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Sample records for 19id undulator beamline

  1. The Structural Biology Center 19ID undulator beamline: facility specifications and protein crystallographic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Gerd; Alkire, Randy W; Evans, Gwyndaf; Rotella, Frank J; Lazarski, Krzystof; Zhang, Rong Guang; Ginell, Stephan L; Duke, Norma; Naday, Istvan; Lazarz, Jack; Molitsky, Michael J; Keefe, Lisa; Gonczy, John; Rock, Larry; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Walsh, Martin A; Westbrook, Edwin; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    The 19ID undulator beamline of the Structure Biology Center has been designed and built to take full advantage of the high flux, brilliance and quality of X-ray beams delivered by the Advanced Photon Source. The beamline optics are capable of delivering monochromatic X-rays with photon energies from 3.5 to 20 keV (3.5-0.6 A wavelength) with fluxes up to 8-18 x 10(12) photons s(-1) (depending on photon energy) onto cryogenically cooled crystal samples. The size of the beam (full width at half-maximum) at the sample position can be varied from 2.2 mm x 1.0 mm (horizontal x vertical, unfocused) to 0.083 mm x 0.020 mm in its fully focused configuration. Specimen-to-detector distances of between 100 mm and 1500 mm can be used. The high flexibility, inherent in the design of the optics, coupled with a kappa-geometry goniometer and beamline control software allows optimal strategies to be adopted in protein crystallographic experiments, thus maximizing the chances of their success. A large-area mosaic 3 x 3 CCD detector allows high-quality diffraction data to be measured rapidly to the crystal diffraction limits. The beamline layout and the X-ray optical and endstation components are described in detail, and the results of representative crystallographic experiments are presented.

  2. Optical design of the NSRL undulator beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y W; Sheng, L S; Zhang, G B; Gao, H

    1998-05-01

    The optical design of the NSRL undulator beamline is presented. The NSRL undulator has 29 periods of 9.2 cm that produce a photon energy of 7.7-124 eV with the fundamental and third harmonics at a ring energy of 800 MeV. The beamline consists of a typical Kirkpatrick-Baez prefocusing mirror system, a modified spherical-grating monochromator (SGM) and a refocusing toroidal mirror. The monochromator has two including angles of 148 and 157 degrees with two plane mirrors inserted into the entrance arm in order to cover the wide energy range with high grating diffraction efficiency. Calculation shows that the resolving power of the monochromator can be greater than 5000 with the slits fully opened and 20000 with a 20 micro m opening of the slits. The spot at the sample is about 1.5 (H) mm x 0.5 (V) mm.

  3. Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.

  4. Optics Concept for a Pair of Undulator Beamlines for MX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, L E; Allaire, M; Chance, M R; Hendrickson, W A; Héroux, A; Jakoncic, J; Liu, Q; Orville, A M; Robinson, H H; Schneider, D K; Shi, W; Soares, A S; Stojanoff, V; Stoner-Ma, D; Sweet, R M

    2011-09-01

    We describe a concept for x-ray optics to feed a pair of macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines which view canted undulator radiation sources in the same storage ring straight section. It can be deployed at NSLS-II and at other low-emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources where canted undulators are permitted, and makes the most of these sources and beamline floor space, even when the horizontal angle between the two canted undulator emissions is as little as 1-2 mrad. The concept adopts the beam-separation principles employed at the 23-ID (GM/CA-CAT) beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), wherein tandem horizontally-deflecting mirrors separate one undulator beam from the other, following monochromatization by a double-crystal monochromator. The scheme described here would, in contrast, deliver the two tunable monochromatic undulator beams to separate endstations that address rather different and somewhat complementary purposes, with further beam conditioning imposed as required. A downstream microfocusing beamline would employ dual-stage focusing for work at the micron scale and, unique to this design, switch to single stage focusing for larger beams. On the other hand, the upstream, more highly automated beamline would only employ single stage focusing.

  5. Optics Concept for a Pair of Undulator Beamlines for MX*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, L.E.; Allaire, M.; Chance, M.R.; Hendrickson, W.A.; Héroux, A.; Jakoncic, J.; Liu, Q.; Orville, A.M.; Robinson, H.H.; Schneider, D.K.; Shi, W.; Soares, A.S.; Stojanoff, V.; Stoner-Ma, D.; Sweet, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a concept for x-ray optics to feed a pair of macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines which view canted undulator radiation sources in the same storage ring straight section. It can be deployed at NSLS-II and at other low-emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources where canted undulators are permitted, and makes the most of these sources and beamline floor space, even when the horizontal angle between the two canted undulator emissions is as little as 1-2 mrad. The concept adopts the beam-separation principles employed at the 23-ID (GM/CA-CAT) beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), wherein tandem horizontally-deflecting mirrors separate one undulator beam from the other, following monochromatization by a double-crystal monochromator. The scheme described here would, in contrast, deliver the two tunable monochromatic undulator beams to separate endstations that address rather different and somewhat complementary purposes, with further beam conditioning imposed as required. A downstream microfocusing beamline would employ dual-stage focusing for work at the micron scale and, unique to this design, switch to single stage focusing for larger beams. On the other hand, the upstream, more highly automated beamline would only employ single stage focusing. PMID:21822346

  6. Undulator beamline of the Brockhouse sector at the Canadian Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, B; Gomez, A; Meyer, B; Duffy, A; Hallin, E; Kycia, S

    2014-08-01

    The Brockhouse project at the Canadian Light Source plans the construction of three beamlines, two wiggler beamlines, and one undulator beamline, that will be dedicated to x-ray diffraction and scattering. In this work, we will describe the undulator beamline main components and performance parameters, obtained from ray tracing using XOP-SHADOW codes. The undulator beamline will operate from 4.95 to 21 keV, using a 20 mm period hybrid undulator placed upstream of the wiggler in the same straight section. The beamline optics design was developed in cooperation with the Brazilian Synchrotron - LNLS. The beamline will have a double crystal monochromator with the options of Si(111) or Si(311) crystal pairs followed by two mirrors in the KB configuration to focus the beam at the sample position. The high brilliance of the undulator source will produce a very high flux of ~10(13) photons/s and high energy resolution into a small focus of 170 μm horizontal and 20-60 μm vertical, depending on the optical configuration and energy chosen. Two multi-axis goniometer experimental stations with area detectors and analyzers are foreseen to enable diffraction, resonant and inelastic scattering experiments, and SAXS/WAXS experiments with high resolution and time resolving capabilities.

  7. Front-end XY-slits assembly for the SPring-8 undulator beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, M; Sakurai, Y; Kitamura, H

    1998-05-01

    A front-end XY-slits assembly has been designed for the SPring-8 undulator beamlines. This assembly can handle the high heat flux from the undulator, its grazing-incidence L-shaped configuration employing an enhanced heat-transfer technology.

  8. Beam-position monitors in the X-ray undulator beamline at PETRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, U; Brefeld, W; Hesse, M; Schneider, J R; Schulte-Schrepping, H; Seebach, M; Werner, M

    1998-05-01

    At the 12 GeV storage ring PETRA, the first synchrotron radiation beamline uses a 4 m-long undulator. The beamline, with a length of 130 m between source and sample, delivers hard X-ray photons usable up to 300 keV. The photon beam has a total power of 7 kW. Combined with the high brilliance, the powerful beam is very critical for all beamline components. Copper, located at a distance of 26 m, hit by the full undulator beam, melts within 20 ms. Different monitors are described for stable, safe and reliable operation of beam and experiments.

  9. Undulator beamline optimization with integrated chicanes for X-ray free-electron-laser facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Eduard; Calvi, Marco; Ganter, Romain; Reiche, Sven; Schietinger, Thomas; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    An optimization of the undulator layout of X-ray free-electron-laser (FEL) facilities based on placing small chicanes between the undulator modules is presented. The installation of magnetic chicanes offers the following benefits with respect to state-of-the-art FEL facilities: reduction of the required undulator length to achieve FEL saturation, improvement of the longitudinal coherence of the FEL pulses, and the ability to produce shorter FEL pulses with higher power levels. Numerical simulations performed for the soft X-ray beamline of the SwissFEL facility show that optimizing the advantages of the layout requires shorter undulator modules than the standard ones. This proposal allows a very compact undulator beamline that produces fully coherent FEL pulses and it makes possible new kinds of experiments that require very short and high-power FEL pulses.

  10. Commissioning of the soft x-ray undulator beamline at the Siam Photon Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Hideki, E-mail: hideki@slri.or.th; Chaichuay, Sarunyu; Sudmuang, Porntip; Rattanasuporn, Surachet; Jenpiyapong, Watcharapon; Supruangnet, Ratchadaporn; Chanlek, Narong [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2016-07-27

    The synchrotron radiation from the first undulator at the Siam Photon Laboratory was characterized with the photon beam position monitors (BPMs) and grating monochromator. The soft x-ray undulator beamline employs a varied line-spacing plane grating monochromator with three interchangeable gratings. Since 2010, the beamline has delivered photons with energy of 40-160 and 220-1040 eV at the resolving power of 10,000 for user services at the two end- stations that utilize the photoemission electron spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. The undulator power-density distributions measured by the 0.05-mm wire-scan BPM were in good agreement with those in simulation. The flux-density distributions were evaluated in the red-shift measurements, which identify the central cone of radiation and its distribution. Since 2014, the operation of the other insertion devices in the storage ring has started, and consequently bought about the increases in the emittance from 41 to 61 nm·rad and the coupling constant from 4 to 11%. The local electron-orbit correction greatly improved the alignment of the electron beam in the undulator section resulting in the improvements of the photon flux and harmonics peaks of the undulator radiation.

  11. Design and analysis of a Be window for the APS diagnostics undulator beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source

    1997-06-01

    The design of a beryllium (Be) window for use under the extremely high heat load of an undulator beam is one of the challenges for third-generation synchrotron radiation beamlines. A novel design of a Be window is presented for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics undulator beamline, whose beam has a peak power density of 150 W/mm{sup 2} (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam). The window has a double concave profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center and is brazed to a water-cooled oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OFHC) copper manifold. Finite-element thermal analysis of the Be window is also presented.

  12. Fast continuous energy scan with dynamic coupling of the monochromator and undulator at the DEIMOS beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, L; Otero, E; Choueikani, F; Marteau, F; Chapuis, L; Ohresser, P

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of X-ray absorption data recording, a fast scan method, the Turboscan, has been developed on the DEIMOS beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL, consisting of a software-synchronized continuous motion of the monochromator and undulator motors. This process suppresses the time loss when waiting for the motors to reach their target positions, as well as software dead-time, while preserving excellent beam characteristics.

  13. XAFS at the Pacific Northwest Consortium-Collaborative Access Team undulator beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, S; Stern, E; Brewe, D; Gordon, R; Crozier, D; Jiang, D; Cross, J

    2001-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Consortium-Collaborative Access Team (PNC-CAT) has begun operating an insertion device beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The beamline has been extensively used for XAFS studies. This paper summarizes its capabilities, and our initial operational experience. The beamline is based on APS undulator A, and incorporates full undulator scanning. The monochromator is liquid nitrogen cooled and has both Si(111) and Si(311) crystals in a side-by-side configuration. Crystal changes only take a few minutes. The crystals cover the energy range from 3-50 keV with fluxes as high as 2x10(13) ph/sec. Microbeams can be produced using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors (spot size 1-3 microm) or tapered capillaries (sub-microm spots). When these optics are combined with a 13-element Ge detector, the beamline provides powerful microbeam imaging and spectroscopy capabilities. Experimental examples from the environmental field and in-situ UHV film growth will be discussed.

  14. Optimization of the design for beamline with fast polarization switching elliptically polarized undulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiefeng; Wang, Yong; Zou, Ying; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Wu, Yanqing; Tai, Renzhong

    2016-03-01

    Fast switching of X-ray polarization with a lock-in amplifier is a good method for acquiring weak signals from background noise for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments. The usual way to obtain a beam with fast polarization switching is to use two series of elliptically polarized undulators (tandem twin EPUs). The two EPUs generate two individual beams. Each beam has a different polarization and is fast switched into the beamline. It is very important to ensure that the energy resolution, the flux and the spot size at the sample of the two beams are equal in XMCD experiments. However, it is difficult in beamline design because the distances from the two EPUs to the beamline optics are different and the beamline is not switchable. In this work, a beamline design without an entrance slit for fast polarization switching EPUs is discussed. The energy resolution of the two beams can be tuned to be equal by minor rotation of the optics in the monochromator. The flux of the two beams can be balanced through separation blades X, Y in the exit slit, and by adjusting the position of the X blades along the beam. The spot size of the two beams can be adjusted to be equal by shifting the sample as well.

  15. Beamline X29: a novel undulator source for X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wuxian; Robinson, Howard; Sullivan, Michael; Abel, Don; Toomey, John; Berman, Lonny E; Lynch, Don; Rosenbaum, Gerd; Rakowsky, George; Rock, Larry; Nolan, Bill; Shea-McCarthy, Grace; Schneider, Dieter; Johnson, Erik; Sweet, Robert M; Chance, Mark R

    2006-09-01

    A high-flux insertion device and beamline for macromolecular crystallography has been built at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) that employs a mini-gap undulator source developed by the NSLS. The mini-gap undulator at beamline X29 is a hybrid-magnet device of period 12.5 mm operating at proven gaps of 3.3-10 mm. The beamline provides hard X-rays for macromolecular crystallography experiments from the second and third harmonics over an energy range of 5-15 keV. The X-ray optics is designed to deliver intense and highly collimated X-rays. Horizontal focusing is achieved by a cryogenically cooled sagittally focusing double-crystal monochromator with approximately 4.1:1 demagnification. A vertical focusing mirror downstream of the monochromator is used for harmonic rejection and vertical focusing. The experimental station hosts an Area Detector Systems Quantum 315 CCD detector with 2.2 s readout time between exposures and Crystal Logic goniostat for crystal rotation and detector positioning. An auto-mounter crystal changer has been installed to facilitate the high-throughput data collection required by the major users, which includes structural genomics projects and the Macromolecular Crystallography Research Resource mail-in program. X29 is 10(3) times brighter than any existing bending-magnet beamline at NSLS with an actual flux of 2.5 x 10(11) photons s(-1) through a 0.12 mm square aperture at 11.271 keV.

  16. Initial performances of first undulator-based hard x-ray beamlines of NSLS-II compared to simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg, E-mail: chubar@bnl.gov; Chu, Yong S.; Huang, Xiaojing; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Yan, Hanfei; Shaftan, Timur; Wang, Guimei; Cai, Yong Q.; Suvorov, Alexey; Fluerasu, Andrei; Wiegart, Lutz; Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen Karen; Thieme, Juergen; Williams, Garth; Idir, Mourad; Tanabe, Toshiya; Zschack, Paul; Shen, Qun [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Commissioning of the first X-ray beamlines of NSLS-II included detailed measurements of spectral and spatial distributions of the radiation at different locations of the beamlines, from front-ends to sample positions. Comparison of some of these measurement results with high-accuracy calculations of synchrotron (undulator) emission and wavefront propagation through X-ray transport optics, performed using SRW code, is presented.

  17. Conceptual design of an undulator system for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    We describe a future possible upgrade of the European XFEL consisting in the construction of an undulator beamline dedicated to life science experiments. The availability of free undulator tunnels at the European XFEL facility offers a unique opportunity to build a beamline optimized for coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules, like proteins and other biologically interesting structures. Crucial parameters for such bio-imaging beamline are photon energy range, peak power, and pulse duration. Key component of the setup is the undulator source. The peak power is maximized in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 13 keV by the use of a very efficient combination of self-seeding, fresh bunch and tapered undulator techniques. The unique combination of ultra-high peak power of 1 TW in the entire energy range, and ultrashort pulse duration tunable from 2 fs to 10 fs, would allow for single shot coherent imaging of protein molecules with size larger than 10 nm. Also, the new beamline would enable imaging of large biological structures in the water window, between 0.3 keV and 0.4 keV. In order to make use of standardized components, at present we favor the use of SASE3-type undulator segments. The number segments, 40, is determined by the tapered length for the design output power of 1 TW. The present plan assumes the use of a nominal electron bunch with charge of 0.1 nC. Experiments will be performed without interference with the other three undulator beamlines. Therefore, the total amount of scheduled beam time per year is expected to be up to 4000 hours.

  18. Conceptual design of an undulator system for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2012-01-01

    We describe a future possible upgrade of the European XFEL consisting in the construction of an undulator beamline dedicated to life science experiments. The availability of free undulator tunnels at the European XFEL facility offers a unique opportunity to build a beamline optimized for coherent diffraction imaging of complex molecules, like proteins and other biologically interesting structures. Crucial parameters for such bio-imaging beamline are photon energy range, peak power, and pulse duration. Key component of the setup is the undulator source. The peak power is maximized in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 13 keV by the use of a very efficient combination of self-seeding, fresh bunch and tapered undulator techniques. The unique combination of ultra-high peak power of 1 TW in the entire energy range, and ultrashort pulse duration tunable from 2 fs to 10 fs, would allow for single shot coherent imaging of protein molecules with size larger than 10 nm. Also, the new beamline would enable imagin...

  19. Recent progress in vacuum-ultraviolet polarization modulation spectroscopy using polarizing undulator at the TERAS BL5 beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi-Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Tanaka, Masahito; Kaneko, Fusae; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2007-12-01

    Polarization modulation spectroscopy using an Onuki-type undulator is a useful technique for circular dichroism study in the vacuum-ultraviolet region. We have been developing the vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (vuv-CD) spectroscopy in TERAS BL5 beamline at AIST. This paper describes recent improvements in our instrumentation and methods of analysis to achieve precise and absolute measurements. The CD signal is usually accompanied by experimental artifacts, and elimination of all possible artifacts is the key issue for making reliable measurements. After improving beamline optical system, light flux monitor, and undulator operation method, the base line shift of the CD spectrum is suppressed less than 3x10(-4). Sample manipulation and data processing procedures are also described and absolute CD spectrum can be obtained even for linear anisotropic sample. These progresses lead to more quantitative comparison of experimental with calculation on vuv-CD spectrum.

  20. Present status of vacuum ultraviolet natural circular dichroism measurement system using polarizing undulator at TERAS BL5 beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masahito, E-mail: masahito-tanaka@aist.go.j [Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Yagi-Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Kaneko, Fusae [Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nakagawa, Kazumichi [Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, Tsurukabuto 3-11, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The study of natural circular dichroism (CD) in the vacuum and extreme ultraviolet (VUV and EUV) regions has been providing us with chirality and structural information on biomolecules. We have developed the beamline BL5 at TERAS, Tsukuba, which is equipped with a compact Onuki-type polarizing undulator. This beamline is dedicated to measuring the CD spectra in the VUV and EUV regions for the photon energy region of 5-40 eV. The use of a polarization modulation technique with a polarizing undulator is essential for detecting a weak CD signal. Using this CD system, the natural CD spectrum has been measured in the EUV region up to 40 eV for the first time. In addition, the differences and the similarities between the CD spectra of four amino acid films (alanine, valine, leucine, and phenylalanine) in the VUV region up to 9.5 eV are determined.

  1. Fiber diffraction using the BioCAT undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, T. C.; Fischetti, R.; Rosenbaum, G.; Bunker, G. B.; Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT)

    2000-06-01

    The BioCAT undulator-based beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne IL, USA is designed to be a state-of-the-art instrument for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The optics consist of double crystal monochromators with sagitally focussing second crystals followed by a vertically focussing mirror which allow independent focussing of the beam in the vertical and horizontal directions virtually anywhere along the length of the 12 m experimental enclosure. When configured for a 2 m fiber diffraction camera, a focal spot of less than 40×200 μm (FWHM) has been observed which contained essentially all of the 1.5-2.5×10 13 ph/s delivered by the cryogenically-cooled Si(1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. This combination of highly demagnifying optics and the very low divergence of the very small source have yielded excellent quality patterns from various muscle specimens and collagen-containing tissues. Detectors available include a Fuji BAS2500 image plate scanner and a 1 k×1 k CCD detector optimized for small-angle applications. Future developments will include, in vacuum beam monitoring, longer camera lengths (6-8 m), and optimizations to improve first-order resolution in small-angle applications.

  2. Fiber diffraction using the BioCAT undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    CERN Document Server

    Irving, T C; Rosenbaum, G; Bunker, G B

    2000-01-01

    The BioCAT undulator-based beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne IL, USA is designed to be a state-of-the-art instrument for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The optics consist of double crystal monochromators with sagitally focussing second crystals followed by a vertically focussing mirror which allow independent focussing of the beam in the vertical and horizontal directions virtually anywhere along the length of the 12 m experimental enclosure. When configured for a 2 m fiber diffraction camera, a focal spot of less than 40x200 mu m (FWHM) has been observed which contained essentially all of the 1.5-2.5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ph/s delivered by the cryogenically-cooled Si(1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. This combination of highly demagnifying optics and the very low divergence of the very small source have yielded excellent quality patterns from various muscle specimens and collagen-containing tissues. Detectors available include a Fuji BAS2500 image plate sc...

  3. Purified SASE undulator configuration to enhance the performance of the soft x-ray beamline at the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Serkez, Svitozar; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor; Geloni, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    The purified SASE (pSASE) undulator configuration recently proposed at SLAC promises an increase in the output spectral density of XFELs. In this article we study a straightforward implementation of this configuration for the soft x-ray beamline at the European XFEL. A few undulator cells, resonant at a subharmonic of the FEL radiation, are used in the middle of the exponential regime to amplify the radiation, while simultaneously reducing the FEL bandwidth. Based on start-to-end simulations, we show that with the proposed configuration the spectral density in the photon energy range between 1.3 keV and 3 keV can be enhanced of an order of magnitude compared to the baseline mode of operation. This option can be implemented into the tunable-gap SASE3 baseline undulator without additional hardware, and it is complementary to the self-seeding option with grating monochromator proposed for the same undulator line, which can cover the photon energy range between about 0.26 keV and 1 keV.

  4. Purified SASE undulator configuration to enhance the performance of the soft x-ray beamline at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    The purified SASE (pSASE) undulator configuration recently proposed at SLAC promises an increase in the output spectral density of XFELs. In this article we study a straightforward implementation of this configuration for the soft x-ray beamline at the European XFEL. A few undulator cells, resonant at a subharmonic of the FEL radiation, are used in the middle of the exponential regime to amplify the radiation, while simultaneously reducing the FEL bandwidth. Based on start-to-end simulations, we show that with the proposed configuration the spectral density in the photon energy range between 1.3 keV and 3 keV can be enhanced of an order of magnitude compared to the baseline mode of operation. This option can be implemented into the tunable-gap SASE3 baseline undulator without additional hardware, and it is complementary to the self-seeding option with grating monochromator proposed for the same undulator line, which can cover the photon energy range between about 0.26 keV and 1 keV.

  5. Measurement of X-ray beam emittance using crystal optics at an X-ray undulator beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Kohmura, Y; Awaji, M; Tanaka, T; Hara, T; Goto, S; Ishikawa, T

    2000-01-01

    We present a method of using crystal optics to measure the emittance of the X-ray source. Two perfect crystals set in (++) configuration work as a high-resolution collimator. The phase-space diagram (i.e. beam cross-section and angular distribution) could be determined without any assumptions on the light source. When the measurement is done at short wavelength radiation from undulator, the electron beam emittance is larger than the diffraction limit of the X-rays. Therefore, the electron beam emittance could be estimated. The measurement was done with the hard X-rays of 18.5 and 55 keV from an undulator beamline, BL 47XU, of SPring-8. The horizontal emittance of the X-ray beam was estimated to be about 7.6 nmrad, close to the designed electron beam emittance of the storage ring (7 nmrad). Some portions of the instrumental functions, such as the scattering by filters and windows along the beamline and the slight bent of the crystal planes of the monochromator, could not be precisely evaluated, but an upper li...

  6. The BioCAT undulator beamline 18ID: a facility for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, R; Stepanov, S; Rosenbaum, G; Barrea, R; Black, E; Gore, D; Heurich, R; Kondrashkina, E; Kropf, A J; Wang, S; Zhang, Ke; Irving, T C; Bunker, G B

    2004-09-01

    The 18ID undulator beamline of the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, IL, USA, is a high-performance instrument designed for, and dedicated to, the study of partially ordered and disordered biological materials using the techniques of small-angle X-ray scattering, fiber diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The beamline and associated instrumentation are described in detail and examples of the representative experimental results are presented.

  7. Magnetic field calculation of variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-type) for SX beamline in the SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Sasaki, Shigemi; Shimada, Taihei; Takao, Masaru; Yokoya, Akinori; Miyahara, Yoshikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-type) to be installed in soft X-ray beamline in the SPring-8 facility. The magnetic field distribution and radiation spectrum expected from this undulator were calculated. The magnetic field strength is varied by changing the gap distance of upper and lower jaws, so it changes the photon energy in soft X-ray range. By moving the relative position of pairs of magnet rows (phase shift), the polarization of radiation is varied circularly, elliptically and linearly in the horizontal and vertical direction. We expect that right and left handed circular polarizations are obtained alternately at a rate of 1 Hz by high speed phase shifting. The repulsive and attractive magnetic force working on the magnet rows were calculated which interfere in phase shifting at high speed. The magnetic force changes with gap distance and phase shift position, and the magnetic force working on a row in the direction of phase shift becomes up to 500 kgf. The construction of this undulator is started in 1996, that will be inserted in the storage ring in 1997. (author).

  8. The variable polarization undulator beamline UE52 PGM nanocluster trap at BESSY II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Ovsyannikov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available UE52 PGM nanocluster trap is a soft x-ray beamline at BESSY II that delivers an unfocussed low-divergence beam of variable polarization. Its characteristics are ideally suited for ion trap studies of magnetic properties.

  9. New beamline optics of the x-ray undulator BW1 at DORIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, U.; Frahm, R.; Guertler, P.; Schulte-Schrepping, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany). Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor

    1996-12-31

    The X-ray undulator BW1 at the storage ring DORIS is a high brightness source for the spectral range from 2 to 20 keV. The undulator beam is used by three experiments with different distances to the source. The new optical elements allow the adaptation of the focal lengths to the needs of the experimental set-ups. The optical concept consists of a premirror with different optical surfaces, a double crystal monochromator and a focusing second mirror. Sagittal focusing is achieved either by using the cylindrical part of the premirror or by a bend crystal for a monochromatic beam, meridional focusing is done with a pneumatic driven mirror bender for the second mirror.

  10. Measurement of coherence length and incoherent source size of hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Yeong; Hong, Chung Ki [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jun, E-mail: limjun@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    We measured the spatial coherence length and incoherent source size of a hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II, the stored electron energy of which has been increased from 2.5 GeV to 3 GeV. The coherence length was determined by single-slit measurement of the visibility of the Fresnel diffraction pattern. The correlated incoherent source size was cross-checked for three different optics: the single slit, beryllium parabolic compound refractive lenses, and the Fresnel zone plate. We concluded that the undulator beamline has an effective incoherent source size (FWHM) of 540 μm (horizontal) × 50 μm (vertical)

  11. Measurement of coherence length and incoherent source size of hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Yeong; Hong, Chung Ki; Lim, Jun

    2014-04-01

    We measured the spatial coherence length and incoherent source size of a hard x-ray undulator beamline at Pohang Light Source-II, the stored electron energy of which has been increased from 2.5 GeV to 3 GeV. The coherence length was determined by single-slit measurement of the visibility of the Fresnel diffraction pattern. The correlated incoherent source size was cross-checked for three different optics: the single slit, beryllium parabolic compound refractive lenses, and the Fresnel zone plate. We concluded that the undulator beamline has an effective incoherent source size (FWHM) of 540 μm (horizontal) × 50 μm (vertical).

  12. A small and robust active beamstop for scattering experiments on high-brilliance undulator beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Clement E; Hermes, Christoph; Svergun, Dmitri I; Fiedler, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    A small active in-vacuum beamstop has been developed to monitor the flux of intense third-generation synchrotron X-ray beams protecting the downstream detector from the direct beam. Standard active beamstops, where a built-in diode directly absorbs the beam, have limitations in size and lifetime. In the present design, a silicon PIN diode detects the photons back-scattered from a cavity in the beamstop. This approach drastically reduces the radiation dose on the diode and thus increases its lifetime. The beamstop with a diameter of 2 mm has been fabricated to meet the requirements for the P12 bioSAXS beamline of EMBL Hamburg at PETRA III (DESY). The beamstop is in regular user operation at the beamline and displays a good response over the range of energies tested (6-20 keV). Further miniaturization of the diode is easily possible as its size is not limited by the PIN diode used.

  13. The performance of a cryogenically cooled monochromator for an in-vacuum undulator beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Lee, Wah Keat; Wulff, Michael; Eybert, Laurent

    2003-07-01

    The channel-cut silicon monochromator on beamline ID09 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is indirectly cooled from the sides by liquid nitrogen. The thermal slope error of the diffracting surface is calculated by finite-element analysis and the results are compared with experiments. The slope error is studied as a function of cooling coefficients, beam size, position of the footprint and power distribution. It is found that the slope error versus power curve can be divided into three regions: (i). The linear region: the thermal slope error is linearly proportional to the power. (ii). The transition region: the temperature of the Si crystal is close to 125 K; the thermal slope error is below the straight line extrapolated from the linear curve described above. (iii). The non-linear region: the temperature of the Si crystal is higher than 125 K and the thermal slope error increases much faster than the power. Heat-load tests were also performed and the measured rocking-curve widths are compared with those calculated by finite-element modeling. When the broadening from the intrinsic rocking-curve width and mounting strain are included, the calculated rocking-curve width versus heat load is in excellent agreement with experiment.

  14. Performance upgrade in the JAEA actinide science beamline BL23SU at SPring-8 with a new twin-helical undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Yuji; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Yukiharu; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Sunao; Asano, Yoshihiro; Hara, Toru; Shirasawa, Katsutoshi; Takeuchi, Masao; Tanaka, Takashi; Kitamura, Hideo

    2012-05-01

    The soft X-ray beamline BL23SU at SPring-8 has undergone an upgrade with a twin-helical undulator of in-vacuum type to enhance the experimental capabilities of the endstations. The new light source with a fast helicity-switching operation allows not only the data throughput but also the sensitivity in X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) to be improved. The operational performance and potential are described by presenting XMCD results of paramagnetic β-US(2) measured with a 10 T superconducting magnet.

  15. In situ removal of carbon contamination from optics in a vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray undulator beamline using oxygen activated by zeroth-order synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Akio; Kikuchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Adachi, Jun Ichi; Mase, Kazuhiko; Amemiya, Kenta

    2012-09-01

    Carbon contamination of optics is a serious issue in all soft X-ray beamlines because it decreases the quality of experimental data, such as near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, resonant photoemission and resonant soft X-ray emission spectra in the carbon K-edge region. Here an in situ method involving the use of oxygen activated by zeroth-order synchrotron radiation was used to clean the optics in a vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray undulator beamline, BL-13A at the Photon Factory in Tsukuba, Japan. The carbon contamination of the optics was removed by exposing them to oxygen at a pressure of 10(-1)-10(-4) Pa for 17-20 h and simultaneously irradiating them with zeroth-order synchrotron radiation. After the cleaning, the decrease in the photon intensity in the carbon K-edge region reduced to 2-5%. The base pressure of the beamline recovered to 10(-7)-10(-8) Pa in one day without baking. The beamline can be used without additional commissioning.

  16. Performance of the undulator based ultraviolet and soft x-ray beamline for catalysis and surface science at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liangliang; Du, Xuewei; Wei, Shen; Li, Chaoyang; Pan, Congyuan; Ju, Huanxin; Wang, Qiuping; Zhu, Junfa

    2016-12-01

    The undulator based ultraviolet and soft x-ray beamline BL11U for catalysis and surface science at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) has been under opteration for months and the present performance is described. This beamline utilizes radiation from an in-vacuum undulator, which has 30 magnetic periods with the period length of 40 mm. A varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator is employed tto cover the photon energy region of 20-600 eV by two gratings with nominal groove densities of 400 llmm and 1200 l/mm respectively. The energy resolution power E/ΔE is measured with a gas ionization chamber and the photon flux is measured by a photodiode. Results show that the resolution power is better than 10,000 at a photon energy of 29.2 eV. And the flux is higher than 1×1010 phs/s under 300 mA ring beam current for most of the covered photon energy.

  17. Beamlines at Siam photon laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Songsiriritthigul, P; Ishii, T; Kakizaki, A

    2003-01-01

    This report provides the up-to-date information on the present and future beamlines at the Siam Photon Laboratory. The first two beamlines, BL-4 and BL-6, have already been installed, and are now in commissioning. BL-4 is a VUV beamline to be used for investigating the electronic structures of solids and solid surfaces using the angle-resolved photoemission experimental technique. BL-6 is a beamline for electron beam monitoring. Future beamlines utilizing synchrotron light generated by a planar undulator and a superconducting magnet wiggler are discussed.

  18. The care and nurture of undulator data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flot, D; Gordon, E J; Hall, D R; Leonard, G A; McCarthy, A; McCarthy, J; McSweeney, S; Mitchell, E; Nurizzo, D; Ravelli, R G B; Shepard, W

    2006-01-01

    Undulator radiation is the X-ray source of choice for modern macromolecular crystallography beamlines. Here, the basic properties of undulator sources are described and it is indicated why they make such good X-ray sources for macromolecular crystallography. Collection of excellent data from these beamlines is not always straightforward; therefore, a number of rules are postulated for undulator data collection and guidelines are offered which will help to ensure a satisfactory experiment.

  19. In situ X-ray data collection and structure phasing of protein crystals at Structural Biology Center 19-ID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, Karolina; Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Li, Hui; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Molitsky, Michael; Alkire, Randy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-10-15

    A prototype of a 96-well plate scanner forin situdata collection has been developed at the Structural Biology Center (SBC) beamline 19-ID, located at the Advanced Photon Source, USA. The applicability of this instrument for protein crystal diffraction screening and data collection at ambient temperature has been demonstrated. Several different protein crystals, including selenium-labeled, were used for data collection and successful SAD phasing. Without the common procedure of crystal handling and subsequent cryo-cooling for data collection atT= 100 K, crystals in a crystallization buffer show remarkably low mosaicity (<0.1°) until deterioration by radiation damage occurs. Data presented here show that cryo-cooling can cause some unexpected structural changes. Based on the results of this study, the integration of the plate scanner into the 19-ID end-station with automated controls is being prepared. With improvement of hardware and software,in situdata collection will become available for the SBC user program including remote access.

  20. In situ characterization of undulator magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Thierry; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    A new in situ method is proposed to characterize the peak magnetic fields of undulator sources. The X-ray beam emitted by the HU52 Apple-2 undulator of the DEIMOS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron is analyzed using the Bragg diffraction of a Si(111) crystal. Measurements over the undulator gap range in linear horizontal polarization are compared with simulations in order to rebuild the Halbach function linking the undulator gaps to their peak magnetic fields. The method presented also allows information about the electron beam to be obtained.

  1. 08B1-1: an automated beamline for macromolecular crystallography experiments at the Canadian Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodje, Michel; Grochulski, Pawel; Janzen, Kathryn; Labiuk, Shaunivan; Gorin, James; Berg, Russ

    2014-05-01

    Beamline 08B1-1 is a recently commissioned bending-magnet beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The beamline is designed for automation and remote access. Together with the undulator-based beamline 08ID-1, they constitute the Canadian Macromolecular Crystallography Facility. This paper describes the design, specifications, hardware and software of beamline 08B1-1. A few scientific results using data obtained at the beamline will be highlighted.

  2. Micropole undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csonka, Paul L.; Tatchyn, Roman O.

    1989-01-24

    Micropole undulators for use in the generation of x-rays from moving charged particles and methods for manufacturing such undulators are disclosed. One type of micropole undulator has two jaws containing rows of spaced apart poles arranged so that each pole produces a magnetic field aligned with all other similar fields. An external biasing field extends through the jaws so that an overall undulator field of substantially sinusoidal shape and substantially zero average value extends along the undulator axis. Preferably, the poles are bars formed of a magnetizable, but unmagnetized, material so that, after the jaws are assembled, all of the bars can be magnetized simultaneously in a uniform magnetic field of suitable strength. Another type of micropole undulator incorporates two parallel layers which have been magnetized to provide rows of alternating magnetic fields extending in opposite directions, the layers being positioned between the pole faces of a highly magnetically permeable material with the south poles of one layer opposite the north poles of the other. Poles in the layers are formed by subjecting successive regions of each layer to oppositely directed and suitably varied magnetizing forces.

  3. Multicrystal undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, V.; Janz, J. G.; Kaplin, V. V.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation of positrons passing through a set of equidistant and mutually oriented crystals is considered. The thickness of each crystal is half of the particle trajectory period at planar channeling in a thick crystal. Passing through the set of half-wave crystals the particle moves on quasi-undulator trajectory. The radiation spectrum of such ;multicrystal undulator;, consists of discrete harmonics, and the frequency of each harmonic and the number of harmonics in the spectrum depend on the spacing between the crystals, and on the particle energy. Varying the spacing between crystals one can tune the frequency of the first harmonic. A multicrystal undulator should be of particular assistance when there is a need to produce relatively soft radiation by use of a high energy particle beam.

  4. Simple scheme for harmonic suppression by undulator segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi; Kitamura, Hideo

    2002-07-01

    In order to suppress harmonic intensity of undulator radiation, a scheme similar to the detuning technique used in the double-crystal monochromator is investigated and found to be effective only when the number of periods of the undulator is small, once the finite emittance of the electron beam and angular acceptance of the beamline are taken into account. Instead, a simple scheme is proposed for undulators with many periods: the undulator is divided into several segments and the optical phase in between is adjusted to shift the fundamental energy without significantly affecting other harmonics.

  5. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-03-15

    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)

  6. Wavefront propagation through the beamline designed for seeding the DESY XUV FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Reininger, R; Gürtler, P; Bahrdt, J

    2001-01-01

    A beamline designed to reduce the spectral bandwidth of the DESY XUV FEL is described. The beamline is intended to cover the wavelength range from 6.4 to 50 nm with three variable line spacing gratings. A plane mirror in front of the grating is used to maintain constant magnification in the dispersion direction. The electric field generated by the first undulator at three wavelengths, 6.4, 13, and 25 nm, is propagated through the beamline. The results show that the beamline has the resolution and imaging properties required for seeding the second undulator at these wavelengths.

  7. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  8. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  9. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  10. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, H. D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Field, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mao, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Levashov, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Santana, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Welch, J. N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wolf, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-01-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  11. Design and performance of the APPLE-Knot undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fuhao; Chang, Rui; Zhou, Qiaogen; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Mao; Sasaki, Shigemi; Qiao, Shan

    2015-07-01

    Along with the development of accelerator technology, synchrotron emittance has continuously decreased. This results in increased brightness, but also causes a heavy heat load on beamline optics. Recently, optical surfaces with 0.1 nm micro-roughness and 0.05 µrad slope error (r.m.s.) have become commercially available and surface distortions due to heat load have become a key factor in determining beamline performance, and heat load has become a serious problem at modern synchrotron radiation facilities. Here, APPLE-Knot undulators which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization, with low on-axis heat load, are reported.

  12. LCLS Undulator Design Development

    CERN Document Server

    Vasserman, Isaac; Den Hartog, P; Moog, Elizabeth; Sasaki, Shigemi; Trakhtenberg, Emil; White, Marion

    2004-01-01

    The fractional variation in deflection parameter K between segments of the 130.4-m-long undulator line for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) must be < 1.5 x 10-4. Mechanical shims were used to set the undulator gap to control K in the prototype, but this is too tedious a procedure to be used for all 33 undulator segments. Although the prototype undulator met all of the LCLS specifications, development continued in order to simplify the system. Various other alternatives for adjusting the field were considered. A canted-pole geometry was adopted that allows the K value to be changed by lateral translation of the entire undulator segment. This scheme also facilitates tapering the undulator line to accommodate energy loss in the electron beam. The prototype undulator was subsequently modified to test the canted-pole concept. Magnetic measurements demonstrated that the undulator with canted poles meets all LCLS specifications, and is more cost-effective to implement.

  13. The TEUFEL undulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Ernst, G.J.; Witteman, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the design of the undulator for the Twente free electron laser is presented. The undulator is of the planar hybrid type, i.e. alternating permanent magnetic material and poles. The overall design is based on the method of Halbach. The flux balance is set up for the three-dimensional

  14. The Full Potential of the Baseline SASE Undulators of the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Agapov, Ilya; Feng, Guangyao; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Zagorodnov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The output SASE characteristics of the baseline European XFEL, recently used in the TDRs of scientific instruments and X-ray optics, have been previously optimized assuming uniform undulators without considering the potential of undulator tapering in the SASE regime. Here we demonstrate that the performance of European XFEL sources can be significantly improved without additional hardware. The procedure simply consists in the optimization of the undulator gap configuration for each X-ray beamline. Here we provide a comprehensive description of the soft X-ray photon beam properties as a function of wavelength and bunch charge. Based on nominal parameters for the electron beam, we demonstrate that undulator tapering allows one to achieve up to a tenfold increase in peak power and photon spectral density in the conventional SASE regime. We illustrate this fact for the SASE3 beamline. The FEL code Genesis has been extensively used for these studies. Based on these findings we suggest that the requirements for the...

  15. Design and performance of the APPLE-Knot undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Fuhao [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, 2005 Songhu Road, Shanghai 200438, People’s Republic of (China); Chang, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); Zhou, Qiaogen; Zhang, Wei [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 239 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201204, People’s Republic of (China); Ye, Mao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); Sasaki, Shigemi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Qiao, Shan, E-mail: qiaoshan@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050, People’s Republic of (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 319 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031, People’s Republic of (China)

    2015-06-09

    The design and performance of the Apple-Knot undulator which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization and low on-axis heat load are presented. Along with the development of accelerator technology, synchrotron emittance has continuously decreased. This results in increased brightness, but also causes a heavy heat load on beamline optics. Recently, optical surfaces with 0.1 nm micro-roughness and 0.05 µrad slope error (r.m.s.) have become commercially available and surface distortions due to heat load have become a key factor in determining beamline performance, and heat load has become a serious problem at modern synchrotron radiation facilities. Here, APPLE-Knot undulators which can generate photons with arbitrary polarization, with low on-axis heat load, are reported.

  16. SUMS: synchronous undulator-monochromator scans at Synchrotron Soleil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Manuel; Hardion, Vincent; Renaud, Guillaume; Chapuis, Lilian; Millet, Raphael; Langlois, Florent; Marteau, Fabrice; Chauvet, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A strategy for performing synchronous undulator-monochromator scans (SUMS) compatible with the control system of Synchrotron Soleil has been developed. The implementation of the acquisition scheme has required the development of an electronic interface between the undulator and the beamline. The characterization of delays and jitters in the synchronous movement of various motor axes has motivated the development of a new electronic synchronization scheme among various axes, including the case when one of the axes is electronically accessible in `read-only' mode. A software prototype has been developed to allow the existing hard continuous software to work in user units. The complete strategy has been implemented and successfully tested at the TEMPO beamline.

  17. Multiple station beamline at an undulator x-ray source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Freund, A.K.; Grübel, G.

    1994-01-01

    -ray transparent monochromator crystals. Diamond in particular is an attractive monochromator as it is rather X-ray transparent and can be fabricated to a high degree of crystal perfection. Moreover, it has a very high heat conductivity and a rather small thermal expansion so the beam X-ray heat load problem...

  18. In-vacuum figure-8 undulator for hard X-rays with both horizontal and vertical polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Maréchal, X M; Hara, T; Tanabe, T; Kitamura, H

    1998-05-01

    A figure-8 undulator of the in-vacuum type has been adopted as an insertion device for BL24XU, the Hyogo Beamline at SPring-8, to provide hard X-rays with both horizontal and vertical polarization instead of a tandem undulator consisting of horizontal and vertical undulators. The undulator will be operated with the gap almost fixed at 11.6 mm to provide the fundamental radiation with horizontal polarization at 9.5 keV and the 1.5th harmonic with vertical polarization at 14 keV.

  19. LNLS: light source, beamlines, end stations and scientific instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentin, Flavio Cesar [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The LNLS is operational since 1997 and has a second-generation light source with a 1,37GeV electron storage ring and 2,08 keV critical energy. Besides the storage ring there are various beamlines installed mainly in magnetic dipoles, however were opened three beamlines based in insertion devices, wiggler and undulator. The LNLS is now operating with 16 beamlines which are open to the external user community: 9 of them are dedicated to structural studies and the other 7 to spectroscopic techniques. The beamlines devoted to structural studies involve X-ray diffraction (XRD1, XRD2, XPD and XDS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS1 and SAXS2), protein crystallography (MX1 and MX2) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The beamlines dedicated to spectroscopic studies are X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS1, XAFS2 and DXAS), soft X-ray spectroscopy (SXS), spherical grating monochromator (SGM), plane grating monochromator (PGM) and toroidal grating monochromator (TGM). Two more beamlines are expected to begin their operation in 2012: X-ray tomography and infrared spectroscopy. Each beamline has its own characteristics in terms of photon energy range, flux, resolution and beam size, but many of the optical elements and instrumentation are common to various beamlines and the main are mirrors, monochromators (crystal and diffraction grating), slits and filters. For X-ray and VUV spectroscopy, several experimental techniques can be explored including XAS, XMCD, XMLD, XPS, AES, UPS, XEOL, reflectivity and PePiCo. For that, these beamlines share different end stations and instrumentation that can be easily installed and commissioned for attend a specific experiment. (author)

  20. Beamline for Schools 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Two teams of high-school students from the UK and Poland had the opportunity to conduct their own experiments at a fully equipped CERN beamline. Two teams of high-school students from the UK and Poland had the opportunity to conduct their own experiments at a fully equipped CERN beamline, after winning the Beamline for Schools competition. The teams, ‘Pyramid Hunters’ from Poland and ‘Relatively Special’ from the United Kingdom, spent 10 days at CERN conducting the experiments they had dreamt up in their winning proposals. The Beamline for Schools competition gives high-school students the chance to run an experiment on a fully equipped CERN beamline, in the same way researchers do at the Large Hadron Collider and other CERN facilities every day. 

  1. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used.

  2. In vacuum undulator task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.C.; Stefan, P. [and others

    1998-06-01

    Historically the NSLS has been active in R&D for state-of-the-art electron beams, photon beams and x-ray optics. One of the available straight sections has therefore been dedicated to insertion device R&D. Over the past five to seven years a program aimed at exploiting the very small vertical {beta} function in the straight sections has yielded first a prototype small gap undulator (PSGU) and then an in-vacuum undulator (IVUN). The IVUN sources attain a brightness similar to the existing hybrid wigglers in X21 and X25. They radiate significantly lower total power than the wigglers but produce higher power densities. They provide undulator rather than wiggler spectra. Because of the small gaps and small periods there is not much tunability in these devices and they will have to be purpose-built for a specific scientific program. The original IVUN parameters were chosen for in-elastic x-ray scattering, similar to the scientific program on X21. This put the fundamental at 4.6 keV and the third harmonic at 13.8 keV. The question that this new possible insertion device poses is what science programs can best take advantage of this new insertion device source? To answer this, a task force was formed by M. Hart, NSLS Department Chair and charged with identifying viable scientific programs that could seek outside funding to construct IVUN beamlines. The task force concentrated on experimental programs that are presently being pursued on new insertion devices worldwide. For example, x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, which takes advantage of the large coherent flux from undulator sources, was considered. However, this program was not considered as the highest priority. The general area of protein crystallography, however, is ideal for the IVUN source. The unique electron beam optics that makes the IVUN possible in the first place also makes the IVUN ideal as a source for microdiffraction.

  3. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Matthew W., E-mail: mbowler@embl.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 avenue des Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes-EMBL-CNRS, 71 avenue des Martyrs, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Nurizzo, Didier, E-mail: mbowler@embl.fr; Barrett, Ray; Beteva, Antonia; Bodin, Marjolaine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 avenue des Martyrs, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-03

    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is a new beamline dedicated to the completely automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined.

  4. Performance and capabilities of the Canadian Dragon: The SGM beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regier, T. [Canadian Light Source, Inc. (CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)], E-mail: tom.regier@lightsource.ca; Krochak, J. [Canadian Light Source, Inc. (CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Sham, T.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Hu, Y.F. [Canadian Light Source, Inc. (CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Thompson, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Blyth, R.I.R. [Canadian Light Source, Inc.(CLSI), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-11-11

    The Canadian Dragon is a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) beamline for the photon energy range between 250 and 2000 eV. The high flux from the source, a 45 mm planar undulator, allows for excellent performance in the difficult 1-2 keV range. Resolving powers comparable to those of the leading spectroscopy beamlines are routinely available. The beamline design employs toroidal refocusing optics to allow for two in-line endstation areas. The upstream experimental area hosts a dedicated UHV endstation with a Scienta SES-100 photoelectron energy analyzer. The downstream experimental area is primarily used for solid sample X-ray absorption studies, but can be fitted with a number of different endstations. A 1 metre long differential pumping section between the beamline optics and the second endstation area permits the analysis of non-UHV compatible samples, making the beamline suitable for many environmental or biological experiments.

  5. Self-Stimulated Undulator Klystron

    OpenAIRE

    Bessonov, E. G.; Osipov, A. L.; Mikhailichenko, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Self Stimulated Undulator Klystron (SSUK) and its possible applications in the Particle Accelerator Physics, incoherent Self-Stimulated Undulator Radiation Sources (SSUR) and Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) are discussed.

  6. The JLAB UV Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, Steven C. [STI, Washington, USA; Benson, Steven V. [JLAB; Moore, Steven Wesley [JLAB

    2013-05-01

    Recently the JLAB FEL has demonstrated 150 W at 400 nm and 200 W at 700 nm using a 33mm period undulator designed and built by STI Optronics. This paper describes the undulator design and performance. Two key requirements were low phase error, zero steering and offset end fields and small rms trajectory errors. We will describe a new genetic algorithm that allowed phase error minimization to 1.8 degrees while exceeding specifications. The mechanical design, control system and EPICS interface will also be summarized.

  7. SPring-8 twin helical undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, T; Tanaka, T; Tanabe, T; Maréchal, X M; Kumagai, K; Kitamura, H

    1998-05-01

    There are several ways of producing circularly polarized light, such as using asymmetric devices, crossed undulators etc. The SPring-8 helical undulator introduces a simple way of producing both horizontal and vertical fields in one undulator. All the magnet arrays are arranged above and below the plane of the electron orbit, so there is no limitation of access from the sides of the undulator. For the SPring-8 BL25SU, two helical undulators will be installed in tandem, and the helicity of the polarization can be switched at up to 10 Hz using five kicker magnets.

  8. Spectrum splitting for fast polarization switching of undulator radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Ryota; Tanaka, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A simple scheme to quickly switch the polarity of circular radiation is proposed, which is based on spectrum splitting of undulator radiation. In this scheme, two helical undulators with opposite helicities are placed tandem in one straight section, both of which are divided into several segments. The optical phases between segments are tuned so that light waves from one of the two undulators are out of phase, while those from the other are in phase. Then the radiation spectrum of the former is split and the intensity at the fundamental photon energy vanishes. As a consequence, the monochromated photon beam at the fundamental energy is circularly polarized with the helicity specified by the in-phase undulator, which can be quickly flipped by tuning the optical phase. Numerical calculations carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme show that a relatively high degree of circular polarization is expected if the angular acceptance of the beamline is not too large.

  9. Complete polarization analysis of an APPLE II undulator using a soft X-ray polarimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Bencok, Peter; Steadman, Paul; Longhi, Emily; Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Zhanshan

    2012-11-01

    Two APPLE II undulators installed on the Diamond I10 beamline have all four magnet arrays shiftable and thus can generate linear polarization at any arbitrary angle from 0° to 180°, as well as all other states of elliptical polarization. To characterize the emitted radiation polarization state from one APPLE II undulator, the complete polarization measurement was performed using a multilayer-based soft X-ray polarimeter. The measurement results appear to show that the linear polarization angle offset is about 6° compared with other measurements at 712 eV, equivalent to an undulator jaw phase offset of 1.1 mm. In addition, the polarization states of various ellipticities have also been measured as a function of the undulator row phase.

  10. New fast closing shutter for the PETRA III beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, U.; Hesse, M.; Müller, S.; Peters, H.-B.; Timmann, B.; Wengler, R.; Zink, H.

    2008-03-01

    The conversion of the PETRA storage ring at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) to the third generation synchrotron radiation light source PETRAIII [1] poses a challenge to the design of the beamline transport system. One of these challenges is to supply 14 beamlines and experiments windowless with the extremely collimated undulator radiation from the storage ring. The windowless connection includes the risk of accidental venting of the storage ring by experiments connected to the beamlines. To stop the inrush of such an accidental venting fast closing shutter (FCS) systems with closing times in the 10msec range are mandatory. The strong radiation background in the storage ring tunnel requires the installation of all metal valves. A new small fast closing shutter with an aperture of 40mm fitting to the strong collimated undulator beams and with a closing time beam time losses for all users. The mechanical and electronic layouts as well as first experiences with the new fast closing shutter system developed for PETRAIII are presented.

  11. Geoid undulation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the geoid and equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field, has long been of interest to geodesists and oceanographers. The geoid provides a surface to which the actual ocean surface can be compared with the differences implying information on the circulation patterns of the oceans. For use in oceanographic applications the geoid is ideally needed to a high accuracy and to a high resolution. There are applications that require geoid undulation information to an accuracy of +/- 10 cm with a resolution of 50 km. We are far from this goal today but substantial improvement in geoid determination has been made. In 1979 the cumulative geoid undulation error to spherical harmonic degree 20 was +/- 1.4 m for the GEM10 potential coefficient model. Today the corresponding value has been reduced to +/- 25 cm for GEM-T3 or +/- 11 cm for the OSU91A model. Similar improvements are noted by harmonic degree (wave-length) and in resolution. Potential coefficient models now exist to degree 360 based on a combination of data types. This paper discusses the accuracy changes that have taken place in the past 12 years in the determination of geoid undulations.

  12. A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.

    2000-12-11

    Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided.

  13. Tapered undulators for SASE FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Fawley, W M; Vinokurov, N A

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the use of tapered undulators to enhance the performance of free-electron lasers (FELs) based upon self-amplified spontaneous emission, where the radiation tends to have a relatively broad bandwidth and limited temporal coherence. Using the polychromatic FEL simulation code GINGER, we numerically demonstrate the effectiveness of tapered undulators for parameters corresponding to the Argonne low-energy undulator test line FEL and the proposed linac coherent light source.

  14. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Matthew W.; Nurizzo, Didier; Barrett, Ray; Beteva, Antonia; Bodin, Marjolaine; Caserotto, Hugo; Delagenière, Solange; Dobias, Fabian; Flot, David; Giraud, Thierry; Guichard, Nicolas; Guijarro, Mattias; Lentini, Mario; Leonard, Gordon A.; McSweeney, Sean; Oskarsson, Marcus; Schmidt, Werner; Snigirev, Anatoli; von Stetten, David; Surr, John; Svensson, Olof; Theveneau, Pascal; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined. PMID:26524320

  15. I18--the microfocus spectroscopy beamline at the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Quinn, Paul D; Dent, Andrew J; Cavill, Stuart A; Moreno, Sofia Diaz; Peach, Andrew; Leicester, Peter J; Keylock, Stephen J; Gregory, Simon R; Atkinson, Kirk D; Rosell, Josep Roque

    2009-11-01

    The design and performance of the microfocus spectroscopy beamline at the Diamond Light Source are described. The beamline is based on a 27 mm-period undulator to give an operable energy range between 2 and 20.7 keV, enabling it to cover the K-edges of the elements from P to Mo and the L(3)-edges from Sr to Pu. Micro-X-ray fluorescence, micro-EXAFS and micro-X-ray diffraction have all been achieved on the beamline with a spot size of approximately 3 microm. The principal optical elements of the beamline consist of a toroid mirror, a liquid-nitrogen-cooled double-crystal monochromator and a pair of bimorph Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The performance of the optics is compared with theoretical values and a few of the early experimental results are summarized.

  16. Design of a local bump feedback system for a variably polarizing undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizen, T; Shimada, T; Takao, M; Hiramatu, Y; Miyahara, Y

    1998-05-01

    A local bump feedback system is under construction to correct the orbit distortion caused by the magnetic field errors of a double-array undulator used to generate linear and circular polarization of light for a soft X-ray beamline. The local bump orbit is created by steering coils several turns long and four sets of steering magnets. The kick angle of the long steering coils and the steering magnets is determined according to the motion of the undulator and by detecting the beam position.

  17. Microbeam MAD Beamline for Challenging Protein Crystallography in TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. G.; Chao, C. H.; Chang, C. H.; Juang, J. M.; Liu, C. Y.; Chang, S. H.; Chang, C. F.; Chou, C. K.; Tseng, C. C.; Chiang, C. H.; Jean, Y. C.; Tang, M. T.; Chung, S. C.; Chang, S. L.

    2013-03-01

    The TPS-05A beamline is the first X-ray beamline at NSRRC built for micro protein crystallography experiment as well as one of the seven ID beamlines in phase I at the TPS synchrotron facility. A 2-meter in-vacuum undulator (IU22) serves as the photon source from which the harmonics #3 to #9 will provide brilliance of 1018-1020 photons s-1 mrad-2 mm-2 (0.1% bandwidth)-1 and photon flux of 1013-1014 photons s-1 (0.1% bandwidth)-1 in the required energy range of 5.7-20 keV (2.175-0.620 Å) to cover MAD phasing experiments at 1 Å and SAD phasing experiments at 2 Å. The beamline optics consists of a cryo-cooled double crystal monochromator (DCM) and a pair of focusing K-B mirrors. Requirements from the user group include a target focus size of 50 μm × 50 μm (H × V) at the sample position, photon flux greater than 2 × 1012 photons s-1 at Se K-edge (0.9795 Å), pinholes for adjusting the beam size down to 5 μm. Calculation of heat load for the first optical element, i.e. the first crystal of DCM, is included in this paper.

  18. The High Energy Materials Science Beamline (HEMS) at PETRA III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Norbert; King, Andrew; Beckmann, Felix; Ruhnau, Hans-Ulrich; Kirchhof, René; Kiehn, Rüdiger; Müller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    The HEMS Beamline at the German high-brilliance synchrotron radiation storage ring PETRA III is fully tunable between 30 and 250 keV and optimized for sub-micrometer focusing. Approximately 70 % of the beamtime will be dedicated to Materials Research. Fundamental research will encompass metallurgy, physics and chemistry with first experiments planned for the investigation of the relationship between macroscopic and micro-structural properties of polycrystalline materials, grain-grain-interactions, and the development of smart materials or processes. For this purpose a 3D-microsctructure-mapper has been designed. Applied research for manufacturing process optimization will benefit from high flux in combination with ultra-fast detector systems allowing complex and highly dynamic in-situ studies of micro-structural transformations, e.g. during welding processes. The beamline infrastructure allows accommodation of large and heavy user provided equipment. Experiments targeting the industrial user community will be based on well established techniques with standardized evaluation, allowing full service measurements, e.g. for tomography and texture determination. The beamline consists of a five meter in-vacuum undulator, a general optics hutch, an in-house test facility and three independent experimental hutches working alternately, plus additional set-up and storage space for long-term experiments. HEMS is under commissioning as one of the first beamlines running at PETRA III.

  19. Canadian macromolecular crystallography facility: a suite of fully automated beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochulski, Pawel; Fodje, Michel; Labiuk, Shaunivan; Gorin, James; Janzen, Kathryn; Berg, Russ

    2012-06-01

    The Canadian light source is a 2.9 GeV national synchrotron radiation facility located on the University of Saskatchewan campus in Saskatoon. The small-gap in-vacuum undulator illuminated beamline, 08ID-1, together with the bending magnet beamline, 08B1-1, constitute the Canadian Macromolecular Crystallography Facility (CMCF). The CMCF provides service to more than 50 Principal Investigators in Canada and the United States. Up to 25% of the beam time is devoted to commercial users and the general user program is guaranteed up to 55% of the useful beam time through a peer-review process. CMCF staff provides "Mail-In" crystallography service to users with the highest scored proposals. Both beamlines are equipped with very robust end-stations including on-axis visualization systems, Rayonix 300 CCD series detectors and Stanford-type robotic sample auto-mounters. MxDC, an in-house developed beamline control system, is integrated with a data processing module, AutoProcess, allowing full automation of data collection and data processing with minimal human intervention. Sample management and remote monitoring of experiments is enabled through interaction with a Laboratory Information Management System developed at the facility.

  20. Beamline for schools

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This video is about BL4S Snapshot 22 Sep 2015 12:02:47From 10–20 September, winners of the Beamline for Schools competition visited CERN to perform their experiments. Two teams of high-school students – “Accelerating Africa” from South Africa and “Leo4G” from Italy – were chosen from a total of 119 teams, adding up to 1050 high-school students. “When we were told we’d won we never believed it. People’s parents thought we were lying,” says Michael Copeland from Accelerating Africa. The two teams shared a fully equipped accelerator beamline and conducted their experiment just like other researchers at CERN.

  1. Application of partially coherent wavefront propagation calculations for design of coherence-preserving synchrotron radiation beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, Oleg; Chu, Yong S.; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Yan, Hanfei

    2011-09-01

    Ultra-low emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) sources, such as NSLS-II and MAX-IV, will offer excellent opportunities for further development of experimental techniques exploiting X-ray coherence. However, even in these new SR sources, the radiation produced by relativistic electrons (in undulators, wigglers and bending magnets) will remain only partially coherent in the X-ray spectral range. "Extraction" of "coherent portion" of the radiation flux and its transport to sample without loss of coherence must be performed by dedicated SR beamlines, optimized for particular types of experiments. Detailed quantitative prediction of partially coherent X-ray beam properties at propagation through optical elements, which is required for the optimization of such beamlines, can only be obtained from accurate and efficient physical-optics based numerical simulations. Examples of such simulations, made for NSLS-II beamlines, using "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) computer code, are presented. Special attention is paid to the numerical analysis of the basic properties of partially coherent undulator radiation beam and its distinctions from the Gaussian beam. Performance characteristics of importance for particular beamlines, such as radiation spot size and flux at sample vs size of secondary source aperture for high-resolution microscopy beamlines, are predicted by the simulations.

  2. Thermal analysis of the first canted-undulator front-end components at SSRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhongmin, E-mail: xuzhongmin@sinap.ac.cn; Feng, Xinkang; Wang, Naxiu; Wu, Guanyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Jie

    2015-02-21

    The performance of three kinds of masks: pre-mask, splitter mask and fixed mask-photon shutter, used for the first canted-undulator front end under heat loads at SSRF, is studied. Because these components are shared with two beamlines, the X-rays from both dual undulators and bending magnets can strike on them. Under these complicated conditions, they will absorb much more thermal power than when they operate in usual beamline. So thermal and stress analysis is indispensable for their mechanical design. The method of applying the non-uniform power density using Ansys is presented. During thermal stress analysis, the normal operation or the worst possible case is considered. The finite element analyses results, such as the maximum temperature of the body and the cooling wall and the maximum stress of these components, show the design of them is reasonable and safe.

  3. Influence of higher harmonics of the undulator in X-ray polarimetry and crystal monochromator design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Glowna, Berit; Schulze, Kai S; Uschmann, Ingo; Kämpfer, Tino; Weber, Günter; Hahn, Christoph; Wille, Hans Christian; Schlage, Kai; Röhlsberger, Ralf; Förster, Eckhart; Stöhlker, Thomas; Paulus, Gerhard G

    2015-09-01

    The spectrum of the undulator radiation of beamline P01 at Petra III has been measured after passing a multiple reflection channel-cut polarimeter. Odd and even harmonics up to the 15th order, as well as Compton peaks which were produced by the high harmonics in the spectrum, could been measured. These additional contributions can have a tremendous influence on the performance of the polarimeter and have to be taken into account for further polarimeter designs.

  4. Properties of undulator radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veal, B.W.

    1985-11-01

    Properties of the radiation emitted by a plane sinusoidal undulator are calculated in the far field approximation. Software has been developed to calculate the spectral distribution and polarization of the radiated intensity I(E) at a point on (or integrated over) a cross sectional observation plane of the photon beam. Spatial distribution of monochromatic radiation and power density contours are also calculated. Spectral broadening caused by an electron beam of finite spatial distribution is considered. Dispersive properties of the photon beam, including the dependence on deflection parameter, are analyzed. It is shown that reasonably constant intensity distribution I(E) can be obtained by properly shaping the beam acceptance aperture. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Impact of a Vertically Polarized Undulator on LCLS Hard X-ray Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The LCLS-II project will install two variable gap, horizontally polarized undulators into the LCLS undulator hall. One undulator is designed to produce soft x-rays spanning an energy range of 200-1250 eV (SXU) while the other is designed for the hard spectral range of 1-25 keV (HXU). The hard x-ray LCLS instruments (X-ray Pump- Probe [XPP], X-ray correlation Spectroscopy [XCS], Coherent X-ray Imaging [CXI], Matter in Extreme Conditions [MEC]) will be repurposed to operate on the HXU line while two new soft x-ray beamlines will be created for the SXU line. An alternate HXU undulator design is being considered that could provide advantages over the present design choice. In particular, the project team is collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory to develop a vertically polarized undulator (VPU). A 1-m prototype VPU device was successfully constructed this year and a full size prototype is in process. A decision to alter the project baseline, which is the construction of a horizontally polarized device, must be made in the coming weeks to not impact the present project schedule. Please note that a change to the soft x-ray undulator is not under discussion at the moment.

  6. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: hongchang.wang@diamond.ac.uk; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-01

    Complete polarization analysis of the photon beam produced by a dual APPLE-II undulator configuration using a multilayer-based soft X-ray polarimeter is given. The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used.

  7. Diffusion effects in undulator radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Agapov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum diffusion effects in undulator radiation in semiclassical approximation are considered. Short-term effects on the electron beam motion are discussed and it is shown that approaches based on diffusion approximation with drift-diffusion coefficients derived from undulator or bending magnet radiation spectrum, and on Poisson statistics with radiation spectrum defined by the local beding field, all lead to similar results in terms of electron energy spread for cases of practical interest. An analytical estimate of the influence of quantum diffusion on the undulator radiation spectrum is derived.

  8. Self-stimulated Emission of Undulator Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bessonov, E. G.; Gorbunkov, M. V.; Mikhailichenko, A. A.; Osipov, A. L.

    2010-01-01

    We attract attention that interaction of particle in downstream undulator with its own wavelet emitted in upstream undulator could be as strong as with the frictional field in undulator itself. This phenomenon could be used for enhancement of signal from pickup undulators in optical stochastic cooling methods as well as for increase of damping.

  9. The full potential of the baseline SASE undulators of the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, Ilya; Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Feng, Guangyao; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    The output SASE characteristics of the baseline European XFEL, recently used in the TDRs of scientific instruments and X-ray optics, have been previously optimized assuming uniform undulators without considering the potential of undulator tapering in the SASE regime. Here we demonstrate that the performance of European XFEL sources can be significantly improved without additional hardware. The procedure simply consists in the optimization of the undulator gap configuration for each X-ray beamline. Here we provide a comprehensive description of the soft X-ray photon beam properties as a function of wavelength and bunch charge. Based on nominal parameters for the electron beam, we demonstrate that undulator tapering allows one to achieve up to a tenfold increase in peak power and photon spectral density in the conventional SASE regime. We illustrate this fact for the SASE3 beamline. The FEL code Genesis has been extensively used for these studies. Based on these findings we suggest that the requirements for the SASE3 instrument (SCS, SQS) and for the SASE3 beam transport system be updated.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Shoreline Undulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg

    The present thesis considers undulations on sandy shorelines. The aim of the study is to determine the physical mechanisms which govern the morphologic evolution of shoreline undulations, and thereby to be able to predict their shape, dimensions and evolution in time. In order to do so a numerical...... model has been developed which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines. The numerical model is based on a spectral wave model, a depth integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model. First the theoretical...... length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a shoreline stability analysis based on the numerical model. The analysis shows that the length of the undulations in the linear regime depends on the incoming wave conditions and on the coastal profile. For larger waves...

  11. Focusing properties of linear undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quattromini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the focusing properties of linear magnetic undulators, i.e., devices characterized by weak defocusing properties in the horizontal (wiggling plane and strongly focusing in the vertical plane. The problem of identifying the conditions that ensure the existence of the electron beam eigenstates in the undulator lattice for a given working point of electron beam energy E_{b} and resonant wavelength λ_{r} is studied. For any given undulator lattice, a bandlike structure is identified defining regions in the (E_{b},λ_{r} plane where no periodic matching condition can be found, i.e., it is not possible to transport the electron beam so that optical functions are periodic at lattice boundaries. Some specific cases are discussed for the SPARC FEL undulator.

  12. Experience with Multi-Beam and Multi-Beamline FEL-Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönsch-Schulenburg, J.; Faatz, B.; Honkavaara, K.; Kuhlmann, M.; Schreiber, S.; Treusch, R.; Vogt, M.

    2017-07-01

    DESY’s free-electron laser FLASH provides soft X-ray pulses for scientific users at wavelengths down to 4nm simultaneously in two undulator beamlines. They are driven by a common linear superconducting accelerator with a beam energy of up to 1.25 GeV. The superconducting technology allows the acceleration of electron bunch trains of several hundred bunches with a spacing of 1 microsecond or more and a repetition rate of 10 Hz. A fast kickerseptum system directs one part of the bunch train to FLASH1 and the other part to FLASH2 keeping the full 10 Hz repetition rate for both. The unique setup of FLASH allows independent FEL pulse parameters for both beamlines. In April 2016, simultaneous operation of FLASH1 and FLASH2 for external users started. This paper reports on our operating experience with this type of multi-beam, multi-beamline set-up.

  13. FLASH2: Operation, beamlines, and photon diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plönjes, Elke, E-mail: elke.ploenjes@desy.de; Faatz, Bart; Kuhlmann, Marion; Treusch, Rolf [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    FLASH2, a major extension of the soft X-ray free-electron laser FLASH at DESY, turns FLASH into a multi-user FEL facility. A new undulator line is located in a separate accelerator tunnel and driven additionally by the FLASH linear accelerator. First lasing of FLASH2 was achieved in August 2014 with simultaneous user operation at FLASH1. The new FLASH2 experimental hall offers space for up to six experimental end stations, some of which will be installed permanently. The wide wavelength range spans from 4-60 nm and 0.8 nm in the 5{sup th} harmonic and in the future deep into the water window in the fundamental. While this is of high interest to users, it is challenging from the beamline instrumentation point of view. Online diagnostics - which are mostly pulse resolved - for beam intensity, position, wavelength, wave front, and pulse length have been to a large extent developed at FLASH(1) and have now been optimized for FLASH2. Pump-probe facilities for XUV-XUV, XUV optical and XUV-THz experiments will complete the FLASH2 user facility.

  14. Radiation protection of a proton beamline at ELI-Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechet, S.; Versaci, R.; Rollet, S.; Olsovcova, V.; Fajstavr, A.; Zakova, M.; Margarone, D.

    2016-12-01

    ELI-Beamlines (ELI stands for Extreme Light Infrastructure) is a new EU funded laser facility located near Prague, in Czech Republic. It will use laser-driven plasma sources to accelerate particles and host a dedicated proton beamline called ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser- Ion Acceleration) designed to reach energies up to 250 MeV. This beamline could be exploited to study possible future medical application of laser-driven beams. The first part of this paper introduces the beamline, the corresponding source terms and the complete set-up. The second part of the paper details the evaluation of the ambient dose equivalent and the activation study inside the experimental halls based on Monte-Carlo simulation. These calculations show that the ELIMAIA operation is safe as long as nobody is present in the hall when the beam is on.

  15. Fast tomography using quasi-monochromatic undulator radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Kentaro; Sera, Toshihiro; Yagi, Naoto

    2006-09-01

    A beamline with a helical undulator has been used without a monochromator for fast high-resolution tomographic imaging with an X-ray energy of 12.4-16.5 keV and an energy bandwidth of 2-3%. The X-ray beam was expanded with two mirrors to 12 mm x 4 mm. The X-ray field was made uniform by a diffuser. The detector pixel size was 9.9 microm x 9.9 microm. At the highest speed, a 180 degrees scan was completed in 6 s with 454 projections. Beam-hardening effects were not significant. This technique may be useful in studying time-dependent structural changes of soft materials such as polymers and biological samples.

  16. Interferometry using undulator sources (invited, abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguiristain, R.; Goldberg, K. A.; Tejnil, E.; Bokor, J.; Medecki, H.; Attwood, D. T.; Jackson, K.

    1996-09-01

    Optical systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography need to use optical components with subnanometer surface figure error tolerances to achieve diffraction-limited performance [M.D. Himel, in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A.M. Hawryluk and R.H. Stulen, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1993), 18, 1089, and D. Attwood et al., Appl. Opt. 32, 7022 (1993)]. Also, multilayer-coated optics require at-wavelength wavefront measurement to characterize phase effects that cannot be measured by conventional optical interferometry. Furthermore, EUV optical systems will additionally require final testing and alignment at the operational wavelength for adjustment and reduction of the cumulative optical surface errors. Therefore, at-wavelength interferometric measurement of EUV optics will be the necessary metrology tool for the successful development of optics for EUV lithography. An EUV point diffraction interferometer (PDI) has been developed at the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) and has been already in operation for a year [K. Goldberg et al., in Extreme Ultra Lithography, D.T. Attwood and F. Zernike, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1994), K. Goldberg et al., Proc. SPIE 2437, to be published, and K. Goldberg et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2923 (1995)] using an undulator radiation source and coherent optics beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An overview of the PDI interferometer and some EUV wavefront measurements obtained with this instrument will be presented. In addition, future developments planned for EUV interferometry at CXRO towards the measurement of actual EUV lithography optics will be shown.

  17. Experimental demonstration of a tunable microwave undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, Sami; Shumail, Muhammad; Neilson, Jeffery; Bowden, Gordon; Chang, Chao; Hemsing, Erik; Dunning, Michael

    2014-04-25

    Static magnetic undulators used by x-ray light sources are fundamentally too limited to achieve shorter undulator periods and dynamic control. To overcome these limitations, we report experimental demonstration of a novel short-period microwave undulator, essentially a Thomson scattering device, that has yielded tunable spontaneous emission and seeded coherent radiation. Its equivalent undulator period (λu) is 13.9 mm while it has achieved an equivalent magnetic field of 0.65 T. For future-generation light sources, this device promises a shorter undulator period, a large aperture, and fast dynamic control.

  18. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron`s longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristic of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets.

  19. Depolarization in the ILC Linac-to-Ring Positron Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Riemann, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    To achieve the physics goals of future Linear Colliders, it is important that electron and positron beams are polarized. The positron source planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is based on a helical undulator system and can deliver a polarised beam with positron polarization of 60%. To ensure that no significant polarization is lost during the transport of the electron and positron beams from the source to the interaction region, spin tracking has to be included in all transport elements which can contribute to a loss of polarization. These are the positron source, the damping ring, the spin rotators, the main linac and the beam delivery system. In particular, the dynamics of the polarized positron beam is required to be investigated. The results of positron spin tracking and depolarization study at the Positron-Linac-To-Ring (PLTR) beamline are presented.

  20. Extraction of accurate structure-factor amplitudes from Laue data: wavelength normalization with wiggler and undulator X-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srajer, V; Crosson, S; Schmidt, M; Key, J; Schotte, F; Anderson, S; Perman, B; Ren, Z; Teng, T Y; Bourgeois, D; Wulff, M; Moffat, K

    2000-07-01

    Wavelength normalization is an essential part of processing of Laue X-ray diffraction data and is critically important for deriving accurate structure-factor amplitudes. The results of wavelength normalization for Laue data obtained in nanosecond time-resolved experiments at the ID09 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France, are presented. Several wiggler and undulator insertion devices with complex spectra were used. The results show that even in the most challenging cases, such as wiggler/undulator tandems or single-line undulators, accurate wavelength normalization does not require unusually redundant Laue data and can be accomplished using typical Laue data sets. Single-line undulator spectra derived from Laue data compare well with the measured incident X-ray spectra. Successful wavelength normalization of the undulator data was also confirmed by the observed signal in nanosecond time-resolved experiments. Single-line undulators, which are attractive for time-resolved experiments due to their high peak intensity and low polychromatic background, are compared with wigglers, based on data obtained on the same crystal.

  1. Normal planar undulators doubling as transverse gradient undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qika Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The transverse gradient undulator (TGU has important application in the short-wavelength high-gain free electron lasers (FELs driven by laser-plasma accelerators. However, the usual transversely tapered TGUs need special design and manufacture, and the transverse gradient cannot be tuned arbitrarily. In this paper we explore a new and simple method of using the natural transverse gradient of a normal planar undulator to compensate the beam energy spread effect. In this method, a vertical dispersion on the electron beam is introduced, then the dispersed beam passes through a normal undulator with a vertical off-axis orbit where the vertical field gradient is selected properly related to the dispersion strength and the beam energy spread. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs based on laser plasma accelerators are presented, and indicate that this method can greatly reduce the effect of the beam energy spread, leading to a similar enhancement on FEL performance as the usual transversely tapered TGU, but with the advantages of economy, tunable transverse gradient and no demand of extra field for correcting the orbit deflection induced by the field gradient.

  2. Normal planar undulators doubling as transverse gradient undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qika; Li, Heting

    2017-02-01

    The transverse gradient undulator (TGU) has important application in the short-wavelength high-gain free electron lasers (FELs) driven by laser-plasma accelerators. However, the usual transversely tapered TGUs need special design and manufacture, and the transverse gradient cannot be tuned arbitrarily. In this paper we explore a new and simple method of using the natural transverse gradient of a normal planar undulator to compensate the beam energy spread effect. In this method, a vertical dispersion on the electron beam is introduced, then the dispersed beam passes through a normal undulator with a vertical off-axis orbit where the vertical field gradient is selected properly related to the dispersion strength and the beam energy spread. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs based on laser plasma accelerators are presented, and indicate that this method can greatly reduce the effect of the beam energy spread, leading to a similar enhancement on FEL performance as the usual transversely tapered TGU, but with the advantages of economy, tunable transverse gradient and no demand of extra field for correcting the orbit deflection induced by the field gradient.

  3. Refurbishment of a used in-vacuum undulator from the National Synchrotron Light Source for the National Synchrotron Light Source-II ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Bassan, Harmanpreet; Broadbent, Andrew; Cappadoro, Peter; Escallier, John; Harder, David; Hetzel, Charles; Hidas, Dean; Kitegi, Charles; Kosciuk, Bernard; Musardo, Marco; Kirkland, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) ceased operation in September 2014 and was succeeded by NSLS-II. There were four in-vacuum undulators (IVUs) in operation at NSLS. The most recently constructed IVU for NSLS was the mini-gap undulator (MGU-X25, to be renamed IVU18 for NSLS-II), which was constructed in 2006. This device was selected to be reused for the New York Structural Biology Consortium Microdiffraction beamline at NSLS-II. At the time of construction, IVU18 was a state-of-the-art undulator designed to be operated as a cryogenic permanent-magnet undulator. Due to the more stringent field quality and impedance requirements of the NSLS-II ring, the transition region was redesigned. The control system was also updated to NSLS-II specifications. This paper reports the details of the IVU18 refurbishment activities including additional magnetic measurement and tuning.

  4. Canted Undulator Upgrade for GeoSoilEnviroCARS Sector 13 at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Stephen

    2013-02-02

    Support for the beamline component of the canted undulator upgrade of Sector 13 (GeoSoilEnviroCARS; managed and operated by the University of Chicago) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS; Argonne National Laboratory) was received from three agencies (equally divided): NASA-SRLIDAP (now LARS), NSF-EAR-IF (ARRA) and DOE-Single Investigator Small Group (SISGR). The associated accelerator components (undulators, canted front end) were provided by the APS using DOE-ARRA funding. The intellectual merit of the research enabled by the upgrade lies in advancing our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials; the processes they control; and the processes that produce them. The upgrade will facilitate scientific advances in the following areas: high pressure mineral physics and chemistry, non-crystalline and nano-crystalline materials at high pressure, chemistry of hydrothermal fluids, reactions at mineral-water interfaces, biogeochemistry, oxidation states of magmas, flow dynamics of fluids and solids, and cosmochemistry. The upgrade, allowing the microprobe to operate 100% of the time and the high pressure and surface scattering and spectroscopy instruments to receive beam time increases, will facilitate much more efficient use of the substantial investment in these instruments. The broad scientific community will benefit by the increase in the number of scientists who conduct cutting-edge research at GSECARS. The user program in stations 13ID-C (interface scattering) and 13ID-D (laser heated diamond anvil cell and large volume press) recommenced in June 2012. The operation of the 13ID-E microprobe station began in the Fall 2012 cycle (Oct.-Dec 2012). The upgraded canted beamlines double the amount of undulator beam time at Sector 13 and provide new capabilities including extended operations of the X-ray microprobe down to the sulfur K edge and enhanced brightness at high energy. The availability of the upgraded beamlines will advance the

  5. Observational constraints on undulant cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena Requejo, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    In an undulant universe, cosmic expansion is characterized by alternating periods of acceleration and deceleration. We examine cosmologies in which the dark-energy equation of state varies periodically with the number of e-foldings of the scale factor of the universe, and use observations to constrain the frequency of oscillation. We find a tension between a forceful response to the cosmic coincidence problem and the standard treatment of structure formation.

  6. Coherent radiation in an undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yong Ho

    1990-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the synchrotron radiation from an undulating electron beam in a rectangular waveguide. The analysis is based on the dyadic Green's function approach to solve Maxwell's equations in terms of the vector potential. It is shown analytically and numerically that the radiated energy spectrum may differ significantly from the free space results when the undulator length divided by the Lorentz factor of the electron beam is larger than the transverse size of the waveguide. Then, the appearance of the spectrum is changed into a small number of sharp peaks, each corresponding to an excited waveguide mode. The undulator radiation is identified with the wake field in beam instabilities. The concepts of wake function and impedance are introduced to formulate the present problem in the same manner as the beam instability problem, so that the accumulated techniques of the latter can be applied. It is shown that the obtained impedances satisfy the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem and other properties inevitable for wake fields.

  7. Double-crystal monochromator for a PF 60-period soft x-ray undulator (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T.; Maezawa, H.; Nomura, M.; Ando, M.

    1989-07-01

    Since undulator light is sharply collimated itself, it can be effectively monochromatized by a perfect crystal. An x-ray double-crystal monochromator with a fixed exit has been designed and built for the use of undulator light from a 60-period undulator at Photon Factory (beamline 2A). Available Bragg angle ranges from 7° to 80°. Angle scan is made by means of a goniometer outside the vacuum chamber, with the finest step of 0.1 arcsec. Magnetic fluid is used as the vacuum seal of the feedthrough. The fixed exit beam position is kept by translating the second crystal along the two mechanical guides: one for normal and the other for parallel to the crystal surface. Adjustment of the parallelity of two crystals is made manually with flexible wires. Since a total power in the central coherent portion which is limited by a 1×1-mm2 slit is not so much, a stable operation is possible without cooling the crystal. Currently, InSb (111) reflection is used. The diffracting planes of the first cyrstal is 1° off from the surface and the second is the symmetric reflection. At its fifth harmonics, brilliant undulator light of approximately 1012 photons/s mm2 with 1-eV energy resolution is available (E=2 keV).

  8. Beam chopper For the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) in the APS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y.; Wang, J.; Milton, S.; Teng, L. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) is being built and will be tested with a short beam pulse from an rf gun in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory. In the LEUTL a beam chopper is used after the rf gun to deflect the unwanted beam to a beam dump. The beam chopper consists of a permanent magnet and an electric deflector that can compensate for the magnetic deflection. A 30-kV pulsed power supply is used for the electric deflector. The chopper subsystem was assembled and tested for beamline installation. The electrical and beam properties of the chopper assembly are presented.

  9. Novel designs for undulator based positron sources

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Mike; Bailey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Proposed high energy electron-positron linear colliders require a high ux of positrons. To achieve this a number of new positron source designs have been proposed. One of these is an undulator-based positron source, which is the baseline positron source design for the International Linear Collider. The undulator-based positron source for the International Linear Collider uses a helical undulator to produce a intense photon beam that generates positrons through the pairproduction mechanism. As...

  10. Advanced photoelectric effect experiment beamline at Elettra: A surface science laboratory coupled with Synchrotron Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccione, G; Vobornik, I; Fujii, J; Krizmancic, D; Annese, E; Giovanelli, L; Maccherozzi, F; Salvador, F; De Luisa, A; Benedetti, D; Gruden, A; Bertoch, P; Polack, F; Cocco, D; Sostero, G; Diviacco, B; Hochstrasser, M; Maier, U; Pescia, D; Back, C H; Greber, T; Osterwalder, J; Galaktionov, M; Sancrotti, M; Rossi, G

    2009-04-01

    We report the main characteristics of the advanced photoelectric effect experiments beamline, operational at Elettra storage ring, featuring a fully independent double branch scheme obtained by the use of chicane undulators and able to keep polarization control in both linear and circular mode. The paper describes the novel technical solutions adopted, namely, (a) the design of a quasiperiodic undulator resulting in optimized suppression of higher harmonics over a large photon energy range (10-100 eV), (b) the thermal stability of optics under high heat load via cryocoolers, and (c) the end station interconnected setup allowing full access to off-beam and on-beam facilities and, at the same time, the integration of users' specialized sample growth chambers or modules.

  11. Beamline I11 at Diamond: a new instrument for high resolution powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S P; Parker, J E; Potter, J; Hill, T P; Birt, A; Cobb, T M; Yuan, F; Tang, C C

    2009-07-01

    The performance characteristics of a new synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction beamline (I11) at the Diamond Light Source are presented. Using an in-vacuum undulator for photon production and deploying simple x-ray optics centered around a double-crystal monochromator and a pair of harmonic rejection mirrors, a high brightness and low bandpass x-ray beam is delivered at the sample. To provide fast data collection, 45 Si(111) analyzing crystals and detectors are installed onto a large and high precision diffractometer. High resolution powder diffraction data from standard reference materials of Si, alpha-quartz, and LaB6 are used to characterize instrumental performance.

  12. ALS beamline design requirements: A guide for beamline designers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This manual is written as a guide for researchers in designing beamlines and endstations acceptable for use at the ALS. It contains guidelines and policies related to personnel safety and equipment and vacuum protection. All equipment and procedures must ultimately satisfy the safety requirements set aside in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Health and Safety Manual (PUB-3000) which is available from the ALS User Office or on the World WideWeb from the LBNL Homepage (http:// www.lbl.gov).

  13. Damping Undulators vs Damping Wigglers

    CERN Document Server

    Muchnoi, Nickolai

    2016-01-01

    Use of damping wigglers is a common technique for beam emittance reduction in the electron storage rings. The general approach to estimate damping effect is based on evaluation of several radiation integrals for a storage ring itself as well as for insertion devices. In this letter we show that a wiggler radiation integrals should be tweaked to account for the impact of lower harmonics of undulator radiation, which is an equivalent of Thomson scattering. Under certain conditions, these amendments play a decisive role in a formation of equilibrium emittance.

  14. Undulation Instability of Epithelial Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Basan, Markus; Prost, Jacques; Risler, Thomas; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.158101

    2011-01-01

    Treating the epithelium as an incompressible fluid adjacent to a viscoelastic stroma, we find a novel hydrodynamic instability that leads to the formation of protrusions of the epithelium into the stroma. This instability is a candidate for epithelial fingering observed in vivo. It occurs for sufficiently large viscosity, cell-division rate and thickness of the dividing region in the epithelium. Our work provides physical insight into a potential mechanism by which interfaces between epithelia and stromas undulate, and potentially by which tissue dysplasia leads to cancerous invasion.

  15. Design of the LBNE Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, Vaia [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Andrews, Richard [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hylen, James [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kobilarcik, Thomas [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchionni, Alberto [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Moore, Craig D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schlabach, Phil [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tariq, Salman [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-02-05

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60-120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab’s Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are sign selected and subsequently focused by a set of magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay mostly into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints, and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~1.2 MW; however, the facility is designed to be upgradeable for 2.3 MW operation. We discuss here the status of the design and the associated challenges.

  16. Design of the LBNE Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, V; Hylen, J; Kobilarcik, T; Marchionni, A; Moore, C D; Schlabach, P; Tariq, S

    2015-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60 -120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab's Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are sign selected and subsequently focused by a set of magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay mostly into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~1.2 MW, however the facility is desi...

  17. Design of the LBNF Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, V.; Andrews, R.; Hylen, J.; Kobilarcik, T.; Krafczyk, G.; Marchinonni, A.; Moore, C. D.; Schlabach, P.; Tariq, S.

    2015-08-30

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a beamline located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a wide band neutrino beam toward underground detectors placed at the SURF Facility in South Dakota, about 1,300 km away. The main elements of the facility are a primary proton beamline and a neutrino beamline. The primary proton beam (60-120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab’s Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are subsequently focused by magnetic horns into a 204 m long decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial proton beam power is expected to be 1.2 MW; however, the facility is designed to be upgradeable to 2.4 MW. We discuss here the design status and the associated challenges as well as plans for improvements before baselining the facility.

  18. LCLS Undulator Quadrupole Fiducialization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Michael; Lundahl, Eric; Reese, Ed; LeCocq, Catherine; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC

    2010-11-24

    This note presents the fiducialization plan for the LCLS undulator quadrupoles. The note begins by summarizing the requirements for the fiducialization. A discussion of the measurement equipment is presented, followed by the methods used to perform the fiducialization and check the results. This is followed by the detailed fiducialization plan in which each step is enumerated. Finally, the measurement results and data storage formats are presented. The LCLS is made up of 33 assemblies consisting of an undulator, quadrupole, beam finder wire, and other components mounted on a girder. The components must be mounted in such a way that the beam passes down the axis of each component. In this note, we describe how the ideal beam axis is related to tooling balls on the quadrupole. This step, called fiducialization, is necessary because the ideal beam axis is determined magnetically, whereas tangible objects must be used to locate the quadrupole. The note begins with the list of fiducialization requirements. The laboratory in which the work will be performed and the relevant equipment is then briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the methods used to perform the fiducialization and the methods used to check the results. A detailed fiducialization plan is presented in which all the steps of fiducialization are enumerated. A discussion of the resulting data files and directory structure concludes the note.

  19. Vacuum systems for the ILC helical undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Malyshev, O B; Clarke, J A; Bailey, I R; Dainton, J B; Malysheva, L I; Barber, D P; Cooke, P; Baynham, E; Bradshaw, T; Brummitt, A; Carr, S; Ivanyushenkov, Y; Rochford, J; Moortgat-Pick, G A

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source uses a helical undulator to generate polarized photons of ∼10MeV∼10MeV at the first harmonic. Unlike many undulators used in synchrotron radiation sources, the ILC helical undulator vacuum chamber will be bombarded by photons, generated by the undulator, with energies mostly below that of the first harmonic. Achieving the vacuum specification of ∼100nTorr∼100nTorr in a narrow chamber of 4–6mm4–6mm inner diameter, with a long length of 100–200m100–200m, makes the design of the vacuum system challenging. This article describes the vacuum specifications and calculations of the flux and energy of photons irradiating the undulator vacuum chamber and considers possible vacuum system design solutions for two cases: cryogenic and room temperature.

  20. Radiation emitted by transverse-gradient undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Axel; Braun, Nils; Rodríguez, Verónica Afonso; Peiffer, Peter; Rossmanith, Robert; Widmann, Christina; Scheer, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Conventional undulators are used in synchrotron light sources to produce radiation with a narrow relative spectral width as compared to bending magnets or wigglers. The spectral width of the radiation produced by conventional undulators is determined by the number of undulator periods and by the energy spread and emittance of the electron beam. In more compact electron sources like for instance laser plasma accelerators the energy spread becomes the dominating factor. Due to this effect these electron sources cannot in general be used for high-gain free electron lasers (FELs). In order to overcome this limitation, modified undulator schemes, so-called transverse gradient undulators (TGUs), were proposed and a first superconducting TGU was built at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany. In this paper simulations of the expected synchrotron radiation spectral distribution are presented. An experimental test with that device is under preparation at the laser wakefield accelerator at the JETI laser at the University of Jena, Germany.

  1. Angle-resolved electron and ion spectroscopy apparatus on the soft X-ray photochemistry beamline BL27SU at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Ueda, K; Senba, Y; Okada, K; Shimizu, Y; Chiba, H; Ohashi, H; Tamenori, Y; Okumura, H; Saitô, N; Nagaoka, S; Hiraya, A; Ishiguro, E; Ibuki, T; Suzuki, I H; Koyano, I

    2001-01-01

    We have designed and constructed the apparatus for the angular distribution measurements of photoejected electrons and ions from free molecules, as a part of the endstation of the c-branch of the beamline BL27SU, a soft X-ray photochemistry beamline at SPring-8. The experimental procedures are described in combination with the use of a capability to switch the horizontal and vertical directions of the linear polarization of the light produced by the figure-8 undulator. As a typical example of the experimental results, we present angle-resolved energetic ion yield spectra in the O 1s excitation region of CO sub 2.

  2. Adjustable phase planar helical undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Roger G.; Lidia, Steve

    1993-11-01

    We present here the design description of a new type of planar helical undulator, which we are constructing for the SPEAR storage ring at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. It comprises four rows of pure permanent magnet blocks, one row in each quadrant about the axis defined by the electron beam. Rows may be translated longitudinally with respect to each other to change the helicity of the magnetic field they create at the position of the beam. They may also be translated longitudinally to vary the energy of the x-rays emitted, unlike designs where this function is performed by varying the gap between the rows. This work includes numerical calculations of the fields, electron trajectories, and x-ray spectra, including off-axis effects.

  3. Status of the LCLS-II undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallén, E., E-mail: ejwallen@lbl.gov; Arbelaez, D.; Brown, A.; Dougherty, J.; Corlett, J.; DeMello, A.; Hanzel, K.; Jung, J.-Y.; Leitner, M.; Madur, A.; McCombs, K.; Marks, S.; Munson, D.; Plate, D.; Pucci, J.; Ray, K.; Schlueter, R.; Mateo, E. San [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Ewart, M.; Rowen, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The new free electron laser facility Linear Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) under construction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory will use planar variable gap undulators of hybrid type for the production of free electron laser (FEL) radiation. The LCLS-II will include two FELs with two separate rows of undulators to generate soft and hard x-rays. The soft x-rays will be produced by undulators with 39 mm period length (SXR) and the hard x-rays will be produced by undulators with 26 mm period length (HXR). Both the SXR and the HXR undulators are 3.4 m long and they use a common support structure and frame. In total 21 SXR and 32 HXR undulators will be produced by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. A full-scale prototype with 32 mm period length, called HXU, has been assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The present status of the design, prototyping, and pre-series production of the SXR and HXR undulators are presented in this paper together with the first results from measurements on the full scale HXU prototype.

  4. Development and operation of a Pr2 Fe14 B based cryogenic permanent magnet undulator for a high spatial resolution x-ray beam line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabderrahmane, C.; Valléau, M.; Ghaith, A.; Berteaud, P.; Chapuis, L.; Marteau, F.; Briquez, F.; Marcouillé, O.; Marlats, J.-L.; Tavakoli, K.; Mary, A.; Zerbib, D.; Lestrade, A.; Louvet, M.; Brunelle, P.; Medjoubi, K.; Herbeaux, C.; Béchu, N.; Rommeluere, P.; Somogyi, A.; Chubar, O.; Kitegi, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2017-03-01

    Short period, high field undulators are used to produce hard x-rays on synchrotron radiation based storage ring facilities of intermediate energy and enable short wavelength free electron laser. Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators take benefit from improved magnetic properties of RE2 Fe14B (Rare Earth based magnets) at low temperatures for achieving short period, high magnetic field and high coercivity. Using Pr2 Fe14B instead of Nd2 Fe14B , which is generally employed for undulators, avoids the limitation caused by the spin reorientation transition phenomenon, and simplifies the cooling system by allowing the working temperature of the undulator to be directly at the liquid nitrogen one (77 K). We describe here the development of a full scale (2 m), 18 mm period Pr2 Fe14B cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (U18). The design, construction and optimization, as well as magnetic measurements and shimming at low temperature are presented. The commissioning and operation of the undulator with the electron beam and spectrum measurement using the Nanoscopmium beamline at SOLEIL are also reported.

  5. Development and operation of a Pr_{2}Fe_{14}B based cryogenic permanent magnet undulator for a high spatial resolution x-ray beam line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Benabderrahmane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Short period, high field undulators are used to produce hard x-rays on synchrotron radiation based storage ring facilities of intermediate energy and enable short wavelength free electron laser. Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators take benefit from improved magnetic properties of RE_{2}Fe_{14}B (Rare Earth based magnets at low temperatures for achieving short period, high magnetic field and high coercivity. Using Pr_{2}Fe_{14}B instead of Nd_{2}Fe_{14}B, which is generally employed for undulators, avoids the limitation caused by the spin reorientation transition phenomenon, and simplifies the cooling system by allowing the working temperature of the undulator to be directly at the liquid nitrogen one (77 K. We describe here the development of a full scale (2 m, 18 mm period Pr_{2}Fe_{14}B cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (U18. The design, construction and optimization, as well as magnetic measurements and shimming at low temperature are presented. The commissioning and operation of the undulator with the electron beam and spectrum measurement using the Nanoscopmium beamline at SOLEIL are also reported.

  6. Optimization of a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European X-ray FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2012-01-01

    We recently proposed a basic concept for design and layout of the undulator source for a dedicated bio-imaging beamline at the European XFEL. The goal of the optimized scheme proposed here is to enable experimental simplification and performance improvement. The core of the scheme is composed by soft and hard X-ray self-seeding setups. Based on the use of an improved design for both monochromators it is possible to increase the design electron energy up to 17.5 GeV in photon energy range between 2 keV and 13 keV, which is the most preferable for life science experiments. An advantage of operating at such high electron energy is the increase of the X-ray output peak power. Another advantage is that 17.5 GeV is the preferred operation energy for SASE1 and SASE2 beamline users. Since it will be necessary to run all the XFEL lines at the same electron energy, this choice will reduce the interference with other undulator lines and increase the total amount of scheduled beam time. In this work we also propose a stu...

  7. LCLS-II Undulator Tolerance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, H.-D.; /SLAC; Marks, S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is building a new FEL user facility, LCLS-II, as a major upgrade to the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The upgrade will include two new Free Electron Lasers (FELs), to generate soft (SXR) and hard x-ray (HXR) SASE FEL radiation, based on planar, variable gap hybrid undulators with two different undulator periods (SXU: 55 mm, HXU: 32 mm). An algebraic FEL tolerance analysis for the undulator lines, including tuning, alignment, and phase correction tolerances has been performed. The methods and results are presented in this paper.

  8. MaRIE Undulator & XFEL Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-03-23

    The 22 slides in this presentation treat the subject under the following headings: MaRIE XFEL Performance Parameters, Input Electron Beam Parameters, Undulator Design, Genesis Simulations, Risks, and Summary It is concluded that time-dependent Genesis simulations show the MaRIE XFEL can deliver the number of photons within the required bandwidth, provided a number of assumptions are met; the highest risks are associated with the electron beam driving the XFEL undulator; and risks associated with the undulator and/or distributed seeding technique may be evaluated or retired by performing early validation experiments.

  9. Undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluskin, Efim; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Xu, Joseph Z.

    2016-05-31

    A method and apparatus for implementing dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for undulators are provided. An undulator includes a respective set of magnet arrays, each attached to a strongback, and placed on horizontal slides and positioned parallel relative to each other with a predetermined gap. Magnetic forces are compensated by a set of compensation springs placed along the strongback. The compensation springs are conical springs having exponential-force characteristics that substantially match undulator magnetic forces independently of the predetermined gap. The conical springs are positioned along the length of the magnets.

  10. Undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluskin, Efim; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Xu, Joseph Z.

    2016-05-31

    A method and apparatus for implementing dynamic compensation of magnetic forces for undulators are provided. An undulator includes a respective set of magnet arrays, each attached to a strongback, and placed on horizontal slides and positioned parallel relative to each other with a predetermined gap. Magnetic forces are compensated by a set of compensation springs placed along the strongback. The compensation springs are conical springs having exponential-force characteristics that substantially match undulator magnetic forces independently of the predetermined gap. The conical springs are positioned along the length of the magnets.

  11. Wakefield Undulator For Generating X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Opanasenko, A N

    2004-01-01

    Conception of wakefield undulator (WFU) with very short period is presented. In the base of photon generation by the WFU lies a new mechanism of undulator-type radiation emitted by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch that undulates due to non-synchronous spatial harmonics of its wakefields while the bunch moves along a periodic waveguide. The creation of the WFU with sub-millimeter periods due to advanced accelerator technology opens possibilities to generate hard X-rays employing relatively low electron energies without external alternative fields.

  12. SAMRAI: a novel variably polarized angle-resolved photoemission beamline in the VUV region at UVSOR-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Takahiro; Sakai, Masahiro; Nakamura, Eiken; Kondo, Naonori; Horigome, Toshio; Hayashi, Kenji; Hosaka, Masahito; Katoh, Masahiro; Goto, Tomohiro; Ejima, Takeo; Soda, Kazuo

    2010-05-01

    A novel variably polarized angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy beamline in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region has been installed at the UVSOR-II 750 MeV synchrotron light source. The beamline is equipped with a 3 m long APPLE-II type undulator with horizontally/vertically linear and right/left circular polarizations, a 10 m Wadsworth type monochromator covering a photon energy range of 6-43 eV, and a 200 mm radius hemispherical photoelectron analyzer with an electron lens of a +/-18 degrees acceptance angle. Due to the low emittance of the UVSOR-II storage ring, the light source is regarded as an entrance slit, and the undulator light is directly led to a grating by two plane mirrors in the monochromator while maintaining a balance between high-energy resolution and high photon flux. The energy resolving power (hnu/Deltahnu) and photon flux of the monochromator are typically 1 x 10(4) and 10(12) photons/s, respectively, with a 100 microm exit slit. The beamline is used for angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with an energy resolution of a few meV covering the UV-to-VUV energy range.

  13. Trace chemical characterization using monochromatic X-ray undulator radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eba; Numako; Iihara; Sakurai

    2000-06-01

    An efficient Johansson-type X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has been developed for advanced X-ray spectroscopic analysis with third-generation synchrotron radiation. Kalpha and Kbeta X-ray fluorescence spectra for trace metals have been collected by a Ge(220) analyzing crystal with a Rowland radius of 150 mm, under monochromatic X-ray excitation at the undulator beamline at the SPring-8. The energy resolution is approximately 10 eV for most of the K lines for 3d transition metals. In light of the greatly improved efficiency, as well as the excellent signal-to-background ratio, the relative and absolute detection limits achieved are 1 ppm and 1.2 ng of copper in a carbon matrix, respectively. The energy resolution of the present spectrometer permits the observation of some chemical effects in Kbeta spectra. It has been demonstrated that the changes in Kbeta5 and Kbeta'' intensity for iron and cobalt compounds can be used for the analysis of chemical states. Resonant X-ray fluorescent spectra are another important application of monochromatic excitation. In view of trace chemical characterization, the present spectrometer can be a good alternative to a conventional Si(Li) detector system when combined with highly brilliant X-rays.

  14. Some aspects of SR beamline alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaponov, Yu.A., E-mail: Yury.Gaponov@maxlab.lu.se [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cerenius, Y. [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nygaard, J. [Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Ursby, T.; Larsson, K. [MAX-lab, Lund University, P.O.B. 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Based on the Synchrotron Radiation (SR) beamline optical element-by-element alignment with analysis of the alignment results an optimized beamline alignment algorithm has been designed and developed. The alignment procedures have been designed and developed for the MAX-lab I911-4 fixed energy beamline. It has been shown that the intermediate information received during the monochromator alignment stage can be used for the correction of both monochromator and mirror without the next stages of alignment of mirror, slits, sample holder, etc. Such an optimization of the beamline alignment procedures decreases the time necessary for the alignment and becomes useful and helpful in the case of any instability of the beamline optical elements, storage ring electron orbit or the wiggler insertion device, which could result in the instability of angular and positional parameters of the SR beam. A general purpose software package for manual, semi-automatic and automatic SR beamline alignment has been designed and developed using the developed algorithm. The TANGO control system is used as the middle-ware between the stand-alone beamline control applications BLTools, BPMonitor and the beamline equipment.

  15. Beamline for Schools Safety Awareness Day

    CERN Multimedia

    Photo Service, CERN

    2014-01-01

    The first two teams to participate in CERN's Beamline for Schools project spent their first day at CERN at the Safety Training Center in Prévessin. They covered amongst others radiation protection, cryogenics and fire-fighting. The teams will spend the rest of the week at the T9 beamline.

  16. ERLP Gun Commissioning Beamline Design

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, D J; Hannon, F E

    2004-01-01

    The 4GLS project is a novel next-generation solution for a UK national light source. It is based on an energy recovery linac (ERL) operating at high average beam currents up to 100 mA and with compression schemes producing pulses in the 10 - 100 fs range. This challenging accelerator technology, new to Europe, necessitates a significant R&D programme and a major part of this is a low-energy prototype, the ERLP, which is currently under construction at Daresbury Laboratory, in the north-west of England. The first components of ERLP to be built will be the DC photocathode gun and low-energy beam transport and diagnostics. The gun will initially be operated with a diagnostic beamline in order to measure the properties of the high-brightness beams generated as fully as possible. This will allow comparison of its performance with the results of multi-particle tracking codes, prior to its integration into the ERLP machine. The diagnostic beamline will include diagnostics for measuring the transverse and longitu...

  17. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedurin, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Jing, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stratakis, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Swinson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  18. Design of the LBNF Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, Vaia; et al.

    2016-06-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will utilize a beamline located at Fermilab to provide and aim a neutrino beam of sufficient intensity and appropriate energy range toward DUNE detectors, placed deep underground at the SURF Facility in South Dakota. The primary proton beam (60 - 120 GeV) will be extracted from the MI-10 section of Fermilab's Main Injector. Neutrinos are produced after the protons hit a solid target and produce mesons which are subsequently focused by magnetic horns into a 194 m long decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account the physics goals, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The Beamline facility is designed for initial operation at a proton-beam power of 1.2 MW, with the capability to support an upgrade to 2.4 MW. LBNF/DUNE obtained CD-1 approval in November 2015. We discuss here the design status and the associated challenges as well as the R&D and plans for improvements before baselining the facility.

  19. Transverse gradient in Apple-type undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvi, M.; Camenzuli, C.; Prat, E.; Schmidt, Th.

    2017-01-01

    Apple-type undulators are globally recognized as the most flexible devices for the production of variable polarized light in the soft X-ray regime, both at synchrotron and free-electron laser facilities. Recently, the implementation of transverse gradient undulators has been proposed to enhance the performance of new generation light sources. In this paper it is demonstrated that Apple undulators do not only generate linear and elliptical polarized light but also variable transverse gradient under certain conditions. A general theoretical framework is introduced to evaluate the K-value and its transverse gradient for an Apple undulator, and formulas for all regular operational modes and different Apple types (including the most recent Delta type and Apple X) are calculated and critically discussed. PMID:28452751

  20. The PTB electromagnetic undulator for BESSY II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R; Bahrdt, J; Herzog, D; Ulm, G

    1998-05-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) will operate an electromagnetic undulator designed for radiometry at the BESSY II storage ring. The undulator has a period length of 180 mm, 21 full periods and a maximum magnetic induction of 0.46 T, resulting in a tuning range of the first harmonic from 5 to 150 eV at 1.7 GeV electron energy. Moreover, the electromagnetic design allows the undulator to be operated in a special mode with the period length doubled to 360 mm, thus accordingly shifting the tuning range to lower energies. The main design parameters of the undulator for radiometric applications, as well as measured magnetic field data, are presented.

  1. Universal imaging: Dissociative ionization of polyatomic molecules, chemical dynamics beamline 9.0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.; Chen, D.; Suits, A.G. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A third endstation was recently added to the Chemical Dynamics beamline, designed to exploit the high flux broadband undulator light for a range of studies of reactive scattering, photochemistry and photoionization processes using time-of-flight mass spectroscopy coupled with position-sensitive detection. Two molecular beam sources are fixed at right angles, with the undulator light, or laser beams, intersecting the molecular beams at 45{degrees}. To date, beamline experiments have included a study of dissociative photoionization of a variety of molecules including N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6}. In this mode, a single molecular beam source is used, with the tunable undulator light inducing, in SF{sub 6} for example, the process SF{sub 6} {r_arrow} SF{sub 6}{sup +} + e{sup {minus}} {r_arrow} SF{sub 5}{sup +} + F + e{sup {minus}}. The SF{sub 5}{sup +} ions are accelerated up the flight tube, mass selected and detected as a function of position on a phosphor screen viewed by a CCD camera. The position directly reveals the recoil speed (or translational energy release) and angular distribution for the dissociative ionization process. Furthermore, this measurement is obtained for all recoil speeds and angles simultaneously. Such detailed angular information has not previously been obtained for dissociative ionization processes; typically ion time-of-flight profiles are deconvoluted to yield rough insight into the angular distributions. The recorded image is actually a 2-dimensional projection of the nascent 3-dimensional velocity distribution, but established tomographic techniques enable the authors to reconstruct the 3-D distribution.

  2. Fast pulsed excitation wiggler or undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Arie

    1990-01-01

    A fast pulsed excitation, electromagnetic undulator or wiggler, employing geometrically alternating substacks of thin laminations of ferromagnetic material, together with a single turn current loop excitation of the composite assembly, of such shape and configuration that intense, spatially alternating, magnetic fields are generated; for use as a pulsed mode undulator or wiggler radiator, for use in a Free Electron Laser (FEL) type radiation source or, for use in an Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) charged particle accelerator.

  3. A preliminary design of a knot undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fuchun; Shi, Tan; Fan, Qingyan; Prestemon, Soren; Wan, Weishi; An, Zhenghua; Qiao, S

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic field configuration of the previously proposed knot undulator [Qiao et al. (2009). Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 085108] is realised in the design of a hybridized elliptically polarized undulator, which is presented. Although the details of the field distribution are not the same as those in the theoretical proposal, it is demonstrated that the practical knot undulator could work perfectly. In order to understand the minor discrepancies of the two, mathematical formulae of the synchrotron radiation are derived based on the Fourier transform of the magnetic field. From the results of calculations by simulation program, the discrepancies could be well interpreted by the corresponding formulae. The results show the importance of optimization of the end sections of the knot undulator to suppress the on-axis heat load. Furthermore, a study of the impact of the undulator on beam dynamics of the storage ring was conducted using the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility as an example and the results show that the knot undulator has little effect on the beam.

  4. Positioning system for the LCLS undulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trakhenberg, E. M.

    2002-09-12

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Project includes the undulator subsystem that has 33 undulator magnetic structures each 3.4 m long. Positioning of the LCLS undulators along the undulator line with an accuracy of 50 {micro}m in the vertical transverse direction is required. A prototype of the LCLS undulator has been built with a positioning system based on three stages with cam shafts. Each cam shaft produces reciprocating motion with a range of {+-}3 mm. A servomotor with integrated brake, incremental rotary encoder, servo amplifier, and controller is used with a 100:1 ratio gear box to drive each cam shaft. Resolution of the motion control is about 0.05 {micro}m. SmartMotors are connected in parallel through an RS-485 interface to the serial port of the computer. With this approach, the control system is easily expandable; up to 120 motors can be controlled with one serial port. Positioning accuracy of about 10 {micro}m for the LCLS undulator prototype is demonstrated.

  5. Diagnostic X-Multi-Axis Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A C

    2000-04-05

    Tomographic reconstruction of explosive events require time resolved multipal lines of sight. Considered here is a four (or eight) line of sight beam layout for a nominal 20 MeV 2000 Ampere 2 microsecond electron beam for generation of x-rays 0.9 to 5 meters from a given point, the ''firing point''. The requirement of a millimeter spatial x-ray source requires that the electron beam be delivered to the converter targets with sub-millimeter precision independent of small variations in beam energy and initial conditions. The 2 usec electron beam pulse allows for four bursts in each line, separated in time by about 500 microseconds. Each burst is divided by a electro-magnetic kicker into four (or eight) pulses, one for each beamline. The arrival time of the four (or eight) beam pulses at the x-ray target can be adjusted by the kicker timing and the sequence that the beams of each burst are switched into the different beamlines. There exists a simple conceptual path from a four beamline to a eight beamline upgrade. The eight line beamline is built up from seven unique types of sub-systems or ''blocks''. The beamline consists of 22 of these functional blocks and contains a total of 455 individual magnets, figure 1. The 22 blocks are inter-connected by a total of 30 straight line inter-block sections (IBS). Beamlines 1-4 are built from 12 blocks with conceptual layout structure shown in figure 2. Beamlines 5-8 are built with an additional 10 blocks with conceptual layout structure shown in figure 3. This beamline can be thought of as looking like a lollipop consisting of a 42 meter long stick leading to a 60 by 70 meter rectangular candy blob consisting of the eight lines of sight. The accelerator providing the electron beam is at the end of the stick and the firing point is at the center of the blob. The design allows for a two stage implementation. Beamlines 1-3 can be installed to provide a tomographic azimuthal resolution of 45

  6. The status of the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Bowler, Matthew W.; Carpentier, Philippe; Flot, David; McCarthy, Andrew A.; Nanao, Max H.; Nurizzo, Didier; Pernot, Petra; Popov, Alexander; Round, Adam; Royant, Antoine; de Sanctis, Daniele; von Stetten, David; Leonard, Gordon A.

    2015-04-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is the oldest and most powerful 3rd generation synchrotron in Europe, providing X-rays to more than 40 experimental stations welcoming several thousand researchers per year. A major success story has been the ESRF's facilities for macromolecular crystallography (MX). These are grouped around 3 straight sections: On ID23 canted undulators accommodate ID23-1, a mini-focus tuneable energy end station and ID23-2, the world's first micro-focus beamline dedicated to MX; ID29 houses a single, mini-focus, tuneable energy end station; ID30 will provide three end stations for MX due in operation from mid-2014 to early 2015. Here, one branch of a canted X-ray source feeds two fixed-energy end stations (MASSIF-1, MASSIF-3). The second feeds ID30B, a variable focus, tuneable energy beamline. MASSIF-1 is optimised for automatic high-throughput experiments requiring a relatively large beam size at the sample position, MASSIF-3 is a high-intensity, micro-focus facility designed to complement ID23-2. All end stations are highly automated, equipped with sample mounting robots and large area, fast-readout photon-counting detectors. Experiment control and tracking is achieved via a combination of the MXCuBE2 graphical user interface and the ISPyB database, the former allowing user-friendly control of all beamline components, the latter providing data tracking before, after and during experiments.

  7. Simulation of beamline alignment operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annese, C; Miller, M G

    1999-02-02

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control systems. The simulator project used a three-prong approach that studied object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) optical alignment system was modeled to study control system operations. The alignment of NIF's 192 beamlines is a large complex operation involving more than 100 computer systems and 8000 mechanized devices. The alignment process is defined by a detailed set of procedures; however, many of the steps are deterministic. The alignment steps for a poorly aligned component are similar to that of a nearly aligned component; however, additional operations/iterations are required to complete the process. Thus, the same alignment operations will require variable amounts of time to perform depending on the current alignment condition as well as other factors. Simulation of the alignment process is necessary to understand beamline alignment time requirements and how shared resources such as the Output Sensor and Target Alignment Sensor effect alignment efficiency. The simulation has provided alignment time estimates and other results based on documented alignment procedures and alignment experience gained in the laboratory. Computer communication time, mechanical hardware actuation times, image processing algorithm execution times, etc. have been experimentally determined and incorporated into the model. Previous analysis of alignment operations utilized average implementation times for all alignment operations. Resource sharing becomes rather simple to model when only average values are used. The time required to actually implement the many individual alignment operations will be quite dynamic. The simulation model estimates the time to complete an operation using

  8. A New PLS-II In-Vacuum Undulator and Characterization of Undulator Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, D-E; Park, K-H; Seo, H-S; Ha, T; Jeong, Y-G; Han, H-S; Lee, W W; Huang, J-Y; Nam, S; Kim, K-R; Shin, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the result of overall studies from development to characterization of undulator radiation. After three years of upgrading, PLS-II [1, 2] has been operating successfully since 21st March 2012. During the upgrade, we developed and installed an in-vacuum undulator (IVU) that generates brilliant X-ray beam. The IVU with 3 GeV electron beam generates undulator radiation up to ~ 21 keV using 11th higher harmonic. The characterizations of the undulator radiation at an X-ray beam line in PLS-II agreed well with the simulation. Based on this performance demonstration, the in-vacuum undulator is successfully operating at PLS-II.

  9. A decade of user operation on the macromolecular crystallography MAD beamline ID14-4 at the ESRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Andrew A; Brockhauser, Sandor; Nurizzo, Didier; Theveneau, Pascal; Mairs, Trevor; Spruce, Darren; Guijarro, Matias; Lesourd, Marc; Ravelli, Raimond B G; McSweeney, Sean

    2009-11-01

    ID14-4 at the ESRF is the first tunable undulator-based macromolecular crystallography beamline that can celebrate a decade of user service. During this time ID14-4 has not only been instrumental in the determination of the structures of biologically important molecules but has also contributed significantly to the development of various instruments, novel data collection schemes and pioneering radiation damage studies on biological samples. Here, the evolution of ID14-4 over the last decade is presented, and some of the major improvements that were carried out in order to maintain its status as one of the most productive macromolecular crystallography beamlines are highlighted. The experimental hutch has been upgraded to accommodate a high-precision diffractometer, a sample changer and a large CCD detector. More recently, the optical hutch has been refurbished in order to improve the X-ray beam quality on ID14-4 and to incorporate the most modern and robust optical elements used at other ESRF beamlines. These new optical elements will be described and their effect on beam stability discussed. These studies may be useful in the design, construction and maintenance of future X-ray beamlines for macromolecular crystallography and indeed other applications, such as those planned for the ESRF upgrade.

  10. A decade of user operation on the macromolecular crystallography MAD beamline ID14-4 at the ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Andrew A., E-mail: andrewmc@embl.fr; Brockhauser, Sandor [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions, UJF-EMBL-CNRS, UMI 3265, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Nurizzo, Didier; Theveneau, Pascal; Mairs, Trevor; Spruce, Darren; Guijarro, Matias; Lesourd, Marc [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38042 Grenoble (France); Ravelli, Raimond B. G. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38042 Grenoble (France); McSweeney, Sean [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2009-11-01

    The improvement of the X-ray beam quality achieved on ID14-4 by the installation of new X-ray optical elements is described. ID14-4 at the ESRF is the first tunable undulator-based macromolecular crystallography beamline that can celebrate a decade of user service. During this time ID14-4 has not only been instrumental in the determination of the structures of biologically important molecules but has also contributed significantly to the development of various instruments, novel data collection schemes and pioneering radiation damage studies on biological samples. Here, the evolution of ID14-4 over the last decade is presented, and some of the major improvements that were carried out in order to maintain its status as one of the most productive macromolecular crystallography beamlines are highlighted. The experimental hutch has been upgraded to accommodate a high-precision diffractometer, a sample changer and a large CCD detector. More recently, the optical hutch has been refurbished in order to improve the X-ray beam quality on ID14-4 and to incorporate the most modern and robust optical elements used at other ESRF beamlines. These new optical elements will be described and their effect on beam stability discussed. These studies may be useful in the design, construction and maintenance of future X-ray beamlines for macromolecular crystallography and indeed other applications, such as those planned for the ESRF upgrade.

  11. Radiation emitted by transverse-gradient undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional undulators are used in synchrotron light sources to produce radiation with a narrow relative spectral width as compared to bending magnets or wigglers. The spectral width of the radiation produced by conventional undulators is determined by the number of undulator periods and by the energy spread and emittance of the electron beam. In more compact electron sources like for instance laser plasma accelerators the energy spread becomes the dominating factor. Due to this effect these electron sources cannot in general be used for high-gain free electron lasers (FELs. In order to overcome this limitation, modified undulator schemes, so-called transverse gradient undulators (TGUs, were proposed and a first superconducting TGU was built at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany. In this paper simulations of the expected synchrotron radiation spectral distribution are presented. An experimental test with that device is under preparation at the laser wakefield accelerator at the JETI laser at the University of Jena, Germany.

  12. Coherent Radiation Effects in the LCLS Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, S.; /UCLA; Huang, Z.; /SLAC

    2010-12-14

    For X-ray Free-Electron Lasers such as LCLS and TESLA FEL, a change in the electron energy while amplifying the FEL radiation can shift the resonance condition out of the bandwidth of the FEL. The largest sources of energy loss is the emission of incoherent undulator radiation. Because the loss per electron depends only on the undulator parameters and the beam energy, which are fixed for a given resonant wavelength, the average energy loss can be compensated for by a fixed taper of the undulator. Coherent radiation has a strong enhancement proportional to the number of electrons in the bunch for frequencies comparable to or longer than the bunch dimension. If the emitted coherent energy becomes comparable to that of the incoherent emission, it has to be included in the taper as well. However, the coherent loss depends on the bunch charge and the applied compression scheme and a change of these parameters would require a change of the taper. This imposes a limitation on the practical operation of Free-Electron Lasers, where the taper can only be adjusted manually. In this presentation we analyze the coherent emission of undulator radiation and transition undulator radiation for LCLS, and estimate whether the resulting energy losses are significant for the operation of LCLS.

  13. Confining continuous manipulations of accelerator beamline optics

    CERN Document Server

    Amstutz, Philipp; Bödewadt, Jörn; Lechner, Christoph; Plath, Tim; Vogt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Altering the optics in one section of a linear accelerator beamline will in general cause an alteration of the optics in all downstream sections. In circular accelerators, changing the optical properties of any beamline element will have an impact on the optical functions throughout the whole machine. In many cases, however, it is desirable to change the optics in a certain beamline section without disturbing any other parts of the machine. Such a local optics manipulation can be achieved by adjusting a number of additional corrector magnets that restore the initial optics after the manipulated section. In that case, the effect of the manipulation is confined in the region between the manipulated and the correcting beamline elements. Introducing a manipulation continuously, while the machine is operating, therefore requires continuous correction functions to be applied to the correcting quadrupole magnets. In this paper we present an analytic approach to calculate such continuous correction functions for six ...

  14. D3, the new diffractometer for the macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Martin R., E-mail: mfuchs@bnl.gov [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Mail Stop 745, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Pradervand, Claude; Thominet, Vincent; Schneider, Roman; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Grunder, Marcel; Gabadinho, Jose; Dworkowski, Florian S. N.; Tomizaki, Takashi; Schneider, Jörg; Mayer, Aline; Curtin, Adrian; Olieric, Vincent; Frommherz, Uli; Kotrle, Goran; Welte, Jörg; Wang, Xinyu; Maag, Stephan [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Schulze-Briese, Clemens [DECTRIS Ltd, Neuenhoferstrasse 107, 5400 Baden (Switzerland); Wang, Meitian [Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-02-04

    A new diffractometer for microcrystallography has been developed for the three macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the Swiss Light Source. A new diffractometer for microcrystallography has been developed for the three macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the Swiss Light Source. Building upon and critically extending previous developments realised for the high-resolution endstations of the two undulator beamlines X06SA and X10SA, as well as the super-bend dipole beamline X06DA, the new diffractometer was designed to the following core design goals. (i) Redesign of the goniometer to a sub-micrometer peak-to-peak cylinder of confusion for the horizontal single axis. Crystal sizes down to at least 5 µm and advanced sample-rastering and scanning modes are supported. In addition, it can accommodate the new multi-axis goniometer PRIGo (Parallel Robotics Inspired Goniometer). (ii) A rapid-change beam-shaping element system with aperture sizes down to a minimum of 10 µm for microcrystallography measurements. (iii) Integration of the on-axis microspectrophotometer MS3 for microscopic sample imaging with 1 µm image resolution. Its multi-mode optical spectroscopy module is always online and supports in situ UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. (iv) High stability of the sample environment by a mineral cast support construction and by close containment of the cryo-stream. Further features are the support for in situ crystallization plate screening and a minimal achievable detector distance of 120 mm for the Pilatus 6M, 2M and the macromolecular crystallography group’s planned future area detector Eiger 16M.

  15. Imaging beamline for high energy proton radiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Tao; YANG Guo-Jun; LONG Ji-Dong; WANG Shao-Heng; HE Xiao-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiography is a new tool for advanced hydrotesting.This article will discuss the basic concept of proton radiography first,especially the magnetic lens system.Then a scenario of 50 GeV imaging beamline will be described in every particular,including the matching section,Zumbro lens system and imaging system.The simulation result shows that the scenario of imaging beamline performs well,and the influence of secondary particles can be neglected.

  16. Optical Fibre Dosimeter for SASE FEL Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Körfer, M

    2003-01-01

    Single pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) based on self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) are developed for high brightness and short wavelength applications. They use permanent magnet undulators which are radiation sensitive devices. During accelerator commissioning beam losses can appear anywhere along the undulator line. To avoid damage of the permanent magnets due to radiation, an optical fibre dosimeter system can be used. The increase of absorption caused by ionizing radiation is measured in radiation sensitive optical fibers. The dose system enables relatively fast particle loss tuning during accelerator operation and allows the monitoring of the accumulated dose. Dose measurements in narrow gaps which are inaccessible for any other (online) dosimeter type become possible. The electromagnetic insensitivity of optical fibre sensor is an advantage of applications in strong magnetic undulator fields. At each location the light absorption is measured by using an optical power-meter. The dynamic range is ...

  17. Radiation collimation in a thick crystalline undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistisen, Tobias Nyholm; Uggerhøj, Ulrik Ingerslev; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Lauth, Werner; Klag, Pascal

    2017-05-01

    With the recent experimental confirmation of the existence of energetic radiation from a Small Amplitude, Small Period (SASP) crystalline undulator [T.N. Wistisen, K.K. Andersen, S. Yilmaz, R. Mikkelsen, J. Lundsgaard Hansen, U.I. Uggerhøj, W. Lauth, H. Backe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 254801 (2014)], the field of specially manufactured crystals, from which specific radiation characteristics can be obtained, has evolved substantially. In this paper we confirm the existence of the crystalline undulator radiation, using electrons of energies of 855 GeV from the MAinzer MIcrotron (MAMI) in a crystal that is approximately 10 times thicker than the previous one. Furthermore, we have measured a significant increase in enhancement, in good agreement with calculations, of the undulator peak by collimation to angles smaller than the natural opening angle of the radiation emission process, 1 /γ. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Dynamics of Systems at the Nanoscale", edited by Andrey Solov'yov and Andrei Korol.

  18. Undulator Beam Pipe Magnetic Shielding Effect Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Andrew; Wolf, Zachary; /SLAC

    2010-11-23

    The proposed stainless steel beampipe for the LCLS undulator has a measurable shielding effect on the magnetic field of the LCLS undulators. This note describes the tests used to determine the magnitude of the shielding effect, as well as deviations in the shielding effect caused by placing different phase shims in the undulator gap. The effect of the proposed Steel strongback which will be used to support the beam pipe, was also studied. A hall probe on a 3 axis movement system was set up to measure the main component of the magnetic field in the Prototype Undulator. To account for temperature variations of the magnetic field of the undulator for successive tests, a correction is applied which is described in this technical note. Using this method, we found the shielding effect, the amount which the field inside the gap was reduced due to the placement of the beampipe, to be {approx}10 Gauss. A series of tests was also performed to determine the effect of phase shims and X and Y correction shims on the shielding. The largest effect on shielding was found for the .3 mm phase shims. The effect of the .3 mm phase shims was to increase the shielding effect {approx}4 Gauss. The tolerance for the shielding effect of the phase shims is less than 1 gauss. The effect of the strongback was seen in its permanent magnetic field. It introduced a dipole field across the measured section of the undulator of {approx}3 gauss. This note documents the tests performed to determine these effects, as well as the results of those tests.

  19. Crystalline Undulator with a Small Amplitude and a Short Period

    CERN Document Server

    Kostyuk, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    The crystalline undulator is a single crystal with periodically bent crystallographic planes. If ultrarelativistic charged particles channel through such a crystal, they emit hard radiation of undulator type. A crystalline undulator with a bending amplitude smaller than the distance between the bent planes and a bending period shorter than the period of channeling oscillations is proposed. Heretofore, it was believed that such range of the bending parameters was unsuitable for a crystalline undulator. This point of view is refuted. In fact, the undulator with a small amplitude and a short period is far superior to what was proposed previously. It requires much lower beam energy for production of photons of the same frequency. Such an undulator allows for a larger effective number of undulator periods. It is predicted to emit intense undulator radiation with a narrow spectral distribution and lower and softer background.

  20. Strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles.

  1. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  2. Development of vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism measurement system using a polarizing undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahito; Yagi-Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Yamada, Toru; Kaneko, Fusae; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2006-02-01

    We have developed an improved circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) simultaneous measurement system for the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region by polarization modulation techniques using a four-period Onuki-type crossed undulator as a polarized light source. The system has been constructed at the VUV beamline BL-5 in the electron storage ring TERAS, at AIST. Our improvements, in particular the adoption of an optical chopper as the detection method of incident light, have resulted in a flat baseline and a consequent simplification of the Mueller matrix calculation for our optical system. Based on the Mueller matrix calculation, we have successfully measured real VUV-CD and LD spectra of leucine films for wavelengths down to 160 nm with absolute optical constants. The obtained spectra show good consistency with spectra measured by conventional methods. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Ring beamlines and instrumentation for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, W. Jorge; Trippe, Anthony P.

    1994-08-01

    Many recently constructed storage rings are catering to the needs of industrial applications in addition to providing the traditional services required for synchrotron radiation research. The Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) was established by Louisiana State University to pioneer development of microfabrication while supporting research in basic science. Maxwell Laboratories designed, built, and successfully commissioned the 1.2 GeV, 400 mA light source for CAMD. Maxwell Laboratories has completed one X-ray lithography beamline at CAMD, and two more are now being manufactured. The completed beamline system, designed for thin resists, delivers photons up to 2 keV. The two beamlines currently under construction deliver photons up to 6 keV for thick (> 50 μm) resists, which play a role in the fabrication of 3-D nanostructures. One of the thick-resist beamlines includes an aspheric mirror that collimates the synchrotron-radiation beam in the horizontal plane while focusing it in the vertical direction - creating a sharp, uniform line image at the workpiece. The other thick-resist beamline has conventional planar optics. Beam position monitors (BPMs) developed for the CAMD beamlines provide a precise vertical profile of the beam by measuring differential photocurrents generated in the BPM probes. Beam power measurements are accomplished with a fixed-aperture calorimeter. Since each calorimeter is precisely calibrated before shipment, its thermal response in the beam is an accurate means to determine beam power for setting lithography exposure times or for computing beamline energy balance.

  4. High-temperature superconducting undulator magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Kasa, Matthew; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Welp, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents test results on a prototype superconducting undulator magnet fabricated using 15% Zr-doped rare-earth barium copper oxide high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. On an 11-pole magnet we demonstrate an engineering current density, J e, of more than 2.1 kA mm‑2 at 4.2 K, a value that is 40% higher than reached in comparable devices wound with NbTi-wire, which is used in all currently operating superconducting undulators. A novel winding scheme enabling the continuous winding of tape-shaped conductors into the intricate undulator magnets as well as a partial interlayer insulation procedure were essential in reaching this advance in performance. Currently, there are rapid advances in the performance of HTS; therefore, achieving even higher current densities in an undulator structure or/and operating it at temperatures higher than 4.2 K will be possible, which would substantially simplify the cryogenic design and reduce overall costs.

  5. Coherent Radiation Effects in the LCLS Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, Sven

    2004-01-01

    For X-ray Free-Electron Lasers, a change in the electron energy while amplifying the FEL radiation can shift the resonance condition out of the bandwidth of the FEL. The largest sources of energy loss is incoherent undulator radiation. Because the loss per electron depends only on the undulator parameters and the beam energy, which are fixed for a given resonant wavelength, the average energy loss can be compensated for by a fixed taper of the undulator. Coherent radiation has a strong enhancement proportional to the number of electrons in the bunch for wavelengths comparable to or longer than the bunch dimension or bunch sub-structures. If the coherent loss is comparable to that of the incoherent the required taper depends on the bunch charge and the applied compression scheme and a change of these parameters would require a change of the taper. This imposes a limitation on the operation of FELs, where the taper can only be adjusted manually. In this presentation we analyze the coherent emission of undulator...

  6. Langmuir wave undulator for terahertz radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seunghyeon; Moon, Sung Joon; Park, Jaeyoung

    2012-12-15

    A source of terhertz (THz) radiation based on the free-electron laser, where a plasma wave plays the role of undulator, is theoretically studied. This scheme can generate coherent photons in the range of 0.1-10 THz. The feasible physical parameters in laboratories are estimated.

  7. Superconducting Undulator with Variably Polarized Light

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Ching Shiang; Ching Fan, Tai; Li, W P; Lin, P H

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates planar in-vacuo superconducting undulators with periodic length of 5 cm (IVSU5) producing linearly and circularly polarized infrared rays or xrays source. The vertically wound racetrack coil is selected for the coil and pole fabrication of the IVSU5. When the up and down magnetic pole arrays with alternative directions rotated wires in the horizontal plane, a helical field radiates circularly polarized light in the electron storage ring, the free electron laser (FEL), and the energy recovery linac (ERL) facilities. Meanwhile, an un-rotated wire is constructed together with the rotated wire on the same undulator is used to switch the linear horizontal and vertical, the right- and left-circular polarization radiation. Given a periodic length of 5 cm and a gap of 23 mm, the maximum magnetic flux density in the helical undulator are Bz = 1.5 T and Bx = 0.5 T when the wires rotated by 20°. This article describes the main factors of the planar and helical undulator design for FEL and...

  8. KIAE-1.5-3 undulator performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenko, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Hybrid type undulator with 60 periods of {lambda}{sub w} = 1.5 cm and tunable gap in wide range has been designed and manufactured. Additional side magnet arrays provide high magnetic field (near Halbach limit) along with transverse field profiles for e.b. focusing.

  9. Concept of quasi-periodic undulator - control of radiation spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    A new type of undulator, the quasi-periodic undulator (QPU) is considered which generates the irrational harmonics in the radiation spectrum. This undulator consists of the arrays of magnet blocks aligned in a quasi-periodic order, and consequentially lead to a quasi-periodic motion of electron. A combination of the QPU and a conventional crystal/grating monochromator provides pure monochromatic photon beam for synchrotron radiation users because the irrational harmonics do not be diffracted in the same direction by a monochromator. The radiation power and width of each radiation peak emitted from this undulator are expected to be comparable with those of the conventional periodic undulator.

  10. Variable-period permanent-magnet helical undulator

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Mun; Young Uk Jeong; Vinokurov, Nikolay A.; Kitae Lee; Kyu-Ha Jang; Seong Hee Park; Min Yong Jeon; Sang-In Shin

    2014-01-01

    We realized a variable-period permanent-magnet helical undulator with high (∼1  T) field amplitude, which is almost constant over undulator periods of 23–26 mm. Each undulator period has four modular sections of iron poles and permanent magnets embedded in nonmagnetic disks with holes along the undulator axis. Modular plates undergo a longitudinal repulsive force from the magnetic field pressure and the spring coils between modular plates. The undulator period can thus be controlled by mechan...

  11. Performance of a helical undulator of the UVSOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, S I; Kamada, M; Hama, H; Kimura, K; Hosaka, M; Yamazaki, J I; Maréchal, X M; Tanaka, T; Kitamura, H

    1998-05-01

    A helical undulator was installed in the 0.75 GeV storage ring of the UVSOR facility of the Institute for Molecular Science. The undulator was designed to produce the fundamental of the circularly polarized undulator radiation in the energy range 2-43 eV, and the higher harmonics with elliptical polarization in the energy range up to 300 eV. Recently, the first spectrum from the undulator was observed. The performance of the undulator and the obtained spectrum are reported.

  12. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  13. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, C.

    1991-10-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Induction shimming: A new shimming concept for superconductive undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wollmann

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Undulators are the most advanced sources for the generation of synchrotron radiation. The photons generated by a single electron add up coherently along the electron trajectory. In order to do so, the oscillatory motion of the electron has to be in phase with the emitted photons along the whole undulator. Small magnetic errors can cause unwanted destructive interferences. In standard permanent magnet undulators, the magnetic errors are reduced by applying shimming techniques. Superconductive undulators have higher magnetic fields than permanent magnet undulators but shimming is more complex. In this paper it is shown that coupled superconductive loops installed along the surface of the superconductive undulator coil can significantly reduce the destructive effect of the field errors. This new idea might allow the building of undulators with a superior field quality.

  15. nuSTORM Pion Beamline Design Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, A. [Indiana U.; Bross, A. [Fermilab; Neuffer, D. [Fermilab; Lee, S. Y. [Indiana U.

    2013-09-01

    A facility producing neutrinos from muons that decay in a racetrack ring can provide extremely well understood neutrino beams for oscillation physics and the search for sterile neutrinos. The “neutrinos from STORed Muons” (nuSTORM) facility based on this idea has been introduced by Bross, Neuffer et al. The design of the nuSTORM facility and the particle tracking have been presented in the paper of Liu, et al. This paper demonstrates the recent optimization results of the pion beamline, with G4beamline simulations. The optimum choice of pion beam center momentum, a new algorithm on fitting bivariate Gaussian distribution to the pion phase space data at the downstream side of the horn, and the comparison of the beamline performance with the optics designed based on Graphite and Inconel targets are also described.

  16. National synchrotron light source user's manual: Guide to the VUV and x-ray beamlines: Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.; White-DePace, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains information on the following topics: A Word on the Writing of Beamline Descriptions; Beamline Equipment Utilization for General Users; the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Storage Ring and Beamlines; VUV Beamline Descriptions--An Explanation; VUV Beamline Descriptions; X-Ray Storage Ring and Beamlines; X-Ray Beamline Descriptions--An Explanation; and X-Ray Beamline Descriptions.

  17. Micro- and nano-imaging at the diamond beamline I13L-imaging and coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, C., E-mail: Christoph.rau@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, School of Materials Grosvenor St., Manchester, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Northwestern University School of Medicine, 303 E. Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3008 (United States); Wagner, U. H.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Bodey, A.; Parson, A.; García-Fernández, M.; Pešić, Z.; Zanette, I. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); De Fanis, A. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); European XFEL GmbH, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Zdora, M. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    The Diamond Beamline I13L is dedicated to imaging on the micron- and nano-lengthscale, operating in the energy range between 6 and 30 keV. For this purpose two independent stations have been built. The imaging branch is fully operational for micro-tomography and in-line phase contrast imaging with micrometer resolution. Currently a full-field microscope providing 50nm spatial resolution over a field of view of 100 µm is being tested. On the coherence branch, coherent diffraction imaging techniques such as ptychography and coherent X-ray Bragg diffraction are currently developed. The beamline contains a number of unique features. The machine layout has been modified to the so-called mini-beta scheme, providing significantly increased flux from the two canted undulators. New instrumental designs such as a robot arm for the detector in diffraction experiments have been employed. The imaging branch is operated in collaboration with Manchester University, called therefore the Diamond-Manchester Branchline.

  18. Optimization of a coherent soft x-ray beamline for coherent scattering experiments at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro D.; Chubar, O.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Reininger, R.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Wang, S.

    2011-08-21

    The coherent soft x-ray and full polarization control (CSX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source - II (NSLS-II) will deliver 1013 coherent photons per second in the energy range of 0.2-2 keV with a resolving power of 2000. The source, a dual elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU), and beamline optics should be optimized to deliver the highest possible coherent flux in a 10-30 {micro}m spot for use in coherent scattering experiments. Using the computer code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW), we simulate the photon source and focusing optics in order to investigate the conditions which provide the highest usable coherent intensity on the sample. In particular, we find that an intermediate phasing magnet is needed to correct for the relative phase between the two EPUs and that the optimum phase setting produces a spectrum in which the desired wavelength is slightly red-shifted thus requiring a larger aperture than originally anticipated. This setting is distinct from that which produces an on-axis spectrum similar to a single long undulator. Furthermore, partial coherence calculations, utilizing a multiple electron approach, indicate that a high degree of spatial coherence is still obtained at the sample location when such an aperture is used. The aperture size which maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a double-slit experiment is explored. This combination of high coherence and intensity is ideally suited for x-ray ptychography experiments which reconstruct the scattering density from micro-diffraction patterns. This technique is briefly reviewed and the effects on the image quality of proximity to the beamline focus are explored.

  19. Thermal analysis of superconducting undulator cryomodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroyanagi, Y.; Doose, C.; Fuerst, J.; Harkay, K.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.

    2015-12-01

    A cryocooler-cooled superconducting undulator (SCU0) has been operating in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring since January of 2013. Based on lessons learned from the construction and operation of SCU0, a second superconducting undulator (SCU1) has been built and cold tested stand-alone. An excess cooling capacity measurement and static heat load analysis show a large improvement of cryogenic performance of SCU1 compared with SCU0. ANSYS-based thermal analysis of these cryomodules incorporating all the cooling circuits was completed. Comparisons between measured and calculated temperatures at the three operating conditions of the cryomodule (static, beam heat only, beam heat and magnet current) will be presented.

  20. Undulators and free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Luchini, P

    1990-01-01

    This book is a reference text for all those working in free-electron laser research as well as being a learning aid for physicists and graduate students who wish an introduction to this field. Only a basic understanding of relativistic mechanics and electromagnetism is presupposed. After an overview of early developments and general principles of operation, the different models that can be used to describe free-electron lasers are presented, organized according to their range of applicability. The relevent conceptual and mathematical constructs are built up from first principles with attention to obtaining the practically important results in a simple but rigorous way. Interaction of the undulator with the driving electron accelerator and the laser cavity and design of undulator magnets are treated and an overview is given of some typical experiments.

  1. Exact relativistic theory of geoid's undulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Karpik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Precise determination of geoid is one of the most important problem of physical geodesy. The present paper extends the Newtonian concept of the geoid to the realm of Einstein's general relativity and derives an exact relativistic equation for the unperturbed geoid and level surfaces under assumption of axisymmetric distribution of background matter in the core and mantle of the Earth. We consider Earth's crust as a small disturbance imposed on the background distribution of matter, and formulate the master equation for the anomalous gravity potential caused by this disturbance. We find out the gauge condition that drastically simplifies the master equation for the anomalous gravitational potential and reduces it to the form closely resembling the one in the Newtonian theory. The master equation gives access to the precise calculation of geoid's undulation with the full account for relativistic effects not limited to the post-Newtonian approximation. The geoid undulation theory, given in the present paper, uti...

  2. Crystalline undulator with a small amplitude and a short period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, Andriy

    2013-03-15

    The crystalline undulator is a single crystal with periodically bent crystallographic planes. If ultrarelativistic charged particles channel through such a crystal, they emit hard radiation of undulator type. A crystalline undulator with a bending amplitude smaller than the distance between the bent planes and a bending period shorter than the period of channeling oscillations is proposed. Heretofore, it was believed that such a range of bending parameters was unsuitable for a crystalline undulator. This point of view is refuted. In fact, the undulator with a small amplitude and a short period is far superior to what was proposed previously. It requires much lower beam energy for production of photons of the same frequency. Such an undulator allows for a larger effective number of undulator periods. It is predicted to emit intense undulator radiation in the forward direction with a narrow spectral distribution and a lower and softer background. The undulator effect is seen for both positron and electron beams. Using positrons is, however, preferable because they enable one to obtain higher intensity of the undulator radiation with lower background.

  3. Undulator A diagnostics at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilinski, P.

    1998-01-01

    Diagnostics of Undulator A{number_sign}2 (UA2) radiation was performed during the October 1997 mn at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The UA2 undulator is a standard 3.3-cm-period APS Undulator A, which was positioned downstream from the center of the straight section at Sector 8. The diagnostics included the angular-spectral measurements of the undulator radiation to determine the undulator radiation absolute spectral flux and the particle beam divergence. The results of the absolute spectral flux measurements are compared to the undulator spectrum calculated from measured undulator magnetic field. The particle`s energy spread was determined from spectra comparison. Previously, the authors reported the first measurements made on Undulator A at the APS. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the results of the diagnostics performed on the Sector 8 undulator at the request of the IMM-CAT staff, and to present a more general discussion of undulator radiation sources at the APS and details of their diagnostics.

  4. Undulator-based production of polarized positrons

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, G.; Barley, J; Batygin, Y.; Berridge, S.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bower, G; Bugg, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Dollan, R.; Efremenko, Y; K. Flöttmann; Gharibyan, V.; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Kolanoski, H.

    2009-01-01

    Full exploitation of the physics potential of a future International Linear Collider will require the use of polarized electron and positron beams. Experiment E166 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which an electron beam passes through a helical undulator to generate photons (whose first-harmonic spectrum extended to 7.9MeV) with circular polarization, which are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons and elect...

  5. Status of the ELIMED multidisciplinary and medical beam-line at ELI-Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A.; Candiano, G.; Giordanengo, S.; Guarachi, L. F.; Korn, G.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Marchese, V.; Marchetto, F.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Sacchi, R.; Vignati, A.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest challenges consists in using high intensity laser-target interaction to generate high-energy ions for medical purposes, eventually replacing the old paradigm of acceleration characterized by huge and complex machines. In order to investigate the feasibility of using laser-driven ion beams for multidisciplinary application, a dedicated beam transport line will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), as a part of the User-oriented ELIMAIA beam-line dedicated to ion acceleration and their potential applications. The beam-line section dedicated to transport and dosimetric endpoints is called ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) and will be developed by the INFN-LNS.

  6. DCS - A High Flux Beamline for Time Resolved Dynamic Compression Science – Design Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capatina, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); D' Amico, Kevin L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nudell, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Collins, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schmidt, Oliver [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) beamline, a national user facility for time resolved dynamic compression science supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed construction and is being commissioned at Sector 35 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The beamline consists of a First Optics Enclosure (FOE) and four experimental enclosures. A Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing mirror system with 2.2 mrad incident angles in the FOE delivers pink beam to the experimental stations. A refocusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror system is situated in each of the two most downstream enclosures. Experiments can be conducted in either white, monochromatic, pink or monochromatic-reflected beam mode in any of the experimental stations by changing the position of two interlocked components in the FOE. The beamline Radiation Safety System (RSS) components have been designed to handle the continuous beam provided by two in-line revolver undulators with periods of 27 and 30 mm, at closed gap, 150 mA beam current, and passing through a power limiting aperture of 1.5 x 1.0 mm2. A novel pink beam end station stop [1] is used to stop the continuous and focused pink beam which can achieve a peak heat flux of 105 kW/mm2. A new millisecond shutter design [2] is used to deliver a quick pulse of beam to the sample, synchronized with the dynamic event, the microsecond shutter, and the storage ring clock.

  7. DCS - A high flux beamline for time resolved dynamic compression science – Design highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capatina, D., E-mail: capatina@aps.anl.gov; D’Amico, K., E-mail: kdamico@aps.anl.gov; Nudell, J., E-mail: jnudell@aps.anl.gov; Collins, J., E-mail: collins@aps.anl.gov; Schmidt, O., E-mail: oschmidt@aps.anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) beamline, a national user facility for time resolved dynamic compression science supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed construction and is being commissioned at Sector 35 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The beamline consists of a First Optics Enclosure (FOE) and four experimental enclosures. A Kirkpatrick–Baez focusing mirror system with 2.2 mrad incident angles in the FOE delivers pink beam to the experimental stations. A refocusing Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror system is situated in each of the two most downstream enclosures. Experiments can be conducted in either white, monochromatic, pink or monochromatic-reflected beam mode in any of the experimental stations by changing the position of two interlocked components in the FOE. The beamline Radiation Safety System (RSS) components have been designed to handle the continuous beam provided by two in-line revolver undulators with periods of 27 and 30 mm, at closed gap, 150 mA beam current, and passing through a power limiting aperture of 1.5 x 1.0 mm{sup 2}. A novel pink beam end station stop [1] is used to stop the continuous and focused pink beam which can achieve a peak heat flux of 105 kW/mm{sup 2}. A new millisecond shutter design [2] is used to deliver a quick pulse of beam to the sample, synchronized with the dynamic event, the microsecond shutter, and the storage ring clock.

  8. Undulator-based production of polarized positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G.; Barley, J.; Batygin, Y.; Berridge, S.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bower, G.; Bugg, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Dollan, R.; Efremenko, Y.; Flöttmann, K.; Gharibyan, V.; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Kovermann, J. W.; Laihem, K.; Lohse, T.; McDonald, K. T.; Mikhailichenko, A. A.; Moortgat-Pick, G. A.; Pahl, P.; Pitthan, R.; Pöschl, R.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riemann, S.; Schälicke, A.; Schüler, K. P.; Schweizer, T.; Scott, D.; Sheppard, J. C.; Stahl, A.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D. R.; Weidemann, A.

    2009-11-01

    Full exploitation of the physics potential of a future International Linear Collider will require the use of polarized electron and positron beams. Experiment E166 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which an electron beam passes through a helical undulator to generate photons (whose first-harmonic spectrum extended to 7.9 MeV) with circular polarization, which are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons and electrons. The experiment was carried out with a 1-m-long, 400-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) operated at 46.6 GeV. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at five positron energies from 4.5 to 7.5 MeV. In addition, the electron polarization has been determined at 6.7 MeV, and the effect of operating the undulator with a ferrofluid was also investigated. To compare the measurements with expectations, detailed simulations were made with an upgraded version of G EANT4 that includes the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons, and photons with matter. The measurements agree with calculations, corresponding to 80% polarization for positrons near 6 MeV and 90% for electrons near 7 MeV.

  9. Undulator-based production of polarized positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G. [Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Barley, J. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Batygin, Y. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Berridge, S. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Bharadwaj, V.; Bower, G. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Bugg, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Decker, F.-J. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Dollan, R. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Efremenko, Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Floettmann, K. [DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Gharibyan, V. [DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); YerPhI, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Hast, C.; Iverson, R. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kolanoski, H. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kovermann, J.W. [RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Laihem, K. [DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Lohse, T. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); McDonald, K.T. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Mikhailichenko, A.A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Full exploitation of the physics potential of a future International Linear Collider will require the use of polarized electron and positron beams. Experiment E166 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which an electron beam passes through a helical undulator to generate photons (whose first-harmonic spectrum extended to 7.9 MeV) with circular polarization, which are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons and electrons. The experiment was carried out with a 1-m-long, 400-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) operated at 46.6 GeV. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at five positron energies from 4.5 to 7.5 MeV. In addition, the electron polarization has been determined at 6.7 MeV, and the effect of operating the undulator with a ferrofluid was also investigated. To compare the measurements with expectations, detailed simulations were made with an upgraded version of GEANT4 that includes the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons, and photons with matter. The measurements agree with calculations, corresponding to 80% polarization for positrons near 6 MeV and 90% for electrons near 7 MeV.

  10. Delta undulator for Cornell energy recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Temnykh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In anticipation of a new era of synchrotron radiation sources based on energy recovery linac techniques, we designed, built, and tested a short undulator magnet prototype whose features make optimum use of the unique conditions expected in these facilities. The prototype has pure permanent magnet (PPM structure with 24 mm period, 5 mm diameter round gap, and is 30 cm long. In comparison with conventional undulator magnets it has the following: (i full x-ray polarization control.—It may generate varying linear polarized as well as left and right circular polarized x rays with photon flux much higher than existing Apple-II–type devices. (ii 40% stronger magnetic field in linear and approximately 2 times stronger in circular polarization modes. This advantage translates into higher x-ray flux. (iii Compactness.—The prototype can be enclosed in a ∼20  cm diameter cylindrical vacuum vessel. These advantages were achieved through a number of unconventional approaches. Among them is control of the magnetic field strength via longitudinal motion of the magnet arrays. The moving mechanism is also used for x-ray polarization control. The compactness is achieved using a recently developed permanent magnet soldering technique for fastening PM blocks. We call this device a “Delta” undulator after the shape of its PM blocks. The presented article describes the design study, various aspects of the construction, and presents some test results.

  11. Undulator-based production of polarized positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel); Barley, J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Batygin, Y. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA (US)] (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Full exploitation of the physics potential of a future International Linear Collider will require the use of polarized electron and positron beams. Experiment E166 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which an electron beam passes through a helical undulator to generate photons (whose first-harmonic spectrum extended to 7.9 MeV) with circular polarization, which are then converted in a thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons and electrons. The experiment was carried out with a one-meter-long, 400-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) operated at 46.6 GeV. Measurements of the positron polarization have been performed at five positron energies from 4.5 to 7.5 MeV. In addition, the electron polarization has been determined at 6.7MeV, and the effect of operating the undulator with a ferrofluid was also investigated. To compare the measurements with expectations, detailed simulations were made with an upgraded version of GEANT4 that includes the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons, and photons with matter. The measurements agree with calculations, corresponding to 80% polarization for positrons near 6 MeV and 90% for electrons near 7 MeV. (orig.)

  12. Basic design of beamline and polarization control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The basic concept of synchrotron radiation beamlines for vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray experiments has been introduced to beginning users and designers of beamlines. The beamline defined here is composed of a front end,pre-mirrors, and a monochromator with refocusing mirrors, which are connected by beam pipes, providing monochromatic light for the experiments. Firstly, time characteristics of the synchrotron radiation are briefly reviewed.Secondly, the basic technology is introduced as the fundamental knowledge required to both users and designers. The topics are photoabsorption by air and solids, front ends and beam pipes, mirrors, monochromators, and filters. Thirdly,the design consideration is described mainly for the designers. The topics are design principle, principle of ray tracing,optical machinery and control, and vacuum. Fourthly, polarization control is considered. The topics are polarizers,polarization diagnosis of beamline, and circularly-polarized light generation. Finally, a brief summary is given introducing some references for further knowledge of the users and the designers.

  13. Beamline for schools beam line training day

    CERN Multimedia

    Photo Service, CERN

    2014-01-01

    The first two teams to participate in CERN's Beamline for Schools project spent their second day at CERN learning the basics of beam physics, and visiting their experimental setup at the T9 beam line in CERN's East Hall on the Meyrin site.

  14. Confining continuous manipulations of accelerator beamline optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amstutz, P.; Lechner, C.; Plath, T. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Ackermann, S.; Boedewadt, J.; Vogt, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Altering the optics in one section of a linear accelerator beamline will in general cause an alteration of the optics in all downstream sections. In circular accelerators, changing the optical properties of any beamline element will have an impact on the optical functions throughout the whole machine. In many cases, however, it is desirable to change the optics in a certain beamline section without disturbing any other parts of the machine. Such a local optics manipulation can be achieved by adjusting a number of additional corrector magnets that restore the initial optics after the manipulated section. In that case, the effect of the manipulation is confined in the region between the manipulated and the correcting beamline elements. Introducing a manipulation continuously, while the machine is operating, therefore requires continuous correction functions to be applied to the correcting quadrupole magnets. In this paper we present an analytic approach to calculate such continuous correction functions for six quadrupole magnets by means of a homotopy method. Besides a detailed derivation of the method, we present its application to an algebraic example, as well as its implementation at the seeding experiment sFLASH at the free-electron laser FLASH located at DESY in Hamburg.

  15. Numerical modeling of shoreline undulations part 1: Constant wave climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the non-linear development of alongshore undulations up to fully developed quasi-steady equilibrium. A numerical model which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines is applied, based on a spectral wave model, a depth...... integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model.First the length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a stability analysis. Next the further evolution from the linear to the fully non-linear regime is described....... In the fully non-linear regime down-drift spits and migrating shoreline undulations are described.Three different shoreline shapes are found depending on the wave conditions: undulations with no spits, undulations with shore parallel spit and undulations with reconnecting spits. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V....

  16. Crystalline Undulator with a Small Amplitude and a Short Period

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyuk, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    The crystalline undulator is a single crystal with periodically bent crystallographic planes. If ultrarelativistic charged particles channel through such a crystal, they emit hard radiation of undulator type. A crystalline undulator with a bending amplitude smaller than the distance between the bent planes and a bending period shorter than the period of channeling oscillations is proposed. Heretofore, it was believed that such a range of bending parameters was unsuitable for a crystalline und...

  17. Recent Progress in the Theory of the Crystalline Undulator

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyuk, Andriy

    2013-01-01

    If an ultrarelativistic charged particle channels inside a single crystal with periodically bent crystallographic planes, it emits hard electromagnetic radiation of the undulator type. Due to similarity of its physical principles to the ordinary (magnetic) undulator, such a device is termed as the crystalline undulator. Recent development of a new Monte Carlo code ChaS made possible a detailed simulation of particle channeling and radiation emission in periodically bent crystals. According to...

  18. XAFS and X-MCD spectroscopies with undulator gap scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalev, A; Gotte, V; Goulon, J; Gauthier, C; Chavanne, J; Elleaume, P

    1998-05-01

    The first experimental applications of the undulator gap-scan technique in X-ray absorption spectroscopy are reported. The key advantage of this method is that during EXAFS scans the undulator is permanently tuned to the maximum of its emission peak in order to maximize the photon statistics. In X-MCD or spin-polarized EXAFS studies with a helical undulator of the Helios type, the polarization rate can also be kept almost constant over a wide energy range.

  19. Beamline Design and Instrumentation for the Imaging and Coherence Beamline I13L at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U. H.; Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    I13L is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. In this paper we will discuss the fundamental design concepts of the beamline and explain their implications for the civil engineering of the endstation building and the beamline instrumentation. For the latter this paper will focus on the beamline mirror systems and monochromators.

  20. Tunable polarization plasma channel undulator for narrow bandwidth photon emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykovanov, S. G.; Wang, J. W.; Kharin, V. Yu.; Lei, B.; Schroeder, C. B.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of a plasma undulator excited by a short intense laser pulse in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. The undulator fields are generated either by the laser pulse incident off-axis and/or under the angle with respect to the channel axis. Linear plasma theory is used to derive the wakefield structure. It is shown that the electrons injected into the plasma wakefields experience betatron motion and undulator oscillations. Optimal electron beam injection conditions are derived for minimizing the amplitude of the betatron motion, producing narrow-bandwidth undulator radiation. Polarization control is readily achieved by varying the laser pulse injection conditions.

  1. Research on Complexity of Surface Undulating Shapes of Rock Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The surface undulating shapes of rock joints have been described qualitatively or experimental-quantitatively for a long time. The non-determined describing method can not fit quantitative evaluation of mechanical parameters of rock joints in engineering. In this paper, relative amplitude (RA) is chosen as a quantitative-describing index of surface measurement of 1 023 surface undulating curves which conducted by profile curve device(PCD). We discuss the nonuniformity,anisotropy and unhomogeneity of surface undulating shapes of joints. A new method that analyzes the complexity of surface undulating shapes of rock joints directional-statistically in various rock joints is also put forward.

  2. A Benchmark Construction of Positron Crystal Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhomirov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Optimization of a positron crystal undulator (CU) is addressed. The ways to assure both the maximum intensity and minimum spectral width of positron CU radiation are outlined. We claim that the minimum CU spectrum width of 3 -- 4% is reached at the positron energies of a few GeV and that the optimal bending radius of crystals planes in CU ranges from 3 to 5 critical bending radii for channeled particles. Following suggested approach a benchmark positron CU construction is devised and its functioning is illustrated using the simulation method widely tested by experimental data.

  3. Geoid undulation computations at laser tracking stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despotakis, Vasilios K.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of numerical computations of gravimetric undulations using recently proposed modifications of the classical Stokes formula is investigated. The basic formulations of the methods are outlined, and results from trial computations are presented in tables and graphs and compared with actual gravity data and/or GEOS-3/Seasat sea-surface heights. Although all of the methods gave similar results, the method of Sjoberg (1986) is recommended because of its superior theoretical precision. The importance of including terrain-corrected free-air anomalies in the computations is indicated.

  4. EIS: the scattering beamline at FERMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciovecchio, Claudio; Battistoni, Andrea; Giangrisostomi, Erika; Bencivenga, Filippo; Principi, Emiliano; Mincigrucci, Riccardo; Cucini, Riccardo; Gessini, Alessandro; D'Amico, Francesco; Borghes, Roberto; Prica, Milan; Chenda, Valentina; Scarcia, Martin; Gaio, Giulio; Kurdi, Gabor; Demidovich, Alexander; Danailov, Miltcho B; Di Cicco, Andrea; Filipponi, Adriano; Gunnella, Roberto; Hatada, Keisuke; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Svetina, Cristian; Godnig, Roberto; Abrami, Alessandro; Zangrando, Marco

    2015-05-01

    The Elastic and Inelastic Scattering (EIS) beamline at the free-electron laser FERMI is presented. It consists of two separate end-stations: EIS-TIMEX, dedicated to ultrafast time-resolved studies of matter under extreme and metastable conditions, and EIS-TIMER, dedicated to time-resolved spectroscopy of mesoscopic dynamics in condensed matter. The scientific objectives are discussed and the instrument layout illustrated, together with the results from first exemplifying experiments.

  5. An Updated AP2 Beamline TURTLE Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, M.; O' Day, S.

    1991-08-23

    This note describes a TURTLE model of the AP2 beamline. This model was created by D. Johnson and improved by J. Hangst. The authors of this note have made additional improvements which reflect recent element and magnet setting changes. The magnet characteristics measurements and survey data compiled to update the model will be presented. A printout of the actual TURTLE deck may be found in appendix A.

  6. Novel approaches in the SR beamline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaznatcheev, K., E-mail: kaznatch@bnl.gov [Photon Science Directorates, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Idir, M.; Chubar, O. [Photon Science Directorates, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2013-05-11

    High brightness third generation x-ray sources bring new experimental possibilities and impose new challenges. Coherent scattering and diffraction-limited microscopy require wave-preserving optics, high-resolution inelastic scattering novel optical elements, where x-ray interferometry or the requirements of precise polarization measurements change the optical layout. With NSLS-II development as an illustration we discuss recent trends in beamline design.

  7. Justification for the development of a bending magnet beamline at sector 10 at the APS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K. M.; Biosciences Division

    2006-09-18

    undulator beamline with an experimental station for bulk XAFS applications and x-ray microbeam applications (XRF, XAFS, and XRD) and (2) a BM beamline with an experimental station for large-sample XAFS spectroscopy and XRF elemental mapping on submillimeter to centimeter length scales.

  8. A comparative study of the spectra recorded at RRCAT synchrotron BL-8 dispersive EXAFS beamline with other beamlines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijeet Gaur; B D Shrivastava; S N Jha; D Bhattacharyya; A Poswal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to make a comparative study of the EXAFS spectra recorded at the BL-8 dispersive EXAFS beamline at 2 GeV Indus-2 synchrotron source at RRCAT, Indore (India) with those recorded at other synchrotron EXAFS beamlines, viz., X-19A at NSLS, BNL (USA), EXAFS wiggler beamline 4-1 at the SSRL (USA) and beamline 11.1 at ELETTRA (Italy). For this purpose, EXAFS spectra at Cu K-edge in copper metal have been recorded at these four beamlines. Further, EXAFS spectra at Cu K-edge in a copper complex have also been recorded at BL-8 beamline and beamline 11.1 at ELETTRA (Italy). The obtained experimental () data have been background-subtracted and then normalized. The normalized data have been then converted to () data, which have been Fourier-transformed and then fitted with the theoretical model, thereby yielding different structural parameters. It has been shown that the results obtained from the EXAFS spectra recorded at the BL-8 beamline are comparable with those obtained from other synchrotron EXAFS beamlines and also with the crystallographic results reported by earlier workers. The reliability, usefulness and data quality of the BL-8 beamline have been discussed.

  9. LCLS Undulator Commissioning, Alignment, and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2009-10-30

    The LCLS x-ray FEL has recently achieved its 1.5-Angstrom lasing and saturation goals upon first trial. This was achieved as a result of a thorough pre-beam checkout, both traditional and beam-based component alignment techniques, and high electron beam brightness. The x-ray FEL process demands very tight tolerances on the straightness of the electron beam trajectory (<5 {micro}m) through the LCLS undulator system. Tight, but less stringent tolerances of {approx}100 {micro}m rms were met for the transverse placement of the individual undulator segments with respect to the beam axis. The tolerances for electron beam straightness can only be met through a beam-based alignment (BBA) method, which is implemented using large electron energy variations and sub-micron resolution cavity beam position monitors (BPM), with precise conventional alignment used to set the starting conditions. Precision-fiducialization of components mounted on remotely adjustable girders, and special beam-finder wires (BFW) at each girder have been used to meet these challenging alignment tolerances. Longer-term girder movement due to ground motion and temperature changes are being monitored, continuously, by a unique stretched wire and hydrostatic level Alignment Diagnostics System (ADS).

  10. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of diluted system by undulator photon source and multi-element solid-state detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tanida, H

    2001-01-01

    In order to measure the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum of an ultra-diluted system, an optics and detector control system for a synchrotron radiation beamline is developed. The undulator gap width is continuously tuned to obtain the maximum X-ray photon flux during the energy scan for the EXAFS measurement. A piezoelectric translator optimizes the parallelism of the double crystal in a monochromator at each measurement point to compensate for mechanical errors of the monochromator, resulting in a smooth and intense X-ray photon flux during the measurement. For a detection of a weak fluorescence signal from diluted samples, a 19-element solid-state detector and digital signal processor are used. A K-edge EXAFS spectrum of iron in a myoglobin aqueous solution with a concentration of 5.58 parts per million was obtained by this system.

  11. Stability of the LCLS Undulator Hall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, J.

    2005-01-31

    Stability of mechanical and electrical offsets of the bpm's in the LCLS undulator section is critical to obtaining and maintaining stable FEL lasing. Simulations show that for the LCLS running at 1.5 Angstroms if the electron beam develops a 2 micron rms deviation from a perfectly straight line over a distance of about 10 meters, the FEL saturation length will increase by one gain length.[1] Nominally the feedback system will take changes in the electron beam trajectory, measured by the bpm's, calculate and apply orbit corrections relatively easily. However, the efficacy of this technique relies on the ability of the bpm system to detect real electron beam trajectory changes at the level of 1 micron rms. One source of error in the determination of the electron beam trajectory is through changes in the mechanical or electrical offsets of the bpm's. Such offset errors are erroneously imposed on the real beam trajectory by the feedback system. Bpm mechanical and electrical offsets can be determined by beam based alignment techniques using electron beams of different energies. However this measurement is time consuming and cannot be used during normal operation. Therefore it is of paramount importance to keep mechanical and electrical offsets as stable as possible--on the scale of a few microns over a period of at least a day. As part of the R&D for the NLC, studies were carried out in 1994 and 1996 in the FFTB tunnel where the LCLS undulator is to be housed, which measured magnet motion using a wire alignment system with an inherent resolution of 100 nm. The reference wires extended in four sections for a total length of about 440 feet starting near magnet QA2 near the muon shielding in the beam switchyard and ending about 85 feet out into the research yard section of the FFTB. The planned location for the LCLS undulator section partially overlaps the area where the measurements were made. Two papers were written describing measurements made with the

  12. Free electron lasers with slowly varying beam and undulator parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Huang

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A self-consistent theory of a free electron laser (FEL with slowly varying beam and undulator parameters is developed using the WKB approximation. The theory is applied to study the performance of a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE FEL when the electron beam energy varies along the undulator as would be caused by vacuum pipe wakefields and/or when the undulator strength parameter is tapered in the small signal regime before FEL saturation. We find that a small energy gain or an equivalent undulator taper slightly reduces the power gain length in the exponential growth regime and can increase the saturated SASE power by about a factor of 2. Power degradation away from the optimal performance can be estimated based upon knowledge of the SASE bandwidth. The analytical results, which agree with numerical simulations, are used to optimize the undulator taper and to evaluate wakefield effects.

  13. Spontaneous radiation from relativistic electrons in a tapered undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, P.; Colson, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrum, angular distribution, polarization, and coherence properties of the radiation emitted by relativistic electrons undulating through a quasiperiodic tapered magnetic field are studied. Tapering the wavelength and/or field strength along the undulator's axis has the effect of spreading the spectral line to higher frequencies; interference over this broader spectral range results in a more complex line shape. The angular dependence, on the other hand, is not affected by the amount of taper. The polarization of the radiation in the forward direction is determined by the transverse polarization of the undulator, but the polarization changes off axis. The radiation patterns predicted here are distinct from those of untapered undulators and their detection is now feasible. They will provide useful diagnostics of electron trajectories and threshold behavior in free-electron-laser oscillators using tapered undulators.

  14. Short-Period RF Undulator for a SASE Nanometer source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2001-12-21

    Analysis is described towards development of a RF undulator with a period < 1 cm, an undulator parameter K of the order of unity, and a gap greater than 2.25 mm. The application for the undulator is for a SASE source to produce 1 nm wavelength radiation using a low energy electron beam in the range 1-2 GeV. Particle orbit calculations in a conventional standing-wave resonator configuration show that the presence of a co-propagating component of RF field can cause deleterious motion for the undulating electrons that can seriously degrade their radiation spectrum. To obviate this problem, resonator designs were devised in which only the counter-propagating field components interact with the particles. Two resonator configurations with the same undulator parameter K = 0.4 have been devised and are described in this report.

  15. High-flux hard X-ray microbeam using a single-bounce capillary with doubly focused undulator beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrea, Raul A; Huang, Rong; Cornaby, Sterling; Bilderback, Donald H; Irving, Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    A pre-focused X-ray beam at 12 keV and 9 keV has been used to illuminate a single-bounce capillary in order to generate a high-flux X-ray microbeam. The BioCAT undulator X-ray beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source was used to generate the pre-focused beam containing 1.2 x 10(13) photons s(-1) using a sagittal-focusing double-crystal monochromator and a bimorph mirror. The capillary entrance was aligned with the focal point of the pre-focused beam in order to accept the full flux of the undulator beam. Two alignment configurations were tested: (i) where the center of the capillary was aligned with the pre-focused beam (;in-line') and (ii) where one side of the capillary was aligned with the beam (;off-line'). The latter arrangement delivered more flux (3.3 x 10(12) photons s(-1)) and smaller spot sizes (< or =10 microm FWHM in both directions) for a photon flux density of 4.2 x 10(10) photons s(-1) microm(-2). The combination of the beamline main optics with a large-working-distance (approximately 24 mm) capillary used in this experiment makes it suitable for many microprobe fluorescence applications that require a micrometer-size X-ray beam and high flux density. These features are advantageous for biological samples, where typical metal concentrations are in the range of a few ng cm(-2). Micro-XANES experiments are also feasible using this combined optical arrangement.

  16. Macromolecular crystallography beamline X25 at the NSLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Annie; Allaire, Marc; Buono, Richard; Cowan, Matthew L; Dvorak, Joseph; Flaks, Leon; Lamarra, Steven; Myers, Stuart F; Orville, Allen M; Robinson, Howard H; Roessler, Christian G; Schneider, Dieter K; Shea-McCarthy, Grace; Skinner, John M; Skinner, Michael; Soares, Alexei S; Sweet, Robert M; Berman, Lonny E

    2014-05-01

    Beamline X25 at the NSLS is one of the five beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography operated by the Brookhaven National Laboratory Macromolecular Crystallography Research Resource group. This mini-gap insertion-device beamline has seen constant upgrades for the last seven years in order to achieve mini-beam capability down to 20 µm × 20 µm. All major components beginning with the radiation source, and continuing along the beamline and its experimental hutch, have changed to produce a state-of-the-art facility for the scientific community.

  17. High-heat-load monochromator options for the RIXS beamline at the APS with the MBA lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zunping, E-mail: zpliu@anl.gov; Gog, Thomas, E-mail: gog@aps.anl.gov; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Upton, Mary H.; Ding, Yang; Kim, Jung-Ho; Casa, Diego M.; Said, Ayman H.; Carter, Jason A.; Navrotski, Gary [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    With the MBA lattice for APS-Upgrade, tuning curves of 2.6 cm period undulators meet the source requirements for the RIXS beamline. The high-heat-load monochromator (HHLM) is the first optical white beam component. There are four options for the HHLM such as diamond monochromators with refrigerant of either water or liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}), and silicon monochromators of either direct or indirect cooling system. Their performances are evaluated at energy 11.215 keV (Ir L-III edge). The cryo-cooled diamond monochromator has similar performance as the water-cooled diamond monochromator because GaIn of the Cu-GaIn-diamond interface becomes solid. The cryo-cooled silicon monochromators perform better, not only in terms of surface slope error due to thermal deformation, but also in terms of thermal capacity.

  18. X-ray beam stabilization at BL-17A, the protein microcrystallography beamline of the Photon Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Noriyuki; Ikuta, Kazuyuki; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Yamada, Yusuke; Yousef, Mohammad S.; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2008-01-01

    BL-17A is a new structural biology beamline at the Photon Factory, Japan. The high-brilliance beam, derived from the new short-gap undulator (SGU#17), allows for unique protein crystallographic experiments such as data collection from microcrystals and structural determination using softer X-rays. However, microcrystal experiments require robust beam stability during data collection and minor fluctuations could not be ignored. Initially, significant beam instability was observed at BL-17A. The causes of the beam instability were investigated and its various sources identified. Subsequently, several effective countermeasures have been implemented, and the fluctuation of the beam intensity successfully suppressed to within 1%. Here the instability reduction techniques used at BL-17A are presented. PMID:18421162

  19. Accurate and quick calibration method for polarization-modulation spectroscopy using an ac-modulated polarizing undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahito; Yagi-Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Kaneko, Fusae; Nakagawa, Kazumichi

    2008-08-01

    An accurate calibration method in which an ac-modulated polarizing undulator is used for polarization modulation spectroscopy such as circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) has been proposed and successfully applied to vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) CD and LD spectra measured at beamline BL-5B in the electron storage ring, TERAS, at AIST. This calibration method employs an undulator-modulation spectroscopic method with a multireflection polarimeter, and it uses electronic and optical elements identical to those used for the CD and LD measurements. This method regards the polarimeter as a standard sample for the CD and LD measurements in the vuv region in which a standard sample has not yet been established. The calibration factors for the CD and LD spectra are obtained over a wide range of wavelengths, from 120 to 230 nm, at TERAS BL-5B. The calibrated CD and LD spectra measured at TERAS exhibit good agreement with the standard spectra for wavelengths greater than 170 nm; the mean differences between the standard and calibrated CD and LD spectra are approximately 7% and 4%, respectively. This method enables a remarkable reduction in the experimental time, from approximately 1 h to less than 10 min that is sufficient to observe the storage-ring current dependence of the calibration factors. This method can be applied to the calibration of vuv-CD spectra measured using a conventional photoelastic modulator and for performing an accurate analysis of protein secondary structures.

  20. Feasibility of Diagnostics Undulator Studies at ASTA

    CERN Document Server

    Lumpkin, A H; Byrd, J M

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility is currently under construction at Fermilab. With a 1-ms macropulse composed of up to 3000 micropulses and with beam energies projected from 45 to 800 MeV, the need for non-intercepting diagnostics for beam size, position, energy, and bunch length is clear. In addition to the rf BPMs, optical synchrotron radiation (OSR), and optical diffraction radiation (ODR) techniques already planned, we propose the use of undulator radiation from a dedicated device for diagnostics. with a nominal period of 4-5 cm, a tunable field parameter K, and a length of several meters. The feasibility of extending such techniques in the visible regime at a beam energy of 125 MeV into the UV and VUV regimes with beam energies of 250 and 500 MeV will be presented.

  1. Radiological considerations in the operation of the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, H.J.

    1998-11-11

    The Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is a facility that uses the existing APS linac to accelerate electrons up to an energy of 700 MeV. These electrons are transported through the Pm into a portion of the booster synchrotrons and on into the LEUTL main enclosure (MIL 97). Figure 1 shows the layout of the LEUTL building, which consists of an earth-benned concrete enclosure and an end-station building. The concrete enclosure houses the electron beamline, test undulator, and beam dump. This facility is about 51 m long and 3.66 m wide. Technical components and diagnostics for characterizing the undulator light are found in the end station. This building has about 111 m{sup 2} of floor space. This note deals with the radiological considerations of operations using electrons up to 700 MeV and at power levels up to the safety envelope of 1 kW. Previous radiological considerations for electron and positron operations in the linac, PAR, and synchrotrons have been addressed else-where (MOE 93a, 93b, and 93c). Much of the methodology discussed in the previous writeups, as well as in MOE 94, has been used in the computations in this note. The radiological aspects that are addressed include the following: prompt secondary radiation (bremsstrahlung, giant resonance neutrons, medium- and high-energy neutrons) produced by electrons interacting in a beam stop or in component structures; skyshine radiation, which produces a radiation field in nearby areas and at the nearest off-site location; radioactive gases produced by neutron irradiation of air in the vicinity of a particle loss site; noxious gases (ozone and others) produced in air by the escaping bremsstrahlung radiation that results from absorbing particles in the components; activation of the LEUTL components that results in a residual radiation field in the vicinity of these materials following shutdown; potential activation of water used for cooling the magnets and other purposes in the tunnel; and evaluation of the

  2. Variable linear polarization from an X-ray undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A T; Arenholz, E; Marks, S; Schlueter, R; Steier, C; Padmore, H A; Hitchcock, A P; Castner, D G

    2002-07-01

    A new X-ray undulator has been designed and constructed which produces linearly polarized X-rays in which the plane of polarization can be oriented to a user selectable angle, from horizontal to vertical. Based on the Apple-II elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU), the undulator rotates the angle of the linear polarization by a simple longitudinal motion of the undulator magnets. Combined with the circular and elliptical polarization capabilities of the EPU operating in the standard mode, this new undulator produces soft X-ray radiation with versatile polarization control. This paper describes the magnetic structure of the device and presents an analysis of the magnetic field with varying undulator parameters. The variable linear polarization capability is then exhibited by measuring the X-ray absorption spectrum of an oriented polytetrafluoroethylene thin film. This experiment, which measures the linear dichroism of the sample at two peaks near the C 1s absorption edge, demonstrates the continuous polarization rotation capabilities of the undulator.

  3. Position Stability Monitoring of THEthe LCLS Undulator Quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, Heinz Dieter; Gassner, Georg; Peters, Franz; /SLAC

    2012-03-26

    X-ray FELs demand that the positions of undulator components be stable to less than 1 {mu}m per day. Simultaneously, the undulator length increases significantly in order to saturate at x-ray wavelengths. To minimize the impact of the outside environment, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator is placed underground, but reliable data about ground motion inside such a tunnel was not available in the required stability range during the planning phase. Therefore, a new position monitor system had been developed and installed with the LCLS undulator. This system is capable of measuring x, y, roll, pitch and yaw of each of the 33 undulator quadrupoles with respect to stretched wires. Instrument resolution is about 10 nm and instrument drift is negligible. Position data of individual quadrupoles can be correlated along the entire 132-m long undulator. The system has been under continuous operation since 2009. This report describes long term experiences with the running system and the observed positional stability of the undulator quadrupoles.

  4. Effects of Tapered Betafunction in the LCLS Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Goldammer, K; Huang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The Linac coherent Light Source (LCLS) is an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project based on the SLAC linac. With its nominal set of electron beam, focusing and undulator parameters, it is designed to achieve SASE saturation at an undulator length of about 100m with an average power of 10GW. In order to keep the electron beam focused in the undulators, a FODO lattice is integrated along the entire length of the undulators. Nominally, the quadrupoles strengths are chosen to produce nearly constant beta function and beam size along the undulator, optimized for the FEL interaction in the exponential growth regime. Since these quadrupoles are electromagnetic, it is possible to adjust the individual quadrupole strength to vary the beta function and the beam size along the undulator, tailoring the FEL interaction in the startup and the saturation regimes. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the tapered beta function in the LCLS undulator and discuss the generated x-ray properties.

  5. SASE3: soft x-ray beamline at European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Civita, Daniele; Gerasimova, Natalia; Sinn, Harald; Vannoni, Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    The European XFEL in Hamburg will be comprised of a linear accelerator and three Free-Electron-Laser beamlines (SASE1, SASE2 and SASE3) covering the energy range from 250 eV to 24 keV. It will provide up to 2700 pulses in trains of 600 microsecond duration at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. SASE3 beamline is the soft X-ray beamline (0.25 - 3 keV) and delivers photon pulses to SQS (Small Quantum System) and SCS (Spectroscopy & Coherent Scattering) experiments. The beamline is able to operate in both monochromatic and non-monochromatic mode. The latter provides the inherent FEL bandwidth at higher intensities. The beamline from photon source to experimental station is about 450 m long. The length of the beamline is related to the optics single-shotdamage issue. The almost diffraction-limited beam is propagated along the beamline with very long (up to 800 mm clear aperture), cooled (with eutectic bath) and super-polished (50 nrad RMS slope error and less than 3 nm PV residual height error) mirrors. The VLS-PG (variable line spacing - plane grating) monochromator covers the entire beamline energy range and its optical design is guided by the optimization of the energy resolving power, the minimization of the pulse broadening and the maximization of optics damage tolerance. Grating substrates are 530 mm long, eutectic cooled and present outstanding surface quality. The VLS parameters of the blazed profile are also a real challenge under manufacturing and measuring point of view. Adaptive optics in the horizontal (the second offset mirror) and vertical (monochromator premirror) plane are foreseen in the optical layout to increase the beamline tunability and to preserve the highly coherent beam properties. Beamline optical design, expected performance and also mechanical aspects of main beamline components are reported.

  6. The sub-micron resolution X-ray spectroscopy beamline at NSLS-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade, V.; Thieme, J.; Northrup, P.; Yao, Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Eng, P.; Shen, Q.

    2011-09-01

    For many research areas such as life, environmental, earth or material sciences, novel analytical resources have to be developed for an advance understanding of complex natural and engineered systems that are heterogeneous on the micron to the tenths of microns scale. NSLS-II at BNL will be a synchrotron radiation source with an ultra-high brilliance delivering a high current (500 mA). One of the 1st six NSLS-II beamlines will be the Sub-micron Resolution X-ray spectroscopy beamline (SRX), dedicated as an analytical tool to study complex systems on a sub-micron length scale. SRX will comprise two branches thanks to a canted setup with two undulators: the first branch using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors as focusing optics will cover the energy range of 4.65-23 keV, allowing for XANES experiments from the Ti to the Rh K-edge. Thanks to a horizontally deflecting double crystal monochromator with maximum stability, a set of slits located on the secondary source, and two sets of complementary and quickly interchangeable KB mirrors, spectroscopy with very high spectral and spatial resolution will be achieved. The spot size will almost fully cover a range from 60×60 to 1300×500 nm 2, providing an attractive adaptability of the observation scale. A 1.5 m long IVU21 will serve as a light source. The expected high flux in a sub-micron-spot (5×10 12 and 7×10 13 ph s -1 at maximum and lowest resolutions) will open new possibilities for spectromicroscopy of trace elements. The 2nd canted undulator will serve as an independent light source for the second branch designed for experiments with X-ray energies in the range of 2-15 keV. Using Fresnel zone plates, the spatial resolution aimed for is around 30 nm with up to 7×10 9 ph s -1 in the spot. This branch would be attractive for many biological applications from life and environmental science due to low-Z elements of interest within that energy range. In both experimental stations, X-ray fluorescence will be used for imaging

  7. High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strocov, V. N., E-mail: vladimir.strocov@psi.ch; Schmitt, T.; Flechsig, U.; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A.; Chen, Q.; Raabe, J. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Wang, X. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Institut de Physique de la Matiére Condensé, Ecole Polytechnique Fédéderale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Grioni, M. [Institut de Physique de la Matiére Condensé, Ecole Polytechnique Fédéderale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Piazzalunga, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Patthey, L. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-09-01

    Concepts and technical realization of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source are described. Optimization of the optical scheme for high resolution and photon flux as well as diagnostics tools and alignment strategies are discussed. The concepts and technical realisation of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) are described. The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0–180° rotatable linear polarizations) but also the energy without changing the gap. The beamline optics is based on the well established scheme of plane-grating monochromator operating in collimated light. The ultimate resolving power E/ΔE is above 33000 at 1 keV photon energy. The choice of blazed versus lamellar gratings and optimization of their profile parameters is described. Owing to glancing angles on the mirrors as well as optimized groove densities and profiles of the gratings, the beamline is capable of delivering high photon flux up to 1 × 10{sup 13} photons s{sup −1} (0.01% BW){sup −1} at 1 keV. Ellipsoidal refocusing optics used for the RIXS endstation demagnifies the vertical spot size down to 4 µm, which allows slitless operation and thus maximal transmission of the high-resolution RIXS spectrometer delivering E/ΔE > 11000 at 1 keV photon energy. Apart from the beamline optics, an overview of the control system is given, the diagnostics and software tools are described, and strategies used for the optical alignment are discussed. An introduction to the concepts and instrumental realisation of the ARPES and RIXS endstations is given.

  8. Innovations in the design of mechanical components for a beamline -- The SRl`95 Workshop 2 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzay, T.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Warwick, T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 1995 Conference (SRI`95) was hosted by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Of the many workshops within the conference, the SRI`95 Workshop 2 was ``Innovations in the Design of Mechanical Components of a Beamline``. The workshop was attended well with over 140 registrants. The following topics were discussed. Industry`s perspective on the status and future was provided by Huber Diffrationtechnik, Oxford Instruments, and Kohzu Seiko Ltd. on goniometers/diffractometers, advanced manufacturing technique of high heat load components, such as the APS photon shutter, and the specialties of monochromators provided to the third-generation synchrotrons, respectively. This was followed by a description of the engineering of a dual function monochromator design for water-cooled diamond or cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators by CMC CAT/APS. Another category was the nagging problem of sensitivity of the photon beam position monitors (XBPM) to bending magnet radiation (``BM contamination``) and the undulator magnet gap changes. Problem descriptions and suggested solutions were provided by both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the APS. Other innovative ideas were the cooling schemes (enhanced cooling of beamline components using metallic porous meshes including cryo-cooled applications); Glidcop photon shutter design using microchannels at the ALS; and window/filter design, manufacture and operational experiences at CHESS and PETRA/HASYLAB. Additional discussions were held on designing for micromotions and precision in the optical support systems and smart user filter schemes. This is a summary of the presentations at the Workshop. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Observation of picometer vertical emittance with a vertical undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, K P; Boland, M J; Dowd, R; Tan, Y-R E; Cowie, B C C; Papaphilippou, Y; Taylor, G N; Rassool, R P

    2012-11-09

    Using a vertical undulator, picometer vertical electron beam emittances have been observed at the Australian Synchrotron storage ring. An APPLE-II type undulator was phased to produce a horizontal magnetic field, which creates a synchrotron radiation field that is very sensitive to the vertical electron beam emittance. The measured ratios of undulator spectral peak heights are evaluated by fitting to simulations of the apparatus. With this apparatus immediately available at most existing electron and positron storage rings, we find this to be an appropriate and novel vertical emittance diagnostic.

  10. Experimental realization of a new type of crystalline undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistisen, Tobias N; Andersen, Kristoffer K; Yilmaz, Serdar; Mikkelsen, Rune; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I; Lauth, Werner; Backe, Hartmut

    2014-06-27

    A new scheme of making crystalline undulators was recently proposed and investigated theoretically by Andriy Kostyuk, concluding that a new type of crystalline undulator would be not only viable, but better than the previous scheme. This article describes the first experimental measurement of such a crystalline undulator, produced by using Si(1-x)Ge(x)-graded composition and measured at the Mainzer Microtron facility at beam energies of 600 and 855 MeV. We also present theoretical models developed to compare with the experimental data.

  11. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    CERN Document Server

    Kamps, T; Goldammer, K; Krämer, Dietrich; Kuske, P; Kuszynski, J; Lipka, D; Marhauser, F; Quast, T; Richter, R

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting rf photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration between BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of an CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 pi mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies be...

  12. Beam Characterization at the KAERI UED Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Setiniyaz, Sadiq; Baek, In-Hyung; Nam, Jinhee; Chae, MoonSik; Han, Byung-Heon; Gudkov, Boris; Jang, Kyu Ha; Park, Sunjeong; Miginsky, Sergey; Vinokurov, Nikolay; Jeong, Young Uk

    2016-01-01

    The UED (ultrafast electron diffraction) beamline of the KAERI's (the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute's) WCI (World Class Institute) Center has been successfully commissioned. We have measured the beam emittance by using the quadrupole scan technique and the charge by using a novel measurement system we have developed. In the quadrupole scan, a larger drift distance between the quadrupole and the screen is preferred because it gives a better thin-lens approximation. A high bunch-charge beam, however, will undergo emittance growth in the long drift caused by the space-charge force. We present a method that mitigates this growth by introducing a quadrupole scan with a short drift and without using the thin-lens approximation. The quadrupole in this method is treated as a thick lens, and the emittance is extracted by using the thick-lens equations. Apart from being precise, our method can be readily applied without making any change to the beamline and has no need for a big drift space. For charge measure...

  13. Diagnostics Beamline for the SRF Gun Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Kamps; V. Durr; K. Goldammer; D. Kramer; P. Kuske; J. Kuszynski; D. Lipka; F. Marhauser; T. Quast; D. Richter; U. Lehnert; P. Michel; J. Teichert; P. Evtushenko; I. Will

    2005-08-22

    A superconducting radio-frequency photo electron injector (SRF gun) is currently under construction by a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZR and MBI. The project aims at the design and setup of a CW SRF gun including a diagnostics beamline for the ELBE FEL and to address R&D issues on low emittance injectors for future light sources such as the BESSY FEL. Of critical importance for the injector performance is the control of the electron beam parameters. For this reason a compact diagnostics beamline is under development serving a multitude of operation settings ranging from low-charge (77pC), low-emittance (1 mm mrad) mode to high-charge (2.5nC) operation of the gun. For these operation modes beam dynamics simulations are resulting in boundary conditions for the beam instrumentation. Proven and mature technology is projected wherever possible, for example for current and beam position monitoring. The layout of the beam profile and emittance measurement systems is described. For the bunch length, which varies between 5 ps and 50 ps, two schemes using electro-optical sampling and Cherenkov radiation are detailed. The beam energy and energy spread is measured with a 180-degree spectrometer.

  14. A Remote and Virtual Synchrotron Beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. M.; Alp, E.; Sturhahn, W.

    2012-12-01

    National facilities offer one-of-a-kind opportunities to apply state-of-the-art experimental techniques to the pressing scientific problems of today. Yet, few students are able to experience research projects at national facilities due to limited accessibility caused in part by limited involvement in the local academic institution, constrained working areas at the experimental stations, and/or travel costs. We present a virtual and remote beam-line for Earth science studies using nuclear resonant and inelastic x-ray scattering methods at Sector 3 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Off-site students have the capability of controlling their measurements via secure internet connections and webcams. Students can access a 'view only mode' for ease of interaction and safety-control. More experienced users have exclusive control of the experiment and can remotely change variables within the experimental setup. Students may also access the virtual aspects these experiments by simulating certain conditions with our newly developed software. We evaluate such a tool by giving "before" and "after" assignments to students at different levels. These levels include high-school students from the Pasadena and greater Los Angeles area school districts, undergraduate students from Caltech's SURF/MURF program, and graduate students at Caltech. We specifically target underrepresented groups. Our results thus far show that the capabilities offered by our remote and virtual beamline show improved knowledge and understanding of applying experimental-based studies at the synchrotron to solve problems in the Earth sciences.

  15. Plasma undulator based on laser excitation of wakefields in a plasma channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykovanov, S G; Schroeder, C B; Esarey, E; Geddes, C G R; Leemans, W P

    2015-04-10

    An undulator is proposed based on the plasma wakefields excited by a laser pulse in a plasma channel. Generation of the undulator fields is achieved by inducing centroid oscillations of the laser pulse in the channel. The period of such an undulator is proportional to the Rayleigh length of the laser pulse and can be submillimeter, while preserving high undulator strength. The electron trajectories in the undulator are examined, expressions for the undulator strength are presented, and the spontaneous radiation is calculated. Multimode and multicolor laser pulses are considered for greater tunability of the undulator period and strength.

  16. G4beamline Particle Tracking in Matter Dominated Beam Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.J. Roberts, K.B. Beard, S. Ahmed, D. Huang, D.M. Kaplan

    2011-03-01

    The G4beamline program is a useful and steadily improving tool to quickly and easily model beam lines and experimental equipment without user programming. It has both graphical and command-line user interfaces. Unlike most accelerator physics codes, it easily handles a wide range of materials and fields, being particularly well suited for the study of muon and neutrino facilities. As it is based on the Geant4 toolkit, G4beamline includes most of what is known about the interactions of particles with matter. We are continuing the development of G4beamline to facilitate its use by a larger set of beam line and accelerator developers. A major new feature is the calculation of space-charge effects. G4beamline is open source and freely available at http://g4beamline.muonsinc.com

  17. Opportunities for two-color experiments at the SASE3 undulator line of the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Mazza, Tommaso; Meyer, Michael; Serkez, Svitozar [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) have been proven to generate short and powerful radiation pulses allowing for a wide class of novel experiments. If an XFEL facility supports the generation of two X-ray pulses with different wavelengths and controllable delay, the range of possible experiments is broadened even further to include X-ray-pump/X-ray-probe applications. In this work we discuss the possibility of applying a simple and cost-effective method for producing two-color pulses at the SASE3 soft X-ray beamline of the European XFEL. The technique is based on the installation of a magnetic chicane in the baseline undulator and can be accomplished in several steps. We discuss the scientific interest of this upgrade for the Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument, in connection with the high-repetition rate of the European XFEL, and we provide start-to-end simulations up to the radiation focus on the sample, proving the feasibility of our concept.

  18. U60 Undulator: An Insertion Device for the Siam Photon Source

    OpenAIRE

    Thananchai DASRI

    2011-01-01

    Properties of insertion device, undulators, for the synchrotron light source are reviewed. Undulators are magnetic devices installed in the storage ring to improve the properties of the synchrotron light. First, the ideal simulated undulator fields will be discussed. Later the simulated fields produced by a defective undulator will be shown. Last, their effects on the stored electron beam are presented. The U60 undulator of the Siam Photon Source is used as an example.

  19. U60 Undulator: An Insertion Device for the Siam Photon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thananchai DASRI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of insertion device, undulators, for the synchrotron light source are reviewed. Undulators are magnetic devices installed in the storage ring to improve the properties of the synchrotron light. First, the ideal simulated undulator fields will be discussed. Later the simulated fields produced by a defective undulator will be shown. Last, their effects on the stored electron beam are presented. The U60 undulator of the Siam Photon Source is used as an example.

  20. Undulators to FELs: Nanometers, Femtoseconds, Coherence and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attwood, David [University of California Berkeley

    2011-11-30

    For scientists in many fields, from material science to the life sciences and archeology, synchrotron radiation, and in particular undulator radiation, has provide an intense source of x-rays which are tunable to the absorption edges of particular elements of interest, often permitting studies at high spatial and spectral resolution. Now a close cousin to the undulator, the x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) has emerged with improved spatial coherence and, perhaps more importantly, femtosecond pulse durations which permit dynamical studies. In the future attosecond x-ray capabilities are anticipated. In this colloqium we will describe some state of the art undulator studies, how undulators work, the evolution to FELs, their pulse and coherence properties, and the types of experiments envisioned.

  1. Electro-Magnetic Quadrupole Magnets in the LCLS FEL Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emma, P.

    2005-01-31

    We discuss various aspects of electro-magnetic quadrupole (EMQ) magnets for the LCLS FEL undulator, including their utility in beam-based alignment (BBA), magnet design issues, and impact on tunnel environment, reliability, and cost.

  2. A Comparison of Geoid Undulations for West Central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Daniel R.; Csatho, Beata; Jezek, Kenneth C.; Thomas, Robert H.; Krabill, William B.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Forsberg, Rene

    1997-01-01

    The accuracy of a new local gravity field model, GEOID94A, is examined at a site on the western Greenland ice sheet. The model, developed by the Danish National Survey and Cadastre, incorporates several new gravity data sets including an extensive amount of airborne gravity data. Model-derived geoid undulations were compared to independently determined undulations found by differencing the elevations from Global Positioning System controlled airborne laser altimetry and optical leveling surveys. Differences between the two sets of undulations were less than +/- 6 cm RMS. The comparison improved (+/- 5 cm RMS) when GEOID94A undulations were adjusted by local gravity observations also acquired at the site. Our comparisons demonstrate that GEOID94A adequately models the long to intermediate wavelengths of the gravity field. We conclude that GEOID94A constitutes a reliable reference model for studies of Greenland's gravity field.

  3. The Effects of Undulator Field on Stored Electron Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Thananchai DASRI; Supagorn RUGMAI

    2012-01-01

    In order to extend the usable photon spectrum to higher photon flux, an undulator with periodic magnetic field has to be installed into the storage ring of the synchrotron facility. This paper presents the perturbations from the magnetic field of such a device on the electron beam dynamics in the ring. Theories and an example of a practical device are discussed. The U60 undulator of the Siam Photon Source is selected for illustrating these ideas.Graphical abstract

  4. The Effects of Undulator Field on Stored Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thananchai DASRI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to extend the usable photon spectrum to higher photon flux, an undulator with periodic magnetic field has to be installed into the storage ring of the synchrotron facility. This paper presents the perturbations from the magnetic field of such a device on the electron beam dynamics in the ring. Theories and an example of a practical device are discussed. The U60 undulator of the Siam Photon Source is selected for illustrating these ideas.Graphical abstract

  5. Crystal undulator as a new compact source of radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bellucci

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline undulators with periodically deformed crystallographic planes offer coherent electromagnetic fields on the order of 1000 T and provide undulator period L in submillimeter range. We present an idea for creation of a crystalline undulator and report its realization. One face of a silicon crystal was given periodic microscratches (grooves by means of a diamond blade, with a period ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mm in different samples. The x-ray tests of the crystal deformation have shown that a sinusoidal-like shape of crystalline planes goes through the bulk of the crystals. This opens up the possibility for experiments with high-energy particles channeled in the crystalline undulator, a new compact source of radiation. The first experiments on photon emission in the crystal undulator are in preparation at IHEP (Protvino with 2–15 GeV positrons and at LNF (Frascati with 500–800 MeV positrons, aiming to produce undulator photons in the range of 50–500 keV. The results of Monte Carlo simulations for the planned experiments are presented as well.

  6. Polarization characteristics of radiation in both 'light' and conventional undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kolchuzhkin, A. M.; Strokov, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    As a rule, an intensity spectrum of undulator radiation (UR) is calculated by using the classical approach, even for electron energy higher than 10 GeV. Such a spectrum is determined by an electron trajectory in an undulator while neglecting radiation loss. Using Planck's law, the UR photon spectrum can be calculated from the obtained intensity spectrum, for both linear and nonlinear regimes. The electron radiation process in a field of strong electromagnetic waves is considered within the quantum electrodynamics framework, using the Compton scattering process or radiation in a 'light' undulator. A comparison was made of the results from using these two approaches, for UR spectra generated by 250-GeV electrons in an undulator with a 11.5-mm period; this comparison shows that they coincide with high accuracy. The characteristics of the collimated UR beam (i.e. spectrum and circular polarization) were simulated while taking into account the discrete process of photon emission along an electron trajectory in both undulator types. Both spectral photon distributions and polarization dependence on photon energy are 'smoothed', in comparison to that expected for a long undulator-the latter of which considers the ILC positron source (ILC Technical Design Report).

  7. MX: A beamline control system toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, William M.

    2000-06-01

    The development of experimental and beamline control systems for two Collaborative Access Teams at the Advanced Photon Source has resulted in the creation of a portable data acquisition and control toolkit called MX. MX consists of a set of servers, application programs and libraries that enable the creation of command line and graphical user interface applications that may be easily retargeted to new and different kinds of motor and device controllers. The source code for MX is written in ANSI C and Tcl/Tk with interprocess communication via TCP/IP. MX is available for several versions of Unix, Windows 95/98/NT and DOS. It may be downloaded from the web site http://www.imca.aps.anl.gov/mx/.

  8. Status of the crystallography beamlines at PETRA III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Anja; Pakendorf, Tim; Reime, Bernd; Meyer, Jan; Fischer, Pontus; Stübe, Nicolas; Panneerselvam, Saravanan; Lorbeer, Olga; Stachnik, Karolina; Warmer, Martin; Rödig, Philip; Göries, Dennis; Meents, Alke

    2016-03-01

    Since 2013, three beamlines for macromolecular crystallography are available to users at the third-generation synchrotron PETRA III in Hamburg: P11, P13 and P14, the latter two operated by EMBL. Beamline P11 is operated by DESY and is equipped with a Pilatus 6M detector. Together with the photon flux of 2× 10^{13} ph/s provided by the very brilliant X-ray source of PETRA III, a full data set can be typically collected in less than 2min. P11 provides state-of-the-art microfocusing capabilities with beam sizes down to 1× 1 μ m2, which makes the beamline ideally suited for investigation of microcrystals and serial crystallography experiments. An automatic sample changer allows fast sample exchange in less than 20s, which enables high-throughput crystallography and fast crystal screening. For sample preparation, an S2 biosafety laboratory is available in close proximity to the beamline.

  9. Moly99 Production Facility: Report on Beamline Components, Requirements, Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-23

    In FY14 we completed the design of the beam line for the linear accelerator production design concept. This design included a set of three bending magnets, quadrupole focusing magnets, and octopoles to flatten the beam on target. This design was generic and applicable to multiple different accelerators if necessary. In FY15 we built on that work to create specifications for the individual beam optic elements, including power supply requirements. This report captures the specification of beam line components with initial cost estimates for the NorthStar production facility.This report is organized as follows: The motivation of the beamline design is introduced briefly, along with renderings of the design. After that, a specific list is provided, which accounts for each beamline component, including part numbers and costs, to construct the beamline. After that, this report details the important sections of the beamline and individual components. A final summary and list of follow-on activities completes this report.

  10. Optical pseudomotors for soft x-ray beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira, P; Sics, I; Sorrentino, A; Pereiro, E; Aballe, L; Foerster, M; Pérez-Dieste, V; Escudero, C; Nicolas, J

    2016-05-01

    Optical elements of soft x-ray beamlines usually have motorized translations and rotations that allow for the fine alignment of the beamline. This is to steer the photon beam at some positions and to correct the focus on slits or on sample. Generally, each degree of freedom of a mirror induces a change of several parameters of the beam. Inversely, several motions are required to actuate on a single optical parameter, keeping the others unchanged. We define optical pseudomotors as combinations of physical motions of the optical elements of a beamline, which allow modifying one optical parameter without affecting the others. We describe a method to obtain analytic relationships between physical motions of mirrors and the corresponding variations of the beam parameters. This method has been implemented and tested at two beamlines at ALBA, where it is used to control the focus of the photon beam and its position independently.

  11. Plasma undulator excited by high-order mode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwei; Rykovanov, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    A laser-created plasma undulator together with a laser-plasma accelerator makes it possible to construct an economical and extremely compact XFEL. However, the spectrum spread of the radiation from the current plasma undulators is too large for XFELs, because of the different values of strength parameters. The phase slippage between the electrons and the wakefield also limits the number of the electron oscillation cycles, thus reduces the performance of XFEL. Here we proposed a phase-locked plasma undulator created by high-order mode lasers. The modulating field is uniform along the transverse direction by choosing appropriate laser intensities of the modes, which enables all the electrons oscillate with the same strength parameter. The plasma density is tapered to lock the phase between the electrons and the wakefield, which signally increases the oscillation cycles. As a result, X-ray radiation with high brightness and narrow bandwidth is generated by injecting a high-energy electron beam into the novel plasma undulator. The beam loading limit indicates that the current of the electron beam could be hundreds of Ampere. These properties imply that such a plasma undulator may have great potential in compact XFELs. This work was supported by the Helmholtz Association (Young Investigator's Group No. VH-NG-1037).

  12. Phase error reduction in superconductive undulators using induction shimming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drayer, Elisabeth; Bernhard, Axel; Afonso Rodriguez, Veronica; Grau, Andreas; Peiffer, Peter; Widmann, Christina; Baumbach, Tilo [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The reduction of field errors in superconductive undulators is more demanding than in room temperature permanent magnet undulators. Various basic concepts exist but most of them have the disadvantage that they require field measurements at liquid-Helium temperature and modifications of the undulator coils at room temperature. Thus one or more thermal cycles are needed for an iterative improvement of the field quality. In order to avoid such a procedure it was proposed to cover the undulator coils with a thin layer of coupled superconductive loops which passively compensate the field errors via induction of persistent correction currents. In previous measurements this concept proved to work in principle and conclusions on an optimised shim configuration and field measurement setup could be drawn. In this paper we present the results of new measurements using one 12-period superconductive undulator short model and applying an optimised induction shim configuration. Due to further improvements of the field measurement setup these experiments for the first time give a quantitative indication of the phase error reduction efficiency of induction shimming.

  13. The indirect effects on the computation of geoid undulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichiencharoen, C.

    1982-01-01

    The indirect effects on the geoid computation due to the second method of Helmert's condensation were studied. when Helmert's anomalies are used in Stokes's equation, there are three types of corrections to the free air geoid. The first correction, the indirect effect on geoid undulation due to the potential change in Helmert's reduction, had a maximum value of 0.51 meters in the test area covering the United States. The second correction, the attraction change effect on geoid undulation, had a maximum value of 9.50 meters when the 10 deg cap was used in Stokes' equation. The last correction, the secondary indirect effect on geoid undulatin, was found negligible in the test area. The corrections were applied to uncorrected free air geoid undulations at 65 Doppler stations in the test area and compared with the Doppler undulations. Based on the assumption that the Doppler coordinate system has a z shift of 4 meters with respect to the geocenter, these comparisons showed that the corrections presented in this study yielded improved values of gravimetric undulations.

  14. Experimental stations at I13 beamline at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    The I13 beamline of Diamond Light Source has been operational since December 2011. The beamline encompass two fully independent branches devoted to coherent imaging experiments (coherent x-ray diffraction, coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography) and x-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast imaging, tomography and full-field microscopy). This paper gives an overview of the current status of experimental stations on both branches and outlines planned developments.

  15. Circular dichroism beamline B23 at the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well established technique in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline, dedicated to circular dichroism, at Diamond Light Source Ltd, a third-generation synchrotron facility in south Oxfordshire, UK, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein the main characteristics of the B23 SRCD beamline, the ancillary facilities available for users, and some of the recent advances achieved are summarized.

  16. A new Mtest beamline for the 1999 fixed target run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. N. Brown and T. R. Kobilarcik

    2000-05-18

    The beamline cryogenic system for the Meson area will not be run for the 1999 fixed target run. The current MTest (MT) beamline relies on cryogenic magnets. A non-cryogenic solution is proposed which can yield up to 1 x 10{sup 6} pions per cycle at 120 GeV/c per 1 x 10{sup 11} incident protons at 800 GeV/c.

  17. Beamline for Schools 2016: How to be a CERN scientist

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Two teams of high-school students from the UK and Poland had the opportunity to conduct their own experiments at a fully equipped CERN beamline.   Students from the 2016 Beamline for Schools competition working on their experiment. (Image: Noemí Carabán Gonzalez/CERN) Two teams of high-school students from the UK and Poland had the opportunity to conduct their own experiments at a fully equipped CERN beamline, after winning the Beamline for Schools competition. The teams, ”Pyramid Hunters” from Poland and “Relatively Special” from the United Kingdom, spent 10 days at CERN conducting the experiments they had dreamt up in their winning proposals. The Beamline for Schools competition gives high-school students the chance to run an experiment on a fully equipped CERN beamline, in the same way researchers do at the Large Hadron Collider and other CERN facilities every day. To know more about their stay at CERN and the experiments they&r...

  18. Electron spectra and coherence of radiation in undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Most bright sources of the radiation in hard x-ray and gamma--ray regions are undulator sources and Compton based ones. These sources are ultimate for production of polarized positrons necessary for future linear colliders ILC, CLIC. We developed a novel method for evaluating the energy spectrum of electrons emitting the undulator- and the inverse Compton radiation. The method based on Poisson weighted superposition of electron states is applicable for whole range of the emission intensity per electron pass through the driving force, from much less than unity emitted photons (Compton sources) to many photons emitted (undulators), and for any energy of the photons. The method allows for account contributions in the energy spread both from the Poisson statistics and diffusion due to recoils. The theoretical results were confirmed by simulations. The electron energy spectrum was used for evaluation of the on-axis density of photons and their coherency making use of the `carrier--envelope' presentation for the em...

  19. Resistive Wall Heating of the Undulator in High Repetition Rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, J; Corlett, J; Emma, P; Wu, J

    2012-05-20

    In next generation high repetition rate FELs, beam energy loss due to resistive wall wakefields will produce significant amount of heat. The heat load for a superconducting undulator (operating at low temperature), must be removed and will be expensive to remove. In this paper, we study this effect in an undulator proposed for a Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) at LBNL. We benchmark our calculations with measurements at the LCLS and carry out detailed parameter studies using beam from a start-to-end simulation. Our preliminarym results suggest that the heat load in the undulator is about 2 W/m or lower with an aperture size of 6 mm for nominal NGLS preliminary design parameters.

  20. Status of the LBNE Neutrino Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitriou, Vaia

    2011-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Homestake Mine in South Dakota. The neutrinos are produced in a three-step process. First, protons from the Main Injector (60-120 GeV) hit a solid target and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into the decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account several factors including the physics goals, the Monte Carlo modeling of the facility, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a beam power of 2.3 MW. We discuss here the stat...

  1. From Beamline to Scanner with 225Ac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew K. H.; Ramogida, Caterina F.; Kunz, Peter; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Schaffer, Paul; Sossi, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Due to the high linear energy transfer and short range of alpha-radiation, targeted radiation therapy using alpha-emitting pharmaceuticals that successfully target small disease clusters will kill target cells with limited harm to healthy tissue, potentially treating the most aggressive forms of cancer. As the parent of a decay chain with four alpha- and two beta-decays, 225Ac is a promising candidate for such a treatment. However, this requires retention of the entire decay chain at the target site, preventing the creation of freely circulating alpha-emitters that reduce therapeutic effect and increase toxicity to non-target tissues. Two major challenges to 225Ac pharmaceutical development exist: insufficient global supply, and the difficulty of preventing toxicity by retaining the entire decay chain at the target site. While TRIUMF works towards large-scale (C i amounts) production of 225Ac, we already use our Isotope Separation On-Line facility to provide small (overview of this research program and the journey of 225Ac from the beamline to the scanner. This research is funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  2. Beamline Insertions Manager at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael C. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The beam viewer system at Jefferson Lab provides operators and beam physicists with qualitative and quantitative information on the transverse electron beam properties. There are over 140 beam viewers installed on the 12 GeV CEBAF accelerator. This paper describes an upgrade consisting of replacing the EPICS-based system tasked with managing all viewers with a mixed system utilizing EPICS and high-level software. Most devices, particularly the beam viewers, cannot be safely inserted into the beam line during high-current beam operations. Software is partly responsible for protecting the machine from untimely insertions. The multiplicity of beam-blocking and beam-vulnerable devices motivates us to try a data-driven approach. The beamline insertions application components are centrally managed and configured through an object-oriented software framework created for this purpose. A rules-based engine tracks the configuration and status of every device, along with the beam status of the machine segment containing the device. The application uses this information to decide on which device actions are allowed at any given time.

  3. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tariq, S. [Fermilab; Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Anderson, K.; ; Buccellato, S. A. [Fermilab; Crowley, C. F. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. D. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Hylen, J. [Fermilab; Kasper, P. [Fermilab; Krafczyk, G. E. [Fermilab; Lee, A. [Fermilab; Lundberg, B. [Fermilab; Reitzner, S. D. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stefanik, A. M. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab; Vaziri, K. [Fermilab; Williams, K. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Densham, C. [RAL, Didcot

    2016-10-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-filled decay pipe where they decay into muons and neutrinos. The target and horns are encased in actively cooled steel and concrete shielding in a chamber called the target chase. The reference design chase is filled with air, but nitrogen and helium are being evaluated as alternatives. A replaceable beam window separates the decay pipe from the target chase. The facility is designed for initial operation at 1.2 MW, with the ability to upgrade to 2.4 MW, and is taking advantage of the experience gained by operating Fermilab’s NuMI facility. We discuss here the design status, associated challenges, and ongoing R&D and physics-driven component optimization of the Target Station.

  4. Commissioning of the Delta Polarizing Undulator at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2015-09-25

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) generates linearly polarized, intense, high-brightness x-ray pulses from planar fixed-gap undulators. While the fixed-gap design supports a very successful and tightly controlled alignment concept, it provides only limited taper capability (up to 1% through canted pole and horizontal position adjustability) and lacks polarization control. The latter is of great importance for soft x-ray experiments. A new 3.2-m-long compact undulator (based on the Cornell University Delta design) has been developed and installed in place of the last LCLS undulator segment (U33) in October 2014. This undulator provides full control of the polarization degree and K value. Used on its own, it produces fully polarized radiation in the selected state (linear, circular or elliptical) but at low intensity. To increase the output power by orders of magnitude, the electron beam is micro-bunched by several (~10) of the upstream LCLS undulator segments operated in the linear FEL regime. As unavoidable by-product, this microbunching process produces moderate amounts of horizontally linear polarized radiation which mixes with the radiation produced by the Delta undulator. This unwanted radiation component has been greatly reduced by the reverse taper configuration, as suggested by E. Schneidmiller and M. Yurkov. Full elimination of the linear polarized component was achieved through spatial separation combined with transverse collimation. The paper describes these and other methods tested during commissioning. It also presents results of polarization measurements showing high degrees of circular polarization in the soft x-ray wavelength range (500 eV - 1500 eV).

  5. Computational Research on Modular Undulating Fin for Biorobotic Underwater Propulsor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hua Zhang; Lai-bing Jia; Shi-wu Zhang; Jie Yang; K.H.Low

    2007-01-01

    Biomimetic design employs the principles of nature to solve engineering problems.Such designs which are hoped to be quick,efficient,robust,and versatile,have taken advantage of optimization via natural selection.In the present research.an environment-friendly propulsion system mimicking undulating fins of stingray was built.A non-conventional method was considered to model the flexibility of the fins of stingray.A two-degree-of-freedom mechanism comprised of several linkages was designed and constructed to mimic the actual flexible fin.The driving linkages were used to form a mechanical fin consisting of several fin segments,which are able to produce undulations,similar to those produced by the actual fins.Owing to the modularity of the design of the mechanical fin,various undulating patterns can be realized.Some qualitative observations,obtained by experiments,predicted that the thrusts produced by the mechanical fin are different among various undulating patterns.To fully understand this experimental phenomenon is very important for better performance and energy saving for our biorobotic underwater propulsion system.Here,four basic undulating patterns of the mechanical fin were performed using two-dimensional unsteady computational fluid dynamics(CFD)method.An unstructured,grid-based,unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive re-meshing was used to compute the unsteady flow around the fin through twenty complete cycles.The pressure distribution on fin surface was computed and integrated to provide fin forces which were decomposed into lift and thrust.The pressure force and friction force were also computed throughout the swimming cycle.Finally,vortex contour maps of these four basic fin undulating patterns were displayed and compared.

  6. Coherent harmonic production using a two-section undulator FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroszynski, D.A. [Commissariat a l`Energie, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Prazeres, R.; Glotin, F. [Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We present measurements and a theoretical analysis of a new method of generating harmonic radiation in a free-electron laser oscillator with a two section undulator in a single optical cavity. To produce coherent harmonic radiation the undulator is arranged so that the downstream undulator section resonance frequency matches a harmonic of the upstream undulator. Both the fundamental and the harmonic optical fields evolve in the same optical cavity and are coupled out with different extraction fractions using a hole in one of the cavity mirrors. We present measurements that show that the optical power at the second and third harmonic can be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude in this fundamental/harmonic configuration. We compare the production of harmonic radiation of a two sectioned fundamental/harmonic undulator with that produced from a FEL operating at its highest efficiency with a step-tapered undulator, where the bunching at the end of the first section is very large. We examine, the dependence of the harmonic power on the intracavity power by adjusting the optical cavity desynchronism, {delta}L. We also examine the evolution of the fundamental and harmonic powers as a function of cavity roundtrip number to evaluate the importance of the small signal gain at the harmonic. We compare our measurements with predictions of a multi-electron numerical model that follows the evolution of fundamental and harmonic power to saturation. This fundamental/harmonic mode, of operation of the FEL may have useful applications in the production of coherent X-ray and VUV radiation, a spectral range where high reflectivity optical cavity mirrors are difficult or impossible to manufacture.

  7. A wire scanning type position monitor for an undulator radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami; Xia, Shaojian; Shiwaku, Hideaki

    1995-02-01

    A scanning wire position monitor for insertion devices was designed and installed in an x-ray undulator beam line. It consists of a graphite wire, a copper mesh for electric shielding, and a motor-driven linear guide. The wire of the monitor was tested under the undulator radiation thermal load. It has been found that the signal level of the monitor was proportional to the radiation power density on the wire. Even when the wire crossed the beam during the x-ray experiment, no detectable influence on the experiment was observed.

  8. A strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, K.

    1987-01-30

    This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles. 4 figs.

  9. Phase errors and their effect on undulator radiation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis is carried out of the various types of phase errors present in real undulator devices, and their statistical properties. The influence of phase errors on the radiation properties is also examined, distinguishing the effects on peak brightness and integrated flux, and including the effects of electron beam emittance and energy spread. The limitation of the usual expression for the reduction in intensity due to phase errors, based on the rms phase error, is explored, and a new parameter is introduced which correlates better with the reduction in integrated flux. The implications for operation of undulators in future lower emittance storage rings is also discussed.

  10. Experimental study for the feasibility of a crystalline undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, S; Bini, S; Biryukov, V M; Chesnokov, Yu A; Dabagov, S; Giannini, G; Guidi, V; Ivanov, Yu M; Kotov, V I; Maisheev, V A; Malagù, C; Martinelli, G; Petrunin, A A; Skorobogatov, V V; Stefancich, M; Vincenzi, D

    2003-01-24

    We present an idea for creation of a crystalline undulator and report its first realization. One face of a silicon crystal was given periodic microscratches (grooves) by means of a diamond blade. The x-ray tests of the crystal deformation due to a given periodic pattern of surface scratches have shown that a sinusoidal-like shape is observed on both the scratched surface and the opposite (unscratched) face of the crystal; that is, a periodic sinusoidal-like deformation goes through the bulk of the crystal. This opens up the possibility for experiments with high-energy particles channeled in a crystalline undulator, a novel compact source of radiation.

  11. Feasibility of an electron-based crystalline undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Mehdi; Korol, Andrei V; Solov'yov, Andrey V; Greiner, Walter

    2007-04-20

    The feasibility to generate powerful monochromatic radiation of the undulator type in the gamma region of the spectrum by means of planar channeling of ultrarelativistic electrons in a periodically bent crystal is proven. It is shown that to overcome the restriction due to the smallness of the dechanneling length, an electron-based crystalline undulator must operate in the regime of higher beam energies than a positron-based one does. A numerical analysis is performed for a 50 GeV electron channeling in Si along the (111) crystallographic planes.

  12. Diamond beamline I07: a beamline for surface and interface diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklin, Chris; Arnold, Tom; Rawle, Jonathan; Warne, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Beamline I07 at Diamond Light Source is dedicated to the study of the structure of surfaces and interfaces for a wide range of sample types, from soft matter to ultrahigh vacuum. The beamline operates in the energy range 8-30 keV and has two endstations. The first houses a 2+3 diffractometer, which acts as a versatile platform for grazing-incidence techniques including surface X-ray diffraction, grazing-incidence small- (and wide-) angle X-ray scattering, X-ray reflectivity and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. A method for deflecting the X-rays (a double-crystal deflector) has been designed and incorporated into this endstation, extending the surfaces that can be studied to include structures formed on liquid surfaces or at liquid-liquid interfaces. The second experimental hutch contains a similar diffractometer with a large environmental chamber mounted on it, dedicated to in situ ultrahigh-vacuum studies. It houses a range of complementary surface science equipment including a scanning tunnelling microscope, low-energy electron diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ensuring that correlations between the different techniques can be performed on the same sample, in the same chamber. This endstation allows accurate determination of well ordered structures, measurement of growth behaviour during molecular beam epitaxy and has also been used to measure coherent X-ray diffraction from nanoparticles during alloying.

  13. Analytical Account for the Constant Magnetic Field Effect on the Undulator Radiation Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, K. V.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of the constant magnetic field on the planar undulator radiation (UR) is studied. We employ generalized special functions to investigate the UR intensity and spectrum, calculate critical strength of the constant field, affecting the electron motion in undulators. The influence of the Earth magnetism on several real undulators' emission and spectrum is investigated.

  14. The importance of axonal undulation in diffusion MR measurements: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Markus; Lätt, Jimmy; Ståhlberg, Freddy; van Westen, Danielle; Hagslätt, Håkan

    2012-05-01

    Many axons follow wave-like undulating courses. This is a general feature of extracranial nerve segments, but is also found in some intracranial nervous tissue. The importance of axonal undulation has previously been considered, for example, in the context of biomechanics, where it has been shown that posture affects undulation properties. However, the importance of axonal undulation in the context of diffusion MR measurements has not been investigated. Using an analytical model and Monte Carlo simulations of water diffusion, this study compared undulating and straight axons in terms of diffusion propagators, diffusion-weighted signal intensities and parameters derived from diffusion tensor imaging, such as the mean diffusivity (MD), the eigenvalues and the fractional anisotropy (FA). All parameters were strongly affected by the presence of undulation. The diffusivity perpendicular to the undulating axons increased with the undulation amplitude, thus resembling that of straight axons with larger diameters. Consequently, models assuming straight axons for the estimation of the axon diameter from diffusion MR measurements might overestimate the diameter if undulation is present. FA decreased from approximately 0.7 to 0.5 when axonal undulation was introduced into the simulation model structure. Our results indicate that axonal undulation may play a role in diffusion measurements when investigating, for example, the optic and sciatic nerves and the spinal cord. The simulations also demonstrate that the stretching or compression of neuronal tissue comprising undulating axons alters the observed water diffusivity, suggesting that posture may be of importance for the outcome of diffusion MRI measurements.

  15. Spatial uncertainty of a geoid undulation model in Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicaiza, E. G.; Leiva, C. A.; Arranz, J. J.; Buenańo, X. E.

    2017-06-01

    Geostatistics is a discipline that deals with the statistical analysis of regionalized variables. In this case study, geostatistics is used to estimate geoid undulation in the rural area of Guayaquil town in Ecuador. The geostatistical approach was chosen because the estimation error of prediction map is getting. Open source statistical software R and mainly geoR, gstat and RGeostats libraries were used. Exploratory data analysis (EDA), trend and structural analysis were carried out. An automatic model fitting by Iterative Least Squares and other fitting procedures were employed to fit the variogram. Finally, Kriging using gravity anomaly of Bouguer as external drift and Universal Kriging were used to get a detailed map of geoid undulation. The estimation uncertainty was reached in the interval [-0.5; +0.5] m for errors and a maximum estimation standard deviation of 2 mm in relation with the method of interpolation applied. The error distribution of the geoid undulation map obtained in this study provides a better result than Earth gravitational models publicly available for the study area according the comparison with independent validation points. The main goal of this paper is to confirm the feasibility to use geoid undulations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and leveling field measurements and geostatistical techniques methods in order to use them in high-accuracy engineering projects.

  16. Spatial uncertainty of a geoid undulation model in Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chicaiza E.G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Geostatistics is a discipline that deals with the statistical analysis of regionalized variables. In this case study, geostatistics is used to estimate geoid undulation in the rural area of Guayaquil town in Ecuador. The geostatistical approach was chosen because the estimation error of prediction map is getting. Open source statistical software R and mainly geoR, gstat and RGeostats libraries were used. Exploratory data analysis (EDA, trend and structural analysis were carried out. An automatic model fitting by Iterative Least Squares and other fitting procedures were employed to fit the variogram. Finally, Kriging using gravity anomaly of Bouguer as external drift and Universal Kriging were used to get a detailed map of geoid undulation. The estimation uncertainty was reached in the interval [-0.5; +0.5] m for errors and a maximum estimation standard deviation of 2 mm in relation with the method of interpolation applied. The error distribution of the geoid undulation map obtained in this study provides a better result than Earth gravitational models publicly available for the study area according the comparison with independent validation points. The main goal of this paper is to confirm the feasibility to use geoid undulations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and leveling field measurements and geostatistical techniques methods in order to use them in high-accuracy engineering projects.

  17. An Electromagnetic Undulator for the Far Infrared at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Dekorsy, Thomas; Grosse, Eckart; Michel, Peter; Seidel, Wolfgang; Wolf, Andreas; Wuensch, Rudi

    2004-01-01

    The first lasing in the mid IR at the ELBE FEL allows us to specify the parameters of a new undulator for longer wavelengths to complement the U27 undulator which is useful up to about 25 microns. In the longer wavelength region FELs constitute a unique radiation source with appealing properties. Radiation quanta in this range (2 - 10 THz) are appropriate for the low-energy spectroscopy of various interesting modes in solid state quantum structures as well as in complex biological systems. Their study establishes the basis for understanding phenomena in semiconductors and elucidating biological processes of interest for medical innovations. We envisage an electromagnetic undulator with a period of 90 - 100 mm. Using the ELBE beam IR light from 20 to 150 microns and beyond can be produced. To keep the transverse beam extension small the IR beam is to be guided by a partial waveguide inside the undulator. Appropriate bifocal resonator mirrors minimize the mode coupling losses at the exits of the waveguide. Deta...

  18. The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor Readout System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusatko, John; Browne, M.; Fisher, A.S.; Kotturi, D.; Norum, S.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor System is required to detect any loss radiation seen by the FEL undulators. The undulator segments consist of permanent magnets which are very sensitive to radiation damage. The operational goal is to keep demagnetization below 0.01% over the life of the LCLS. The BLM system is designed to help achieve this goal by detecting any loss radiation and indicating a fault condition if the radiation level exceeds a certain threshold. Upon reception of this fault signal, the LCLS Machine Protection System takes appropriate action by either halting or rate limiting the beam. The BLM detector consists of a PMT coupled to a Cherenkov radiator located near the upstream end of each undulator segment. There are 33 BLMs in the system, one per segment. The detectors are read out by a dedicated system that is integrated directly into the LCLS MPS. The BLM readout system provides monitoring of radiation levels, computation of integrated doses, detection of radiation excursions beyond set thresholds, fault reporting and control of BLM system functions. This paper describes the design, construction and operational performance of the BLM readout system.

  19. A comparison of geoid undulations for west central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, D.R.; Csatho, B.; Jezek, K.C.;

    1997-01-01

    The accuracy of a new local gravity field model, GEOID94A, is examined at a site on the western Greenland ice sheet. The model, developed by the Danish National Survey and Cadastre, incorporates several new gravity data sets including an extensive amount of airborne gravity data. Model-derived ge......The accuracy of a new local gravity field model, GEOID94A, is examined at a site on the western Greenland ice sheet. The model, developed by the Danish National Survey and Cadastre, incorporates several new gravity data sets including an extensive amount of airborne gravity data. Model......-derived geoid undulations were compared to independently determined undulations found by differencing the elevations from Global Positioning System controlled airborne laser altimetry and optical levelling surveys. Differences between the two sets of undulations were less than +/-6 cm RMS. The comparison...... improved (+/-5 cm RMS) when GEOID94A undulations were adjusted by local gravity observations also acquired at the site. Our comparisons demonstrate that GEOID94A adequately models the long to intermediate wavelengths of the gravity field. We conclude that GEOID94A constitutes a reliable reference model...

  20. Development of optimization method for plate heat exchanger with undulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Václav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with optimization of undulated heat transfer surface of plate heat exchanger. The goal of optimization is not only to increase effectiveness of heat transfer but also to reduce the pressure drop. A combined pattern of undulation which combines herringbone pattern and wavy pattern was optimized and best values of four parameters were found; angle of herringbone pattern, number, phase and amplitude of longitudinal waves of wavy pattern. The optimization procedure looked for maximum of objective function which was a linear combination of effectiveness and pressure drop. We used simple Monte Carlo method and the optimum was searched for four values of reference pressure drop. Four different optimization were run and we investigated the effect of various definition of objective function and parameters of undulation. It was found that during optimization of combined pattern, the herringbone pattern is more favoured than wavy pattern. It is caused by the fact that herringbone pattern was described by the only one free parameter, which was the angle of undulation, and therefore it is more likely to be found by a stochastic method. This assumption was confirmed when simple wavy pattern was optimized and higher values of objective function and effectiveness were found.

  1. Thermal undulations of quasi-spherical vesicles stabilized by gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    2002-01-01

    The classical treatment of quasi-spherical vesicle undulations has, in the present work, been reviewed and extended to systems, which are affected by a gravitational field caused by a density difference across the membrane. The effects have been studied by the use of perturbation theory leading...

  2. Double-Undulator Fel for Governing by the Harmonics Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulupov, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    Generation of harmonics in the double-undulator FEL based on the additional cyclotron resonance is considered. It is shown that efficient control of harmonics generation is feasible. Only one selected harmonic is generated while the others are suppressed. This effect takes place under a small value

  3. Vertically polarizing undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strelnikov, N; Vasserman, I; Xu, J; Jensen, D; Schmidt, O; Trakhtenberg, E; Suthar, K; Moog, E. R; Pile, G; Gluskin, E

    2017-01-01

    As part of the R&D program of the LCLS-II project, a novel 3.4-meter-long undulator prototype with horizontal magnetic field and dynamic force compensation has recently been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS...

  4. Performance of the Undulator for the Fom-Fem Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varfolomeev, A. A.; Ivanchenkov, S. N.; Khlebnikov, A. S.; Osmanov, N. S.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Urbanus, W. H.; Pavluchenkov, V. F.

    1994-01-01

    A high-quality hybrid undulator (KIAE-4) has been designed for the FOM-FEM project. It provides a strong magnetic field of 2.0 kG for a relatively large gap with a nominal value of 26 mm at a period of 4 cm. Two magnet side arrays provide enhancement of the magnetic field as well as the transverse

  5. Test of an undulated vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This picture shows mechanical tests of an undulated vacuum chamber for downstream arms of ISR intersections. This chamber, made of 0.3 mm thick inconel, had inner dimensions of 150 mm by 50 mm. The deflection under vacuum is measured by dial gauges. On the left one sees the large vessel where vacuum chambers were tested at pressures above atmospheric pressure.

  6. Bionic asymmetry: from amiiform fish to undulating robotic fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU TianJiang; SHEN LinCheng; LOW K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Similar to bionic non-smooth which has been successfully applied in anti-resistance and anti-adhesion, bionic asymmetry is also an inherent property of biological systems and is worth exploring for con-ceivable pragmatic applications. Therefore, bionic asymmetry for undulations is of main interest in this paper. We initially investigate bionic asymmetry with a case study of the undulating robotic fin, RoboGnilos, which evolved from the long dorsal fin of Gymnarchus niloticus in the amiiforrn mode. Since the performance of the pre-existing undulating fins is hardly satisfactory, we obtain bionic in-spirations of undulatory asymmetry through observations and measurements on the specimen of G. niloticus, to improve upon the performance. Consequently, the newly acquired innovation for bionic asymmetry is incorporated into the previously derived kinematics model, and also applied to the ex-perimental prototype. Both computational and experimental results verify that bionic asymmetric un-dulation generates better propulsion performance (in terms of linear velocity and efficiency) than the traditional symmetric modes with the same undulatory parameters.

  7. Monochromator on a synchrotron undulator source for liquid surface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Freund, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    a monochromator made of a beryllium mosaic crystal using the (002) reflection in Laue geometry placed in undulator beams of DORIS III at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor and of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. An analysis of the diffraction properties in terms of mosaic spread, heat load...

  8. Positron separators in Superomega muon beamline at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikedo, Y., E-mail: ikedo@post.kek.jp [Institute of Materials and Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tokai Campus, 230-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Miyake, Y.; Shimomura, K.; Strasser, P.; Kawamura, N.; Nishiyama, K.; Makimura, S.; Fujimori, H.; Koda, A.; Nakamura, J.; Nagatomo, T.; Kobayashi, Y. [Institute of Materials and Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tokai Campus, 230-1 Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Adachi, T. [Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0501 (Japan); Pant, A.D. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Yamanashi University, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Ogitsu, T.; Nakamoto, T.; Sasaki, K.; Ohata, H.; Okada, R.; Yamamoto, A. [Cryogenics Science Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0501 (Japan); Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Three stage positron separators was installed onto the U-line in the MLF/J-PARC. • The separators can be applied 400 kV to the both electrodes. • The separators were tested and were confirmed to successfully eliminate the positrons from the beam. -- Abstract: A positron separator is one of the essential components of a muon beamline to eliminate contamination in the beam, mainly positrons that have the same momentum as muons and are transported together with the beam. In order to eliminate positrons efficiently, we selected a Wien filter type three-stage positron separator for the new muon beamline, called Superomega, that is under construction in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) of the Japan Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The Superomega muon beamline is the second muon beamline at MLF/J-PARC, and started operation in October of 2012. Here, we report on the features and the test results of the positron separators installed in the Superomega muon beamline.

  9. The SLS Beamlines Data Acquisition and Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Krempasky, J; Vermeulen, D; Maden, D; Korhonen, T T; Portmann, W; Hunt, S; Abela, R; Muntwiler, M

    2001-01-01

    On December 15th the Swiss Light Source (SLS) produced a stored beam for the first time. This important milestone was achieved in a very tight time schedule. The fact that all major systems are controlled by Epics made this challenge feasible. In the first phase there are four beamlines: two for the surface science community, one for powder and surface diffraction and computed micro-tomography, and the last one for protein crystallography. All of them are equipped with insertion devices, which users want to treat as active sub-systems like a monochromator or experimental station. The beamline control systems are based on the same hardware and software technology as is the machine. This implies extensive use of Personal Computers running Linux RedHat 6.2 and VME systems (PowerPC). The advantage of this choice is a staightforward implementation of the insertion devices into the beamline and experiment framework. Although the experiment Application Program Interfaces differ from beamline to beamline, the standar...

  10. Emittance Measurement for Beamline Extension at the PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae-Hoon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle-induced X-ray emission is used for determining the elemental composition of materials. This method uses low-energy protons (of several MeV, which can be obtained from high-energy (of tens MeV accelerators. Instead of manufacturing an accelerator for generating the MeV protons, the use of a PET cyclotron has been suggested for designing the beamline for multipurpose applications, especially for the PIXE experiment, which has a dedicated high-energy (of tens MeV accelerator. The beam properties of the cyclotron were determined at this experimental facility by using an external beamline before transferring the ion beam to the experimental chamber. We measured the beam profile and calculated the emittance using the pepper-pot method. The beam profile was measured as the beam current using a wire scanner, and the emittance was measured as the beam distribution at the beam dump using a radiochromic film. We analyzed the measurement results and are planning to use the results obtained in the simulations of external beamline and aligned beamline components. We will consider energy degradation after computing the beamline simulation. The experimental study focused on measuring the emittance from the cyclotron, and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  11. High Efficiency Electron-Laser Interactions in Tapered Helical Undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph Patrick

    Efficient coupling of relativistic electron beams with high power radiation lies at the heart of advanced accelerator and light source research and development. The inverse free electron laser is a stable accelerator capable of harnessing very high intensity laser electric fields to efficiently transfer large powers from lasers to electron beams. In this dissertation, we first present the theoretical framework to describe the interaction, and then apply our improved understanding of the IFEL to the design and numerical study of meter-long, GeV IFELs for compact light sources. The central experimental work of the dissertation is the UCLA BNL helical inverse free electron laser experiment at the Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven National Laboratory which used a strongly tapered 54cm long, helical, permanent magnet undulator and a several hundred GW CO2 laser to accelerate electrons from 52 to 106MeV, setting new records for inverse free electron laser energy gain (54MeV) and average accelerating gradient (100MeV/m). The undulator design and fabrication as well as experimental diagnostics are presented. In order to improve the stability and quality of the accelerated electron beam, we redesigned the undulator for a slightly reduced output energy by modifying the magnet gap throughout the undulator, and we used this modified undulator to demonstrated capture of >25% of the injected beam without prebunching. In the study of heavily loaded GeV inverse free electron lasers, we show that a majority of the power may be transferred from a laser to the accelerated electron beam. Reversing the process to decelerate high power electron beams, a mechanism we refer to as tapering enhanced stimulated superradiant amplification, offers a clear path to high power light sources. We present studies of radiation production for a wide range of wavelengths (10mum, 13nm, and 0.3nm) using this method and discuss the design for a deceleration experiment using the same undulator used

  12. Proposal to generate 10 TW level femtosecond X-ray pulses from a baseline undulator in conventional SASE regime at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Output characteristics of the European XFEL have been previously studied assuming an operation point at 5 kA peak current. In this paper we explore the possibility to go well beyond such nominal peak current level. In order to illustrate the potential of the European XFEL accelerator complex we consider a bunch with 0.25 nC charge, compressed up to a peak current of 45 kA. An advantage of operating at such high peak current is the increase of the X-ray output peak power without any modification to the baseline design. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that such high peak current, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve up to a 100-fold increase in a peak power in the conventional SASE regime, compared to the nominal mode of operation. In particular, we find that 10 TW-power level, femtosecond x-ray pulses can be generated in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 5 keV, which is optimal for single biomolecule imaging. Our simulations are based on the exploitation of all the 21 cells foreseen for the SASE3 undulator beamline, and indicate that one can achieve diffraction to the desired resolution with 15 mJ (corresponding to about 3.10{sup 13} photons) in pulses of about 3 fs, in the case of a 100 nm focus at the photon energy of 3.5 keV.

  13. Cryogenically cooled bent double-Laue monochromator for high-energy undulator X-rays (50-200 keV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, S D; Fezzaa, K; Mashayekhi, A; Lee, W K; Fernandez, P B; Lee, P L

    2002-09-01

    A liquid-nitrogen-cooled monochromator for high-energy X-rays consisting of two bent Si(111) Laue crystals adjusted to sequential Rowland conditions has been in operation for over two years at the SRI-CAT sector 1 undulator beamline of the Advanced Photon Source (APS). It delivers over ten times more flux than a flat-crystal monochromator does at high energies, without any increase in energy width (DeltaE/E approximately 10(-3)). Cryogenic cooling permits optimal flux, avoiding a sacrifice from the often employed alternative technique of filtration - a technique less effective at sources like the 7 GeV APS, where considerable heat loads can be deposited by high-energy photons, especially at closed undulator gaps. The fixed-offset geometry provides a fully tunable in-line monochromatic beam. In addition to presenting the optics performance, unique crystal design and stable bending mechanism for a cryogenically cooled crystal under high heat load, the bending radii adjustment procedures are described.

  14. Magnetic performance of DEVU25.20h undulator at IDDL, DAVV,India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, G.; Gehlot, Mona; Sharma, Geetanjali; Khullar, Roma

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the design development and magnetic performance of a prototype DEVU25.20h, variable gap hybrid undulator at IDD laboratory, DAVV, Indore, India. The undulator is NdFeB based hybrid undulator with twenty five period and 20 mm each period length. Low cost M35 grade cobalt steel is used as the pole material of the undulator. The abc coefficients of the new pole material is prescribed and the measured performance and characteristics of the undulator is evaluated using RADIA. The detailed design parameters and performance indicators are summarized in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively.

  15. Simulating the Beam-line at CERN's ISOLDE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the optical matching along portions of the ISOLDE beam-line and automating this procedure will make it easier for scientists to determine what the strengths of the electrical elds of each beam-line element should be in order to reduce particle loss. Simulations are run using a program called MAD-X, however, certain issues were discovered that hindered an immediate success of the simulations. Specifically, the transfer matrices for electrostatic components like the switchyards, kickers, and electric quadrupoles were missing from the original coding. The primary aim of this project was to design these components using AutoCAD and then extract the transfer matrices using SIMION. Future work will then implement these transfer matrices into the MAD-X code to make the simulations of the beam-line more accurate.

  16. Hard X-ray micro-focusing beamline at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 兰旭颖; 毛成文; 王娟; 蒋晖; 郑怡; 董朝晖; 曾乐勇; 李爱国; 闫帅; 蒋升; 杨科; 王华; 何上明; 梁东旭; 张玲; 何燕

    2015-01-01

    The hard X-ray micro-focusing beamline (BL15U1) of SSRF is dedicated to hard X-ray micro/nano-spectrochemical analysis consisting of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It is one of the most versatile instruments in hard X-ray microscopy sci-ence. Since its commission in 2009, BL15U1 has allocated over 25000 h beamtime for users, and about 700 proposals have been executed. The beamline and the experimental end-station were upgraded for several times to facilitate the users’ experimental needs and make it more convenient to operate. In this paper, we give a review on the beamline, describing its characteristics, recent technical developments, and a few examples of scientific progresses achieved in recent years on BL15U1.

  17. Innovations in the design of mechanical components for a beamline-The SRI'95 Workshop 2 Summary (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, T. M.; Warwick, T.

    1996-09-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 1995 Conference (SRI'95) was hosted by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Of the many workshops within the conference, the SRI'95 Workshop 2 was ``Innovations in the Design of Mechanical Components of a Beamline.'' The workshop was well attended with over 140 registrants. The following topics were discussed. Industry's perspective on the status and future was provided by Huber Diffraktionstechnik GMBH on goniometers/diffractometers, Oxford Instruments on advanced manufacturing technique of high heat load components, such as the APS photon shutter, and Kohzu Seiki Co. Ltd. on the specialties of monochromators provided to the third-generation synchrotrons. This was followed by a description of the engineering of a dual function monochromator design for water-cooled diamond or cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators by CMC CAT/APS. Another category was the nagging problem of sensitivity of the photon beam position monitors (XBPM) to bending magnet radiation (``BM contamination'') and the undulator magnet gap changes. Problem descriptions and suggested solutions were provided by both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the APS. Other innovative ideas were the cooling schemes (enhanced cooling of beamline components using metallic porous meshes including cryo-cooled applications); Glidcop photon shutter design using microchannels at the ALS; and window/filter design, manufacture and operational experiences at CHESS and PETRA/HASYLAB. Additional discussions were held on designing for micromotions and precision in the optical support systems and smart user filter schemes. This is a summary of the presentations at the Workshop.

  18. Modified reverse tapering method to prevent frequency shift of the radiation in the planar undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Chi Hyun; Ko, In Soo; Parc, Yong Woon

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a modified reverse tapering method to generate a polarized soft x ray in x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) with a higher photon power and a shorter undulator length than the simple linear reverse tapering method. In the proposed method, a few untapered planar undulators are added before the simple linear reverse tapering section of the undulator line. This simple modification prevents the frequency shift of the radiation that occurs when the simple linear reverse tapering method is applied to planar undulators. In the proposed method, the total length of planar undulators decreased in spite of the additional untapered undulators. When the modified reverse tapering method is used with four untapered planar undulators, the total length of the planar undulators is 64.6 m. On the other hand, the required length of the planar undulators is 94.6 m when the simple linear reverse tapering method is used. The proposed method gives us a way to generate a soft x-ray pulse (1.24 keV) with a high degree of polarization (>0.99 ) and radiation power (>30 GW ) at the new undulator line with a 10-GeV electron beam in the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free-Electron Laser. This method can be applied in the existing XFELs in the world without any change in the undulator lines.

  19. Improvements of the undulator spectral performance by compensating the backing beam deflection

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, C; Chang, L H; Chang, C H; Fan, T C; Bach, H; Blomqvist, I

    2002-01-01

    This study thoroughly examines how the backing beam deflection affects the undulator spectral performance. Reduction of the undulator spectral intensity owing to backing beam deflection is analytically evaluated based on plane-wave approximation. The results reveal that the amplitude and the slope of the backing beam deflection affect the undulator spectral performance. Provided is a novel figure-of-merit, rms of the regressed accumulated gap deviation, to determine the backing beam deflection budget. An example of a 3.9 m undulator supporting carriage mounted with 50-mm period length undulator magnet (U5) under a maximum magnetic loading of 5 metric tons at a minimum operating gap of 14 mm, is provided. Its mechanical features are first examined via 3D commercial finite element code ANSYS that concludes the backing beam deflection is influenced heavily by the rigidity of the undulator support frames. Examining the corresponding spectral performance shows that significantly diminishing the undulator spectral ...

  20. High-gain X-ray free electron laser by beat-wave terahertz undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chao; Hei, DongWei [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an City 710024 (China); Institute of Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Pellegrin, Claudio; Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The THz undulator has a higher gain to realize a much brighter X-ray at saturation, compared with the optical undulator under the same undulator strength and beam quality. In order to fill the high-power THz gap and realize the THz undulator, two superimposed laser pulses at normal incidence to the electron-beam moving direction form an equivalent high-field THz undulator by the frequency difference to realize the high-gain X-ray Free electron laser. The pulse front tilt of lateral fed lasers is used to realize the electron-laser synchronic interaction. By PIC simulation, a higher gain and a larger X-ray radiation power by the beat wave THz undulator could be realized, compared with the optical undulator for the same electron beam parameters.

  1. Current schemes for National Synchrotron Light Source UV beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.; Howells, M.R.; McKinney, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    We describe in some detail four beamlines proposed for the National Synchrotron Light Source uv ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three grazing-incidence instruments, one of the plane grating Mijake type and two with toroidal gratings at grazing angles of 2-1/2/sup 0/ and 15/sup 0/ are described. Two normal incidence instruments, one using the source as entrance slit and accepting 75 milliradians horizontally are also discussed. In each case we have estimated the output fluxes expected from such beamlines.

  2. The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline of Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishijima, K

    2002-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline was constructed by the Pharmaceutical Consortium for Protein Structure Analysis which was established in April 2001. The consortium is composed of 22 pharmaceutical companies affiliating with the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. The beamline is the first exclusive on that is owned by pharmaceutical enterprises at SPring-8. The specification and equipments of the Pharmaceutical Industry Beamline is almost same as that of RIKEN Structural Genomics Beamline I and II. (author)

  3. Distributed control of protein crystallography beamline 5.0 using CORBA

    OpenAIRE

    Timossi, Chris

    1999-01-01

    The Protein Crystallography Beamline at Berkeley Lab's Advanced Light Source is a facility that is being used to solve the structure of proteins. The software that is being used to control this beamline uses Java for user interface applications which communicate via CORBA with workstations that control the beamline hardware. We describe the software architecture for the beamline and our experiences after two years of operation.

  4. A high resolution pulsed field ionization photoelectron study of O{sub 2} using third generation undulator synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, C.; Heimann, P. [Chemical Sciences Division and Advanced Light Source, Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Evans, M.; Stimson, S.; Fenn, P.T.; Ng, C.Y. [Ames Laboratory, United States Department of Energy]|[Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1997-06-01

    We have improved a newly developed experimental scheme for high resolution pulsed field ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) studies [Hsu {ital et al.}, Rev. Sci. Instrum. (in press)] using the high resolution monochromatized multibunch undulator synchrotron source of the Chemical Dynamics Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. This improved scheme makes possible PFI-PE measurements with essentially no contamination by background electrons arising from direct photoionization and prompt autoionization processes. We present here a preliminary analysis of the rotationally resolved PFI-PE spectrum for O{sub 2} obtained at a resolution of 0.5 meV (full-width-at-half-maximum) in the photon energy range of 18.1{endash}19.4 eV, yielding accurate ionization energies for the transitions O{sub 2}{sup +}(b{sup 4}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}}, v{sup +}=0{endash}9, N{sup +}=1){l_arrow}O{sub 2}(X{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}}, v=0, N=1). {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. The ID23-2 structural biology microfocus beamline at the ESRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flot, David, E-mail: flot@esrf.fr [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Mairs, Trevor; Giraud, Thierry; Guijarro, Matias; Lesourd, Marc; Rey, Vicente; Brussel, Denis van; Morawe, Christian; Borel, Christine; Hignette, Olivier; Chavanne, Joel; Nurizzo, Didier; McSweeney, Sean; Mitchell, Edward [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2010-01-01

    Beamline ID23-2, the first dedicated and highly automated high-throughput monochromatic macromolecular crystallography microfocus beamline, is described. The first phase of the ESRF beamline ID23 to be constructed was ID23-1, a tunable MAD-capable beamline which opened to users in early 2004. The second phase of the beamline to be constructed is ID23-2, a monochromatic microfocus beamline dedicated to macromolecular crystallography experiments. Beamline ID23-2 makes use of well characterized optical elements: a single-bounce silicon (111) monochromator and two mirrors in Kirkpatrick–Baez geometry to focus the X-ray beam. A major design goal of the ID23-2 beamline is to provide a reliable, easy-to-use and routine microfocus beam. ID23-2 started operation in November 2005, as the first beamline dedicated to microfocus macromolecular crystallography. The beamline has taken the standard automated ESRF macromolecular crystallography environment (both hardware and software), allowing users of ID23-2 to be rapidly familiar with the microfocus environment. This paper describes the beamline design, the special considerations taken into account given the microfocus beam, and summarizes the results of the first years of the beamline operation.

  6. Vertically polarizing undulator with dynamic compensation of magnetic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikov, N.; Vasserman, I.; Xu, J.; Jensen, D.; Schmidt, O.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Suthar, K.; Moog, E. R.; Pile, G.; Gluskin, E.

    2017-01-01

    As part of the R&D program of the LCLS-II project, a novel 3.4-meter-long undulator prototype with horizontal magnetic field and dynamic force compensation has recently been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Previous steps in this development were the shorter 0.8-meter-long and 2.8-meter-long prototypes. Extensive mechanical and magnetic testing were carried out for each prototype, and each prototype was magnetically tuned using magnetic shims. The resulting performance of the 3.4-meter-long undulator prototype meets all requirements for the LCLS-II insertion device, including limits on the field integrals, phase errors, higher-order magnetic moments, and electron-beam trajectory for all operational gaps, as well as the reproducibility and accuracy of the gap settings.

  7. Vertically Polarizing Undulator with Dynamic Compensation of Magnetic Forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelnikov, N.; Vasserman, I.; Xu, J.; Jensen, D.; Schmidt, O.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Suthar, K.; Moog, E. R.; Pile, G.; Gluskin, E.

    2017-01-20

    As part of the R&D program of the LCLS-II project, a novel 3.4-meter-long undulator prototype with horizontal magnetic field and dynamic force compensation has recently been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Previous steps in this development were the shorter 0.8-meter-long and 2.8-meter-long prototypes. Extensive mechanical and magnetic testing was carried out for each prototype, and each prototype was magnetically tuned using magnetic shims. The resulting performance of the 3.4-meter-long undulator prototype meets all requirements for the LCLS-II insertion device, including limits on the field integrals, phase errors, higher-order magnetic moments, and electron-beam trajectory for all operational gaps, as well as the reproducibility and accuracy of the gap settings.

  8. Magnetic design of a 14 mm period prototype superconducting undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlot, Mona; Mishra, G.; Trillaud, Frederic; Sharma, Geetanjali

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we report the design of a 14 mm period prototype superconducting undulator that is under fabrication at Insertion Device Development Laboratory (IDDL) at Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore, India. The field computations are made in RADIA and results are presented in an analytical form for computation of the on axis field and the field on the surface of the coil. On the basis of the findings, a best fit is presented for the model to calculate the field dependence on the gap and the current density. The fit is compared with Moser-Rossmanith formula proposed earlier to predict the magnetic flux density of a superconducting undulator. The field mapping is used to calculate the field integrals and its dependence on gap and current densities as well.

  9. Small angle X-ray scattering beamline at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丰; 李小芸; 缪夏然; 边风刚; 王吉力; 李秀宏; 王玉柱; 杨春明; 周平; 林金友; 曾建荣; 洪春霞; 滑文强

    2015-01-01

    Beamline BL16B1 at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is dedicated to studying the mi-crostructure and dynamic processes of polymers, nanomaterials, mesoporous materials, colloids, liquid crystals, metal materials, etc. At present, SAXS, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), simultaneous SAXS/WAXS, grazing incident SAXS, and anomalous SAXS techniques are available for end user to conduct diverse ex-periments at this beamline. The sample-to-detector distance is adjustable from 0.2 m to 5 m. The practicable q-range is 0.03–3.6 nm−1 at incident X-ray of 10 keV for conventional SAXS whilst a continuous q-region of 0.06–33 nm−1 can be achieved in simultaneous SAXS/WAXS mode. Time-resolved SAXS measurements in sub-second level was achieved by the beamline upgrating in 2013. This paper gives detailed descriptions about the status, performance and applications of the SAXS beamline.

  10. Third-Order Apochromatic Drift-Quadrupole Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Balandin, V; Decking, W; Golubeva, N

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of a straight drift-quadrupole system which can transport certain beam ellipses (apochromatic beam ellipses) without influence of the second and of the third order chromatic and geometric aberrations of the beamline transfer map.

  11. The Diamond Beamline Controls and Data Acquisition Software Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, N.

    2010-06-01

    The software for the Diamond Light Source beamlines[1] is based on two complementary software frameworks: low level control is provided by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) framework[2][3] and the high level user interface is provided by the Java based Generic Data Acquisition or GDA[4][5]. EPICS provides a widely used, robust, generic interface across a wide range of hardware where the user interfaces are focused on serving the needs of engineers and beamline scientists to obtain detailed low level views of all aspects of the beamline control systems. The GDA system provides a high-level system that combines an understanding of scientific concepts, such as reciprocal lattice coordinates, a flexible python syntax scripting interface for the scientific user to control their data acquisition, and graphical user interfaces where necessary. This paper describes the beamline software architecture in more detail, highlighting how these complementary frameworks provide a flexible system that can accommodate a wide range of requirements.

  12. New X-ray emission spectrometer at the Rossendorf Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Molecular Structures

    2016-07-01

    A preliminary Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer has recently been installed and tested at the Rossendorf Beamline (ROBL). The spectrometer consists of a single spherically bent crystal analyzer and an avalanche photodiode detector positioned on the vertical Rowland cycle with 1 m diameter. The instrument has been tested at the Zr-K edge.

  13. Remote access and automation of SPring-8 MX beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Go, E-mail: ueno@spring8.or.jp; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamashita, Keitaro; Hirata, Kunio; Yamamoto, Masaki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 JAPAN (Japan); Hasegawa, Kazuya; Murakami, Hironori; Furukawa, Yukito; Mizuno, Nobuhiro; Kumasaka, Takashi [SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 JAPAN (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    At SPring-8 MX beamlines, a remote access system has been developed and started user operation in 2010. The system has been developed based on an automated data collection and data management architecture utilized for the confirmed scheme of SPring-8 mail-in data collection. Currently, further improvement to the remote access and automation which covers data processing and analysis are being developed.

  14. Design of 3B3 beamline control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Both structure and design of the control system in BSRF-3B3 beamline, are discussed and the subsystems are described. The LabVIEW software has advantages on data collecting and real time inspecting. In the process of data collecting, some methods are taken to solve the problems that may be met.

  15. FinEstBeaMS - A wide-range Finnish-Estonian Beamline for Materials Science at the 1.5 GeV storage ring at the MAX IV Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, R.; Sankari, R.; Kukk, E.; Nõmmiste, E.; Valden, M.; Lastusaari, M.; Kooser, K.; Kokko, K.; Hirsimäki, M.; Urpelainen, S.; Turunen, P.; Kivimäki, A.; Pankratov, V.; Reisberg, L.; Hennies, F.; Tarawneh, H.; Nyholm, R.; Huttula, M.

    2017-07-01

    The FinEstBeaMS beamline is under construction at the 1.5 GeV storage ring of the MAX IV Laboratory at Lund, Sweden. It has been designed to cover an unusually wide energy range from ultraviolet (4.3 eV) to soft X-rays (1000 eV) but experiments will also be possible at the Mg and Al Kα energies. Instead of having two different insertion devices and optical schemes for low and high photon energy regions, we have based our design on a single long-period, elliptically polarizing undulator and a plane grating monochromator. This solution will provide very good conditions for planned experiments in the whole photon energy region. The beamline will have two branches: one will mainly be used to investigate free atoms, molecules and clusters with photoelectron/photoion coincidence spectroscopy as well as solids with photoluminescence spectroscopy whereas the other one will be dedicated to ultra-high vacuum studies of surfaces and interfaces, utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This paper focuses on the optical design of the beamline and general design concepts of the gas phase and solid state end stations.

  16. Force-Depending Radiation Reaction study in an undulator devise

    CERN Document Server

    López, Gustavo V

    2016-01-01

    The effect of force-depending radiation reaction on charge motion traveling inside an undulator is studied using the new force approach for radiation reaction. The effect on the dynamics of a charged particle is determined with the hope that this one can be measured experimentally and can be determined whether or not this approach points on the right direction to understand the nature of radiation reaction.

  17. Investigation of a 2-Colour Undulator FEL Using Puffin

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, L T; Reiche, S

    2013-01-01

    Initial studies of a 2-colour FEL amplifier using one monoenergetic electron beam are presented. The interaction is modelled using the unaveraged, broadband FEL code Puffin. A series of undulator modules are tuned to generate two resonant frequencies along the FEL interaction and a self-consistent 2-colour FEL interaction at widely spaced non-harmonic wavelengths at 1nm and 2.4nm is demonstrated.

  18. UCLA-KIAE focusing permanent magnet undulator for SASE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanov, N.; Tolmachev, S.; Varfolomeev, A.; Varfolomeev, A. A.; Frigola, P.; Hogan, M.; Pellegrini, C.; Carr, R.; Lidia, S.

    1998-02-01

    A description of a new 2 m undulator is presented which was specially designed and manufactured for a SASE mode FEL experiment. It is a one section two plane focusing permanent magnet construction. The uniform period length is 2.06 cm, total number of periods is 98. The peak field on the axis is 5.4 kG for a 5 mm gap.

  19. Development of A Modified Quasi-periodic Undulator for HLS

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yufeng; chen, Wan; Jia, Qika; Sun, Shuchen; Li, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    A modified quasi periodic undulator (QPU) is developed and to be installed at Hefei Light Source (HLS).Magnet dimensions optimization is applied. High harmonics contamination is eliminated from the fundamental emission effectively according to the field tests. The depression ratio of 3rd harmonic is increased by an order of magnitude than the current device with other harmonics well reduced simultaneously. The significance of the modification measure is verified practically. The design, measurement and commissioning of the device is described.

  20. Coherent off-axis undulator radiation from short electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Neuman

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature of off-axis undulator radiation is discussed. Of particular interest is coherent off-axis radiation, where the wavelengths of emission are longer than the electron bunch length. We show how this off-axis radiation may be used to measure relative electron bunch lengths. The theory is presented, and calculated spectra are presented in a number of cases of interest.

  1. DESIRS: a state-of-the-art VUV beamline featuring high resolution and variable polarization for spectroscopy and dichroism at SOLEIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahon, Laurent; de Oliveira, Nelson; Garcia, Gustavo A; Gil, Jean-François; Pilette, Bertrand; Marcouillé, Olivier; Lagarde, Bruno; Polack, François

    2012-07-01

    DESIRS is a new undulator-based VUV beamline on the 2.75 GeV storage ring SOLEIL (France) optimized for gas-phase studies of molecular and electronic structures, reactivity and polarization-dependent photodynamics on model or actual systems encountered in the universe, atmosphere and biosphere. It is equipped with two dedicated endstations: a VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) for ultra-high-resolution absorption spectroscopy (resolving power up to 10(6)) and an electron/ion imaging coincidence spectrometer. The photon characteristics necessary to fulfill its scientific mission are: high flux in the 5-40 eV range, high spectral purity, high resolution, and variable and well calibrated polarizations. The photon source is a 10 m-long pure electromagnetic variable-polarization undulator producing light from the very near UV up to 40 eV on the fundamental emission with tailored elliptical polarization allowing fully calibrated quasi-perfect horizontal, vertical and circular polarizations, as measured with an in situ VUV polarimeter with absolute polarization rates close to unity, to be obtained at the sample location. The optical design includes a beam waist allowing the implementation of a gas filter to suppress the undulator high harmonics. This harmonic-free radiation can be steered toward the FTS for absorption experiments, or go through a highly efficient pre-focusing optical system, based on a toroidal mirror and a reflective corrector plate similar to a Schmidt plate. The synchrotron radiation then enters a 6.65 m Eagle off-plane normal-incidence monochromator equipped with four gratings with different groove densities, from 200 to 4300 lines mm(-1), allowing the flux-to-resolution trade-off to be smoothly adjusted. The measured ultimate instrumental resolving powers are 124000 (174 µeV) around 21 eV and 250000 (54 µeV) around 13 eV, while the typical measured flux is in the 10(10)-10(11) photons s(-1) range in a 1

  2. Modulated Electron Bunch with Amplitude Front Tilt in an Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radi...

  3. Modulated electron bunch with amplitude front tilt in an undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    In a previous paper we discussed the physics of a microbunched electron beam kicked by the dipole field of a corrector magnet by describing the kinematics of coherent undulator radiation after the kick. We demonstrated that the effect of aberration of light supplies the basis for understanding phenomena like the deflection of coherent undulator radiation by a dipole magnet. We illustrated this fact by examining the operation of an XFEL under the steady state assumption, that is a harmonic time dependence. We argued that in this particular case the microbunch front tilt has no objective meaning; in other words, there is no experiment that can discriminate whether an electron beam is endowed with a microbunch front tilt of not. In this paper we extend our considerations to time-dependent phenomena related with a finite electron bunch duration, or SASE mode of operation. We focus our attention on the spatiotemporal distortions of an X-ray pulse. Spatiotemporal coupling arises naturally in coherent undulator radiation behind the kick, because the deflection process involves the introduction of a tilt of the bunch profile. This tilt of the bunch profile leads to radiation pulse front tilt, which is equivalent to angular dispersion of the output radiation. We remark that our exact results can potentially be useful to developers of new generation XFEL codes for cross-checking their results.

  4. Wave scattering by a permeable barrier over undulating bed topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Martha, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    The scattering of surface water waves by bottom undulation in the presence of a permeable vertical barrier is investigated for its solution. A mixed boundary value problem (BVP) arises here in a natural way while examining this physical problem. Regular perturbation analysis is employed to determine the solution of the BVP. By utilizing this analysis the given BVP reduces to two different BVPs up to first order. The solution of the zeroth order BVP is obtained with the aid of eigenfunction expansion method in conjunction with least-squares approximation. The first order BVP is solved with the help of the Green's integral theorem and the physical quantities, namely the reflection and transmission coefficients, are obtained in the form of integrals which involve the bottom undulation and the solution of the zeroth order BVP. A particular form of the bottom undulation which closely resembles to some obstacles made by nature due to sedimentation and ripple growth of sand, is considered to evaluate these integrals. The variation of these coefficients is examined for different values of the porous effect parameter, barrier length, number of ripples and ripple amplitude.

  5. Multi-scale undulations in human aortic endothelial cell fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frketic, Jolie B; DeLaPeña, Abigail; Suaris, Melanie G; Zehnder, Steven M; Angelini, Thomas E

    2015-02-01

    Blood vessels often have an undulatory morphology, with excessive bending, kinking, and coiling occuring in diseased vasculature. The underlying physical causes of these morphologies are generally attributed, in combination, to changes in blood pressure, blood flow rate, and cell proliferation or apoptosis. However, pathological vascular morphologies often start during developmental vasculogenesis. At early stages of vasculogenesis, angioblasts (vascular endothelial cells that have not formed a lumen) assemble into primitive vessel-like fibers before blood flow occurs. If loose, fibrous aggregates of endothelial cells can generate multi-cellular undulations through mechanical instabilities, driven by the cytoskeleton, new insight into vasculature morphology may be achieved with simple in vitro models of endothelial cell fibers. Here we study mechanical instabilities in vessel-like structures made from endothelial cells embedded in a collagen matrix. We find that endothelial cell fibers contract radially over time, and undulate at two dominant wavelengths: approximately 1cm and 1mm. Simple mechanical models suggest that the long-wavelength undulation is Euler buckling in rigid confinement, while the short-wavelength buckle may arise from a mismatch between fiber bending energy and matrix deformation. These results suggest a combination of fiber-like geometry, cystoskeletal contractions, and extracellular matrix elasticity may contribute to undulatory blood vessel morphology in the absence of a lumen or blood pressure.

  6. Off-Axis Undulator Radiation for CLIC Drive Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Jeff, A; Welsch, CP

    2013-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) will use a novel acceleration scheme in which energy extracted from a very intense beam of relatively low-energy electrons (the Drive Beam) is used to accelerate a lower intensity Main Beam to very high energy. The high intensity of the Drive Beam, with pulses of more than 1015 electrons, poses a challenge for conventional profile measurements such as wire scanners. Thus, new non-invasive profile measurements are being investigated. In this paper we propose the use of relatively inexpensive permanent-magnet undulators to generate off-axis visible Synchrotron Radiation from the CLIC Drive Beam. The field strength and period length of the undulator should be designed such that the on-axis undulator wavelength is in the ultra-violet. A smaller but still useable amount of visible light is then generated in a hollow cone. This light can be reflected out of the beam pipe by a ring-shaped mirror placed downstream and imaged on a camera. In this contribution, results of SRW and ZEMA...

  7. Antiaging activity of low molecular weight peptide from Paphia undulate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; CAI Bingna; CHEN Hua; PAN Jianyu; CHEN Deke; SUN Huili

    2013-01-01

    Low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) was prepared from clam Paphia undulate and its antiaging effect on D-galactose-induced acute aging in rats,aged Kunming mice,ultraviolet-exposed rats,and thermally injured rats was investigated.P.undulate flesh was homogenized and digested using papain under optimal conditions,then subjected to Sephadex G-25 chromatography to isolate the LMWP.Administration of LMWP significantly reversed D-galactose-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities ofglutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT),and by decreasing the level ofmalondialdehyde (MDA).This process was accompanied by increased collagen synthesis.The LMWP prevented photoaging and promoted dermis recovery and remission of elastic fiber hyperplasia.Furthermore,treatment with the LMWP helped to regenerate elastic fibers and the collagen network,increased superoxide dismutase (SOD)in the serum and significantly decreased MDA.Thermal scald-induced inflammation and edema were also relieved by the LWMP,while wound healing in skin was promoted.These results suggest that the LMWP from P.undulate could serve as a new antiaging substance in cosmetics.

  8. Antiaging activity of low molecular weight peptide from Paphia undulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Pan, Jianyu; Chen, Deke; Sun, Huili

    2013-05-01

    Low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) was prepared from clam Paphia undulate and its antiaging effect on D-galactose-induced acute aging in rats, aged Kunming mice, ultraviolet-exposed rats, and thermally injured rats was investigated. P. undulate flesh was homogenized and digested using papain under optimal conditions, then subjected to Sephadex G-25 chromatography to isolate the LMWP. Administration of LMWP significantly reversed D-galactose-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), and by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). This process was accompanied by increased collagen synthesis. The LMWP prevented photoaging and promoted dermis recovery and remission of elastic fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, treatment with the LMWP helped to regenerate elastic fibers and the collagen network, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the serum and significantly decreased MDA. Thermal scald-induced inflammation and edema were also relieved by the LWMP, while wound healing in skin was promoted. These results suggest that the LMWP from P. undulate could serve as a new antiaging substance in cosmetics.

  9. Beamline 9.3.2 - a high-resolution, bend-magnet beamline with circular polarization capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.2 is a high resolution, SGM beamline on an ALS bending magnet with access to photon energies from 30-1500 eV. Features include circular polarization capability, a rotating chamber platform that allows switching between experiments without breaking vacuum, an active feedback system that keeps the beam centered on the entrance slit of the monochromator, and a bendable refocusing mirror. The beamline optics consist of horizontally and vertically focussing mirrors, a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) with movable entrance and exit slits, and a bendable refocussing mirror. In addition, a movable aperature has been installed just upstream of the vertically focussing mirror which can select the x-rays above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring, allowing the user to select circularly or linearly polarized light. Circularly polarized x-rays are used to study the magnetic properties of materials. Beamline 9.3.2 can supply left and right circularly polarized x-rays by a computer controlled aperture which may be placed above or below the plane of the synchrotron storage ring. The degree of linear and circular polarization has been measured and calibrated.

  10. An analysis on optimization of undulator in self-seeding free electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Qika, Jia

    2013-01-01

    A simple analysis is given for optimum length of undulator in self-seeding free electron laser (FEL). The obtained relations show the correlation between the undulator length and the system parameters. The power required for the seeding in the second part undulator and overall efficiency to monochromatizating the seeding settle on the length of the first part undulator; the magnitude of seeding power dominates the length of the second part undulator; the whole length of the undulators in self-seeding FEL is determined by the overall efficiency to get coherent seed, it is about half as long again as that of SASE, not including the dispersion section. The requirement of the dispersion section strength is also analyzed.

  11. Phase matching strategy for the undulator system in the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhui; Pflueger, Joachim

    2017-02-01

    The undulator system in the European X-ray Free Electron Laser is mainly comprised of 5-m long undulator segments and 1.1 m long intersections in between. The longitudinal component of the electrons' velocity is reduced when traveling inside an undulator due to the wiggle motion. Therefore the optical phase is detuned. The detune effect is also from the undulator fringe field where electron longitudinal speed also deviates from the oscillation condition. The total detune effect is compensated by a magnetic device called phase shifter, which is correspondingly set for a specific undulator gap. In this paper we investigate the homogeneity of the fringe field from different undulators. Different phase matching criteria are studied. The field fitting technique for the phase matching in high accuracy is demonstrated in detail. The impact by air coil is also studied. Eventually the matching test by spontaneous radiation simulation is made. A test method for high sensitivity to matching error is proposed.

  12. The prototype of new variable period undulator for Novosibirsk free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidyuk, I. V.; Shevchenko, O. A.; Getmanov, Ya. V.; Tcheskidov, V. G.; Vinokurov, N. A.; Vobly, P. D.

    2016-12-01

    To improve the parameters of the second stage Novosibirsk free electron laser we plan to replace the existing electromagnetic undulator by permanent-magnet variable-period undulator (VPU). The VPUs have several advantages compared to conventional undulators, which include wider radiation wavelength tuning range and an option to increase the number of poles. Both these advantages will be realized in the new undulator under development in Budker INP. There are some technical problems, which have to be solved before this idea can be implemented in practice. To check the solution of these problems we designed and manufactured a small undulator prototype, which has just several periods. In this paper, the results of mechanical and magnetic measurements of this undulator prototype are presented and compared with simulations.

  13. Computational and experimental study on dynamic behavior of underwater robots propelled by bionic undulating fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bionic undulating fins, inspired by undulations of the median and/or paired fin (MPF) fish, have a bright prospective for un-derwater missions with higher maneuverability, lower noisy, and higher efficiency. In the present study, a coupled computa-tional fluid dynamics (CFD) model was proposed and implemented to facilitate numerical simulations on hydrodynamic ef-fects of the bionic undulating robots. Hydrodynamic behaviors of underwater robots propelled by two bionic undulating fins were computationally and experimentally studied within the three typical desired movement patterns, i.e., marching, yawing and yawing-while-marching. Moreover, several specific phenomena in the bionic undulation mode were unveiled and dis-cussed by comparison between the CFD and experimental results under the same kinematics parameter sets. The contributed work on the dynamic behavior of the undulating robots is of importance for study on the propulsion mechanism and control algorithms.

  14. Use of Dynamical Undulator Mechanism to Produce Short Wavelength Radiation in Volume FEL (VFEL)

    OpenAIRE

    Baryshevsky, V. G.; Batrakov, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    VFEL lasing in system with dynamical undulator is described. In this system radiation of long wavelength creates the undulator for lasing on shorter wavelength. Two diffraction gratings with different spatial periods form VFEL resonator. The grating with longer period pumps the resonator with long wavelength radiation to provide necessary amplitude of undulator field. The grating with shorter period makes mode selection for short wavelength radiation. Lasing of such a system in terahertz freq...

  15. A superconductive undulator with a period length of 3.8 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, T; Krevet, B; Moser, H O; Rossmanith, J A; Rossmanith, R; Schneider, T

    1998-05-01

    During recent years several attempts have been undertaken to decrease the period length of undulators to the millimetre range. In this paper a novel type of in-vacuum undulator is described which is built using superconductive wires. The period length of this special device is 3.8 mm. In principle, it is possible to decrease this period length even further. A 100-period-long undulator has been built and will be tested with a beam in the near future.

  16. Regional and Local Geoid Undulations for Computing Orthometric Heights from GPS Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal explains procedures of using regional and local geoid undulations to improve and convert the global positioning system (GPS) elevations (ellipsoidal...

  17. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Tittelmeier, K; Schillinger, B; Schulz, M; Lerche, M; Feller, W B

    2015-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and...

  18. Monochromator development at 4W1B beamline of BSRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaning; Yan, Y.; Hu, T. D.; Liu, T.; Xian, D. C.

    2001-07-01

    The 4W1B is a X-ray monochromator beamline for XAFS at BSRF. During the upgrading phase, we have redesigned the monochromator to improve the performance of the beamline. It is a goniometer based, fixed exit double crystal monochromator. A mechanical linkage is employed to adjust the distance between the surfaces of the two crystals as the Bragg angle is changed to keep the outgoing beam direction constant. The whole mechanism is driven by only one stepping motor. The testing result shows that over the scanning range of 5-30°, the shift of outgoing beam position is less then 70 μm in the vertical direction. The basic principle, the mechanical realization, and the error analysis are discussed in detail. The performance and the testing results are also presented in this paper.

  19. Advances on the Brazilian toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavasso Filho, R.L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Box 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Homem, M.G.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Box 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Landers, R. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Box 6165, Campinas, SP 13083-970 (Brazil); Naves de Brito, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Box 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil)]. E-mail: arnaldo@lnls.br

    2005-06-15

    We report on an important advance for the vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray TGM beamline at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS). This beamline provides photons in the energy range 12-330 eV using three gratings. It is well known that TGMs deliver relatively high flux at these energies but harmonic contamination can be a serious problem. Of special interest for the users is the range between 12 and 21 eV covered by one of the gratings for studies of outer and inner valence ionization processes in gases as well as solids. Here, we report a solution to the harmonic contamination problems based on a noble gas phase filter combined with thin metal foil barriers.

  20. Elliptical multipole wiggler beamlines at the advanced photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, M.A. E-mail: beno@anl.gov; Kurtz, C.; Munkholm, A.; Ruett, U.; Engbretson, M.; Jennings, G.; Linton, J.; Knapp, G.S.; Montano, P.A

    2001-07-21

    The Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team has built three independent beamlines, which simultaneously utilize the X-ray radiation from an elliptical multipole wiggler, located at Sector 11 of the Advanced Photon Source. This insertion device produces circularly polarized X-rays on-axis and linearly polarized X-rays above and below the ring plane. The lower linearly polarized radiation is used in the monochromatic 11ID-D station for scattering and spectroscopy experiments in the 5-40 keV range. The on-axis circularly polarized photons are used for magnetic Compton scattering experiments in the 11ID-B station. The upper linearly polarized radiation is utilized by the high-energy diffraction station, 11ID-C. We report here on the beamline optics and experimental station equipment.

  1. Successful test of SPS-to-LHC beamline

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    On 23 October there was great excitement in the Prevessin control room when, on the first attempt, a beam passed over 2.5 km down the new SPS-to-LHC transfer line, TI8, to within a few metres of the LHC tunnel. Members of the AB, AT and TS departments involved in the beamline and its test, celebrate their success with the Director General, Robert Aymar, and the LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans.

  2. Successful test of SPS-to-LHC beamline

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 23 October there was great excitement in the Prevessin control room when, on the first attempt, a beam passed over 2.5 km down the new SPS-to-LHC transfer line, TI8, to within a few metres of the LHC tunnel. Above: members of the AB, AT and TS departments involved in the beamline and its test, celebrate their success with the Director General, Robert Aymar, and the LHC Project Leader, Lyn Evans.

  3. Surface science station of the infrared beamline at SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, M; Kimura, H; Nishida, S; Nanba, T

    2001-01-01

    An experimental station for surface science has been constructed at the infrared beamline (BL43IR) of SPring-8, Japan. The station utilizes synchrotron radiation in the energy range of 100-20000 cm sup - sup 1 to perform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) of surfaces. It consists of an experimental section, a preparation chamber, gas handling equipment and a pair of focusing optics. In situ observation of vibrational spectra is possible using both IRAS and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy.

  4. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2010-08-04

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of {proportional_to}17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in {proportional_to}70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of {proportional_to}10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  5. Design and simulation of the nuSTORM pion beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, A., E-mail: aoliu@fnal.gov; Neuffer, D.; Bross, A.

    2015-11-21

    The nuSTORM (neutrinos from STORed Muons) proposal presents a detailed design for a neutrino facility based on a muon storage ring, with muon decay in the production straight section of the ring providing well defined neutrino beams. The facility includes a primary high-energy proton beam line, a target station with pion production and collection, and a pion beamline for pion transportation and injection into a muon decay ring. The nuSTORM design uses “stochastic injection”, in which pions are directed by a chicane, referred to as the Orbit Combination Section (OCS), into the production straight section of the storage ring. Pions that decay within that straight section provide muons within the circulating acceptance of the ring. The design enables injection without kickers or a separate pion decay transport line. The beam line that the pions traverse before being extracted from the decay ring is referred to as the pion beamline. This paper describes the design and simulation of the pion beamline, and includes full beam dynamics simulations of the system.

  6. Confining continuous manipulations of accelerator beam-line optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstutz, Ph.; Plath, T.; Ackermann, S.; Bödewadt, J.; Lechner, C.; Vogt, M.

    2017-04-01

    Altering the optics in one section of a linear accelerator beam line will in general cause an alteration of the optics in all downstream sections. In circular accelerators, changing the optical properties of any beam-line element will have an impact on the optical functions throughout the whole machine. In many cases, however, it is desirable to change the optics in a certain beam-line section without disturbing any other parts of the machine. Such a local optics manipulation can be achieved by adjusting a number of additional corrector magnets that restore the initial optics after the manipulated section. In that case, the effect of the manipulation is confined in the region between the manipulated and the correcting beam-line elements. Introducing a manipulation continuously, while the machine is operating, therefore requires continuous correction functions to be applied to the correcting quadrupole magnets. In this paper, we present an approach to calculate such continuous correction functions for six quadrupole magnets by means of a homotopy method. Besides a detailed derivation of the method, we present its application to an algebraic example, as well as its demonstration at the seeding experiment sFLASH at the free-electron laser FLASH located at DESY in Hamburg.

  7. Performance of a novel VUV bending magnet beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Y F; Hsieh, T F; Huang, L R; Chung, S C; Cheng, N F; Hsiung, G Y; Wang, D J; Chen, C T; Tsang, K L

    2001-01-01

    A novel high resolution, high flux bending magnet beamline with an energy range from 5 to 40 eV has been constructed at SRRC. This Dragon-like beamline, which horizontally collects 50 mrad of synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet source, uses four cylindrical gratings with an included angle of 140 deg. and a movable curved exit slit. The average photon flux with an energy resolving power of 1000 is about 2x10 sup 1 sup 2 photons/s, which is among the highest of all existing VUV bending magnet beamlines. An energy resolving power of 24,000 at 6.8 eV has been obtained from the Schumann-Runge bands (B sup 3 limit construction operator in a limit construction/sum L: summation operator operator End lower limit of a limit construction u lower limit End limit End sup - /leftarrow/gets A: =leftward arrow X sup 3 limit construction operator in a limit construction/sum L: summation operator operator End lower limit of a limit construction g lower limit End limit End sup -) absorption spectra of O sub 2 gas. A pho...

  8. Pulsed beam tests at the SANAEM RFQ beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turemen, G.; Akgun, Y.; Alacakir, A.; Kilic, I.; Yasatekin, B.; Ergenlik, E.; Ogur, S.; Sunar, E.; Yildiz, V.; Ahiska, F.; Cicek, E.; Unel, G.

    2017-07-01

    A proton beamline consisting of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, two solenoid magnets, two steerer magnets and a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is developed at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority’s (TAEA) Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SNRTC-SANAEM) in Ankara. In Q4 of 2016, the RFQ was installed in the beamline. The high power tests of the RF power supply and the RF transmission line were done successfully. The high power RF conditioning of the RFQ was performed recently. The 13.56 MHz ICP source was tested in two different conditions, CW and pulsed. The characterization of the proton beam was done with ACCTs, Faraday cups and a pepper-pot emittance meter. Beam transverse emittance was measured in between the two solenoids of the LEBT. The measured beam is then reconstructed at the entrance of the RFQ by using computer simulations to determine the optimum solenoid currents for acceptance matching of the beam. This paper will introduce the pulsed beam test results at the SANAEM RFQ beamline. In addition, the high power RF conditioning of the RFQ will be discussed.

  9. Observation of Polarized Positrons from an Undulator-Based Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G; Barley, J.; Batygin, Y.; Berridge, S.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bower, G.; Bugg, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Dollan, R.; Efremenko, Y.; Gharibyan, V.; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Kovermann, J.; Laihem, K.; Lohse, T.; McDonald, K.T.; Mikhailichenko, A.A.; Moortgat-Pick, G.A.; Pahl, P.; /Tel Aviv U. /Cornell U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Tennessee U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /DESY /Yerevan Phys. Inst. /Aachen, Tech. Hochsch. /DESY, Zeuthen /Princeton U. /Durham U. /Daresbury

    2008-03-06

    An experiment (E166) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated a scheme in which a multi-GeV electron beam passed through a helical undulator to generate multi-MeV, circularly polarized photons which were then converted in a thin target to produce positrons (and electrons) with longitudinal polarization above 80% at 6 MeV. The results are in agreement with Geant4 simulations that include the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons and photons in matter.

  10. Observation of Polarized Positrons from an Undulator-Based Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G.; Barley, J.; Batygin, Y.; Berridge, S.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bower, G.; Bugg, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Dollan, R.; Efremenko, Y.; Gharibyan, V.; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Kovermann, J.; Laihem, K.; Lohse, T.; McDonald, K. T.; Mikhailichenko, A. A.; Moortgat-Pick, G. A.; Pahl, P.; Pitthan, R.; Pöschl, R.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riemann, S.; Schälicke, A.; Schüler, K. P.; Schweizer, T.; Scott, D.; Sheppard, J. C.; Stahl, A.; Szalata, Z. M.; Walz, D.; Weidemann, A. W.

    2008-05-01

    An experiment (E166) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has demonstrated a scheme in which a multi-GeV electron beam passed through a helical undulator to generate multi-MeV, circularly polarized photons which were then converted in a thin target to produce positrons (and electrons) with longitudinal polarization above 80% at 6 MeV. The results are in agreement with Geant4 simulations that include the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons, and photons in matter.

  11. Development of a Quasi-Periodic Undulator for the HLS

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yufeng; Chen, Wan; Jia, Qika; Sun, Shuchen; Li, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    China's first quasi-periodic undulator (QPU) has been developed for the Hefei Light Source (HLS). It uses a magnetic configuration with varied thicknesses of NdFeB blocks, based on the QPU of European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Depression of 3rd harmonic radiation is significantly improved over the ESRF QPU, as deduced from the measured magnetic fields. A method of configuring shims of different geometries and sizes, based on a symmetric principle to correct multi-pole field integrals, was demonstrated.

  12. First characterization of coherent optical vortices from harmonic undulator radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsing, E; Dunning, M; Hast, C; Raubenheimer, T; Xiang, Dao

    2014-09-26

    We describe the experimental generation and measurement of coherent light that carries orbital angular momentum from a relativistic electron beam radiating at the second harmonic of a helical undulator. The measured helical phase of the light is shown to be in agreement with predictions of the sign and magnitude of the phase singularity and is more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than the incoherent signal. Our setup demonstrates that such optical vortices can be produced in modern free-electron lasers in a simple afterburner arrangement for novel two-mode pump-probe experiments.

  13. Low-frequency quadrupole impedance of undulators and wigglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednykh, A.; Bassi, G.; Hidaka, Y.; Smaluk, V.; Stupakov, G.

    2016-10-01

    An analytical expression of the low-frequency quadrupole impedance for undulators and wigglers is derived and benchmarked against beam-based impedance measurements done at the 3 GeV NSLS-II storage ring. The adopted theoretical model, valid for an arbitrary number of electromagnetic layers with parallel geometry, allows to calculate the quadrupole impedance for arbitrary values of the magnetic permeability μr . In the comparison of the analytical results with the measurements for variable magnet gaps, two limit cases of the permeability have been studied: the case of perfect magnets (μr→∞ ), and the case in which the magnets are fully saturated (μr=1 ).

  14. Observation of polarized positrons from an undulator-based source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G; Barley, J; Batygin, Y; Berridge, S; Bharadwaj, V; Bower, G; Bugg, W; Decker, F-J; Dollan, R; Efremenko, Y; Gharibyan, V; Hast, C; Iverson, R; Kolanoski, H; Kovermann, J; Laihem, K; Lohse, T; McDonald, K T; Mikhailichenko, A A; Moortgat-Pick, G A; Pahl, P; Pitthan, R; Pöschl, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Riemann, S; Schälicke, A; Schüler, K P; Schweizer, T; Scott, D; Sheppard, J C; Stahl, A; Szalata, Z M; Walz, D; Weidemann, A W

    2008-05-30

    An experiment (E166) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has demonstrated a scheme in which a multi-GeV electron beam passed through a helical undulator to generate multi-MeV, circularly polarized photons which were then converted in a thin target to produce positrons (and electrons) with longitudinal polarization above 80% at 6 MeV. The results are in agreement with GEANT4 simulations that include the dominant polarization-dependent interactions of electrons, positrons, and photons in matter.

  15. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 ± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  16. Conceptual design of NBI beamline for VEST plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.S., E-mail: tskim@kaeri.re.kr; In, S.R.; Jeong, S.H.; Park, M.; Chang, D.H.; Jung, B.K.; Lee, K.W.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • VEST NBI injector is conceptually designed to support further VEST plasma experiment. • VEST NBI injector composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, electrostatic ion dumps, NB vessel with cryopump, and rotating calorimerter. • The vacuum vessel of the beamline is divided into two parts for high injection efficiency and different direction (co- and counter-current) of neutral beam injection. • An ion source for the VEST NBI system was also designed to deliver neutral hydrogen beams with a power of 0.3 MW. The plasma generator of the VEST NB ion source has modified TFTR bucket multi-cusp chamber. The plasma generator has twelve hair-pin shaped tungsten filaments used as a cathode and an arc chamber including a bucket and an electron dump which serve as anode. The accelerator system consists of three grids, each having extraction area of 100 mm × 320 mm and 64 shaped slits of 3 mm spacing. • The preliminary structure design and the layout of the main components of the injector have been completed. Simulation and calculation for optimization of the NB beamline design results prove that the parameters of ion source, neutralization efficiency (76%:95% equilibrium neutralization efficiency), and beam power transmission efficiency (higher than 90%) are in agreement with design targets of the VEST NB beamline. • This VEST NBI system will provide a neutral beam of ∼0.6 MW for both heating and current drive in torus plasma. - Abstract: A 10 m s-pulsed NBI (Neutral Beam Injection) system for VEST (Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus) plasma heating is designed to provide a beam power of more than 0.6 MW with 20 keV H° neutrals. The VEST NBI injector is composed of 2 sets of 20 keV/25A magnetic cusp type bucket ion source, neutralizer ducts, residual ion dump, NB vessel with a cryopump, and rotating calorimeter. The position and size of these beamline components are roughly determined with geometric

  17. SRX - a X-ray spectroscopy beamline with sub-100nm spatial resolution at NSLS-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, J.

    2011-12-01

    J. Thieme, V. deAndrade, Y. Yao, J. Prietzel* (NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA; *TU Munich, Germany) The new electron storage ring NSLS-II will be a source of synchrotron radiation with an unmatched low emittance. Such a facility is very well suited for hosting experiments in need of coherent radiation. One of first six beamlines to be constructed at NSLS-II will be a high resolution spectroscopy station, dedicated especially for environmental and geo-sciences. A canted setup of two undulators will serve as independent light sources for two branches of this beamline. One branch line is planned to address the energy range from 4.65 keV to 24 keV focusing the beam down to a small spot size with Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The expected photon flux in the spot is in the range of above 10^13 phot/sec. A horizontally deflecting double crystal monochromator with maximum stability will ensure the possibility of spectroscopy with very high spectral resolution. The second branch is planned for reaching lower X-ray energies, addressing the range of 2 keV up to 15 keV, but with a higher spatial resolution. Using a Fresnel zoneplate, the spatial resolution aimed for is in the range of 30 nm. It can be expected that this branch would be attractive for more biological applications from environmental science due to the many elements of interest within that energy range. The experimental station will be designed to not only host X-ray fluorescence experiments but diffraction imaging experiments as well. The commissioning of this beamline will start in 2014, therefore a detailed design description will be presented here. As an example of what is achievable at this NSLS-II beamline we will present a spatially resolved study on the co-localization of iron and sulfur in a forest soil. The scientific topic to be addressed was to identify unambiguously the relationship between the speciation of iron and sulfur as a function of the chemical state of the surrounding soil when

  18. Coastline undulations on the West Coast of Denmark: Offshore extent, relation to breaker bars and transported sediment volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Knudsen, Søren B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with field measurements of undulations of the bottom bathymetry along an otherwise straight coast at the Danish West Coast. Two bathymetric datasets and two time series of wave measurements are used in order to determine the following properties: the offshore extent of shoreline...... undulations, the amount of sediment transported alongshore in the shoreline undulations, the relationship between the shoreline undulations and longshore bars and the relationship between the morphology and the hydrodynamics. In one of the data sets the shoreline undulations are well correlated...... with undulations on the depth contours between −5m and +2m relative to mean sea level. In the other data set, only undulations on the depth contours between −1m and +1m are well correlated with the shoreline undulations. The main difference in the wave climate between the two locations is the orientation...

  19. The macromolecular crystallography beamline I911-3 at the MAX IV laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursby, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.ursby@maxlab.lu.se; Unge, Johan; Appio, Roberto [Lund University, POB 118, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden); Logan, Derek T. [Lund University, POB 124, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden); Fredslund, Folmer; Svensson, Christer; Larsson, Krister; Labrador, Ana [Lund University, POB 118, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden); Thunnissen, Marjolein M. G. M. [Lund University, POB 124, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    The updated macromolecular crystallography beamline I911-3 at the MAX II storage ring is described. The macromolecular crystallography beamline I911-3, part of the Cassiopeia/I911 suite of beamlines, is based on a superconducting wiggler at the MAX II ring of the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund, Sweden. The beamline is energy-tunable within a range between 6 and 18 keV. I911-3 opened for users in 2005. In 2010–2011 the experimental station was completely rebuilt and refurbished such that it has become a state-of-the-art experimental station with better possibilities for rapid throughput, crystal screening and work with smaller samples. This paper describes the complete I911-3 beamline and how it is embedded in the Cassiopeia suite of beamlines.

  20. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator - presentation slides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    Direct emittance measurement based on vertical undulator is discussed. Emittance was evaluated from peak ratios, the smallest measured being =0.9 ±0.3 pm rad. The angular distribution of undulator radiation departs from Gaussian approximations, a fact of which diffraction-limited light sources should be aware.

  1. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from undulators and bending magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    We consider the maximum of the Wigner distribution (WD) of synchrotron radiation (SR) fields as a possible definition of SR source brightness. Such figure of merit was originally introduced in the SR community by Kim. The brightness defined in this way is always positive and, in the geometrical optics limit, can be interpreted as maximum density of photon flux in phase space. For undulator and bending magnet radiation from a single electron, the WD function can be explicitly calculated. In the case of an electron beam with a finite emittance the brightness is given by the maximum of the convolution of a single electron WD function and the probability distribution of the electrons in phase space. In the particular case when both electron beam size and electron beam divergence dominate over the diffraction size and the diffraction angle, one can use a geometrical optics approach. However, there are intermediate regimes when only the electron beam size or the electron beam divergence dominate. In this asymptotic cases the geometrical optics approach is still applicable, and the brightness definition used here yields back once more the maximum photon flux density in phase space. In these intermediate regimes we find a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and the approximation for undulator brightness currently used in literature. We extend the WD formalism to a satisfactory theory for the brightness of a bending magnet. We find that in the intermediate regimes the usually accepted approximation for bending magnet brightness turns out to be inconsistent even parametrically.

  2. Ripple reduction control of the undulation pump total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Itsuro; Chinzei, Tsuneo; Mochizuki, Shuichi; Abe, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka; Suzuki, Takafumi; Karita, Tatsuro; Ono, Toshiya; Kouno, Akimasa; Ishimaru, Mitsuhiko; Baba, Atsushi; Ozeki, Toshinaga; Tohyama, Takahiro; Kobayashi Si, Shin-ichi; Imachi, Kou

    2002-01-01

    An undulation pump total artificial heart (UPTAH) in which the revolutions of the motor are converted to undulation motion of a disk has been developed. In an experiment, a goat using the UPTAH survived for 54 days. However, a large ripple was observed in the device's output pressure and flow waveform. In calculating the spectrum of the ripple, we found that the ripple mainly comprised 2 frequency sine waves: 1 having the same frequency as and 1 having double the frequency of the motor revolutions. To reduce the ripple, 2 sine waves, 1 having the same frequency as and 1 having double the frequency of the motor revolutions, were provided to the motor current to modulate the pulse width of the pulse width modulation controlling the motor revolutions. This ripple control method reduced the pressure ripple by 90% in a mock circulation and by 70% in animal experiments. These results revealed that the ripple generated in the UPTAH could be controlled through the use of motor control software.

  3. Innovative FEL schemes using variable-gap undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneidmiller, E. A.; Yurkov, M. V.

    2017-06-01

    We discuss theoretical background and experimental verification of advanced schemes for X-ray FELs using variable gap undulators (harmonic lasing self-seeded FEL, reverse taper etc.) Harmonic lasing in XFELs is an opportunity to extend operating range of existing and planned X-ray FEL user facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental. Another interesting application of harmonic lasing is Harmonic Lasing Self-Seeded (HLSS) FEL that allows to improve longitudinal coherence and spectral power of a SASE FEL. Recently this concept was successfully tested at the soft X-ray FEL user facility FLASH in the wavelength range between 4.5 nm and 15 nm. That was also the first experimental demonstration of harmonic lasing in a high-gain FEL and at a short wavelength (before it worked only in infrared FEL oscillators). Another innovative scheme that was tested at FLASH2 is the reverse tapering that can be used to produce circularly polarized radiation from a dedicated afterburner with strongly suppressed linearly polarized radiation from the main undulator. This scheme can also be used for an efficient background-free production of harmonics in an afterburner. Experiments on the frequency doubling that allowed to reach the shortest wavelength at FLASH as well as on post-saturation tapering to produce a record intencity in XUV regime are also discussed.

  4. Undulating fins produce off-axis thrust and flow structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveln, Izaak D; Bale, Rahul; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Curet, Oscar M; Patankar, Neelesh A; MacIver, Malcolm A

    2014-01-15

    While wake structures of many forms of swimming and flying are well characterized, the wake generated by a freely swimming undulating fin has not yet been analyzed. These elongated fins allow fish to achieve enhanced agility exemplified by the forward, backward and vertical swimming capabilities of knifefish, and also have potential applications in the design of more maneuverable underwater vehicles. We present the flow structure of an undulating robotic fin model using particle image velocimetry to measure fluid velocity fields in the wake. We supplement the experimental robotic work with high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics, simulating the hydrodynamics of both a virtual fish, whose fin kinematics and fin plus body morphology are measured from a freely swimming knifefish, and a virtual rendering of our robot. Our results indicate that a series of linked vortex tubes is shed off the long edge of the fin as the undulatory wave travels lengthwise along the fin. A jet at an oblique angle to the fin is associated with the successive vortex tubes, propelling the fish forward. The vortex structure bears similarity to the linked vortex ring structure trailing the oscillating caudal fin of a carangiform swimmer, though the vortex rings are distorted because of the undulatory kinematics of the elongated fin.

  5. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Z.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user`s risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly.

  6. Energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline at Indus-2 synchrotron source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Pandey; H K Poswal; A K Mishra; Abhilash Dwivedi; R Vasanthi; Nandini Garg; Surinder M Sharma

    2013-04-01

    An energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction beamline has been designed, developed and commissioned at BL-11 bending magnet port of the Indian synchrotron source, Indus-2. The performance of this beamline has been benchmarked by measuring diffraction patterns from various elemental metals and standard inorganic powdered samples. A few recent high-pressure investigations are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the beamline.

  7. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Z.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user`s risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly.

  8. Improvement of the crossed undulator design for effective circular polarization control in X-ray FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-01-01

    The production of X-ray radiation with a high degree of circular polarization constitutes an important goal at XFEL facilities. A simple scheme to obtain circular polarization control with crossed undulators has been proposed so far. In its simplest configuration the crossed undulators consist of pair of short planar undulators in crossed position separated by an electromagnetic phase shifter. An advantage of this configuration is a fast helicity switching. A drawback is that a high degree of circular polarization (over 90%) can only be achieved for lengths of the insertion devices significantly shorter than the gain length, i.e. at output power significantly lower than the saturation power level. The obvious and technically possible extension considered in this paper, is to use a setup with two or more crossed undulators separated by phase shifters. This cascade crossed undulator scheme is distinguished, in performance, by a fast helicity switching, a high degree of circular polarization (over 95%) and a hig...

  9. Photon emission by ultra-relativistic positrons in crystalline undulators: the high-energy regime

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, W; Solov'yov, A V; Greiner, W

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the undulator radiation emitted by high-energy positrons during planar channeling in periodically bent crystals. We demonstrate that the construction of the undulator for positrons with energies of 10 GeV and above is only possible if one takes into account the radiative energy losses. The frequency of the undulator radiation depends on the energy of the particle. Thus the decrease of the particle's energy during the passage of the crystal should result in the destruction of the undulator radiation regime. However, we demonstrate that it is possible to avoid the destructive influence of the radiative losses on the frequency of the undulator radiation by the appropriate variation of the shape of the crystal channels. We also discuss a method by which, to our mind, it would be possible to prepare the crystal with the desired properties of its channels.

  10. Investigation of a method to calculate spontaneous radiation spectra from relativistic electrons in undulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming-Zhi; HE Jian-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Undulators are key devices to produce brilliant synchrotron radiation at the synchrotron radiation facilities.In this paper we present a numerical computing method,including the computing program that has been developed to calculate the spontaneous radiation emitted from relativistic electrons in undulators by simulating the electrons' trajectory.The effects of electron beam emittance and energy spread have also been taken into account.Comparing with other computing methods available at present,this method has a few advantages with respect to several aspects.It can adopt any measured or arbitrarily simulated 3D magnetic field and arbitrary electron beam pattern for the calculation and it's able to analyze undulators of any type of magnetic structure.It's expected to predict precisely the practical radiation spectrum.The calculation results of a short period in-vacuum undulator and an EllipticaUy Polarized Undulator (EPU) at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) are presented as examples.

  11. Status of a cylindrical superconducting undulator for the laser wakefield accelerator in Jena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso Rodriguez, Veronica; Bernhard, Axel; Grau, Andreas; Haerer, Bastian; Peiffer, Peter; Rossmanith, Robert; Weber, Marc; Widmann, Christina [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Kaluza, Malte; Nicolai, Maria; Rinck, Thorsten; Saevert, Alexander [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena (Germany); Jaeckel, Oliver; Reuter, Maria [Helmholtz Institute Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Laser-Wakefield accelerators (LWFA) produce electron bunches with several 100 MeV energy within a few millimeters acceleration length, however, with a relatively large energy spread (a few percent). Undulators provide monochromatic radiation with high brilliance. The working principle of undulators requires a small energy spread of the electron beam in the order of 0.1 %. To produce monochromatic undulator radiation with LWF accelerated electrons, a novel iron-free cylindrical superconducting undulator (SCU) is under development at the KIT. This talk gives an overview about the design and the optimisation of the SCU tailored to the particular beam properties of the JETI-LWFA at the University of Jena. In addition a short model test and the construction status of the full scale undulator are shown.

  12. Note: Leaf undulator to realize polarization control with low on-axis heat load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J; Qiao, S

    2010-05-01

    Here, a new operational mode of an electromagnetic elliptical undulator, called leaf undulator, is proposed and studied. It can provide linearly polarized radiation at an arbitrary polarization direction depending on the magnitude and polarity of the horizontal and vertical magnetic fields. The polarization direction becomes 45 degrees when the horizontal and vertical magnetic fields are equal in strength. It is also able to switch the operational mode to purely circular or elliptical one. To lower the on-axis power density generated by undulators operating in linear mode, different designs have been presented in the past. Leaf undulator can suppress the on-axis power density by an order of magnitude compared to the so-called Knot and Figure-8 undulators, while maintaining comparable photon flux of the fundamental harmonic. Furthermore, it is possible to reach a lower fundamental energy under linear mode than by any other design using comparable magnetic field strengths.

  13. Undulator commissioning by characterization of radiation in x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs where a long undulator composed of many segments is installed, there exist a number of error sources to reduce the FEL gain such as the trajectory error, K value discrepancy, and phase mismatch, which are related to the segmented-undulator structure. Undulator commissioning, which refers to the tuning and alignment processes to eliminate the possible error sources, is thus an important step toward realization of lasing. In the SPring-8 angstrom compact free electron laser (SACLA facility, the undulator commissioning has been carried out by means of characterization of x-ray radiation, i.e., measurements of the spatial and spectral profiles of monochromatized spontaneous undulator radiation as well as by probing the FEL intensity. The achieved tuning and alignment accuracies estimated from the statistics of actual measurements in SACLA show the effectiveness of this commissioning scheme.

  14. HERMES: a soft X-ray beamline dedicated to X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhou, Rachid; Stanescu, Stefan; Swaraj, Sufal; Besson, Adrien; Ledoux, Milena; Hajlaoui, Mahdi; Dalle, Didier

    2015-07-01

    The HERMES beamline (High Efficiency and Resolution beamline dedicated to X-ray Microscopy and Electron Spectroscopy), built at Synchrotron SOLEIL (Saint-Auban, France), is dedicated to soft X-ray microscopy. The beamline combines two complementary microscopy methods: XPEEM (X-ray Photo Emitted Electron Microscopy) and STXM (Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy) with an aim to reach spatial resolution below 20 nm and to fully exploit the local spectroscopic capabilities of the two microscopes. The availability of the two methods within the same beamline enables the users to select the appropriate approach to study their specific case in terms of sample environment, spectroscopy methods, probing depth etc. In this paper a general description of the beamline and its design are presented. The performance and specifications of the beamline will be reviewed in detail. Moreover, the article is aiming to demonstrate how the beamline performances have been specifically optimized to fulfill the specific requirements of a soft X-ray microscopy beamline in terms of flux, resolution, beam size etc. Special attention has been dedicated to overcome some limiting and hindering problems that are usually encountered on soft X-ray beamlines such as carbon contamination, thermal stability and spectral purity.

  15. Sub-Picosecond Tunable Hard X-Ray Undulator Source for Laser/X-Ray Pump-Probe Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingold, G.; Beaud, P.; Johnson, S.; Streun, A.; Schmidt, T.; Abela, R.; Al-Adwan, A.; Abramsohn, D.; Böge, M.; Grolimund, D.; Keller, A.; Krasniqi, F.; Rivkin, L.; Rohrer, M.; Schilcher, T.; Schmidt, T.; Schlott, V.; Schulz, L.; van der Veen, F.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The FEMTO source under construction at the μXAS beamline is designed to enable tunable time-resolved laser/x-ray absorption and diffraction experiments in photochemistry and condensed matter with ps- and sub-ps resolution. The design takes advantage of (1) the highly stable operation of the SLS storage ring, (2) the reliable high harmonic operation of small gap, short period undulators to generate hard x-rays with energy 3-18 keV at 2.4 GeV beam energy, and (3) the progress in high power, high repetition rate fs solid-state laser technology to employ laser/e-beam `slicing' to reach a time resolution of ultimately 100 fs. The source will profit from the inherently synchronized pump (laser I: 100 fs, 2 mJ, 1 kHz) and probe (sliced X-rays, laser II: 50 fs, 5 mJ, 1 kHz) pulses, and from the excellent stability of the SLS storage ring which is operated in top-up mode and controlled by a fast orbit feedback (FOFB). Coherent radiation emitted at THz frequencies by the sliced 100 fs electron bunches will be monitored as on-line cross-correlation signal to keep the laser-electron beam interaction at optimum. The source is designed to provide at 8 keV (100 fs) a monochromized flux of 104 ph/s/0.01% bw (Si crystal monochromator) and 106 ph/s/1.5% bw (multilayer monochromator) at the sample. It is operated in parasitic mode using a hybrid bunch filling pattern. Because of the low intensity measurements are carried out repetitively over many shots using refreshing samples and gated detectors. `Diffraction gating' experiments will be used to characterize the sub-ps X-ray pulses.

  16. MX1: a bending-magnet crystallography beamline serving both chemical and macromolecular crystallography communities at the Australian Synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowieson, Nathan Philip; Aragao, David; Clift, Mark; Ericsson, Daniel J.; Gee, Christine; Harrop, Stephen J.; Mudie, Nathan; Panjikar, Santosh; Price, Jason R.; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Williamson, Rachel; Caradoc-Davies, Tom, E-mail: tom.caradoc-davies@synchrotron.org.au [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2015-01-01

    The macromolecular crystallography beamline MX1 at the Australian Synchrotron is described. MX1 is a bending-magnet crystallography beamline at the 3 GeV Australian Synchrotron. The beamline delivers hard X-rays in the energy range from 8 to 18 keV to a focal spot at the sample position of 120 µm FWHM. The beamline endstation and ancillary equipment facilitate local and remote access for both chemical and biological macromolecular crystallography. Here, the design of the beamline and endstation are discussed. The beamline has enjoyed a full user program for the last seven years and scientific highlights from the user program are also presented.

  17. The BALDER Beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klementiev, K.; Norén, K.; Carlson, S.; Sigfridsson Clauss, K. G. V.; Persson, I.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) includes well-established methods to study the local structure around the absorbing element - extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and the effective oxidation number or to quantitatively determine the speciation of an element in a complex matrix - X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The increased brilliance and intensities available at the new generation of synchrotron light sources makes it possible to study, in-situ and in-operando, much more dilute systems with relevance for natural systems, as well as the micro-scale variability and dynamics of chemical reactions on the millisecond time-scale. The design of the BALDER beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory 3 GeV ring has focused on a high flux of photons in a wide energy range, 2.4-40 keV, where the K-edge is covered for the elements S to La, and the L 3-edge for all elements heavier than Sb. The overall design of the beamline will allow large flexibility in energy range, beam size and data collection time. The other focus of the beamline design is the possibility to perform multi-technique analyses on samples. Development of sample environment requires focus on implementation of auxiliary methods in such a way that techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and/or mass spectrometry can be performed simultaneously as the XAS study. It will be a flexible system where different instruments can be plugged in and out depending on the needs for the particular investigation. Many research areas will benefit from the properties of the wiggler based light source and the capabilities to perform in-situ and in-operando measurements, for example environmental and geochemical sciences, nuclear chemistry, catalysis, materials sciences, and cultural heritage.

  18. Preliminary design of multi-function LIGA beamline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One design of multi-function LIGA beamline has been reported. In this design, two plane mirrors and a series of filters have been employed. One can choose the spectrum range of X-ray easily according to the exposure requirement by adjusting the grazing angle of mirrors and the thickness of filters. And the spot size in the horizontal direction is up to 120mm, which is large enough for exposing 5 inch silicon slice. The typical exposure time is about 1.2h, 1.8h, 0.5h, corresponding to PMMA thickness of 500 μ m, 200 μ m, 20 t m, respectively.

  19. Microfocusing at the PG1 beamline at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziarzhytski, Siarhei, E-mail: siarhei.dziarzhytski@desy.de [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22067 Hamburg (Germany); Gerasimova, Natalia [European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Goderich, Rene [University of South Florida (United States); Mey, Tobias [Laser Laboratorium Göttingen eV, Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Reininger, Ruben [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rübhausen, Michael [University of Hamburg and Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Siewert, Frank [Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin/BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Weigelt, Holger; Brenner, Günter [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22067 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) refocusing mirrors unit at the PG1 beamline at FLASH has been newly designed, developed and fully commissioned. The vertical focal size of the KB optics is measured to be 5.8 ± 1 µm FWHM and the horizontal 6 ± 2 µm FWHM; astigmatism has been minimized to below 1 mm between waist positions. Such a tight focus is essential for the VUV double Raman spectrometer as it serves as an entrance slit for the first monochromator and defines its resolution to a very large extent. The Raman spectrometer is a permanent end-station at the PG1 beamline, dedicated to inelastic soft X-ray scattering experiments. The Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) refocusing mirror system installed at the PG1 branch of the plane-grating monochromator beamline at the soft X-ray/XUV free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is designed to provide tight aberration-free focusing down to 4 µm × 6 µm full width at half-maximum (FWHM) on the sample. Such a focal spot size is mandatory to achieve ultimate resolution and to guarantee best performance of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) off-axis parabolic double-monochromator Raman spectrometer permanently installed at the PG1 beamline as an experimental end-station. The vertical beam size on the sample of the Raman spectrometer, which operates without entrance slit, defines and limits the energy resolution of the instrument which has an unprecedented design value of 2 meV for photon energies below 70 eV and about 15 meV for higher energies up to 200 eV. In order to reach the designed focal spot size of 4 µm FWHM (vertically) and to hold the highest spectrometer resolution, special fully motorized in-vacuum manipulators for the KB mirror holders have been developed and the optics have been aligned employing wavefront-sensing techniques as well as ablative imprints analysis. Aberrations like astigmatism were minimized. In this article the design and layout of the KB mirror manipulators, the alignment procedure as well as microfocus

  20. The polariser beamline at TRIUMF for nuclear structure physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, A.; Pearson, M. R.; Levy, C. D. P.; Billowes, J.; Buchinger, F.; Chow, K. H.; Crawford, J. E.; Hossein, M. D.; Kiefl, R. F.; Macfarlane, W. A.; Mané, E.; Morris, G. D.; Parolin, T. J.; Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Shelbaya, O. T. J.; Smadella, M.; Song, Q.; Wang, D.

    2011-10-01

    Originally built to provide polarised ion beams for condensed matter experiments, the polariser beamline at TRIUMF is coupled to both beta-NMR and beta-NQR spectrometers. In addition, the beam can be passed through a radio-frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher (RFQ) providing bunched beams. Recently, a laser spectroscopy and beta-NQR program was started to investigate the ground state structure of exotic nuclei. Results from recent experiments including zero-field beta-NQR studies to determine the quadrupole moment of the halo nucleus Li-11 and laser spectroscopy to determine the charge radius of Rb-74.

  1. ROCK: the new Quick-EXAFS beamline at SOLEIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briois, V.; La Fontaine, C.; Belin, S.; Barthe, L.; Moreno, Th; Pinty, V.; Carcy, A.; Girardot, R.; Fonda, E.

    2016-05-01

    ROCK is a new beamline at SOLEIL dedicated to Quick-EXAFS measurements. The optical layout has been optimized to get full advantage of the monochromators, which were designed at SOLEIL and successfully used at SAMBA from 2009 to 2014. ROCK has started user operations since March 2015. It is mainly employed to monitor fast kinetic processes in materials used in catalysis and energy sciences. A review of the ROCK performances and capabilities is presented. The high automation achieved for fast change of monochromators, optimization of mirrors for harmonic rejection and detectors allows the simultaneous operando characterization of different chemical elements present in a material during the same reaction.

  2. Perspectives of imaging of single protein molecules with the present design of the European XFEL. Pt. 1. X-ray source, beamline optics and instrument simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Yefanov, Oleksandr [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules (SPB) instrument at the European XFEL is located behind the SASE1 undulator, and aims to support imaging and structure determination of biological specimen between about 0.1 μm and 1 μm size. The instrument is designed to work at photon energies from 3 keV up to 16 keV. This wide operation range is a cause for challenges to the focusing optics. In particular, a long propagation distance of about 900 m between X-ray source and sample leads to a large lateral photon beam size at the optics. The beam divergence is the most important parameter for the optical system, and is largest for the lowest photon energies and for the shortest pulse duration (corresponding to the lowest charge). Due to the large divergence of nominal X-ray pulses with duration shorter than 10 fs, one suffers diffraction from mirror aperture, leading to a 100-fold decrease in fluence at photon energies around 4 keV, which are ideal for imaging of single biomolecules. The nominal SASE1 output power is about 50 GW. This is very far from the level required for single biomolecule imaging, even assuming perfect beamline and focusing efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the parameters of the accelerator complex and of the SASE1 undulator offer an opportunity to optimize the SPB beamline for single biomolecule imaging with minimal additional costs and time. Start to end simulations from the electron injector at the beginning of the accelerator complex up to the generation of diffraction data indicate that one can achieve diffraction without diffraction with about 0.5 photons per Shannon pixel at near-atomic resolution with 10{sup 13} photons in a 4 fs pulse at 4 keV photon energy and in a 100 nm focus, corresponding to a fluence of 10{sup 23}ph/cm{sup 2}. This result is exemplified using the RNA Pol II molecule as a case study.

  3. Low-frequency quadrupole impedance of undulators and wigglers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blednykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical expression of the low-frequency quadrupole impedance for undulators and wigglers is derived and benchmarked against beam-based impedance measurements done at the 3 GeV NSLS-II storage ring. The adopted theoretical model, valid for an arbitrary number of electromagnetic layers with parallel geometry, allows to calculate the quadrupole impedance for arbitrary values of the magnetic permeability μ_{r}. In the comparison of the analytical results with the measurements for variable magnet gaps, two limit cases of the permeability have been studied: the case of perfect magnets (μ_{r}→∞, and the case in which the magnets are fully saturated (μ_{r}=1.

  4. The Infrared Undulator Project at the VUV-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, O; Rossbach, J; Saldin, E L; Schneidmiller, E; Yurkov, M V

    2005-01-01

    A special electromagnetic wiggler generating infrared radiation in the range 1-200 microns is planned to be installed at the DESY VUV-FEL in Hamburg by autumn 2006. The device is located after the FEL undulators, using the spent electron beam. The purpose is two-fold: first, it will serve longitudinal electron beam diagnostics, similar to other methods currently investigated using the coherent emission of radiation at wavelengths similar to the bunch length, and second it will be used as a powerful (100 MW peak) source for short (few ps) infrared radiation pulses. The natural, perfect synchronization with the VUV pulses will allow for pump-probe experiments with high timing precision. This paper will give an overview of the project, including the infrared beam transport line.

  5. Cryogenic performance of a cryocooler-cooled superconducting undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerst, J. D.; Doose, C.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    A cryocooler-cooled superconducting undulator has been installed and operated with beam at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The device consists of a dual-core 42-pole magnet structure that is cooled to 4.2 K with a system of four cryocoolers operating in a zero-boil-off configuration. This effort represents the culmination of a development program to establish concept feasibility and evaluate cryostat design and cryocooler-based refrigeration. Cryostat performance is described including cool-down/warm-up, steady-state operation, cooling margin, and the impact of beam during operation in the APS storage ring. Plans for future devices with longer magnets, which will incorporate lessons learned from the development program, are also discussed.

  6. CSEM-Steel hybrid wiggler/undulator magnetic field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Plate, D.; Shuman, D.

    1985-06-01

    Current design of permanent magnet wiggler/undulators use either pure charge sheet equivalent material (CSEM) or the CSEM-Steel hybrid configuration. Hybrid configurations offer higher field strength at small gaps, field distributions dominated by the pole surfaces and pole tuning. Nominal performance of the hybrid is generally predicted using a 2-D magnetic design code neglecting transverse geometry. Magnetic measurements are presented showing transverse configuration influence on performance, from a combination of models using CSEMs, REC (H/sub c/ = 9.2 KOe) and NdFe (H/sub c/ = 10.7 kOe), different pole widths and end configurations. Results show peak field improvement using NdFe in place of REC in identical models, gap peak field decrease with pole width decrease (all results less than computed 2-D fields), transverse gap field distributions, and importance of CSEM material overhanging the poles in the transverse direction for highest gap fields. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Crystalline undulator radiation and sub-harmonic bifurcation of system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Xiao-Hua; He Wei; Wu Mu-Ying; Shao Ming-Zhu; Luo Shi-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Looking for new light sources,especially short wavelength laser light sources has attracted widespread attention.This paper analytically describes the radiation of a crystalline undulator field by the sine-squared potential.In the classical mechanics and the dipole approximation,the motion equation of a particle is reduced to a generalized pendulum equation with a damping term and a forcing term.The bifurcation behavior of periodic orbits is analyzed by using the Melnikov method and the numerical method,and the stability of the system is discussed.The results show that,in principle,the stability of the system relates to its parameters,and only by adjusting these parameters appropriately can the occurrence of bifurcation be avoided or suppressed.

  8. Forced resonant undulation in the deep Mascarene Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bruce A.; Whitworth, Thomas; LaCasce, Joseph H.

    Current meters moored for 19.5 months at Lat. 20°S in the deep water of the western Mascarene Basin recorded a distinct, large-amplitude [O(10 cm s -1)] undulation of bimonthly period, propagating westward at 7 cm s -1. Its characteristics demonstrate that it was a barotropic Rossby wave of relatively large meridional scale. Simple theory accounts for it as having been forced by local wind-stress curl at one of the resonant frequencies of the Mascarene Basin. A sharp bimonthly peak is also prominent in spectra of TOPEX/POSEIDON sea-surface height in the Mascarene Basin, but is not seen to the eastward, as is consistent with the local generation. Fluctuations of 45-day period reported earlier in the upper ocean just northeast of Madagascar might have been generated through a similar process, but with frequency shifted by the South Equatorial Current.

  9. Development and testing of a prototype superconducting undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, J. C.; Hwang, C. S.; Lin, F. Y.; Chang, C. H.

    2010-06-01

    A prototype superconducting undulator with a 1-m magnet array, a magnet period of 15 mm and a magnet gap of 5.6 mm was fabricated to test the performance of the magnetic field and to investigate related issues. The mechanical precision of the entire iron pole construction is within 30 μm. The electric insulation was enhanced with Kapton tape on the entire magnet array between the wire and the iron. A dummy beam duct was assembled with the magnet array and tested in the test dewar. A cryogenic Hall-probe measurement system with a rail guider was assembled with the test dewar to measure the on-axis field distribution. A UHV beam duct was developed and tested in a separate environment to ensure the reliability and to test the aging effect. In this paper, the concept of the magnet design, the related technical issues, the performance of the magnetic field and the magnet training behavior is discussed.

  10. Girder Support Scheme for the LCLS Undulator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, J.

    2005-01-31

    Differential settlement of the foundation of the LCLS Undulator Hall will cause quadrupoles to move and the electron beam trajectory to distort. The resulting phase errors will decrease the FEL power and require time consuming beam-based alignment sessions to correct. By supporting quadrupoles on girders, with three quadrupoles to a girder, the foundation motion induced phase error between the beam and the X Ray radiation can be reduced by a factor of 5 compared with supporting each quadrupole with a separate column. This comes about because the motions of three quadrupoles on a girder are linearly correlated so their effect on the beam is largely canceled out. Thus a girder support scheme can significantly help to extend the time between required beam based alignments and contribute to a more stable operation of the LCLS FEL beam.

  11. Ground Motion Expectations for the LCLS Undulator Hall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, J.

    2005-01-31

    The Undulator Hall (UH) for the LCLS will consist of a tunneled structure completely beneath the ''berm'' at the east end of the Research Yard. This location should provide better thermal and geologic stability compared with the previous siting at ground level in the Research Yard. Nevertheless, microscopic motion of the tunnel foundation will contribute to misalignments among quadrupoles and reduce the time interval required between beam based alignment sessions. Based on historical measurements of slow ground motion at the SLAC site and measurements of atmospheric pressure effects, assuming a girder support system we estimate that during the first three years of operation the interval between periodic beam-based re-alignments should be about one week. Implications for the support system stability tolerance and the maximum range of motion to be accommodated are also discussed.

  12. High intensity ion beams in rf undulator linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Masunov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a radio frequency undulator field to accelerate a high intensity ion beam in a linac is discussed. Such an accelerator can be realized using the periodical interdigital H-type resonator structure. The accelerating force is produced by an electric field which is a combination of two or more spatial harmonics, none of them being synchronous with the ion beam. The value of this force is proportional to the squared charge. The equations of motion in Hamiltonian form are derived by means of smooth approximation. The analysis of the 3D effective potential function allows finding the conditions of the beam focusing and acceleration. Two ways to increase ion beam intensity are considered: (i to enlarge beam cross section; (ii to neutralize the beam space charge by accelerating ions with opposite charge signs within the same bunch. The basic results are confirmed by a numerical simulation.

  13. Overview of the superconducting undulator development program at ANKA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalbuoni, S., E-mail: sara.casalbuoni@kit.edu; Cecilia, A.; Gerstl, S.; Glamann, N.; Grau, A.; Holubek, T.; Meuter, C.; Saez de Jauregui, D.; Voutta, R. [ANKA, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Boffo, C.; Gerhard, Th.; Turenne, M.; Walter, W. [Babcock Noell GmbH, Alfred Nobel Str. 20, 97080 Würzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    Superconducting undulators (SCUs) have the potential to reach higher brilliance and flux with respect to the state of the art permanent magnet insertion devices. ANKA is collaborating with the industrial partner Babcock Noell GmbH (BNG) to realize NbTi conduction cooled planar devices for low emittance light sources, and is developing the instrumentation to characterize the magnetic field properties and to measure the beam heat load to a cold bore needed for the cryogenic design of SCUs. We present here: the most recent results obtained within the ANKA-BNG collaboration, the progress achieved in the development of the instrumentation, and the in house studies on the application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape to the SCU technology.

  14. Marine Geoid Undulation Assessment Over South China Sea Using Global Geopotential Models and Airborne Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazid, N. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, K. M.; Som, Z. A. M.; Omar, A. H.; Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Tugi, A.

    2016-09-01

    Global geopotential models (GGMs) are vital in computing global geoid undulations heights. Based on the ellipsoidal height by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations, the accurate orthometric height can be calculated by adding precise and accurate geoid undulations model information. However, GGMs also provide data from the satellite gravity missions such as GRACE, GOCE and CHAMP. Thus, this will assist to enhance the global geoid undulations data. A statistical assessment has been made between geoid undulations derived from 4 GGMs and the airborne gravity data provided by Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM). The goal of this study is the selection of the best possible GGM that best matches statistically with the geoid undulations of airborne gravity data under the Marine Geodetic Infrastructures in Malaysian Waters (MAGIC) Project over marine areas in Sabah. The correlation coefficients and the RMS value for the geoid undulations of GGM and airborne gravity data were computed. The correlation coefficients between EGM 2008 and airborne gravity data is 1 while RMS value is 0.1499.In this study, the RMS value of EGM 2008 is the lowest among the others. Regarding to the statistical analysis, it clearly represents that EGM 2008 is the best fit for marine geoid undulations throughout South China Sea.

  15. Analysis of the 3D magnetic field and its errors for undulators with iron poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingold, G.; Bahrdt, J.; Gaupp, A. [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The attainable field strength and field quality, such as the optical phase error, the electron beam displacement within the undulator and higher order multipoles of the magnetic field, are discussed. These issues are critical to the design and construction of short period undulators for use in short wavelength FEL or for operation in third generation light sources. We discuss two approaches: (i) For superferric undulators the construction of a full length device would rely on the optimum sorting of precision machined undulator segments. Magnetic data on segments with 20 periods (period length 8.80mm) will be presented. (ii) For hybrid undulators the sorting has to be done on individual poles and magnets. For this approach typical error sources such as machining tolerances, magnetization errors of the permanent magnet material and assembly errors are modeled in 3D and compared to induced errors on an existing hybrid undulator segment. In case of undulators having a full length of hundred periods at least five times as many individual parts have to be characterized. This should be done automatically where both the mechanical and magnetic data before and after the assembly of the magnetic structure are recorded in one step. A CNC programmable measuring device suitable for this task will shortly be presented.

  16. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from undulators and bending magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2015-03-01

    The maximum of the Wigner distribution (WD) of synchrotron radiation (SR) fields is considered as a possible definition of SR source brightness. Such a figure of merit was originally introduced in the SR community by Kim [(1986), Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 246, 71-76]. The brightness defined in this way is always positive and, in the geometrical optics limit, can be interpreted as the maximum density of photon flux in phase space. For undulator and bending magnet radiation from a single electron, the WD function can be explicitly calculated. In the case of an electron beam with a finite emittance the brightness is given by the maximum of the convolution of a single electron WD function and the probability distribution of the electrons in phase space. In the particular case when both electron beam size and electron beam divergence dominate over the diffraction size and the diffraction angle, one can use a geometrical optics approach. However, there are intermediate regimes when only the electron beam size or the electron beam divergence dominate. In these asymptotic cases the geometrical optics approach is still applicable, and the brightness definition used here yields back once more to the maximum photon flux density in phase space. In these intermediate regimes a significant numerical disagreement is found between exact calculations and the approximation for undulator brightness currently used in the literature. The WD formalism is extended to a satisfactory theory for the brightness of a bending magnet. It is found that in the intermediate regimes the usually accepted approximation for bending magnet brightness turns out to be inconsistent even parametrically.

  17. The Low Density Matter (LDM) beamline at FERMI: optical layout and first commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetina, Cristian; Grazioli, Cesare; Mahne, Nicola; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Fava, Claudio; Zangrando, Marco; Gerusina, Simone; Alagia, Michele; Avaldi, Lorenzo; Cautero, Giuseppe; de Simone, Monica; Devetta, Michele; Di Fraia, Michele; Drabbels, Marcel; Feyer, Vitaliy; Finetti, Paola; Katzy, Raphael; Kivimäki, Antti; Lyamayev, Viktor; Mazza, Tommaso; Moise, Angelica; Möller, Thomas; O'Keeffe, Patrick; Ovcharenko, Yevheniy; Piseri, Paolo; Plekan, Oksana; Prince, Kevin C; Sergo, Rudi; Stienkemeier, Frank; Stranges, Stefano; Coreno, Marcello; Callegari, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    The Low Density Matter (LDM) beamline has been built as part of the FERMI free-electron laser (FEL) facility to serve the atomic, molecular and cluster physics community. After the commissioning phase, it received the first external users at the end of 2012. The design and characterization of the LDM photon transport system is described, detailing the optical components of the beamline.

  18. Plastique: A synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Zema, N.; Antonangeli, F.; Savoia, A.; Parasassi, T.; Rosato, N.

    1991-06-01

    PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beamline in the world that performs time resolved fluorescence experiments in frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of information on the structure and dynamics of molecules. We describe the beamline and some initial data.

  19. CERN announces the fourth annual Beamline for Schools competition

    CERN Multimedia

    BL4S team

    2016-01-01

    CERN is pleased to announce the fourth annual Beamline for Schools (BL4S) competition. Once again, in 2017, a fully equipped beamline will be made available at CERN for students. As in previous years, two teams will be invited to the Laboratory to execute the experiments they proposed in their applications. The 2017 competition is being made possible thanks to support from the Alcoa Foundation for the second consecutive year.   The competition is open to teams of high-school students aged 16 or older who, if they win, are invited (with two supervisors) to CERN to carry out their experiment. Teams must have at least five students but there is no upper limit to a team’s size (although just nine students per winning team will be invited to CERN). Teams may be composed of pupils from a single school, or from a number of schools working together. As science-loving mega-celebrity Will.I.Am told us: “If you’re interested in science, technology, engineering or ...

  20. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  1. Status of the ELIMED Beamline at the ELIMAIA facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Andó, L.; Costa, M.; Gallo, G.; Leanza, R.; Maggiore, M.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Russo, A. D.; Korn, G.; Margarone, D.; Leray, M. J.; Tasset-Maye, O.; Antoine, S.; Jehanno, P.

    2016-12-01

    Laser-target acceleration represents a very promising alternative to conventional accelerators for several potential applications, from the nuclear physics to the medical ones. However, some extreme features, not suitable for multidisciplinary applications, as the wide energy and angular spreads, characterize optically accelerated ion beams. Therefore, beyond the improvements at the laser-target interaction level, a lot of efforts have been recently devoted to the development of specific beam-transport devices in order to obtain controlled and reproducible output beams. In this framework, a three years contract has been signed between the INFN-LNS (IT) and Eli-Beamlines-IoP (CZ) to provide the design and the realization of a complete transport beam-line, named ELIMED, dedicated to the transport, diagnostics and dosimetry of laser-driven ion beams. The transport devices will be composed by a set of super-strong permanent magnet quadrupoles able to collect and focus laser driven ions up to 70 MeV/u, and a magnetic chicane made of conventional electromagnetic dipoles to select particles within a narrow energy range. Here, the actual status of the design and development of these magnetic systems is described.

  2. In situ beamline analysis and correction of active optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon; Sawhney, Kawal

    2012-11-01

    At the Diamond Light Source, pencil-beam measurements have enabled long-wavelength slope errors on X-ray mirror surfaces to be examined under ultra-high vacuum and beamline mounting without the need to remove the mirror from the beamline. For an active mirror an automated procedure has been implemented to calculate the actuator settings that optimize its figure. More recently, this in situ pencil-beam method has been applied to additional uses for which ex situ measurements would be inconvenient or simply impossible. First, it has been used to check the stability of the slope errors of several bimorph mirrors at intervals of several weeks or months. Then, it also proved useful for the adjustment of bender and sag compensation actuators on mechanically bent mirrors. Fits to the bending of ideal beams have been performed on the slope errors of a mechanically bent mirror in order to distinguish curvatures introduced by the bending actuators from gravitational distortion. Application of the optimization procedure to another mechanically bent mirror led to an improvement of its sag compensation mechanism.

  3. Selection of the optimum magnet design for the International Linear Collider positron source helical undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Scott

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of possible undulator designs for the International Linear Collider positron source has resulted in a superconducting bifilar wire design being selected. After a comprehensive paper study and fabrication of the two preeminent designs, the superconducting undulator was chosen instead of the permanent magnet alternative. This was because of its superior performance in terms of magnetic field strength and quality, operational flexibility, risk of radiation damage, ease in achieving the required vacuum, and cost. The superconducting undulator design will now be developed into a complete system design for the full 200 m long magnet that is required.

  4. Nonlinear interaction of charged particles with strong laser pulses in a magnetic undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Avetissian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser acceleration due to the nonlinear-threshold phenomena of charged particle “reflection” and capture by slowed wave in a magnetic undulator is considered. The obtained numerical results prove the particle reflection and capture phenomena in the field of actual laser pulses with temporal and space profiles which lead to the particles acceleration. In contrast to the reflection regime where particle acceleration takes place already at the constant undulator step, in the capture regime it is necessary to increase adiabatically the undulator step along the laser pulse propagation direction by the certain self-consistent variation law corresponding to acceleration rate.

  5. Using a Bessel light beam as an ultrashort period helical undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, B. C.; Zhang, Q. L.; Chen, J. H.; Zhao, Z. T.

    2017-07-01

    An undulator is a critical component to produce synchrotron radiation and a free electron laser. When a Bessel light beam carrying the orbit angular momentum copropagates with an electron beam bunch, a net transverse deflection force will be subjected to the latter one. As a result of dephasing effect, the deflection force will oscillate and act as an undulator. For such a laser based undulator, the period length can reach submillimeter level, which will greatly reduce the electron energy for the required x-ray production.

  6. Observation of an optical vortex beam from a helical undulator in the XUV region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Fujimoto, Masaki; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Hosaka, Masahito; Shigemasa, Eiji; Katoh, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    The observation of an optical vortex beam at 60 nm wavelength, produced as the second-harmonic radiation from a helical undulator, is reported. The helical wavefront of the optical vortex beam was verified by measuring the interference pattern between the vortex beam from a helical undulator and a normal beam from another undulator. Although the interference patterns were slightly blurred owing to the relatively large electron beam emittance, it was possible to observe the interference features thanks to the helical wavefront of the vortex beam. The experimental results were well reproduced by simulation.

  7. Commissioning and first results of scanning type EXAFS beamline (BL-09) at INDUS-2 synchrotron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poswal, A. K., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Agrawal, A., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Yadav, A. K., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Nayak, C., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Basu, S., E-mail: poswalashwini@gmail.com; Bhattachryya, D.; Jha, S. N.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai -400085 (India); Kane, S. R.; Garg, C. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore- 452013 (India)

    2014-04-24

    An Energy Scanning X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy beamline has recently been installed and commissioned at BL-09 bending magnet port of INDUS-2 synchrotron source, Indore. The beamline uses an UHV compatible fixed exit double crystal monochromator (DCM) with two Si (111) crystals. Two grazing incidence cylindrical mirrors are also used in this beamline; the pre-mirror is used as a collimating mirror while the post mirror is used for vertical focusing and higher harmonic rejection. In this beamline it is possible to carry out EXAFS measurements both in transmission and fluorescence mode on various types of samples, using Ionization chamber detectors and solid state drift detector respectively. In this paper, results from first experiments of the Energy Scanning EXAFS beamline are presented.

  8. Performance of beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS: Flux and resolution measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Y. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Fischer, G.; Kring, J.; Perera, R.C.C. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the ALS is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range. This beamline is the first monochromatic hard x-ray beamline in the ALS, and designed to achieve the goals of high energy resolution, and preservation of the high brightness from the ALS. It consists of a new {open_quotes}Cowan type{close_quotes} double-crystal monochromator and two toroidal mirrors which are positioned before and after the monochromator. The construction of the beamline was completed in December of 1995, with imperfect mirrors. In this report, the authors describe the experimental results of absolute flux measurements and x-ray absorption measurements of gases and solid samples using the present set of mirrors.

  9. Dose calculations using MARS for Bremsstrahlung beam stops and collimators in APS beamline stations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooling, J.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2010-11-01

    The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MARS is used to model the generation of gas bremsstrahlung (GB) radiation from 7-GeV electrons which scatter from residual gas atoms in undulator straight sections within the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Additionally, MARS is employed to model the interactions of the GB radiation with components along the x-ray beamlines and then determine the expected radiation dose-rates that result. In this manner, MARS can be used to assess the adequacy of existing shielding or the specifications for new shielding when required. The GB radiation generated in the 'thin-target' of an ID straight section will consist only of photons in a 1/E-distribution up to the full energy of the stored electron beam. Using this analytical model, the predicted GB power for a typical APS 15.38-m insertion device (ID) straight section is 4.59 x 10{sup -7} W/nTorr/mA, assuming a background gas composed of air (Z{sub eff} = 7.31) at room temperature (293K). The total GB power provides a useful benchmark for comparisons between analytical and numerical approaches. We find good agreement between MARS and analytical estimates for total GB power. The extended straight section 'target' creates a radial profile of GB, which is highly peaked centered on the electron beam. The GB distribution reflects the size of the electron beam that creates the radiation. Optimizing the performance of MARS in terms of CPU time per incident trajectory requires the use of a relatively short, high-density gas target (air); in this report, the target density is {rho}L = 2.89 x 10{sup -2} g/cm{sup 2} over a length of 24 cm. MARS results are compared with the contact dose levels reported in TB-20, which used EGS4 for radiation transport simulations. Maximum dose-rates in 1 cc of tissue phantom form the initial basis for comparison. MARS and EGS4 results are approximately the same for maximum 1-cc dose-rates and attenuation in the photon

  10. Simulation Study of the Helical Superconducting Undulator Installation at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajaev, V.; Borland, M.; Sun, Y.; Xiao, A.

    2017-06-25

    A helical superconducting undulator is planned for installation at the APS. Such an installation would be first of its kind – helical devices were never installed in synchrotron light sources before. Due to its reduced horizontal aperture, a lattice modification is required to accommodate for large horizontal oscillations during injection. We describe the lattice change details and show the new lattice experimental test results. To understand the effect of the undulator on single-particle dynamics, first, its kick maps were computed using different methods. We have found that often-used Elleaume formula* for kick maps gives wrong results for this undulator. We then used the kick maps obtained by other methods to simulate the effect of the undulator on injection and lifetime.

  11. On quantum effects in spontaneous emission by a relativistic electron beam in an undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2012-01-01

    Robb and Bonifacio (2011) claimed that a previously neglected quantum effect results in noticeable changes in the evolution of the energy distribution associated with spontaneous emission in long undulators. They revisited theoretical models used to describe the emission of radiation by relativistic electrons as a continuous diffusive process, and claimed that in the asymptotic limit for a large number of undulator periods the evolution of the electron energy distribution occurs as discrete energy groups according to Poisson distribution. We show that these novel results have no physical sense, because they are based on a one-dimensional model of spontaneous emission and assume that electrons are sheets of charge. However, electrons are point-like particles and, as is well-known, the bandwidth of the angular-integrated spectrum of undulator radiation is independent of the number of undulator periods. If we determine the evolution of the energy distribution using a three-dimensional theory we find the well-kno...

  12. Wave scattering by undulating bed topography in a two-layer ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. MAITI; B. N. MANDAL; U. BASU

    2009-01-01

    The problem of wave scattering by undulating bed topography in a two-layer ocean is investigated on the basis of linear theory. In a two-layer fluid with the upper layer having a free surface, there exist two modes of waves propagating at both the free surface of the upper layer and the interface between the two layers. Due to a wave train of a particular mode incident on an obstacle which is bottom-standing on the lower layer, reflected and transmitted waves of both modes are created by the obstacle. For small undulations on the bottom of the lower layer, a perturbation method is employed to obtain first-order reflection and transmission coefficients of both modes for incident wave trains of again both modes in terms of integrals involving the bed-shape function. For sinusoidal undulations, numerical results are presented graphically to illustrate the energy transfer between the waves of different modes by the undulating bed.

  13. Radiation from relativistic electrons in "light" and in conventional undulators. Classical and quantum approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kolchuzhkin, A. M.; Strokov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    A photon spectrum of undulator radiation (UR) is calculated in the semi-classical approach. The UR intensity spectrum is determined by an electron trajectory in the undulator neglecting by energy losses for radiation. Using the Planck's law, the UR photon spectrum can be calculated from the classical intensity spectrum both for linear and nonlinear regimes. The radiation of an electron in a field of strong electromagnetic wave (radiation in the "light" undulator) is considered in the quantum electromagnetic frame. Comparison of results obtained by both approaches has been shown that UR spectra in the whole cone coincide with high accuracy for the case xbeam were simulated with taking into account the discrete process of photon emission along an electron trajectory in both kinds of undulators.

  14. A Far-infrared Undulator for Coherent Synchrotron Radiation and Free Electron Laser at Tohoku University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Hiroyuki; Hinode, Fujio; Kawai, Masayuki; Nanbu, Kenichi; Miyahara, Fusashi; Yasuda, Mafuyu

    2010-06-01

    In order to develop an intense far-infrared radiation source, a high quality electron beam has been studied at Tohoku University, Sendai. The bunch length of the beam expected is very much shorter than terahertz (THz) wavelength, so that coherent spontaneous emission of synchrotron radiation will be a promising high brilliant far-infrared source. An undulator consisting of permanent magnets has been designed in which optional free electron laser (FEL) will be operated in free space mode. Consequently the minimum gap of the undulator is decided to be 54 mm for 0.36 mm radiation to avoid diffraction loss, and then the period length of 10 cm is employed. The undulator may cover a wavelength range from 0.18 to 0.36 mm with the beam energy of 17 MeV. Property of coherent THz radiation from the undulator and possibility of novel pre-bunched THz FEL is discussed.

  15. Start-to-end global imaging as a sunward propagating, SAPS-associated giant undulation event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Donovan, Eric F [U OF CALGARY; Foster, John C [MIT; Mann, Ian R [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Immel, Thomas J [UC/BERKELEY; Mende, Stephen B [UN/BERKELEY; Sigwarth, John B [NASA/GSFC

    2009-01-01

    We present high-time resolution global imaging of a sunward propagating giant undulation event from start to finish. The event occurred on November 24, 2001 during a very disturbed storm interval. The giant undulations began to develop at around 13UT and persisted for approximately 2 hours. The sunward propagation speed was on the order of 0.6 km/s (relative to SM coordinate system). The undulations had a wavelength of {approx} 750 km, amplitudes of {approx} 890 km and produced ULF pulsations on the ground with a period of {approx} 1108s. We show that the undulations were associated with SAPs flows that were caused by the proton plasma sheet penetrating substantially farther Earthward than the electron plasma sheet on the duskside. The observations appear to be consistent with the development of a shear flow and/or ballooning type of instability at the plasmapause driven by intense SAPS-associated shear flows.

  16. Design Study of a Compact Megawatt Class FEL Amplifier Based on the VISA Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, T; Murphy, J B; Pinayev, I P; Rose, J; Shaftan, T V; Skaritka, J; Tanabé, T; Tsang, Thomas; Wang, X J; Yu, L H

    2005-01-01

    The design of a Short Rayleigh Length (SRL) FEL amplifier based on the strong focusing VISA undulator [1] is presented in this study. The SRL FEL amplifier will be operating in the IR (0.8 - 1 μm), and consists of a two-meter VISA undulator with a peak seed laser power of about 1 kW. The FEL power and transverse mode evolution along the undulator were investigated using the three-dimensional numerical code GENESIS1.3. The evolution of the FEL output from the undulator exit to the first downstream optics is also studied. The possibility of using the proposed amplifier for a two-stage cascaded HGHG FEL [2] at the BNL SDL is also explored. The design parameters and the numerical results will be presented.

  17. Design of a Precision Positioning System for the Undulators of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Trakhtenberg, Emil; Den Hartog, Patric; White, Marion

    2005-01-01

    A precision positioning system has been designed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and a prototype system is being fabricated. The LCLS will use a beam based alignment technique to precisely align all of the segments of the 130-m long undulator line. The requirement for overlap between the electron beam and the x-ray beam, in order to develop and maintain lasing, demands that each of the quadrupoles be aligned within a tolerance of ± 2 μm and that the undulator axis be positioned within ± 10 μm vertically and horizontally. Five cam movers, each with an eccentricity of 1.5 mm, will allow adjustment of a cradle supporting the undulator, its vacuum chamber, a quadrupole, and a beam position monitor. An additional motion transverse to the beam axis allows removal of individual undulators from the beam path. Positioning feedback will be provided by a wire position monitor system and a hydrostatic leveling system.

  18. Performance of a fixed-taper in-vacuum undulator at SPring-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, X M

    1998-05-01

    With an in-vacuum undulator, the smallest gaps can be used to achieve high-brilliance radiation within a small spectral width around the harmonics of the fundamental. However, some experiments require a scan over a much wider range of energy within timescales which are impossible to reach via gap tuning. For standard undulators a flat spectrum is usually obtained by using a variable tapered gap. Unfortunately, the mechanical design of the in-vacuum undulator used at SPring-8 is hardly compatible with the extra degree of freedom necessary to adjust the taper mechanically. New magnetic designs are investigated to overcome this problem; their performances are compared with the performances of a fixed-taper in-vacuum undulator for a source of photons in the 5-15 keV range (energy of the fundamental) with an energy width of 1.5 keV.

  19. Preliminary Analysis of a 27.5 mm Period Undulator for the MBA Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abliz, M.; Grimmer, J.

    2016-07-27

    The magnetic design of a 27.5 mm period undulator was performed for the APS MBA Lattice. One purpose of the magnetic design was to decrease the magnetic force in order to operate the undulator successfully at a smaller gap compared to the existing 27 mm undulator at the APS. As a result, the magnetic force is decreased by about 18% at a gap of 11 mm and the total volume of the magnet and the pole is decreased by approximately 22% with the new model. The calculated effective field with the new model was 172 G higher than the existing 27-mm period undulator with a gap of 11 mm. The calculated field roll-off with the new optimized model is within the requirements of the MBA, in the range of ± 5 mm.

  20. Practical method using superposition of individual magnetic fields for initial arrangement of undulator magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, K; Shioya, T

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a practical method for determining an excellent initial arrangement of magnetic arrays for a pure-magnet Halbach-type undulator. In this method, the longitudinal magnetic field distribution of each magnet is measured using a moving Hall probe system along the beam axis with a high positional resolution. The initial arrangement of magnetic arrays is optimized and selected by analyzing the superposition of all distribution data in order to achieve adequate spectral quality for the undulator. We applied this method to two elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs), called U#16-2 and U#02-2, at the Photon Factory storage ring (PF ring) in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The measured field distribution of the undulator was demonstrated to be excellent for the initial arrangement of the magnet array, and this method saved a great deal of effort in adjusting the magnetic fields of EPUs.

  1. Electromagnetic design, implementation and test of a superconducting undulator with a transverse gradient field amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso Rodriguez, Veronica

    2015-11-25

    This thesis describes the development of a novel superconducting transversal gradient undulator (TGU) designed to form a compact, highly brilliant laser-wakefield accelerator (LWFA) driven radiation source. A TGU in combination with a dispersive beam transport line can be employed to produce undulator radiation with natural bandwidth despite the large energy spread of the LWFA. This thesis documents the construction, first tests and characterization of the full-scale TGU.

  2. Empirical Optimization of Undulator Tapering at FLASH2 and Comparison with Numerical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Alan; Faatz, Bart; Werin, Sverker

    2016-01-01

    In a free-electron laser equipped with variable-gap undulator modules, the technique of undulator tapering opens up the possibility to increase the radiation power beyond the initial saturation point, thus enhancing the efficiency of the laser. The effectiveness of the enhancement relies on the proper optimization of the taper profile. In this work, a multidimensional optimization approach is implemented empirically in the x-ray free-electron laser FLASH2. The empirical results are compared with numerical simulations.

  3. A Coherent Compton Backscattering High Gain FEL using an X-Band Microwave Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tantawi, S.; Dolgashev, V.; Nantista, C.; /SLAC; Pellegrini, C.; Rosenzweig, J.; Travish, G.; /UCLA

    2005-12-14

    High power microwave sources at X-Band, delivering 400 to 500 of megawatts for about 400 ns, have been recently developed. These sources can power a microwave undulator with short period and large gap, and can be used in short wavelength FELs reaching the nm region at a beam energy of about 1 GeV. We present here an experiment designed to demonstrate that microwave undulators have the field quality needed for high gain FELs.

  4. Magnetic design and modelling of a 14 mm-period prototype superconducting undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, G; Gehlot, Mona; Sharma, Geetanjali; Trillaud, Frederic

    2017-03-01

    The magnetic design of a ten-period (each period 14 mm) prototype superconducting undulator is reported using RADIA. The results of modelling the magnetic flux density are presented in an analytical formula. The dependence of the field integrals and phase error on the current density and undulator gap has been calculated, and temperature curves are determined for the models and are compared with earlier reported Moser-Rossmanith fits.

  5. Empirical optimization of undulator tapering at FLASH2 and comparison with numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mak, Alan; Curbis, Francesca; Werin, Sverker [Lund Univ. (Sweden). MAX IV Laboratory; Faatz, Bart [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    In a free-electron laser equipped with variable-gap undulator modules, the technique of undulator tapering opens up the possibility to increase the radiation power beyond the initial saturation point, thus enhancing the efficiency of the laser. The effectiveness of the enhancement relies on the proper optimization of the taper profile. In this work, a multidimensional optimization approach is implemented empirically in the X-ray free-electron laser FLASH2. The empirical results are compared with numerical simulations.

  6. Orbital motion in generalized static fields of FELs accounting for axial magnetic field, beam forces, undulator and external focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Various types of undulators with or without axial magnetic field are used in FELs. Supplementary beam focusing can be applied by wedging, inclining or profiling pole faces of plan undulators or superposing external focusing magnetic fields in addition to undulator own focusing. Space-charge forces influence significantly particle motion in high-current, low-energy electron beams. Finally, one can use simultaneously two or more different undulators for some specific purpose: more efficient and selective higher harmonics generation, changing polarization types and direction, gain enhancement in double-period undulator etc. All these cases can be treated by solving the generalized equations of transverse orbital motion in a linear approximation, which is widely used for orbit calculation, gives sufficient accuracy for practical purposes and allows to consider many variants and optimize the chosen one. The undulator field is described as a field of two plane undulators with mutually orthogonal fields and an arbitrary axial (phase) shift between them. Various values of the phase shift correspond to right- or left-handed helical undulators, plane undulator of different polarization etc. The general formulae are reduced to forms that allow easier examination of particular cases: planar or helical undulator combined with axial magnetic field or without it, gyroresonance, limiting beam current, polarization etc.

  7. A new field correction scheme for superconducting undulators by modification the iron pole geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunjarean, S [Suranaree University of Technology (SUT), Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand); Jan, J C; Hwang, C H [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu Science Park, Taiwan (China); Lin, P H [Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organization), SLRI, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand); Wiedemann, H, E-mail: Chunjarean@gmail.com [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Permanent magnet material undulators are used in many research facilities worldwide to produce high brightness synchrotron radiation for basic and applied research. Their effectiveness is limited in low energy storage rings because of a lack of sufficient magnetic field intensity. Superconducting undulators can produce higher fields and therefore higher photon energies, especially at lower electron beam energies. Undulator radiation is emitted in a line spectrum where the fundamental wavelength is determined by the undulator period and strength, beam energy and harmonic number. For a given beam energy, use of these higher harmonics is desirable, because they allow the provision of higher photon energies as high as soft or hard x-rays from 1 to 10 keV. The photon flux in such harmonics is however strongly dependent on the integrity of the periodic properties of the magnetic field. Small field and phase errors will reduce the photon intensity dramatically. Correction methods as employed for permanent magnet material undulators are not applicable in superconducting undulators. In this paper, we discuss a new approach for field corrections based on a variation of the magnetic field saturation properties of individual poles. We demonstrate its efficiency in ensuring photon fluxes which are close to theoretical expectations.

  8. Control of the amplification process in baseline XFEL undulator with mechanical SASE switchers

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic gap of the baseline XFEL undulators can be varied mechanically for wavelength tuning. In particular, the wavelength range 0.1 nm - 0.4 nm can be covered by operating the European XFEL with the SASE2 undulator. The length of the SASE2 undulator (256.2 m) is sufficient to independently generate three pulses of different radiation wavelengths at saturation. Normally, if a SASE FEL operates in saturation, the quality of the electron beam is too bad for generation of SASE radiation in the subsequent part of undulator which is resonant at a few times longer wavelength. The new method of SASE undulator-switching based on the rapid switching of the FEL amplification process proposed in this paper is an attempt to get around this obstacle. Using mechanical SASE shutters installed within short magnetic chicanes in the baseline undulator, it is possible to rapidly switch the FEL photon beam from one wavelength to another, providing simultaneous multi-color capability. Combining this method with a photon-bea...

  9. On quantum effects in spontaneous emission by a relativistic electron beam in an undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Robb and Bonifacio (2011) claimed that a previously neglected quantum effect results in noticeable changes in the evolution of the energy distribution associated with spontaneous emission in long undulators. They revisited theoretical models used to describe the emission of radiation by relativistic electrons as a continuous diffusive process, and claimed that in the asymptotic limit for a large number of undulator periods the evolution of the electron energy distribution occurs as discrete energy groups according to Poisson distribution. We show that these novel results have no physical sense, because they are based on a one-dimensional model of spontaneous emission and assume that electrons are sheets of charge. However, electrons are point-like particles and, as is well-known, the bandwidth of the angular-integrated spectrum of undulator radiation is independent of the number of undulator periods. If we determine the evolution of the energy distribution using a three-dimensional theory we find the well-known results consistent with a continuous diffusive process. The additional pedagogical purpose of this paper is to review how quantum diffusion of electron energy in an undulator with small undulator parameter can be simply analyzed using the Thomson cross-section expression, unlike the conventional treatment based on the expression for the Lienard-Wiechert fields. (orig.)

  10. Phase matching strategy for the undulator system in the European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The undulator system in the European X-ray Free Electron Laser is mainly comprised of 5-m long undulator segments and 1.1 m long intersections in between. The longitudinal component of the electrons’ velocity is reduced when traveling inside an undulator due to the wiggle motion. Therefore the optical phase is detuned. The detune effect is also from the undulator fringe field where electron longitudinal speed also deviates from the oscillation condition. The total detune effect is compensated by a magnetic device called phase shifter, which is correspondingly set for a specific undulator gap. In this paper we investigate the homogeneity of the fringe field from different undulators. Different phase matching criteria are studied. The field fitting technique for the phase matching in high accuracy is demonstrated in detail. The impact by air coil is also studied. Eventually the matching test by spontaneous radiation simulation is made. A test method for high sensitivity to matching error is proposed.

  11. Improvement of the crossed undulator design for effective circular polarization control in X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The production of X-ray radiation with a high degree of circular polarization constitutes an important goal at XFEL facilities. A simple scheme to obtain circular polarization control with crossed undulators has been proposed so far. In its simplest configuration the crossed undulators consist of pair of short planar undulators in crossed position separated by an electromagnetic phase shifter. An advantage of this configuration is a fast helicity switching. A drawback is that a high degree of circular polarization (over 90 %) can only be achieved for lengths of the insertion devices significantly shorter than the gain length, i.e. at output power significantly lower than the saturation power level. The obvious and technically possible extension considered in this paper, is to use a setup with two or more crossed undulators separated by phase shifters. This cascade crossed undulator scheme is distinguished, in performance, by a fast helicity switching, a high degree of circular polarization (over 95%) and a high output power level, comparable with the saturation power level in the baseline undulator at fundamental wavelength. We present feasibility study and exemplifications for the LCLS baseline in the soft X-ray regime. (orig.)

  12. Beam property studies in the PLS diagnostic beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, I S; Seon, D K; Kim, C B; Lee, T Y

    1999-01-01

    A diagnostic beamline has been operated in the Pohang Light Source (PLS) storage ring for the diagnostics of electron and photon beam properties. It consists of two 1:1 imaging systems: a visible-light imaging system and a soft X-ray imaging system. We have measured the transverse and the longitudinal structures of beams by using a streak camera to obtain a visible image. Accurate transverse beam size have been measured to be 186 mu m horizontally and 43.1 mu m vertically by using soft X-ray images with minimum diffraction errors. The corresponding emittances are 11.7 nm-rad horizontally and 0.59 nm-rad vertically. By comparing the measured data with the design values, we confirmed that the PLS storage ring has reached its designed performance within an error of 3.3 % in the transverse direction.

  13. Lithography beamline design and exposure uniformity controlling and measuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shinan; Jiang, Dikui; Liu, Zewen; Chen, Qianhong; Kan, Ya; Liu, Wanpo

    1989-07-01

    The lithography beamline design of Hefei National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is presented. A scanning mirror is used to cut off short wavelength radiation and to expand the vertical exposure dimension to 50 mm. A thin beryllium window is installed before the scanning mirror to prevent the longer wavelength radiation from going through. An exposure chamber with a vacuum of 5×10E-7 Torr is located at 7 m downstream from the source point. Because there is no window at the entrance of the chamber, a differential pumping system is used. The scanning mirror is driven by a stepping motor which oscillates through a 1° angle. The required driving speed curve is determined by a computer in order to obtain a uniform exposure area. An in situ moiré fringe grating system is used to measure the uniformity of the motor speed.

  14. MX1: a bending-magnet crystallography beamline serving both chemical and macromolecular crystallography communities at the Australian Synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowieson, Nathan Philip; Aragao, David; Clift, Mark; Ericsson, Daniel J; Gee, Christine; Harrop, Stephen J; Mudie, Nathan; Panjikar, Santosh; Price, Jason R; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Williamson, Rachel; Caradoc-Davies, Tom

    2015-01-01

    MX1 is a bending-magnet crystallography beamline at the 3 GeV Australian Synchrotron. The beamline delivers hard X-rays in the energy range from 8 to 18 keV to a focal spot at the sample position of 120 µm FWHM. The beamline endstation and ancillary equipment facilitate local and remote access for both chemical and biological macromolecular crystallography. Here, the design of the beamline and endstation are discussed. The beamline has enjoyed a full user program for the last seven years and scientific highlights from the user program are also presented.

  15. The ELIMED transport and dosimetry beamline for laser-driven ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F., E-mail: francesco.romano@lns.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Scuderi, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Amico, A.; Candiano, G.; De Luca, G.; Gallo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Giordanengo, S.; Guarachi, L. Fanola [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino (Italy); Universita' di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino (Italy); Korn, G. [ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Larosa, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Leanza, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Universita' di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Manna, R.; Marchese, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Marchetto, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino (Italy); Margarone, D. [ELI-Beamlines Project, Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-09-01

    A growing interest of the scientific community towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams has led to the development of several projects aiming to demonstrate the possible use of these beams for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, laser-accelerated particles differ from the conventional beams typically used for multiscipilinary and medical applications, due to the wide energy spread, the angular divergence and the extremely intense pulses. The peculiarities of optically accelerated beams led to develop new strategies and advanced techniques for transport, diagnostics and dosimetry of the accelerated particles. In this framework, the realization of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline, developed by INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy) and that will be installed in 2017 as a part of the ELIMAIA beamline at the ELI-Beamlines (Extreme Light Infrastructure Beamlines) facility in Prague, has the aim to investigate the feasibility of using laser-driven ion beams for multidisciplinary applications. In this contribution, an overview of the beamline along with a detailed description of the main transport elements as well as the detectors composing the final section of the beamline will be presented.

  16. Long wavelength undulations dominate dynamics in large surfactant membrane patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, Frederik; Holderer, Olaf; Frielinghaus, Henrich; Appavou, Marie-Sousai; Do, Changwoo; Ohl, Michael; Richter, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    By exposing microemulsions to small (80 nm diameter) and large (500 nm) disk shaped clay particles we were able to show the presence of long wavelength undulations that only occur for large membrane patches. A combination of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and neutron spin echo (NSE) experiments have been applied to study microemulsions. These, consisting of D2O, d-decane and the surfactant C10E4, were used in connection with Laponite (small) and Nanofil (large) clay. To our knowledge our experiments show for the first time that the clay platelets induce lamellar ordering adjacent to the clay discs in the otherwise bicontinuous microemulsion. This is due to the fact that in purely structural investigations, radial averaging smears out the signature of the lamellar phase. For thermodynamically fluctuating membranes near interfaces the theory of Seifert predicts a cross-over of the dispersion relationship from k2 to a k3-dependence. With the correlation length of the membrane patches being confined by the dimension of the clay platelets we were able to show that this in fact takes place but is only present for the larger Nanofil particles.

  17. Performance of the elliptically polarizing undulator on SPEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.; Kortright, J. B.; Rice, M.; Lidia, S.

    1995-02-01

    This is a description of the first tests of the elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) on the SPEAR storage ring at SSRL. The EPU is the first device of its type; it is capable of producing vertically and horizontally plane-polarized light, and right and left circularly polarized light in the 500-1000 eV range. Tests of the EPU were done to characterize its effect on the electron beam in SPEAR. Even at minimum gap, motion of the EPU magnets to vary the polarization of the output radiation caused negligible changes in the tune or the steering of the electron beam, even with no compensation of the steering trim coils. Also measured was the polarization of x rays generated by the EPU using a newly developed multilayer polarimeter built to be efficient in the EPU's energy range. The EPU produces nearly 100% plane and circularly polarized x rays. Using left and right circularly polarized radiation, tests of magnetic circular dichroism on magnetic multilayers were also performed.

  18. Geometric Mechanics Reveals Optimal Complex Terrestrial Undulation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaohui; Astley, Henry; Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Travers, Matthew; Goldman, Daniel; Choset, Howie; CMU Team; GT Team

    Geometric mechanics offers useful tools for intuitively analyzing biological and robotic locomotion. However, utility of these tools were previously restricted to systems that have only two internal degrees of freedom and in uniform media. We show kinematics of complex locomotors that make intermittent contacts with substrates can be approximated as a linear combination of two shape bases, and can be represented using two variables. Therefore, the tools of geometric mechanics can be used to analyze motions of locomotors with many degrees of freedom. To demonstrate the proposed technique, we present studies on two different types of snake gaits which utilize combinations of waves in the horizontal and vertical planes: sidewinding (in the sidewinder rattlesnake C. cerastes) and lateral undulation (in the desert specialist snake C. occipitalis). C. cerastes moves by generating posteriorly traveling body waves in the horizontal and vertical directions, with a relative phase offset equal to +/-π/2 while C. occipitalismaintains a π/2 offset of a frequency doubled vertical wave. Geometric analysis reveals these coordination patterns enable optimal movement in the two different styles of undulatory terrestrial locomotion. More broadly, these examples demonstrate the utility of geometric mechanics in analyzing realistic biological and robotic locomotion.

  19. Patterns in biofilms: From contour undulations to fold focussing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amar, Martine; Wu, Min

    2014-11-01

    Morphologies of soft materials in growth, swelling or drying have been extensively studied recently. Shape modifications occur as the size varies transforming ordinary spheres, cylinders and thin plates into more or less complex objects. Here we consider the genesis of biofilm patterns when a simple disc containing initially bacteria with moderate adhesion to a rigid substrate grows according to very simple rules. The initial circular geometry is lost during the growth expansion, contour undulations and buckling appear, ultimately a rather regular periodic focussing of folds repartition emerges. We theoretically predict these morphological instabilities as bifurcations of solutions in elasticity, characterized by typical driving parameters established here. The substrate plays a critical role limiting the geometry of the possible modes of instabilities and anisotropic growth, adhesion and toughness compete to eventually give rise to wrinkling, buckling or both. Additionally, due to the substrate, we show that the ordinary buckling modes, vertical deviation of thin films, are not observed in practice and a competitive pattern with self-focussing of folds can be found analytically. These patterns are reminiscent of the blisters of delamination in material sciences and explain recent observations of bacteria biofilms. The model presented here is purely analytical, is based on a neo-Hookean elastic energy, and can be extended without difficulties and applied to polymer materials.

  20. Beam Diagnostics for Laser Undulator Based on Compton Backward Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, R

    2005-01-01

    A compact soft X-ray source is required in various research fields such as material and biological science. The laser undulator based on Compton backward scattering has been developed as a compact soft X-ray source for the biological observation at Waseda University. It is performed in a water window region (250eV - 500 eV) using the interaction between 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser (10ps FWHM) and about 5 MeV high quality electron beam (10ps FWHM) generated from rf gun system. The range of X-ray energy in the water window region has K-shell absorption edges of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, which mainly constitute of living body. Since the absorption coefficient of water is much smaller than the protein's coefficient in this range, a dehydration of the specimens is not necessary. To generate the soft X-ray pulse stably, the electron beam diagnostics have been developed such as the emittance measurement using double slit scan technique, the bunch length measurement using two frequency analysis technique. In this confere...

  1. Computation of the brightness of the variably-polarizing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Schettini, G. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica; Carpanese, M.

    1999-01-01

    Undulators, producing variably polarized radiation, generate magnetic fields which induce different types of electron motion (vertically, horizontally sinusoidal and helical). The properties of the emitted radiation reflect the complexity of the motion and cannot be described with the method based on the conventional Bessel functions expansion. It`s shown that the problem can be overcome by exploiting a method which employs generalized forms of Bessel functions. The proposed technique provides an effective tool to analyze the properties of the emitted radiation. [Italiano] Ondulatori con polarizzazione variabile generano campi magnetici che inducono tipi differenti di moto degli elettroni (sinusoidale in direzione verticale o orizzontale, elicoidale). Le proprieta` della radiazione emessa riflettono la complessita` del moto e non possono essere derivate utilizzando il metodo della espansione in funzioni di Bessel ordinarie. Si dimostra come il problema possa essere superato utilizzando un metodo che utilizza forme generalizzate di funzioni di Bessel. Il metodo proposto fornisce una tecnica efficacie per l`analisi delle proprieta` della radiazione emessa.

  2. First results from the high-brightness x-ray spectroscopy beamline at ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Ng, W.; Jones, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goal of high brightness at the sample for use in the X-ray Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (XAMS) science, surface and interface science, biology and x-ray optical development programs at ALS. X-ray absorption and time of flight photo emission measurements in 2 - 5 keV photon energy in argon along with the flux, resolution, spot size and stability of the beamline will be discussed. Prospects for future XAMS measurements will also be presented.

  3. XAFS at the new materials science beamline 10 at the DELTA storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Wagner, R.; Frahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    The layout and the characteristics of the hard X-ray beamline BL 10 at the superconducting asymmetric wiggler at the 1.5 GeV Dortmund Electron Accelerator DELTA are described. Equipped with a stable and robust Si(111) channel-cut monochromator, this beamline is suited for XAFS studies in the spectral range from about 4 keV to ca. 16 keV photon energy. We will illustrate the performance of the beamline, and present EXAFS data obtained from several reference compounds. XANES data measured for dilute sample systems as well as surface sensitive grazing incidence EXAFS obtained from thin film samples will also be discussed.

  4. Imaging in real and reciprocal space at the Diamond beamline I13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, C., E-mail: Christoph.rau@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, School of Materials Grosvenor St., Manchester, M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Northwestern University School of Medicine, 303 E. Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3008 (United States); Wagner, U. H.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Bodey, A.; Parson, A.; García-Fernández, M.; Pešić, Z. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); De Fanis, A. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX 11 0DE (United Kingdom); European XFEL GmbH, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    The Diamond Imaging and Coherence beamline I13 consists of two independent branchlines for imaging in real and reciprocal space. Different microscopies are available providing a range of spatial resolution from 5µm to potentially 5nm. The beamline operates in the energy range of 6-35keV covering different scientific areas such as biomedicine, materials science and geophysics. Several original devices have been developed at the beamline, such as the EXCALIBUR photon counting detector and the combined robot arms for coherent X-ray diffraction.

  5. Progress of projection computed tomography by upgrading of the beamline 37XU of SPring-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Uesugi, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Beamline 37XU at SPring-8 has been upgraded for nano-focusing applications. The length of the beamline has been extended to 80 m. By utilizing this length, the beamline has advantages for experiments such as X-ray focusing, X-ray microscopic imaging and X-ray computed tomography. Projection computed tomography measurements were carried out at experimental hutch 3 located 80 m from the light source. CT images of a microcapsule have been successfully obtained with a wide X-ray energy range.

  6. Progress of projection computed tomography by upgrading of the beamline 37XU of SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Yasuko, E-mail: yterada@spring8.or.jp; Suzuki, Yoshio; Uesugi, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Beamline 37XU at SPring-8 has been upgraded for nano-focusing applications. The length of the beamline has been extended to 80 m. By utilizing this length, the beamline has advantages for experiments such as X-ray focusing, X-ray microscopic imaging and X-ray computed tomography. Projection computed tomography measurements were carried out at experimental hutch 3 located 80 m from the light source. CT images of a microcapsule have been successfully obtained with a wide X-ray energy range.

  7. Recent Major Improvements to the ALS Sector 5 MacromolecularCrystallography Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Simon A.; Glossinger, James; Smith-Baumann, Alexis; McKean, John P.; Trame, Christine; Dickert, Jeff; Rozales, Anthony; Dauz,Azer; Taylor, John; Zwart, Petrus; Duarte, Robert; Padmore, Howard; McDermott, Gerry; Adams, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Although the Advanced Light Source (ALS) was initially conceived primarily as a low energy (1.9GeV) 3rd generation source of VUV and soft x-ray radiation it was realized very early in the development of the facility that a multipole wiggler source coupled with high quality, (brightness preserving), optics would result in a beamline whose performance across the optimal energy range (5-15keV) for macromolecular crystallography (MX) would be comparable to, or even exceed, that of many existing crystallography beamlines at higher energy facilities. Hence, starting in 1996, a suite of three beamlines, branching off a single wiggler source, was constructed, which together formed the ALS Macromolecular Crystallography Facility. From the outset this facility was designed to cater equally to the needs of both academic and industrial users with a heavy emphasis placed on the development and introduction of high throughput crystallographic tools, techniques, and facilities--such as large area CCD detectors, robotic sample handling and automounting facilities, a service crystallography program, and a tightly integrated, centralized, and highly automated beamline control environment for users. This facility was immediately successful, with the primary Multiwavelength Anomalous Diffraction beamline (5.0.2) in particular rapidly becoming one of the foremost crystallographic facilities in the US--responsible for structures such as the 70S ribosome. This success in-turn triggered enormous growth of the ALS macromolecular crystallography community and spurred the development of five additional ALS MX beamlines all utilizing the newly developed superconducting bending magnets ('superbends') as sources. However in the years since the original Sector 5.0 beamlines were built the performance demands of macromolecular crystallography users have become ever more exacting; with growing emphasis placed on studying larger complexes, more difficult structures, weakly diffracting or

  8. Measurement of the positron polarization at an helical undulator based positron source for the International Linear Collider ILC

    OpenAIRE

    Laihem, Karim

    2009-01-01

    Als Basis der Positronenquelle zur Erzeugung polarisierter Positronen bei einem zukuunftigen internationalen Linearkollider ist ein helikaler Undulator vorgesehen. Das E-166 Experiment testete diese Methode unter Benutzung eines ein Meter langen, kurzperiodischen, gepulsten helikalen Undulators im Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) am SLAC. Ein 46.6 GeV Elektronenstrahl mit geringer Emittanz wurde durch diesen Undulator gefuehrt und erzeugte zirkular polarisierte Photonen mit einer Energie bis zu u...

  9. The EIS-TIMER beamline: transient grating spectroscopy at FERMI (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetina, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    FERMI, the Italian Free Electron Laser user facility, provides VUV/soft x-ray photons pulses with unprecedented high brilliance and coherence. The unique design of EIS-TIMER is conceived to exploit such kind of non-linear coherent experiments to probe collective vibrational and electronic properties of matter at the nanoscale. After the proof of principle experiment successfully carried out at the DiProI beamline employing a simplified and compact setup (mini-TIMER), the EIS-TIMER beamline has been installed and commissioned. The beamlines employs 24 mirrors and three photon beams in order to create a wide set of transient grating able to reach Q vectors so far impossible to probe. In the presentation the scientific case, the commissioning results as well as the future development of the beamline will be shown. The future project nano-TIMER will be described in detail with particular attention to it's unique optical scheme mainly composed by diffraction gratings.

  10. High-throughput Toroidal Grating Beamline for Photoelectron Spectroscopy at CAMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilkaya, O; Jiles, R W; Patterson, M C; Thibodeaux, C A; Poliakoff, E D; Sprunger, P T; Kurtz, R L; Morikawa, E

    2016-01-01

    A 5 meter toroidal grating (5m-TGM) beamline has been commissioned to deliver 28 mrad of bending magnet radiation to an ultrahigh vacuum endstation chamber to facilitate angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The 5m-TGM beamline is equipped with Au-coated gratings with 300, 600 and 1200 lines/mm providing monochromatized synchrotron radiation in the energy ranges 25-70 eV, 50–120 eV and 100–240 eV, respectively. The beamline delivers excellent flux (~1014-1017 photons/sec/100mA) and a combined energy resolution of 189 meV for the beamline (at 1.0 mm slit opening) and HA-50 hemispherical analyzer was obtained at the Fermi level of polycrystalline gold crystal. Our preliminary photoelectron spectroscopy results of phenol adsorption on TiO2 (110) surface reveals the metal ion (Ti) oxidation. PMID:27134636

  11. I19, the small-molecule single-crystal diffraction beamline at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Harriott; Barnett, Sarah A; Christensen, Kirsten E; Teat, Simon J; Allan, David R

    2012-05-01

    The dedicated small-molecule single-crystal X-ray diffraction beamline (I19) at Diamond Light Source has been operational and supporting users for over three years. I19 is a high-flux tunable-wavelength beamline and its key details are described in this article. Much of the work performed on the beamline involves structure determination from small and weakly diffracting crystals. Other experiments that have been supported to date include structural studies at high pressure, studies of metastable species, variable-temperature crystallography, studies involving gas exchange in porous materials and structural characterizations that require analysis of the diffuse scattering between Bragg reflections. A range of sample environments to facilitate crystallographic studies under non-ambient conditions are available as well as a number of options for automation. An indication of the scope of the science carried out on the beamline is provided by the range of highlights selected for this paper.

  12. Safety Analysis Report: X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.F.; Thomlinson, W.

    1990-02-01

    This report contains a safety analysis for the X17B2 beamline synchrotron medical research facility. Health hazards, risk assessment and building systems are discussed. Reference is made to transvenous coronary angiography. (LSP)

  13. The Variable Polarization XUV Beamline P04 at PETRA III: Optics, mechanics and their performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viefhaus, Jens, E-mail: jens.viefhaus@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Scholz, Frank; Deinert, Sascha; Glaser, Leif; Ilchen, Markus; Seltmann, Jörn; Walter, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Siewert, Frank, E-mail: frank.siewert@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) für Materialien und Energie, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-11

    The layout of the Variable Polarization XUV Beamline P04 at PETRA III is described with emphasis on selected examples of optics, mirrors and gratings. A precise characterization of the optics, their performance inside the holder and of the surrounding mechanics is presented. This also includes a detailed characterization of the different beamline mechanics as a whole (grating unit, exit slit unit, re-focusing unit) including the environment.

  14. Construction and characterization of a laser-driven proton beamline at GSI

    OpenAIRE

    Busold, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The thesis includes the first experiments with the new 100 TW laser beamline of the PHELIX laser facility at GSI Darmstadt to drive a TNSA (Target Normal Sheath Acceleration) proton source at GSI's Z6 experimental area. At consecutive stages a pulsed solenoid has been applied for beam transport and energy selection via chromatic focusing, as well as a radiofrequency cavity for energy compression of the bunch. This novel laser-driven proton beamline, representing a central experiment of the...

  15. Implementation of remote monitoring and diffraction evaluation systems at the Photon Factory macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yusuke; pHonda, Nobuo; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Hiraki, Masahiko; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2008-01-01

    Owing to recent advances in high-throughput technology in macromolecular crystallography beamlines, such as high-brilliant X-ray sources, high-speed readout detectors and robotics, the number of samples that can be examined in a single visit to the beamline has increased dramatically. In order to make these experiments more efficient, two functions, remote monitoring and diffraction image evaluation, have been implemented in the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the Photon Factory (PF). Remote monitoring allows scientists to participate in the experiment by watching from their laboratories, without having to come to the beamline. Diffraction image evaluation makes experiments easier, especially when using the sample exchange robot. To implement these two functions, two independent clients have been developed that work specifically for remote monitoring and diffraction image evaluation. In the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at PF, beamline control is performed using STARS (simple transmission and retrieval system). The system adopts a client–server style in which client programs communicate with each other through a server process using the STARS protocol. This is an advantage of the extension of the system; implementation of these new functions required few modifications of the existing system. PMID:18421163

  16. MxCuBE: a synchrotron beamline control environment customized for macromolecular crystallography experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabadinho, José; Beteva, Antonia; Guijarro, Matias; Rey-Bakaikoa, Vicente; Spruce, Darren; Bowler, Matthew W; Brockhauser, Sandor; Flot, David; Gordon, Elspeth J; Hall, David R; Lavault, Bernard; McCarthy, Andrew A; McCarthy, Joanne; Mitchell, Edward; Monaco, Stéphanie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Nurizzo, Didier; Ravelli, Raimond B G; Thibault, Xavier; Walsh, Martin A; Leonard, Gordon A; McSweeney, Sean M

    2010-09-01

    The design and features of a beamline control software system for macromolecular crystallography (MX) experiments developed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. This system, MxCuBE, allows users to easily and simply interact with beamline hardware components and provides automated routines for common tasks in the operation of a synchrotron beamline dedicated to experiments in MX. Additional functionality is provided through intuitive interfaces that enable the assessment of the diffraction characteristics of samples, experiment planning, automatic data collection and the on-line collection and analysis of X-ray emission spectra. The software can be run in a tandem client-server mode that allows for remote control and relevant experimental parameters and results are automatically logged in a relational database, ISPyB. MxCuBE is modular, flexible and extensible and is currently deployed on eight macromolecular crystallography beamlines at the ESRF. Additionally, the software is installed at MAX-lab beamline I911-3 and at BESSY beamline BL14.1.

  17. Challenges of in-vacuum and cryogenic permanent magnet undulator technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An in-vacuum undulator (IVU provides a means to reach high-brilliance x rays in medium energy storage rings. The development of short period undulators with low phase errors creates the opportunity for an unprecedented brilliant light source in a storage ring. Since the spectral quality from cryogenic permanent magnet undulators (CPMUs has surpassed that of IVUs, NdFeB or PrFeB CPMUs have been proposed for many new advanced storage rings to reach high brilliance x-ray photon beams. In a low emittance ring, not only the performance of the undulator but also the choice of the lattice functions are important design considerations. Optimum betatron functions and a zero-dispersion function shall be provided in the straight sections for IVU/CPMUs. In this paper, relevant factors and design issues for IVUs and CPMUs are discussed together with many technological challenges in short period undulators associated with beam induced–heat load, phase errors, and the deformation of support girders.

  18. Short and medium-term evolution of shoreline undulations on curvilinear coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, Alejandro; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel; Baquerizo, Asunción; Losada, Miguel A.

    2012-07-01

    This article proposes a one-line type model to explain the formation and evolution of shoreline undulations on circular or elliptic curvilinear coasts, such as littoral spits. The model takes into account the variation of the surf zone width stemming from the convergence and divergence of the waves propagating over a conical bathymetry with a small radius of curvature. The alongshore sediment transport varies with the angle formed by the wave crests and the coastline, as well as with surf zone width and sediment grain size. This model was applied to the shoreline undulations observed at the mouth of the River Guadalquivir (Gulf of Cádiz, Spain) and those at El Puntal Spit (Cantabrian Sea, Spain). In the first case, the model was forced with several sets of five-year wave climate simulations. At the El Puntal Spit, three different wave conditions, corresponding to the growth, saturation, and decay stages of the undulations, were simulated. In both cases, a net longitudinal growth of the spits was observed. Despite simplifications, the amplitude and wavelength of the shoreline undulations agree with the observations. Furthermore, both the zone and development time of the shoreline undulations can be estimated. The mechanism proposed for their generation and evolution may be complementary to other mechanisms, such as the instability mechanism of the coastline associated with high-angle waves.

  19. Undulators at HiSOR - a compact racetrack-type ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraya, A; Yoshida, K; Yagi, S; Taniguchi, M; Kimura, S I; Hama, H; Takayama, T; Amano, D

    1998-05-01

    A compact racetrack-type 700 MeV storage ring (HiSOR) has been constructed at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center (HSRC). As the ring was planned for synchrotron radiation research on science and technology using VUV to X-rays up to 5 keV with limited size and cost, the ring was designed (i) to realize a high magnetic field (2.7 T) using conventional dipole magnets for higher critical energy, and (ii) to include two straight sections for insertion devices. A linear undulator (25-300 eV) and a new-type helical/linear undulator were installed at the two straight sections. The latter undulator consists of upper and lower jaws, as in a planar undulator; each jaw consists of one fixed magnet array at the centre and two magnet arrays on both sides. By longitudinal displacement of the side magnet arrays, the phase between the vertical and horizontal magnetic fields, and therefore the polarization (right- or left-circular, elliptical, linear) can be selected. The helical/linear undulator gives almost perfect circular polarization at 4-40 eV in the helical configuration without changing the phase of the magnet arrays, as well as linearly polarized light at 3-300 eV in the linear configuration.

  20. Quasi-half-cycle pulses of light from a tapered undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryashko, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    Strong-field few-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses are an invaluable tool for engineering highly nonequilibrium states of matter. A scheme is proposed to generate quasi-half-cycle GV/m-scale THz pulses with a multikilohertz repetition rate. It makes use of coherent spontaneous emission from a prebunched electron beam traversing an optimally tapered undulator. The scheme is the further development of the slippage control in free-electron lasers [T. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 044801 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.044801]. An explicit condition for the spectral amplitude of undulator radiation and a phase condition for the electron density distribution, required for the generation of desired pulses, are presented. The amplitude condition is met by proper undulator tapering, and a generic optimal undulator profile is found analytically. In order to meet the phase condition, the distance between the adjacent bunches is varied according to the instantaneous resonant undulator wavelength. A 3D analytical theory is complemented by a detailed numerical study based on a direct solution to the 3D wave equation.

  1. Quasi-half-cycle pulses of light from a tapered undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Goryashko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Strong-field few-cycle terahertz (THz pulses are an invaluable tool for engineering highly nonequilibrium states of matter. A scheme is proposed to generate quasi-half-cycle GV/m-scale THz pulses with a multikilohertz repetition rate. It makes use of coherent spontaneous emission from a prebunched electron beam traversing an optimally tapered undulator. The scheme is the further development of the slippage control in free-electron lasers [T. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 044801 (2015PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.114.044801]. An explicit condition for the spectral amplitude of undulator radiation and a phase condition for the electron density distribution, required for the generation of desired pulses, are presented. The amplitude condition is met by proper undulator tapering, and a generic optimal undulator profile is found analytically. In order to meet the phase condition, the distance between the adjacent bunches is varied according to the instantaneous resonant undulator wavelength. A 3D analytical theory is complemented by a detailed numerical study based on a direct solution to the 3D wave equation.

  2. Challenges of in-vacuum and cryogenic permanent magnet undulator technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Che; Kitamura, Hideo; Yang, Chin-Kang; Chang, Cheng-Hsing; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Hwang, Ching-Shiang

    2017-06-01

    An in-vacuum undulator (IVU) provides a means to reach high-brilliance x rays in medium energy storage rings. The development of short period undulators with low phase errors creates the opportunity for an unprecedented brilliant light source in a storage ring. Since the spectral quality from cryogenic permanent magnet undulators (CPMUs) has surpassed that of IVUs, NdFeB or PrFeB CPMUs have been proposed for many new advanced storage rings to reach high brilliance x-ray photon beams. In a low emittance ring, not only the performance of the undulator but also the choice of the lattice functions are important design considerations. Optimum betatron functions and a zero-dispersion function shall be provided in the straight sections for IVU/CPMUs. In this paper, relevant factors and design issues for IVUs and CPMUs are discussed together with many technological challenges in short period undulators associated with beam induced-heat load, phase errors, and the deformation of support girders.

  3. High efficiency diffraction grating for EUV lithography beamline monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, D. L.; Warwick, T.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Naulleau, P.; Artemiev, N. A.; Lum, P.; Padmore, H. A.

    2016-09-01

    A blazed diffraction grating for the EUV lithography Beamline 12.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source has been fabricated using optical direct write lithography and anisotropic wet etching technology. A variable line spacing pattern was recorded on a photoresist layer and transferred to a hard mask layer of the grating substrate by a plasma etch. Then anisotropic wet etching was applied to shape triangular grating grooves with precise control of the ultralow blaze angle. Variation of the groove density along the grating length was measured with a Long Trace Profiler (LTP). Fourier analysis of the LTP data confirmed high groove placement accuracy of the grating. The grating coated with a Ru coating demonstrated diffraction efficiency of 69.6% in the negative first diffraction order which is close to theoretical efficiency at the wavelength of 13.5 nm. This work demonstrates an alternative approach to fabrication of highly efficient and precise x-ray diffraction gratings with ultra-low blaze angles.

  4. Students on the Beamline: classroom, research, and discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, J.; Walker, T.

    2012-12-01

    High level research is mainly the focus of trained scientists who possess a science specific background. The Canadian Light Source outreach service has developed a two stage research immersion approach which brings together students, teachers, and renowned scientists: Students on the Beamline. The first stage offers a training session for teachers to develop their professional competencies in regards to authentic science research and the synchrotron facility. During the second stage, students from classrooms apply a research protocol of their own design with the help of their teacher and synchrotron scientists. During this presentation, we will first explain the professional approach of the training. In the second part, two experiments designed by students will be presented which are geophysically based so to speak: Study of the Meteoritic Melt Sheet of the Manicouagan Basin and Effects of Olivine on the capture of NOx. Results have shown that teachers bring in the classroom a more authentic and new experience in research application. As for the students, their unique research has contributed to the increase of our knowledge and a better understanding of the scientific inquiry process.Scientist and teacher working together on the synchrotron

  5. Status of the Design of the LBNE Neutrino Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, R; Childress, S C; Moore, C D; Papadimitriou, V; Campbell, M R

    2013-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will utilize a neutrino beamline facility located at Fermilab to carry out a compelling research program in neutrino physics. The facility will aim a beam of neutrinos toward a detector placed at the Homestake Mine in South Dakota, about 1300 km away. The neutrinos are produced as follows: First, protons extracted from the MI-10 section of the Main Injector (60-120 GeV) hit a solid target above grade and produce mesons. Then, the charged mesons are focused by a set of focusing horns into a 250 m long decay pipe, towards the far detector. Finally, the mesons that enter the decay pipe decay into neutrinos. The parameters of the facility were determined taking into account several factors including the physics goals, the modeling of the facility, spacial and radiological constraints and the experience gained by operating the NuMI facility at Fermilab. The initial beam power is expected to be ~700 kW, however some of the parameters were chosen to be able to deal with a...

  6. Current Status of the SANAEM RFQ Accelerator Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Turemen, G; Ogur, S; Yildiz, V; Mete, O; Oz, S; Ozbey, A; Yildiz, H; Yaman, F; Akgun, Y; Alacakir, A; Bolukdemir, S; Bozbey, A; Sahin, A; Unel, G; Erhan, S

    2015-01-01

    The design and production studies of the proton beamline of SPP, which aims to acquire know-how on proton accelerator technology thru development of man power and serves as particle accelerator technologies test bench, continue at TAEK-SANAEM as a multi-phase project. For the first phase, 20 keV protons will be accelerated to 1.3 MeV by a single piece RFQ. Currently, the beam current and stability tests are ongoing for the Inductively Coupled Plasma ion source. The measured magnetic field maps of the Low Energy Beam Transport solenoids are being used for matching various beam configurations of the ion source to the RFQ by computer simulations. The installation of the low energy diagnostics box was completed in Q1 of 2015. The production of the RFQ cavity was started with aluminum 7075-T6 which will be subsequently coated by Copper to reduce the RF (Ohmic) losses. On the RF side, the development of the hybrid power supply based on solid state and tetrode amplifiers continues. All RF transmission components hav...

  7. Neutrino Flux Prediction for the NuMI Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga Soplin, Leonidas [William-Mary Coll.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the flux spectrum knowledge. For experiments like MINERvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-sections measurements. The foundation of this work is predicting the neutrino flux at MINERvA using dedicated measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus collisions and incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. This work also includes the prospect for predicting the flux at other detectors like the NOvA Near detector. The procedure and conclusions of this thesis will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the fl ux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  8. Alignment of the photoelectron spectroscopy beamline at NSRL

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chaoyang; Wen, Shen; Pan, Congyuan; An, Ning; Du, Xuewei; Zhu, Junfa; Wang, Qiuping

    2013-01-01

    The photoelectron spectroscopy beamline at National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) is equipped with a spherical grating monochromator with the included angle of 174 deg. Three gratings with line density of 200, 700 and 1200 lines/mm are used to cover the energy region from 60 eV to 1000 eV. After several years operation, the spectral resolution and flux throughput were deteriorated, realignment is necessary to improve the performance. First, the wavelength scanning mechanism, the optical components position and the exit slit guide direction are aligned according to the design value. Second, the gratings are checked by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). And then the gas absorption spectrum is measured to optimize the focusing condition of the monochromator. The spectral resolving power is recovered to the designed value of 1000@244eV. The flux at the end station for the 200 lines/mm grating is about 10^10 photons/sec/200mA, which is in accordance with the design. The photon flux for the 700 lines/mm grati...

  9. Design, Installation, and Initial Commissioning of the MTA Beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Craig; Garcia, Fernanda; Gerardi, Michael; Johnstone, Carol; Kobilarcik, Thomas; Kucera, Michael; Kufer, Mathew; Newhart, Duane; Rakhno, Igor; Vogel, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    A new experimental area designed to develop, test and verify muon ionization cooling apparatus using the 400-MeV Fermilab Linac proton beam has been fully installed and is presently being commissioned. Initially, this area was used for cryogenic tests of liquid-hydrogen absorbers for the MUCOOL R&D program and, now, for high-power beam tests of absorbers, high-gradient rf cavities in the presence of magnetic fields (including gas-filled cavities), and other prototype muon-cooling apparatus. The experimental scenarios being developed for muon facilities involve collection, capture, and cooling of large-emittance, high-intensity muon beams--~10**13 muons, so that conclusive tests of the apparatus require full Linac beam, which is 1.6 x 10**13 p/pulse. To support the muon cooling facility, this new primary beamline extracts and transports beam directly from the Linac to the test facility. The design concept for the MuCool facility is taken from an earlier proposal, but modifications were necessary to accommo...

  10. Neutrino Flux Prediction for the NuMI Beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soplin, Leonidas Aliaga [Coll. William and Mary

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the neutrino flux in any conventional neutrino beam presents a challenge for the current and future short and long baseline neutrino experiments. The uncertainties associated with the production and attenuation of the hadrons in the beamline materials along with those associated with the beam optics have a big effect in the flux spectrum knowledge. For experiments like MINERvA, understanding the flux is crucial since it enters directly into every neutrino-nucleus cross-sections measurements. The foundation of this work is predicting the neutrino flux at MINERvA using dedicated measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus collisions and incorporating in-situ MINERvA data that can provide additional constraints. This work also includes the prospect for predicting the flux at other detectors like the NOvA Near detector. The procedure and conclusions of this thesis will have a big impact on future hadron production experiments and on determining the flux for the upcoming DUNE experiment.

  11. Circular polarization opportunities at the SASE3 undulator line of the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    XFELs provide X-ray pulses with unprecedented peak brightness and ultrashort duration. They are usually driven by planar undulators, meaning that the output radiation is linearly polarized. For many experimental applications, however, polarization control is critical: besides the ability to produce linearly polarized radiation, one often needs the possibility of generating circularly polarized radiation with a high, stable degree of polarization. This may be achieved by using a first part of the XFEL undulator to produce bunching and then, by propagating the the bunched beam through an "afterburner" - a short undulator with tunable polarization, where only limited gain takes place. One of the issues that one needs to consider in this case is the separation of the circularly polarized radiation obtained in the radiator from the linearly polarized background produced in the first part of the FEL. In this article we review several methods to do so, including the inverse tapering technique. In particular, we use ...

  12. Longitudinal impedance and wake from XFEL undulators. Impact on current-enhanced SASE schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2007-01-01

    In this article we derive longitudinal impedance and wake function for an undulator setup with arbitrary undulator parameter, taking into account a finite transverse size of the electron bunch. Earlier studies considered a line density-distribution of electrons instead. We focus our attention on the long-wavelength asymptote (compared with resonance wavelength), at large distance of the electron bunch from the undulator entrance compared to the overtaking length, and for large vacuum-chamber size compared to the typical transverse size of the field. These restrictions define a parameter region of interest for practical applications. We calculate a closed expression for impedance and wake function that may be evaluated numerically in the most general case. Such expression allows us to derive an analytical solution for a Gaussian transverse and longitudinal bunch shape. Finally, we study the feasibility of current-enhanced SASE schemes (ESASE) recently proposed for LCLS, that fall well-within our approximations...

  13. An ultracompact X-ray source based on a laser-plasma undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyash, I A; Lehe, R; Lifschitz, A; Thaury, C; Rax, J-M; Krushelnick, K; Malka, V

    2014-08-22

    The capability of plasmas to sustain ultrahigh electric fields has attracted considerable interest over the last decades and has given rise to laser-plasma engineering. Today, plasmas are commonly used for accelerating and collimating relativistic electrons, or to manipulate intense laser pulses. Here we propose an ultracompact plasma undulator that combines plasma technology and nanoengineering. When coupled with a laser-plasma accelerator, this undulator constitutes a millimetre-sized synchrotron radiation source of X-rays. The undulator consists of an array of nanowires, which are ionized by the laser pulse exiting from the accelerator. The strong charge-separation field, arising around the wires, efficiently wiggles the laser-accelerated electrons. We demonstrate that this system can produce bright, collimated and tunable beams of photons with 10-100 keV energies. This concept opens a path towards a new generation of compact synchrotron sources based on nanostructured plasmas.

  14. Locomotion and Depth Control of Robotic Fish with Modular Undulating Fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kin Huat Low

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental-friendly robotic system mimicking the undulating fins of a fish. To mimic the actual flexible fin of real fish, a fin-like mechanism with a series of connecting linkages is modeled and attached to the robotic fish, by virtue of a specially designed strip. Each link is able to turn and slide with respect to the adjacent link.These driving linkages are then used to form a mechanical fin consisting of several fin segments, which are able to produce undulations, similar to those produced by the actual fish fins. Owing to the modular and re-configurable design of the mechanical fin, we are able to construct biomimetic robotic fish with various swimming modes by fin undulations. Some qualitative and workspace observations by experiments of the robotic fish are shown and discussed.

  15. Design, construction and characterization of the compact ultrafast terahertz free-electron laser undulator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Biswas; V Kumar; S Chouksey; S Krishnagopal

    2008-12-01

    A compact ultrafast terahertz (CUTE) free-electron laser (FEL) is being developed at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore. The undulator required for the CUTE-FEL has recently been developed. We have designed, built and characterized a variable gap, 5 cm period, 2.5 m long pure permanent magnet undulator in two identical segments. The tolerable error in the magnetic field was 1% in rms, and we have measured it to be 0.7%. The obtained rms phase shake is around 2°. To ensure that the trajectories do not have an exit error in position or angle, corrector coils have been designed. Shimming coils have been applied for both the undulator segments to reduce the amplitude of the betatron oscillations in the vertical trajectory. Details of novel corrector coils and soft iron shims are given and their performance is discussed.

  16. Radiation-induced magnetization reversal causing a large flux loss in undulator permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizen, Teruhiko; Kinjo, Ryota; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Kagamihata, Akihiro; Kida, Yuichiro; Seike, Takamitsu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hara, Toru; Itoga, Toshiro; Asano, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Takashi

    2016-11-29

    We report an unexpectedly large flux loss observed in permanent magnets in one of the undulators operated in SACLA, the x-ray free electron laser facility in Japan. Characterizations of individual magnets extracted from the relevant undulator have revealed that the flux loss was caused by a homogeneous magnetization reversal extending over a wide area, but not by demagnetization of individual magnets damaged by radiation. We show that the estimated flux-loss rate is much higher than what is reported in previous papers, and its distribution is much more localized to the upstream side. Results of numerical and experimental studies carried out to validate the magnetization reversal and quantify the flux loss are presented, together with possible countermeasures against rapid degradation of the undulator performance.

  17. Helical Undulator Based Production of Polarized Positrons and Status of the E166 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laihem, K.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes the status of the E166 experiment. The experiment is dedicated to test the helical-undulator-based polarized positron source for the international linear collider. The physics motivation for having both electrons and positrons polarized in collision is crucial and a demonstration experiment for the undulator-based production of polarized positrons is summarized. The E166 experiment uses a 1 meter long helical undulator in the 50 GeV Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC to provide MeV photons with circular polarization. These photons are then converted in a thin (0.5 radiation length X0) target into positrons (and electrons) with about 50% degree of longitudinal polarization. In this experiment, the polarization of both photons and positrons is measured simultaneously using photon transmission polarimetry.

  18. Demonstration of harmonic interaction in an undulator up to the 15th order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Xiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on experimental studies on the harmonic interaction between an optical laser and a relativistic electron beam in an undulator up to the 15th order. In this experiment, a significant energy modulation is imprinted on the beam longitudinal phase space through the electron-laser interaction when the laser frequency is the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th or 15th harmonic of the fundamental resonant frequency of the undulator. The experimental results are in good agreement with theory, and indicate that high harmonic interactions in undulators with large K values and small phase errors can be quite efficient. The results confirm the basic physics of harmonic interaction with a goal toward ushering forward the development of many high harmonic based applications in free-electron lasers.

  19. Effects of magnets with non-unit magnetic permeability on an elliptically polarizing undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Chang, L H; Chang, C H; Lin, M C; Hwang, C S; Chen, J R

    1998-05-01

    This study employs the three-dimensional magnetostatic code TOSCA to assess numerically the effects of NdFeB magnets with non-unit magnetic permeability on an elliptically polarizing undulator. A reduction of a few percent of the on-axis magnetic field strength is predicted. In addition, a deviation of +/-100 G cm uncompensated dipole steering is predicted in a phase shift of 180 degrees for the elliptically polarizing undulator EPU5.6 (having a period length of 56 mm) at the minimum gap of 18 mm, which is related primarily to the configuration of the device end scheme. Results presented herein demonstrate that implementing an active compensation mechanism is a prerequisite for minimizing the orbit distortion during phase-shift adjustment, particularly for operating such a polarizing undulator in a third-generation machine having a median energy similar to that of the 1.5 GeV storage ring at SRRC.

  20. Femtosecond-laser-driven wire-guided helical undulator for intense terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Liu, Jiansheng; Bai, Yafeng; Zhou, Shiyi; Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Weiwei; Zhao, Jiayu; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2017-02-01

    The capability of synchrotron radiation to produce ultrabright emission has attracted considerable interest over the last half a century. To date, magnetic undulators with a period of several centimetres are commonly used for wiggling relativistic electrons in a modulated field. Here, we propose a novel compact undulator with a period down to the submillimetre level based on a spontaneous electric field that is driven by a femtosecond laser. Both the guided energetic electrons and the gyrotron-like undulator are spontaneously produced by irradiating a thin metallic wire with an intense laser pulse. An intense radial electric field instantaneously created on the wire can guide the electrons' helical motion along the wire and induce periodic THz emission. We have demonstrated that this scheme can produce intense THz sources with a conversion efficiency of 1% that are frequency-tunable by adjusting the diameter of the wire. Amplified emission of THz radiation by more than tenfold has been observed.

  1. Radiation-induced magnetization reversal causing a large flux loss in undulator permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizen, Teruhiko; Kinjo, Ryota; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Kagamihata, Akihiro; Kida, Yuichiro; Seike, Takamitsu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hara, Toru; Itoga, Toshiro; Asano, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    We report an unexpectedly large flux loss observed in permanent magnets in one of the undulators operated in SACLA, the x-ray free electron laser facility in Japan. Characterizations of individual magnets extracted from the relevant undulator have revealed that the flux loss was caused by a homogeneous magnetization reversal extending over a wide area, but not by demagnetization of individual magnets damaged by radiation. We show that the estimated flux-loss rate is much higher than what is reported in previous papers, and its distribution is much more localized to the upstream side. Results of numerical and experimental studies carried out to validate the magnetization reversal and quantify the flux loss are presented, together with possible countermeasures against rapid degradation of the undulator performance.

  2. Upgrade of beamline BL08B at Taiwan Light Source from a photon-BPM to a double-grating SGM beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuh, Jih Young; Lin, Shan Wei; Huang, Liang Jen; Fung, Hok Sum; Lee, Long Life; Chen, Yu Joung; Cheng, Chiu Ping; Chin, Yi Ying; Lin, Hong Ji

    2015-09-01

    During the last 20 years, beamline BL08B has been upgraded step by step from a photon beam-position monitor (BPM) to a testing beamline and a single-grating beamline that enables experiments to record X-ray photo-emission spectra (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) for research in solar physics, organic semiconductor materials and spinel oxides, with soft X-ray photon energies in the range 300-1000 eV. Demands for photon energy to extend to the extreme ultraviolet region for applications in nano-fabrication and topological thin films are increasing. The basic spherical-grating monochromator beamline was again upgraded by adding a second grating that delivers photons of energy from 80 to 420 eV. Four end-stations were designed for experiments with XPS, XAS, interstellar photoprocess systems (IPS) and extreme-ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) in the scheduled beam time. The data from these experiments show a large count rate in core levels probed and excellent statistics on background normalization in the L-edge adsorption spectrum.

  3. End field formation in planar hybrid undulators to ensure gap independence of the first and second field integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadichev, V.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Leninsky Prospect, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: papadich@mail1.lebedev.ru; Rybalchenko, G.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Leninsky Prospect, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-10-21

    Magnetic field amplitude in pure permanent magnet (PPM) or hybrid undulators is varied by changing the gap. It is necessary to ensure that for all gaps the deviation of the first and second field integrals from ideal be sufficiently small, especially in the XFEL project where dozens of undulator sections, each about 5-m long, are to be used. Since a high field is required, a hybrid undulator should be used. In this paper, field calculations for such an undulator were carried out using the 'Radia' code. Unlike a PPM undulator scheme, hybrid ones require more sophisticated schemes of minimizing field integrals because of complicated redistribution of magnetic flux at the undulator ends with changing gap. Saturation of iron poles makes solution of the problem more difficult. Both effects were studied and several compensating methods were found. Parameters of the permanent magnets and iron poles of the first and last end-field-forming undulator periods were varied in order to change the form and mean value of the first and second integrals versus undulator gap.

  4. Effect of the drift gap between the undulator sections on the operation of the Fusion-FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geer, C. A. J.; Militsyn, B. L.; Bongers, W. A.; Bratman, V. L.; Denisov, G. G.; Manintveld, P.; Savilov, A. V.; Varfolomeev, A. A.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; Urbanus, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Fusion-FEM' is a free electron MASER based on an electrostatic accelerator. An electron beam of 12 A, 1.35-2 MeV is injected into a step-tapered undulator to generate 1 MW of radiation in the range 130-250 GHz. The undulator is built from two sections with different field strength

  5. Comparison of different undulator schemes with superimposed alternating gradients for the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflueger, J.; Nikitina, Y.M. [DESY/HASYLAB, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    For the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility an undulator with a total length of 30 m is needed. In this study three different approaches to realize an undulator with a sinusoidal plus a superimposed quadrupolar field were studied with the 3D code MAFIA.

  6. Fast Polarization Switching Demonstration Using Crossed-Planar Undulator in a Seeded Free Electron Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Haixiao; Feng, Lie; Feng, Chao; Chen, Jianhui; Liu, Bo; Wang, Xingtao; Lan, Taihe; Wang, Guanglei; Zhang, Wenyan; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Meng; Lin, Guoqiang; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Zhentang

    2013-01-01

    Fast polarization switching of light sources is required over a wide spectral range to investigate the symmetry of matter. In this Letter, we report the first experimental demonstration of the crossed-planar undulator technique at a seeded free-electron laser, which holds great promise for the full control and fast switching of the polarization of short-wavelength radiation. In the experiment, the polarization state of the coherent radiation at the 2nd harmonic of the seed laser is switched successfully. The experiment results confirm the theory, and pave the way for applying the crossed-planar undulator technique for the seeded X-ray free electron lasers.

  7. High efficiency energy extraction from a relativistic electron beam in a strongly tapered undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Sudar, Nicholas; Duris, Joe; Gadjev, Ivan; Polyaniy, Mikhail; Pogorelsky, Igor; Fedurin, Mikhail; Swinson, Christina; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Gover, Avi

    2016-01-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54 cm long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30$\\%$ of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  8. High Efficiency Energy Extraction from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Strongly Tapered Undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudar, N.; Musumeci, P.; Duris, J.; Gadjev, I.; Polyanskiy, M.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fedurin, M.; Swinson, C.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Gover, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54-cm-long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30% of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results, supported by simulations of the radiation field evolution, demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  9. Condenser for Koehler-like illumination in transmission x-ray microscopes at undulator sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Ulrich; Lindblom, Magnus; Charalambous, Pambos; Kaulich, Burkhard; Wilhein, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    We report on a novel condenser for full-field transmission x-ray microscopes that use synchrotron radiation from an undulator source. The condenser produces a Koehler-like homogeneous intensity distribution in the sample plane and eliminates object illumination problems connected with the high degree of spatial coherence in an undulator beam. The optic consists of a large number of small linear diffraction gratings and is therefore relatively easy to manufacture. First imaging experiments with a prototype condenser were successfully performed with the Twinmic x-ray microscope at the Elettra synchrotron facility in Italy.

  10. Modeling and designing of variable-period and variable-pole-number undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Davidyuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of permanent-magnet variable-period undulator (VPU was proposed several years ago and has found few implementations so far. The VPUs have some advantages as compared with conventional undulators, e.g., a wider range of radiation wavelength tuning and the option to increase the number of poles for shorter periods. Both these advantages will be realized in the VPU under development now at Budker INP. In this paper, we present the results of 2D and 3D magnetic field simulations and discuss some design features of this VPU.

  11. Optimization of asymmetric figure-8 undulator as circularly polarized light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutoshi Shirasawa

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In the soft x-ray region, the demand for helicity switching of circularly polarized undulator radiation is increasing to study circular dichroism. The asymmetric figure-8 undulator is an insertion device to provide circularly polarized radiation (CPR and a simple method of helicity switching which has been proposed and built at SPring-8. Because of its complicated magnetic structure, it is important to optimize the magnetic parameters for more effective utilization of CPR. Using an analytical method, the relation between the magnetic parameters to maximize the degree of circular polarization is obtained. The impact of the finite emittance of electron beams on the polarization performance is also investigated numerically.

  12. Cyclotron radiation cooling of a short electron bunch kicked in an undulator with guiding magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bandurkin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose to use of an undulator with the guiding axial magnetic field as a “kicker” forming a bunch of electron gyro-oscillators with a small spread in the axial velocity. The cyclotron emission from the bunch leads to losing oscillatory velocity of electron gyrorotation, but it does not perturb the axial electron velocity. This effect can be used for transformation of minimization of the spread in electron axial velocity in the undulator section into minimization of the spread in electron energy in the cyclotron radiation section.

  13. Probing the transverse coherence of an undulator x-ray beam using brownian particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, M D; Potenza, M A C; Manfredda, M; Geloni, G; Sztucki, M; Narayanan, T; Giglio, M

    2009-11-06

    We present a novel method to map the two-dimensional transverse coherence of an x-ray beam using the dynamical near-field speckles formed by scattering from colloidal particles. Owing to the statistical nature of the method, the coherence properties of synchrotron radiation from an undulator source is obtained with high accuracy. The two-dimensional complex coherence function is determined at the sample position and the imaging optical scheme further allowed us to evaluate the coherence factor at the undulator output despite the aberrations introduced by the focusing optics.

  14. Condenser for Koehler-like illumination in transmission x-ray microscopes at undulator sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Ulrich; Lindblom, Magnus; Charalambous, Pambos; Kaulich, Burkhard; Wilhein, Thomas

    2006-05-15

    We report on a novel condenser for full-field transmission x-ray microscopes that use synchrotron radiation from an undulator source. The condenser produces a Koehler-like homogeneous intensity distribution in the sample plane and eliminates object illumination problems connected with the high degree of spatial coherence in an undulator beam. The optic consists of a large number of small linear diffraction gratings and is therefore relatively easy to manufacture. First imaging experiments with a prototype condenser were successfully performed with the Twinmic x-ray microscope at the Elettra synchrotron facility in Italy.

  15. First observation of photons carrying orbital angular momentum in undulator radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrdt, J; Holldack, K; Kuske, P; Müller, R; Scheer, M; Schmid, P

    2013-07-19

    Photon beams of 99 eV energy carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have been observed in the 2nd harmonic off-axis radiation of a helical undulator at the 3rd generation synchrotron radiation light source BESSY II. For detection, the OAM carrying photon beam was superimposed with a reference beam without OAM. The interference pattern, a spiral intensity distribution, was recorded in a plane perpendicular to the propagation direction. The orientation of the observed spiral structure is related to the helicity of the undulator radiation. Excellent agreement between measurements and simulations has been found.

  16. Lightweight-compact variable-gap undulator with force cancellation system based on multipole monolithic magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Ryota; Kagamihata, Akihiro; Seike, Takamitsu; Kishimoto, Hikaru; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Tanaka, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    A lightweight-compact variable-gap undulator (LCVGU) having the force-cancellation system based on the multipole monolithic magnets (MMMs) has been developed. The LCVGU is free from the heavy mechanical frames, which is a fundamental element specific to conventional variable-gap undulators (VGUs) because of a strong attractive force, and thus the cost and time for construction and installation are expected to be significantly reduced; the MMMs counteract the strong attractive force in a cost-effective manner. Results of mechanical tests and magnetic-field measurements of two prototype LCVGUs equipped with the proposed force cancellation system have revealed the comparable performance with the conventional VGUs.

  17. Universal function for the brilliance of undulator radiation considering the energy spread effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi; Kitamura, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Angular and spatial profiles of undulator radiation have been investigated to derive a universal function that evaluates the brilliance of undulator radiation and takes into account the effects of electron beam emittance and energy spread. It has been found that the effects of energy spread on the angular divergence and source size can be expressed by simple analytic expressions, and a universal brilliance function has been derived by convolution with the electron beam distribution functions. Comparisons with numerical results have been carried out to show the validity and applicability of the universal function.

  18. Circularly polarized carrier-envelope-phase stable attosecond pulse generation based on coherent undulator radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gy; Tibai, Z; Nagy-Csiha, Zs; Márton, Zs; Almási, G; Hebling, J

    2015-09-15

    In this Letter, we present a new method for generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses. According to our calculations, shape-controlled, carrier-envelope-phase stable pulses of several hundred nanojoule energy could be produced by exploitation of the coherent undulator radiation of an electron bunch. Our calculations are based on an existing particle accelerator system (FLASH II in DESY, Germany). We investigated the energy dependence of the attosecond pulses on the energy of electrons and the parameters of the radiator undulator, which generate the electromagnetic radiation.

  19. Operation of a small-gap undulator on the NSLS X-ray Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, P.M.; Krinsky, S.; Rakowsky, G.; Solomon, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The authors report results of an on-going experiment being carried out in the X13 straight section of the NSLS X-ray Ring which explores the limits of the operation of small-gap undulators. In particular, they discuss the operation of a 16 mm period small-gap undulator. At an electron beam current of 300 mA the variable gap vacuum chamber has been closed to an inner aperture of 3.8 mm with no effect on the electron beam lifetime. Measurements of the output radiation spectrum at a magnet gap of 7.5 mm are described.

  20. A new undulator for the extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Berset, J.M.; Glotin, F. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We built a new undulator in order to extend the lasing range of the CLIO infrared FEL. Presently, CLIO operates in the wavelength range 2 - 17 {mu}m. Beyond 14 {mu}m, the power decreases rapidly, because of the diffraction losses of the vacuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Thus, lasing at higher wavelengths implies installing a chamber with a height approximately twice. Then the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter, K, is reduced from 2 to 1 : the laser tunability is greatly reduced. This is why a new undulator has been built.