate(TCEP)is a commonly used flame retardant in leather and leath-er products. Recently,TCEP has been classified as a kind of substance of very high concern (SVHC)by EU for its carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity. But to date,there is not a rec-ognized method for the determination of TCEP in leather and leather products due to the seri-ous matrix interferences and relatively low recovery of TCEP. In this work,a home-made mixed-mode sorbent( Silica-WCX)with carboxyl and alkyl groups was tested as the sorbent of solid phase extraction( SPE ) to extract TECP from leather. The results demonstrated that, making the carboxyl groups protonized under acidic condition,Silica-WCX exhibited better ex-traction performance towards TCEP

  1. Topical cyclosporine A for mustard gas induced ocular surface disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosrow Jadidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A 0.05% for treatment of mustard gas-induced ocular surface disorders with special attention to conjunctival goblet cell density in patients with severe dry eye. Methods: This prospective clinical study included 20 eyes of 20 patients previously exposed to mustard gas with dry eye syndrome unresponsive to artificial tears. Before and after treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% twice daily for 3 months, subjects were evaluated for improvement in symptoms using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI and signs by tear breakup time (TBUT, Schirmer test and measurement of superior bulbar conjunctival goblet cell density. Limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD and the degree of corneal squamous cell metaplasia were also assessed before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, mean OSDI score, Schirmer test I value and mean TBUT were 42.8 ± 6.1, 4.2 ± 1.2 mm and 2.5 ± 1.3 s, respectively. After 3 months of treatment with topical cyclosporine A, these scores reached 36.4 ± 5.2, 5.8 ± 1.6 mm and 4.9 ± 2.1 s, respectively showing a statistically significant improvement (P 0.05. Conclusion: Treatment with topical cyclosporine A 0.05% in patients with severe dry eye due to mustard gas injury increases goblet cell density in the bulbar conjunctiva and improves symptoms of the disease.

  2. A case of rectovagino-vesical fistula due to radiation therapy for uterine cancer treated with covered expandable metallic stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsukasa, Shunroh; Okabe, Satoshi; Tanami, Hideaki [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2002-04-01

    A 65-year-old woman had received a panhysterectomy and radiation therapy for a uterine cancer in 1974 and underwent a drainage operation for a peritonitis due to rupture of the bladder associated with radiation cystitis in 1983. A rectovesical fistula was revealed and partial resection of the bladder and rectum was performed in 1996. In 1998, rectovesical fistula recurred and symptom of fecaluria and contact-type dermatitis at perineal region subsequently worsened. In February, 2000, colonoscopy and gastrograffin-enema revealed a giant recto-vagino-vesical fistula. Although we recommended ileostomy, the patient refused our offer. She gave informed consent to our proposal about the insertion of a covered expandable metallic stent (EMS) into the rectum to treat for fecaluria. After insertion of a covered EMS, fecaluria and contact-type dermatitis at perineal region subsequently improved. Three months later, fecaluria appeared again. Finally, seven months later, severe inflammation occurred at perineal and pubic region because of migration of the covered EMS into the bladder, then we removed the covered EMS and performed ileostomy. It is difficult to use the covered EMS treatment for benign rectovesical or rectovaginal fistula for a long term. (author)

  3. Clinical Observation on Treatment of 43 Cases of Diabetic Vesical Pathological Changes by Needle-warming Moxibustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; DENG Xiao-hua; CHEN Hong-tao; SU Chang-ming; HUANG Guo-qi

    2004-01-01

    By the needle-warming moxibustion, 43 cases of diabetic vesical pathological changes,together with 43 cases in the control group, were treated for 30 days, to observe the times of urination,volume of urine and residual urine inside the bladder before and after treatment every day. It has been indicated in observation that needle-warming acupuncture therapy can decrease the time of urination every day, elevate the urine volume each time and decrease the residual urine in the bladder, with a significant difference (P>0.05) in comparison with before the treatment.%运用温针灸治疗糖尿病性膀胱病变43例,设对照组43例,共治疗30d.分别于治疗前后观察每日排尿次数、每次尿量、膀胱残余尿量.观察结果表明温针灸疗法能够减少每日排尿次数,提高每次尿量,减少膀胱残余尿量,同治疗前相比差异显著(P>0.05).

  4. Eversión vesical completa a través de una fístula vesicovaginal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhoan Aragón Charry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La eversión vesical completa es rara. Se presenta el caso de una eversión de vejiga urinaria a través de una fístula vesicovaginal acompañada de prolapso útero-vaginal concurrente. Se trata de paciente de 70 años que presentó una tumoración compatible con un prolapso vaginal grado IV y una tumoración edematosa, pegajosa y piriforme por delante del prolapso compatible con la vejiga con un orificio en la pared anterior de la vagina a través del cual la mucosa de la vejiga estaba evertida, procediendo al reposicionamiento y corrección manual de la eversión para luego ser corregida quirúrgicamente. Complete bladder eversion through vesicovaginal fistula Abstract Complete bladder eversion is rare. A case of bladder eversion trough vesicovaginal fistula accompanied with concomitant uterovaginal prolapse is presented. A 70 year-old patients presented a tumor compatible with vaginal prolapse type IV and an edematous, sticky and piriform tumor ahead of prolapse compatible with bladder with an orifice on anterior wall of vagina through bladder mucosa was everted, proceeding to reduction and manual correction of eversion and then was surgical corrected.

  5. Nitrogen mustard derivated from adiphenine. Synthesis and 14C labelling. Antitumor activity and tissular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of a new nitrogen mustard 14C is described. The compound is found to be active in intraperitoneal murine L 1210 and P 388 tumors. Preliminary tissue distribution studies after i.v. administration to rats and mice show that the mustard and/or its metabolites partially cross the blood-brain barrier

  6. Phytocontact Dermatitis due to Mustard Seed Mimicking Burn Injury: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yabanoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustard seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine as a stimulant, diuretic, and purgative and to treat a variety of ailments including peritonitis and neuralgia. Mustards are still used today in mustard plasters to treat rheumatism, arthritis, chest congestion, aching back, and sore muscles. To make a mustard plaster, mix equal parts of flour and powdered mustard and spread it as a paste on a doubled piece of soft cloth. Apply mustard plaster to the affected area for a maximum of 15 minutes. Prolonged application can result in burns to the skin and nerve damage. Skin lesions occur within hours after exposure, and there is no significant therapy procedure. This case report is about a patient with second-degree burn, occurred when a mixture including mustard seed was exposed to her skin in the pain therapy of the osteoarthritis in her left knee. There are no studies analyzing treatment of skin burns induced by mustard seed in the literature. While in this type of burns our experience is limited, we think that conservative approach should be first choice of treatment.

  7. Protection of chymotrypsin from inactivation by a N-mustard analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, A S; Koenig, M J

    1995-02-01

    Chymotrypsin activity is rapidly inactivated by the N-mustard anti-tumor drug, chlorambucil. Since mustards react with thiols, amines, carboxyls, imidazoles, and sulfide sites on proteins, N-acetylcysteine, 2 proprietary protein hydrolyzates, beta-mercaptoethanol, ethanolamine, and sodium lactate were tested for their capacity to protect chymotrypsin from inactivation by the mustard. In each instance, protection was afforded to chymotrypsin. In as much as N-acetylcysteine protected chymotrypsin from inactivation by chlorambucil, it is suggested that this thiol compound may serve as a detoxication agent and may not require prior transformation into glutathione by cells in order to reduce mustard levels within the cells, as suggested by Smith and Gross (Proceedings of the NATO Panel VIII meeting, Grenoble, France, 1991.) It is further suggested that amino acids present as biosynthetic and degradative components of cells may detoxify mustards. PMID:7701511

  8. Effect of Different Concentration of Whole Yellow Mustard on Color of Commercial Tomato Ketchup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morvarid Yousefi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ketchup is one of most important of tomato products. To increase the consistency, some hydrocolloid such as Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC should be added into the final products. However, CMC is a chemical product and has been shown some defects in point of health view as well as functional properties. Therefore, some alternatives are introduced. In this study, the effect of different concentration whole Yellow mustard on color of ketchup has been considered. The control was modified with increasing the different concentration of yellow mustard. For each sample, the color parameters in CIELAB color space were determined. The results were compared with the control sample which includes nothing of mustard. Results have shown for a concentration of 1.5% of yellow mustard the color properties of the product didn’t differ very much from the standard color quality. This is an important point to replace CMC by yellow mustard.

  9. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability.

  10. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. PMID:25156799

  11. Covalent adduction of nitrogen mustards to model protein nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vanessa R; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2013-08-19

    Protein adducts have the potential to serve as unique biomarkers of exposure to compounds of interest. Many xenobiotics (or their metabolites) are electrophilic and therefore reactive with nucleophilic amino acid residues on proteins. Nitrogen mustards are reactive xenobiotics with potential use as chemical warfare agents (CWA) or agents of terrorist attack, in addition to being employed as chemotherapeutic agents. The present study utilized cysteine-, lysine-, and histidine-containing model peptides to characterize in vitro adduction of the nitrogen mustards mechloroethamine (HN-2) and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine (HN-3) to these nucleophilic amino acid residues by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The study assessed the structure of adducts formed, the time course of adduct formation, concentration-response relationships, and temporal stability of adducts. Adduction was hypothesized to occur on all three model peptides via initial formation of a reactive aziridinium intermediate for both mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine, followed by covalent adduction to nucleophilic residues. While adduction was found to occur most readily with cysteine, it was also observed at lysine and histidine, demonstrating that adduction by mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine is possible at multiple nucleophilic sites. Following solid phase extraction cleanup, adducts formed with mechloroethamine were stable for up to three weeks. Adducts formed with tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine were less stable; however, hydrolyzed secondary adducts were observed throughout the three week period. This study demonstrates that the nitrogen mustards mechloroethamine and tris-(2-chlorethyl)amine form stable adducts with reactive protein nucleophiles other than cysteine. PMID:23859065

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells are highly resistant to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Annette; Scherer, Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    The effect of sulfur mustard (SM) to the direct injured tissues of the skin, eyes and airways is well investigated. Little is known about the effect of SM to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, this is an interesting aspect. Comparing the clinical picture of SM it is known today that MSC play an important role e.g. in chronic impaired wound healing. Therefore we wanted to get an understanding about how SM affects MSC and if these findings might become useful to get a better understanding of the effect of sulfur mustard gas with respect to skin wounds. We used mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from femoral heads from healthy donors and treated them with a wide range of SM to ascertain the dose-response-curve. With the determined inhibitory concentrations IC1 (1μM), IC5 (10μM), IC10 (20μM) and IC25 (40μM) we did further investigations. We analyzed the migratory ability and the differentiation capacity under influence of SM. Already very low concentrations of SM demonstrated a strong effect to the migratory activity whereas the differentiation capacity seemed not to be affected. Putting these findings together it seems to be likely that a link between MSC and the impaired wound healing after SM exposure might exist. Same as in patients with chronic impaired wound healing MSC had shown a reduced migratory activity. The fact that MSC are able to tolerate very high concentrations of SM and still do not lose their differentiation capacity may reveal new ways of treating wounds caused by sulfur mustard. PMID:23933411

  13. Interaction of sulfur mustard with rat liver salt fractionated chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahvash; Nateghi, M; Rabbani, A

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the interaction of an alkylating agent, sulfur mustard (SM) with rat liver active (S1 and S2) and inactive (P2) chromatin was investigated employing UV/vis spectroscopy and gel electrophoreses. The results show that SM affects the chromatin structure in a dose-dependent manner. The binding of SM to fractions is different. At lower concentrations (<500 microM), SM seems to unfold the structure and at higher concentrations, it induces aggregation and condensation of chromatin possibly via forming cross-links between the chromatin components. The extent of condensation in S2 is higher when compared to the P2 fraction.

  14. Emerging targets for treating sulfur mustard-induced injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shama; Ahmad, Aftab

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM; bis-(2-chlororethyl) sulfide) is a highly reactive, potent warfare agent that has recently reemerged as a major threat to military and civilians. Exposure to SM is often fatal, primarily due to pulmonary injuries and complications caused by its inhalation. Profound inflammation, hypercoagulation, and oxidative stress are the hallmarks that define SM-induced pulmonary toxicities. Despite advances, effective therapies are still limited. This current review focuses on inflammatory and coagulation pathways that influence the airway pathophysiology of SM poisoning and highlights the complexity of developing an effective therapeutic target. PMID:27285828

  15. Sulfur mustard destruction using ozone, UV, hydrogen peroxide and their combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popiel, Stanislaw [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego-Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: spopiel@wat.edu.pl; Witkiewicz, Zygfryd [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego-Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); ' Jan Kochanowski' Swietokrzyska Academy, Institute of Chemistry, 5, Checinska-Street, 25-020 Kielce (Poland); Chrzanowski, Michal [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego-Street, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2008-05-01

    Numerous methods are used for destruction of sulfur mustard. Oxidation is one of those methods. There have been only limited data concerning application of the advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) for mustard destruction available before. In this study sulfur mustard oxidation rate depending on kind of the oxidative system and process parameters used was assessed using selected AOT. The following were selected for mustard oxidation: ozone (O{sub 3}), UV light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}); double systems: UV/O{sub 3}, UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; a triple system: O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and Fenton reaction. Effectiveness of the selected AOT methods has been evaluated and the most suitable one for mustard destruction was chosen. Using ozone in various combinations with hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation mustard can be destroyed much quicker comparing to the classical oxidizers. Fast mustard oxidation (a few minutes) occurred in those systems where ozone alone was used, or in the following combinations: O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}/UV and O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV. When those advanced oxidation technologies are used, mustard becomes destroyed mainly in course of the direct oxidation with ozone, and reactions of mustard with radicals formed due to ozone action play a secondary role. Rate of sulfur mustard oxidation in the above mentioned ozone-containing oxidative systems decreases with pH value increasing from 2 to 12. Only when pH value of reaction solutions is close to pH 5, mustard oxidation rate is minimal, probably due to 'disappearance' of radicals participating in oxidation in this pH. Sulfur mustard can be most effectively destroyed using just ozone in pH 7. In that case mustard destruction rate is only slightly lower than the rate achieved in optimal conditions, and the system is the simplest.

  16. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. Cosson: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Shekhawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation of rapeseed-mustard becomes less remunerative to the farmers. This results in a big gap between requirement and production of mustard in India. Therefore site-specific nutrient management through soil-test recommendation based should be adopted to improve upon the existing yield levels obtained at farmers field. Effective management of natural resources, integrated approach to plant-water, nutrient and pest management and extension of rapeseed-mustard cultivation to newer areas under different cropping systems will play a key role in further increasing and stabilizing the productivity and production of rapeseed-mustard. The paper reviews the advances in proper land and seedbed preparation, optimum seed and sowing, planting technique, crop geometry, plant canopy, appropriate cropping system, integrated nutrient management and so forth to meet the ever growing demand of oil in the country and to realize the goal of production of 24 million tonnes of oilseed by 2020 AD through these advanced management techniques.

  17. Mustard gas toxicity: the acute and chronic pathological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabili, Kamyar; Agutter, Paul S; Ghanei, Mostafa; Ansarin, Khalil; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2010-10-01

    Ever since it was first used in armed conflict, mustard gas (sulfur mustard, MG) has been known to cause a wide range of acute and chronic injuries to exposure victims. The earliest descriptions of these injuries were published during and in the immediate aftermath of the First World War, and a further series of accounts followed the Second World War. More recently, MG has been deployed in warfare in the Middle East and this resulted in large numbers of victims, whose conditions have been studied in detail at hospitals in the region. In this review, we bring together the older and more recent clinical studies on MG toxicity and summarize what is now known about the acute and chronic effects of the agent on the eyes, skin, respiratory tract and other physiological systems. In the majority of patients, the most clinically serious long-term consequences of MG poisoning are on the respiratory system, but the effects on the skin and other systems also have a significant impact on quality of life. Aspects of the management of these patients are discussed.

  18. Mustard catch crop enhances denitrification in shallow groundwater beneath a spring barley field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, M M R; Minet, E P; Johnston, P; Premrov, A; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Richards, K G

    2014-05-01

    Over-winter green cover crops have been reported to increase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in groundwater, which can be used as an energy source for denitrifiers. This study investigates the impact of a mustard catch crop on in situ denitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an aquifer overlain by arable land. Denitrification rates and N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) mole fractions were measured in situ with a push-pull method in shallow groundwater under a spring barley system in experimental plots with and without a mustard cover crop. The results suggest that a mustard cover crop could substantially enhance reduction of groundwater nitrate NO3--N via denitrification without significantly increasing N2O emissions. Mean total denitrification (TDN) rates below mustard cover crop and no cover crop were 7.61 and 0.002 μg kg(-1) d(-1), respectively. Estimated N2O-N/(N2O-N+N2-N) ratios, being 0.001 and 1.0 below mustard cover crop and no cover crop respectively, indicate that denitrification below mustard cover crop reduces N2O to N2, unlike the plot with no cover crop. The observed enhanced denitrification under the mustard cover crop may result from the higher groundwater DOC under mustard cover crop (1.53 mg L(-1)) than no cover crop (0.90 mg L(-1)) being added by the root exudates and root masses of mustard. This study gives insights into the missing piece in agricultural nitrogen (N) balance and groundwater derived N2O emissions under arable land and thus helps minimise the uncertainty in agricultural N and N2O-N balances.

  19. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. Cosson): An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Chauhan; Kandpal, B. K.; O. P. Premi; Kapila Shekhawat; Rathore, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation...

  20. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  1. Litiasis vesical por cuerpo extraño en vejiga. Presentación de un caso clínico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norys Sofía Aguiar Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La litiasis vesical es una patología frecuente en el sexo masculino mayor de 50 años. Los cálculos vesicales en la mujer son muy raros y usualmente están asociados a divertículo uretral o a ureterocele (7,8 dentro de las causas de litiasis vesical está la presencia de cuerpos extraños, como en el caso de mujeres operadas de incontinencia urinaria y la formación de litiasis a partir de restos de suturas, es importante sospechar la presencia de cuerpo extraño en la vejiga ante una paciente en edad fértil, con disuria y sepsis urinaria a repetición. Se presenta un caso clínico de una mujer con sepsis urinaria rebelde a tratamiento y disuria mantenida. Se diagnostica por cistoscopía la presencia de una litiasis urinaria en vejiga, es intervenida quirúrgicamente encontrándose una litiasis a partir de una guía de un Dispositivo Intrauterino (DIU que perforó la vejiga.

  2. Effect of mustard seed and sodium isoascorbate on lipid oxidation and colour of ground beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karwowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the mustard seed in reducing lipid oxidation in ground beef compared to sodium isoascorbate. The research material were meat samples, prepared in four variants. The differentiating addition was ground white mustard (Sinapis alba, used in the native and autoclaved form. Reference were a control sample and a sample with the addition of sodium isoascorbate. The following were assayed during the study: TBARS value, redox potential, pH and colour parameters CIE L*a*b*. The addition of mustard had no effect on the pH value in comparison to the control sample and sodium isoascorbate. It has been shown that the use of mustard either native and autoclaved, decreased the value of TBARS ratio, and showed a similar effectiveness in preventing the oxidation of lipids as sodium isoascorbate.

  3. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  4. Mustard oils and cannabinoids excite sensory nerve fibres through the TRP channel ANKTM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordt, Sven-Eric; Bautista, Diana M; Chuang, Huai-Hu; McKemy, David D; Zygmunt, Peter M; Högestätt, Edward D; Meng, Ian D; Julius, David

    2004-01-15

    Wasabi, horseradish and mustard owe their pungency to isothiocyanate compounds. Topical application of mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) to the skin activates underlying sensory nerve endings, thereby producing pain, inflammation and robust hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Despite their widespread use in both the kitchen and the laboratory, the molecular mechanism through which isothiocyanates mediate their effects remains unknown. Here we show that mustard oil depolarizes a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are also activated by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in chilli peppers, and by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Both allyl isothiocyanate and THC mediate their excitatory effects by activating ANKTM1, a member of the TRP ion channel family recently implicated in the detection of noxious cold. These findings identify a cellular and molecular target for the pungent action of mustard oils and support an emerging role for TRP channels as ionotropic cannabinoid receptors. PMID:14712238

  5. Influence of antiplatelet-anticoagulant drugs on the need of blood components transfusion after vesical transurethral resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Julio Virseda-Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of the antithrombotic preventive therapy on haemorrhage keeps uncertain. We investigate the influence of the antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs (AP/AC drugs on the transfusion requirement after vesical transurethral resection (VTUR. We also describe the epidemiology of the blood components transfusion in our department. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study of a series of patients needing blood transfusion at the Urology Department between June 2010 and June 2013. Selection of 100 consecutive patients who were transfused after VTUR due to bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC (group A = GA. Control group: 100 consecutive patients who underwent VTUR due to BTCC and were not transfused (group B = GB. Transfusion criteria: Haemoglobin < 8 g/dl + anaemia symptoms. Age, gender, associated AP/AC treatment, secondary diagnoses, toxics, tumour stage and grade were analysed. Results: 212 patients required transfusion of a blood component. 169 were men (79% and 43 women (21%. Median age 77.59 years (SD 9.42, range 50-92. Secondary diagnoses: Diabetes Mellitus 64%, high blood pressure 77%, dyslipidemia 52%. 60% of patients were previously treated with AP/AC drugs. Average Haemoglobin pre-transfusion values: 7.4 g/dl (DE ± 0.7. Average Haemoglobin post-transfusion values: 8.9 g/Dl (DE ± 0.72. Most frequent transfusion indications were bladder cancer (37%, kidney cancer (11%, prostate cancer (8%, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BHP (8%, other urological diagnoses (36%. Intraoperative transfusions indicated by the anaesthesiologist: kidney cancer (33%, BPH (28%. Patients who underwent VTUR due to BTCC were older in GA (77.59 years SD 9.42 than in GB (68.98 years SD 11.78 (p = 0.0001. Similar gender distribution (15 women in GA and 24 in GB. Less patients were asked to keep their treatment with ASA 100mg (AcetylSalicylicAcid in GA (25.64% than in GB (50% (p = 0.0330. More aggressive tumour grade in GA (p = 0.0003 and

  6. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on bologna sausages by an antimicrobial film containing mustard extract or sinigrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Lledó, Marta; Olaimat, Amin; Holley, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    The ability of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes to convert glucosinolates into antimicrobial isothiocyanates was investigated. Mustard glucosinolates in pure (sinigrin) or extract forms (sinigrin, oriental; sinalbin, yellow mustard) were used in broth media and in a polyvinyl polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PPG) packaging film with bologna to examine their value as antimicrobial precursors for the control of L. monocytogenes viability and extension of bologna shelf-life at 4 °C. During broth tests with deodorized (myrosinase-inactivated) mustard extracts (10 d at 20 °C) or with purified sinigrin (21 d at 20 °C) L. monocytogenes was only inhibited when exogenous myrosinase was added. None the less, the organism was able to hydrolyze almost half the pure sinigrin by 21 d in tests without added enzyme. Reductions in sinigrin levels were measured by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and in the absence of L. monocytogenes or added myrosinase the glucosinolate was stable. When pure sinigrin, oriental or yellow mustard extracts were incorporated in PPG films containing 3, 5 and 6% (w/w) of the corresponding glucosinolate and used to package bologna inoculated with 4 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes, the pathogen became undetectable in bologna packed with the oriental mustard extract at 52 d storage and remained undetectable at 70 d. The yellow mustard extract was less inhibitory and the pure sinigrin was not antimicrobial. L. monocytogenes numbers reached >7 log CFU/g in the film and untreated controls at 17 d storage. At 35 d storage, samples packed with control film contained sufficient numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (>7 log CFU/g) to be considered spoiled, whereas treatments containing mustard or sinigrin remained <7 log CFU/g LAB for ≤ 70 d. L. monocytogenes played a key role in exerting control over its own viability in bologna by hydrolysis of the glucosinolate in the oriental mustard film, but other antimicrobials in treatments may have contributed. PMID

  7. Phenolic Component Profiles of Mustard Greens, Yu Choy, and 15 Other Brassica Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2010-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling method was used to characterize the phenolic components of 17 leafy vegetables from Brassica species other than Brassica oleracea. The vegetables studied were mustard green, baby mustard green, gai choy, baby gai choy, yu choy, yu choy tip, bok choy, bok choy tip, baby bok choy, bok choy sum, Taiwan bok choy, Shanghai bok choy, baby Shanghai bok choy, rapini broccoli, turnip green, napa, and baby napa. This work led to the tentative ...

  8. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun) of East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adeniji, OT.; A. Aloyce, A.

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improv...

  9. Nitrogen mustard inhibits transcription and translation in a cell free system.

    OpenAIRE

    Masta, A; Gray, P J; D. R. Phillips

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen mustard and its derivatives such as cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and melphalan are widely used anti-cancer agents, despite their non-specific reaction mechanism. In this study, the effect of alkylation by nitrogen mustard of DNA and RNA (coding for a single protein) was investigated using both a translation system and a coupled transcription/translation system. When alkylated DNA was used as the template for coupled transcription and translation, a single translation product corres...

  10. 28-HOMOBRASSINOLIDE PROTECTS PHOTOSYNTHETIC MACHINERY IN INDIAN MUSTARD UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Qazi Fariduddin; Mohammad Yusuf; Mahmooda Begum; Aqil Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    High temperature is a serious threat to crop production. Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of plant steroidal hormones, can reduce effects of abiotic stresses. The present study was aimed to study the potency of brassinosteroids on high temperature induced changes in Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.) for effects on growth, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, photosystem II, antioxidant system and proline. Surface sterilized seeds of Indian mustard were sown in pots, grown for 21 days and treated wi...

  11. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  12. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal formation of crucifer leaf mustard induced by flavonoids apigenin and daidzein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Changjin; ZHAO Bin

    2004-01-01

    Flavonoids from legume root secretion may probably act as signal molecules for expression of Rhizobial "nod" nodulation genes and AM fungal symbiotic gene. Leaf mustard is a non-mycorrhizal plant; it does not contain fiavonoids and other signal molecules. AM fungi could not infect the roots of leaf mustard and form a symbiont in nature,when it was treated with fiavonoids (apigenin or daidzein).The results of trypan blue staining showed that two kinds of AM fungi (G. intraradices and G mosseae) successfully infected the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant leaf mustard. AM fungi grew towards and colonized the roots of leaf mustard,producing young spores and completing the course of life.AM fungi are the only one kind of fungi with ALP activity.The result of ALP staining has also proved that AM fungi infected successfully the roots of leaf mustard. AM fungi (G.intraradices and G. mosseae) that existed in the roots of non-mycorrhizal plant leaf mustard were probed by nested PCR and special molecular probes. The above-mentioned proof chains have fully proved that fiavonoids induced AM fungi (G. intraradices and G mosseae) to infect non-mycorrhizal plant and establish symbiotic relationship.

  14. Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis in White Mustard (A Biochemical Anomaly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, R. N.; Kiddle, G.; Wallsgrove, R. M.

    1997-08-01

    One of the first steps in glucosinolate biosynthesis is the conversion of amino acids to their aldoximes. The biochemistry of this process is controversial, and several very different enzyme systems have been described. The major glucosinolate in white mustard (Sinapis alba) is sinalbin, which is derived from tyrosine via its aldoxime, and this conversion is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (Cyt P450) monooxygenase. Phenylethyl- and alkenylglucosinolates are also present in white mustard leaves, as are the enzymes catalyzing the relevant aldoxime formation from homophenylalanine and methionine homologs, respectively. These enzymes are similar to those found in Brassica sp. and are distinct from the tyrosine-dependent enzyme in that they contain no heme and are unaffected by Cyt P450 inhibitors. They are instead inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and by Cu2+. In both white mustard and oilseed rape (Brassica napus) methyl jasmonate specifically stimulates indolylglucosinolate biosynthesis and yet has no effect on sinalbin accumulation in either cotyledons or leaves of white mustard. White mustard appears to be unique among crucifers in having a Cyt P450 aldoxime-forming enzyme for biosynthesis of one glucosinolate, although it also contains all of the non-Cyt P450 enzyme systems found in other members of the family. Sinalbin biosynthesis in white mustard is therefore an inappropriate model system for the synthesis of other glucosinolates in crucifers, including canola and oilseed rape. PMID:12223771

  15. Serum Metabolomic Profiling of Sulphur Mustard-Exposed Individuals Using (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Zahra; Ghanei, Mostafa; Panahi, Yunus; Arjmand, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Mirkhani, Fatemeh; Parvin, Shahram; Salehi, Maryam; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Vahabi, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Sulphur mustard is an alkylating agent that reacts with different cellular components, causing acute and delayed complications that may remain for decades after exposure. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed metabolites between mustard-exposed individuals suffering from chronic complications compared with unexposed individuals as the control group. Serum samples were obtained from 15 mustard-exposed individuals and 15 apparently healthy unexposed individuals. Metabolomic profiling was performed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and analyses were carried out using Chenomex and MATLAB softwares. Metabolites were identified using Human Metabolome Database, and the main metabolic pathways were identified using MetaboAnalyst software. Chemometric analysis of serum samples identified 11 differentially expressed metabolites between mustard-exposed and unexposed groups. The main pathways that were influenced by sulphur mustard exposure were related to vitamin B6 (down-regulation), bile acid (up-regulation) and tryptophan (down-regulation) metabolism. Metabolism of vitamin B6, bile acids and tryptophan are the most severely impaired pathways in individuals suffering from chronic mustard-induced complications. These findings may find implications in the monitoring of exposed patients and identification of new therapeutic approaches.

  16. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  17. Radioiodination and preliminary biological tests of aniline-mustard and its glucuronide conjugate as a potential anticancer prodrug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniline-mustard and its glucuronide conjugate were radioiodinated with 131I. The preliminary dynamic tests were carried out on rabbits. The scintigrams showed clearly that the glucuronide conjugate of aniline-mustard was very quickly cleared from the metabolism, accumulating in the bladder in about 15 minutes. The clearance time of radioiodinated aniline-mustard-glucuronide was considerably longer (about 45 min.). The results obtained from the biodistributional studies have represented interesting differences between the metabolic details of radioiodinated compounds, and indicated that the glucuronide conjugate of aniline-mustard may be a promising radioiodinated prodrug, if verification of its selective accumulation in some kinds of tumor cells can be obtained. (author)

  18. Efeito do cloridrato de oxibutinina na hiperatividade vesical conseqüente a cistite hemorrágica Effects of oxybutynin in bladder hyperactivity caused by hemorrhagic cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Mizuma

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A oxibutinina atua como agente anticolinérgico que tem ação anti-muscarínica e, principalmente, ação antiespasmódica na musculatura lisa vesical. Assim, ela causa aumento da capacidade vesical e diminui a frequência miccional e bloqueia o estímulo inicial da micção. OBJETIVO: Verificar se a oxibutinina atua sobre a hiperatividade vesical causada pela cistite hemorrágica, dependente do óxido nítrico. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados dois grupos de animais. O controle com 5 ratas e o experimental com 10 ratas, cujos pesos variaram entre 200g a 250g. A cistite hemorrágica foi provocada pela injeção intraperitoneal de ciclofosfamida 200mg/kg, na véspera do experimento. Após 24 horas, as ratas foram anestesiadas com uretana 1,25mg/kg. A seguir, foi feita cistostomia com cateter P-50. Esse cateter foi conectado em Y a uma bomba de infusão contínua com fluxo de água de 0,3ml/min e a um polígrafo para o registro da cistometria. O registro cistométrico foi feito com a velocidade do papel de 0,05cm/seg, com sensibilidade de 20 e calibração para um curso de 60mm para uma pressão de 100mmHg. Os parâmetros estudados foram: freqüência de contração (Fc, intensidade das contrações (Ic, tempo de enchimento vesical (Te, tempo de contração vesical (Tc e capacidade vesical (Cv, que foi determinado pelo Te x Fluxo. Esses parâmetros foram determinados por suas médias durante o período de observação de 10 min. Após o registro, foi infundido por gavagem 71 mg/kg de cloridato de oxibutinina. Uma hora depois foi feita nova cistometria. A análise estatística foi feita pelo método de Kruskal-Wallis que comparou os valores do grupo controle com o experimental. O p foi considerado significante quando menor que 0,05. RESULTADOS: A comparação entre os dois grupos dos parâmetros estudados antes da infusão do cloridrato de oxibutinina mostrou: Fc - p=0,007; Ic - p=0,0002; Te - p=0,768; Tc - p=0,492; Cv - p=0,056 A compara

  19. Lipid Profile Status in Mustard Lung Patients and its Relation to Severity of Airflow Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD secondary to sulfur mustard gas poisoning, known as mustard lung, is a major late pulmonary complications in chemical warfare patients. Serious comorbidities like dyslipidemia are frequently encountered in COPD. The aim of this study was to measure the serum lipid profile and evaluate the relation of lipid parameters with the severity of airway obstruction in mustard lung patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six non-smoker mustard lung patients with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were entered into this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 36 healthy non-smoker men were considered in this study. Serum lipid profile was performed in the patients and the controls. Spirometry was done in mustard lung patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47±6.80 SD years. The mean duration of COPD was 18.50±7.75 SD years. There were statistically significant differences in mean serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels between patients and controls (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively.The mean levels of lipid parameters were not statistically significant different among the 4 stages of COPD severity (p>0.05. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol are elevated in mustard lung patients compared with the healthy controls. Since lipid profile abnormalities are considered as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especial attention to this matter is recommended in mustard lung patients

  20. Study of the Efficacy of CC-2 and Fuller's Earth Combination as a Decontaminant against Sulphur Mustard (Mustard Gas Dermal Intoxication in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Decontamination efficacy of Fuller's earth and CC-2 independently; and in different combinations was evaluated against toxicity of sulphur mustard applied percutaneously on mice. Maximum protection was obtained with Fuller's earth and CC-2 in a combination of 80:20(w/w.

  1. Study of the Efficacy of CC-2 and Fuller's Earth Combination as a Decontaminant against Sulphur Mustard (Mustard Gas) Dermal Intoxication in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin Kumar; U. S. Sharma; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1991-01-01

    Decontamination efficacy of Fuller's earth and CC-2 independently; and in different combinations was evaluated against toxicity of sulphur mustard applied percutaneously on mice. Maximum protection was obtained with Fuller's earth and CC-2 in a combination of 80:20(w/w).

  2. Electrolyte and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Mustard, and Deionized Water Ingestion in Dehydrated Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Some athletes ingest pickle juice (PJ) or mustard to treat exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs). Clinicians warn against this because they are concerned it will exacerbate exercise-induced hypertonicity or cause hyperkalemia. Few researchers have examined plasma responses after PJ or mustard ingestion in dehydrated, exercised individuals. Objective: To determine if ingesting PJ, mustard, or deionized water (DIW) while hypohydrated affects plasma sodium (Na+) concentration ([Na+]p), plasma potassium (K+) concentration ([K+]p), plasma osmolality (OSMp), or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na+ content. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 9 physically active, nonacclimated individuals (age = 25 ± 2 years, height = 175.5 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 78.6 ± 13.8 kg). Intervention(s): Participants exercised vigorously for 2 hours (temperature = 37°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 24% ± 4%). After a 30-minute rest, a baseline blood sample was collected, and they ingested 1 mL/kg body mass of PJ or DIW. For the mustard trial, participants ingested a mass of mustard containing a similar amount of Na+ as for the PJ trial. Postingestion blood samples were collected at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were [Na+]p, [K+]p, OSMp, and percentage change in plasma Na+ content and plasma volume. Results: Participants became 2.9% ± 0.6% hypohydrated and lost 96.8 ± 27.1 mmol (conventional unit = 96.8 ± 27.1 mEq) of Na+, 8.4 ± 2 mmol (conventional unit = 8.4 ± 2 mEq) of K+, and 2.03 ± 0.44 L of fluid due to exercise-induced sweating. They ingested approximately 79 mL of PJ or DIW or 135.24 ± 22.8 g of mustard. Despite ingesting approximately 1.5 g of Na+ in the PJ and mustard trials, no changes occurred within 60 minutes postingestion for [Na+]p, [K+]p, OSMp, or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na+ content (P > .05). Conclusions: Ingesting a small bolus of PJ or large

  3. A review on delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard in Iranian veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Iranian soldiers were attacked with chemical bombs, rockets and artillery shells 387 times during the 8-years war by Iraq (1980--1988. More than 1,000 tons of sulfur mustard gas was used in the battlefields by the Iraqis against Iranian people. A high rate of morbidities occurred as the result of these attacks. This study aimed to evaluate the delayed toxic effects of sulfur mustard gas on Iranian victims. During a systematic search, a total of 193 (109 more relevant to the main aim articles on sulfur mustard gas were reviewed using known international and national databases. No special evaluation was conducted on the quality of the articles and their publication in accredited journals was considered sufficient. High rate of morbidities as the result of chemical attacks by sulfur mustard among Iranian people occurred. Iranian researchers found a numerous late complications among the victims which we be listed as wide range of respiratory, ocular, dermatological, psychological, hematological, immunological, gastrointestinal and endocrine complications, all influenced the quality of life of exposed victims. The mortality rate due to this agent was 3%. Although, mortality rate induced by sulfur mustard among Iranian people was low, variety and chronicity of toxic effects and complications of this chemical agent were dramatic.

  4. Resource Use Efficiency of Mustard Production in Chitwan District of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Dhakal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the profitability and resource use efficiency of mustard production in Chitwan. The study used 159 mustard growers from 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data which were collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.43 indicates that mustard production was profitable with productivity of 0.81 ton per ha. The magnitude of regression coefficients of mustard implied that use of human labor, tractor, nutrient and irrigation and pesticides costs had significant positive effect on gross return with estimated increasing return to scale (1.03. According to estimated allocative efficiency indices, it is suggested to increase use of tractor labor, seed, nutrient and irrigation plus pesticides cost by about 47%, 82%, 84% and 94%, respectively. Extension of modern technologies with adjustment on resource use is to be encouraged for increase in productivity and profit from mustard production which indirectly promotes and ensure forage for pollinators.

  5. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, specifically inactivates Mustard Trypsin Inhibitor 2 (MTI2) to overcome host plant defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, L.; Fang, Zhiyuan; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The mustard trypsin inhibitor family has so far only been described among cruciferous species which represent the host plants for the specialist diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella. The performance of a Dutch and Chinese strain of DBM was assessed on transgenic Arabidopsis expressing Mustard

  6. The stibian mustard gold from the Kriván¿ Au deposit,Tatry Mts., Slovak Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Martin, Chovan; František, Bakos

    2007-01-01

    with pores more or less fi lled by oxidation products of Sb and Fe. Compositionally it does not conform with stibian mustard gold from Yakutia and Bolivia, approximately AuSb1.4O2.1, derived from decomposition of aurostibite, but it conforms with mustard gold from Krásná Hora, Czech Republic. For this...

  7. Immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard-adducts with DNA and proteins: Exploratory research on adducts with proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Noort, D.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed two modes of a standard operating procedure (SOP) for immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard adducts to DNA in human blood and skin. In the shortened mode data could be generated within 9 h after in vitro exposure of human blood to > 1 μM sulfur mustard. The sensitive mode allo

  8. ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ mustard green (Brassica juncea L.) resistant to the bacterial leaf blight pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A leafy-green mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivar designated ‘Carolina Broadleaf’ has been released by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in 2015. This released cultivar is a narrow-based population of leafy-green mustard derived from a U.S. plant introduction (PI)...

  9. New studies on mustard gold from the Dongping Mines, Hebei Province, China: The tellurian, plumbian, manganoan and mixed varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiuling; Makovicky, Emil

    2001-01-01

    geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold......geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold...

  10. First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

  11. Reduction and coordination of arsenic in Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, I J; Prince, R C; George, M J; Smith, R D; George, G N; Salt, D E

    2000-04-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an As(III)-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an As(III)-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from As(III)-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element.

  12. Degradation of sulfur mustard and sarin over hardened cement paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hairong; Cheng, Zhenxing; Zhou, Liming; Zuo, Guomin; Kong, Lingce

    2009-03-01

    A study has been done to examine the degradation of sulfur mustard (HD) and sarin (GB) over hardened cement paste (HCP). The HCP behaved as a typical base like CaO and Ca(OH)2. The base sites over the HCP were not entirely poisoned by H2O and CO2 in air, and about 0.47 mmol/g base sites could still be evidenced by chemisorption of CO2. A large amount of water irreversibly adsorbed by HCP was experimentally demonstrated. Ten kinds of products through hydrolysis S(N)1 (C-Cl), elimination E1 or E2 (C-Cl, C-H), and addition-elimination (A-E) under the action of base sites and water from the degradation of HD over HCP were detected and identified by GC-FPD, GC-MS, and NMR approaches. Their distribution and kinds varied with time of degradation and water content Both degradation activity and distribution of products from HD were strongly determined by the strength and density of base sites and the water content in HCP. The molecules of GB adsorbed over HCP in comparison with HD could be more quickly and completely degraded into hydrolyzed products such as isopropyl methylphosphonic acid and methylphosphonic acid by adsorbed water, in comparison with HD. PMID:19350934

  13. Study on irradiation sterilization of mixture of blanched mustard greed and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological and sensory qualities of mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean stored at commercial condition and D10 values of pathogens of Listeria innocua were investigated. The results show that D10 value of Listeria innocua inoculated in mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean is 0.264 kGy, and fatality rate of the Listeria irradiated by a dose of 1.2 kGy was 99.996%; Irradiation at doses less than 2.0 kGy does not have significant effects on sensory qualities, and this dose is able to decrease microbe and pathogens of Listeria innocua by 2-3 log and 6 log, respectively. A dose of 2.0 kGy might be applied to ensure the hygienic quality of mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean. (authors)

  14. Safety evaluation of genetically modified mustard (V4) seeds in terms of allergenicity: comparison with native crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Amita; Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Chanana, Nidhi P; Das, Mukul; Dhawan, Vibha; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) mustard line (V4) with increased carotenoid content was compared with native mustard to find the difference in allergenic potential, if any. Simulated gastric fluid (SGF) digestibility of crude protein extract from GM as well as its native counterpart mustard crop was envisaged to understand the intended or unintended changes in GM crop along with IgE immunoblotting. BALB/c mice were used as model for allergenicity studies for monitoring total and specific IgE, specific IgG1, histamine level, histopathology, and systemic anaphylaxis score. Allergenicity of mustard was checked in humans by clinical history, skin prick test and IgE levels. Similar results were evident by significant increase in total IgE, specific IgE, IgG1, histamine levels, in GM and native mustard in comparison to control group. Prominent anaphylactic symptoms (score 2: 60%; score 3: 20%; score 4: 20% in native mustard and score 2: 40%; score 3: 40%; score 4: 20% in GM mustard) and eruptive histopathological changes were observed in both GM and native mustard when compared with controls. One protein of approximately 16 kDa was found stable up to 1 h in both GM as well as non GM mustard. IgE immunoblotting detected three protein components of approximately 29, 24 and 16 kDa in both GM and non GM varieties. Collectively, our data demonstrate substantially equivalent allergic responses against GM as well as its native counterpart. Therefore, the GM mustard may be as safe as its native counterpart with reference to allergenic responses.

  15. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  16. IMPACT OF HONEY BEE POLLINATION ON POD SET OF MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L.: CRUCIFERAE AT PANTNAGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIMLA GOSWAMI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diversity and abundance of different insect visitors on mustard (Brassica juncea were studied at Pantnagar. A total of 19 insect visitors belonging to order Hymenoptera (15 and Diptera (4 were found to visit the mustard blossoms at Pantnagar. The abundance (percentage of insect/m2/2min. of Hymenopterans were maximum followed by the Dipterans and others. In Hymenopterans, the honeybees (Apis bees were observed maximum followed by non Apis bees and the scolid wasp. Insect pollinations increased the number of pods and percent pod set.

  17. Agronomic Characteristics, Growth Analysis, and Yield Response of Biofield Treated Mustard, Cowpea, Horse Gram, and Groundnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts are the seasonal pulse crops used as food and fodder in many regions of the world. In the present study, the impact of biofield energy treatment on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts were studied with respect to overall growth, yield, and its related yield attributes. Seeds of each crop was selected and divided in two groups, i.e. control and treated. The treated group of each seed crops was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy treatmen...

  18. Quality characterization of pasta enriched with mustard protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alireza Sadeghi, M; Bhagya, S

    2008-06-01

    Mustard protein isolate (MPI) prepared by steam injection heating for removal of antinutritional factors was used at different levels, including 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%, for supplementation of pasta products. The effects of supplementation levels on rheological properties of pasta dough and chemical composition, and cooking, nutritional, and color characteristics of dried samples were evaluated. The results showed that as the supplementation level increased, the dough development time (DDT) increased from 3.5 min in the control to 13.8 min in 10% supplementation level. Maximum consistency (MC) increased from 351 farinograph units (FU) in the control to 371 and 386 FU in 2.5% and 5% supplementation levels, respectively, but decreased to 346 FU in 10% supplementation level. Mixing tolerance index (MTI) decreased as the supplementation increased. The most pronounced effect of enrichment on chemical composition was the increase in protein content; the increase was around 4.5% with supplementation of each 5% MPI in pasta formulation. Study of cooking characteristics of enriched pasta samples showed that cooked weight, cooking loss, protein loss, and stickiness decreased and firmness increased as the supplementation level increased. The nutritional properties of sample showed that enrichment of semolina with MPI had a pronounced effect on lysine, cysteine, arginine, and histidine contents. All computed nutritional indices were higher in enriched samples compared to the control. Color measurement of sample showed that a and b values increased and L value decreased as the supplementation level increased. The SEM of different samples shows that enrichment of pasta with MPI increases the matrix around starch granules.

  19. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  20. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Carlos G; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities from the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to the reagent and the specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the reagent stocks had impurity profiles that differentiated them from one another. This was demonstrated by building classification models with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and obtaining average stock classification errors of 2.4, 2.8, 2.8, and 11% by cross-validation for chloroform (7 stocks), thionyl chloride (3 stocks), acetone (7 stocks), and TEA (3 stocks), respectively, and 0% for a validation set of chloroform samples. In addition, some reagent impurities indicative of reagent type were found in the HN3 batches that were originally present in the reagent stocks and presumably not altered during synthesis. More intriguing, impurities in HN3 batches that were apparently produced by side reactions of impurities unique to specific TEA and chloroform stocks, and thus indicative of their use, were observed. PMID:27116337

  1. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities produced during the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reaction-produced impurities indicative of specific TEA and chloroform stocks were exclusively discovered in HN3 batches made with those reagent stocks. In addition, some reagent impurities were found in the HN3 batches that were presumably not altered during synthesis and believed to be indicative of reagent type regardless of stock. Supervised classification using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) on the impurity profiles of chloroform samples from seven stocks resulted in an average classification error by cross-validation of 2.4%. A classification error of zero was obtained using the seven-stock PLSDA model on a validation set of samples from an arbitrarily selected chloroform stock. In a separate analysis, all samples from two of seven chloroform stocks that were purposely not modeled had their samples matched to a chloroform stock rather than assigned a “no class” classification.

  2. Speciation and bioaccessibility of lead and cadmium in soil treated with metal-enriched Indian mustard leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanshan Cui; Jin Fu; Xiaochen Chen

    2011-01-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) has shown good potential for the phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. However, there is little information about the speciation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil during the decomposition of metal-rich Indian mustard leaves. Incubation experiments (1-, 3-, and 6-month) were carried out in Beijing and Hunan soil with metal-rich Indian mustard leaves addition (1% and 3%) and the effects of mustard leaves addition on the speciation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals were studied. The results showed that the addition of mustard leaves led to significant increases in pH and DOC in the Hunan soil. Both 1% and 3% of mustard leaf amendment caused the percentage of the exchangeable (F1), precipitated with carbonates (F2), bound to Fe/Mn oxides (F3) and bound to organic matter (F4) fractions of Pb and Cd to increase dramatically, while the percentage of the residual fraction (F5) of Cd and Pb significantly dropped in both Beijing and Hunan soils. Mustard leaf addition caused the bioaccessibility of Pb to decrease in the gastric phase, whereas the values increased in the small intestinal phase. The Cd bioaccessibility increased with mustard leaf addition in both the gastric and small intestinal phases. In conclusion, the metal-enriched mustard leaves addition induces Pb and Cd concentrations and their mobility increasing in the Beijing and Hunan soils. Therefore, heavy metal risk in metal-enriched plant leaves should be considered in phytoremediation system in which heavy metal might be brought back to soil and changed over time.

  3. Effect of methionine and glucosamine conjugation on the anticancer activity of aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karmakar Subhendu; Sudipta Bhattacharyya; Arindam Mukherjee

    2016-03-01

    Certain nutrients viz.,glucose and methionine are consumed more by cancer cells. Hence, an anticancer agent conjugated to them may render more toxicity in cancer cells due to higher uptake. To probe this effect, methionine and glucosamine were conjugated to a series of well-known aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustards. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies performed to probe the effect of such conjugation showed that the conjugation of methionine and glucosamine to one of the dinitrobenzamide mustard led to more toxicity selectively in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines. However, effect of functionalization cannot be generalized. Hypoxia based studies showed that IC50 value did not show much change from normoxic condition which is encouraging as many drugs deactivate in hypoxia. Among the glucosamine and methionine conjugated dinitrobenzamide mustards, the methionine conjugated aromatic dinitrobenzamide mustard of 2-chlorobenzoic acid is the most effective one. It acts by inducing apoptosis through G2/M phase arrest and encouragingly, is much less toxic to nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines in vitro.

  4. Detection of sulfur mustard adducts in human callus by phage antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, F.J.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Schans, G.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research program to develop novel methods for diagnosis of sulfur mustard exposure in the human skin the suitability of phage display was explored. Phage display is a relative new method that enables researchers to quickly evaluate a huge range of potentially useful antibodies, thereby

  5. [Fate and balance of bulk blending controlled release fertilizer nitrogen under continuous cropping of mustard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan-Pan; Fan, Xiao-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Under the conditions of applying water soluble fertilizer and its bulk blending with controlled release fertilizer (BB-CRF), and by using micro-lysimeter, this paper quantitatively studied the nitrogen (N) uptake by mustard, the soil N losses from N2O emission, leaching and others, and the N residual in soil in three rotations of continuously cropped mustard. In the treatment of BB-CRF with 25% of controlled release nitrogen, the N uptake by mustard increased with rotations, and the yield by the end of the experiment was significantly higher than that in the treatment of water soluble fertilizer. The cumulated N2O emission loss and the N leaching loss were obviously higher in treatment water soluble fertilizer than in treatment BB-CRF. NO3(-)-N was the primary form of N in the leachate. In relative to water soluble fertilizer, BB-CRF altered the fates of fertilizer nitrogen, i.e., the N uptake by mustard and the N residual in soil increased by 75.4% and 76.0%, and the N leaching loss and other apparent N losses decreased by 27.1% and 66.3%, respectively. The application of BB-CRF could be an effective way to reduce the various losses of fertilizer N while increase the fertilizer N use efficiency, and the controlled release fertilizer is the environmentally friendly fertilizer with the property of high N use efficiency.

  6. Effect of fatty acids isolated from edible oils like mustard, linseed or coconut on astrocytes maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardar, Anindita; Das, Sumantra

    2007-12-01

    The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) has been previously shown to facilitate some of the vital functions of astrocytes. Since some dietary oils contain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), which is a precursor of DHA, we examined their effect on astrocyte development. Fatty acids (FAs) were isolated from commonly used oils and their compositions were determined by GLC. FAs from three oils, viz. coconut, mustard and linseed were studied for their effect on astrocyte morphology. Parallel studies were conducted with FAs from the same oils after heating for 72 h. Unlike coconut oil, FAs from mustard and linseed, both heated and raw, caused significant morphogenesis of astrocytes in culture. ss-AR binding was also substantially increased in astrocytes treated with FAs from raw mustard and linseed oils as compared to astrocytes grown in normal medium. The expression profile of the isoforms of GFAP showed that astrocyte maturation by FAs of mustard and linseed oil was associated with appearance of acidic variants of GFAP and disappearance of some neutral isoforms similar to that observed in cultures grown in serum containing medium or in the presence of DHA. Taken together, the study highlights the contribution of specific dietary oils in facilitating astrocyte development that can have potential impact on human health.

  7. Synthesis of a duplex oligonucleotide containing a nitrogen mustard interstrand DNA-DNA cross-link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, J O; Grueneberg, D A; Loechler, E L

    1989-12-01

    Many cancer chemotherapeutic agents react with DNA and give adducts that block DNA replication, which is thought to result in cytotoxicity, especially in rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells. One class of these agents is bifunctionally reactive (e.g., the nitrogen mustards) and forms DNA-DNA cross-links. It is unknown whether inter- or intrastrand cross-links are more effective at blocking DNA replication. To evaluate this, a DNA shuttle vector is being constructed with an interstrand cross-link at a unique site. In the first step of this project, a duplex oligonucleotide containing an interstrand cross-link is isolated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the reaction of nitrogen mustard with two partially complementary oligodeoxynucleotides. The purified oligonucleotide product is characterized and shown to be cross-linked in a 5'-GAC-3' 3'-CTG-5' sequence by a nitrogen mustard moiety that is bound at the N(7)-position of the guanines in the opposing strands; the glycosylic bonds of these guanine adducts are stabilized in their corresponding imidazole ring-opened form. Nitrogen mustard is shown to react with a variety of oligonucleotides and, based upon these results, its preferred targets for interstrand cross-linking are 5'-GXC-3' sequences, where X can be any of the four deoxyribonucleotide bases. PMID:2819709

  8. [Fate and balance of bulk blending controlled release fertilizer nitrogen under continuous cropping of mustard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan-Pan; Fan, Xiao-Lin

    2012-10-01

    Under the conditions of applying water soluble fertilizer and its bulk blending with controlled release fertilizer (BB-CRF), and by using micro-lysimeter, this paper quantitatively studied the nitrogen (N) uptake by mustard, the soil N losses from N2O emission, leaching and others, and the N residual in soil in three rotations of continuously cropped mustard. In the treatment of BB-CRF with 25% of controlled release nitrogen, the N uptake by mustard increased with rotations, and the yield by the end of the experiment was significantly higher than that in the treatment of water soluble fertilizer. The cumulated N2O emission loss and the N leaching loss were obviously higher in treatment water soluble fertilizer than in treatment BB-CRF. NO3(-)-N was the primary form of N in the leachate. In relative to water soluble fertilizer, BB-CRF altered the fates of fertilizer nitrogen, i.e., the N uptake by mustard and the N residual in soil increased by 75.4% and 76.0%, and the N leaching loss and other apparent N losses decreased by 27.1% and 66.3%, respectively. The application of BB-CRF could be an effective way to reduce the various losses of fertilizer N while increase the fertilizer N use efficiency, and the controlled release fertilizer is the environmentally friendly fertilizer with the property of high N use efficiency. PMID:23359937

  9. Wild Brazilian Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 94 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and 0.50 wt % sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 deg C and an alcohol to oil molar...

  10. Serum level of substance P in patients with lung injuries due to sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Najafian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The SP may have a role in pulmonary complications of mustard gas. The lower level of SP in the moderate to severe patients may be due to corticosteroid consumption in such severe cases. However, further studies are needed to clarify the roles and mechanism of SP in this setting.

  11. Distribution of cadmium in oilseed rape and Indian mustard grown on cadmium contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-qing; SU De-chun

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metal distribution in the specialized accumulating plants was important for phytoextraction technique. Hydroponic and pot experiment were conducted to investigated Cd phytoextraction ability and Cd distribution in the plant of oilseed rape species. The results showed that oilseed rape Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 was more effective in phytoexetraction Cd among 21 varieties of oilseed rape and indicator plant Indian mustard. Cd concentration in the shoot of Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 and Indian mustard gradually decreased with an increase in growth period, while the amount of Cd uptake increased with the increase of growth period. There was constantly decrease in Cd concentration from the base leaves to the top leaves of Chuanyou Ⅱ-10 and Indian mustard, the percentages of Cd uptake in older leaves were higher than those of younger leaves. Older leaves of Chuanyou Ⅱ -10 and Indian mustard extracted more Cd for the Cd contamination soil, leaves should as far as possible develop before they reached the soil and the older leaves were harvested in priority.

  12. Immunochemical detection of sulfur mustard adducts with keratins in the stratum corneum of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Noort, D.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Fidder, A.; Chau, L.F.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2002-01-01

    As part of a program to develop methods for diagnosis of exposure to chemical warfare agents, we developed immunochemical methods for detection of adducts of sulfur mustard to keratin in human skin. Three partial sequences of keratins containing glutamine or asparagine adducted with a 2-hydroxyethyl

  13. CHARACTERISATION OF BIODIESEL DERIVED FROM WASTE COTTON SEED OIL AND WASTE MUSTARD OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative fuel is derived from the fats of animals and plants. As energy demand increases and fossil fuels are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. Properties of waste oil (cotton seed oil and mustard oil have been compared with the properties of petro-diesel, showing a comparable regimefor satisfactory optimized blend which is to be selected for the better performance of a C.I. engine with biodiesel. The work presented in this paper is the study of characteristics of biodiesel prepared from vegetable oils (waste cotton seed oil and waste mustard oil.The characteristics of biodiesel are to be checked at different blends (B10, B15, B20 and select the optimum blend based on these characteristics. The characteristics include free fatty acid value, density, viscosity, flash point and fire point, cloud point and pour point, carbon residue content and ash residue content. Different fuel properties of the cotton methyl ester and mustard methyl ester were also measured. Results show that the properties of methyl ester of cotton seed were more suitable as compared to properties of mustard methyl ester.

  14. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Majchrzak; Tomasz P. Kurowski; Zofia Karpińska

    2013-01-01

    The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L.) cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were fo...

  15. Prophylactic Effect of Gossypin Against Percutaneously Administered Sulfur Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANSHOO GAUTAM; R.VIJAYARAGHAVAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective efficacy of gossypin(3,3',4',5,7,8-hexahydroxyflavone 8-glucoside)by administering it intraperitoneally,for dose,time,and vehicle dependent effects against sulphur mustard(SM),administered through percutaneous route in mice.Methods SM(diluted in PEG-300)was administered percutaneously.The protective efficacy of gossypin was evaluated by administering it intraperitoneally(50,100,200,and 400 mg/kg),in various vehicles (water,PEG-300 and DMSO),and time intervals(30 min prior,simultaneous and 2 h post).The time dependent protection of gossypin(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)was also evaluated using selected biochemical variables(GSH,GSSG,MDA,total antioxidant status,Hb,WBC count,RBC count,glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase,and superoxide dismutase)and liver histology.The protection of gossypin by oral route was also evaluated against percutaneously administered SM.Results The protection against systemic toxicity of SM(LD50 8.1 mg/kg)was beRer when gossypin was given with PEG-300 (8.0 folds)than DMSO(5.7 folds).No protection was observed when gossypin was administered with water.Good protection (8.0 folds)was observed when gossypin was administered(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)at 30 min prior or simultaneous to SM exposure,but no protection was observed when gossypin was administered 2 h post to SM exposure.A significant weight loss was observed 7 days after SM administration(2 LD50),with a significant increase in RBC and Hb.A significant decrease in total antioxidant status of plasma,liver GSH and GSSG levels,and in the activities of glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase was also observed 7 days after SM administration.SM treated mouse liver also showed necrosis.A significant protection was observed when gossypin(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)was administered either as a pretreatment(30 min before)or simultaneous treatment,and not as a post treatment(2 h).The protective efficacy of gossypin was better

  16. Use of acid whey and mustard seed to replace nitrites during cooked sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of sea salt, acid whey, native and autoclaved mustard seed on the physico-chemical properties, especially colour formation, microbial stability and sensory evaluation of non-nitrite cooked sausage during chilling storage. The cooked pork sausages were divided into 4 groups (group I--control sausages with curing salt (2.8%) and water (5%) added; group II--sausages with sea salt (2.8%) and acid whey (5%) added; group III--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and mustard seed (1%) added; group IV--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and autoclaved mustard seed (1%) added). Instrumental colour (L*, a*, b*), oxygenation index (ΔR), 650/570 nm ratio, heme iron, pH value and water activity (aw) were determined 1 day after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Sensory analysis was conducted immediately after production (day 1). Microbial analysis (lactic acid bacteria, total viable count, Clostridium spp.) was determinated at the end of storage (30 days). The autoclaved mustard with acid whey can be used at 1.0% (w/w) of model cooked sausages with beneficial effect on physico-chemical and sensory qualities of no-nitrite sausage. This product can be stored at refrigeration temperature for up to 30 days, in vacuum, with good acceptability. The colour, visual appearance and overall quality of samples with autoclaved mustard seed and acid whey were similar to the control with curing agent.

  17. Crystal structure of 6-chloro-5-(2-chloroethyl-3-(propan-2-ylideneindolin-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Roopashree

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H13Cl2NO, has a 3-(propan-2-ylideneindolin-2-one core with a Cl atom and a chloroethyl substituent attached to the aromatic ring. Two atoms of the aromatic ring and the chloroethyl substituent atoms are disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.826 (3:0.174 (3. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(8 ring motif.

  18. 2-Chloroethyl 2-(5-bromo-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H12BrClO4S, the O atom and the methyl group of the methylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran fragment. There is a mean deviation of 0.016 (4 Å from the least-squares plane defined by the nine constituent benzofuran atoms. The crystal structure is stabilized by aromatic π–π interactions between the benzene rings of neighbouring molecules [centroid–centroid distance = 3.689 (7 Å]and by a weak C—H...π interaction between an H atom of the methylene group bonded to the carboxylate O atom and the benzene ring of an adjacent molecule. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits weak non-classical intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The chloroethyl group is disordered over two positions, with refined site-occupancy factors of 0.767 (6 and 0.233 (6.

  19. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, A.; HR Koohestani; Z Roosta

    2008-01-01

    ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical ...

  20. Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulator, Immunity and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard Seeds (Brassica juncea)

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Among the oilseeds grown around the world, mustard is one of the important crop worldwide due to its wide adaptability and high yielding capacity. Owing to the importance of its utilities as condiment, cooking oil and some medical aids, the demand for its seed production is too high. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in leaves, ...

  1. Evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine specimens of sulfur mustard exposed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafaei Mostafa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas is a chemical alkylating agent that causes blisters in the skin (blister gas, burns the eyes and causes lung injury. Some major cellular pathways are involved in the damage caused by mustard gas such as NF-κb signaling, TGF-β signaling, WNT pathway, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (19–25 nucleotides that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and are found in two forms, extracellular and intracellular. Changes in the levels of extracellular microRNAs are directly associated with many diseases, it is thus common to study the level of extracellular microRNAs as a biomarker to determine the pathophysiologic status. In this study, 32 mustard gas injured patients and 32 healthy subjects participated. Comparative evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine samples was performed by Real Time PCR and Graph Pad software. The Mann Whitney t-test analysis of data showed that the expression level of miR-143 and miR-9 had a significant decrease in sulfur mustard individuals with the respective p-value of 0.0480 and 0.0272 compared to normal samples, with an imbalance of several above mentioned pathways. It seems that reducing the expression level of these genes has a very important role in the pathogenicity of mustard gas injured patients.

  2. Evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine specimens of sulfur mustard exposed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaei, Mostafa; Samie, Shahram; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Alvanegh, Akbar Ghorbani; Mirzaei, Behnaz; Chavoshei, Somaye; Dorraj, Ghamar Soltan; Esmailnejad, Mostafa; Tavallaie, Mahmood; Nourani, Mohammadreza

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) or mustard gas is a chemical alkylating agent that causes blisters in the skin (blister gas), burns the eyes and causes lung injury. Some major cellular pathways are involved in the damage caused by mustard gas such as NF-κb signaling, TGF-β signaling, WNT pathway, inflammation, DNA repair and apoptosis. MicroRNAs are non-coding small RNAs (19-25 nucleotides) that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and are found in two forms, extracellular and intracellular. Changes in the levels of extracellular microRNAs are directly associated with many diseases, it is thus common to study the level of extracellular microRNAs as a biomarker to determine the pathophysiologic status. In this study, 32 mustard gas injured patients and 32healthy subjects participated. Comparative evaluation of miR-9 and miR-143 expression in urine samples was performed by Real Time PCR and Graph Pad software. The Mann Whitney t-test analysis of data showed that the expression level of miR-143 and miR-9 had a significant decrease in sulfur mustard individuals with the respective p-value of 0.0480 and 0.0272 compared to normal samples, with an imbalance of several above mentioned pathways. It seems that reducing the expression level of these genes has a very important role in the pathogenicity of mustard gas injured patients. PMID:27486378

  3. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; SINGH, LOKENDRA

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nemat...

  4. Contribution of endogenous plant myrosinase to the antimicrobial activity of deodorized mustard against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Roniele Peixoto; Wu, Chen; Holley, Richard Alan

    2014-10-17

    This work investigated the antimicrobial activity of residual endogenous plant myrosinase in Oriental and yellow mustard powders and a deoiled meal (which contained more glucosinolate than unextracted mustard powder of each type of mustard), against Escherichia coli O15:H7 during dry-fermented sausage ripening. When small amounts of "hot" mustard powder or meal containing endogenous plant myrosinase were added to fully-deodorized powders and a meal of the same type, pathogen reduction rates were enhanced. The higher glucosinolate level in the deoiled mustard meal enabled the use of 50% less mustard in dry sausage to achieve the mandatory ≥5logCFU/g reduction of E. coli O157:H7. The myrosinase-like activity present in E. coli O157:H7 contributed to glucosinolate hydrolysis in sausages with fully-deodorized, deoiled mustard meal, although the period necessary for a 5log pathogen reduction was 14d longer. Yellow mustard derivatives were more potently antimicrobial than Oriental mustard.

  5. Cytoplasmic male sterility of tuber mustard is associated with the alternative spliced mitochondrial T gene transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yanxi; CHEN Zhujun; CAO Jiashu; CHEN Xuejun; LIU Xiaohui

    2004-01-01

    Two transcripts of T gene, T1170 and T1243, were obtained from the mitochondrial cDNA of tuber mustard CMS line. T1243 was a transcript with an intron unspliced, which has the basic characteristics of type Ⅱ intron. The expressions of the two transcripts were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The results showed that, at seedling stage, the expression of T gene was mainly in the form of T1170 but decreased with the development gradually, while the expression abundance of another transcript, T1243, increased gradually. The T1243 was prevalent at the profuse flowering stage. The expression pattern was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. These results suggested that the alternative spliced mitochondrial T gene transcripts were related to CMS of tuber mustard.

  6. Reliable screening technique for evaluation of wild crucifers against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Y P; Singh, Ram

    2014-12-01

    Wild crucifers namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica fruticulosa, B. rugosa, B. spinescens, B. tournefortii, Camelina sativa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Crambe abysinnica, Cronopus didymus, Diplotaxis assurgens, D. gomez-campoi, D. muralis, D. siettiana, D. tenuisiliqua, Enatharocarpus lyratus, Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba along with five cultivated Brassica species including B. rapa (BSH-1), B. juncea (Rohini), B. napus (GSC-6), B. carinata (DLSC-2) and Eruca sativa (T-27) were screened against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) with a standardized technique under definite level of aphid pressure developed using specially designed cages. Observations have revealed that B. fruticulosa, B. spinescens, Camelina sativa, Crambe abysinnica and Lepidium sativum were resistant to mustard aphid L. erysimi with aphid infestation index (AII) ≤ 1. Capsella bursa-pastoris was highly susceptible to bean aphid, Aphis fabae during its vegetative stage (with 100% mortality). Other genotypes were found in the range of 'susceptible' to 'highly susceptible' with AII ranging 3-5.

  7. NMR- and GC/MS-based metabolomics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobakht, B Fatemeh; Aliannejad, Rasoul; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Arefi Oskouie, Afsaneh; Naseri, Mohammad Taghi; Parastar, Hadi; Aliakbarzadeh, Ghazaleh; Fathi, Fariba; Taheri, Salman

    2016-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent alkylating agent and its effects on cells and tissues are varied and complex. Due to limitations in the diagnostics of sulfur mustard exposed individuals (SMEIs) by noninvasive approaches, there is a great necessity to develop novel techniques and biomarkers for this condition. We present here the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) metabolic profiling of serum from and healthy controls to identify novel biomarkers in blood serum for better diagnostics. Of note, SMEIs were exposed to SM 30 years ago and that differences between two groups could still be found. Pathways in which differences between SMEIs and healthy controls are observed are related to lipid metabolism, ketogenesis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino acid metabolism. PMID:26984270

  8. The Effect of the Vesical Adaptation Response to Diuresis on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: A Pilot Proof of Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Nobuhiro; Aikawa, Ken; Hoshi, Seiji; Yabe, Michihiro; Akaihata, Hidenori; Hata, Junya; Sato, Yuichi; Ogawa, Soichiro; Ishibashi, Kei; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background When urine output increases, voided volume at each voiding also increases in normal subjects. This is generally understood as a vesical adaptation response to diuresis (VARD). Because lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are supposed to be improved by the change in bladder function after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP), the aim of the present study was to investigate whether VARD is involved in the improvement of LUTS after RARP. Methods 100 consecutive patients who underwent RARP and had the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) index, a frequency-volume chart (FVC), uroflowmetry, and post-voided residual urine (PVR) available were evaluated before and after RARP. This cohort was divided into patients with and without preoperative LUTS according to the preoperative IPSS total score. VARD was defined as the presence of a significant correlation between the urine output rate and voided volume at each voiding (R2>0.2). Results In patients with preoperative LUTS, the IPSS total, storage, and voiding symptom scores were significantly improved after RARP (all P<0.001). The QOL index was also significantly improved after RARP (P<0.05). Although VARD was not seen before RARP (R2 = 0.05), it was seen after RARP (3 months R2 = 0.22, 12 months R2 = 0.23). PVR was significantly reduced after RARP (P = 0.004). Conclusions Improvement of LUTS was seen with acquisition of VARD after RARP. As a result, urinary QOL was also improved in patients with preoperative LUTS. RARP might be an effective procedure for amelioration of LUTS by the acquisition of VARD. PMID:27447829

  9. Research programs on vesicant injury and progress in the USA%美国糜烂性毒剂损伤和救治研究项目及其进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹仲敏; 赵吉清; 赛燕; 但国蓉; 蔡颖; 赵远鹏; 叶枫; 程晋; 姜帆

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the American National Institutes of Health (NIH) has sponsored some major programs of vesicant research with a big budget. The programs are operating mainly in designated research centers with their specific re -0search interest and tasks in order to meet the needs of translational medicine research , which indicates the superior admin -istrative mechanism of NIH. Studies on vesicant counter measures involve the damaging mechanism , antidote development and regimen evaluation. Some candidate drugs , such as doxycycline hydrogel, antioxidants ( silibinin, monothiol, dithiol, AEOL10150), nucleophilic scavenger ( dithiopurines and ellagic acid), have shown promising effect in alleviating the damage from vesicant exposure .%近年美国国立卫生研究院(NIH)资助的项目中,以研究中心承担主要任务,但各有侧重,可以满足转化医学研究的条件需求,也体现了NIH的先进管理理念.对糜烂性毒剂损伤和救治的研究包括损伤机制、药物研发、疗法评估等重要环节.目前在研的候选药物主要有抗炎药多西环素水凝胶、抗氧化剂(单/双硫醇、水飞蓟宾、AEOL10150)、亲核性清除剂(二硫嘌呤类和柔花酸)等.

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype and late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphries Steve E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to mustard gas frequently results in long-term respiratory complications. However the factors which drive the development and progression of these complications remain unclear. The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS has been implicated in lung inflammatory and fibrotic responses. Genetic variation within the gene coding for the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE, specifically the Insertion/Deletion polymorphism (I/D, is associated with variable levels of ACE and with the severity of several acute and chronic respiratory diseases. We hypothesized that the ACE genotype might influence the severity of late respiratory complications of mustard gas exposure. Methods 208 Kurdish patients who had suffered high exposure to mustard gas, as defined by cutaneous lesions at initial assessment, in Sardasht, Iran on June 29 1987, underwent clinical examination, spirometric evaluation and ACE Insertion/Deletion genotyping in September 2005. Results ACE genotype was determined in 207 subjects. As a continuous variable, FEV1 % predicted tended to be higher in association with the D allele 68.03 ± 20.5%, 69.4 ± 21.4% and 74.8 ± 20.1% for II, ID and DD genotypes respectively. Median FEV1 % predicted was 73 and this was taken as a cut off between groups defined as having better or worse lung function. The ACE DD genotype was overrepresented in the better spirometry group (Chi2 4.9 p = 0.03. Increasing age at the time of exposure was associated with reduced FEV1 %predicted (p = 0.001, whereas gender was not (p = 0.43. Conclusion The ACE D allele is associated with higher FEV1 % predicted when assessed 18 years after high exposure to mustard gas.

  11. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S. K.; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming sta...

  12. Treatment for Sulfur Mustard Lung Injuries; New Therapeutic Approaches from Acute to Chronic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Poursaleh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries.Method:This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment.Results:Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion:Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  13. Treatment for sulfur mustard lung injuries; new therapeutic approaches from acute to chronic phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poursaleh Zohreh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries. Method This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment. Results Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  14. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Singh; Vimal Malviya; Anshoo Gautam; Ram Singh; Uma Pathak; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate) and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide) are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent) toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostin...

  15. Effect of high temperature stress on photosynthesis and partitioning of 14C in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of high temperature stress on 14Co2 assimilation and partitioning of 14C by photosynthetically active parts of Indian mustard is investigated. It is observed that heat stressed plants have low rates of 14Co2 assimilation which leads to low rates of 14C export from source organs. Heat stress is also found to inhibit translocation of 14C-assimilates into sink organs. (M.G.B.). 21 refs., 4 figs

  16. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF WILD AND CULTIVATED BROWN SEA MUSTARD, UNDARIA PINNATIFIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Kyu; Hong, Wook

    2002-01-01

    Enzyme electrophoresis was used to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of the wild and cultivated sea mustard, Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar. Compared with other ecologically and economically significant brown seaweed, population structure of this species has not been studied. The objectives of this study were to estimate the levels of genetic diversity in the wild and cultivated populations and to describe the distribution of genetic variation within and among its pop...

  17. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    OpenAIRE

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T.; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin JT

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs betwee...

  18. UTILIZATION OF MUSTARD OIL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hasnain Javed; Nazia Jamil

    2015-01-01

    With the unnecessary use of plastics and cumulative pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Bioplastic production from mustard oil was considered relatively cheap, easily available, included in vegetable oil and don’t having much volatile characteristics. Total of 67 bacterial strains were isolated and purified from different regio...

  19. Nitric Oxide Alleviates Salt Stress Inhibited Photosynthetic Performance by Interacting with Sulfur Assimilation in Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma, Mehar; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-01-01

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur (S) on stomatal responses and photosynthetic performance was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 μM NO (as sodium nitroprusside) and 200 mg S kg−1 soil (S) more prominently influenced stomatal behavior, photosynthetic and growth performance both in the absence and presence of salt stress. The chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized chloroplast thylakoids, but com...

  20. Sulfur mustard induces expression of metallothionein-1A in human airway epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nourani MR; Ebrahimi M; Roudkenar MH; Vahedi E; Ghanei M; AA Imani Fooladi

    2011-01-01

    Mohammad Reza Nourani1, Majid Ebrahimi1, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar3, Ensieh Vahedi1, Mostafa Ghanei1, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi21Chemical Injury Research Center; 2Microbial Product Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences; 3Research Center, Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran, IranBackground: Sulfur mustard can cause several long-term complications in the organs of individuals exposed to this toxic gas, and among these, pulmonary sequelae are the most important. Mo...

  1. Clinical, High Resolution Computed Tomography and Pulmonary Function in Sulphur Mustard Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Moghimi; Armita Valizadeh; Habib Heybar; Mahdi Yadollahzadeh; Ahmad Ahmadzadeh; Esmaeil Idani

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate clinical, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function test (PFT) findings after 18-23 years of exposure in veterans of sulphur mustard (SM) exposure. We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 patients. Inclusion criteria were 1: documented exposure to SM as confirmed by toxicological analysis of their urine and vesicular fluid after exposure 2: single exposure to SM that cause skin blisters and subsequent transient or permanent sequel. Cigarette sm...

  2. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štengl, Václav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomáš Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Bludská, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslařská 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  3. Solid-Phase Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites Using an Activated Carbon Fiber Sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Yong Han

    2016-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction method using activated carbon fiber (ACF) was developed and validated. ACF has a vast network of pores of varying sizes and microporous structures that result in rapid adsorption and selective extraction of sulfur mustard metabolites according to the pH of eluting solvents. ACF could not only selectively extract thiodiglycol and 1-methylsulfinyl-2-[2-(methylthio)-ethylsulfonyl]ethane eluting a 9:1 ratio of dichloromethane to acetone, and 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethane] and 1,1'-sulfonylbis- [2-S-(N-acetylcysteinyl)ethane] eluting 3% hydrogen chloride in methanol, but could also eliminate most interference without loss of analytes during the loading and washing steps. A sample preparation method has been optimized for the extraction of sulfur mustard metabolites from human urine using an ACF sorbent. The newly developed extraction method was applied to the trace analysis of metabolites of sulfur mustard in human urine matrices in a confidence-building exercise for the analysis of biomedical samples provided by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. PMID:26364317

  4. Successful term pregnancy after Mustard operation for transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseil, M P; Irion, O; Béguin, F; Jaques, O; Adamec, R; Lerch, R; Friedli, B; Rifat, K

    1995-03-01

    Transposition of the great arteries is a complex cardiac malformation with poor prognosis without surgical correction. Since the introduction of surgical procedures such as the intra-auricular reorientation of the venous return (Mustard procedure), an increasing number of patients may reach adulthood and experience pregnancy. Because long-term complications after the Mustard operation include systemic heart failure, arrhythmias, venous return stenosis and pulmonary edema, hemodynamic changes during pregnancy and delivery may potentially engender life-threatening complications in these patients. We report the case of a 24-year-old primigravida who underwent a Mustard procedure at the age of 2 years for transposition of the great vessels, and who carried out a full-term pregnancy. The pregnancy was uneventful until the 34th week, when the woman developed signs of moderate right ventricular failure and frequent episodes of accelerated junctional rhythm. Digitalisation improved symptoms and elicited return to normal sinus rhythm. The patient delivered at term by elective cesarean section, under close hemodynamic monitoring. PMID:7781853

  5. Effect of white mustard essential oil on inoculated Salmonella sp. in a sauce with particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jairus R D; Ekanayake, Athula; Singh, Indarpal; Farina, Brian; Meyer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    White mustard essential oil (WMEO), from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.), is obtained by solvent extraction of defatted and wetted ground mustard; endogenous myrosinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinalbin to yield 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (4-HBITC), the antimicrobial component of WMEO. Sauce with particulates was made by mixing sauce, which served as the carrier for WMEO, with frozen vegetable and chicken particulates inoculated with Salmonella sp. WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts by 0.8 to 2.7 log (CFU/g) in a frozen sauce with particulates in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the point of formulating the sauce through the microwave cooking step. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based analytical data confirmed that 4-HBITC was present in all of the samples in the expected concentrations and was completely hydrolyzed after the recommended cooking time in microwave ovens. In another experiment simulating unintentional abuse conditions, where the WMEO containing sauce with particulates was kept at room temperature for 5 h, WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts from the point of first contact and up to 5 h by 0.7 to 2.4 log (CFU/g). Despite the known hydrolytic instability of the active component 4-HBITC, particularly at close to neutral pH values, WMEO was effective in controlling deliberately inoculated Salmonella sp. in a frozen sauce with particulates. PMID:23575118

  6. Changes of phenolic acids and antioxidant activities during potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) pickling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Hu, Yuxia; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

    2008-06-01

    Phenolic acids in potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) were determined and the effects of pickling methods on the contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities were investigated. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid were identified in the present study. The contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids and total phenolics in fresh potherb mustard were 84.8±0.58μg/g dry weight (DW), 539±1.36μg/g DW, and 7.95±0.28mg/g DW, respectively. The total free phenolic acids increased during the pickling processes, but the total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities decreased. However, after 5 weeks of fermentation, all the pickling methods retained over 70% of total phenolic contents and above 65% of antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that pickling processes were relatively good methods for the preservation of phenolic acids and antioxidants for potherb mustard. PMID:26065739

  7. Chromium-induced modulation in the antioxidant defense system during phenological growth stages of Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Hema; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    Chromium-induced modulation in the enzymes and metabolites of antioxidants was investigated at various phenological stages of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. cv Pusa Jai Kisan)], grown with various levels of chromium (Cr) in pots under natural environmental conditions. Chromium accumulation in the root, stem and leaves increased with the advancement in the age of the plants. Growth of Indian mustard was not affected significantly by the supply of Cr up to the levels of 400 mg kg(-1) soil. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxide (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in the leaves of Cr-treated plants, when compared with control. High activities of antioxidant enzymes supported by high Cr concentrations in roots and aerial parts (except seeds) established the Indian mustard as a potential hyperaccumulator anda hypertolerant species to Cr stress. For this study, an edible crop was chosen intentionally so as to tap maximum benefit by remediating the contaminated site on one hand and getting uncontaminated seeds to raise the next generation, on the other. PMID:20734612

  8. Development and characterization of Brassica juncea – fruticulosa introgression lines exhibiting resistance to mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt

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    Atri Chhaya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard aphid is a major pest of Brassica oilseeds. No source for aphid resistance is presently available in Brassica juncea . A wild crucifer, Brassica fruticulosa is known to be resistant to mustard aphid. An artificially synthesized amphiploid, AD-4 (B. fruticulosa × B. rapa var. brown sarson was developed for use as a bridge species to transfer fruticulosa resistance to B. juncea. Using the selfed backcross we could select a large number of lines with resistance to mustard aphid. This paper reports cytogenetic stability of introgression lines, molecular evidence for alien introgression and their reaction to mustard aphid infestation. Results Majority of introgression lines had expected euploid chromosome number(2n= 36, showed normal meiosis and high pollen grain fertility. Well-distributed and transferable simple-sequence repeats (SSR markers for all the 18 B. juncea chromosomes helped to characterize introgression events. Average proportions of recipient and donor genome in the substitution lines were 49.72 and 35.06%, respectively. Minimum alien parent genome presence (27.29% was observed in the introgression line, Ad3K-280 . Introgressed genotypes also varied for their resistance responses to mustard aphid infestations under artificial release conditions for two continuous seasons. Some of the test genotypes showed consistent resistant reaction. Conclusions B.juncea-fruticulosa introgression set may prove to be a very powerful breeding tool for aphid resistance related QTL/gene discovery and fine mapping of the desired genes/QTLs to facilitate marker assisted transfer of identified gene(s for mustard aphid resistance in the background of commercial mustard genotypes.

  9. Smad Molecules Expression Pattern in Human Bronchial Airway Induced by Sulfur Mustard

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    Maryam Adelipour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Airway remodelling is characterized by the thickening and reorganization of the airways seen in mustard  lung patients. Mustard lung is the  general description  for  the  chronic obstructive  pulmonary  disease induced  by  sulfur  mustard(SM. Pulmonary  disease was diagnosed as the most important  disorder in individuals that had been exposed to sulfur mustard. Sulfur mustard is a chemical warfare agent developed during Wars. Iraqi forces frequently used it against Iranian during Iran –Iraq in the 1980–1988. Peribronchial fibrosis result  from  airway remodeling  that  include  excess  of  collagen of  extracellular matrix deposition  in  the  airway wall. Some of  Smads families in  association with TGF-β  are involved in airway remodeling due to lung fibrosis. In the present study we compared the mRNA expression of Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 and Smad7 genes in airway wall biopsies of chemical-injured patients with non-injured patients as control.We used airway wall biopsies of ten unexposed patients and fifteen SM-induced patients. Smads expression was evaluated by RT-PCR followed by bands densitometry.Expression levels of Smad3 and Smad4 in SM exposed patients were upregulated but Smad2 and Smad7 was not significantly altered.Our results revealed that Smad3, and 4 may be involved in airway remodeling process in SM induced  patients  by  activation of  TGF-β.  Smad pathway is  the  most  represented signaling mechanism for  airway remodeling and  peribronchial fibrosis. The  complex of Smads in the nucleus affects a series of genes that results in peribronchial fibrosis in SM- induced patients.

  10. Elemental sulfur effects on Pb and Zn uptake by Indian mustard and winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yan-shan; WANG Qing-ren; DONG Yi-ting; LI Hai-feng

    2003-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of elemental sulfur to contaminated soil on plant uptake by a heavy metal hyperaccumulator, Indian mustard( Brassica juncea) and a field crop, winter wheat( Triticum. aestivum ). Elemental sulfur(S) with different rates was carried out, they were 0(S0), 20(S20), 40(S40), 80(S80), and 160(S160) mmol/kg respectively. Extra pots with the same rates of S but without plants were used for soil sampling to monitor pH and CaCl2-extractable heavy metal changes. The results showed that S enhanced phytoextraction of Pb and Zn from contaminated soil. Application S effectively decreased soil pH down to 1.1 as the most at the rate of S160.The concentrations of CaCl2-extractable Pb and Zn in soil and uptake of Pb and Zn by the plants were increased with soil pH decreased. A good correlation between CaCl2-extractable Pb/Zn and soil pH was found( R2Pb = 0.847 and R2Zn = 0.991, n = 25). With S application, soilCaCl2-extractable Pb and Zn concentrations, concentration of Pb and Zn in plants and the amount of removal by plant uptake were significantly higher than those without S. Under the treatment of S160, the highest CaCl2-extractable Pb and Zn were observed, they were 4.23 mg/kg and 0.40 mg/kg, 2.7 and 2.0 times as that of the control( S0 ) respectively. At the highest rates of S( S160 ), both Indian mustard and winter wheat reached the highest uptake of Pb and Zn. The highest Pb concentrations in wheat and Indian mustard were 32.8 mg/kg and 537.0 mg/kg, all 1.8 times as that of the control, and the highest Zn concentrations in wheat and Indian mustard were 215.5 mg/kg and 404.0 mg/kg, 2.4 and 2.0 times as that of the control respectively. The highest removals of Pb and Zn from the contaminated soil were 0.41 mg/pot and 0.31 mg/pot by Indian mustard in the treatment of S160 through 50 days growth.

  11. Progress in the improvement of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern and Coss.) with yellow seed coat colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives in the mustard breeding programme at BARC are to evolve high yielding strains with yellow seed coat colour. Two of the Trombay mustard (TM) selections, TM-2 and TM-4 have been released for commercial cultivation in Assam State. In 1991-92 crop season, these two cultures were also evaluated in 60 and 200 minikit trials respectively at the farmers fields in Rajasthan State. The mean yield of TM-2 and TM-4 was however lower than the improved cultivar grown as the check. In the trials conducted at 3-4 locations by the Punjabrao Agricultural University for the past four years, TM-9 gave the highest mean yield of 840 kg/ha. TM-9 and TM-21 were the top yielders in the non-traditional mustard growing areas in Maharashtra State. TM-18 is presently the earliest maturing mustard available in the country. Such early cultures have the potential to replace toria (Brassica campestris var. toria) in the multiple cropping system. Simple and reliable methods for screening mustard germplasm for aphid tolerance at three different stages of plant growth have been developed. Using these methodologies, selections showing tolerance against crucifer aphid (Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.) have been identified. Powdery mildew (Erysiphe cruciferarum Opiz ex Junell) resistant selection have been isolated from a cross between TM-18 and Brassica carinata. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 10 tabs

  12. Childhood physical abnormalities following paternal exposure to sulfur mustard gas in Iran: a case-control study

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    Khademolhosseini Seyyed M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard gas, a known chemical weapon, was used during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988. We aimed to determine if exposure to mustard gas among men was significantly associated with abnormalities and disorders among progenies. Methods Using a case-control design, we identified all progenies of Sardasht men (exposed group, n = 498, who were born at least nine months after the exposure, compared to age-matched controls in Rabat, a nearby city (non-exposed group, n = 689. We conducted a thorough medical history, physical examination, and appropriate paraclinical studies to detect any physical abnormality and/or disorder. Given the presence of correlated data, we applied Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE multivariable models to determine associations. Results The overall frequency of detected physical abnormalities and disorders was significantly higher in the exposed group (19% vs. 11%, Odds Ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.37-2.72, P = 0.0002. This was consistent across sexes. Congenital anomalies (OR 3.54, 95% CI, 1.58-7.93, P = 0.002 and asthma (OR, 3.12, 95% CI, 1.43-6.80, P = 0.004 were most commonly associated with exposure. No single abnormality was associated with paternal exposure to mustard gas. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a generational effect of exposure to mustard gas. The lasting effects of mustard gas exposure in parents effects fertility and may impact child health and development in the long-term.

  13. Diagnóstico y tratamiento de la esquistosomiasis vesical desde la atención primaria penitenciaria: a propósito de un caso Diagnosis and treatment of bladder schistosomiasis from penitentiary primary care: case report

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    A. Bedoya del Campillo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un caso clínico de un paciente procedente de Senegal con síndrome miccional y hematuria microscópica que fue diagnosticado y tratado de esquistosomiasis vesical en los servicios médicos del Centro Penitenciario de Jóvenes de Barcelona. Según nuestra información en la base de datos Medline no existen casos de esquistosomiasis vesical abordados en atención primaria fuera de áreas endémicas. Los pacientes pueden diagnosticarse y tratarse antes de ser derivados a la asistencia especializada para continuar estudio de posibles complicaciones.We describe a case of a patient from Senegal with voiding symptoms and microscopic hematuria diagnosed and treated for bladder schistosomiasis in the medical services of the Youth Prison in Barcelona. According to our information in the Medline database no bladder schistosomiasis cases have been seen in primary care outside endemic areas. Patients can be diagnosed andtreated before referral to specialized care for further study of possible complications.

  14. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for hemoglobin adducts: Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) for determination of the sulfur mustard adduct to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin was developed. By using this SOP, it was found that the Nterminal valine adduct in globin of hairless guinea pigs and marmosets which had been exposed to sulfur mustard (0.5 LD5

  15. Fatores associados à bacteriúria após sondagem vesical na cirurgia ginecológica Factors associated with bacteriuria after indwelling urethral catheterization in gynecologic surgery

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    Sonia Cristina Araújo Hinrichsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a frequência e os principais fatores associados à bacteriúria após a sondagem vesical em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo do tipo coorte em mulheres submetidas à cirurgia ginecológica após sondagem vesical no Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, no período de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas até 24 horas após a retirada da sonda e 7/10 dias após a sondagem vesical. A análise estatística bivariada e multivariada foi realizada calculando-se a razão de risco e os seus intervalos de confiança a 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas no estudo 249 mulheres. A frequência de uroculturas positivas até 24 horas depois da retirada da sonda foi de 23,6%, diminuindo para 11,1% 7/10 dias após a sondagem. Destas, apenas 2,4% eram sintomáticas. Verificou-se menor risco de bacteriúria com 7/10 dias após a sondagem vesical quando a paciente referiu vulvovaginite tratada nos últimos três meses, não permanecendo estatisticamente significativa após a análise multivariada. Não houve associação significativa com idade, escolaridade, número de gestações, paridade, fase da vida reprodutiva, tipo e duração da cirurgia, tipo da anestesia, uso de antibiótico profilático, profissional que colocou a sonda e o tempo de permanência da sonda vesical. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência de bacteriúria foi de 23,6% e 11,1% com 24 horas e 7/10 dias, respectivamente. Não se encontrou associação significativa das variáveis pesquisadas com a bacteriúria evidenciada na urocultura com 7/10 dias.OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and risk factors associated to bacteriuria after urinary catheterization in women submitted to elective gynecological surgery. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out among women submitted to gynecological surgery after urinary catheterization. This study took place at the "Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor

  16. Development and validation of a triplex real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of three mustard species and three celery varieties in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle-Reisch, Monika; Hochegger, Rupert; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents a triplex real-time PCR assay allowing the simultaneous detection of three mustard species (white, black and brown mustard) and three celery varieties (celery roots, celery stalks and leaf celery) in foodstuffs. The triplex assay does not show cross-reactivity with other Brassicaceae. Low cross-reactivities were observed with fenugreek, cumin, ginger, caraway, turmeric, lovage and rye, the ΔCt values were, however, ⩾ 12 compared to positive controls. The triplex assay allows the detection of traces of DNA of the allergenic components in spite of an excess of the other DNA templates. Analysis of extracts from model sausages containing defined concentrations of mustard and celery showed that the triplex assay is applicable to both raw and processed foods. It was found to allow the detection of 1 ppm black/brown mustard and 50 ppm white mustard and celery in raw and brewed sausages with a probability ⩾ 95%. PMID:25872425

  17. Nitrogen mustard (Chlorambucil) has a negative influence on early vascular development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulphur and nitrogen mustards are strong alkylating agents, which induces inflammations of the skin including blistering right up to ulcerations. Depending on the severity, the wounds may need weeks to heal. In the past it was shown that sulphur mustard has a destructive effect on endothelial precursor cells, which have been shown to play a pivotal role in the wound healing reaction by inducing neovascularisation. However, for these alkylating agents as well as for sulphur mustard nothing is known about their effects on endothelial precursors. Therefore, we investigated and compared the influence of Chlorambucil on proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of endothelial cells in intact mouse embryoid bodies (EB). EBs were treated at different developmental stages and with different periods of Chlorambucil treatment. It was found that in each developmental stage and under each treatment period's Chlorambucil has an extremely negative effect on the vascularisation with a vessel reduction of around 99%. Of particular importance was the negative effect of treatment around day 3 of the development. On this day we found 377 vessels under control conditions but only 1.6 vessels under 24 h treatment of Chlorambucil. At this point in time many endothelial precursors can be found in the EB. Moreover, a negative effect on all stem cells was evident at this point in time, shown by an extreme reduction in EB size with 17.9 mm2 for the control and only 1.55 mm2 under Chlorambucil treatment. This negative effect on the vascularisation, on endothelial precursors but also on stem cells in general is of possible importance for impaired wound healing.

  18. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Douki, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.douki@cea.fr [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  19. The role of EDTA in lead transport and accumulation by indian mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassil; Kapulnik; Raskin; Salt

    1998-06-01

    Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants exposed to Pb and EDTA in hydroponic solution were able to accumulate up to 55 mmol kg-1 Pb in dry shoot tissue (1.1% [w/w]). This represents a 75-fold concentration of Pb in shoot tissue over that in solution. A threshold concentration of EDTA (0.25 mm) was found to be required to stimulate this dramatic accumulation of both Pb and EDTA in shoots. Below this threshold concentration, EDTA also accumulated in shoots but at a reduced rate. Direct measurement of a complex of Pb and EDTA (Pb-EDTA) in xylem exudate of Indian mustard confirmed that the majority of Pb in these plants is transported in coordination with EDTA. The accumulation of EDTA in shoot tissue was also observed to be directly correlated with the accumulation of Pb. Exposure of Indian mustard to high concentrations of Pb and EDTA caused reductions in both the transpiration rate and the shoot water content. The onset of these symptoms was correlated with the presence of free protonated EDTA (H-EDTA) in the hydroponic solution, suggesting that free H-EDTA is more phytotoxic than Pb-EDTA. These studies clearly demonstrate that coordination of Pb transport by EDTA enhances the mobility within the plants of this otherwise insoluble metal ion, allowing plants to accumulate high concentrations of Pb in shoots. The finding that both H-EDTA and Pb-EDTA are mobile within plants also has important implications for the use of metal chelates in plant nutritional research. PMID:9625697

  20. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks

  1. Study on remediation for uranium contaminated soils enhanced by chelator using brassica mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening of perfect hyperaccumulators is the key to the application of this technology. Through the previous stage study, mustard was found to be good at absorption and accumulation of uranium among 51 species, the plant grows fast with wide adaptability and large biomass. Researches will focus on the following two aspects: 1. Simulating U- contaminated soils was prepared by two different ways to add uranium. (1). UO2 (NO3)2 . 6H2O solution was sprayed into soil when the plant was grown in the soil; (2). Above U-contaminated soils after planting and placed for a year. Study on whether the way of adding uranium can effect mustard accumulate uranium. Results found: in the first Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reaches 1103.42 mg/kg, roots reach 1909.49 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 7.81%; in the second Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reach 295.83 mg/kg, roots reach 268.42 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 2.52%. Led to the difference between the twice remediation is the speciation of uranium m soils has changed, respectively, Tessier-five step continuous extraction method for determination of uranium speciation in soils and found available uranium (exchangeable uranium, uranium carbonate) in the soil of the first phytoremediation was 52% higher than the second phytoremediation. 2. Study on chelators (Citric acids, Malic acids) and soil amendments (Organic fertilizer, microbe fertilizer. Humic acid organic fertilizer, Urea) whether effect mustard accumulate uranium, found organic fertilizer can reduce shoots accumulate uranium, Citric acid and microbe fertilizer increase shoots enrichment of uranium. (authors)

  2. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS AND FORMS ON GROWTH AND ARSENIC UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION BY INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L. GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INDIRA CHATURVEDI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available By using two Brassica juncea genotypes (Varuna and DHR-9504 a green house experiment was carried out during crop cycle (2003-2004, at Agricultural Farm, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India. In Indian mustard, arsenic extraction by plants increased signifi cantly with increasing arsenic concentrations in soils. Uptake of arsenite by Indian mustard genotypes was higher than that of arsenate. Stunted growth of the plants was also observed in this study. This experiment clearly demonstrated the existence of genotypical variations in tolerance to As toxicity among Brassica juncea genotypes.

  3. Therapeutic Efficacy of Saline and Glucose Saline against Dermally applied Sulphur Mustard Intoxication in Mice

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    K. Sugendran

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A single dose of saline or glucose-saline (5 mg glucose/kg offered similar protection to mice against sulphur mustard intoxication, the extent of survival being 83 per cent as against 33 per cent without treatment. All the animals were protected when the treatment was extended by another two consecutive days in the glucose-saline treated group. Both saline and glucose-saline treatments could ameliorate the haemoconcentration as well as normalise pO/sub 2/ and % oxygen saturation. The protection conferred is attributed to the probable replenishment of fluid loss.

  4. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Srivastava; Singh, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Refined rice bran oil (RBO) was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO), MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO) and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO) to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV), p-Anisidine value (p-AV), Total p...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of "golden mustard" for treating vitamin A deficiency in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is an important nutritional problem in India, resulting in an increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is the WHO-recommended method to prevent VAD, since a single dose can compensate for reduced dietary intake or increased need over a period of several months. However, in India only 34 percent of targeted children currently receive the two doses per year, and new strategies are urgently needed. METHODOLOGY: Recent advancements in biotechnology permit alternative strategies for increasing the vitamin A content of common foods. Mustard (Brassica juncea, which is consumed widely in the form of oil by VAD populations, can be genetically modified to express high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. Using estimates for consumption, we compare predicted costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM fortification of mustard seed with high-dose vitamin A supplementation and industrial fortification of mustard oil during processing to alleviate VAD by calculating the avertable health burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all three interventions potentially avert significant numbers of DALYs and deaths. Expanding vitamin A supplementation to all areas was the least costly intervention, at $23-$50 per DALY averted and $1,000-$6,100 per death averted, though cost-effectiveness varied with prevailing health subcenter coverage. GM fortification could avert 5 million-6 million more DALYs and 8,000-46,000 more deaths, mainly because it would benefit the entire population and not just children. However, the costs associated with GM fortification were nearly five times those of supplementation. Industrial fortification was dominated by both GM fortification and supplementation. The cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention decreased with the prevalence of VAD and was sensitive to the efficacy rate of

  6. Effects of process variables and additives on mustard oil hydrolysis by porcine pancreas lipase

    OpenAIRE

    D. Goswami; De, S.; Basu, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Selective hydrolysis of brown mustard oil (from Brassica juncea) with regioselective porcine pancreas lipase was studied in this work. Buffer and oil phase were considered as the continuous and dispersed phases, respectively. Effects of speed of agitation, pH of the buffer phase, temperature, buffer-oil ratio and enzyme concentration on hydrolysis were observed. The best combination of process variables was: 900 rpm, pH 9, 35 ºC, buffer-oil ratio of 1:1 and enzyme concentration of 10 mg/g oil...

  7. Cancer Events After Acute or Chronic Exposure to Sulfur Mustard: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Salamati, Payman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sulfur mustard (SM) has been considered as a carcinogen in the laboratory studies. However, its carcinogenic effects on human beings were not well discussed. The main purpose of our study is to assess carcinogenesis of SM following acute and/or chronic exposures in human beings. Methods: The valid scientific English and Persian databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, IranMedex, and Irandoc were searched and the collected papers reviewed. The used keywords were in two languages: English and Persian. The inclusion criteria were the published original articles indexed in above-mentioned databases. Eleven full-texts out of 296 articles were found relevant and then assessed. Results: Studies on the workers of the SM factories during the World Wars showed that the long-term chronic exposure to mustards can cause a variety of cancers in the organs such as oral cavity, larynx, lung, and skin. Respiratory system was the most important affected system. Acute single exposure to SM was assumed as the carcinogenic inducer in the lung and blood and for few cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusions: SM is a proven carcinogen in chronic situations although data are not enough to strongly conclude in acute exposure. PMID:27280012

  8. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

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    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  9. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent. PMID:27295923

  10. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury

  11. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu; Chen; Wang; Chen; Kai; Chang; Shu; Chang; Chan; Jiunn; Shiuh; Shieh; Chih; Kwang; Chiu; Pin-Der; Duh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria(LAB)strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro.Methods:The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method.The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt.Strains with lowering cholesterol activity,were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells.Results:Strain B0007,B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC17010.The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains,with more than 10~s CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1%oxigall in MRS.In addition,strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines.Conclusions:These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterollowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines.

  12. Pilot-scale ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography: purification of sinalbin from white mustard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, Alix; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Pinel, Benoît; Boudesocque, Leslie; Lafosse, Michel; De La Poype, François; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2009-06-01

    The purification of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate (sinalbin) on a multigram scale from a crude aqueous extract of white mustard seeds (Sinapis alba var. concerta) was successfully achieved by scaling up a strong ion-exchange centrifugal partition chromatography (SIXCPC) laboratory procedure. Thus, the one-step sinalbin purification was performed with 2.35 g of crude extract in approximately 170 min (830 mg/h) up to 70.3 g in approximately 160 min (26.3 g/h) by switching from a 200 mL laboratory scale column to a 5.7 L pilot-scale column. The required biphasic solvent system contained ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water in 3:2:5 v/v/v proportions, Aliquat 336 (trioctylmethyl ammonium chloride) was added to the organic stationary phase (80 mM) and acted as ion-exchanger. Potassium iodide in the aqueous mobile phase (80 mM) was used as sinalbin displacer. The 28.5 mass scale factor arose from the increase in mobile phase flow-rate (from 2 to 50 mL/min), from the higher mass of injected white mustard seed extract (from 12 to 350 g), and from the calculated productivity (from 830 mg to 26.3 g). These results demonstrate that industry scale production of glucosinolates is easily performed by SIXCPC, thus providing pure reference standards for pharmacology studies. PMID:19479767

  13. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Hosseini, S.K. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Alavi, S.A. [Medical Center for Chemical Warfare Victims Foundation, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury.

  14. Nanoencapsulation Enhances the Post-Emergence Herbicidal Activity of Atrazine against Mustard Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley Caixeta Oliveira

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL nanocapsules have been recently developed as a modified release system for atrazine, an herbicide that can have harmful effects in the environment. Here, the post-emergence herbicidal activity of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine was evaluated using mustard (Brassica juncea as target plant species model. Characterization of atrazine-loaded PCL nanocapsules by nanoparticle tracking analysis indicated a concentration of 7.5 x 10(12 particles mL(-1 and an average size distribution of 240.7 nm. The treatment of mustard plants with nanocapsules carrying atrazine at 1 mg mL(-1 resulted in a decrease of net photosynthesis and PSII maximum quantum yield, and an increase of leaf lipid peroxidation, leading to shoot growth inhibition and the development of severe symptoms. Time course analysis until 72 h after treatments showed that nanoencapsulation of atrazine enhanced the herbicidal activity in comparison with a commercial atrazine formulation. In contrast to the commercial formulation, ten-fold dilution of the atrazine-containing nanocapsules did not compromise the herbicidal activity. No effects were observed when plants were treated with nanocapsules without herbicide compared to control leaves sprayed with water. Overall, these results demonstrated that atrazine-containing PCL nanocapsules provide very effective post-emergence herbicidal activity. More importantly, the use of nanoencapsulated atrazine enables the application of lower dosages of the herbicide, without any loss of efficiency, which could provide environmental benefits.

  15. Growth response modulation by putrescine in Indian mustard Brassica juncea L. under multiple stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakra, Nita; Tomar, Pushpa C; Mishra, S N

    2016-04-01

    Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard. The germination, seedlings length and photosynthetic pigments decline under salinity and metal (Cd/Pb) stress condition, alone or in combination, were checked by putrescine. The stress induced increase in root-shoot ratio, RNA and total amino acids content, as well as Na⁺/K⁺ ratio in leaf tissues were also comparatively less. The increased endogenous Cd/Pb accumulation in plants exposed to either metal further elevated under salinity was also found decelerated. However, the multiple stressed seedlings showed increase in glutathione content, which was further elevated with putrescine application. The increase in protein contents in leaf under single or combined stresses in the presence of putrescine could be a qualitative change. The differential changes in parameters examined here resulted in improved growth (> 10%) suggests stress mitigation by the putrescine up to an extent.

  16. Effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Kai; Chang; Shu-Chen; Wang; Chih-Kwang; Chiu; Shih-Ying; Chen; Zong-Tsi; Chen; Pin-Der; Duh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on immunopotentiating activity Methods: One hundred and fifty nine strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Taiwan fermented mustard were evaluated for their immunopotentiating activity on a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.Results: Of the strains, pronounced increases in the levels of nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were observed in strains B0040, B0110 and B0145. Among them,strain B0145 had the highest NO and tumor necrosis factor-α generation in RAW 264.7 cells;strains B0040 and B0110 were also superior to that of Lactobacillus casei. These results demonstrated that NO and cytokines were effectively induced when the bacterial stimulants were treated with macrophages. In addition, strains B0040 and B0110 were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, and B0145 as Weissella cibaria using 16 S rDNA analysis.Conclusions: The results implicated selected strains may be regarded as a biological response modifier and had a broad application prospects in exploiting new functional food or as a feed additive.

  17. Effects of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Chen Wang; Chen Kai Chang; Shu Chang Chan; Jiunn Shiuh Shieh; Chih Kwang Chiu; Pin-Der Duh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from fermented mustard to lower the cholesterol in vitro.Methods:The ability of 50 LAB strains isolated from fermented mustard on lowering cholesterol in vitro was determined by modified o-phtshalaldehyde method. The LAB isolates were analyzed for their resistance to acid and bile salt. Strains with lowering cholesterol activity, were determined adherence to Caco-2 cells. Results: Strain B0007, B0006 and B0022 assimilated more cholesterol than BCRC10474 and BCRC 17010. The isolated strains showed tolerance to pH 3.0 for 3 h despite variations in the degree of viability and bile-tolerant strains, with more than 108 CFU/mL after incubation for 24 h at 1%oxigall in MRS. In addition, strain B0007 and B0022 identified as Lactobacillus plantarum with 16S rDNA sequences were able to adhere to the Caco-2 cell lines.Conclusions:These strains B0007 and B0022 may be potential functional sources for cholesterol-lowering activities as well as adhering to Caco-2 cell lines.

  18. Study of selective metals accumulation in green mustard (Brassica rapa var. parachinesis L.) from Cameron Highlands farmlands, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many essential and non-essential elements including metals and radionuclides present in vegetables. However, the accumulation of the several metals and radionuclides might cause the contamination to vegetables itself. Green mustard (Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L.) was selected to represent the vegetable in this study. Objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of metals and radionuclides in the samples and to calculate the enrichment factor (EF) and also to estimate the uptake, base on biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), for the various parts of selected vegetables. Three farmlands in the Cameron Highlands were studied namely Bharat, Kg Raja and Bertam area. The green mustard and soil samples were collected during the harvest season. Samples were dried, ground and sieved prior to analysis. Analyses for both samples were done by using X-rays Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to measure the concentration of Fe, Zn, Hg, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in the soils is lower than their concentration in the control soil, except for Zn, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in Green Mustard is lower than their concentration in the soil where it was grown. The EF values in the Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L are lower than 2 except for U and Th, indicating some degree of contamination due to anthropogenic activities or naturally origin. The BAC values show that Zn and Hg were accumulated in the green mustard, depending on where the plant grows. (Author)

  19. High resolution computed tomography findings and pulmonary function tests among mustard gas exposed patients: is there a remarkable relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) are the two main methods, currently used for investigation of pulmonary complications in sulfur mustard gas exposed patients. According to different types of injuries in mustard gas exposed individuals, we decided to test the correlation between PFT and HRCT in these victims. Methodology: Fifty one randomly selected cases from 12000 mustard gas exposed patients during Iran-Iraq war (1983-1989) were studied. HRCT and PFT were conducted based on standard protocols. HRCT scores were tested for correlation to PFT measures. Results: A significant differences between PFT findings were found within HRCT groups (score=3, score 4-6 and score =7). There was a significant correlation between HRCT scores and FEV1, MMEF and FEV1: FVC ratio (P<0.05) in all subjects. Conclusion: HRCT and PFT results showed an acceptable correlation in mustard gas exposed patients. It seems to be useful to use each of these two diagnostic tools based on clinical judgment and feasibility. (author)

  20. EFFECT OF REACTIVE MATERIALS ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN INDIAN MUSTARD GROWN IN CR(VI-CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive materials represent a promising agent for environmental co-remediation. The research was aimed to determine the influence of hexavalent chromium in doses of 0, 25, 50, and 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil as well as zero valent-iron, and lignite additives on the content of macroelements in the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.. The average accumulation of the analysed elements in Indian mustard grown in Cr(VI contaminated soil were found to follow the decreasing order Mg>Na>P>Ca>K. Soil contamination at 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil led to the highest increase in magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium content in Indian mustard. The application of zero-valent iron had a positive influence on the average Na and K content of the tested plant. The application of lignite had a positive influence on the average magnesium, sodium and calcium content in the above-ground parts of the studied plant. In the non-amended treatments (without reactive materials, the increasing rates of chromium (VI had an explicitly positive effect on the content of phosphorous and sodium in Indian mustard.

  1. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  2. Perfil dos microrganismos isolados no trato urinário após sondagem vesical em cirurgia ginecológica Profile of microorganisms found in urocultures after urinary catheterization in patients undergoing elective gynecological surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cristina Hinrichsen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar os microrganismosfreqüentemente encontrados nas uroculturas apóssondagem vesical e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica eletiva. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal em mulheres submetidas a cirurgia ginecológica com sondagem vesical, no Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira (IMIP, em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, de janeiro a maio de 2007. As uroculturas foram coletadas em dois períodos: até 24h da retirada do cateter e após sete/10 dias. RESULTADOS: amostras de urina foram colhidas em 249 mulheres. Encontrouse 23,6% (n=46 de uroculturas positivas com até 24h da retirada da sonda e 11,1% (n=25 com sete/10 dias após sondagem vesical. Não foi observada diferença significativa em relação aos microrganismos, quando se compararamas duas uroculturas. A Klebsiella spp. foi o principal microrganismo em ambas uroculturas (até 24h=47,8% vs sete/10 dias=44,0%; p=0,76, seguido de Escherichia coli e outros Gram-negativos. Os antibióticos amicacina, cefepima, ciprofloxacina, meropenem e ticarcilina-clavulanato foram os que apresentaram sensibilidade igual ou superior a 75%para os principais microrganismos isolados. CONCLUSÕES: Klebsiella spp. foi o microrganismo mais encontrado nas uroculturas após sondagem vesical em cirurgias ginecológicas e o antibiótico com sensibilidade igual ou maior a 95% com via de administração oral foi a ciprofloxacina.OBJECTIVES: to determine the microorganisms mostfrequently found in urocultures after urinary catheterization and their antibiotic sensitivities in women undergoing elective gynecological surgery. METHODS: the study was carried out at theInstituto de Medicina Integral Professor FernandoFigueira, IMIP, in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, between January and May 2007. Urine cultures wereobtained from these patients on two occasions subsequent to the removal of the catheter: within the first 24h and 710 days

  3. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOSWAMI Bijoy Kumar; PANDEY Rajesh Kumar; RATHOUR Kabindra Singh; BHATTACHARYA Chaitali; SINGH Lokendra

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil.

  4. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. PMID:27052706

  5. Hydrogen Peroxide Alleviates Nickel-Inhibited Photosynthetic Responses through Increase in Use-Efficiency of Nitrogen and Sulfur, and Glutathione Production in Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M. I. R.; Khan, Nafees A; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S.; Asgher, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The response of two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or nickel (Ni) was evaluated. Further, the effect of H2O2 on photosynthetic responses of the mustard cultivars grown with or without Ni stress was studied. Application of 50 μM H2O2 increased photosynthesis and growth more prominently in high photosynthetic capacity cultivar (Varuna) than low photosynthetic capacity cultivar (RH30) grown witho...

  6. Evaluation of the efficacy of three indigenous strains of entomopathogenic nematodes from Meghalaya, India against mustard sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Arun K; Lalramliana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three indigenous strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) from Meghalaya, India, namely Heterorhabditis indica Poinar, Karunakar and David, Steinernema thermophilum Ganguly and Singh, and Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) against the last instar larva of mustard sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima Klug, a serious pest of mustard and radish in India. The larvae of A. lugens proxima were exposed to 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 infective juveniles ...

  7. HO1 mRNA and Protein do not Change in Parallel in Bronchial Biopsies of Patients After Long Term Exposure to Sulfur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Nourani; Samaneh Yazdani; Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Majid Ebrahimi; Raheleh Halabian; Leila Mirbagheri; Mostafa Ghanei; Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM), is an alkylating agent and has been emerged as a chemical weapon in various battlefields. More recently, SM was employed in the Iraq conflict against Iranian military forces and civilians. Nowadays there are more than 40,000 people suffering from pulmonary lesions special chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to mustard gas in Iran. SM causes the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Heme oxygenases (HOs) are the rate-limiting enzyme for heme ...

  8. Stigmatic receptivity determines the seed set in Indian mustard, rice and wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ramwant; Sutradhar, Hrishikesh; Chakrabarty, S K; Ansari, Mohhammed Wahid; Singh, Yogendra

    2015-01-01

    Stigmatic receptivity restricts the successful pollination in cereal crops. The present study deals with the biochemical test for enzymes producing in stigma of field crops such as Indian mustard, rice and wheat. The alcohol dehydrogenase and hydrogen peroxide assays revealed stigmatic receptivity as a violet color and oxygen bubbles released by the chemical reaction. Therefore, the 2 quick tests are in conformity to each other and supported the seed set data, which was utmost at blooming stage of flower ranged between 2-4 d All the 3 crops showed variation in stigmatic receptivity with respect to different time periods of blooming stages and hence, it may affects simultaneous pollen germination and tube growth, fertilization and seed set. The present finding suggests that the growth of pollen tube and stigma receptivity could be influenced by specific enzymes on stigma surface after 2-4 d of blooming stage, which contributes to proper seed set. PMID:27066163

  9. evaluation of best planting time of mustard (brassica juncea) strains in southern punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted to find out the proper planting time of newly evolved mustard (Brassica juncea) strains at Regional Agriculture Research Institute, Bahawalpur during the year 2000-2002. The study included 4 planting dates from 1st October to November 15th and three strains i.e. BRS-2 and BRS-10 and KH- 74 along with check RL-18. The 1st fortnight of October proved to be the best sowing time. KH-74 and BRS-2 gave significantly higher yield in wide range of sown period i.e. 1st October to 15th November. The highest grain yield of 2435 and 2341 Kgs, ha were obtained when crop was planted on 1st October and 15th October respectively. (author)

  10. Adsorption of copper from aqueous solution on Brassica cumpestris (mustard oil cake)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajmal, Mohammad [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh (India); Rao, Rifaqat Ali Khan [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: rakrao2000@yahoo.com; Khan, Moonis Ali [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2005-06-30

    The adsorption behavior of various heavy metals on mustard oil cake (MOC) was studied. The maximum adsorption of Cu(II) was observed followed by Zn(II), Cr(VI), Mn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II). The adsorption of Cu(II) was found to be dependent on initial concentration of solution, pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and contact time. The adsorption followed pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics but pseudo-second-order kinetic model was better obeyed since experimental data agreed well with theoretical data. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. The adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Attempts were also made to desorb Cu(II) from the adsorbent and regeneration of the spent adsorbent. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities were found to be 5 and 10 mg g{sup -1}, respectively.

  11. Combined effects of diphenyliodonium chloride, pine oils, and mustard oil soaps on certain microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Z; Siddiqui, M A; Khan, I

    1969-06-01

    Bactericidal and bacteriostatic activities of an emulsion containing 10.0% (v/v) terpineol, 0.5% (w/v) diphenyliodonium chloride, 11.0% (v/v) ethyl alcohol, and 5.62% saponified mustard oil were tested against a number of different types of organisms. The bactericidal concentration for Salmonella typhosa was 1:400. In the presence of 5.0% horse serum, it increased to 1:250. The bacteriostatic concentration varied from organism to organism; Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus required 4,000 mug/ml for complete bacteriostasis, whereas Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Salmonella paratyphi-A, and Shigella required only 2,000 mug/ml for complete inhibition. A 4.0% concentration of the emulsion killed the spores of Bacillus subtilis within 6 hr.

  12. Genotypic variation in phytoremediation potential of Indian mustard exposed to nickel stress: a hydroponic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Kafeel Ahmad; Ahmad, Altaf; Umar, Shahid; Zia, Munir Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad; Owens, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Ten Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) genotypes were screened for their nickel (Ni) phytoremediation potential under controlled environmental conditions. All ten genotypes were grown hydroponically in aqueous solution containing Ni concentrations (as nickel chloride) ranging from 0 to 50 μM and changes in plant growth, biomass and total Ni uptake were evaluated. Of the ten genotypes (viz. Agrini, BTO, Kranti, Pusa Basant, Pusa Jai Kisan, Pusa Bahar, Pusa Bold, Vardhan, Varuna, and Vaibhav), Pusa Jai Kisan was the most Ni tolerant genotype accumulating up to 1.7 μg Ni g(-1) dry weight (DW) in its aerial parts. Thus Pusa Jai Kisan had the greatest potential to become a viable candidate in the development of practical phytoremediation technologies for Ni contaminated sites.

  13. Adsorption of copper from aqueous solution on Brassica cumpestris (mustard oil cake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption behavior of various heavy metals on mustard oil cake (MOC) was studied. The maximum adsorption of Cu(II) was observed followed by Zn(II), Cr(VI), Mn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II). The adsorption of Cu(II) was found to be dependent on initial concentration of solution, pH, adsorbent dose, temperature and contact time. The adsorption followed pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics but pseudo-second-order kinetic model was better obeyed since experimental data agreed well with theoretical data. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. The adsorption process was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Attempts were also made to desorb Cu(II) from the adsorbent and regeneration of the spent adsorbent. The breakthrough and exhaustive capacities were found to be 5 and 10 mg g-1, respectively

  14. Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389 and P. moraviensis (JX149542. Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. moraviensis degraded 79.02 % petrol engine oil @ 2% in the soil planted with mustard (Brassica juncea var. Kranti crop after 120 days. GC-MS of biodegraded fuel showed the presence of new product like hexadecanoic acid 2, oxo-methyl ester.

  15. Bullous pemphigoid. Occurrence in a patient with mycosis fungoides receiving PUVA and topical nitrogen mustard therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, J.W.; Ali, M.; Murray, J.C.; Hazra, T.A.

    1985-04-01

    A 57-year-old woman with mycosis fungoides developed blisters within cutaneous plaques while receiving PUVA therapy and topical nitrogen mustard. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies showed the findings of bullous pemphigoid. Her bullous disease was controlled after cessation of these therapies and institution of prednisone and methotrexate. During the 5 months following completion of a course of electron-beam therapy, she has been free of the cutaneous manifestations of both diseases. Previous instances of PUVA-related pemphigoid have occurred in psoriatics. The role of ultraviolet light in the induction of pemphigoid is discussed, particularly with regard to its possible interaction with the altered skin of psoriasis or mycosis fungoides. Some of the rare cases of bullous mycosis fungoides might actually have represented ultraviolet-unmasked bullous pemphigoid.

  16. The Therapeutic Effect of Gamma Interferon in Chronic Bronchiolitis Due to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2005-06-01

    In the two groups, FEV1 did not have statistical differences at base line (49.3±2.9 and 48.7±4.1, respectively, p = 0.6, whereas after treatment the data for FEV1 showed a significant increase in the case group (66.3±5.4 when compared with those in the control group (57.3±8.6, p=0.001. The findings of this study indicate that a 6-month treatment with interferon gamma -1b plus a low-dose of prednisolone is associated with the improvement of the lung function in mustard gas exposed patients with bronchiolitis

  17. Epigenetic perturbations in the pathogenesis of mustard toxicity; hypothesis and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathogenesis of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity is not fully understood, although it is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, oxidative stress, DNA damage, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation within the affected cell. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of SM poisoning in rats' lung. A total of 40 male SD rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only; group 3 received histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (Trichostatine A) (1 mg/kg) and group 4 received DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) inhibitor (5-Azacytidine) (0.02 mg/kg), intraperitoneally. MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes as well as mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. In group 3, the HDAC inhibitor significantly reduced interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration. On the other hand, we have observed severe lung damage by using DNMT inhibitor (group 4). In HDAC inhibitor group, the results were close to sham group. In DNMT inhibitor group, however, lungs were worse than MEC group results. These preliminary results revealed that, SM itself and/or its intracellular metabolites may perturb the epigenetic environment of the affected cell in lung tissue. Hypothetically, MEC may cause HDAC induction leading to a variety of gene silencing. Trichostatine A can reduce the active enzyme level and can reactivate the already silenced genes. Further studies are needed to clarify the involvement of epigenetic perturbations in the pathogenesis of mustard toxicity.(author)

  18. Impacts of mustard gas exposure on veterans mental health: A study on the role of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-Reza Karami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mustard gas (MG exposure can impair physical health and therefore increase the probability of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and psychological disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate long-term effects of MG exposure on veterans′ mental health. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. In order to assess prevalence of mental health and PTSD of 100 MG victims 25 years after the exposure to MG in Iran-Iraq conflict, the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28 and Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively was administered. Results: The mean (±standard deviation (SD age of participants was 40.63 (±5.86 years. The mean GHQ-28 (47.34 of the study group was higher compared to standardized cutoff point (23 of the Iranian community. Also, it was found that 38 participants (38% suffer from PTSD. The results of this study showed that academic education in the PTSD group was less than that in the non-PTSD group (P=0.03. In addition, in multivariate analysis it was found that only education level of the veterans and their wives were effective on the mental health score (adjusted P=0.036 and 0.041, respectively. The mean score of depression and psychosocial activity subscale in patients at higher education level was lower than patients at lower education level (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study found that sulfur mustard (SM exposure can be effect on mental health even 25 years after exposure. Therefore, the psychological state should be more considered in chemical injured veterans and it is important that providing more mental health centers for this community.

  19. Accumulation, detoxification, and genotoxicity of heavy metals in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, C S; Misra, V; Chauhan, L K S

    2012-01-01

    Plants of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) were exposed to different concentrations (15, 30, 60, 120 microM) of (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb) for 28 and 56 d for accumulation and detoxification studies. Metal accumulation in roots and shoots were analyzed and it was observed that roots accumulated a significant amount of Cd (1980 microg g(-1) dry weight), Cr (1540 microg g(-1) dry weight), Cu (1995 microg g(-1) dry weight), and Pb (2040 microg g(-1) dry weight) after 56 d of exposure, though in shoot this was 1110, 618, 795, and 409 microg g(-1) dry weight of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In order to assess detoxification mechanisms, non-protein thiols (NP-SH), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) were analyzed in plants. An increase in the quantity of NP-SH (9.55), GSH (8.30), and PCs (1.25) micromol g(-1) FW were found at 15 microM of Cd, however, a gradual decline in quantity was observed from 15 microM of Cd onwards, after 56 d of exposure. For genotoxicity in plants, cytogenetic end-points such as mitotic index (MI), micronucleus formation (MN), mitotic aberrations (MA) and chromosome aberrations (CA) were examined in root meristem cells of B. juncea. Exposure of Cd revealed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of MI, induction of MA, CA, and MN in the root tips for 24 h. However, cells examined at 24 h post-exposure showed concentration-wise recovery in all the endpoints. The data revealed that Indian mustard could be used as a potential accumulator of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb due to a good tolerance mechanisms provided by combined/concerted action of NP-SH, GSH, and PCs. Also, exposure of Cd can cause genotoxic effects in B. juncea L. through chromosomal mutations, MA, and MN formation.

  20. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  1. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard.

  2. Impact of mixed low-molecular-weight organic acids on uranium accumulation and distribution in a variant of mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of a mixture of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) composed of CA/MA/OA/LA with a molar ratio of 2.5:2.31:1.15:0.044 on uranium (U) accumulation and distribution in mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida) was studied in this paper in order to understand the mechanism of rhizosphere-exudation assisted phytoremediation by hydroponic and pot culture experiments. The impact of the mixture of LWMOAs (Mix) on U accumulation showed that in hydroponic conditions Mix could enhance U translocation from root-to-shoot in mustard, but inhibit U uptake in root. In pot experiments, Mix enhanced both root and shoot U accumulation in mustard. The time-dependent kinetics of U uptake in mustard on Mix treatment showed that U content in plant shoots and roots increased with time increasing, and the steady state conditions were obtained at the 8th and 5th day with the U content of 1,528 and 2,300 mg/kg, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis for mustard roots showed that U was mainly observed on cell membrane of mustard roots on Mix treatment. This study would provide new insights for the mixture of LWMOAs-assisted phytoremediation of U-contaminated soil. (author)

  3. 一种即食芥菜加工技术的研究%Processing Technology of Instant Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任文彬; 陈聪宇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究不同加工工艺参数对芥菜加工产品的影响.[方法]以芥菜为原料,以芥菜感官评价为考察指标,通过单因素试验和L9(33)正交试验优化并确定了芥菜腌制及干燥的最佳工艺条件.[结果]研究表明,芥菜最佳的腌制及干燥工艺参数为:腌制盐浓度3%,腌制糖浓度6%,CaCl2添加量0.15%,腌制时间24h,干燥温度60℃,干燥时间6h.在此工艺条件下腌制的即食芥菜亚硝酸盐含量远低于国家标准,干燥后保持了良好的芥菜特性.[结论]研究可为工业化生产芥菜干提供理论依据.%[Objective] To study effects of different processing technique parameters on mustard products.[Method] With mustard as material,sensory evaluation as investigation indicators,the optimum conditions for mustard salting and drying were optimized by single-factor test and L9 (33)orthogonal test.[Result] The optimum parameters are:salt 3%,sugar 6%,CaCl2 dosage 0.15%,salted for 24 hours,drying temperature 60 ℃ and drying time 6 hours.It is suggested that the nitrite content in pickled mustard was much lower than the national standard,and maintained good characteristics of mustard after drying.[Conclusion] The study will provide theoretical basis for industrial production of mustard.

  4. Nitrogen Mustards

    Science.gov (United States)

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  5. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarat Babu Imandi; Sita Kumari Karanam; Hanumantha Rao Garapati

    2014-01-01

    Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus), the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF) using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been acco...

  6. Dissipation kinetics of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Dissipation of simultaneously applied insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was studied in a minor crop, aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD/NPD) was used to determine insecticide residues. Analytical performances were very satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties not higher than 14% (coverage factor k = 2, confidence level 95%). Dissipation of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in white mustard followed first-order kinetics (R(2) between 0.953 and 0.995), with half-lives of 3.1-4.6 and 2.9-3.7 days respectively. Based on the results of this two-year study and the relevant residue regulation, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments can be considered safe for crop protection, feeding animals and the environment. PMID:27229135

  7. Dissipation kinetics of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin residues in aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Dissipation of simultaneously applied insecticides alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin was studied in a minor crop, aboveground part of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.). A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD/NPD) was used to determine insecticide residues. Analytical performances were very satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties not higher than 14% (coverage factor k = 2, confidence level 95%). Dissipation of alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in white mustard followed first-order kinetics (R(2) between 0.953 and 0.995), with half-lives of 3.1-4.6 and 2.9-3.7 days respectively. Based on the results of this two-year study and the relevant residue regulation, alpha-cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin treatments can be considered safe for crop protection, feeding animals and the environment.

  8. Changes in 14CO2 absorption rates by the successive leaves in buckwheat and white mustard plants of various ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gej

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiments with different-aged buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Mnch. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. plants showed that the sub-apical and middle leaves, before they had reached their approximate final sizes, had the highest rates of 14CO2 absorption. The intensity of this process decreases in each leaf with age of the plant. White mustard leaves showed a little higher absorption rate of 14CO2 than analogous leaves of buckwheat plants. In the investigated leaves no close relationship between the intensity of 14CO2 assimilation and chlorophyll a and b concentration was observed. Some possible reasons for the higher intensity of photosynthesis in the sub-apical leaves are discussed.

  9. Efficacy of Tiotropium Bromide and Rehabilitation Treatment on Pulmonary Function of Patients With Sulfur Mustard Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic pulmonary complication is the most common delayed toxic effect of sulfur mustard (SM) and it has no treatment so far. Objectives: To evaluate short-term therapeutic effects of inhaled tiotropium bromide and pulmonary rehabilitation on pulmonary function of patients with SM induced lung injury. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, using convenient sampling method, 54 patients with chronic lung disease due to SM exposure were recruited in Baqiyatallah Genera...

  10. Effect of doxycycline on sulfur mustard-induced respiratory lesions in guinea pigs. : Doxycycline Prevents SM-Induced Respiratory Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Guignabert, Christophe; Taysse, Laurent; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Planus, Emmanuelle; Delamanche, Séraphin; Galiacy, Stéphane; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory tract lesions induced by the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) are characterized by epithelial damages associated with inflammatory cell infiltration. Here we evaluated the imbalance between gelatinase and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and we tested pretreatment with the protease inhibitor doxycycline. Guinea pigs were intoxicated intratracheally with SM and evaluated 24 h after exposure. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gelatinase activity of bronchial l...

  11. Transvenous cardiac resynchronization therapy in complex congenital heart diseases: dextrocardia with transposition of the great arteries after Mustard operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartner, Peter A; Wiebe, Walter; Volkmer, Marius; Thomas, Daniel; Schneider, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy revealed first promising results in patients with a congenital heart disease and a systemic right ventricle. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed accessibility of the coronary sinus in an 18-year-old male patient with mirror dextrocardia, d-transposition of the great arteries and ventricular septal defect (VSD) after Mustard operation and VSD patch closure. In literatures, transvenous lead placement is discussed in this anatomical setting, with opposed position of the ventricular leads and reliable lead characteristics.

  12. Augmentation of potential phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) stimulate growth of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed.) in marginal soil

    OpenAIRE

    SULIASIH; SRI WIDAWATI

    2006-01-01

    The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB (Bacillus megaterium, B. pantothenticus, Chromobacterium lividum and Klebsiella aerogenes) were used as biofertilizer to increase the fresh leaf production of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed.). An experiment was conducted at green house condition. The experiment were used 18 treatments such as single isolate of potential PSB (A,B,C,D), inoculants contain two isolates of potential PSB (E,F,G,H,I,J), inoculants contain three isolates of p...

  13. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A. A.; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher conc...

  14. Epidermal hydration and skin surface lipids in patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Pouran Layegh; Masoud Maleki; Seyed Reza Mousavi; Hadis Yousefzadeh; Akram Momenzadeh; Shiva Golmohammadzadeh; Mahdi Balali-Mood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite almost the three decades passed since the chemical attacks of Iraqi′s army against the Iranian troops, some veterans are still suffering from long-term complications of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning, including certain skin complaints specially dryness, burning, and pruritus. We thus aimed to evaluate the skin′s water and lipid content in patients with a disability of >25% due to complications of SM poisoning and compare them with a matched control group. Materials and Meth...

  15. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi Seyed Mansour; Ghanei Mostafa; Salamati Payman; Safiabadi Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complicat...

  16. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  17. GENETIC DIVERSITY FOR AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL AND OIL QUALITY TRAITS IN INDIAN MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L. CZERN & COSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BINOD KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of diverse parents in any crop species like Indian mustard is the pre-requisite and in any cropimprovement programme aimed to obtain the desirable recombinants in segregating generations. Greatercontribution of additive genetic component was reflected by main shoot length, siliqua on main raceme, siliqualength, palmitic acid, oleic acid and linolenic acid with pronounced range of variation, high heritability coupledwith high genetic advance under selection, which may be exploited in early segregating generations for yield andquality enhancement of Indian mustard. Amongst eight, five mono-genotype and clusters III, IV, I with 18, 12 and11 genotypes, respectively, maximum divergence exhibiting mono-genotype clusters (VII and VIII may be utilizedthrough inter varietal hybridization to exploit high degree of genetic diversity between them. Noteworthy is thatcluster VII exhibiting high genetic diversity for siliqua length, 1000 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield perplant; cluster II and VII for secondary branches per plant, siliqua on main raceme, 1000 seed weight andbiological yield per plant heritability coupled with high heritability and genetic gain under selection, may provetheir worth in genetic enhancement of mustard for yield and oil quality.

  18. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed-Mansour; Ghanei, Mostafa; Salamati, Payman; Safiabadi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry results can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respiratory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ultimately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement). There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. PMID:23735551

  19. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane.

  20. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. PMID:23411305

  1. Prostatic hyperplasia and congenital bladder diverticulum. A case report Hiperplasia de próstata y divertículo vesical congénito. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Raquel Abreu Santana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital diverticula in adults are typically associated with bladder outlet obstruction and their manifestation is most commonly by urinary sepsis. The case of a 69 years old male patient who attended consultation because of nocturia, thin urine stream, pushing, urgent urination and sense of incomplete emptying is presented. Through rectal examination grade I prostate with discrete grade I asymmetry consistent with right nodular lobe that did not rise to the surface was detected. During the physical examination tumor mass was palpated in the lower abdomen region. It was painless. Ultrasound and cystography showed giant bladder diverticulum with a narrow neck into the right lateral wall of the bladder. Cystoscopy confirmed the diagnosis and the patient was treated trough surgery. Histology revealed mucosal layers and muscle and adventitia in the wall, thus confirming congenital origin. Recovering after surgery was satisfactor.Los divertículos congénitos en el adulto se detectan normalmente asociados a factores obstructivos a la salida vesical, se manifiestan mayormente por sepsis urinarias. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 69 años que asistió a consulta por nocturia, chorro fino, pujo, urgencia miccional y sensación de vaciamiento incompleto. Mediante tacto rectal se detectó próstata en grado I con asimetría discreta de la consistencia del lóbulo derecho en forma nodular que no se levantaba de la superficie; al examen físico se palpó masa tumoral en la región de hipogastrio, no dolorosa. El ultrasonido y la cistografía mostraron divertículo vesical gigante de cuello estrecho hacia la pared lateral derecha de la vejiga. Se confirmó mediante la cistoscopia y se procedió a la intervención quirúrgica. La histología reveló la existencia de capas mucosas, muscular y adventicia en su pared, corroborándose su origen congénito. El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente después de la operación.

  2. Microbial and chemical origins of the bactericidal activity of thermally treated yellow mustard powder toward Escherichia coli O157:H7 during dry sausage ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Fernando B; Belland, Julie; Holley, Richard A

    2011-01-31

    Work examines the origin of bactericidal activity in mustard flour and explores the relative contribution from starter cultures, E. coli O157:H7 itself and other sources. Bacteria can degrade naturally occurring glucosinolates in mustard and form isothiocyanates with antimicrobial activity. In the present work, 24 starter cultures (mostly from commercial mixtures) were screened for their capacity to decompose the glucosinolate, sinalbin. The most active pair, Pediococcus pentosaceus UM 121P and Staphylococcus carnosus UM 123 M, were used together for the production of dry fermented sausage contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (~6.5 log CFU/g). They were compared to industrial starters used previously (P. pentosaceus UM 116P and S. carnosus UM 109 M) for their reduction of E. coli O157:H7 viability. Sausage batches containing hot mustard powder (active myrosinase), cold mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase), autoclaved mustard powder (inactivated myrosinase) and no mustard flour (control) were prepared. Interestingly, both pairs of starter cultures yielded similar results. Elimination of E. coli O157:H7 (>5 log CFU/g) occurred after 31 days in the presence of hot flour and in 38 days when the cold flour was added. Reductions >5 log CFU/g of the pathogen did not occur (up to 38 days) in the control group. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 itself had a greater effect on sinalbin conversion than either pair of starter cultures, and glucosinolate degradation by the starter cultures was less important in determining E. coli survival. The autoclaved powder caused more rapid bactericidal action against E. coli O157:H7, yielding a >5 log CFU/g reduction in 18 days. This may have been a result of the formation and/or release of antimicrobial substances by the autoclave treatment. Autoclaved mustard powder could potentially solve an important challenge facing the meat industry as it strives to manufacture safe dry fermented sausages. PMID:21146240

  3. 冬菜肉酱调料的开发研究%Development of Mustard Greens Meat Sauce Seasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文亭; 徐文俊; 肖龙泉; 李杉杉; 李俊英; 刘达玉

    2014-01-01

    Recipes of raw materials are optimized;the effects of frying time and temperature on mince dehydration and aroma enhancement of bean paste are studied.Recipes of mustard greens meat sauce seasoning are identified;based on the initial raw materials,the ratios of mustard greens-meat sauce are as follows:mustard greens of 40%,minced meat of 15%~20%,rapeseed oil of 26%,bean paste of 8%,sesame paste of 4%;paprika of 2.0%,meat flavor of 1.0%,pepper powder of 0.4% and spices powder of 2.0%.The yield of mustard greens meat sauce is about 70%.The quality and pro-duction efficiency of products are improved by using the method for frying minced meat,bean paste and mustard greens respectively.%为提高冬菜竞争力,提高其附加值,扩大消费群体和运用领域,开发了冬菜肉酱调料。通过优化原辅料配方,研究了炒制温度、时间对肉末脱水和豆瓣酱增香的影响,确定了冬菜肉酱的调味料配方。以最初原辅料为基准,添加量配比为冬菜40%,肉末15%~20%,菜籽油26%,豆瓣酱8%,芝麻酱4%;辣椒粉添加量为2.0%,肉味香精为1.0%,花椒粉为0.4%,香料粉为2.0%,冬菜肉酱加工得率为70%左右。采用肉末、豆瓣酱、冬菜分别油炸脱水,然后集中混合调味的方式,提升了产品质量,提高了生产效率。

  4. Role of Trichoderma harzianum in mitigating NaCl stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) through antioxidative defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Hashem, Abeer; Abd-Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A A; John, Riffat; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Gucel, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress affected crop production of more than 20% of irrigated land globally. In the present study the effect of different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, and 200 mM) on growth, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzymes, oil content, etc. in Brassica juncea and the protective role of Trichoderma harzianum (TH) was investigated. Salinity stress deteriorates growth, physio-biochemical attributes, that ultimately leads to decreased biomass yield in mustard seedlings. Higher concentration of NaCl (200 mM) decreased the plant height by 33.7%, root length by 29.7% and plant dry weight (DW) by 34.5%. On the other hand, supplementation of TH to NaCl treated mustard seedlings showed elevation by 13.8, 11.8, and 16.7% in shoot, root length and plant DW respectively as compared to plants treated with NaCl (200 mM) alone. Oil content was drastically affected by NaCl treatment; however, TH added plants showed enhanced oil percentage from 19.4 to 23.4% in the present study. NaCl also degenerate the pigment content and the maximum drop of 52.0% was recorded in Chl. 'a'. Enhanced pigment content was observed by the application of TH to NaCl treated plants. Proline content showed increase by NaCl stress and maximum accumulation of 59.12% was recorded at 200 mM NaCl. Further enhancement to 70.37% in proline content was recorded by supplementation of TH. NaCl stress (200 mM) affirms the increase in H2O2 by 69.5% and MDA by 36.5%, but reduction in the accumulation is recorded by addition of TH to mustard seedlings. 200 mM NaCl elevated SOD, POD, APX, GR, GST, GPX, GSH, and GSSG in the present study. Further enhancement was observed by the application of TH to the NaCl fed seedlings. NaCl stress suppresses the uptake of important elements in both roots and shoots, however, addition of TH restored the elemental uptake in the present study. Mustard seedlings treated with NaCl and TH showed restricted Na uptake as compared to seedlings treated with NaCl alone. In

  5. Bipyridine (2,2′-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alencar, T.A.M.; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T.C.; Vidal, L.S.; Fortunato, R.S.; Leitão, A.C. [Laboratório de Radiobiologia Molecular (Brazil); Lage, C., E-mail: claudia_lage_dna@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Radiações em Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Reduction of Fe{sup 2+} ensues a respiratory burst to reduce the oxidized iron pool. • Through Harber–Weiss recycling, superoxide electrons can reduce oxidized iron. • Redox imbalance sensitized repair proficient Escherichia coli to mustard lethal crosslinks. • A stronger synergism impacted survival of a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain. • Anti-cancer cocktails added of an iron chelator may impact hypoxia and genotoxicity. - Abstract: Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains

  6. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2015-11-13

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  7. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: savio.alv@gmail.com [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  8. Phyto-toxicity and Phyto-remediation Potential of Mercury in Indian Mustard and Two Ferns with Mercury Contaminated Water and Oak Ridge Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phyto-remediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Certain fern and Indian mustard species have been suggested as candidates for phyto-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water because of their high efficiency of accumulating metals in shoots and their high biomass production. Currently, no known hyper-accumulator plants for mercury have been found. Here we report the Hg uptake and phyto-toxicity by two varieties of fern and Indian mustard. Their potential for Hg phyto-remediation application was also investigated. Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical approaches were used to study mercury phyto-toxicity as well as anti-oxidative responses in ferns [Chinese brake fern (P. vittata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata)] and Indian mustard (Florida broadleaf and longstanding) (Brassica juncea L.) grown in a hydroponic system. Phyto-remediation potentials of these plant species were estimated based on their Hg uptake performance with contaminated soils from Oak Ridge (TN, USA). Our results show that mercury exposure led to severe phyto-toxicity accompanied by lipid peroxidation and rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in P. vittata, but not in N. exaltata. The two cultivars of fern responded differently to mercury exposure in terms of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; glutathione reductase, GR). Mercury exposure resulted in the accumulation of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in the shoots of both cultivars of fern. On the other hand, Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H2O2, resulting in lower H2O2 in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. In both varieties of fern and Indian mustard, a

  9. Inorganic materials as ameliorants for soil remediation of metal toxicity to wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Filho, Mateus Rosas; Siqueira, José Oswaldo; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Curi, Nilton

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of different inorganic materials were investigated on a soil originating from a zinc smelter dumping site contaminated by toxic metals. Wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) was used as a test plant. The soil was amended with different doses of mining sludge, Perferric Red Latosol (LVj), steel shots, cyclonic ash, silifertil, and superphosphate. The most effective amendments improved plant growth with 45% and reduced metal uptake by over 70% in comparison to untreated soil. Reductions in availability as estimated by BaCl2-extractable metals reached up to 90% for Zn and 65% for Cd as compared to unamended soil. These reductions were associated with lower shoot and root metal contents. Shoot Zn content was reduced from 1,369 microg g(-1) in plants grown on untreated soil to 377 microg g(-1) when grown on cyclonic ash amended soil while Cd decreased from 267 to 44 microg g(-1) in steel shots amended soil. Superphosphate addition had no ameliorating effect. On the contrary, it increased BaCl2-extractable amounts of Zn. Considering all parameters we determined, steel shots, cyclonic ash and silifertil are the most promising for remediating metal contaminated soil in the tropics. Further studies evaluating impacts, cost-effectiveness and durability of effects will be conducted. PMID:21598779

  10. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population. average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005-06 which were 2005-06 which were 31 and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004,05) and 817.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained non significant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  11. Plastic antibody for the recognition of chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, M; Suryanarayana, M V S; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Pandey, Pratibha; Ganesan, K; Singh, Beer; Sekhar, K

    2006-06-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) known as plastic antibodies (PAs) represent a new class of materials possessing high selectivity and affinity for the target molecule. Since their discovery, PAs have attracted considerable interest from bio- and chemical laboratories to pharmaceutical institutes. PAs are becoming an important class of synthetic materials mimicking molecular recognition by natural receptors. In addition, they have been utilized as catalysts, sorbents for solid-phase extraction, stationary phase for liquid chromatography and mimics of enzymes. In this paper, first time we report the preparation and characterization of a PA for the recognition of blistering chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (SM). The SM imprinted PA exhibited more surface area when compared to the control non-imprinted polymer (NIP). In addition, SEM image showed an ordered nano-pattern for the PA of SM that is entirely different from the image of NIP. The imprinting also enhanced SM rebinding ability to the PA when compared to the NIP with an imprinting efficiency (alpha) of 1.3.

  12. Impregnated silica nanoparticles for the reactive removal of sulphur mustard from solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Beer; Saxena, Amit; Nigam, Anil Kumar; Ganesan, Kumaran; Pandey, Pratibha

    2009-01-30

    High surface area (887.3m(2)/g) silica nanoparticles were synthesized using aerogel route and thereafter, characterized by N(2)-Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), SEM and TEM techniques. The data indicated the formation of nanoparticles of silica in the size range of 24-75 nm with mesoporous characteristics. Later, these were impregnated with reactive chemicals such as N-chloro compounds, oxaziridines, polyoxometalates, etc., which have already been proven to be effective against sulphur mustard (HD). Thus, developed novel mesoporous reactive sorbents were tested for their self-decontaminating feature by conducting studies on kinetics of adsorptive removal of HD from solution. Trichloroisocyanuric acid impregnated silica nanoparticles (10%, w/w)-based system was found to be the best with least half-life value (t(1/2)=2.8 min) among prepared systems to remove and detoxify HD into nontoxic degradation products. Hydrolysis, dehydrohalogenation and oxidation reactions were found to be the route of degradation of HD over prepared sorbents. The study also inferred that 10% loading of impregnants over high surface area and low density silica nanoparticles enhances the rate of reaction kinetics and seems to be useful in the field of heterogeneous reaction kinetics.

  13. The chemical toxicity of cesium in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Long; Tao, Zong-Ya; Fu, Qian; Han, Na; Wu, Guo; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-Gang

    2016-08-01

    To distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium, we study the chemical toxicity of cesium in the seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). In this study, the experiment was designed in two factors and five levels random block design to investigate the interaction effects of Cs and K. Results showed that excessive Cs was one of the main factors influence the growth of Brassica juncea seedlings. And the toxicity of Cs in Brassica juncea is likely to be caused by Cs interacts with K-binding sites in essential K-dependent protein, either competes with K for essential biochemical functions, causing intracellular metabolic disturbance. To test the hypothesis that the toxicity of Cs might cause intracellular metabolic disturbance, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Illumina paired-end Solexa sequencing platform was employed to analysis the changes in gene expression, and understand the key genes in B. juncea seedlings responding to the toxicity of Cs. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to the toxicity of Cs were identified. Further analysis showed that excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway, and inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced protein (AUX/IAA) genes expression eventually lead the seedlings growth and development be inhibited. The results suggest that disturbances to tryptophan metabolism might be linked to changes in growth. PMID:27156168

  14. Nitric oxide alleviates salt stress inhibited photosynthetic response by interacting with sulfur assimilation in mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehar eFatma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of nitric oxide (NO and/or sulfur (S on stomatal and photosynthetic responses was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea L. in presence or absence of salt stress. The combined application of 100 µM NO (as sodium nitroprusside and 200 mg S kg-1 soil (excess-S more prominently influenced stomatal behaviour, photosynthetic and growth responses in the absence of salt stress and alleviated salt stress effects on photosynthesis. Plants receiving combined treatment of NO plus excess-S showed well-developed thylakoid membrane and properly stacked grana lamellae under salt stress, while the chloroplasts from salt-stressed plants had disorganized thylakoids. Moreover, the leaves from the NO and excess-S treated plants exhibited lower superoxide ion accumulation under salt stress, induced activity of ATP-sulfurylase (ATPS, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and glutathione reductase (GR and optimized NO generation that helped in minimizing oxidative stress. The enhanced S-assimilation of these plants resulted in increased production of cysteine (Cys and glutathione (GSH reduced. These findings indicated that NO influenced photosynthesis under salt stress by regulating oxidative stress and its effects on S-assimilation, an antioxidant system and NO generation.The results suggest that NO improves photosynthetic responses of plants grown under salt stress more effectively when plants received excess-S. Thus, excess-S conditions may be adopted for higher impact of NO in the reversal of salt stress effects on photosynthesis.

  15. Frying Stability Evaluation of Rice Bran Oil Blended with Soybean, Mustard and Palm Olein Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Srivastava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Refined rice bran oil (RBO was blended with PUFA rich Soybean oil (SBO, MUFA rich Mustard oil (MO and SFA rich Palm Olein oil (POO to make a blend that had sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid by mixing two or more oils in the ratio of 60:40 and 60:20:20 respectively. RBO and its blends were subjected to deep fat frying of potato chips at 180±10C for 24h. Oil samples were withdrawn after every four hours of frying and evaluated for peroxide value (PV, p-Anisidine value (p-AV, Total polar component (TPC and oil stability index (OSI for the RBO and its blends. In general, frying stability of RBO was improved by the blending, the Omega-6/Omega-3 ratio of the blend of RPM and RSM was in the recommended range (1:5-10, and in both cases it was observed to be 1:6. The OSI of RBO deteriorates 66% and it improved by blending with POO and it decline only 53% and 54% for the blend RP and RPM respectively. It was concluded that the blend having more than two oils (RBO+PO+MO was better in oxidative stability, nutritional value and also contain sufficient amount of Omega-3 fatty acid than that of the RBO and its other blends.

  16. Bronchiolitis obliterans following exposure to sulfur mustard: chest high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanei, Mostafa E-mail: m.ghanei@bmsu.ac.ir; Mokhtari, Majid; Mohammad, Mehdi Mir; Aslani, Jafar

    2004-11-01

    Background: Pulmonary complications are known to occur in over half of the patients exposed to sulfur mustard (SM). Chemical weapons of mass destruction (WMD) including SM were used by Iraq during Iran-Iraq war between 1983 and 1989. We undertook this study to evaluate the chest high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) as a diagnostic tool in patients with documented exposure to SM and chronic respiratory symptoms. Method: The medical records of 155 patients exposed to SM during Iran-Iraq war and suffered respiratory complications were reviewed. Chest HRCTs of these patients were examined. Ten healthy controls with no history of exposure to HD were matched for age, gender, and chest HRCT protocol applied. Results: Fifty chest HRCTs of these patients were randomly selected for this study. The most frequent findings were; air trapping 38 (76%), bronchiectasis 37 (74%), mosaic parenchymal attenuation (MPA) 36 (72%), irregular and dilated major airways 33 (66%) bronchial wall thickening (BWT) 45 (90%), and interlobular septal wall thickening (SWT) 13 (26%), respectively. Air trapping in one patient (10%) was the only positive finding in the control group. Conclusions: Chest HRCT findings of bronchiectasis, air trapping, MPA, SWT, and BWT were seen in our patients 15 years after exposure to HD. These findings suggest the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). We did not encounter chest HRCT features consistent with pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Pepsin and bile acid concentrations in sputum of mustard gas exposed patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Karbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Gastro-esophageal reflux has been suggested to be associated with several pulmonary complications such as asthma, and post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans (BO. Pepsin or bile salts in the sputum is shown to be an optimal molecular marker of gastric contents macro/micro aspiration. In this study, we investigated sputum pepsin as a marker of micro-aspiration in sulfur mustard (SM exposed cases compared to healthy controls. Materials and Methods: In a case controlled study, 26 cases with BO and 12 matched healthy controls were recruited and all cases were symptomatic and their exposure to SM was previously documented during Iran-Iraq conflict. Pepsin levels in sputum and total bile acids were measured using enzymatic assay. The severity of respiratory disorder was categorized based upon the spirometric values. Result: The average concentration of pepsin in sputum was higher in the case group (0.29 ± 0.23 compared with healthy subjects (0.13 ± 0.07; P ± 0.003. Moreover, the average concentration of bile acids in the sputum cases was not significantly different in comparison to the controls ( P = 0.5. Conclusion: Higher pepsin concentrations in sputum of SM exposed patients compared with healthy control subjects indicate the occurrence of significantly more gastric micro-aspiration in SM exposed patients.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of water-soluble carbon nanotubes from mustard soot

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prashant Dubey; Devarajan Muthukumaran; Subhashis Dash; Rupa Mukhopadhyay; Sabyasachi Sarkar

    2005-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) has been synthesized by pyrolysing mustard oil using an oil lamp. It was made water-soluble (wsCNT) through oxidative treatment by dilute nitric acid and was characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthesized wsCNT showed the presence of several junctions and defects in it. The presence of curved graphene structure (sp2) with frequent sp3 hybridized carbon is found to be responsible for the observed defects. These defects along with the presence of di- and tri-podal junctions showed interesting magnetic properties of carbon radicals formed by spin frustration. This trapped carbon radical showed ESR signal in aqueous solution and was very stable even under drastic treatment by strong oxidizing or reducing agents. Oxidative acid treatment of CNT introduced several carboxylic acid group functionalities in wsCNT along with the nicking of the CNT at different lengths with varied molecular weight. To evaluate molecular weights of these wsCNTs, an innovative method like gel electrophoresis using high molecular weight DNA as marker was introduced.

  19. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Singh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostine and DRDE-07 were carried out in rats using a bodyplethysmograph fitted with a volumetric pressure transducer for sensing the respiratory flowsignals. The signals were amplified, digitised, and stored on a personal computer for furtheranalysis. After taking control recordings of respiratory signals, different doses (0.5 LD50, 1.0 LD50and 2.0 LD50 of amifostine and DRDE-07 were administered orally (LD50 amifostine = 2262 mg/kg; DRDE-07 = 1599 mg/kg, and the respiratory changes were monitored for 4 h. Amifostine andDRDE-07 showed a uniform breathing pattern even in 2.0 LD50 dose. However, a significant dosedependentdecrease in respiratory frequency was observed following amifostine administration.DRDE-07 did not show any significant change. The tidal volume was not altered significantlyboth in amifostine and DRDE-07 administered animals. The study shows that DRDE-07, even inlethal doses, may not affect the respiration immediately, whereas, amifostine may decrease therespiratory frequency.

  20. Chronic health effects of sulphur mustard exposure with special reference to Iranian veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Balali-Mood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of sulphur mustard (SM as an incapacitating chemical warfare agent in the past century has proved its long-lasting toxic effects. It may also be used as a chemical terrorist agent. Therefore, all health professionals should have sufficient knowledge and be prepared for any such chemical attack. SM exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tissue, with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, immunological, haematological, digestive, and reproductive systems. SM is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis, and, thus, delayed complications have been seen since the First World War. Cases of malignancies in the target organs, particularly in haematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systems, have been reported. Important delayed respiratory complications include chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deteriorate with time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction of natural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infections and malignancies are also among the most distressing long-term consequences of SM intoxication. However, despite a lot of research over the past decades on Iranian veterans, there are still major gaps in the SM literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunction, as well as the relationship between SM exposure and mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity are important fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranian veterans with chronic health effects of SM poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on the medical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of SM poisoning—a subject that greatly challenges health care specialists.

  1. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  2. Relationship of oxidative stress with male infertility in sulfur mustard-exposed injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a cytotoxic and chemical agent that targets different tissues such as reproductive system. SM causes a wide variety of pathological effects on reproductive system such as disturbance in reproductive hormones, testis atrophy, spermatogenesis deficiency, low quality of sperm and fertility problem. However, molecular and cellular mechanisms of its adverse effects are still not well known. General events such as tissue damage, inflammation, DNA alkylation, cell membrane defects, apoptosis and cell death are observed frequently in SM-exposed subjects. Oxidative stress (OS and antioxidants depletion induced by SM seem to be one of the main factors that lead to low sperm quality and male infertility among exposed patients. It is believed that SM can trigger several molecular and cellular pathways linked to OS and inflammation in reproductive system that can cause impaired spermatogenesis, sperm apoptosis and poor sperm quality as well as loss of tissue structure and function. Identification of these signaling pathways and molecules gives us valuable information regarding the mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive dysfunction and the way for developing a better clinical treatment. Therefore, in this review we aimed to discuss the proposed cellular and molecular mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive system, the significance of oxidative stress and the mechanisms by which SM induces OS and antioxidants depletion in SM exposed men.

  3. UTILIZATION OF MUSTARD OIL FOR THE PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES BY Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Javed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With the unnecessary use of plastics and cumulative pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years. Bioplastic production from mustard oil was considered relatively cheap, easily available, included in vegetable oil and don’t having much volatile characteristics. Total of 67 bacterial strains were isolated and purified from different regions of the Pakistan, and were checked for Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA production by Sudan black and Nile blue staining. Quantitative analysis for biodegradable plastic produced by different bacterial species was performed by Modified surfactant hypochlorite method. High PHA production was detected in 35 strains belonging to different genera including Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia and Enterobacter. Fermentation and PHA production was done in batch culture. The PHA production of P. aeruginosa by mustered oil cultivation was studied under six experimental conditions, such as air flow rates, pH, Temperature, optical density, substrates concentration and cell dry weight. PHA production of Pseudomonas species were subsequently authenticated at molecular level by PCR amplifications and sequence analysis. PHA polymerase 1 (PhaC1 and PHA polymerase 2 (PhaC2 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were amplified, sequenced and submitted to gene bank.

  4. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.;

    2013-01-01

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard...... randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard...

  5. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mansour Razavi; Mostafa Ghanei; Payman Salamati; Mehdi Safiabadi

    2013-01-01

    To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone IraqIran war.Electronic databases of Scopus,Medline,ISI,IranMedex,and Irandoc sites.were searched.We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion.The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators.Prevalence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%.The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea.Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,bronchiectasis,and asthma.Spirometry resuits can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease.Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases.High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi.There is no definite curative treatment for mustard lung.The effective treatment regimens consist of oxygen administration,use of vaporized moist air,respiratory physiotherapy,administration of mucolytic agents,bronchodilators,corticosteroids,and long-acting beta-2 agonists,antioxidants,surfactant,magnesium ions,therapeutic bronchoscopy,laser therapy,placement of respiratory stents,early tracheostomy in laryngospasm,and ultimately lung transplantation.High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi.The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic,upper or lower respiratory tract involvement).There are various treatment protocols,but unfortunately none of them is defmitely curable.

  6. [Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of cataplasm of white mustard seed varnish to prevent asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li-Na; Zhu, Wei-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Wen-Yang; Yu, Xiang; Li, Miao; Jin, Yi-Guang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the manuscript was to optimize formulations and preparation technologies of cataplasm of white mustard seed varnish, and to evaluate its anti-asthma effect on rats. The single factor experiments included spreading thickness, types of crosslinking agents, dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate amount, sodium polyacrylate amount, types of adhesive agents with human sense as the evaluation index. Blank cataplasm matrix was optimized by the orthogonal experiment with the amount of glycerine, citric acid, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose as the major influential factors. Initial adhesive force, peeling strength and human sense were as the evaluation index. The optimized formulation of blank cataplasm were as followings: glycerine-water-ethanol-PEG400-dihydroxyaluminum aminoacetate-citric acid-sodium carboxymethylcellulose-sodium carboxymethylcellulose 2 : 8 : 0.8 : 0.4 : 0.07: 0.15 : 0.1 : 0.5. The active ingredients of white mustard seed, corydalis, and gansui root were extracted by alcohol extraction method. Asiasarum volatile oil was extracted by oil extractor. The optimized drug loading amount was 11% with initial adhesive force, peeling strength and human sense as the evaluation index. Asthma rats model were established by sensitized with ovalbumin and nose-scratching time as the evaluation index. High dose (17%) group of drug-loaded cataplasm had the obvious inhibition effect on nose-scratching time of rats (P = 0.037 < 0.05). In comparison, middle dose (11%), low dose (4%) and positive-control groups had no obvious inhibitive effect on rats. White mustard seed cataplasm supplied a novel choice for anti-asthma therapy. And the overall pharmacodynamics assessment will be carried out on molecular level in near future. PMID:25911808

  7. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropSciences AG to modify the existing MRL for the active substance bixafen in rape seed. The submitted residue data support the intended use of bixafen in rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed in France as well. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRL from 0.015 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005 which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.07 mg/kg for the proposed use on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. An adequate analytical enforcement method is available to control the residues of bixafen in oilseeds. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of bixafen on rape seed, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk. This risk assessment has to be regarded as provisional since the residue definition for enforcement and risk assessment in oilseeds are provisional and pending the need for MRLs in rotational crops and the definitive MRLs in animal origin commodities.

  8. Downregulation of super oxide dismutase level in protein might be due to sulfur mustard induced toxicity in lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Mirbagheri; Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi; Mostafa Ghanei; Mohammad Reza Nourani

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) has been identified as an important chemical weapon. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, the extensive usage of SM against Iranian civilians and military forces was proven. This agent has been shown to cause severe damage mainly in the skin, eyes, lungs,  and  respiratory  tract  in  Iranian  veterans.  The  most  common  disease  is bronchiolitis obliterans (BO)). SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are kn...

  9. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target

    OpenAIRE

    Fedeles, Bogdan I.; Zhu, Angela Y.; Young, Kellie S.; Hillier, Shawn M.; Proffitt, Kyle D.; Essigmann, John M.; Croy, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The antitumor agent 11β (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11β against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action...

  10. The Short-Term Effect of Mustard Gas on the Serum Immunoglobulin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Keyhani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mustard gas (MG, as a chemical warfare agent was used by the Iraqi army in Iran-Iraq conflict against military men in the battlefield in 1985.The serum levels of IgG, IgA and IgM of patients exposed to MG in the battlefield were measured by single radial immunodiffusion from day 3 up to one month after exposure to MG. The serum levels of IgG in patients showed significant decrease on day 3 after exposure to MG. However, the levels of IgG in the serum samples collected from the patients during 4-18 days after exposure to MG were found to increase. The increase in serum IgG levels in the sera of patients which were collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG was found to be highly significant, surpassing those from the controls. The levels of serum IgA in patients during one month after exposure to MG showed alterations similar to those of serum IgG, however the serum alterations of the patients IgA, comparing to those of the normal controls were not significant. The serum levels of IgM in patients did not show marked alterations during one month after exposure to MG comparing to those of the normal controls. The initial decrease in serum levels of IgG in patients is discussed in terms of a possible leakage of IgG into the skin blisters and into other severely affected parts of the body such as respiratory system, whereas the subsequent increase in serum IgG is interpreted as due to (auto antigenic stimulation of the patients’ immune systems.

  11. The Short-Term Effects of Sulfur Mustard Gas on the Complement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Keyhani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The serum levels of C3, C4, and the total hemolytic activity of complement system (CH50 of patients ex­posed to mustard gas (MG in the battlefield were measured in this study. Methods: C3 and C4 were measured by single radial immunodifusion and CH50 was evaluated according to total hemolytic activ­ity of the serum. Results:  The serum levels of C3 showed a significant increase on day 3 after exposure to MG. The serum levels of C3 in the sera of patients collected during 4-18 and 19-31 days after exposure to MG were also found to have increased significantly com­paring to those of the controls. The levels of C4 in the sera of patients collected from the patients during 4-18 and 19-31 days after exposure were also found to be significantly higher than those of the controls. However the increase in the serum lev­els of C4 were not in the same magnitude as those of the C3. The serum CH50, which is a measure of the total hemolytic activ­ity of classical complement system also showed a significant increase in patients' sera on day 3 and in the sera collected dur­ing 4-18 days after exposure. However, the CH50 in the sera of patients showed a decrease in the sera collected during 19-31 days after exposure to MG. Conclusion: Since C3 is an acute phase protein as well as a complement component, these results are discussed in terms of a vigorous acute phase response and activation of the complement system.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the solution and solvolysis of sulfur mustard in deuterium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Thomas P; Sartori, David A

    2003-01-01

    Our laboratory performs in vitro experiments in which cell cultures are exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) to investigate the toxicity of this agent of chemical warfare. To perform these experiments, it is important to know the rate of hydrolysis of HD in order to calculate the concentrations of HD and its hydrolysis products during the experiment. Researchers have previously investigated the kinetics and mechanism of the hydrolysis of HD using a variety of methods. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to investigate HD's dissolution and solvolysis in deuterium oxide (D 2 O) at 2 mM. We followed activity in proton spectrums and determined the half-life (t 1/2) of HD to be 7.0 +/- 0.5 min in four experiments performed at 22 degrees C. In addition, we determined the t 1/2 of HD in D 2 O containing 0.17 M sodium chloride to be 24 +/- 1 min in three experiments performed at 22 degrees C. As further proof of the existence of HD dissolved into D 2 O, deutero-hexane was used to extract the D 2 O HD solution. The resulting deutero-hexane solution was studied by 1 H NMR and GC/MS. The results obtained match those received from a standard deutero-hexane HD solution. These results demonstrate that HD can be identified in D 2 O with proton NMR and that proton NMR data can be used to monitor the subsequent solvolysis of HD. PMID:20021164

  13. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning.

  14. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Jill A. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Devine, Patrick J. [INRS—Institut Armand-Frappier Research Centre, University of Quebec, Laval, QC H7V 1B7 (Canada); Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles.

  15. Evaluation of CC2 as a Decontaminant in Various Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Formulations Against Sulphur Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate CC2 (N, N' -dichloro-bis [2, 4, 6-trichlorophenyl] urea) in various hydrophilic and lipophilic formulations as a personnel decontaminant for sulphur mustard (SM). Methods Twenty percent of CC2 was prepared as a suspension or ointment with various chemical agents and its stability was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated in mice by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM (LD50 =8.1 mg/kg dermally) and decontaminating it after 2 min with 200 mg of the formulation.Studies were also carried out with 10% and 20% CC2 in acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose,and the suspensions were stored in polyethylene containers. The stability of the suspensions was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM in mice and 12 LD50 of SM in rats (LD50 = 2.4 mg/kg dermally), and decontaminating it with the formulations. LD50 by different routes and primary skin irritation test of CC2 were also carried out. Results CC2 reacted with peanut oil and neem oil, and was unstable in povidone iodine and Fuller's earth. Good stability was achieved with petroleum jelly, honey, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, calamine lotion, acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose. Though CC2 was stable in lipophilic formulations, it did not protect the animals. The hydrophilic formulations particularly acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose gave very good protection and was stable in the polyethylene containers for a period of 1 year. The efficacy of 20% CC2 was better than 10% CC2. The oral and dermal LD50 of CC2 was found to be above 5.0 g/kg. CC2 was also found to be nonirritant.Conclusion Twenty percent of CC2 in hydroxypropyl cellulose is better with respect to stability, efficacy and ease of decontamination. CC2 is also a safe chemical.

  16. Influence of sulfur and cadmium on antioxidants, phytochelatins and growth in Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Humayra; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Bagheri, Rita; Ahmad, Javed; Arif, Ibrahim A; Baig, M Affan; Qureshi, M Irfan

    2015-01-12

    Soils in many parts of the world are contaminated with heavy metals, leading to multiple, deleterious effects on plants and threats to world food production efficiency. Cadmium (Cd) is one such metal, being toxic at relatively low concentrations as it is readily absorbed and translocated in plants. Sulfur-rich compounds are critical to the impact of Cd toxicity, enabling plants to increase their cellular defence and/or sequester Cd into vacuoles mediated by phytochelatins (PCs). The influence of sulfur on Cd-induced stress was studied in the hyperaccumulator plant Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) using two sulfur concentrations (+S, 300 µM [Formula: see text] and S-deficient -S, [Formula: see text]) with and without the addition of Cd (100 µM CdCl2) at two different time intervals (7 and 14 days after treatment). Compared with control plants (+S/-Cd), levels of oxidative stress were higher in S-deficient (-S/-Cd) plants, and greatest in S-deficient Cd-treated (-S/+Cd) plants. However, additional S (+S/+Cd) helped plants cope with oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase emerged as a key player against Cd stress under both -S and +S conditions. The activity of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase declined in Cd-treated and S-deficient plants, but was up-regulated in the presence of sulfur. Sulfur deficiency mediated a decrease in ascorbate and glutathione (GSH) content but changes in ascorbate (reduced : oxidized) and GSH (reduced : oxidized) ratios were alleviated by sulfur. Our data clearly indicate that a sulfur pool is needed for synthesis of GSH, non-protein thiols and PCs and is also important for growth. Sulfur-based defence mechanisms and the cellular antioxidant pathway, which are critical for tolerance and growth, collapsed as a result of a decline in the sulfur pool.

  17. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  18. Medical documentation, bioanalytical evidence of an accidental human exposure to sulfur mustard and general therapy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinritz, Dirk; Striepling, Enno; Rudolf, Klaus-Dieter; Schröder-Kraft, Claudia; Püschel, Klaus; Hullard-Pulstinger, Andreas; Koller, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst; Gandor, Felix; Gawlik, Michael; John, Harald

    2016-02-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent (CWA) that was first used in World War I and in several military conflicts afterwards. The threat by SM is still present even today due to remaining stockpiles, old and abandoned remainders all over the world as well as to its ease of synthesis. CWA are banned by the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) interdicting their development, production, transport, stockpiling and use and are subjected to controlled destruction. The present case report describes an accidental exposure of three workers that occurred during the destruction of SM. All exposed workers presented a characteristic SM-related clinical picture that started about 4h after exposure with erythema and feeling of tension of the skin at the upper part of the body. Later on, superficial blister and a burning phenomenon of the affected skin areas developed. Similar symptoms occurred in all three patients differing severity. One patient presented sustained skin affections at the gluteal region while another patient came up with affections of the axilla and genital region. Fortunately, full recovery was observed on day 56 after exposure except some little pigmentation changes that were evident even on day 154 in two of the patients. SM-exposure was verified for all three patients using bioanalytical GC MS and LC MS/MS based methods applied to urine and plasma. Urinary biotransformation products of the β-lyase pathway were detected until 5 days after poisoning whereas albumin-SM adducts could be found until day 29 underlining the beneficial role of adduct detection for post-exposure verification. In addition, we provide general recommendations for management and therapy in case of SM poisoning. PMID:26321678

  19. Evaluation of agonist-antagonist properties of nitrogen mustard and cyano derivatives of delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J L; Compton, D R; Gordon, P M; Siegel, C; Singer, M; Dutta, A; Lichtman, A H; Balster, R L; Razdan, R K; Martin, B R

    1996-01-01

    delta 8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 8-THC) is a naturally occurring cannabinoid with a characteristic pharmacological profile of in vivo effects. Previous studies have shown that modification of the structure of delta 8-THC by inclusion of a nitrogen-containing functional group alters this profile and may alkylate the cannabinoid receptor, similar to the manner in which beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA) alkylates the micro-opioid receptor. Two novel analogs of delta 8-THC were synthesized: a nitrogen mustard analog with a dimethylheptyl side chain (NM-delta 8-THC) and a cyano analog with a dimethylpentyl side chain (CY-delta 8-THC). Both analogs showed high affinity for brain cannabinoid receptors and when administered acutely, produced characteristic delta 9-THC-like effects in mice, including locomotor suppression, hypothermia, antinociception and catalepsy. CY-delta 8-THC shared discriminative stimulus effects with CP 55,940; for NM-delta 8-THC, these effects also occurred, but were delayed. Although both compounds attenuated the effects of delta 9-THC in the mouse behavioral tests, evaluation of potential antagonist effects of these compounds was complicated by the fact that two injections of delta 9-THC produced similar results, suggesting that acute tolerance or desensitization might account for the observations. NM-delta 8-THC, but not CY-delta 8-THC, attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of CP 55,940 in rats several days following injection. Hence, addition of a nitrogen-containing functional group to a traditional cannabinoid structure does not eliminate agonist effects and may produce delayed attenuation of cannabinoid-induced pharmacological effects. PMID:9076759

  20. Effects of mercury on visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of mustard spinach plants (Brassica rapa P.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustard spinach plants were grown in mercury-spiked and contaminated soils collected in the field under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle to test if vegetation grown in these soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993 ppm) of the Mustard spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentration of soils and varied throughout the growing season. Equations relating foliar Hg concentration to spectral reflectance, its first derivative, and selected vegetation indices were generated using stepwise multiple linear regression. Significant correlations are found for limited wavelengths for specific treatments and dates. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Red Edge Position (REP) values of plants in Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soils are significantly lower relative to control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle which may be related to lower chlorophyll abundance or functioning in Hg-contaminated plants. - Some spectral characteristics of leaves of Brassica rapa P. may be associated with foliar mercury content

  1. RESPONSE OF MUSTARD (BRASSICA JUNCEA L. CZERNJ. & COSSON TO POTASSIUM WITH OTHER NUTRIENTS ON YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARUNIMA PALIWAL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment to evaluate response of mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czernj. and Cosson to potassium in combination with other nutrients on yield and quality was conducted at N. E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand during rabi season of 2012-13. The experiment, comprising of twelve treatments was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. The results revealed that higher seed yield per hectare (1817 kg ha-1 was obtained at 150% NPK due to higher values of yield attributing characters viz. number of siliquae per plant (324.5, length of siliqua (4 cm, 1000- seed weight (3.7 g and seed weight per plant (13.9 g. Protein yield (306 kg ha-1 and oil yield (736 kg ha- 1 was also recorded maximum at 150% NPK level. Therefore, it can be concluded that application of 150% NPK should be used for improvement of yield and quality of mustard under tarai condition of Uttarakhand.

  2. EVALUATIO OF MICROBIAL AGENTS AND BIO-PRODUCTS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF MUSTARD APHID, LIPAPHIS ERYSIMI (KALT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJENDRA NAGAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial agents (Verticillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water,plant products (Tobacco, onion and neem seed kernel extract @ 5%, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha and dimethoate30EC @ 300 g a.i/ha were evaluated against mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt. and their safety to naturalenemies and pollinators. Significantly higher aphid reduction was recorded under these treatments over thecontrol without any phytotoxic effect and found safe to natural enemies of mustard aphid and honeybee. Mostfavourable cost-benefit ratio was obtained under the treatment i.e. dimethoate 30 EC @ 300 g a.i/ha (1:38followed by neem seed kernel extract @ 5% (1:18, onion extract @ 5% (1:17, cow urine @ 50 litre/ha (1:11,Beauveria bassiana @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Verticillium lecanii @ 5 g per litre of water (1:10, Metarhiziumanisopliae @ 5 g per litre of water (1:8, tobacco extract @ 5% (1:6 and water spray (1:2.

  3. Efficiency influence of exogenous betaine on anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating high salinity mustard tuber wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Kong, Xiang-Juan; Chai, Hong-Xiang; Fan, Ming-Yu; Du, Jun

    2012-01-01

    When treating a composite mustard tuber wastewater with high concentrations of salt (about 20 g Cl(-) L(-1)) and organics (about 8000 mg L(-1) COD) by an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) in winter, both high salinity and low temperature will inhibit the activity of anaerobic microorganisms and lead to low treatment efficiency. To solve this problem, betaine was added to the influent to improve the activity of the anaerobic sludge, and an experimental study was carried to investigate the influence of betaine on treating high salinity mustard tuber wastewater by the ASBBR. The results show that, when using anaerobic acclimated sludge in the ASBBR, and controlling biofilm density at 50% and water temperature at 8-12 degrees C, the treatment efficiency of the reactor could be improved by adding the betaine at different concentrations. The efficiency reached the highest when the optimal dosage ofbetaine was 0.5 mmol L(-1). The average effluent COD, after stable acclimation, was 4461 mg L(-1). Relative to ASBBR without adding betaine, the activity of the sludge increased significantly. Meanwhile, the dehydrogenase activity of anaerobic microorganisms and the COD removal efficiency were increased by 18.6% and 18.1%, respectively. PMID:22988630

  4. Reduction of erythema in hairless guinea pigs after cutaneous sulfur mustard vapor exposure by pretreatment with niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yourick, J.J.; Dawson, J.S.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Erythema is the initial symptom that occurs after sulfur mustard (HD) cutaneous exposure. The time course of HD-induced erythema is similar to that observed after UV irradiation, which can be reduced by indomethacin. Sulfur mustard lethality is decreased by using promethazine, which is an antihistamine. Niacinamide can reduce microvesication after HD vapor exposure in hairless guinea pig (HGP) skin. The present study examines the effect of the combined administration of niacinamide, indomethacin and promethazine used alone or in all possible combinations on the degree of erythema and histopathologic skin damage after HD exposure in HGP. Niacinamide (750 mg kg%`, i.p.), promethazine (12.5 mg kg%1, i.m.) or indomethacin (4 mg kg%1, p.o.) used singly or in combination was given as a 30-min pretreatment before an 8-min HD vapor cup skin exposure. Using a combination pretreatment of niacinamide, promethazine and indomethacin, erythema was reduced at 4 (91%) and 6 (55%) h, but not 24 h after HD. The incidence of histopathological skin changes (microvesicles, follicular involvement, epidermal necrosis, intracellular edema and pustular epidermatitis) 24 h after HD was not reduced. This study indicates that HD (induced erythema) may result from several different mechanisms, including inflammation, histamine release and DNA damage. It is suggested that two phases of inflammation may occur: an early phase sensitive to antihistamines and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and a late phase of extensive cell damage that was not sensitive to these drug pretreatments.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Thiophene-derived Amido Bis-nitrogen Mustard and Its Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐一丹; 张景勍; 张少林; 耿蓉霞; 周成合

    2012-01-01

    The thiophene-derived amido bis-nitrogen mustard N2,N2,N5,N5-tetrakis(2-chloroethyl)-3,4-dimethylthio- phene-2,5-dicarboxamide was designed and synthesized via five-step reactions from commercially available 2-chloroacetonitrile. This target compound was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, IR spectra and elemental analyses, and its structure was further characterized by X-ray single-crystal analysis. The biological activities for the title compound and some intermediates were evaluated in vitro for their antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. The preliminary results showed that the title compound could inhibit efficiently the growth of the tested microorganisms including drug-resistant bacteria MRSA to some extent. Moreover, the target compound was found to be effective against prostatic carcinoma cell line (PC-3), breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7), colon carcinoma (LoVo) and lung cancer (A549). Especially, it gave selective antitumor efficacy against prostatic carcinoma cell line (PC-3) at a low dose. Keywords nitrogen mustard, thiophene, antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxicity

  6. Effects of mercury on visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of mustard spinach plants (Brassica rapa P.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunagan, Sarah C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, 265 Church Street, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)]. E-mail: sdunagan@wesleyan.edu; Gilmore, Martha S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, 265 Church Street, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)]. E-mail: mgilmore@wesleyan.edu; Varekamp, Johan C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, 265 Church Street, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)]. E-mail: jvarekamp@wesleyan.edu

    2007-07-15

    Mustard spinach plants were grown in mercury-spiked and contaminated soils collected in the field under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle to test if vegetation grown in these soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993 ppm) of the Mustard spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentration of soils and varied throughout the growing season. Equations relating foliar Hg concentration to spectral reflectance, its first derivative, and selected vegetation indices were generated using stepwise multiple linear regression. Significant correlations are found for limited wavelengths for specific treatments and dates. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Red Edge Position (REP) values of plants in Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soils are significantly lower relative to control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle which may be related to lower chlorophyll abundance or functioning in Hg-contaminated plants. - Some spectral characteristics of leaves of Brassica rapa P. may be associated with foliar mercury content.

  7. Attenuation of Nitrogen Mustard-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Fibrosis by Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R; Venosa, Alessandro; Verissimo, Vivianne L; Cervelli, Jessica A; Vayas, Kinal N; Hall, LeRoy; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2015-11-01

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes acute injury to the lung that progresses to fibrosis. This is accompanied by a prominent infiltration of macrophages into the lung and upregulation of proinflammatory/profibrotic cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α. In these studies, we analyzed the ability of anti-TNFα antibody to mitigate NM-induced lung injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. Treatment of rats with anti-TNFα antibody (15 mg/kg, iv, every 9 days) beginning 30 min after intratracheal administration of NM (0.125 mg/kg) reduced progressive histopathologic alterations in the lung including perivascular and peribronchial edema, macrophage/monocyte infiltration, interstitial thickening, bronchiolization of alveolar walls, fibrin deposition, emphysema, and fibrosis. NM-induced damage to the alveolar-epithelial barrier, measured by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and cell content, was also reduced by anti-TNFα antibody, along with expression of the oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase-1. Whereas the accumulation of proinflammatory/cytotoxic M1 macrophages in the lung in response to NM was suppressed by anti-TNFα antibody, anti-inflammatory/profibrotic M2 macrophages were increased or unchanged. Treatment of rats with anti-TNFα antibody also reduced NM-induced increases in expression of the profibrotic mediator, transforming growth factor-β. This was associated with a reduction in NM-induced collagen deposition in the lung. These data suggest that inhibiting TNFα may represent an efficacious approach to mitigating lung injury induced by mustards.

  8. The cytotoxicity of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone being involved in topoisomerase IIα inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Zhou, Sufeng; Liu, Youxun; Yang, Yingli; Sun, Xingzhi; Li, Changzheng

    2014-01-01

    The antitumor property of iron chelators and aromatic nitrogen mustard derivatives has been well documented. Combination of the two pharmacophores in one molecule in drug designation is worth to be explored. We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH) as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC50 for HepG2: 26.1 ± 3.5 μM, HCT-116: 57.5 ± 5.3 μM, K562: 48.2 ± 4.0 μM, and PC-12: 19.4 ± 2.2 μM) were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. In vitro experimental data showed that the BNMPH chelating Fe(2+) caused a large number of ROS formations which led to DNA cleavage, and this was further supported by comet assay, implying that ROS might be involved in the cytotoxicity of BNMPH. The ROS induced changes of apoptosis related genes, but the TFR1 and NDRG1 metastatic genes were not obviously regulated, prompting that BNMPH might not be able to deprive Fe(2+) of ribonucleotide reductase. The BNMPH induced S phase arrest was different from that of iron chelators (G1) and alkylating agents (G2). BNMPH also exhibited its inhibition of human topoisomerase IIα. Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation.

  9. TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF LEWISITE AND SULFUR MUSTARD AGENTS:GENETIC TOXICITY OF LEWISITE (L) IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostes,R.F. Jr.; Sasser, LB; Rausch, R.J.

    1989-05-31

    The cytotoxic clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the arsenic containing vesicant, Lewisite (L) [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine], have been investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cells. One hour exposures to Lewisite were cytotoxic in uM amounts. The cell survival response yields a D37 of 0.6 uM and an extrapolation number of 2.5. The mutagenic response at the hypoxantnine-guanine phosporibosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus was sporadic and not significantly greater than control values when cells were exposed over a range of 0.125 to2.0 uM. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction, a measure of chromosomal rearrangement, was weakly positive over a range of 0.25 to 1.0 uM but the values were not significantly greater than the control response. Chromosomal aberrations were induced at 0.75 and 1.0 UMin one experiment and 0.5 and 0.75 uM in another experiment. The Induced values were significantly greater than the control values. Lewisite appears to be cytotoxic and clastogenic in our investigations but SCE and mutation at the HGPRT locus are not significantly greater than control values. Lewisita toxicity was in some ways similar to radiomimetic chemicals such as bleomycin.

  10. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for mass spectrometric analysis of haemoglobin adducts - Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to develop a standard operating procedure for analysis of sulfur mustard adducts to the N-terminal valine in haemoglobin and to explore adduct formation with albumin and keratin. In the first approach, gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (GC

  11. Transgenic Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plants expressing an Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase (AtPCS1) exhibit enhanced As and Cd tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Ksenija; Korban, Schuyler S

    2007-07-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are post-translationally synthesized thiol reactive peptides that play important roles in detoxification of heavy metal and metalloids in plants and other living organisms. The overall goal of this study is to develop transgenic plants with increased tolerance for and accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids from soil by expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana AtPCS1 gene, encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). A FLAG-tagged AtPCS1 gDNA, under its native promoter, is expressed in Indian mustard, and transgenic pcs lines have been compared with wild-type plants for tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As). Compared to wild type plants, transgenic plants exhibit significantly higher tolerance to Cd and As. Shoots of Cd-treated pcs plants have significantly higher concentrations of PCs and thiols than those of wild-type plants. Shoots of wild-type plants accumulated significantly more Cd than those of transgenic plants, while accumulation of As in transgenic plants was similar to that in wild type plants. Although phytochelatin synthase improves the ability of Indian mustard to tolerate higher levels of the heavy metal Cd and the metalloid As, it does not increase the accumulation potential of these metals in the above ground tissues of Indian mustard plants.

  12. Reduction of Synthetic Fertilizer for Sustainable Agriculture: Influence of Organic and Nitrogen Fertilizer Combination on Growth and Yield of Green Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Muktamar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Organic fertilizer is capable to decrease the use of synthetic fertilizer due to release of plant nutrients and improvement of other soil properties. The objective of this experiment was to compare the growth and yield of green mustard as affected by cattle manure and litter compost. The experiment was conducted employing Completely Randomized Design with 8 treatments. Treatments included litter compost and cattle manure at rate of 25 Mg ha-1 and 15, 20, 25 Mg ha-1 with addition of 1.85 g nitrogen fertilizer per plant, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. Soil used in this experiment was Ultisol collected at depth of 0-20 cm. Five kg of soil was mixed with organic fertilizer according to each treatment and placed in 10 kg polybag. Green mustard was planted to each polybag. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied a week after planting. The experiment revealed that application of litter compost and cattle manure at rate 25 Mg ha-1 with additional nitrogen fertilizer resulted in higher green mustard fresh weight per plant and number of leaves. On the other hand, application of both organic fertilizers at rate of 25 Mg ha-1 without addition nitrogen fertilizer as other treatments did not provide significant differences on most variables observed. This indicated that application of organic fertilizer is able to reduce synthetic nitrogen fertilizer for green mustard production.  

  13. Analysis of towed camera images to determine the effects of disposed mustard-filled bombs on the deep water benthic community off south Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Christopher; Carton, Geoffrey; Tomlinson, Michael; Gleason, Arthur

    2016-06-01

    Still images from a towed camera sled were used to evaluate the potential ecological effects of M47A2 mustard-filled (1,1‧-thiobis[2-chloroethane]) bombs disposed of in over 500 m of water off the south coast of Oahu in 1944. The types of munitions and munitions debris in the images were identified by an ordnance and explosives safety specialist. To the extent feasible, non-munitions related debris were also identified. Biologists then examined the images and identified the types and numbers of animals: (1) on or near (differences between the biota inhabiting the three substrates. The analysis indicated that the types and numbers of animals associated with the M47A2 bombs were not significantly different from those observed on other types of munitions and other manmade debris; however they were significantly different from the animals found only on the natural sediment. Based on these results, it appears that the mustard-filled bombs are providing hard substrate similar to other disposed objects, attracting "hard substrate species" that would not have otherwise colonized the area. Even though it is apparent that many of the mustard-filled bombs have breached and their contents exposed, the analysis did not find any evidence of animals avoiding the mustard-filled bombs.

  14. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  15. Biology of 11-Spotted Beetle Coccinella undicimpunctata L. (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) on Mustard Aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solangi, Bhai Khan; Ghani Lanjar, Abdul; Lohar, Mohammad Khan

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the biology of 11-spotted beetle Coccinella undecimpunctata L. on mustard aphid during the year 2006. The oviposition, fecundity, adult emergence, fertility percentage, sex ratio, longevity and mortality were studied in the laboratory on 10 separately reared pairs of beetles. The results indicated that average pre-copulation period was 4.1±1.28 days post copulation period 3.6±1.26 days, oviposition period, 37.7±6.88 days and post oviposition period 4.0±1.63 days. The mean fecundity was 593.4±86.5 eggs, fertile eggs were 531.80±76.16 with the fertility percentage of 89.63±3.44. the incubation was 3.1±1.19 and 3.1±0.94 days while 1st and 2nd instar larva period was 3.1±1.19 and 3.1±0.87 days and for 3rd and 4th instar larvae averaged 3.5±1.26 and 3.3±0.94 days, respectively whereas the total larval period was 12.9±1.28 days and pupal period 5.6±0.96 days. The average number of pupae observed were 19.9±6.69, while the male emergence was 7.4±2.63 (38.50±13.12%) and the female emergence was 8.9±3.66 (43.48±8.24%). The sex ratio (male: female) averaged 1:1.25±1: 0.45. thus the total male + female emergence was 81.99±13.37 per beetle pair. The mortality recorded was 3.7±3.43 beetles showing an averaged mortality of 17.57±14.51%. Longevity of the male was 36.5±4.17 days and the female longevity of 46.0±9.14 days. It was recorded that longevity period was significantly greater in case of female ladybird beetles as compared to their males. Adult emergence was greater in females of 11-spotted beetles as compared to males and thus the sex ratio was higher in females as compared to males. The longevity was comparably higher in case of females than in male beetles.

  16. Investigation of the nutraceutical potential of monofloral Indian mustard bee pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer S.Ketkar; Atul S.Rathore; Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan; Lakshmi Rao; Anant R.Paradkar; Kakasaheb R.Mahadik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the nutraceutical potential of monolforal Indian mustard bee pollen (MIMBP). METHODS: The nutritional value of MIMBP was examined in terms of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and energy value. Its chemical composition in terms of total polyphenol and lfavonoid content was determined. MIMBP was screened for free lfavonoid aglycones by developing and validating a high-performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA) method. MIMBP was analyzed forin vitro antioxidant effect in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. RESULTS: MIMBP was found to be comprised of proteins ((182.2±5.9) g/kg), fats ((137.7±6.8) g/kg) and carbohydrates ((560.6±17.4) g/kg), which result in its high energy value ((17 616.7±78.6) kJ/kg). MIMBP was found to contain polyphenols ((18 286.1±374.0) mg gallic acid equivalent/kg) and lfavonoids ((1 223.5±53.1) mg quercetin equivalent/kg). The HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the presence of kaempferol ((65.4±0.5) mg/kg) and quercetin ((51.4±0.4) mg/kg) in MIMBP, which can be used as markers for determining the quality of bee pollen. The MIMBP extract showed DPPH free radical-scavenging activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 54.79 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: The MIMBP was found to be a rich source of nutrients providing high caloric value, which makes it a candidate for a potential nutraceutical agent. The study also illustrated the high antioxidant content of MIMBP, especially in the principle polyphenols and lfavonoids, which suggests its potential role in the prevention of free radical-implicated diseases. The DPPH-scavenging effect of MIMBP further conifrmed its antioxidant potential. Additionally, we developed a simple, speciifc and accurate HPLC-PDA method for the identiifcation and quantiifcation of free lfavonoid aglycones. This can be applied in future screenings of the quality of pollen collected by honeybees.

  17. Listeria monocytogenes inhibition by defatted mustard meal-based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hahn-Bit; Noh, Bong Soo; Min, Sea C

    2012-02-01

    An antimicrobial edible film was developed from defatted mustard meal (Sinapis alba) (DMM), a byproduct from the bio-fuel industry, without incorporating external antimicrobials and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and physical properties were investigated. The DMM colloidal solution consisting of 184 g water, 14 g DMM, and 2g glycerol was homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 0.2, 0.5, 24 or 48 h to prepare a film-forming solution. The pH of a portion of the film-forming solution (pH 5.5) was adjusted to 2.0 or 4.0. Films were formed by drying the film-forming solutions at 23°C for 48 h. The film-forming solution incubated for 48 h inhibited L. monocytogenes in broth and on agar media. Antimicrobial effects of the film prepared from the 48 h-incubated solution increased with decrease in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 2.0. The film from the film forming solution incubated for 48 h (pH 2.0) initially inhibited more than 4.0 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes inoculated on film-coated salmon. The film-coating retarded the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon at 5, 10, and 15°C and the antimicrobial effect during storage was more noticeable when the coating was applied before inoculation than when it was applied after inoculation. The tensile strength, percentage elongation, solubility in watercxu, and water vapor permeability of the anti microbial film were 2.44 ± 0.19 MPa, 6.40 ± 1.13%, 3.19 ± 0.90%, and 3.18 ± 0.63 gmm/kPa hm(2), respectively. The antimicrobial DMM films have demonstrated a potential to be applied to foods as wraps or coatings to control the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  18. Control of Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract plus EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Control of Salmonella in poultry is a public health concern as salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. This study aimed to screen the ability of 5 Salmonella serovars to degrade the mustard glucosinolate, sinigrin (by bacterial myrosinase) in Mueller-Hinton broth at 25 °C for 21 d and to reduce Salmonella on fresh chicken breasts by developing an edible 0.2% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coating containing Oriental mustard extract, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), EDTA or their combinations. Individual Salmonella serovars degraded 50.2%-55.9% of the sinigrin present in 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g or 50 μl AITC/g reduced the numbers of Salmonella on chicken breasts 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d at 4 °C. However, when either mustard extract or AITC was combined with 15 mg/g EDTA in κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings, Salmonella numbers were reduced 2.3 log10 CFU/g at 5 d and 3.0 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. Moreover, these treatments reduced numbers of lactic acid bacteria and aerobic bacteria by 2.5-3.3 log10 CFU/g at 21 d. κ-Carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing either 50 μl AITC/g or 250 mg Oriental mustard extract/g plus 15 mg EDTA/g have the potential to reduce Salmonella on raw chicken.

  19. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Babu Imandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus, the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  20. Hardal Yağından Biyodizel Üretiminin Optimizasyonu ve Motor Performans Testleri (025901) (1-9) Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Mustard Oil and Engine Performance Tests DOI:10.5578/fmbd.7669

    OpenAIRE

    Aysal, Faruk Emre; AKSOY, Fatih; ŞAHİN, Adil; AKSOY, Laçine; YILDIRIM, Harun

    2014-01-01

    In this study mustard oil produced from biodiesel production process are optimized. Parameters such as methanol / oil ratio, the catalyst concentration, reaction time and temperature have been investigated in the optimization process. Mustard oil-diesel fuel consisting of blends at the different proportions has been examined effects on engine performance and exhaust emissions. While proportion of biodiesel rising, power and torque of the internal combustion engine are reduced and specific fue...

  1. Isolation and characterization of useful mutants induced by gamma irradiation in 'Kranti' indian mustard (Brassica juncea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic variability was induced, in the 'Kranti' Indian mustard [Brassica/juncea (L.) Czemj. & Cosson]. utilizing 30,40 and 50 kr doses of gamma-ray Irradiation. 'In M 3 generation, compared with the econtrol, substantial decrease was observed in the mean value of various quantitative characters in the mutagen-treated populations. More variation was induced at 30 kr compared with that at 40 or 50 kr dose. Four mutants were identified ar 30 kr dose, which besides being early in maturity, gave better yield also-compared with the control. The better seed yield of the transmutated plants was due either to increase in seed weight or to increase in number of siliquae/plant

  2. Structural features of dilute acid, steam exploded, and alkali pretreated mustard stalk and their impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Manali; Raj, Tirath; Vijayaraj, M; Chopra, Anju; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2015-06-25

    To overcome the recalcitrant nature of biomass several pretreatment methodologies have been explored to make it amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. These methodologies alter cell wall structure primarily by removing/altering hemicelluloses and lignin. In this work, alkali, dilute acid, steam explosion pretreatment are systematically studied for mustard stalk. To assess the structural variability after pretreatment, chemical analysis, surface area, crystallinity index, accessibility of cellulose, FT-IR and thermal analysis are conducted. Although the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis varies upon the methodologies used, nevertheless, cellulose conversion increases from pretreatment. Glucose yield at 2 and 72h are well correlated with surface area and maximum adsorption capacity. However, no such relationship is observed for xylose yield. Mass balance of the process is also studied. Dilute acid pretreatment is the best methodology in terms of maximum sugar yield at lower enzyme loading.

  3. Assessment of apoptosis occurring in spleen cells from nitrogen mustard-treated or gamma-irradiated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugel, B; Weltin, D; Holl, V; Marchal, J; Dufour, P; Freyssinet, J M; Bischoff, P L

    1998-01-01

    The short-term consequences on spleen cells of the intraperitoneal administration of nitrogen mustard (HN-2) to mice or of a whole-body gamma irradiation have been evaluated. Experiments were designed to assess the induction of apoptosis in spleen cells following exposure to these agents. The occurrence of this type of cell death was analysed by several methods, in particular the quantification in the blood of phosphotidylserine-bearing microparticles shed by apoptotic cells. In response to HN-2 or radiations, spleens undergo a rapid involution of their weight and cellularity. Ex vivo apoptosis occurs within 24 hours in cultured lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner after both treatments. As compared with untreated controls, circulating microparticles increased 3-fold after the injection of 5 mg/kg of HN-2. PMID:9858897

  4. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26909087

  5. Downregulation of super oxide dismutase level in protein might be due to sulfur mustard induced toxicity in lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mirbagheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM has been identified as an important chemical weapon. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, the extensive usage of SM against Iranian civilians and military forces was proven. This agent has been shown to cause severe damage mainly in the skin, eyes, lungs,  and  respiratory  tract  in  Iranian  veterans.  The  most  common  disease  is bronchiolitis obliterans (BO. SM increases the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Superoxide dismutases (SODs are known as protective antioxidants against the harmful effects of ROS.Twenty exposed SM individuals (43.2±6.4 years, and 10 normal controls (41.3±2.5 years were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of SODs was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and mmunohistochemistry.Our  results  demonstrated  that  CuZnSOD   and  MnSOD  mRNA  were  up-regulated 2.79±1.09  and  2.49±1.11  folds, respectively in SM-injured patients  in comparison  with control  levels. In  contrast,  Immunohistochemistry  results  showed  downregulation  of CuZnSOD protein expression in SM injured patients.Our results revealed that SODs may play an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress due to mustard gas toxicity in airway wall of SM exposed patients.

  6. SPATIAL TEMPORAL SOWING PATTERN OF RAPESEED-MUSTARD CROP IN INDIA USING MULTI-DATE IRS AWIFS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Rajak

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the results on spatial pattern of sowing of rapeseed/mustard in four major states in India using multidate Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS data for 2010-11 crop season. Geo-referenced, calibrated AWiFS data acquired during October 2010 to February 2011 were used to generate the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI image sets. Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA based clustering of the multi date NDVI dataset for mustard crop pixels was performed. The clusters were segregated to spectral emergence classes using a spectral profile matching approach with reference to ground truth data. The sowing dates were derived from the spectral emergence data using a lag period based on field observation. Analysis showed the sowing pattern in the study states is spread over around 60 days from mid October to mid December. Three distinct clusters of sowing pattern were observed. The major one (around 40% is sown between mid October and first week of November. Around 25% area is sown from last week of November to mid December. The other 35% area is sown in between these two periods. Analysis of temperature, a key weather variable influencing the growth of this crop, showed that the crop sowing in northern Rajasthan and Haryana is delayed by about one month to avoid the frost damage during reproductive phase. In the parts of Gujarat, southern parts of Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (MP, an early sowing in the second fortnight of October was observed, mainly to avoid higher mean temperatures during the month of March.

  7. Rhizospheric bacterial strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a colonizes plant tissues and enhances Cd, Zn, Cu phytoextraction by white mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz ePłociniczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants.The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%, Zn (86% and Cu (39% in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  8. Assessment of Genetic Variation Within Indian Mustard(Brassica juncea) Germplasm Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Ayub Khan; Malik Ashiq Rabbani; Muharnmad Munir; Saifullah Khan Ajmal; Muhammad Azim Malik

    2008-01-01

    Genetic diversity among 45 Indian mustard (Brassica Juncea L.) genotypes comprising 37 germplasm collections, five advance breeding lines and three improved cultivars was investigated at the DNA level using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Fifteen primers used generated a total of 92 RAPD fragments, of which 81 (88%) were polymorphic. Of these, 13 were unique to accession 'Pak85559'. Each primer produced four to nine amplified products with an average of 6.13 bands per primer. Based on pairwise comparisons of RAPD amplification products, Nei and Li's similarity coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationships among the accessions. Pairwise similarity indices were higher among the oilseed accessions and cultivars showing narrow ranges of 0.77-0.99. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages cluster analysis based on these genetic similarities placed most of the collections and oilseed cultivars close to each other, showing a low level of polymorphism between the accessions used. However, the clusters formed by oilseed collections and cultivars were comparatively distinct from that of advanced breeding lines. Genetically, all of the accessions were classified into a few major groups and a number of individual accessions. Advanced breeding lines were relatively divergent from the rest of the accessions and formed independent clusters. Clustering of the accessions did not show any pattern of association between the RAPD markers and the collection sites. A low level of genetic variability of oilseed mustard was attributed to the selection for similar traits and horticultural uses. Perhaps close parentage of these accessions further contributed towards their little diversity. The study demonstrated that RAPD is a simple and fast technique to compare the genetic relationship and pattern of variation among the gene pool of this crop.

  9. Comparing the therapeutic efficiency of aminoguanidine and 3-aminobenzamide in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and peroxynitrite are responsible for sulfur mustard (SM) induced toxicity. Since endogenous production of peroxynitrite is known to lead to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and sometimes ultimately cell death, in this study, it was aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiencies of aminoguanidine (iNOS inhibitor) and 3 aminobenzamide (PARP inhibitor) in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only, group 3 received selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) (100 mg/kg i.p.) and, group 4 received PARP inhibitor 3 aminobenzamide (3-AB) (20 mg/kg i.p.). MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes, Mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. MEC injection also caused mucosal thinning, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, ischemic changes and multifocal, superficial ulcerations (erosions) in small intestine. In AG group, interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage slightly reduced in lung comparing to MEC group. Inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal, septal thickening was similar to MEC group at densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas. In 3 AB group, edematous and hemorrhagic areas were very small, inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal and there were no densly densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas in lung. The results were better than AB group. In intestine, results of AG group were better than MEC group but worse than 3 AB group. These results suggest that both iNOS and PARP inhibitors are effective but PARP inhibitors may be more promising for treatment of SM induced early lung and intestinal toxicity.(author)

  10. Dinitrobenzamide mustard prodrugs - hypoxic cytotoxins and dual substrates for E.coli nitroreductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditional replicating adenoviral vectors (CRAds) have received considerable attention as therapeutic tools in combination with radiotherapy. Viral distribution and micro-regional geometry are likely to be important issues in the treatment of human solid tumours with gene therapy, particularly following intravenous virus administration. The use of CRAds that are 'armed' with enzyme/prodrug systems may overcome some of the perceived limitations; CRAds can redistribute and self-amplify in a cytolytic fashion whilst prodrug metabolites may elicit a local bystander effect. Either or both of these cytotoxic properties could have favourable interactions with radiotherapy (IR). Nevertheless, they may be insufficient to avoid pockets of vector-naive tumour cells beyond the diffusion limits of cytotoxic prodrug metabolites, such as when perivascular seeding occurs. Under such circumstances hypoxic tumour cells may represent the least accessible compartment for vector transfection; the same tumour subpopulation that is likely to be radioresistant. E.coli nitroreductase (NTR) can bioactivate dinitrobenzamide mustards (DNBMs) and is a promising enzyme/prodrug system for 'arming' CRAds. Notably DNMBs can also be activated by endogenous human reductases under low oxygen conditions providing an opportunity to identify dual hypoxic cytotoxins/NTR substrates that may circumvent some of the geometry issues and provide complementarity with IR. To identify a prodrug for NTR that is also active as a hypoxic cytotoxin in vivo. From a set of 164 DNB prodrugs, 19 with favourable activity in vitro against a panel of four NTR-expressing cancer cells were selected and screened for activity as hypoxic cytotoxins in vitro. Measured E17 values ranged from -444 to -366 mV. Seven DNBMs possessed acceptable hypoxic selectivity against the human NSCLC cell line A549WT or clones engineered to overexpress either a human single-electron reductase, cytochrome P450 reductase (A549P450R), or oxic

  11. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Two-Generation Reproduction Study of Lewisite in Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Mellick, P. W.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-07-15

    Occupational health standards have not been established for Lewisite [bis(2-chlorethyl)arsine], a potent toxic vesicant which reacts with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins through its arsenic group. The purposes of this study were to determine the reproductive consequences and dose~response of continuing Lewisite exposure of parental males and females and their offspring in a 42-week two-generation study. Solutions of Lewisite were prepared for administration by diluting the neat agent with sesame oil. Rats were administered Lewisite (0, 0.10, 0.25 or 0.60 mg/kg/day for 5 days a week) via intragastric intubation prior to mating, during mating and after mating until the birth of their offspring. The dams continued to receive Lewisite during lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring of each group were selected to continue on the study; rece1v1ng Lewisite during adolescence, mating and throughout gestation. Again, the dams continued to receive Lewisite until weaning of the offspring. Lewisite had no adverse effect on reproduction performance, fertility or reproductive organ weights of male or female rats through two consecutive generations. No adverse effect to offspring were attributed to Lewisite exposure. Minor changes in growth was the only maternal effect observed. Lewisite exposure of parental rats caused no gross or microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, uterus or vagina. Severe inflammation of the lung was observed at necropsy in cases in which Lewisite gained access to the respiratory system from accidental dosing or reflux and aspiration; this usually caused early death of the animal. The NOEL for reproductive effects in this study was greater than 0.60 mg/kg/day.

  12. Urethral catheter removal 7 or 14 days after radical retropubic prostatectomy: clinical implications and complications in a randomized study Sete ou quatorze dias para a retirada da sonda vesical de demora após prostatectomia radical retropúbica: implicações clínicas e complicações em um estudo randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ary Vargas Souto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the hypothesis that a 7-day period of indwelling catheter after radical retropubic prostatectomy is effective and safe without the need of performing cystography. METHODS: In the period from January of 2000 to July of 2002, 73 patients underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy, and these patients were prospectively randomized in 2 groups: Group 1-37 patients who had the urethral catheter removed 7 days after the procedure, and Group 2-36 patients who had the catheter removed 14 days after the surgery. The 2 groups were similar, the surgeons and the technique were the same, and no cystography was performed to evaluate the presence of leaks. RESULTS: Two patients in Group 1 had bleeding and clot retention after having the catheter taken out in the seventh postoperative day and were managed by putting the catheter back in for 7 more days. Two patients in Group 2 developed bladder neck stricture and were treated by bladder neck incision with success. The continence rate was the same, with 2 cases of incontinence in each group. About 2 pads a day were used by the patients with incontinence. The average follow-up was 17.5 months (12-36 months. No urinary fistula, urinoma, or pelvic abscesses developed after catheter removal. Two patients were excluded from the analysis of this series: 1 died with a pulmonary embolus in the third postoperative day, and 1 developed a urinary suprapubic fistula before catheter withdrawal, which was maintained for 16 days. CONCLUSION: Withdrawal of the urethral catheter 7 days after radical retropubic prostatectomy, without performing cystography, has a low rate of short-term complications that are equivalent to withdrawal 14 days after the surgery.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a hipótese de que um período de sete dias de sonda vesical de demora após prostatectomia radical retropúbica é efetivo e seguro, sem a necessidade da realização de cistografia. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 2000 e julho de 2002

  13. Evaluation of Plant Growth, Yield and Yield Attributes of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard (Brassica juncea) and Chick Pea (Cicer arietinum) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) and chick pea (Cicer arietinum) for their growth, yield, and yield attributes. Both the samples were divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group (both seed and plot) was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and referred as the treated. The result showed the plant height of musta...

  14. Putative sugar transporters of the the mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae: their phylogeny and role for nutrient supply in larval defensive glands

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Stock; René R Gretscher; Marco Groth; Simone Eiserloh; Wilhelm Boland; Antje Burse

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytophagous insects have emerged successfully on the planet also because of the development of diverse and often astonishing defensive strategies against their enemies. The larvae of the mustard leaf beetle Phaedon cochleariae, for example, secrete deterrents from specialized defensive glands on their back. The secretion process involves ATP-binding cassette transporters. Therefore, sugar as one of the major energy sources to fuel the ATP synthesis for the cellular metabolism and...

  15. Protection by antioxidants against toxicity and apoptosis induced by the sulphur mustard analog 2-chloroethylethyl sulphide (CEES) in Jurkat T cells and normal human lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Suhua; Espinoza, Luis A; Liao, Hongling; Boulares, A Hamid; Smulson, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of toxicity of sulphur mustard was investigated by examining the biochemical effects of the analog 2-chloroethylethyl sulphide (CEES) in both human Jurkat cells as well as normal human lymphocytes.Exposure of both types of cells to CEES resulted in a marked decrease in the intracellular concentration of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), and CEES-induced cell death was potentiated by L-buthionine sulphoximine, an inhibitor of GSH synthesis.CEES increased the endogenous produ...

  16. Study on Effectiveness of Low Dose Theophylline as Add-on to Inhaled Corticosteroid for Patients with Sulfur Mustard Induced Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yunes Panahi; Zohreh Poursaleh; Ali Amini-Harandi; Amin Saburi; Majid Shohrati; Mostafa Ghanei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Theophylline may reverse steroid resistance and decrease inflammation in patients with chronic pulmonary disease and sulfur mustard (SM) induced bronchiolitis. This study was designed to assess the effects of low-dose theophylline on improvement of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of SM exposed patients.Methods: In this comparative observational study, a group of SM-exposed victims during the Iraq-Iran war who were treated with oral slow releasing (SR) theophylline, salmetrol, flux...

  17. Loss of expression of TGF-βs and their receptors in chronic skin lesions induced by sulfur mustard as compared with chronic contact dermatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panahi Yunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfur mustard (SM is a blister-forming agent that has been used as a chemical weapon. Sulfur mustard can cause damage in various organs, especially the skin, respiratory system, and eyes. Generally, the multiple complications of mustard gas result from its alkalizing potency; it reacts with cellular components like DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipid membranes. TGF-β is a multi-functional cytokine with multiple biological effects ranging from cell differentiation and growth inhibition to extracellular matrix stimulation, immunosuppression, and immunomodulation. TGF-β has 3 isoforms (TGF-β 1, 2, 3 and its signaling is mediated by its receptors: R1, R2 and intracellular Smads molecules. TGF-β has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. TGF-βs and their receptors also have an important role in modulation of skin inflammation, proliferation of epidermal cells, and wound healing, and they have been implicated in different types of skin inflammatory disorders. Methods Seventeen exposed SM individuals (48.47 ± 9.3 years, 17 chronic dermatitis patients (46.52 ± 14.6 years, and 5 normal controls (44.00 ± 14.6 years were enrolled in this study. Evaluation of TGF-βs and their receptors expressions was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Only TGF1was analyzed immunohistochemically. Results Our results showed significant decreases in the expression percentages of TGF-β 1, 2 and R1, R2 in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal subjects and significant decreases in the intensity of R1 and R2 expressions in chemical victims in comparison with chronic dermatitis and normal controls. (P value Conclusions TGF-βs and their receptors appear to have a noticeable role in chronic inflammatory skin lesions caused by sulfur mustard.

  18. Chemoprophylaxis in the vesical tumoral recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superficial bladder tumors are characterized by a high rate of recurrence taking place especially within the first two years that is even higher in the high risk groups. There is an agreement in the usefulness of the Calmette-Guerin Bacillus (CGB) to diminish the tumoral recurrence. The intravesical chemotherapy with other medications have demonstrated its profit or not in decreasing the recurrence of these bladder tumors. Between 1999 and 2008 we studied and treated 110 patients (96 men and 14 women), aged in average 63 years old. They were divided into three groups for the treatment of the tumoral recidivism after the transurethral resection or partial cystectomy, using three different chemoprophylactic agents and inmunomodulators (Thio-Tepa, BCG+Transference Factor, Doxorubicin +Interferon Alpha 2b). The objective of this research was presenting our experience in the treatment of these patients during five years, obtaining better results in the group treated with doxorubicin + interferon alpha 2b, followed by the group treated by means of BCG + transference factor, with a remarked decrease of the recurrence and a limitation in the long term progression of the disease

  19. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  20. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  1. 酸辣芥末凤爪的加工工艺研究%Study on processing technology of hot and sour mustard chicken feet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兴; 盛本国; 李海龙; 柳春光

    2014-01-01

    试验以凤爪为研究对象,通过添加不同比例的芥末提取物、芥末粉,采用感官评定法,测定不同添加量对凤爪风味的影响。试验结果表明:当凤爪基本配方确定时,添加比例(芥末提取物添加量为1%、芥末粉添加量为6%),辣味适中,外观,适口性最佳。%chicken feet were taken as the research object. By adding different proportions of wasabi extract and mustard powder, the sensory evaluation method was used to test the efect of different addition of wasabi extract and mustard powder on chicken feet flavor. The results showed that when the basic for⁃mula was determined, the addition of wasabi extract and mustard powder content was 1% and 6% re⁃spectively, the products with moderately spicy, optimum appearance and palatability were obtained.

  2. Effect of light conditions on the contents of glucosinolates in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna; Kozłowska, Halina

    2008-10-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of light conditions on contents of glucosinolates (GLS) in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed. The seeds were germinated in light and dark, at 25 degrees C, for up to 7 days. As compared to the nongerminated seeds, in seeds exposed to light and germinated for 4, 5, 6, and 7 days the content of total GLS was observed to decrease by 30 to 70% depending on the species. Germination in conducted the dark for the respective periods of time resulted in decreases of total GLS not exceeding 25%. The changes in the concentration of total GLS were attributed to aliphatic GLS predominating in seeds, yet in the case of white mustard to sinalbin belonging to aralkyl glucosinolates. Although seeds germinated in the dark, as compared to those exposed to light, were characterized by a higher total content of indole GLS, the percentage contribution of that group of compounds in white mustard, red radish, and white radish remained at a similar level, irrespective of germination time. Only in the case of rapeseed was the percentage of the sum of indole GLS observed to increase from 17 to up to 45% once the seeds were exposed to light and to 50% once they were germinated in the dark. PMID:18771273

  3. Nitrogen-Efficient and Nitrogen-Inefficient Indian Mustard Showed Differential Expression Pattern of Proteins in Response to Elevated CO2 and Low Nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Peerzada Y; Ganie, Arshid H; Khan, Ishrat; Qureshi, Mohammad I; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Sarwat, Maryam; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2], and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard. PMID:27524987

  4. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

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    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  5. Nitrogen-Efficient and Nitrogen-Inefficient Indian Mustard Showed Differential Expression Pattern of Proteins in Response to Elevated CO2 and Low Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Peerzada Y.; Ganie, Arshid H.; Khan, Ishrat; Qureshi, Mohammad I.; Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; Sarwat, Maryam; Iqbal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Altaf

    2016-01-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are two essential elements that influence plant growth and development. The C and N metabolic pathways influence each other to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interaction between C and N or the mechanisms by which the pathways interact. In the present investigation, proteome analysis of N-efficient and N-inefficient Indian mustard, grown under varied combinations of low-N, sufficient-N, ambient [CO2], and elevated [CO2] was carried out to identify proteins and the encoding genes of the interactions between C and N. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 158 candidate protein spots. Among these, 72 spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins are related to various molecular processes including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, transport and degradation, signal transduction, nitrogen metabolism and defense to oxidative, water and heat stresses. Identification of proteins like PII-like protein, cyclophilin, elongation factor-TU, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein and rubisco activase offers a peculiar overview of changes elicited by elevated [CO2], providing clues about how N-efficient cultivar of Indian mustard adapt to low N supply under elevated [CO2] conditions. This study provides new insights and novel information for a better understanding of adaptive responses to elevated [CO2] under N deficiency in Indian mustard. PMID:27524987

  6. Megabladder in experimental Chagas disease: pathological features of the bladder wall Mega bexiga na Doença de Chagas experimental. Caracteristicas patológicas da parede vesical

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    Luciano Henrique Gazoni Scremin

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Mega-organs, primarily in the digestive tract, are well known to occur in chronic Chagas disease. Acute experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi results in parasitism of a wide range of cells, tissues, and organs, including the urinary bladder. Infection of BALB/c mice with 100,000 bloodstream forms of the Y strain of T. cruzi induced acute infection with intense parasitism of all layers of the urinary bladder. Parasites were found in the mucosa, lamina propria, muscular, adventitial connective, and fat tissue. Desquamate epithelial cells with amastigotes in the bladder lumen were also found. After 60 days of infection, mice inoculated with 50 bloodstream forms developed dilated, thin-walled bladders that had inflammatory infiltrates and foci of fibrosis replacing areas of damaged muscular layer. These lesions result from direct damage to the muscle fibers by the T. cruzi, leading to myosites, muscle damage, and scarring. Direct damage of paraganglia cells secondary to parasitism, leading to dilatation, damage of muscle fibers, and scarring with replacement of muscular tissue with connective tissue, should also be considered as a cause of functional disturbance of the urinary bladder.Os "mega-órgãos" na Doença de Chagas são bem conhecidos, especialmente os desenvolvidos no sistema digestivo. A infecção aguda apresenta parasitismo de diversas células, tecidos e órgãos, dentre eles a bexiga urinária. Camundongos Balb/c infectados com 100.000 formas sanguíneas de cepa Y de T. cruzi mostraram intenso parasitismo de todas camadas da bexiga urinária na fase aguda. Os parasitas foram encontrados na mucosa, submucosa, lâmina própria, muscular, adventícia e tecido adiposo, além das células descamadas para a luz do órgão. Para produzir a fase crônica, os animais foram inoculados com a mesma cepa, porém apenas inóculo com 50 formas sangüíneas. Após sessenta dias de infecção, detectamos dilatações da parede vesical, assim

  7. The Findings of HRCT of the Lung in Chemical Warfare Veterans with Previous Sulfur Mustard (SM Gas Exposure

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    Saeed Naghibi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction: To identify the findings of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT of the lung in chemical warfare veterans with previous sulfur mustard (SM gas exposure. "nMaterials and Methods: 93 patients were studied prospectively 22 years after exposure. Demographic and clinical data were recorded. HRCT of the lung was performed during expiration and was reported double blinded by two radiologists. HRCT findings include air trapping, mosaic attenuation, ground glass attenuation, nodules, signet ring, fibrosis, bronchial wall thickening, bronchodilation, tree in bud, interlobular wall thickening, bulla, cavity, air consolidation, honey comb and mediastinal and pleural abnormalities that were analyzed. Final diagnosis was identified according to HRCT findings. The relation between HRCT findings, final diagnosis and the distribution of the abnormalities with duration after exposure were evaluated. Distribution of each finding was also evaluated. "nb The most frequent HRCT finding was air trapping (56.7%. Other common findings were mosaic attenuation (35.1%, ground glass attenuation (20.6%, nodules (17.5%, signet ring (15.5% and fibrosis(12.4%. Distribution of the abnormalities were mostly local (79.4% and bilateral (73%. Abnormalities were mostly in the lower lobe (61.3%. No significant correlation was found between the HRCT findings and the duration after exposure or distribution of the abnormalities. The respiratory complications diagnosed according to HRCT included bronchiolitis obliterans (43%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (27.9%, asthma (23.6%, bronchiectasis (13.9%, interstitial lung disease (ILD (9.6%. All abnormalities were seen more frequently in patients with lesser duration of exposure.( P-value < 0.05. "nConclusion: Focal bilateral air trapping was the most common finding seen in expiratory HRCT in this study, and it is highly suggestive of bronchiolitis obliterance (BO. BO can be a late complication of SM

  8. Infecção do trato urinário relacionada com a utilização do catéter vesical de demora: resultados da bacteriúria e da microbiota estudadas Urinary tract infection related to the use of catheter-delay bladder: results of bacteriuria and microbiota studied

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    João Leão e Souza Neto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o momento do início da bacteriúria e o germe mais freqüentemente relacionado à infecção urinária nos pacientes submetidos à sondagem vesical de demora. MÉTODO: No período de setembro de 2003 a outubro de 2004, foram avaliados os pacientes com 13 anos ou mais, submetidos à operações eletivas com cateterismo vesical de demora. Na inserção do cateter foi colhida a primeira amostra de urina, denominada Amostra 1, e outras seqüencialmente a cada 12 horas. Estas foram analisadas quanto a bacteriúria, leucocitúria, e cultura. A infecção do trato urinário foi definida como a presença de 100.000 unidades formadoras de colônias ou mais, após o isolamento da mesma bactéria ou fungo em culturas de urina de amostras distintas, desde a inserção até a remoção do cateter urinário; a leucocitúria como contagem de leucócitos igual ou superior a 10.000 leucócitos/mm³; e bacteriúria como presença de bactéria de uma única espécie na amostra analisada. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 63 pacientes, 46 sexo masculino (73% e 17 sexo feminino (27%. Apenas três deles apresentaram leucocitúria na primeira coleta. Nas Amostras 1 houve variação de 1.000 a 20.000 leucócitos/mm³, todas com cultura negativa. O número de amostras variou de 1 a 8 (84h após a realização do cateterismo vesical. As leucocitúrias nas amostras finais variaram de 1.000 a 204.000 leucócitos/mm³, todas com urocultura e bacteriúria negativa. 62 pacientes (98,4% utilizaram antibioticoterapia de curta duração para o sítio cirúrgico. CONCLUSÃO: Até 84h - 3,5 dias - não houve Infecção em nenhuma das amostras coletadas e cultivadas. A antibioticoterapia de curta duração pode ter contribuído para o resultado observado.BACKGROUND: To evaluate the moment of the beginning of bacteriuria and the most frequently germ related to the urinary infection in patients submitted to delayed vesical catheterization. METHODS: During

  9. Involvement of ethylene in gibberellic acid-induced sulfur assimilation, photosynthetic responses, and alleviation of cadmium stress in mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Asim; Khan, M Iqbal R; Fatma, Mehar; Asgher, Mohd; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2016-07-01

    The role of gibberellic acid (GA) or sulfur (S) in stimulation of photosynthesis is known. However, information on the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced photosynthetic responses and cadmium (Cd) tolerance is lacking. This work shows that ethylene is involved in S-assimilation, photosynthetic responses and alleviation of Cd stress by GA in mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Plants grown with 200 mg Cd kg(-1) soil were less responsive to ethylene despite high ethylene evolution and showed photosynthetic inhibition. Plants receiving 10 μM GA spraying plus 100 mg S kg(-1) soil supplementation exhibited increased S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses under Cd stress. Application of GA plus S decreased oxidative stress of plants grown with Cd and limited stress ethylene formation to the range suitable for promoting sulfur use efficiency (SUE), glutathione (GSH) production and photosynthesis. The role of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and reversal of photosynthetic inhibition by Cd was substantiated by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis with the use of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The suppression of S-assimilation and photosynthetic responses by inhibiting ethylene in GA plus S treated plants under Cd stress indicated the involvement of ethylene in GA-induced S-assimilation and Cd stress alleviation. The outcome of the study is important to unravel the interaction between GA and ethylene and their role in Cd tolerance in plants. PMID:26998941

  10. Histomorphological and Histochemical Alterations Following Short-term Inhalation Exposure to Sulfur Mustard on Visceral Organs of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. PANT; R. VIJAYARAGHAVAN

    1999-01-01

    Toxic effects of inhaled sulfur mustard (SM) on the histology of visceral organs was investigated by exposing mice to 84.6mg/m3 for 1 h duration, using controlled single exposure conditions. A progressive fall in body weight from third day onwards was noticed. Light microscopic examination of the pulmonary tissue of these animals at 6 h post exposure revealed that the tracheobronchial epithelium remained intact, but was infiltrated by inflammatorv cells. By 24 h post exposure, the mucosecretory cells were destroyed. The inflammatory reaction was maximum at 48 h. Bv 7th day post exposure there was swelling and vacuolation of lung parenchymal cells and thrombi formation. In addition SM caused congestion and hemorrhage at alveolar level. SM also caused granulovacuolar degeneration with perinuclear clumping of the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and renal parenchymal cells. Renal lesions were characterized by congestion and hemorrhage. Among visceral tissues, maximum atrophy was observed in spleen. Distribution of lesions increased with post exposure period. The maximum lesions were observed at 7th day post-exposure.

  11. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for bixafen in oilseed rape, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed

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    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the United Kingdom, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from Bayer CropScience Limited to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance bixafen in oilseed rape, linseed, poppy seed and mustard seed. In order to accommodate for the intended use of bixafen in France, the United Kingdom proposed to raise the existing MRL for these crops from the value of 0.015 mg/kg to 0.1 mg/kg. The United Kingdom drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the available residues trials data are insufficient to propose MRLs for the proposed use in France on these oilseed crops. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of bixafen in plant matrices under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. EFSA concludes that the data available are insufficient to make a proposal to change any MRL.

  12. The effects of sulfur mustard exposure and freezing on transdermal penetration of tritiated water through ex vivo pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, O J; Graham, S J; Dalton, C H; Spencer, P M; Mansson, R; Jenner, J; Azeke, J; Braue, E

    2013-02-01

    The percutaneous absorption of tritiated water ((3)H(2)O) through sulfur mustard (SM) exposed abdominal pig skin was measured using in vitro Franz-type static diffusion cells. The barrier function to water permeation following exposure to liquid SM for 8 min and excision 3h later did not change significantly. A small, but statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in steady state penetration (Jss), permeability coefficient (Kp) and lag time (t(L)) of (3)H(2)O was observed between fresh skin and skin stored frozen (-20 °C) for up to two weeks. Steady-state penetration and Kp values were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in skin stored frozen compared with fresh skin. Fresh naïve skin had an average Kp of 1.65 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen naïve skin was 2.04 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Fresh SM exposed skin had a mean Kp of 1.72 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen SM exposed skin was 2.31 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Lag times were also shorter (P<0.05) in skin that had been stored frozen. Frozen, SM-exposed porcine abdominal skin may be used for in vitro penetration studies, but effects of treatment and storage on the barrier layer should be taken into account. PMID:23041075

  13. Sorption equilibrium of emerging and traditional organic contaminants in leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ying; Chang, Meei-Ling; Wu, Siang Chen; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2016-07-01

    Emerging and petroleum contaminants could transfer into food chains by plant uptake, potentially causing food security problems. To build a prediction model, the sorption equilibrium and uptake kinetics of toluene, p-xylene, naphthalene, bisphenol A, and 4-bromo-diphenyl ether in some common leafy vegetables including leafy rape, Chinese mustard, lettuce and Chinese cabbage were examined. The kinetic experiments revealed that high sorption rates were observed for these plants that had high lipid contents. For two emerging contaminants with polar functional groups, their resulting isotherms were strongly linear (R(2) = 0.92 to 1.00), indicating that the sorption was dominated by partitioning. Moreover, regression correlation showed that log Klip, the lipid-water partition coefficient, and log Kow, the octanol-water coefficient, for these organic chemicals were strongly linear-related, following the equation: log Klip = 0.894 × log Kow+0.219 (R(2) = 0.953). The correlation equation allows the prediction of the sorption capacity of plant species for an organic compound when the plant composition and the log Kow of the chemical are determined. This improved model containing different organic chemicals with a wide range of log Kow (2.73-4.80) and including emerging contaminants was established, which shows further utilization for predicting the sorption of organic contaminants by plants. PMID:27085315

  14. Transfer of Radionuclides K-40, Th-232 and Ra-226 from Mining Soil to Sawi (Japanese Mustard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariandra, M.; Amin, Y. M.

    2008-05-01

    The uptake of naturally occurring thorium, radium and potassium by sawi (Japanese Mustard) from disused tin mining was studied. Both soil and sawi sample were collected from a vegetable farm located 15 km from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia where the farm has been operating for 22 years on a disused tin mining. By using a gamma spectroscopy system, the transfers of radionuclides from soil to plants were investigated. The highest values of radionuclides in the soil was K-40 which is 52.8 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 6.51 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 18.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of radionuclides in the sawi sample shows higher values as compared to the soil sample. The highest values of radionuclides in the sawi were K-40 which is 446 Bq kg-1 and the lowest was Ra-226 which is 17.5 Bq kg-1. The activity of Th-232 is 65.2 Bq kg-1. The concentration of radionuclides in soils and plants can be used for the determination of soil-to-plant transfer factors. The soil to plant transfer factors (TF) were calculated and observed to be 2.68 for radium-226, 3.52 for thorium-232 and the highest which is 3.97 for potassium-40.

  15. Bacterial diversity in Philippine fermented mustard (burong mustasa) as revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcia, L L H; Estacio, R C; Dalmacio, L M M

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies on the bacterial profile of burong mustasa, a traditional Philippine fermented food, had been conducted using culture-dependent techniques. Since these methods may underestimate the total microbiota of a sample, a culture-independent study was done to determine the bacterial diversity in burong mustasa through molecular biology techniques. Bacterial DNA was isolated from fermented mustard samples at different stages of fermentation. The isolated genomic DNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA). The 1.5 kb amplicons obtained were subjected to nested PCR using primers for the internal variable region of the 16S rDNA. The 585 bp nested PCR amplicons were then subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to separate the different bacteria present in each sample. Distinct and unique bands in the DGGE profile were excised, reamplified, purified and sequenced for bacterial identification. Molecular cloning of the 1.5 kb 16S rDNA was also performed using the pGEM-T Easy Vector System. The cloned gene was sequenced for bacterial identification. The identified microbiota in burong mustasa at different stages of fermentation include lactic acid bacteria and several uncultured bacteria (initial up to the final stages); acetic acid bacteria (middle stage); and Streptobacillus and Fusobacterium species (initial stage). The potential probiotic bacteria found in burong mustasa are Weissella and Lactobacillus. PMID:22146686

  16. 3-D QSAR CoMFA study of nitrogen mustards possessing new chemical entities as possible anticancer agents

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    Anand R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work is an investigation of anticancer activities of the nitrogen mustards possessing quinazolinone, benzimidazole, benzoxazole, and benzothiazole nuclei by the three-dimensional Quantitative Structure Activity paradigm, Comparative Molecular Field Analysis. A total of 39 compounds were modelled in SYBYL 6.7 (Tripos, USA. The molecules were aligned by root-mean-square fit of atoms and field fit of the steric and electrostatic molecular fields and the resulting databases analysed by partial least squares analysis with cross-validation, leave-one-out and no validation to extract the optimum number of components. The analysis was then repeated with bootstrapping to give the final Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship models. Eight compounds, which were kept separately as test set, were used to test the predictive ability of the Comparative Molecular Field Analysis models. Out of the two models generated, one was found to be useful. The predicted activities of the test set were in good agreement with experimentally determined values.

  17. Ação do citrato de sildenafil sobre a função uretral de ratas com desnervação vesical Effect of sildenafil citrate in the urethral function in rats with denervated bladder

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    Haylton Jorge Suaid

    2003-01-01

    urethane at a dosage of 1.25mg/kg. All animals underwent cystostomy with a catheter P50 connected by a Y to an infusion pump and to a polygraph Narco-Biosystem. The cystometry was performed trice in each animal: right after the cystostomy, after surgical of bladder denervation and 1h after gastric infusion of 1mg/kg of sildenafil citrate. Maximum (MaP and minimum (MiP vesical pressure were compared in the following moments: I - before bladder denervation, II - after bladder denervation and III - after bladder denervation and sildenafil administration. Wilcoxon test was used for a level of significance of 5%. RESULTS: Mean values of MaP were: I - 86.6±10.1, II - 42.6±15.0 and III - 30.8±12.4. The corresponding values of MiP were: : I - 72.1±18.9, II - 31.1±9.8 and III - 14.5±9.5. The comparison between MaP and MiP in each moment showed difference only in moment III (p0.05 in IIxIII. For MiP the p values were <0.004 in IxII, <0.002 in IxIII and <0.01 in IIxIII. CONCLUSION: 1 Bladder denervation reduces maximum and minimum urethral pressure; 2 Sildenafil citrate reduces the minimum urethral pressure widening the interval between the peak and bottom pressures; and, 3 Sildenafil citrate does not interfere on the peak urethral pressure after bladder denervation.

  18. Study on Maximum Urethral Closure Pressure,Abdominal Leak-point Pressure and Mobility of Vesical Cervix by Sonographic Urodynamics%超声尿动力学对尿道最大关闭压和腹压漏尿点压及膀胱颈移动度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兵; 应涛; 陈磊; 周永昌

    2001-01-01

    目的:应用超声尿动力学技术研究静态和动态尿道关闭压及膀胱颈移动度的关系。方法:对40例真性压力性尿失禁和22例正常入进行超声和尿动力学同步观察,标化测定静态最大尿道关闭压、腹压漏尿点压和膀胱颈移动度。结果:真性压力性尿失禁腹压漏尿点压与尿道最大关闭压呈明显的线性相关(r=0.49,P=0.001),其回归方程y=21.90+0.88x。压力性尿失禁尿道最大关闭压、腹压漏尿点压均值显著低于正常组(P<0.01)。膀胱颈部移动度显著高于正常组(P<0.01)。腹压漏尿点压>55cmH2O压力性尿失禁组中膀胱颈部移动度≤1.5cm病例占72%,腹压漏尿点压>55cmH2O压力性尿失禁组中颈部移动度>1.5cm病例占59%,两组比率存在显著差异(P<0.05)。结论:真性压力性尿失禁组同时存在尿道关闭功能不全和膀胱颈移动度的异常。腹压漏尿点压≤55cmH2O组以尿道关闭功能损害为主,>55cmH2O组以膀胱颈过度活动为主。尿道基础关闭功能不良者,尿道动态关闭功能将受到不同程度的损害。%Objective: To study maximum urethral closurepressure(MUCP),abdominal leak-point pressure (ALPP) and mobility of vesical cervix in female genuine stress incontinence (GSI) by sonographic urodynamic. Methods:Forty patients with GSI and 22 normal women underwent simultaneous sonographic urodynamic examinations.The MUCP,the ALPP and the mobility of vesical cervix were measured with the standardized method.Results:There was a marked linear correlation between the ALPP and the MUCP (r=0.49,P=0.001),the linear regression equation:y=21.90+0.88x(x:MUCP,y:ALPP).The ALPP and MUCP in GSI group were markedly lower than those in the control group(P<0.01).According to the ALPP.the GSI patients were devided into two subgroups,ALPP≤55cm H2O pressure group(A) and>55cm H2O pressure group(B).The rate of patients with the mobility of vesical cervix ≤1.5cm was 72

  19. Mobilidade do Colo Vesical e Avaliação Funcional do Assoalho Pélvico em Mulheres Continentes e com Incontinência Urinária de Esforço, Consoante o Estado Hormonal Bladder Neck Mobility and Functional Pelvic Floor Evaluation in Women with and without Stress Urinary Incontinence, According to Hormonal Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Fátima da Silva Moreira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: estudar a mobilidade do colo vesical e a força da musculatura perineal em mulheres com e sem incontinência urinária de esforço, no menacme e na pós-menopausa. Métodos: foram avaliadas 61 pacientes, das quais 31 estavam no menacme, sendo 17 com incontinência urinária de esforço (IUE e 14 continentes, e 30 estavam na pós-menopausa, das quais 15 com e 15 sem IUE. Todas as incontinentes foram submetidas ao teste da coluna d'água e ao teste de esforço com bexiga vazia. A mobilidade do colo vesical foi avaliada pelo teste do cotonete e por ultra-sonografia e, para estudo da função da musculatura perineal, foram utilizados a palpação digital e cones vaginais. Resultados: a posição do colo vesical nas mulheres com incontinência urinária de esforço (grupos A e C, tanto pela ultra-sonografia quanto pelo teste do cotonete, foi mais baixa, sendo --11,8 cm no grupo A e --12,5 cm no grupo C, do que as mulheres continentes, nas quais o colo encontrava-se, em média, a +4,4 cm no grupo B e +2,3 cm no grupo D. Quanto à mobilidade do colo vesical, avaliada pela ultra-sonografia e pelo teste do cotonete, não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos continentes no menacme (9,1 cm e na pós-menopausa (9,5 cm. Também não houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos incontinentes entre si (17,1 cm para o grupo A e 16,6 cm para o C. No entanto, a mobilidade foi significativamente maior nos grupos com incontinência urinária de esforço (A e C do que nos grupos continentes (B e D Verificamos que, quanto à avaliação da musculatura do assoalho pélvico, o teste realizado com cones vaginais e a avaliação funcional do assoalho pélvico mostraram índice 4 no grupo B e 3,4 no grupo D, indicando maior força muscular nas mulheres continentes, quando comparadas às incontinentes (2,9 e 2,3, respectivamente no menacme e na pós-menopausa. Conclusão: a mobilidade do colo vesical, avaliada por meio do teste do cotonete e da

  20. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

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    Mohammad Hossein Emami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 mg twice daily omeprazole-placebo (OP or matching placebo (placebo-omeprazole [PO] for 4 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and the alternative treatment for 4 months. Assessments included GERD and cough, quality of life, and pulmonary function using spirometry. Leicester Cough Questionnaire and SF-36 were used for measuring quality of life. Results: Patients in the OP group experienced a more decrease than those in the PO group in severity of Leicester cough scores during the first 4-month of trial. After crossing the groups, the OP group experienced an increase (P = 0.036 and the PO group experienced a nonsignificant decrease (P = 0.104 in the severity of scores. The OP group also experienced improvement in GERD symptoms and quality of life at the end of the trial, but changes in the PO group was not significant. There was no significant change in respiratory function indices in any groups. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with high-dose omeprazole improved GERD as well as cough, and quality of life, but not changed respiratory function indices in sulfur mustard injured cases with respiratory symptoms.

  1. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species

  2. Hydrogen Peroxide Alleviates Nickel-Inhibited Photosynthetic Responses through Increase in Use-Efficiency of Nitrogen and Sulfur, and Glutathione Production in Mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M I R; Khan, Nafees A; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Asgher, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The response of two mustard (Brassica juncea L.) cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or nickel (Ni) was evaluated. Further, the effect of H2O2 on photosynthetic responses of the mustard cultivars grown with or without Ni stress was studied. Application of 50 μM H2O2 increased photosynthesis and growth more prominently in high photosynthetic capacity cultivar (Varuna) than low photosynthetic capacity cultivar (RH30) grown without Ni stress. The H2O2 application also resulted in alleviation of photosynthetic inhibition induced by 200 mg Ni kg(-1) soil through increased photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE), sulfur-use efficiency (SUE), and glutathione (GSH) reduced production together with decreased lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in both the cultivars. However, the effect of H2O2 was more pronounced in Varuna than RH30. The greater increase in photosynthetic-NUE and SUE and GSH production with H2O2 in Varuna resulted from higher increase in activity of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) assimilation enzymes, nitrate reductase and ATP-sulfurylase, respectively resulting in enhanced N and S assimilation. The increased N and S content contributed to the higher activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase under Ni stress. Application of H2O2 also regulated PS II activity and stomatal movement under Ni stress for maintaining higher photosynthetic potential in Varuna. Thus, H2O2 may be considered as a potential signaling molecule for augmenting photosynthetic potential of mustard plants under optimal and Ni stress conditions. It alleviates Ni stress through the regulation of stomatal and non-stomotal limitations, and photosynthetic-NUE and -SUE and GSH production. PMID:26870064

  3. Comparison of latex body paint with wetted gauze wipes for sampling the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from common indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Behringer, Deborah L; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of solvent-wetted gauze with body paint, a peelable surface sampling media, for the sampling of the chemical warfare agents VX and sulfur mustard from nine surfaces was performed. The nine surfaces sampled are those typical of interior public venues and include smooth, rough, porous, and non-porous surfaces. Overall, solvent-wetted gauze (wipes) performed better for the recovery of VX from non-porous surfaces while body paint (BP) performed better for the porous surfaces. The average percent VX recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 86.2%, 71.4%; escalator handrail, 47.3%, 26.7%; stainless steel, 80.5%, 56.1%; glazed ceramic tile, 81.8%, 44.9%; ceiling tile, 1.77%, 13.1%; painted drywall 7.83%, 21.1%; smooth cement, 0.64%, 10.3%; upholstery fabric, 24.6%, 23.1%; unfinished wood flooring, 9.37%, 13.1%. Solvent-wetted gauze performed better for the recovery of sulfur mustard from three of the relatively non-porous surfaces while body paint performed better for the more porous surfaces. The average percent sulfur mustard recoveries using wipes and BP, respectively, are: finished wood flooring, 30.2%, 2.97%; escalator handrail, 4.40%, 4.09%; stainless steel, 21.2%, 3.30%; glazed ceramic tile, 49.7%, 16.7%; ceiling tile, 0.33%, 11.1%; painted drywall 2.05%, 10.6%; smooth cement, 1.20%, 35.2%; upholstery fabric, 7.63%, 6.03%; unfinished wood flooring, 0.90%, 1.74%. PMID:26990562

  4. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm{sup 2}) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation.

  5. The allelopathic effect of the black nut leaves (Juglans nigra L. over the species of moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina CORBU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment is a research on the effect of the allelopathic substances in the leaves of the black nut (Juglans nigra L. over the species of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and the moon – raddish (Raphanus sativus L.. We have prepared a watery extract of a concentration of 5, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the leaves in different seasons (spring, autumn and winter. The watery extract presents an inhibitory effect over the germination and growth of the plants subdued to experiments, especialy over the leaves collected in spring.

  6. Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Transfer Overcomes the Inhibition of Wound Healing by Sulfur Mustard in a Human Keratinocyte In Vitro Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Ishida; Radharaman Ray; Jack Amnuaysirikul; Keiko Ishida; Prabhati Ray

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that causes extensive skin injury. Previously we reported that SM exposure resulted in suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression to inhibit the healing of scratch wounds in a cultured normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) model. Based on this finding, the present study was to use adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of iNOS to restore the nitric oxide (NO) supply depleted by exposure to SM and to evaluate the effect of N...

  7. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mahima,; Vinod Kumar; Tomar, S. K.; Debashis Roy; Muneendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05)...

  8. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)–glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of...

  9. Treatment of Mustard Wastewater with Coagulation and Sedimentation%榨菜废水的混凝处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江国; 陈玉成; 杨志敏; 谢德体; 田伟

    2011-01-01

    An experiment, in which mustard tuber wastewater was treated with the coagulation method, showed that coagulant dosage and variety, agitation rate and sedimentation time all played an important role. Used as the coagulant, CaO gave better results than the other coagulants studied. Addition of CaO at 700mg/L in combination with PAM as coagulant aid at 5mg/L and agitation at 250 r/min for 30 min gave a removal efficiency of COD, TP and turbidity of 36. 54%, 52. 03% and 97. 85%, respectively, with a relatively low cost. The results in a pilot test were consistent with the test parameters of the small test. Combined treatment of mustard tuber wastewater with CaO and PAM could automatically adjust Ph of the wastewater, decrease the cost of the coagulants, reduce irritating odour of the wastewater and improve its biodegradability and lighten the burden of the follow-up treatment system. The floes formed by settlement were relatively large and, therefore, easy to recover for the manufacture of animal fodder or organic fertilizer.%采用混凝法对榨菜废水进行了处理试验.结果表明,混凝剂投加量、混凝剂种类、搅拌速率及沉降时间等对处理效果都起着重要作用.选用CaO作混凝剂,聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)作助凝剂,其处理效果明显优于其他几种混凝剂.当Ca(),PAM的投加量分别为700,5 mg/L,以250 r/min的速度搅拌30 min,则COD,TP,浊度的去除率分别为36.54%,52.03%和97.85%,处理成本较低,中试试验结果与小试试验参数相吻合;用CaO,PAM联合处理榨菜废水能自动调节废水pH值,节省混凝剂的用量、减轻废水的刺激性气味、提高榨菜废水的可生化性,减轻后续处理系统的负担,同时沉降形成的絮体较大,易于被回收开发成饲料或有机肥料,为榨菜废水的处理提供了依据.

  10. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Dick

    Full Text Available Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP, suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments.

  11. Organic matrix based slow release fertilizer enhances plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod K; Singh, Rana P

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effect of organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) on plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield of Brassica juncea L. cv, pusa bold. The agro-waste materials like cow dung, clay soil, neem leaves and rice bran were mixed together in 2:2:1:1 ratio and used as organic matrix for the immobilization of chemical fertilizer nutrients with commercial grade saresh (Acacia gum, 15% solution) as binder. Different fertilizer treatments were organic matrix based slow release fertilizers, SRF-I (542.0 kg ha(-1)); SRF-II (736.5 kg ha(-1)) and chemical fertilizer combinations, boron (3 kg ha(-1))+sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1)) and boron (3 kg ha(-1)) + sulphur (15 kg ha(-1))+nitrogen (80 kg ha(-1))+phosphorus (15 kg ha(-1))+potassium (100 kg ha(-1)). Organic matrix based SRF-II released ammonium up to 50-d in wetsoil under laboratory conditions which showed maximum retention of the nutrients. Avery significant increase in plant growth, nitrate assimilation and seed yield was recorded in organic matrix based SRF-II applied plants. The maximum percent increase in biomass production was observed with organic matrix based SRF-II (increase of 65.8% in root fresh weight, 38.0% in root dry weight, 45.9% in leaf fresh weight plant(-1) and 27.5 % in leaf dry weight plant(-1) in 60-d old plants). It also increased the acquisition and assimilation of nitrate from the plant's rhizosphere which was evident by 45.6% increase in nitrate, 27.5% in nitrite and 11.7% in nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in leaves of 45-d old plants over control. The organic matrix based SRF-II significantly increased the seed yield by 28% in Indian mustard. Cost analysis revealed thatthis formulation is cost effective as it is based on agro waste materials. PMID:22319878

  12. Procedures for Analysis of Dried Plasma Using Microsampling Devices to Detect Sulfur Mustard-Albumin Adducts for Verification of Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Harald; Willoh, Sophia; Hörmann, Philipp; Siegert, Markus; Vondran, Antje; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-09-01

    Incorporation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) produces a covalent adduct with human serum albumin (HSA) representing an established plasma biomarker of poisoning. Bioanalytical verification requires both plasma generation from whole blood and shipping to specialized laboratories following strict guidelines for complex packaging. These needs often push the infrastructural boundary in crisis regions and war zones. Therefore, we herein originally introduce different reliable bioanalytical procedures using filter paper as well as novel volumetric microsampling tools (Mitra devices and Noviplex DUO cards) to generate dried plasma samples not liable to the shipping constraints. In addition, the Noviplex device enables in-transit separation of plasma from whole blood without the need of a centrifuge. Plasma-loaded and dried devices were subjected to pronase treatment yielding the alkylated dipeptide hydroxyethylthioethyl-CysPro (HETE-CP) derived from the HSA-SM adduct that was detected by microbore liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem-mass spectrometry (μLC-ESI MS/MS). For all devices, samples exposed to SM yielded excellent linearity (0.025-50 μM SM) and good precision (≤13%) and fulfilled forensic quality criteria for ion ratios of qualifying and quantifying product ions. Stability of the HSA-SM adduct in dried and liquid plasma is shown under conditions of three climatic zones (temperate climate, hot and dry climate, and hot and humid climate) for at least 9 days simulating the period of delayed sample shipping. Our results originally document that dried plasma is appropriate for storage and shipping at ambient temperature and that novel microsampling tools are of essential benefit when targeting the HSA-SM adduct for verification analysis. PMID:27482832

  13. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  14. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Hwa-Yong [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang-Won, E-mail: chyj7983@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Warfare Research, The Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si-Nae [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Min-Soo [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon-Ja [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Dong-Keun, E-mail: dksong@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  15. Bioinoculants: A sustainable approach to maximize the yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.) under low input of chemical fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Ullah, Faizan

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to find out the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) either alone or in combination with different doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Brassica carinata (L.) cv. Peela Raya. PGPR were applied as seed inoculation at 10(6) cells/mL(-1) so that the number of bacterial cells per seed was 2.6 × 10(5) cells/seed. The chemical fertilizers, namely, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied in different doses (full dose (urea 160 kg ha(-1) + DAP 180 kg ha(-1)), half dose (urea 80 kg ha(-1) + DAP 90 kg ha(-1)), and quarter dose (urea 40 kg ha(-1) + DAP 45 kg ha(-1)). The chemical fertilizers at full and half dose significantly increased the chlorophyll, carotenoids, and protein content of leaves and the seed yield (in kilogram per hectare) but had no effect on the oil content of seed. The erucic acid (C22:1) content present in the seed was increased. Azospirillum performed better than Azotobacter and its effect was at par with full dose of chemical fertilizers (CFF) for pigments and protein content of leaves when inoculated in the presence of half dose of chemical fertilizers (SPH). The seed yield and seed size were greater. Supplementing Azospirillum with SPH assisted Azospirillum to augment the growth and yield, reduced the erucic acid (C22:1) and glucosinolates contents, and increased the unsaturation in seed oil. It is inferred that A. brasilense could be applied as an efficient bioinoculant for enhancing the growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Ethiopian mustard at low fertilizer costs and sustainable ways.

  16. Seed dormancy is modulated in recently evolved chlorsulfuron-resistant Turkish biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Muhamet; Nemli, Yildiz; Fatima, Tahira; Mattoo, Autar

    2015-07-01

    Biotypes of the broad-leaved wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) found in wheat fields of Aegean and Marmara region of Turkey were characterized and shown to have developed resistance to sulfonylurea (chlorsulfuron), an inhibitor of acetolactate synthase (ALS). DNA sequence analysis of the ALS genes from two such resistant (‘R’) biotypes, KNF-R1 and KNF-R2, revealed point mutations, CCT (Pro 197) to TCT (Ser 197) in KNF-R1 and CCT (Pro 197) to ACT (Thr 197) in KNF-R2; these substitutions are consistent with the presence of chlorsulfuron-insensitive ALS enzyme activity in the ‘R’ S. arvensis biotypes. An additional phenotype of chlorsulfuron resistance in the Turkish S. arvensis ‘R’ biotypes was revealed in the form of an altered seed dormancy behavior over 4 to 48 months of dry storage (after-ripening) compared to the susceptible (‘S’) biotypes. Seeds of the ‘S’ biotypes dry stored for 4 months had a higher initial germination, which sharply decreased with storage time, while the seeds of the ‘R’ biotypes had lower germination after 4-months storage, rising sharply and peaking thereafter by 24 months’ of dry storage. The ‘R’ biotype seeds continued to maintain a higher germination percentage even after 48 months of after-ripening. The seed weight of ‘R’ and ‘S’ biotypes after-ripened for 4 months was similar but those after-ripened for 48 months differed, ‘R’ seeds were significantly heavier than those of the ‘S’ seeds. Differential seed germinability between ‘S’ and ‘R’ biotypes was found not a case of differential viability, temperature regimen or non-response to pro-germination hormone GA3. These studies are of relevance to ecological fitness of herbicide-resistant biotypes in terms of seed viability and germination.

  17. Characterization of environmental samples using ion trap-secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.

    1998-02-01

    The detection of chemical warfare agent residues on environmental surfaces is an important analytical activity because of the potential for proliferation of these weapons, and for environmental monitoring in areas where they are stored. Historically, one of the most widely used agents has been bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, also known as mustard gas and HD. It was initially used in combat in 1917; by the end of the First World War, more than 16% of all casualties were due to chemicals, in most cases mustard. Manufacture of mustard is continuing to this day; consequently, there are ongoing opportunities for exposure. 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) is used as a simulant for mustard (HD) in a study to develop secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for rapid, semi-quantitative detection of mustard on soil. Using SIMS with single stage mass spectrometry, a signature for CEES can be unequivocally observed only at the highest concentrations (0.1 monolayer and above). Selectivity and sensitivity are markedly improved employing multiple-stage mass spectrometry using an ion trap. C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SC{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +} from CEES eliminates C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and H{sub 2}S, which are highly diagnostic. CEES was detected at 0.0012 monolayer on soil. A single analysis could be conducted in under 5 minutes.

  18. Therapeutic effects of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) and radiation on the rat glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU) or x radiation on the rat glioma clone-6 cells (RG cells) was analyzed by colony formation assay in vitro. The surviving fraction after administration of ACNU 100 μg/ml showed a biphasic curve with a break point about 90 min and 50% survival at 15 min. The dose-survival curve for ACNU (120 min. exposure) showed the existence of a shoulder, at 0 - 25 μg/ml, with Do of 13 μg/ml. The dose-survival curve for x-rays showed Dq-490 rad, Do = 220 rad, and an extrapolation number (n) = 3.1. It was found that when x-rays were given more than 3 hours after ACNU administration, the surviving fraction was smaller than when ACNU and x-rays were given in quick succession, but the effectiveness of the combination was revealed to be additive of ACNU and radiation alone. The lethal effects of ACNU and radiation on normal glia like cells of new born rats were examined Do was 4 μg/ml for ACNU and 180 rad for x-rays, and Dq was 150 rad for x-rays, but not detected for ACNU. In vivo measurements using subcutaneous RG cell tumors showed synergistic increase in doubling time when the tumors were irradiated with x-rays (1000 rad) at 3 to 12 hours after ACNU administration (10 mg/kg), while no synergistic increase of survival was observed. These findings not only indicated that combinations of ACNU and radiation showed synergistic cell-killing effects on tumor growth but also suggested that the effects may have occurred in normal tissues. (Kondo, M.)

  19. The Effects of Combination of Gibberellic Acid - 3 (GA3) and Ethephon (2-Chloroethyl Phosphonic Acid) (Plant Growth Regulators) on Some Physiological Parameters in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Okazy, Ahmed M

    2008-01-01

    Health effects of subacute treatment of combinations of gibberellic acid and ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) were investigated. Mice was used as an experimental model. Ten groups of male ICR (CD-1) mice were treated with oral doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg of either gibberellic acid (GA3), ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) alone or in combination / kg body weight for 11 weeks. A significant dose dependent reduction in weight gain and low dry matter intakes were recorded in animals treated with the combination of both chemicals. Treated groups showed statistically significant increases in mean liver, kidney and spleen weights. Hemoglobin (Hb) and total erythrocyte count (TEC) decreased while total leukocyte count (TLC) was raised in all treated groups. Gibberellic acid (alone) treated animals showed the highest activity of liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST) while no significant variations were recorded among other groups. No significant differences were recorded in the activity of hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A highly significant variation was recorded among the three treatments in serum urea level. No significant difference was noted among the three treatments in serum creatinine. All treatments caused significant dose dependent increases in creatinine than that of the control group. A highly significant dose dependent variation occurred in acetyl choline esterase (AChE) activity among treated groups. Groups treated with ethephon alone showed the greatest inhibition in brain AChE.

  20. Quantification, localization, and speciation of selenium in seeds of canola and two mustard species compared to seed-meals produced by hydraulic press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Walse, Spencer S; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Freeman, John L

    2012-07-17

    Brassica plants accumulate selenium (Se) especially in seeds when grown in soils laden with Se. We report a chemical analysis of Se in Brassica seeds (canola, Indian mustard, and white mustard) and in their hydraulically pressed seed meals, which are used as a Se supplement in livestock animal feeds. Complementary techniques were used to measure total Se concentrations, to map the localization of Se, and to quantify different Se forms. Seeds and hydraulically pressed seed meals contained an average of 1.8 and 2.0 μg Se g(-1) DW, respectively. Selenium was primarily located in cotyledons and roots of seed embryos. Microfocused Se K-edge XANES and bulk XANES showed that seeds contained 90% of Se as C-Se-C forms. Hydraulically pressing seeds for oil caused changes in the forms of Se as follows: 40-55% C-Se-C forms, 33-42% selenocystine, 5-12% selenocysteine, and 11-14% trimethylselenonium ion. Aqueous extracts of seed and seed meals were also analyzed by SAX-HPLC/ICPMS and found to contain mainly the C-Se-C form SeMet, but also another C-Se-C form MeSeCys, which is of dietary pharmacological interest for cancer inhibition. In addition, SAX-HPLC/ICPMS also detected selenocystine and selenocysteine, further confirming the results obtained by XANES analyses. PMID:22747111

  1. Alterations of RNA Editing for the Mitochondrial ATP9 Gene in a New orf220-type Cytoplasmic Male-sterile Line of Stem Mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Hua Yang; Ming-Fang Zhang; Jing-Quan Yu

    2007-01-01

    RNA editing for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene of encoding regions has been observed in both cytoplasmic malesterile and maintainer lines of stem mustard, where its editing capacity varied spatially and temporally in the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line. There were four RNA editing sites for the mitochondrial ATP9 gene according to its normal editing sites in mustard, of which three sites occurred as C-to-U changes and one as a U-to-C change.As a result, the hydrophobicity of deduced ATP9 protein was reduced due to the conversions at its 17th, 45th and 64th positions. Meanwhile, the conservation of deduced ATP9 protein was enhanced by changes at the 56th position.Loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 was observed in juvenile roots, senile roots, senile leaves and floret buds of the CMS line. Comparatively, complete RNA editing for ATP9 gene was retained in juvenile roots, juvenile leaves and floret buds of its maintainer line; however, the loss of a specific editing site for ATP9 gene occurred at senile roots and senile leaves in its maintainer line. These observations allow us to produce a hypothesis that the dysfunction of a specific mitochondrisl gene arising from RNA editing could probably be a factor triggering CMS and organ senescence through unknown cross-talk pathways during development.

  2. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione pathway which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance under salt stress. The increase in leaf sulfur content through higher activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl transferase (SAT) by SA application was associated with the increased accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and lower levels of oxidative stress. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analog, 2,6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and 1 mM GSH treatment produced similar results on rubisco, photosynthesis and growth of plants establishing that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the enzyme activity of ascorbate-glutathione pathway and increased GSH production. Thus, SA/GSH could be a promising tool for alleviation of salt stress in mustard plants.

  3. Quantitative MRI comparison of pulmonary hemodynamics in mustard/senning-repaired patients suffering from transposition of the great arteries and healthy volunteers at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mustard/Senning-repaired (MSR) patients, the right and left ventricles (RV, LV) act as the systemic and pulmonary ventricle, respectively. The purpose of the study was to compare non-invasively, at rest, pulmonary ventricle systolic function and hemodynamics in MSR patients with those of healthy volunteers. Velocity-encoded MR imaging was performed at the level of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) in ten male patients late after a Mustard/Senning correction performed early in infancy and in ten male volunteers. Both blood flow and MPA cross-sectional area variations were recorded over a complete cardiac cycle. MPA distensibility, body surface area (BSA)-normalized pulmonary ventricle systolic power and work were significantly lower in the MSR patients compared to volunteers. In particular, BSA-normalized LV systolic power and work in MSR patients were equal to 82 and 77% on average of those of the RV in volunteers (0.32 vs. 0.39 W/m2 and 0.10 vs. 0.13 J/m2), respectively. We conclude that in MSR patients at rest two unrelated findings were observed: (1) a reduced MPA distensibility and (2) a significantly lower systolic mechanical performance of the pulmonary LV compared to that of the RV in healthy volunteers. The latter quantification indirectly confirms the lowest systemic RV systolic mechanical performance previously published. (orig.)

  4. The injury progression of T lymphocytes in a mouse model with subcutaneous injection of a high dose of sulfur mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Zhou Mei; Xiao-Rui Zhang; Ning Jiang; Jun-Ping Cheng; Feng Liu; Pan Zheng; Wen-Xia Zhou; Yong-Xiang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Background: In clinical studies, the findings on sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity for CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets are contradictory. In animal experiments, the effect of SM on the T cell number and proliferation is incompatible and is even the opposite of the results in human studies. In this study, we observed the dynamic changes of T lymphocytes in the first week in a high-dose SM-induced model. Methods: Mice were exposed to SM by subcutaneous injection (20 mg/kg) and were sacrificed 4 h, 24 h, 72 h and 168 h later. Spleen T lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated by3H-TdR. Flow cytometric analysis was used to observe the percentage of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets. The IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α levels in plasma were assayed using the Luminex method. DNA damage in bone marrow cells was observed with the single cell gel electrophoresis technique (SCGE). Results: SM continuously inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes for 7 days, and there was a significant rebound of Con A-induced T lymphocyte proliferation only at 24 h. The percentage of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes was upregulated, which was accompanied by increased IL-1β and TNF-α and decreased IL-10. The IL-6 level was gradually decreased in the PG group at 4 h. The peak of lymphocytic apoptosis and DNA damage occurred at 24 h and 72 h, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show that SM significantly inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation as well as induced CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ upregulation. SM intoxication also significantly increased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and inhibited the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Our results may partly be due to the significant SM induced significant apoptosis and necrosis of lymphocytes as well as DNA damage of bone marrow cells. The results provided a favorable evaluation of SM immune toxicity in an animal model.

  5. A glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction of basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Vijay; Kabra, Ankur; Pardasani, Deepak; Goud, D Raghavender; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, D K

    2015-12-24

    In this work, a glass capillary based microfluidic electromembrane extraction (μ-EME) was demonstrated for the first time. The device was made by connecting an auxillary borosilicate glass tubing (O.D. 3mm, I.D. 2mm) perpendicular to main borosilicate glass capillary just below one end of the capillary (O.D. 8mm, I.D. 1.2mm). It generated the distorted T-shaped device with inlet '1' and inlet '2' for the introduction of sample and acceptor solutions, respectively. At one end of this device (inlet '2'), a microsyringe containing acceptor solution along with hollow fiber (O.D. 1000μm) was introduced. This configuration creates the micro-channel between inner wall of glass capillary and outer surface of hollow fiber. Sample solution was pumped into the system through another end of glass capillary (inlet '1'), with a micro-syringe pump. The sample was in direct contact with the supported liquid membrane (SLM), consisted of 20% (w/w) di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether immobilized in the pores of the hollow fiber. In the lumen of the hollow fiber, the acceptor phase was present. The driving force for extraction was direct current (DC) electrical potential sustained over the SLM. Highly polar (logP=-2.5 to 1.4) basic degradation products of nitrogen mustard and VX were selected as model analytes. The influence of chemical composition of SLM, extraction time, voltage and pH of donor and acceptor phase were investigated. The model analytes were extracted from 10μL of pure water with recoveries ranging from 15.7 to 99.7% just after 3min of operation time. Under optimized conditions, good limits of detection (2-50ngmL(-1)), linearity (from 5-1000 to 100-1000ngmL(-1)), and repeatability (RSDs below 11.9%, n=3) were achieved. Applicability of the proposed μ-EME was proved by recovering triethanolamine (31.3%) from 10μL of five times diluted original water sample provided by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons during 28th official

  6. Selection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and treatment regimen for sulfur mustard-induced cutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Buccellato, Matthew A; Reid, Frances M; Graham, John S

    2016-09-01

    The inflammatory process plays an important role in sulfur mustard (HD) injury and HD pathogenesis, suggesting that anti-inflammatory treatments applied as soon as possible following HD injury may reduce tissue damage and accelerate healing. This study used the HD dermal weanling swine model to investigate the efficacy of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, capsaicin and diclofenac, when applied in combination with the steroid, clobetasol. The therapeutic regimen was also investigated with respect to initiation of treatment post-exposure, frequency and duration. Yorkshire-cross pigs were randomly assigned to experimental groups, corresponding to all combinations of treatment (capsaicin with clobetasol or diclofenac with clobetasol), onset time (1, 2 or 4 h post-exposure), treatment duration (1, 3 or 5 days) and frequency of applications (2, 3 or 4 per day). For each animal, two sites on the ventral abdomen were exposed to 400 μL of neat HD for 8 min to achieve superficial dermal (SD) lesions and two sites were exposed to 400 μL neat HD for 30 min to achieve deep dermal (DD) lesions. Each treatment regimen was tested against a SD and a DD injury. Untreated SD and DD lesion sites served as within-animal controls. Assessments, up to one week post-challenge, included digital photographs, clinical assessments (lesion size measurements and modified Draize scoring), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), reflectance colorimetry and histopathologic evaluations that included an estimate for depth of injury and wound healing parameters. Diclofenac plus clobetasol treatment resulted in significant reductions in lesion contracture and modified Draize scores, increased barrier function (decreased TEWL), and increased healing as determined by histopathology for both SD and DD injury when compared with untreated sites and sites treated with capsaicin plus clobetasol. An increased duration of treatment from 1 to 5 days was most commonly associated with decreased

  7. Tratamento endoscópico das perfurações vesicais e uretrais devidas à utilização do suporte suburetral sintético para correção de incontinência urinária de esforço Endoscopic treatment of vesical and urethral perforations after tension-free vaginal tape (TVT® procedure for female stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Baracat

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A incontinência urinária de esforço é um problema prevalente em mulheres. As opções para seu tratamento vêm aumentando nos últimos tempos, havendo um direcionamento para as técnicas minimamente invasivas, com auxílio de material sintético. Com a utilização desses procedimentos, surgiram complicações incomuns, como perfuração vesical e uretral. As complicações estudadas foram devido à utilização de material sintético no tratamento de incontinência urinária de esforço e o tratamento endoscópico empregado. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Onze pacientes foram tratadas com complicações decorrentes do tension-free vaginal tape, seis com faixa de polipropileno dentro da bexiga e cinco com erosão para uretra. Foi realizada ressecção endoscópica em todas as pacientes. RESULTADOS: Uma paciente persistiu com a faixa de polipropileno e foi submetida à nova ressecção endoscópica e cistoscopia controle após três meses era normal. CONCLUSÃO: Realização de ressecção endoscópica de faixas sintéticas intravesicais e intra-uretrais deve ser considerada uma boa alternativa no tratamento dessas complicações.Stress urinary incontinence is a problem that is prevalent in women, and its treatment with minimally invasive techniques using synthetic materials has increased recently, although the procedure has also brought increased occurrence of specific complications such as vesical and urethral perforations. We describe 11 cases of endoscopic correction of vesical and urethral perforations due to the use of synthetic material for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Eleven patients were treated for complications after undergoing the TVT® (tension-free vaginal tape procedure; 6 of them had the polypropylene tape inside the bladder, and 5 had erosion of the urethra. Endoscopic resection of the polypropylene tapes was performed on all patients. RESULTS: A 6-month follow-up with cystoscopic control showed

  8. Impact assessment of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mustard (Brassica spp.) production and its adaptation strategies in different districts of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V.; Patel, H. R.; Yadav, S. B.; Patil, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gujarat is the western-most state of India with a long (1600 km) sea coast on the Arabian Sea. Average annual rainfall ranges from as high as 1900 mm in the sub-humid southeast to as low as 250 mm in the arid north. There are three distinct crop seasons- rainy (June to September), winter (Oct.-Nov. through Feb.-March) and summer (Feb-March through May-June). Wheat and mustard are grown during winter seasons. The past climatic records suggested increasing trends in rainfall( 2 to 5 mm per year), maximum (0.03 to 0.05 0C per year) and minimum temperatures (0.02 to 0.05 0C per year) at most of places in Gujarat. But the minimum temperature is fould to be increasing significantly at all the locations. This affects the winter season crops viz. wheat and mustard adversely. Simulation results with DSSAT CERES-wheat model revealed that with increase in temperature by 2 0C in different months (November to February) the decrease in wheat yield is observed between 7 to 29 per cent. The impact of increase in maximum temperature during early (November) and late (February) is less (24.8 %). The climate change projections during 2071-2100 using PRECIS output suggested that there would be increase in maximum temperature by 3.2 to 5.2 0C in different districts of Gujarat over baseline period of 1961-1990 while minimum temperature is project to increase by 2.8 to 5.8 0C. Rainfall is also projected to increase by 28 to 70 per cent in different districts. The impact of climate change on wheat would be reduction in its duration by 14-20 days and the grain yield would be reduced by 20-55 per cent in different districts. In case of mustard crops the duration of crop would be reduced by 11 to 16 days and seed yield would be reduced by 32-50 per cent. In order to mitigate the ill effect of climate change, various adaptation strategies vis change in dates of sowing, change in variety, additional irrigation and fertilizer applications were simulated. Shifting of sowing dates of wheat by 15

  9. CD4/CD8 ratio and cytokine levels of the BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis caused by sulfur mustard gas inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Yasaman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze cytokine levels in BAL fluid of patients with bronchiectasis due to mustard gas inhalation. Patients 29 victims with mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis and 25 normal veterans as control group. Intervention PFTs,, high-resolution CT scans of the chest, analyses of BAL fluids for five cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 and analyses of BAL fluids for cellular and flow-cytometric analysis of the phenotype of bronchoalveolar cells were performed in all cases. Results CD4 lymphocytes expressed as percentage or absolute number were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (32.17 ± 16.00 vs 23.40 ± 6.97%, respectively; p = 0.01; and 3.31 ± 2.03 vs 1.88 ± 0.83 × 103 cells/ml, respectively; p = 0.001. The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than in controls (3.08 ± 2.05 vs 1.68 ± 0.78; p = 0.002. There were significant differences in cytokine (IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 levels of BAL fluid between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy controls. A significant correlation was observed between the HRCT scores and both the percentage and the absolute number of CD4 lymphocytes in BAL fluid in patients with bronchiectasis (r = -0.49, p = 0.009; r = -0.50, p = 0.008; respectively. HRCT scores showed a significant correlation with CD4/CD8 ratios (r = 0.54, p = 0.004 too. Of measured BAL cytokines, only IL-8 (r = -0.52, p = 0.005 and TNF-aα (r = 0.44, p = 0.01 showed significant correlations with the HRCT scores. Conclusion The increased levels of cytokines CD4 lymphocytes in the BAL fluid suggest the possible causative mechanism in the lung in sulfur mustard gas-induced bronchiectasis by the recruitment of neutrophils into the lung.

  10. The Usage of Rostow Criterion in the Fuling District Mustard Production on the Regional Economic Impact Assessment——Taking the deep-processing of Fuling Mustard, for instance%罗斯托准则在区域经济影响评价中的应用——以涪陵区榨菜深加工为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全露霞; 周锐; 冉芳青

    2012-01-01

    The organic composition of the natural environment and human environment of a region makes it different from the others, and forms the advantages and disadvantages of its own development. Fuling District, Chongqing city has unique favorable conditions for the production of mustard. Being a traditional pillar industry in the Fuling District, Fuling Mustard plays an extremely important role in its regional economic development. In this paper, three criteria of Rostow Effects are used to evaluate the deep-processing of Fuling Mustard' s impact on the economic development of the Fuling District. The results show that the production of mustard plays an important role in the regional economic development of Fuling District and greatly improves the economic development of Fuling District.%一个区域与其他区域的区别在于其自然环境与人文环境的有机结合而形成的其自身的整体性特征.区域特殊有利的自然与人文条件,使区域更富竞争力,从而使区域总体效益保持在较高水平,这种条件被称为区域优势.重庆市涪陵区具备榨菜生产得天独厚的区位优势.本文应用罗斯托准则对涪陵榨菜深加工对涪陵区域经济的影响进行评价,结果表明:涪陵区榨菜深加工的发展对扩大青菜头的种植面积和规模、榨菜半成品加工的规模、相关生产设备的发展、涪陵区的经济、当地人民的生活文化及榨菜产业的副产品的发展和壮大都有积极的推动作用.榨菜生产在涪陵区域经济发展中有着极其重要的地位,极大地推动了涪陵区经济的发展.

  11. Estimation of Plant Growth Promoting Potential of Two Nickel Accumulating Morphotypes Isolated from River Hooghly on Indian Yellow Mustard (Brassica hirta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanoy Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB are known to influence plant growth by various direct or indirect mechanisms. Present study was conducted with an aim to estimate the PGPB potential of two nickel tolerant bacterial isolates from river Hooghly. Isolates (I-3 (Gram negative coccobacilli and (II-1 (Gram positive rods were observed, among a total of 22 other isolates, to tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of nickel and also have multiple Plant Growth Promoting (PGP activities like IAA production and phosphate solubilization. Present study also shows that seeds of yellow mustard (Brassica hirta inoculated with both the test isolates individually, significantly enhanced root and shoot growth and also protected the plant from the various phytotoxic effects of nickel.

  12. Composition, diffusion, and antifungal activity of black mustard (Brassica nigra) essential oil when applied by direct addition or vapor phase contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Garibay, Beatriz; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we characterized the essential oil (EO) of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and quantified its antimicrobial activity, when applied by direct contact into the liquid medium or by exposure in the vapor phase (in laboratory media or in a bread-type product), against the growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, or Penicillium citrinum. Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) was identified as the major component of B. nigra EO with a concentration of 378.35 mg/ml. When B. nigra EO was applied by direct contact into the liquid medium, it inhibited the growth of A. ochraceus and P. citrinum when the concentration was 2 μl/ml of liquid medium (MIC), while for A. niger, a MIC of B. nigra EO was 4 μl/ml of liquid medium. Exposure of molds to B. nigra EO in vapor phase showed that 41.1 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air delayed the growth of P. citrinum and A. niger by 10 days, while A. ochraceus growth was delayed for 20 days. Exposure to concentrations ≥ 47 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air (MIC) inhibited the growth of tested molds by 30 days, and they were not able to recover after further incubation into an environment free of EO (fungicidal effect). Adsorbed AITC was quantified by exposing potato dextrose agar to B. nigra EO in a vapor phase, exhibiting that AITC was retained at least 5 days when testing EO at its MIC or with higher concentrations. Mustard EO MIC was also effective against the evaluated molds inhibiting their growth for 30 days in a bread-type product when exposed to EO by vapor contact, demonstrating its antifungal activity. PMID:25836415

  13. Transesterification of mustard (Brassica nigra) seed oil with ethanol: Purification of the crude ethyl ester with activated carbon produced from de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biodiesel ethyl ester has been developed from mustard seed oil. • Variables affect the transesterification were investigated. • Dry washing using the activated carbon produced from the extraction remaining was applied to purify the ethyl esters. • Properties of the produced fuels were measured. • Blending of the produced ethyl ester with petro diesel was also investigated. - Abstract: The present study reports the production of mustard seed oil ethyl esters (MSOEE) through alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of the process parameters such as catalyst concentration, ethanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction duration and the catalyst type was investigated so as to find out the optimal conditions for the transesterification process. As a result, optimum conditions for production of MSOEE were found to be: 0.90% KOH wt/wt of oil, 8:1 ethanol to oil molar ratio, a reaction temperature of 60 °C, and a reaction time of 60 min. Dry washing method with (2.50% wt.) of the activated carbon that was produced from the de-oiled cake was used to purify the crude ethyl ester from the residual catalyst and glycerol. The transesterification process provided a yield of 94% w/w of ethyl esters with an ester content of 98.22% wt. under the optimum conditions. Properties of the produced ethyl esters satisfied the specifications prescribed by the ASTM standards. Blending MSOEE with petro diesel was also investigated. The results showed that the ethyl esters had a slight influence on the properties of petro diesel

  14. Cumulative effect of heterologous AtWRI1 gene expression and endogenous BjAGPase gene silencing increases seed lipid content in Indian mustard Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Surajit; Das, Natasha; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-10-01

    The production of vegetable oil in many countries of the world, including India has not been able to keep pace with the increasing requirement, leading to a very large gap in the demand-supply chain. Thus, there is an urgent need to increase the yield potential of the oilseed crops so as to enhance the storage lipid productivity. The present study describes a novel metabolic engineering ploy involving the constitutive down-regulation of endogenous ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (BjAGPase) enzyme and the seed-specific expression of WRINKLED1 transcription factor (AtWRI1) from Arabidopsis thaliana in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) with an aim to divert the photosynthetically fixed carbon pool from starch to lipid synthesis in the seeds for the enhanced production of storage lipids in the seeds of transgenic mustard plants. The starch content, in both the vegetative leaf and developing seed tissues of the transgenic B. juncea lines exhibited a reduction by about 45-53% compared to the untransformed control, whereas the soluble sugar content was increased by 2.4 and 1.3-fold in the leaf and developing seed tissues, respectively. Consequently, the transgenic lines showed a significant enhancement in total seed lipid content ranging between 7.5 and 16.9%. The results indicate that the adopted metabolic engineering strategy was successful in significantly increasing the seed oil content. Therefore, findings of our research suggest that the metabolic engineering strategy adopted in this study for shifting the anabolic carbon flux from starch synthesis to lipid biosynthesis can be employed for increasing the storage lipid content of seeds in other plant species. PMID:27314514

  15. The Role of Phosphorylation in Redox Regulation of Photosynthesis Genes psaA and psbA during Photosynthetic Acclimation of Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastian Steiner; Lars Dietzel; Yvonne Schr(o)ter; Vidal Fey; Raik Wagner; Thomas Pfannschmidt

    2009-01-01

    The long-term response (LTR) to light-quality gradients improves performance and survival of plants in dense stands.It involves redox-controlled transcriptional regulation of the plastome-encoded genes psaAB (encoding the P700 apoproteins of photosystem I) and psbA (encoding the D1 protein of photosystem II) and requires the action of plastid-localized kinases.To study the potential impact of phosphorylation events on plastid gene expression during the LTR,we analyzed mustard seedlings acclimated to light sources favoring either photosystem I or photosystem II.Primer extension analyses of psaA transcripts indicate that the redox regulation occurs at the principal bacterial promoters,suggesting that the plastid encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) is the target for redox signals.Chloroplast protein fractions containing PEP and other DNA-binding proteins were purified from mustard via heparin-Sepharose chromatography.The biochemical prop-erties of these fractions were analyzed with special emphasis on promoter recognition and specificity,phosphorylation state,and kinase activity.The results demonstrate that the LTR involves the action of small DNA-binding proteins; three of them exhibit specific changes in the phosphorylation state.Auto-phosphorylation assays,in addition,exhibit large differ-ences in the activity of endogenous kinase activities.Chloroplast run-on transcription experiments with the kinase inhib-itor H7 and the reductant DTF indicate that phosphorylation events are essential for the mediation of redox signals toward psaA and psbA transcription initiation,but require the synergistic action of a thiol redox signal.The data support the idea that redox signals from the thylakoid membrane are linked to gene expression via phosphorylation events; however,thismediation appears to require a complex network of interacting proteins rather than a simple phosphorelay.

  16. Investigation on the Fate of Some Pesticides and Their Effects on the Microbial Environment in Cultivation of Green gram (Vigna radiata), Mustard green (Brassica rapa) and Kale (Brassica oleracea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the present work was to find out the persistence of some pesticide residues in some vegetable crops and to investigate the effect of pesticide on soil count. Edible parts of green gram, Mustard green and Kale were extracted and analyzed for the presence and degradation of applied pesticide residuse in relation to time. The pesticide residue concentration in plant samples were analyzed by UV spectrometry. According to UV result data, Acephate pesticide in stored green gram seeds was rapidly declined from 2.91mg/kg (two weeks after application) to 0.96mg/kg (three weeks after application). But, four weeks after application, Acephate residues were not detected in the seeds of green gram. In the seeds of green gram, Dimethoate pesticide residues were detected from 1.26mg/kg (one week after application) to 0.89mg/kg (four weeks after treatment). In Mustard green and Kale, Malathion pesticide residues were detected at day seven after application. But Chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were detected in both mustard green and kale at day three after application. Beyond day three, chlorpyrifos pesticide residues were not detected. The respective chemical residues have been partially identified by IR Spectrometry. These can be confirmed with IR absorption peaks that the residues are the utilized chemicals. According to IR data, it can be predicted whether pesticide residues remained or not in the samples.

  17. Study on Effectiveness of Low Dose Theophylline as Add-on to Inhaled Corticosteroid for Patients with Sulfur Mustard Induced Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Theophylline may reverse steroid resistance and decrease inflammation in patients with chronic pulmonary disease and sulfur mustard (SM induced bronchiolitis. This study was designed to assess the effects of low-dose theophylline on improvement of pulmonary function tests (PFTs of SM exposed patients.Methods: In this comparative observational study, a group of SM-exposed victims during the Iraq-Iran war who were treated with oral slow releasing (SR theophylline, salmetrol, fluxitide, omeprazole and NAC (study group were compared to a group of age and gender matched SM-exposed patients who received same medications except oral SR theophylline (historical control group. PFTs were measured at the beginning of the study and after 8 weeks of the treatment.Results: In total, 33 subjects in the study group and 27 subjects in the control group were studied. Mean (SD age of all subjects was 51 (14.1 years. In the study group, on the 8th week post-treatment, PFTs decreased, though the differences of tests between before and after treatment were not significant. In the control group, all the tests decreased in the same period and these reductions were not also significant. However, the changes in PFTs were significantly different between the two groups. The results of most PFTs in the controls decreased in greater extents compared to theophylline treated patients. This shows that despite theophylline was unable to improve the patients; it was partially able to decelerate the reductions in PFTs.Conclusion: Theophylline may not improve PFTs of SM exposed patients but it may decelerate the progress of the underlying respiratory disease. Further studies in this setting with higher doses of theophylline and longer term of evaluation are needed to better understand the pathophysiological mechanism of SM induced bronchiolitis and the effectiveness of the treatment with theophylline.   How to cite this article: Panahi Y, Poursaleh Z, Amini-Harandi A

  18. Effect of Storage Temperature on Quality and Preservation of Fresh Tumorous Stem Mustard%贮藏温度对新鲜茎瘤芥品质和保鲜效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴日章; 刘丽丹; 曾凯芳

    2011-01-01

    The effect of different storage temperatures on postharvest quality and preservation of fresh tumorous stem mustard was investigated. Fresh tumorous stem mustards were packaged with 0.03 mm thick polyene bag after pretreatment prior to storage in cooling incubators at 85% - 95% relative humidity (RH) and different temperatures (0, 5, 10, 15 ℃), respectively. During the storage period of 22 days, germination rate, decay degree and commodity rate were recorded and the contents of ascorbic acid, total soluble solids (TSS) and soluble protein were measured every other 5 days. The results indicated that tumorous stem mustard showed significantly reduced germination rate, decay degree and weight loss rate and increased commodity rate during storage at 0 ℃ and 5 ℃ when compared with storage at 10 ℃ and 15 ℃, and the decrease of ascorbic acid, total soluble solids (TSS) and soluble proteins in tumorous stem mustard was delayed during storage at 0 ℃ and 5 ℃, but the contents of total phenols and flavonoids in tumorous stem mustard at different storage temperatures revealed an un-regular change. The best preservation effect with 100% commodity rate and 0% decay degree was observed during storage at 0℃. The storage life could reach up to 50 days under the optimal storage conditions. The ascorbic acid content in samples stored at 0 ℃ was increased by 109% and 208% when compared with those stored at 10 ℃ and 15 ℃, respectively. The level of soluble proteins in samples stored at 0 ℃ was increased by 16.7%, 59% and 89.6% when compared with those stored at 5, 10 ℃ and 15 ℃, respectively. In conclusion, storage at 0 ℃ and 5 ℃ is more beneficial to maintain postharvest quality of tumorous stern mustard than storage at 10℃ and 15℃. The most appropriate storage temperature is 0 ℃ for fresh tumorous stem mustard.%研究不同贮藏温度对新鲜茎瘤芥品质和保鲜效果的影响。茎瘤芥经预处理

  19. Changes in C-N metabolism under elevated CO2 and temperature in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.): an adaptation strategy under climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Misra, Virendra

    2014-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the possible role of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism in adaptation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) growing under ambient (370 ± 15 ppm) and elevated CO2 (700 ± 15 ppm), and jointly in elevated CO2 and temperature (30/22 °C for day/night). The key enzymes responsible for C-N metabolism were studied in different samples of Brassica juncea L. collected from ambient (AMB), elevated (ELE) and ELExT growth conditions. Total percent amount of C and N in leaves were particularly estimated to establish a clear understanding of aforesaid metabolism in plant adaptation. Furthermore, key morphological and physiological parameters such as plant height, leaf area index, dry biomass, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, total protein and chlorophyll contents were also studied in relation to C/N metabolism. The results indicated that the C-metabolizing enzymes, such as (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme, NADP-malic enzyme and citrate synthase) and the N-metabolizing enzymes, such as (aspartate amino transferase, glutamine synthetase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) showed significantly (P ELExT > AMB growth conditions. This is also evident by significant (P adaptation in Brassica juncea L. against elevated CO2 and temperature prevailing in climate change scenarios.

  20. Impairment of hypoxia-induced HIF-1α signaling in keratinocytes and fibroblasts by sulfur mustard is counteracted by a selective PHD-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Janina; Popp, Tanja; Egea, Virginia; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Thiermann, Horst; Weber, Christian; Ries, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Skin exposure to sulfur mustard (SM) provokes long-term complications in wound healing. Similar to chronic wounds, SM-induced skin lesions are associated with low levels of oxygen in the wound tissue. Normally, skin cells respond to hypoxia by stabilization of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α). HIF-1α modulates expression of genes including VEGFA, BNIP3, and MMP2 that control processes such as angiogenesis, growth, and extracellular proteolysis essential for proper wound healing. The results of our studies revealed that exposure of primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) to SM significantly impaired hypoxia-induced HIF-1α stabilization and target gene expression in these cells. Addition of a selective inhibitor of the oxygen-sensitive prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD-2), IOX2, fully recovered HIF-1α stability, nuclear translocation, and target gene expression in NHEK and NHDF. Moreover, functional studies using a scratch wound assay demonstrated that the application of IOX2 efficiently counteracted SM-mediated deficiencies in monolayer regeneration under hypoxic conditions in NHEK and NHDF. Our findings describe a pathomechanism by which SM negatively affects hypoxia-stimulated HIF-1α signaling in keratinocytes and fibroblasts and thus possibly contributes to delayed wound healing in SM-injured patients that could be treated with PHD-2 inhibitors. PMID:26082309

  1. Repairing of N-mustard derivative BO-1055 induced DNA damage requires NER, HR, and MGMT-dependent DNA repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Ying; Chou, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Chin-Chung; Wong, Teng-Song; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Lee, Te-Chang; Su, Tsann-Long; Wang, Hui-Chun

    2015-09-22

    Alkylating agents are frequently used as first-line chemotherapeutics for various newly diagnosed cancers. Disruption of genome integrity by such agents can lead to cell lethality if DNA lesions are not removed. Several DNA repair mechanisms participate in the recovery of mono- or bi-functional DNA alkylation. Thus, DNA repair capacity is correlated with the therapeutic response. Here, we assessed the function of novel water-soluble N-mustard BO-1055 (ureidomustin) in DNA damage response and repair mechanisms. As expected, BO-1055 induces ATM and ATR-mediated DNA damage response cascades, including downstream Chk1/Chk2 phosphorylation, S/G2 cell-cycle arrest, and cell death. Further investigation revealed that cell survival sensitivity to BO-1055 is comparable to that of mitomycin C. Both compounds require nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination, but not non-homologous end-joining, to repair conventional cross-linking DNA damage. Interestingly and unlike mitomycin C and melphalan, MGMT activity was also observed in BO-1055 damage repair systems, which reflects the occurrence of O-alkyl DNA lesions. Combined treatment with ATM/ATR kinase inhibitors significantly increases BO-1055 sensitivity. Our study pinpoints that BO-1055 can be used for treating tumors that with deficient NER, HR, and MGMT DNA repair genes, or for synergistic therapy in tumors that DNA damage response have been suppressed. PMID:26208482

  2. Preclinical investigation of the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and protein and red blood cell binding of DRDE-07: a prophylactic agent against sulphur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Verma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available DRDE-07, a newly synthesized amifostine analog currently under clinical investigation in a phase I trial, is a potent antidote against sulfur mustard toxicity. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of DRDE-07 in female Swiss Albino mice after a single oral dose of 400 or 600 mg/kg. The physicochemical properties of DRDE-07, including solubility, pKa, Log P, plasma protein binding and plasma/blood partitioning, were determined to support the pharmacokinetic characterization. DRDE-07 concentration was determined by an HPLC-UV method. The profile of plasma concentration versus time was analyzed using a non-compartmental model. Plasma protein binding was assessed using ultrafiltration. DRDE-07 appeared rapidly in plasma after oral administration with peak plasma levels (Cmax observed in less than 15 min. There was a rapid decline in the plasma levels followed by a smaller second peak about 90 min after dosing. The plasma protein binding of DRDE-07 was found to be less than 25% at all concentrations studied. Plasma clearance of DRDE-07 is expected to be ~1.5 fold higher than the blood clearance of DRDE-07. The probable metabolite of DRDE-07 was identified as phenyl-S-ethyl amine.

  3. 榨菜腌制过程中有机酸变化%Variations in Organic Acids in Mustard during Pickling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨君; 贺云川; 何家林; 蒋和体

    2012-01-01

    In this study, raw mustard and pickled mustards at different pickling stages as well as pickle juice were analyzed by RP-HPLC for their variations in organic acid contents. In the RP-HPLC analysis, the chromatographic column used was an Agilent TC type C18 column. The separation of organic acids was performed by using a mobile phase made up of 3% methanol and 0.5% KHEPO4 which adjusted to pH 2.8 with H3PO4 at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set as 215 nm, and the column temperature was controlled at 17 ℃. Eight organic acids were separated effectively under these conditions. The organic acids exhibited a recovery rate varying between 95.73% and 100.55% and a relative standard deviation ranging from 2.04% to 3.12%. The RP-HPLC method had a good linear correlation and was accurate. Sonication was found to be better for extraction of organic acids than water bath heating and ethanol extraction. The contents of organic acids in pickled mustards and pickle juice increased as the pickling number increased from 1 to 3. The most predominant acid was lactic acid, which accounted for 29.94% and 38.55% of total organic acids in once pickled and twice pickled samples, respectively. The relative content of lactic acid was 73.50% during the late part of the third pickling cycle. Among all processing stages of mustard, rinsing had the largest impact on organic acids followed by manual acidity adjustment.%以青菜头、各腌制时期盐菜块以及榨菜腌制水为研究对象,采用反相高效液相色谱法对其有机酸的变化进行分析和研究。色谱柱:AgilentTC-C18(4.6mm×250mm,5μm),色谱条件:将体积分数3%甲醇-0.5%KH2P04,并用H3PO4调NpH2.8的溶液作为流动相,流速0.8mL/min;检测波长215nm;柱温17℃。结果表明:8种有机酸能有效地分离,回收率均在95.73%100.55%,相对标准偏差2.04%-3.12%,呈现出良好的线性相关性和较高的准确度

  4. STUDY ON FRESH AND COLOUR PRESERVATION FOR PICKLED LEAF MUSTARD%植酸对腌芥菜的护色保鲜研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉生

    2001-01-01

    本文探讨了在不同条件下,异抗坏血酸、植酸保鲜液及其混合液的抗褐变和防霉能力。实验结果表明,异抗坏血酸在空气中几乎没有抑霉效果,真空状态下虽有较好的抑霉作用,但未能阻止腌芥菜明显褐变,而0.2%的植酸保鲜液在有氧或无氧的情况下,均表现出比较理想的抗褐变和防霉特性.%The inhibiting effects of isoascorbic acid solution,phytic acid solution and their mixture on oxidative browning and mould for pickled leaf mustard in different conditions were investigated in this paper.Results show that in vacuum condition 2% isoascorbic solution could inhibit the growth of mould,but the oxidative browning was accelerated and in the presence of air it has no inhibitory effect on mould.However,phytic acid in both cases suggested the results for antioxidant and mould inhibitor.

  5. Thiazole-based nitrogen mustards: Design, synthesis, spectroscopic studies, DFT calculation, molecular docking, and antiproliferative activity against selected human cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączkowski, Krzysztof Z.; Świtalska, Marta; Baranowska-Łączkowska, Angelika; Plech, Tomasz; Paneth, Agata; Misiura, Konrad; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Czaplińska, Barbara; Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Malarz, Katarzyna; Musioł, Robert; Grela, Izabela

    2016-09-01

    Synthesis, characterization and investigation of antiproliferative activity of ten thiazole-based nitrogen mustard against human cancer cells lines (MV4-11, A549, MCF-7 and HCT116) and normal mouse fibroblast (BALB/3T3) is presented. The structures of novel compounds were determined using 1H and 13C NMR, FAB(+)-MS, and elemental analyses. Among the derivatives, 5b, 5c, 5e, 5f and 5i were found to exhibit high activity against human leukaemia MV4-11 cells with IC50 values of 2.17-4.26 μg/ml. The cytotoxic activity of compound 5c and 5f against BALB/3T3 cells is up to 20 times lower than against cancer cell lines. Our results also show that compounds 5e and 5i have very strong activity against MCF-7 and HCT116 with IC50 values of 3.02-4.13 μg/ml. Moreover, spectroscopic characterization and cellular localization for selected compound were performed. In order to identify potential drug targets we perform computer simulations with DNA-binding site of hTopoI and hTopoII and quantum chemical calculation of interaction and binding energies in complexes of the five most active compounds with guanine.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Immunotherapy with Interferon-Gamma in the Management of Chronic Sulfur Mustard-Induced Cutaneous Complications: Comparison with Topical Betamethasone 1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present trial investigated the efficacy of immunotherapy with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ in the treatment of sulfur mustard (SM-induced chronic skin complications. Forty subjects who were suffering from chronic skin complications of SM and were diagnosed to have severe atopic dermatitis, were assigned to IFN-γ (50 μg/m2 subcutaneously three times per week (n=20 or betamethasone valerate topical cream 0.1% (n=20 every night for 30 days. Extent and intensity of cutaneous complications was evaluated using scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD index, and quality of life using dermatology life quality index (DLQI at baseline and at the end of trial. SCORAD-A and SCORAD-B scores were significantly decreased in both IFN-γ and betamethasone. However, SCORAD-C score was decreased only in the IFN-γ group. There were significant reductions in overall as well as objective SCORAD scores in both groups. As for the magnitude of changes, treatment with IFN-γ was associated with greater reductions in overall, objective and segmented SCORAD scores compared to betamethasone. DLQI reduction was found to be significantly greater in the IFN-γ group. Promising improvements in quality life and clinical symptoms that was observed in the present study suggest the application of IFN-γ as an effective therapy for the management of SM-induced chronic skin complications.

  7. 天然保鲜剂对方便榨菜肉沫货架期的影响%Effect of Natural Preservatives on the Shelf-life of Tuber Mustard with Comminuted Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑俏然; 邓小兵

    2012-01-01

    主要以榨菜和猪肉为原料,按照一定的加工工艺炒制榨菜肉沫,并以乳酸链球菌素、纳他霉素、大蒜提取液为保鲜剂,通过单因素试验及正交试验,以菌落总数和感官评分为指标,以配制出产品的最适复合保鲜剂.通过正交试验得出保鲜剂配方为乳酸链球菌素添加量0.7g/kg,纳他霉素添加量0.7 g/kg,大蒜提取液添加重0.5g/kg,在此条件下,能最大程度地延长榨菜肉沫的货架期,并保持产品特有的风味.%Taking the tuber mustard of Filling and comminuted meat as main materials, according to certain processing technic to make tuber mustard with comminuted meat,and using Nisin.natamycin and garlic extract as antistaling agent,adopting the method of signal factor experiment and orthogonal experiment,and taking total bacterial count and sensory score as indexes,to prepare the optimum composite antistaling agent. The results show that the best effect of preservatives is that Nisin0.7 g/kg,Natamycin0.7 g/kg,garlic extract 0.5 g/kg,under this condition,it could keep the better preservation effect and the color,flavor and crisp-tender texture of the tuber mustard with comminuted meat.

  8. Extracting RNA from Leaves of Mustard Brassica Juncea and Measurement and Analysis of Myrosinase Gene%榨菜叶中 RNA 提取及硫苷酶基因序列测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 侯坤兰

    2015-01-01

    采用 Trizol 试剂法从榨菜叶中提取 RNA,采用 RT-PCR 技术扩增得到硫苷酶基因保守序列,利用 DNAman7生物信息分析软件对测得的保守序列与菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列进行比对,翻译核苷酸和蛋白质序列与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝、芥菜等序列进行相应的比对。结果表明,采用 Trizol 试剂法能获得320 bp 的基因保守序列;与甘蓝、菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列比对结果的 Identity 为97.12%;与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝等进行相应的翻译核苷酸和翻译成蛋白质序列比对分析,发现序列的覆盖度与相似度均达到较高的水平。%This purposes of this research is to lay the foundation for prokaryotic expression and to improve the content and activity of myrosinase in mustard brassica juncea at the same time. The research material was taken from myrosinase gene in mustard brassica juncea. This topic get conserved sequence of myrosinase gene taken from leaves for the method used, for extraction of RNA from mustard brassica juncea leaves that Trizol reagent step separation method of total RNA, according to the conserved nucleotide sequences of different plants and conservative sequence obtained by RT -PCR, conserved sequence alignment between the obtained and Brassica rape on the DNAman7 bioinformatics analysis software, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence alignment analysis online combined the NCBI and main with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, Brassica Juncea, etc. The results shows that under identical conditions: 320bp gene conserved sequence was obtained by method of Trizol reagent step separation, bioinformatics analysis suggested that conserved sequence showed 97.12% identity to M Y B. oleracea-M, M Y 49 B. parachinensis-M, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence of Mustard brassica juncea has a higher query cover and identity with Brassica napue, Brassica

  9. Extracting RNA from Leaves of Mustard Brassica Juncea and Measurement and Analysis of Myrosinase Gene%榨菜叶中 RNA 提取及硫苷酶基因序列测定与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 侯坤兰

    2015-01-01

    This purposes of this research is to lay the foundation for prokaryotic expression and to improve the content and activity of myrosinase in mustard brassica juncea at the same time. The research material was taken from myrosinase gene in mustard brassica juncea. This topic get conserved sequence of myrosinase gene taken from leaves for the method used, for extraction of RNA from mustard brassica juncea leaves that Trizol reagent step separation method of total RNA, according to the conserved nucleotide sequences of different plants and conservative sequence obtained by RT -PCR, conserved sequence alignment between the obtained and Brassica rape on the DNAman7 bioinformatics analysis software, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence alignment analysis online combined the NCBI and main with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, Brassica Juncea, etc. The results shows that under identical conditions: 320bp gene conserved sequence was obtained by method of Trizol reagent step separation, bioinformatics analysis suggested that conserved sequence showed 97.12% identity to M Y B. oleracea-M, M Y 49 B. parachinensis-M, myrosinase translated nucleotides sequence and protein sequence of Mustard brassica juncea has a higher query cover and identity with Brassica napue, Brassica rape, Brassica oleracea, etc. It found that the similarity of sequence coverage have reached a higher level.%采用 Trizol 试剂法从榨菜叶中提取 RNA,采用 RT-PCR 技术扩增得到硫苷酶基因保守序列,利用 DNAman7生物信息分析软件对测得的保守序列与菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列进行比对,翻译核苷酸和蛋白质序列与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝、芥菜等序列进行相应的比对。结果表明,采用 Trizol 试剂法能获得320 bp 的基因保守序列;与甘蓝、菜心硫苷酶基因保守序列比对结果的 Identity 为97.12%;与芸薹属油菜、菜心、甘蓝等进行相应的翻译核苷

  10. Toxicities and Field Control Efficacy of Six Pesticides to the Mustard Aphid Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach(Hemiptera: Aphididae)%6种常用杀虫剂对萝卜蚜的毒力测定及田间防效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫亚军; 王泽华; 石宝才; 康总江; 朱亮; 魏书军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]采用室内毒力测定和田间药效试验方法,测定6种药剂对萝卜蚜的敏感性.[结果]结果表明萝卜蚜对不同类型杀虫剂敏感性有较大差异,其中95%毒死蜱对萝卜蚜杀虫活性最高,LC50值为0.1215 mg/L,其次为94%阿维菌素,LC50值为0.7795 mg/L,95%高效氯氰菊酯的敏感性最低,LC50值为996.8046mg/L.通过田间试验可知:10%吡虫啉可湿性粉剂、1.8%阿维菌素乳油、3%啶虫脒可湿性粉剂、1%甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐乳油、40%毒死蜱乳油和4.5%高效氯氰菊酯乳油对萝卜蚜的防效都非常好,3d的防效均达98%以上,14 d的防效为100%.[结论]在测试的6中药剂中,目前田间萝卜蚜与桃蚜相比具有较低的抗药性水平.%[Amis] The toxicities and field control efficacy of six insecticides to mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi were studied. [Results] The results show that the mustard aphid has developed varied resistant level to different pesticides. Among the tested pesticides, chlorpyrifos has the highest toxicity with a LC50 of 0.1215 mg/L, then is the abamectin, with a LC50of 0.7795 mg/L. The beta-cypermethrin has the lowest toxicity with a LC50of 996.8046 mg/L. The field experiments show that the six pesticides tested, i.e. imidacloprid, abamectin, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate, chlorpyrifos and beta-cypermethrin, all have high control efficacy to the mustard aphid with at least 98% control efficacy in 3 days and 100% control efficacy in 14 days. [Conclusions] Compared with the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, mustard aphid presently has very low resistant level to the six pesticides tested in this study in field.

  11. An evaluation of the effects of exogenous ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, on photosynthesis of mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars that differ in photosynthetic capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan NA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stimulatory effect of CO2 on ethylene evolution in plants is known, but the extent to which ethylene controls photosynthesis is not clear. Studies on the effects of ethylene on CO2 metabolism have shown conflicting results. Increase or inhibition of photosynthesis by ethylene has been reported. To understand the physiological processes responsible for ethylene-mediated changes in photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll effects on photosynthesis and ethylene biosynthesis in response to ethephon treatment in mustard (Brassica juncea cultivars differing in photosynthetic capacity were studied. Results The effects of ethephon on photosynthetic rate (PN, stomatal conductance (gS, carbonic anhydrase (CA activity, 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase (ACS activity and ethylene evolution were similar in both the cultivars. Increasing ethephon concentration up to 1.5 mM increased PN, gS and CA maximally, whereas 3.0 mM ethephon proved inhibitory. ACS activity and ethylene evolution increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon. The corresponding changes in gs and CA activity suggest that the changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were triggered by altered stomatal and mesophyll processes. Stomatal conductance changed in parallel with changes in mesophyll photosynthetic properties. In both the cultivars ACS activity and ethylene increased up to 3.0 mM ethephon, but 1.5 mM ethephon caused maximum effects on photosynthetic parameters. Conclusion These results suggest that ethephon affects foliar gas exchange responses. The changes in photosynthesis in response to ethephon were due to stomatal and mesophyll effects. The changes in gS were a response maintaining stable intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci under the given treatment in both the cultivars. Also, the high photosynthetic capacity cultivar, Varuna responded less to ethephon than the low photosynthetic capacity cultivar, RH30. The photosynthetic

  12. Mitigation of NaCl Stress by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi through the Modulation of Osmolytes, Antioxidants and Secondary Metabolites in Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwat, Maryam; Hashem, Abeer; Ahanger, Mohammad A.; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Alqarawi, A. A.; Alyemeni, Mohammed N.; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Gucel, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Present work was carried out to investigate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in mitigating salinity-induced alterations in Brassica juncea L. Exposure to NaCl stress altered the morphological, physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites and phytohormones in the mustard seedlings. The growth and biomass yield, leaf water content, and total chlorophyll content were decreased with NaCl stress. However, AMF-inoculated plants exhibited enhanced shoot and root length, elevated relative water content, enhanced chlorophyll content, and ultimately biomass yield. Lipid peroxidation and proline content were increased by 54.53 and 63.47%, respectively with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in proline content and decrease in lipid peroxidation was observed in NaCl-treated plants inoculated with AMF. The antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione were increased by 48.35, 54.86, 43.85, and 44.44%, respectively, with 200 mM NaCl concentration. Further increase in these antioxidants has been observed in AMF-colonized plants indicating the alleviating role of AMF to salinity stress through antioxidant modulation. The total phenol, flavonoids, and phytohormones increase with NaCl treatment. However, NaCl-treated plants colonized with AMF showed further increase in the above parameters except ABA, which was reduced with NaCl+AMF treatment over the plants treated with NaCl alone. Our results demonstrated that NaCl caused negative effect on B. juncea seedlings; however, colonization with AMF enhances the NaCl tolerance by reforming the physio-biochemical attributes, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and production of secondary metabolites and phytohormones.

  13. Effect of white mustard essential oil on the growth of foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms and the effect of food components on its efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monu, Emefa A; David, Jairus R D; Schmidt, Marcel; Davidson, P Michael

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial preservative compounds are added to foods to target specific pathogens and spoilage organisms. White mustard essential oil (WMEO) is an extract that contains 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate, a compound which has been demonstrated to have antimicrobial activity in limited studies. The objective of this research was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of WMEO against gram-positive and gram-negative spoilage and pathogenic bacteria and determine the effect of food components on the antimicrobial activity. The bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Lactobacillus fermentum, as well as the acid- and preservative-resistant yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, were evaluated. All microorganisms were inhibited by WMEO at 8.3 g/liter (equivalent to 1,000 mg/liter 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate). In general, WMEO was more effective against gram-negative than against gram-positive bacteria. Salmonella Enteritidis and S. pombe were the most sensitive, with inhibition at as low as 2.1 g/liter. The effects on growth profiles varied but included increased lag phases and lethality, indicating both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity. Soybean oil had a negative effect on the efficacy of WMEO against L. monocytogenes, and at 5% soybean oil, the antimicrobial activity against Salmonella Enteritidis was eliminated after 48 h. Sodium caseinate at 1% also negated the antimicrobial effect of WMEO against Salmonella Enteritidis and decreased its effectiveness against L. monocytogenes. The presence of starch had no significant effect on the antimicrobial activity of WMEO against L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. Thus, WMEO is effective against a wide range of microorganisms and has potential to be used in foods, depending upon the target microorganism and food components present.

  14. Upregulation of miR-203 and miR-210 affect growth and differentiation of keratinocytes after exposure to sulfur mustard in normoxia and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Janina; Steinritz, Dirk; Santovito, Donato; Egea, Virginia; Schmidt, Annette; Weber, Christian; Ries, Christian

    2016-02-26

    Exposure of the skin to sulfur mustard (SM) results in long-term complications such as impaired tissue regeneration. Previous own studies in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) treated with SM demonstrated reduced proliferation, premature differentiation and a restricted functionality of hypoxia-mediated signaling in the cells. Here, we investigated the involvement of microRNAs, miR-203 and miR-210, in these mechanisms. SM significantly upregulated the expression of miR-203 in NHEK when cultivated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. SM had no effect on miR-210 under normoxia. However, miR-210 levels were greatly increased in NHEK when grown in hypoxia and further elevated upon exposure of the cells to SM. In normoxia and hypoxia, inhibition of miR-203 by transfection of NHEK with complementary oligonucleotides, anti-miR-203, attenuated the SM-induced impairment of metabolic activity and proliferation, and counteracted SM-promoted keratin-1 expression in these cells. Consistent ameliorating effects on dysregulated metabolic activity, proliferation and keratin-1 expression in SM-treated NHEK were obtained upon inhibition of miR-210 in these cells grown in hypoxia. Our findings provide evidence that miR-203 and miR-210 are key regulators in normal and SM-impaired keratinocyte functionality, and suggest potential usefulness of inhibitors against miR-203 and miR-210 for target-directed therapeutical intervention to improve re-epithelialization of SM-injured skin. PMID:26383628

  15. Neurobehavioral impairments, generation of oxidative stress and release of pro-apoptotic factors after chronic exposure to sulphur mustard in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent global events have focused attention on the potential threat of international and domestic chemical terrorism, as well as the possibility of chemical warfare proliferation. Sulphur mustard (SM) is one of the potent chemical warfare agents (CWA), which initiates a cascade of events that converge on the redox mechanisms common to brain injury. The present study was designed to examine the effects of chronic SM exposure on neurobehavioral impairments, mitochondrial oxidative stress in male Swiss Albino mice and its role in inducing apoptotic neuronal cell death. The animals were divided into four groups (control, low, medium and high dose) of 5 animals each. Exposure to SM was given percutaneously daily for 12 weeks. The results demonstrated impairment in neurobehavioral indices viz. rota rod, passive avoidance and water maze tests in a dose dependent manner. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content whereas, decrease in the activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase suggesting impaired antioxidant defense system. Immunoblotting of cytochrome c, Bcl-2, Bax and activation of caspase-3 suggest induction of apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Finally, increased p53 expression suggests that it may target the mitochondrial pathway for inducing apoptosis in response to DNA damage signals. In conclusion, chronic SM exposure may have the potential to generate oxidative stress which may trigger the release of cytochrome c as well as caspase-3 activation in neurons leading to cell death by apoptosis in a dose dependent manner which may in the end be responsible for the disruption of cognitive functions in mice.

  16. Development of molecular markers specific to petaloid-type cytoplasmic male sterility in tuber mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida Tsen et Lee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolin; Liu, Yapei; Lv, Yanxia; Liu, Zhenning; Chen, Zhujun; Lu, Gang; Cao, Jiashu

    2014-02-01

    To establish a simple and rapid method for isolating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from Brassica vegetables, the effects of different factors on mtDNA extraction were investigated firstly. A new protocol includes five steps: organelle isolation, deoxyribonuclease treatment, lysis, RNase treatment, and deproteinization. Results indicate that a 15 min-lysis time can achieve higher mtDNA yields from etiolated seedlings. Moreover, it is found that the inflorescence of the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line is unfit for the isolation of mtDNA. The mtDNA isolated using this method is intact and pure, and can be used for further molecular analysis. Subsequently, the genomic and transcriptional differences of atps and coxs genes on the mitochondria between the petaloid-type CMS line and its maintainer line have been identified. RFLP analysis revealed that out of the five atps and three coxs genes, except of atp4 and cox3, the others mtDNA protein coding genes exhibited polymorphisms, respectively. This results suggest that atps and coxs genes are located in a long mtDNA fragment, and the mtDNA evolves rapidly in structure between the CMS line and its maintainer line in tuber muster. Northern blot analysis showed that the expression level of these genes in flower bud is higher than that of leaf and flower, and that, alternative splicing have been found among the atp6, atp8 and cox3 genes, respectively. Our results modified a efficient protocol for isolating the mtDNA, and provided some novel molecular markers indicating the CMS trait in tuber mustard. The comparative analysis presented in this study allows a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism on CMS in Brassica crops. PMID:24385295

  17. Effect of continuous exposure to apomorphine and acute exposure to fluphenazine-N-mustard on dopaminergic behavior and radioligand binding in supersensitive mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Mice with unilateral, 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions of the corpus striatum were exposed to continuous infusion of apomorphine via a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump. The turning response of these mice when challenged with an acute injection of apomorphine was significantly reduced at one day after chronic implantation and was totally absent at two and four days after implantation. This effect of continuous exposure to apomorphine was found to be concentration- and time-dependent as well as reversible when the implant was removed. Mice tolerant to apomorphine were cross-tolerant to the rotational effects of the D{sub 1} dopaminergic agonist SKF 38393 and the D{sub 2} dopaminergic agonist Ly 171555, but not to amphetamine. Continuous exposure to apomorphine resulted in a decrease in the binding of ({sup 3}H)spiroperidol (D{sub 2} sites) by 44%, whereas the binding of ({sup 3}H)SCH 23390 (D{sub 1} sites) was not affected. Fluphenazine-N-mustard (FNM) has been shown to bind irreversibly to dopaminergic sites. Experiments using varying doses of FNM demonstrated that FNM inhibited Ly 171555-induced rotational behavior at doses ten fold lower than those required to block rotations induced by SKF 38393. In vitro, FNM inhibited the specific binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol at concentrations ten fold lower than those required to inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H)Sch23390. In vivo, FNM inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H) spiroperidol measured ex vivo, but did not inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H) Sch 23390, even when given in doses as high as 100 mg/kg. These studies indicate that FNM was approximately ten times more potent at inhibiting D{sub 2} than D{sub 1} mediated behavior and at displacing D{sub 2} versus D{sub 1} ligands, suggesting that FNM may be useful for studying and differentiating D{sub 2} and D{sub 1} mediated events.

  18. Role of Large Cabbage White butterfly male-derived compounds in elicitation of direct and indirect egg-killing defenses in the black mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina E. Fatouros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To successfully exert defenses against herbivores and pathogens plants need to recognize reliable cues produced by their attackers. Up to now, few elicitors associated with herbivorous insects have been identified. We have previously shown that accessory reproductive gland secretions associated with eggs of Cabbage White butterflies (Pieris spp. induce chemical changes in Brussels sprouts plants recruiting egg-killing parasitoids. Only secretions of mated female butterflies contain minu